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Sample records for tissue iron content

  1. Noninvasive assessment of skin iron content in hemodialysis patients. An index of parenchymal tissue iron content

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlaender, M.M.; Kaufman, B.; Rubinger, D.; Moreb, J.; Popovtzer, M.M.; Goredetsky, R.

    1988-07-01

    Iron overload has been described in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid, noninvasive method for determination of skin iron by the technique of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS). Thirty-five patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment entered the study and were compared with 25 normal controls. Since pathological skin iron deposition occurs mainly at the dermal-epidermal junction in the basal cells of the epidermis, measurements were made in the thenar eminence representing mainly epidermal tissue (FeE), and in the forearm representative mainly of dermis (FeD). The mean +/- SD FeE iron concentrations were equivalent to 14.5 +/- 8.8 and 18.2 +/- 10.2 parts per million wet weight tissue (ppm) and both were significantly higher than in normal controls in which they averaged 9.2 +/- 2.5 ppm (P less than 0.005) and 10.2 +/- 3.2 ppm (P less than 0.001), respectively. There was significant positive correlation between individual skin iron determinations with the total number of blood transfusions received, the rate of blood transfusion, and with serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow hemosiderin was examined in six patients and showed a similar trend. Despite correlation only with indirect indices of tissue iron, our findings suggest that DXS may serve as a reliable quick method for noninvasive estimation of nonreticuloendothelial tissue iron deposition in hemodialysis patients suspected of having transfusional iron overload. The method may be valuable in monitoring the effects of chelation therapy.

  2. Effect of magnetic field and iron content on NMR proton relaxation of liver, spleen and brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Hocq, Aline; Luhmer, Michel; Saussez, Sven; Louryan, Stéphane; Gillis, Pierre; Gossuin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Iron accumulation is observed in liver and spleen during hemochromatosis and important neurodegenerative diseases involve iron overload in brain. Storage of iron is ensured by ferritin, which contains a magnetic core. It causes a darkening on T2 -weighted MR images. This work aims at improving the understanding of the NMR relaxation of iron-loaded human tissues, which is necessary to develop protocols of iron content measurements by MRI. Relaxation times measurements on brain, liver and spleen samples were realized at different magnetic fields. Iron content was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. For all samples, the longitudinal relaxation rate (1/T1 ) of tissue protons decreases with the magnetic field up to 1 T, independently of iron content, while their transverse relaxation rate (1/T2 ) strongly increases with the field, either linearly or quadratically, or a combination thereof. The extent of the inter-echo time dependence of 1/T2 also varies according to the sample. A combination of theoretical models is necessary to describe the relaxation of iron-containing tissues. This can be due to the presence, inside tissues, of ferritin clusters of different sizes and densities. When considering all samples, a correlation (r(2)  = 0.6) between 1/T1 and iron concentration is observed at 7.0 T. In contrast the correlation between 1/T2 and iron content is poor, even at high field (r(2)  = 0.14 at 7.0 T). Our results show that MRI methods based on T1 or T2 measurements will easily detect an iron overloading at high magnetic field, but will not provide an accurate quantification of tissue iron content at low iron concentrations. PMID:24954138

  3. Elemental analysis of lung tissue particles and intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophages in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease occurred by idiopathic (autoimmune) or secondary to particle inhalation. The in-air microparticle induced X-ray emission (in-air micro-PIXE) system performs elemental analysis of materials by irradiation with a proton microbeam, and allows visualization of the spatial distribution and quantitation of various elements with very low background noise. The aim of this study was to assess the secondary PAP due to inhalation of harmful particles by employing in-air micro-PIXE analysis for particles and intracellular iron in parafin-embedded lung tissue specimens obtained from a PAP patient comparing with normal lung tissue from a non-PAP patient. The iron inside alveolar macrophages was stained with Berlin blue, and its distribution was compared with that on micro-PIXE images. Results The elements composing particles and their locations in the PAP specimens could be identified by in-air micro-PIXE analysis, with magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), scandium (Sc), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganase (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) being detected. Si was the major component of the particles. Serial sections stained by Berlin blue revealed accumulation of sideromacrophages that had phagocytosed the particles. The intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophage from the surfactant-rich area in PAP was higher than normal lung tissue in control lung by both in-air micro-PIXE analysis and Berlin blue staining. Conclusion The present study demonstrated the efficacy of in-air micro-PIXE for analyzing the distribution and composition of lung particles. The intracellular iron content of single cells was determined by simultaneous two-dimensional and elemental analysis of paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections. The results suggest that secondary PAP is associated with exposure to inhaled particles and accumulation of iron in alveolar

  4. Ferrous iron content of intravenous iron formulations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Pratt, Raymond D; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2016-06-01

    The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron [Fe(III)] and ferrous iron [Fe(II)] differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains Fe(II) and releases labile iron in the circulation. Fe(II) generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and other in vivo sequestering agents. To evaluate whether differences in Fe(II) content may account for some observed biological differences between IV iron formulations, samples from multiple lots of various IV iron formulations were dissolved in 12 M concentrated HCl to dissociate and release all iron and then diluted with water to achieve 0.1 M HCl concentration. Fe(II) was then directly measured using ferrozine reagent and ultraviolet spectroscopy at 562 nm. Total iron content was measured by adding an excess of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), and Fe(II) was then measured by ferrozine assay. The Fe(II) concentration as a proportion of total iron content [Fe(III) + Fe(II)] in different lots of IV iron formulations was as follows: iron gluconate, 1.4 and 1.8 %; ferumoxytol, 0.26 %; ferric carboxymaltose, 1.4 %; iron dextran, 0.8 %; and iron sucrose, 10.2, 15.5, and 11.0 % (average, 12.2 %). The average Fe(II) content in iron sucrose was, therefore, ≥7.5-fold higher than in the other IV iron formulations. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between Fe(II) content and increased risk of oxidative stress and infections with iron sucrose. PMID:26956439

  5. Iron content (PIXE) in competent and incompetent veins is related to the vein wall morphology and tissue antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Krzyściak, Wirginia; Kowalska, Joanna; Kózka, Mariusz; Papież, Monika A; Kwiatek, Wojciech M

    2012-10-01

    Impaired venous drainage of the lower extremities determines a cascade of pathologic events leading to chronic venous disease (CVD). It is believed that the one cause of CVD is red blood cell extravasation and local iron overload that could generate free radicals and iron-dependent inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between: the intracellular iron deposits in varicose veins and tissue oxidative state measured by: the Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (Fe(PIXE)), (tSOD), (tGPx), (tTBARs) and (boxDNA). Patients with diagnosed CVD were qualified for surgical procedure. Entire trunk of the great saphenous vein (GSV) was extracted. Part located near medial ankle was considered competent (C) in duplex ultrasonography (USG) examination. The incompetent (I) part was extracted from GSV where USG showed incompetent valves and massive venous reflux. The difference between local tFe(PIXE), tTBARS, boxDNA, tGPx, tSOD in incompetent and competent part of vein tissue was statistically significant. Intima/media ratio directly correlated with Fe(PIXE) C/I concentration. Iron deposition in competent vs incompetent part of vein was also related to the oxidative stress parameters (boxDNA). The findings from this pilot study suggest that Fe(PIXE) measurement may be useful for explaining the progression of chronic venous disease. PMID:22321300

  6. [INVESTIGATION OF IRON, ZINC, STABLE STRONTIUM AND LITHIUM CONTENT IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS AND TISSUES DURING EXPERIMENTAL SPACE FLIGHT SIMULATION].

    PubMed

    Protasova, O V; Maksimova, I A; Morukov, B V; Protasov, S V; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    In an experiment with space flight simulation, atomic emission spectral analysis with inductively coupled argon plasma was employed to measure iron, zinc, stable strontium and lithium in blood serum and its ultrafiltered fraction, and excretion with daily urine and hair. Monitoring of serum iron and its ultraviolet fraction showed good balance of these parameters in all periods of the experiment. Blood serum was found to contain exclusively iron bound with protein carriers. In the experiment, serum zinc was distinctively dependent on the nutrient status. Stable strontium excretion with daily urine can be a biological indicator of its homeostasis. The experiment factors had no effect on the lithium form in serum, i.e. lithium was invariably present in the ionized form and in quantities equal to ultrafiltered lithium in all blood samples in all periods of the experiment. PMID:26292427

  7. Measurement of hair iron concentration as a marker of body iron content

    PubMed Central

    SAHIN, CEM; PALA, CIGDEM; KAYNAR, LEYLAGUL; TORUN, YASEMIN ALTUNER; CETIN, AYSUN; KURNAZ, FATIH; SIVGIN, SERDAR; SAHIN, FATIH SERDAR

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the possible association between blood parameters and hair iron concentration in patient groups showing a difference in body iron content. The study population comprised subjects with iron deficiency anaemia and transfusion-related anaemia with different body iron contents and a healthy control group. All the cases included in the study were examined with respect to hair iron concentration, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and erythrocyte markers in the total blood count with ferritin values. Differences in hair iron concentration were evaluated between the groups. Correlation analysis was applied to define the association between the laboratory values used as markers of body iron content and hair iron concentration. A statistically significant difference was determined in hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations between the group with transfusion-related anaemia, the iron deficiency anaemia group and the healthy control group (P<0.001). In addition, a positive correlation was determined between hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations and serum iron, ferritin level, transferrin saturation, mean erythrocyte volume and mean erythrocyte haemoglobin values and a negative correlation with TIBC. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a statistically significant difference in the hair iron concentrations of the patient groups with different body iron content and these values were correlated to the laboratory markers of body iron content. PMID:26137241

  8. Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

  9. Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir P; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Arčon, Iztok; Vavpetič, Primož; Jeromel, Luka; Pelicon, Primož; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

  10. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  11. Melanin content of hamster tissues, human tissues, and various melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.P.; Fairchild, R.G.; Slatkin, D.N.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Hannon, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    Melanin content (percentage by weight) was determined in both pigmented and nonpigmented tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma. Melanin content was also measured in various other melanoma models (B-16 in C57 mice, Harding-Passey in BALB/c mice, and KHDD in C3H mice) and in nine human melanomas, as well as in selected normal tissues. The purpose was to evaluate the possible efficacy of chlorpromazine, which is known to bind to melanin, as a vehicle for boron transport in neutron capture therapy. Successful therapy would depend upon selective uptake and absolute concentration of borated compounds in tumors; these parameters will in turn depend upon melanin concentration in melanomas and nonpigmented ''background'' tissues. Hamster whole eyes, hamster melanomas, and other well-pigmented animal melanomas were found to contain 0.3 to 0.8% melanin by weight, whereas human melanomas varied from 0.1 to 0.9% (average, 0.35%). Other tissues, with the exception of skin, were lower in content by a factor of greater than or equal to30. Melanin pigment was extracted from tissues, and the melanin content was determined spectrophotometrically. Measurements were found to be sensitive to the presence of other proteins. Previous procedures for isolating and quantifying melanin often neglected the importance of removing proteins and other interfering nonmelanic substances.

  12. Mapping and characterization of iron compounds in Alzheimer's tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Collingwood, Joanna; Dobson, Jon

    2008-06-16

    Understanding the management of iron in the brain is of great importance in the study of neurodegeneration, where regional iron overload is frequently evident. A variety of approaches have been employed, from quantifying iron in various anatomical structures, to identifying genetic risk factors related to iron metabolism, and exploring chelation approaches to tackle iron overload in neurodegenerative disease. However, the ease with which iron can change valence state ensures that it is present in vivo in a wide variety of forms, both soluble and insoluble. Here, we review recent developments in approaches to locate and identify iron compounds in neurodegenerative tissue. In addition to complementary techniques that allow us to quantify and identify iron compounds using magnetometry, extraction, and electron microscopy, we are utilizing a powerful combined mapping/characterization approach with synchrotron X-rays. This has enabled the location and characterization of iron accumulations containing magnetite and ferritin in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue sections in situ at micron-resolution. It is hoped that such approaches will contribute to our understanding of the role of unusual iron accumulations in disease pathogenesis, and optimise the potential to use brain iron as a clinical biomarker for early detection and diagnosis.

  13. Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

  14. Determining Iron Content in Foods by Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for secondary school chemistry students utilizing the classic reaction between the iron(III) ion and the thiocyanate ion. The experiment also works very well in other chemistry courses as an experience in spectrophotometric analysis. (PVD)

  15. Determining Iron Content in Foods by Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Paul E.

    1995-07-01

    The mass of iron, in milligrams, present in a 5 gram sample of vegetable, nut, or tap water is determined by the reddishbrown color of the hexathiocyanatoferrate(III) ion. The iron in the ash of the incinerated food sample is dissolved with 2 M HCl, filtered, and mixed with KSCN. Using a spectrophotometer, the absorbance of the resulting reddishbrown solution is compared to previously prepared standards.

  16. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lumei; Byrd, Aria; Plummer, Justin; Erikson, Keith M.; Harrison, Scott H.; Han, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin heavy chain (FtH) protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P < 0.05). The high-fat diet altered brain iron contents and FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: (1) high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P < 0.05), but not other regions, and (2) thalamus has a more distinct change in FtH mRNA expression compared with other regions. Furthermore, high-fat diet resulted in a significant decreased total distance traveled and a significant correlation between iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P < 0.05). Dietary iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings

  17. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lumei; Byrd, Aria; Plummer, Justin; Erikson, Keith M; Harrison, Scott H; Han, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin heavy chain (FtH) protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P < 0.05). The high-fat diet altered brain iron contents and FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: (1) high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P < 0.05), but not other regions, and (2) thalamus has a more distinct change in FtH mRNA expression compared with other regions. Furthermore, high-fat diet resulted in a significant decreased total distance traveled and a significant correlation between iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P < 0.05). Dietary iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles developed for hyperthermia is dominated by iron content

    PubMed Central

    Wabler, Michele; Zhu, Wenlian; Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Zhou, Haoming; Mihalic, Jana; Geyh, Alison; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Ivkov, Robert; Artemov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (~100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia. PMID:24773041

  19. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: Iron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency in humans occurs in all regions of the world. Potatoes are a modest source of iron. The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic variation for potato tuber iron content exists. Iron content in potato was measured in 33 clones, including varieties and advanced breeding sele...

  20. Microwave imaging of tissue blood content changes.

    PubMed

    Hawley, M S; Broquetas, A; Jofre, L; Bolomey, J C; Gaboriaud, G

    1991-05-01

    Active microwave imaging gives information on the dielectric properties of of the body, allowing the collection of data that are distinct from, but complementary to, those available from other imaging methods based on different radiations. Two types of microwave imaging systems have been developed. The first is a planar system that irradiates the object with a plane wave and collects scattered phase and amplitude data at 1024 points on a parallel plane. The data can be reconstructed using a back propagation technique to give an image of the object. The second type of system is a tomographic scanner, consisting of a multiplexed 64-element circular array of waveguides. The waveguides are electronically scanned, alternately as sources and receivers, to give a complete scan of the object with no mechanical movement. A tomographic 'slice' of the object is reconstructed using spectral domain interpolation. Both systems work at 2.45 GHz with an incident power less than 1 mW cm-2 at the object and require a coupling medium (usually water) between the object and the source/receiver. Imaging parameters are appropriate for clinical use: a spatial resolution of 1 cm, measurement time of a few seconds and contrast resolution of around 1%. The effects of changes in perfusion on images of isolated animal organs are presented. Images have also been obtained, with both systems, of the internal dielectric structure of the forearm and of variations in dielectric properties due to changes of tissue blood content effected by application and release of tourniquets to the upper arm. Results show that these changes are well demonstrated by microwave imaging, and possible clinical applications are discussed. PMID:1870328

  1. Lack of hepcidin gene expression and severe tissue iron overload in upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, G; Bennoun, M; Devaux, I; Beaumont, C; Grandchamp, B; Kahn, A; Vaulont, S

    2001-07-17

    We previously reported the disruption of the murine gene encoding the transcription factor USF2 and its consequences on glucose-dependent gene regulation in the liver. We report here a peculiar phenotype of Usf2(-/-) mice that progressively develop multivisceral iron overload; plasma iron overcomes transferrin binding capacity, and nontransferrin-bound iron accumulates in various tissues including pancreas and heart. In contrast, the splenic iron content is strikingly lower in knockout animals than in controls. To identify genes that may account for the abnormalities of iron homeostasis in Usf2(-/-) mice, we used suppressive subtractive hybridization between livers from Usf2(-/-) and wild-type mice. We isolated a cDNA encoding a peptide, hepcidin (also referred to as LEAP-1, for liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide), that was very recently purified from human blood ultrafiltrate and from urine as a disulfide-bonded peptide exhibiting antimicrobial activity. Accumulation of iron in the liver has been recently reported to up-regulate hepcidin expression, whereas our data clearly show that a complete defect in hepcidin expression is responsible for progressive tissue iron overload. The striking similarity of the alterations in iron metabolism between HFE knockout mice, a murine model of hereditary hemochromatosis, and the Usf2(-/-) hepcidin-deficient mice suggests that hepcidin may function in the same regulatory pathway as HFE. We propose that hepcidin acts as a signaling molecule that is required in conjunction with HFE to regulate both intestinal iron absorption and iron storage in macrophages. PMID:11447267

  2. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  3. Duodenal nonheme iron content correlates with iron stores in mice, but the relationship is altered by Hfe gene knock-out.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Laftah, Abas H; Solanky, Nita; Beaumont, Nick; Bahram, Seiamak; Schümann, Klaus; Srai, S Kaila S

    2003-04-15

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a common iron-loading disorder found in populations of European descent. It has been proposed that mutations causing loss of function of HFE gene result in reduced iron incorporation into immature duodenal crypt cells. These cells then overexpress genes for iron absorption, leading to inappropriate cellular iron balance, a persistent iron deficiency of the duodenal mucosa, and increased iron absorption. The objective was to measure duodenal iron content in Hfe knock-out mice to test whether the mutation causes a persistent decrease in enterocyte iron concentration. In both normal and Hfe knock-out mice, duodenal nonheme iron content was found to correlate with liver iron stores (P <.001, r = 0.643 and 0.551, respectively), and this effect did not depend on dietary iron levels. However, duodenal iron content was reduced in Hfe knock-out mice for any given content of liver iron stores (P <.001). PMID:12468424

  4. Low-aluminum content iron-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    The low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum program deals with the development of a Fe-Al alloy with aluminum content such as a produce the minimum environmental effect at room temperature. The FAPY is an Fe-16 at. % Al-based alloy developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as the highest aluminum-containing alloy with essentially no environmental effect. The chemical composition for FAPY in weight percent is: aluminum = 8.46, chromium = 5.50, zirconium = 0.20, carbon = 0.03, molybdenum = 2.00, yttrium = 0.10 and iron = 83.71. The ignots of the alloy can be hot worked by extrusion, forging, and rolling processes. The hot-worked cast structure can be cold worked with intermediate anneals at 800{degrees}C. Typical room-temperature ductility of the fine-grained wrought structure is 20 to 25% for this alloy. In contrast to the wrought structure, the cast ductility at room temperature is approximately 1% with a transition temperature of approximately 100 to 150{degrees}C, above which ductility values exceed 20%. The alloy has been melted and processed into bar, sheet, and foil. The alloy has also been cast into slabs, step-blocks of varying thicknesses, and shapes. The purpose of this section is to describe the welding response of cast slabs of three different thicknesses of FAPY alloy. Tensile, creep, and Charpy-impact data of the welded plates are also presented.

  5. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  6. Iron and other elements (Cu, Zn, Ca) contents in retina of rats during development and hereditary retinal degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Llabador, Y.; Devès, G.; Vesvres, M. H.; Simonoff, M.; Yefimova, M.; Courtois, Y.; Jeanny, J. C.

    2001-07-01

    The retina as well as other tissues needs iron to survive, but modifications in iron metabolism have also been suggested to contribute to cerebral neurodegenerative diseases. Our study was intended to investigate iron distribution in the retina of normal rats and Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats affected by hereditary degeneration of the photoreceptors at different developmental stages (35, 45 and 55 days after birth). Iron (Fe) distribution was determined by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microanalysis on retinal sections and compared to other tissues (cornea, liver, spleen) and to other elements (Cu, Zn, Ca). Elemental concentrations were determined in different retinal layers especially the photoreceptors, which are progressively altered and disappear in the RCS rats. Iron is unevenly distributed throughout the rat retina. The highest concentration is observed in the choroid and the retinal pigmented epithelium and in the inner segments of photoreceptors. Iron content is lower in the outer segments but still significant. It increases during both the development and the disease at the level of the segments. This last localised iron increase can result in an overproduction of free radicals and be correlated with the photoreceptor cell loss. The distributions of other elements (Cu, Zn, Ca) revealed interesting temporal progressions.

  7. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  8. Lack of hepcidin gene expression and severe tissue iron overload in upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Gaël; Bennoun, Myriam; Devaux, Isabelle; Beaumont, Carole; Grandchamp, Bernard; Kahn, Axel; Vaulont, Sophie

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported the disruption of the murine gene encoding the transcription factor USF2 and its consequences on glucose-dependent gene regulation in the liver. We report here a peculiar phenotype of Usf2−/− mice that progressively develop multivisceral iron overload; plasma iron overcomes transferrin binding capacity, and nontransferrin-bound iron accumulates in various tissues including pancreas and heart. In contrast, the splenic iron content is strikingly lower in knockout animals than in controls. To identify genes that may account for the abnormalities of iron homeostasis in Usf2−/− mice, we used suppressive subtractive hybridization between livers from Usf2−/− and wild-type mice. We isolated a cDNA encoding a peptide, hepcidin (also referred to as LEAP-1, for liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide), that was very recently purified from human blood ultrafiltrate and from urine as a disulfide-bonded peptide exhibiting antimicrobial activity. Accumulation of iron in the liver has been recently reported to up-regulate hepcidin expression, whereas our data clearly show that a complete defect in hepcidin expression is responsible for progressive tissue iron overload. The striking similarity of the alterations in iron metabolism between HFE knockout mice, a murine model of hereditary hemochromatosis, and the Usf2−/− hepcidin-deficient mice suggests that hepcidin may function in the same regulatory pathway as HFE. We propose that hepcidin acts as a signaling molecule that is required in conjunction with HFE to regulate both intestinal iron absorption and iron storage in macrophages. PMID:11447267

  9. The iron content and ferritin contribution in fresh, dried, and toasted nori, Pyropia yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro; Yamamoto, Ami; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Iron is one of the essential trace elements for humans. In this study, the iron contents in fresh, dried, and toasted nori (Pyropia yezoensis) were analyzed. The mean iron content of fresh, dried, and toasted nori were 19.0, 22.6, and 26.2 mg/100 g (dry weight), respectively. These values were superior to other food of plant origin. Furthermore, most of the iron in nori was maintained during processing, such as washing, drying, and toasting. Then, the form of iron in fresh, dried, and toasted nori was analyzed. As a result, an iron storage protein ferritin contributed to iron storage in raw and dried nori, although the precise rate of its contribution is yet to be determined, while ferritin protein cage was degraded in the toasted nori. It is the first report that verified the ferritin contribution to iron storage in such edible macroalgae with commercial importance. PMID:25315337

  10. Measurement of time-dependent fractal dimension for time series of silicon content in pig iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi-Min

    2007-03-01

    This work applies the rescaled range analysis and fractal dimension technique to analyze the time series on silicon content in pig iron for detecting the inherent mechanism that governs blast furnace iron making process. The results show that there is time-dependent fractal feature and deterministic mechanism in blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process, which is helpful to gain deeper understanding of BF ironmaking process and also provide a powerful tool to solve the prediction of the silicon content in pig iron.

  11. Polymorphisms in calpastatin and mu-calpain genes are associated with beef iron content.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Duan, Q; Schneider, M J; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Reecy, J M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers in the calpastatin and mu-calpain loci with iron in beef cattle muscle. The population consisted of 259 cross-bred steers from Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford and Angus sires. Total iron and heme iron concentrations were measured. Markers in the calpastatin (referred to as CAST) and mu-calpain (referred to as CAPN4751) genes were used to assess their association with iron levels. The mean and standard error for iron and heme iron content in the population was 35.6 ± 1.3 μg and 27.1 ± 1.4 μg respectively. Significant associations (P < 0.01) of markers were observed for both iron and heme iron content. For CAST, animals with the CC genotype had higher levels of iron and heme iron in longissimus dorsi muscle. For CAPN4751, individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of iron and heme iron than did animals with the CC and CT genotypes. Genotypes known to be associated with tougher meat were associated with higher levels of iron concentration. PMID:24303986

  12. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  13. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  14. In-situ Characterization and Mapping of Iron Compounds in Alzheimer's Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Collingwood, J F; Mikhaylova, A; Davidson, M; Batich, C; Streit, W J; Terry, J; Dobson, J

    2008-06-16

    There is a well-established link between iron overload in the brain and pathology associated with neurodegeneration in a variety of disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases. This association was first discovered in AD by Goodman in 1953, where, in addition to abnormally high concentrations of iron in autopsy brain tissue, iron has also been shown to accumulate at sites of brain pathology such as senile plaques. However, since this discovery, progress in understanding the origin, role and nature of iron compounds associated with neurodegeneration has been slow. Here we report, for the first time, the location and characterization of iron compounds in human AD brain tissue sections. Iron fluorescence was mapped over a frontal-lobe tissue section from an Alzheimer's patient, and anomalous iron concentrations were identified using synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques at 5 {micro}m spatial resolution. Concentrations of ferritin and magnetite, a magnetic iron oxide potentially indicating disrupted brain-iron metabolism, were evident. These results demonstrate a practical means of correlating iron compounds and disease pathology in-situ and have clear implications for disease pathogenesis and potential therapies.

  15. Effects of Carbo-Nitridation Process of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag on Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z.; Zhang, X. M.; Xu, Y.

    In order to prepare corrosion-resistant refractory material, experiment chooses Ti-bearing Blast Furnace Slag as raw materials which were treated by the method of carbo-nitridation. Finally, the corrosion resistance properties of the material can be improved by this method. The carbo-nitridation process affects the iron content of the slag in the study, which have a beneficial effect on the synthesis of Ti (C. N). The results indicated that the iron content of the slag significantly increased in process of Ti (C. N) synthesis: and the iron content of slag showed an upward trend with the increase of holding time.

  16. Liver iron content determination by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Perifanis, Vassilios

    2010-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of iron overload is necessary to establish the diagnosis of hemochromatosis and guide chelation treatment in transfusion-dependent anemia. The liver is the primary site for iron storage in patients with hemochromatosis or transfusion-dependent anemia, therefore, liver iron concentration (LIC) accurately reflects total body iron stores. In the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising method for measuring LIC in a variety of diseases. We review the potential role of MRI in LIC determination in the most important disorders that are characterized by iron overload, that is, thalassemia major, other hemoglobinopathies, acquired anemia, and hemochromatosis. Most studies have been performed in thalassemia major and MRI is currently a widely accepted method for guiding chelation treatment in these patients. However, the lack of correlation between liver and cardiac iron stores suggests that both organs should be evaluated with MRI, since cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in this population. It is also unclear which MRI method is the most accurate since there are no large studies that have directly compared the different available techniques. The role of MRI in the era of genetic diagnosis of hemochromatosis is also debated, whereas data on the accuracy of the method in other hematological and liver diseases are rather limited. However, MRI is a fast, non-invasive and relatively accurate diagnostic tool for assessing LIC, and its use is expected to increase as the role of iron in the pathogenesis of liver disease becomes clearer. PMID:20355237

  17. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, A; Davidson, M; Toastmann, H; Channell, J.E.T; Guyodo, Y; Batich, C; Dobson, J

    2005-01-01

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 μm. This technique represents a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds in brain tissue. The potential for high-resolution iron mapping using microfocused X-ray beams has direct application to investigations of the location and structural form of iron compounds associated with human neurodegenerative disorders—a problem which has vexed researchers for 50 years. PMID:16849161

  18. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Toastmann, H.; Channell, J.E.T.; Guyodo, Y.; Batich, C.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 {micro}m. This technique represents a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds in brain tissue. The potential for high-resolution iron mapping using microfocused X-ray beams has direct application to investigations of the location and structural form of iron compounds associated with human neurodegenerative disorders - a problem which has vexed researchers for 50 years.

  19. Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.C.

    1998-06-05

    The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using the thermodynamics principles. It is the purpose here to demonstrate that the data of ADI from numerous sources have a similar trend.

  20. Estimating Tissue Iron Burden: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron overload is becoming an increasing problem as haemoglobinopathy patients gain greater access to good medical care and as therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes improve. Therapeutic options for iron chelation therapy have increased and many patients now receive combination therapies. However, optimal utilization of iron chelation therapy requires knowledge not only of the total body iron burden but the relative iron distribution among the different organs. The physiological basis for extrahepatic iron deposition is presented in order to help identify patients at highest risk for cardiac and endocrine complications. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art for monitoring global iron overload status as well as its compartmentalization. Plasma markers, computerized tomography, liver biopsy, magnetic susceptibility devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are all discussed but MRI has come to dominate clinical practice. The potential impact of recent pancreatic and pituitary MRI studies on clinical practice are discussed as well as other works-in-progress. Clinical protocols are derived from experience in haemoglobinopathies but may provide useful guiding principles for other iron overload disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25765344

  1. Tissue-specific accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein following parenteral iron loading

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    The synthesis in various tissues of the unique metal-binding protein, metallothionein, can be influenced by the administration of certain trace elements. Zinc and cadmium, both of which bind to metallothionein, are most widely recognized as potent inducers. Preliminary results in our laboratory suggested that iron loading causes a marked accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein. In this report the effects of parenteral iron administration on metallothionein concentration in various tissues are presented. Male chicks (300-350 g) received (ip) either a single injection (+1 Fe) of iron (10 mg Fe/kg, as FeCl/sub 3/), two injections (+2 Fe) given 24-hr apart, three injections (+3 Fe) each given 24-hr apart, or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline (control). Twenty-four hours following the final injection, chicks were killed and tissues analyzed for cytoplasmic zinc and metallothionein (Zn-MT). The parenteral administration of ferric iron, FeCl/sub 3/, resulted in a marked tissue-specific accumulation of zinc as metallothionein. In chicks given +2 Fe, hepatic Zn-MT increased more than 10-fold with a third injection (+3 Fe) causing no further change. The concentration of Zn-MT in renal and pancreatic tissue was unaffected by iron loading. An increase in hepatic Zn-MT was evident prior to detectable changes in total hepatic iron. The administration of other ferrous iron compounds at a similar rate produced comparable changes in hepatic Zn-MT. Feeding excess dietary iron, however, had no effect on liver Zn-MT levels even though similar hepatic iron concentrations were attained. Results indicated that parenteral administration, but not feeding, of various iron compounds causes a marked increase in zinc metallothionein, specifically in liver tissue.

  2. A Room Temperature Ultrasensitive Magnetoelectric Susceptometer for Quantitative Tissue Iron Detection

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Hao; Qian, Xiaoshi; Lu, Meng-Chien; Mei, Lei; Rupprecht, Sebastian; Yang, Qing X.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that plays a vital role in the human body. However, absorbing and accumulating excessive iron in body organs (iron overload) can damage or even destroy an organ. Even after many decades of research, progress on the development of noninvasive and low-cost tissue iron detection methods is very limited. Here we report a recent advance in a room-temperature ultrasensitive biomagnetic susceptometer for quantitative tissue iron detection. The biomagnetic susceptometer exploits recent advances in the magnetoelectric (ME) composite sensors that exhibit an ultrahigh AC magnetic sensitivity under the presence of a strong DC magnetic field. The first order gradiometer based on piezoelectric and magnetostrictive laminate (ME composite) structure shows an equivalent magnetic noise of 0.99 nT/rt Hz at 1 Hz in the presence of a DC magnetic field of 0.1 Tesla and a great common mode noise rejection ability. A prototype magnetoelectric liver susceptometry has been demonstrated with liver phantoms. The results indicate its output signals to be linearly responsive to iron concentrations from normal iron dose (0.05 mg Fe/g liver phantom) to 5 mg Fe/g liver phantom iron overload (100X overdose). The results here open up many innovative possibilities for compact-size, portable, cost-affordable, and room-temperature operated medical systems for quantitative determinations of tissue iron. PMID:27465206

  3. A Room Temperature Ultrasensitive Magnetoelectric Susceptometer for Quantitative Tissue Iron Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Hao; Qian, Xiaoshi; Lu, Meng-Chien; Mei, Lei; Rupprecht, Sebastian; Yang, Qing X.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-07-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that plays a vital role in the human body. However, absorbing and accumulating excessive iron in body organs (iron overload) can damage or even destroy an organ. Even after many decades of research, progress on the development of noninvasive and low-cost tissue iron detection methods is very limited. Here we report a recent advance in a room-temperature ultrasensitive biomagnetic susceptometer for quantitative tissue iron detection. The biomagnetic susceptometer exploits recent advances in the magnetoelectric (ME) composite sensors that exhibit an ultrahigh AC magnetic sensitivity under the presence of a strong DC magnetic field. The first order gradiometer based on piezoelectric and magnetostrictive laminate (ME composite) structure shows an equivalent magnetic noise of 0.99 nT/rt Hz at 1 Hz in the presence of a DC magnetic field of 0.1 Tesla and a great common mode noise rejection ability. A prototype magnetoelectric liver susceptometry has been demonstrated with liver phantoms. The results indicate its output signals to be linearly responsive to iron concentrations from normal iron dose (0.05 mg Fe/g liver phantom) to 5 mg Fe/g liver phantom iron overload (100X overdose). The results here open up many innovative possibilities for compact-size, portable, cost-affordable, and room-temperature operated medical systems for quantitative determinations of tissue iron.

  4. A Room Temperature Ultrasensitive Magnetoelectric Susceptometer for Quantitative Tissue Iron Detection.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hao; Qian, Xiaoshi; Lu, Meng-Chien; Mei, Lei; Rupprecht, Sebastian; Yang, Qing X; Zhang, Q M

    2016-01-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that plays a vital role in the human body. However, absorbing and accumulating excessive iron in body organs (iron overload) can damage or even destroy an organ. Even after many decades of research, progress on the development of noninvasive and low-cost tissue iron detection methods is very limited. Here we report a recent advance in a room-temperature ultrasensitive biomagnetic susceptometer for quantitative tissue iron detection. The biomagnetic susceptometer exploits recent advances in the magnetoelectric (ME) composite sensors that exhibit an ultrahigh AC magnetic sensitivity under the presence of a strong DC magnetic field. The first order gradiometer based on piezoelectric and magnetostrictive laminate (ME composite) structure shows an equivalent magnetic noise of 0.99 nT/rt Hz at 1 Hz in the presence of a DC magnetic field of 0.1 Tesla and a great common mode noise rejection ability. A prototype magnetoelectric liver susceptometry has been demonstrated with liver phantoms. The results indicate its output signals to be linearly responsive to iron concentrations from normal iron dose (0.05 mg Fe/g liver phantom) to 5 mg Fe/g liver phantom iron overload (100X overdose). The results here open up many innovative possibilities for compact-size, portable, cost-affordable, and room-temperature operated medical systems for quantitative determinations of tissue iron. PMID:27465206

  5. A Survey of Plant Iron Content-A Semi-Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ancuceanu, Robert; Dinu, Mihaela; Hovaneţ, Marilena Viorica; Anghel, Adriana Iuliana; Popescu, Carmen Violeta; Negreş, Simona

    2015-12-01

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word "iron" in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed. PMID:26690470

  6. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and

  7. Magnetic iron compounds in the human brain: a comparison of tumour and hippocampal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Brem, Franziska; Hirt, Ann M; Winklhofer, Michael; Frei, Karl; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Wieser, Heinz-Gregor; Dobson, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Iron is a central element in the metabolism of normal and malignant cells. Abnormalities in iron and ferritin expression have been observed in many types of cancer. Interest in characterizing iron compounds in the human brain has increased due to advances in determining a relationship between excess iron accumulation and neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, four different magnetic methods have been employed to characterize the iron phases and magnetic properties of brain tumour (meningiomas) tissues and non-tumour hippocampal tissues. Four main magnetic components can be distinguished: the diamagnetic matrix, nearly paramagnetic blood, antiferromagnetic ferrihydrite cores of ferritin and ferrimagnetic magnetite and/or maghemite. For the first time, open hysteresis loops have been observed on human brain tissue at room temperature. The hysteresis properties indicate the presence of magnetite and/or maghemite particles that exhibit stable single-domain (SD) behaviour at room temperature. A significantly higher concentration of magnetically ordered magnetite and/or maghemite and a higher estimated concentration of heme iron was found in the meningioma samples. First-order reversal curve diagrams on meningioma tissue further show that the stable SD particles are magnetostatically interacting, implying high-local concentrations (clustering) of these particles in brain tumours. These findings suggest that brain tumour tissue contains an elevated amount of remanent iron oxide phases. PMID:17015303

  8. Changing Iron Content of the Mouse Brain during Development

    PubMed Central

    Holmes-Hampton, Gregory P.; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Cockrell, Allison L.; McCormick, Sean P.; Abbott, Louise C.; Lindahl, Lora S.; Lindahl, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is crucial to many processes in the brain yet the percentages of the major iron-containing species contained therein, and how these percentages change during development, have not been reliably determined. To do this, C57BL/6 mice were enriched in 57Fe and their brains were examined by Mössbauer, EPR, and electronic absorption spectroscopy; Fe concentrations were evaluated using ICP-MS. Excluding the contribution of residual blood hemoglobin, the three major categories of brain Fe included ferritin (an iron storage protein), mitochondrial iron (consisting primarily of Fe/S clusters and hemes), and mononuclear nonheme high-spin (NHHS) FeII and FeIII species. Brains from prenatal and one-week old mice were dominated by ferritin and were deficient in mitochondrial Fe. During the next few weeks of life, the brain grew and experienced a burst of mitochondriogenesis. Overall brain Fe concentration and the concentration of ferritin declined during this burst phase, suggesting that the rate of Fe incorporation was insufficient to accommodate these changes. The slow rate of Fe import and export to/from the brain, relative to other organs, was verified by an isotopic labeling study. Iron levels and ferritin stores replenished in young adult mice. NHHS FeII species were observed in substantial levels in brains of several ages. A stable free-radical species that increased with age was observed by EPR spectroscopy. Brains from mice raised on an Fe-deficient diet showed depleted ferritin iron but normal mitochondrial iron levels. PMID:22810488

  9. Tissue fusion bursting pressure and the role of tissue water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezo, James; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Tissue fusion is a complex, poorly understood process which bonds collagenous tissues together using heat and pressure. The goal of this study is to elucidate the role of hydration in bond efficacy. Hydration of porcine splenic arteries (n=30) was varied by pre-fusion treatments: 24-48 hour immersion in isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic baths. Treated arteries were fused in several locations using Conmed's Altrus thermal fusion device and the bursting pressure was then measured for each fused segment. Artery sections were then weighed before and after lyophilization, to quantify water content. Histology (HE, EVG staining) enabled visualization of the bonding interface. Bursting pressure was significantly greater (p=4.17 E-ll) for the hypotonic group (607.6 +/- 83.2mmHg), while no significant difference existed between the isotonic (332.6 +/- 44.7mmHg) and hypertonic (348.7 +/- 44.0mmHg) treatment groups. Total water content varied (p=8.80 E-24) from low water content in the hypertonic samples (72.5% weight +/- 0.9), to high water content in the hypotonic samples (83.1% weight +/- 1.9), while the isotonic samples contained 78.8% weight +/- 1.1. Strength differences between the treated vessels imply that bound water driven from the tissue during fusion may reveal available collagen crosslinking sites to facilitate bond formation during the fusion process. Thus when the tissue contains greater bound water volumes, more crosslinking sites may become available during fusion, leading to a stronger bond. This study provides an important step towards understanding the chemistry underlying tissue fusion and the mechanics of tissue fusion as a function of bound water within the tissue.

  10. [CURRENT HISTOCHEMICAL METHODS OF TISSUE IRON DEMONSTRATION BASED ON PERLS' REACTION].

    PubMed

    Grigoriyev, I P; Kolos, Ye A; Sukhorukova, Ye G; Korzhevskiy, D E

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the information on the modern modifications of Perls' reaction including diaminobenzidine enhancement according to R. Meguro (for various tissues). M.A. Smith (for nervous tissue), S.M. Levine (for detection of iron in oligodendrocytes and myelinated nervous fibers), and our own modification for visualization of the nucleolar iron. The analysis is performed of the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications of histochemical demonstration of iron. It is shown that the use of new methodological approaches significantly increases the sensitivity of Perls' reaction. Control procedures allow to to eliminate the possibility of artifacts. PMID:27487670

  11. Iron content in water of river Godavari at Nanded and its impact on river ecology.

    PubMed

    Bhosle, Arjun B; Wavde, Prabhakar N

    2009-10-01

    Natural waters can be very heterogeneous vertically, horizontally and with time. This is not only applicable to man-made pollution, but also can be caused by natural phenomena such as erosion, currents, thermocline and precipitation washout of dust. The total iron content of the river Godavari was investigated thrice in a month during the entire year July-2005 to June-2006. The overall study showed the fluctuations in the iron content more than the permissible limit prescribed by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The iron was estimated by spectrophotometric method using thiocyanate method. PMID:21117418

  12. Relationship between iron deposits and tissue damage in the synovium: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C J; Blake, D R; Wainwright, A C; Steven, M M

    1986-01-01

    A detailed ultrastructural study was made of the synovial iron deposits in cases of haemophilic synovitis (HS), pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), seronegative inflammatory arthritis (SNA), and in controls, to investigate the relationship between iron deposits and tissue damage. Iron was seen by electron microscopy in about 75% of synovial lining cells in HS and PVNS but only in about 25% of synovial cells from cases of RA and SNA. In cases of OA and in controls iron deposits were scarce. The iron was usually deposited within pleomorphic siderosomes and in HS was most common in type A synovial cells. In contrast, deposits in all other cases were more common in type B cells, which were frequently the predominant cell type, and siderosomes were smaller, more homogeneous, and were more common in deeper synovial tissue. Considerable tissue damage was noted in the vicinity of iron rich siderosomes in synovial A cells from cases of HS, but such deposits in B cells in the synovium from the other cases had relatively little effect. We discuss the possibility that such differences directly reflect the differing functions of type A and B synovial cells, and particularly their relative ability to produce metabolically active oxygen metabolites with tissue destructive potential in the presence of iron. Images PMID:3954454

  13. Enhancement of iron content in spinach plants stimulated by magnetic nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianto, Agus; Astuti, Budi; Amalia, Saptaria Rosa

    2016-04-01

    In our previous study, the iron content in spinach plants could be detected by magnetic susceptibility values. In the present work, magnetic nano particles were found from the iron sand. The magnetic nano particles are synthesis by using co-precipitation process and sol-gel technique. The stimulation of magnetic nano particles in the plant has been done by the provision of magnetic nano particles in growing media. After certain time, plant samples was characterized using susceptibility-meter MS2B and atomic absorption spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility and the amount of iron content that absorbed of the plant, respectively. The iron content in the spinach plants was increased when the magnetic nano particles was injected in the growing media.

  14. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation. PMID:21742986

  15. Soil Iron Content as a Predictor of Carbon and Nutrient Mobilization in Rewetted Fens.

    PubMed

    Emsens, Willem-Jan; Aggenbach, Camiel J S; Schoutens, Ken; Smolders, Alfons J P; Zak, Dominik; van Diggelen, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Rewetted, previously drained fens often remain sources rather than sinks for carbon and nutrients. To date, it is poorly understood which soil characteristics stimulate carbon and nutrient mobilization upon rewetting. Here, we assess the hypothesis that a large pool of iron in the soil negatively affects fen restoration success, as flooding-induced iron reduction (Fe3+ to Fe2+) causes a disproportionate breakdown of organic matter that is coupled with a release of inorganic compounds. We collected intact soil cores in two iron-poor and two iron-rich drained fens, half of which were subjected to a rewetting treatment while the other half was kept drained. Prolonged drainage led to the mobilization of nitrate (NO3-, > 1 mmol L-1) in all cores, regardless of soil iron content. In the rewetted iron-rich cores, a sharp increase in pore water iron (Fe) concentrations correlated with concentrations of inorganic carbon (TIC, > 13 mmol L-1) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, > 16 mmol L-1). Additionally, ammonium (NH4+) accumulated up to phytotoxic concentrations of 1 mmol L-1 in the pore water of the rewetted iron-rich cores. Disproportionate mobilization of Fe, TIC, DOC and NH4+ was absent in the rewetted iron-poor cores, indicating a strong interaction between waterlogging and iron-mediated breakdown of organic matter. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) rose slightly in all cores upon rewetting, but remained low throughout the experiment. Our results suggest that large pools of iron in the top soil of drained fens can hamper the restoration of the fen's sink-service for ammonium and carbon upon rewetting. We argue that negative effects of iron should be most apparent in fens with fluctuating water levels, as temporary oxygenation allows frequent regeneration of Fe3+. We conclude that rewetting of iron-poor fens may be more feasible for restoration. PMID:27050837

  16. Soil Iron Content as a Predictor of Carbon and Nutrient Mobilization in Rewetted Fens

    PubMed Central

    Emsens, Willem-Jan; Aggenbach, Camiel J. S.; Schoutens, Ken; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Zak, Dominik; van Diggelen, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Rewetted, previously drained fens often remain sources rather than sinks for carbon and nutrients. To date, it is poorly understood which soil characteristics stimulate carbon and nutrient mobilization upon rewetting. Here, we assess the hypothesis that a large pool of iron in the soil negatively affects fen restoration success, as flooding-induced iron reduction (Fe3+ to Fe2+) causes a disproportionate breakdown of organic matter that is coupled with a release of inorganic compounds. We collected intact soil cores in two iron-poor and two iron-rich drained fens, half of which were subjected to a rewetting treatment while the other half was kept drained. Prolonged drainage led to the mobilization of nitrate (NO3-, > 1 mmol L-1) in all cores, regardless of soil iron content. In the rewetted iron-rich cores, a sharp increase in pore water iron (Fe) concentrations correlated with concentrations of inorganic carbon (TIC, > 13 mmol L-1) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, > 16 mmol L-1). Additionally, ammonium (NH4+) accumulated up to phytotoxic concentrations of 1 mmol L-1 in the pore water of the rewetted iron-rich cores. Disproportionate mobilization of Fe, TIC, DOC and NH4+ was absent in the rewetted iron-poor cores, indicating a strong interaction between waterlogging and iron-mediated breakdown of organic matter. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) rose slightly in all cores upon rewetting, but remained low throughout the experiment. Our results suggest that large pools of iron in the top soil of drained fens can hamper the restoration of the fen’s sink-service for ammonium and carbon upon rewetting. We argue that negative effects of iron should be most apparent in fens with fluctuating water levels, as temporary oxygenation allows frequent regeneration of Fe3+. We conclude that rewetting of iron-poor fens may be more feasible for restoration. PMID:27050837

  17. Iron-sulfur cluster damage by the superoxide radical in neural tissues of the SOD1(G93A) ALS rat model.

    PubMed

    Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Mojović, Miloš; Stamenković, Stefan; Jovanović, Miloš; Selaković, Vesna; Andjus, Pavle; Bačić, Goran

    2016-07-01

    Extensive clinical investigations, in hand with biochemical and biophysical research, have associated brain iron accumulation with the pathogenesis of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease. The origin of iron is still not identified, but it is proposed that it forms redox active complexes that can participate in the Fenton reaction generating the toxic hydroxyl radical. In this paper, the state of iron in the neural tissues isolated from SOD1(G93A) transgenic rats was investigated using low temperature EPR spectroscopy and is compared with that of nontransgenic (NTg) littermates. The results showed that iron in neural tissues is present as high- and low-spin, heme and non-heme iron. It appears that the SOD1(G93A) rat neural tissues were most likely exposed in vivo to higher amounts of reactive oxygen species when compared to the corresponding NTg tissues, as they showed increased oxidized [3Fe-4S](1+) cluster content relative to [4Fe-4S](1+). Also, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was found to be reduced in these tissues, which may be associated with the observed uncoupling of heme a3 Fe and CuB in the O2-reduction site of the enzyme. Furthermore, the SOD1(G93A) rat spinal cords and brainstems contained more manganese, presumably from MnSOD, than those of NTg rats. The addition of potassium superoxide to all neural tissues ex vivo, led to the [4Fe-4S]→[3Fe-4S] cluster conversion and concurrent release of Fe. These results suggest that the superoxide anion may be the cause of the observed oxidative damage to SOD1(G93A) rat neural tissues and that the iron-sulfur clusters may be the source of poorly liganded redox active iron implicated in ALS pathogenesis. Low temperature EPR spectroscopy appears to be a valuable tool in assessing the role of metals in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27130034

  18. Effect of cadmium intoxication on collagen and elastin content in tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharz, E.J.

    1988-02-01

    Cadmium produces a variety of pathological effects in various organs in experimental animals or in accidentally intoxicated humans. The mechanism of these phenomena has been the subject of numerous investigations. Many of the observed toxic effects are thought to be the results of secondary deficiencies in such essential trace elements as zinc, copper and iron. Metabolism of the fibrous components of connective tissue, i.e. collagen and elastin, requires the presence of so me trace elements. It is also believed that elastin biosynthesis depends on the presence of some trace metals. Copper deficiency produces significant decrease in elastic tissue resistance, caused by diminished cross-link formation. Experimental studies showed that cadmium treatment of rats produced an increase in the urinary excretion of collagen catabolites. It was also shown that cadmium intoxication influenced bone structure and fetal growth. These two effects on connective tissue were probably accompanied by disturbances in collagen metabolism. Moreover, it is known that fungal collagenase activity was affected by cadmium. In the present paper a decrease in collagen and elastin content, and impaired extracellular maturation of the collagen fibers in some tissues of rats intoxicated with cadmium were described.

  19. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; de Souza, Marcela Maria

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  20. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; Souza, Marcela Maria de; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  1. Massive Intracellular Biodegradation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Evidenced Magnetically at Single-Endosome and Tissue Levels.

    PubMed

    Mazuel, François; Espinosa, Ana; Luciani, Nathalie; Reffay, Myriam; Le Borgne, Rémi; Motte, Laurence; Desboeufs, Karine; Michel, Aude; Pellegrino, Teresa; Lalatonne, Yoann; Wilhelm, Claire

    2016-08-23

    Quantitative studies of the long-term fate of iron oxide nanoparticles inside cells, a prerequisite for regenerative medicine applications, are hampered by the lack of suitable biological tissue models and analytical methods. Here, we propose stem-cell spheroids as a tissue model to track intracellular magnetic nanoparticle transformations during long-term tissue maturation. We show that global spheroid magnetism can serve as a fingerprint of the degradation process, and we evidence a near-complete nanoparticle degradation over a month of tissue maturation, as confirmed by electron microscopy. Remarkably, the same massive degradation was measured at the endosome level by single-endosome nanomagnetophoretic tracking in cell-free endosomal extract. Interestingly, this spectacular nanoparticle breakdown barely affected iron homeostasis: only the genes coding for ferritin light chain (iron loading) and ferroportin (iron export) were up-regulated 2-fold by the degradation process. Besides, the magnetic and tissular tools developed here allow screening of the biostability of magnetic nanomaterials, as demonstrated with iron oxide nanocubes and nanodimers. Hence, stem-cell spheroids and purified endosomes are suitable models needed to monitor nanoparticle degradation in conjunction with magnetic, chemical, and biological characterizations at the cellular scale, quantitatively, in the long term, in situ, and in real time. PMID:27419260

  2. Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area.

  3. Total phosphorus content of river sediments in relationship to calcium, iron and organic matter concentrations.

    PubMed

    House, William A; Denison, Frank H

    2002-01-23

    Data on the total concentrations of phosphorus, calcium, iron and organic matter in surface bed-sediments taken from rivers in the Thames catchment (Wey, Blackwater, Thame and Kennet), the River Swale in Yorkshire (data excludes the organic matter content) as well as the headwaters of the Great Ouse, are collated and compared. Total concentrations of phosphorus, iron and calcium range from 1.7-649, 12-8,333 and 9-4,605 micromol g(-1) (dry weight), respectively, with organic matter in the range of 0.6-19% by dry weight. For the Wey, Blackwater and Great Ouse, sewage inflows had no detectable effect on the sediment concentrations of total calcium, iron and organic matter whereas for the Blackwater and Great Ouse, the total phosphorus contents of the sediment were higher downstream of the effluent input in comparison with a less impacted upstream location. Relationships between the total phosphorus content of the sediments and contents of iron, calcium and organic matter indicated marked differences between the rivers. Although the organic matter content of the sediments was found to be a significant predictor for the total phosphorus concentration for the Blackwater and Great Ouse, the total iron content was also useful for the Blackwater and total calcium for the Great Ouse. It is postulated that this difference is a result of the sediment processes that are known to occur in these two systems, i.e. co-precipitation of phosphate with calcite in the Great Ouse and the formation of vivianite in anoxic sediments of the Blackwater. PMID:11846078

  4. Tissue-specific expression of ferritin H regulates cellular iron homoeostasis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, John; Di, Xiumin; Schönig, Kai; Buss, Joan L.; Kock, Nancy D.; Cline, J. Mark; Saunders, Thomas L.; Bujard, Hermann; Torti, Suzy V.; Torti, Frank M.

    2006-01-01

    Ferritin is a ubiquitously distributed iron-binding protein. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that ferritin plays a role in maintenance of iron homoeostasis and in the protection against cytokine- and oxidant-induced stress. To test whether FerH (ferritin H) can regulate tissue iron homoeostasis in vivo, we prepared transgenic mice that conditionally express FerH and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) from a bicistronic tetracycline-inducible promoter. Two transgenic models were explored. In the first, the FerH and EGFP transgenes were controlled by the tTACMV (Tet-OFF) (where tTA and CMV are tet transactivator protein and cytomegalovirus respectively). In skeletal muscle of mice bearing the FerH/EGFP and tTACMV transgenes, FerH expression was increased 6.0±1.1-fold (mean±S.D.) compared with controls. In the second model, the FerH/EGFP transgenes were controlled by an optimized Tet-ON transactivator, rtTA2S-S2LAP (where rtTA is reverse tTA and LAP is liver activator protein), resulting in expression predominantly in the kidney and liver. In mice expressing these transgenes, doxycycline induced FerH in the kidney by 14.2±4.8-fold (mean±S.D.). Notably, increases in ferritin in overexpressers versus control littermates were accompanied by an elevation of IRP (iron regulatory protein) activity of 2.3±0.9-fold (mean±S.D.), concurrent with a 4.5±2.1-fold (mean±S.D.) increase in transferrin receptor, indicating that overexpression of FerH is sufficient to elicit a phenotype of iron depletion. These results demonstrate that FerH not only responds to changes in tissue iron (its classic role), but can actively regulate overall tissue iron balance. PMID:16448386

  5. Tissue-specific expression of ferritin H regulates cellular iron homoeostasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, John; Di, Xiumin; Schönig, Kai; Buss, Joan L; Kock, Nancy D; Cline, J Mark; Saunders, Thomas L; Bujard, Hermann; Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M

    2006-05-01

    Ferritin is a ubiquitously distributed iron-binding protein. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that ferritin plays a role in maintenance of iron homoeostasis and in the protection against cytokine- and oxidant-induced stress. To test whether FerH (ferritin H) can regulate tissue iron homoeostasis in vivo, we prepared transgenic mice that conditionally express FerH and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) from a bicistronic tetracycline-inducible promoter. Two transgenic models were explored. In the first, the FerH and EGFP transgenes were controlled by the tTA(CMV) (Tet-OFF) (where tTA and CMV are tet transactivator protein and cytomegalovirus respectively). In skeletal muscle of mice bearing the FerH/EGFP and tTA(CMV) transgenes, FerH expression was increased 6.0+/-1.1-fold (mean+/-S.D.) compared with controls. In the second model, the FerH/EGFP transgenes were controlled by an optimized Tet-ON transactivator, rtTA2(S)-S2(LAP) (where rtTA is reverse tTA and LAP is liver activator protein), resulting in expression predominantly in the kidney and liver. In mice expressing these transgenes, doxycycline induced FerH in the kidney by 14.2+/-4.8-fold (mean+/-S.D.). Notably, increases in ferritin in overexpressers versus control littermates were accompanied by an elevation of IRP (iron regulatory protein) activity of 2.3+/-0.9-fold (mean+/-S.D.), concurrent with a 4.5+/-2.1-fold (mean+/-S.D.) increase in transferrin receptor, indicating that overexpression of FerH is sufficient to elicit a phenotype of iron depletion. These results demonstrate that FerH not only responds to changes in tissue iron (its classic role), but can actively regulate overall tissue iron balance. PMID:16448386

  6. Iron levels change in larval Heliothis virescens tissues following baculovirus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and 59Fe radiotracers were used to investigate changes in levels of iron (Fe) in the tissues of Heliothis virescens following baculovirus infection. Fe concentrations were determined by ICP-MS in hemolymph collected from 4th instar larvae infect...

  7. EFFECTS OF IRON CONTENT IN COAL COMBUSTION FLY ASHES ON SPECIATION OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effects of iron content in coal combustion fly ashes on speciation of mercury. (NOTE: The chemical form of mercury species in combustion flue gases is an important influence on the control of mercury emissions from coal combustion). The study focused on th...

  8. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM proteins regulate the translocation of iron, zinc, and nitrogen compounds from vegetative tissues to grain.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Uauy, Cristobal; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The NAM-B1 gene is a NAC transcription factor that affects grain nutrient concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum). An RNAi line with reduced expression of NAM genes has lower grain protein, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. To determine whether decreased remobilization, lower plant uptake, or decreased partitioning to grain are responsible for this phenotype, mineral dynamics were quantified in wheat tissues throughout grain development. Control and RNAi wheat were grown in potting mix and hydroponics. Mineral (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, and Zn) and nitrogen (N) contents of organs were determined at regular intervals to quantify the net remobilization from vegetative tissues and the accumulation of nutrients in grain. Total nutrient accumulation was similar between lines, but grain Fe, Zn, and N were at lower concentrations in the NAM knockdown line. In potting mix, net remobilization of N, Fe, and Zn from vegetative tissues was impaired in the RNAi line. In hydroponics with ample nutrients, net remobilization was not observed, but grain Fe and Zn contents and concentrations remained lower in the RNAi line. When Fe or Zn was withheld post-anthesis, both lines demonstrated remobilization. These results suggest that a major effect of the NAM genes is an increased efflux of nutrients from the vegetative tissues and a higher partitioning of nutrients to grain. PMID:19858116

  9. Magnetic poly(ε-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrates for advanced bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gloria, A; Russo, T; D'Amora, U; Zeppetelli, S; D'Alessandro, T; Sandri, M; Bañobre-López, M; Piñeiro-Redondo, Y; Uhlarz, M; Tampieri, A; Rivas, J; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Dediu, V A; Ambrosio, L; De Santis, R

    2013-03-01

    In biomedicine, magnetic nanoparticles provide some attractive possibilities because they possess peculiar physical properties that permit their use in a wide range of applications. The concept of magnetic guidance basically spans from drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment of tumours, to tissue engineering, such as magneto-mechanical stimulation/activation of cell constructs and mechanosensitive ion channels, magnetic cell-seeding procedures, and controlled cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite substrates for bone tissue engineering by embedding iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles in a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix. X-ray diffraction analyses enabled the demonstration that the phase composition and crystallinity of the magnetic FeHA were not affected by the process used to develop the nanocomposite substrates. The mechanical characterization performed through small punch tests has evidenced that inclusion of 10 per cent by weight of FeHA would represent an effective reinforcement. The inclusion of nanoparticles also improves the hydrophilicity of the substrates as evidenced by the lower values of water contact angle in comparison with those of neat PCL. The results from magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic character of the nanocomposite substrates, indicated by a very low coercive field, a saturation magnetization strictly proportional to the FeHA content and a strong history dependence in temperature sweeps. Regarding the biological performances, confocal laser scanning microscopy and AlamarBlue assay have provided qualitative and quantitative information on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and viability/proliferation, respectively, whereas the obtained ALP/DNA values have shown the ability of the nanocomposite substrates to support osteogenic differentiation. PMID:23303218

  10. Magnetic poly(ε-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrates for advanced bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gloria, A.; Russo, T.; D'Amora, U.; Zeppetelli, S.; D'Alessandro, T.; Sandri, M.; Bañobre-López, M.; Piñeiro-Redondo, Y.; Uhlarz, M.; Tampieri, A.; Rivas, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Dediu, V. A.; Ambrosio, L.; De Santis, R.

    2013-01-01

    In biomedicine, magnetic nanoparticles provide some attractive possibilities because they possess peculiar physical properties that permit their use in a wide range of applications. The concept of magnetic guidance basically spans from drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment of tumours, to tissue engineering, such as magneto-mechanical stimulation/activation of cell constructs and mechanosensitive ion channels, magnetic cell-seeding procedures, and controlled cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite substrates for bone tissue engineering by embedding iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles in a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix. X-ray diffraction analyses enabled the demonstration that the phase composition and crystallinity of the magnetic FeHA were not affected by the process used to develop the nanocomposite substrates. The mechanical characterization performed through small punch tests has evidenced that inclusion of 10 per cent by weight of FeHA would represent an effective reinforcement. The inclusion of nanoparticles also improves the hydrophilicity of the substrates as evidenced by the lower values of water contact angle in comparison with those of neat PCL. The results from magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic character of the nanocomposite substrates, indicated by a very low coercive field, a saturation magnetization strictly proportional to the FeHA content and a strong history dependence in temperature sweeps. Regarding the biological performances, confocal laser scanning microscopy and AlamarBlue assay have provided qualitative and quantitative information on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and viability/proliferation, respectively, whereas the obtained ALP/DNA values have shown the ability of the nanocomposite substrates to support osteogenic differentiation. PMID:23303218

  11. Iron, radiation, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

    1990-01-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

  12. Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys with Various Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The Al-Cu 206 cast alloys with varying alloy compositions ( i.e., different levels of Fe, Mn, and Si) were investigated to evaluate the effect of the iron-rich intermetallics on the tensile properties. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with increasing iron content, but its overall loss is less than 10 pct over the range of 0.15 to 0.5 pct Fe at 0.3 pct Mn and 0.3 pct Si. At similar iron contents, the tensile properties of the alloys with dominant Chinese script iron-rich intermetallics are generally higher than those with the dominant platelet phase. In the solution and artificial overaging condition (T7), the tensile strength of the 206 cast alloys with more than 0.15 pct Fe is satisfactory, but the elongation does not sufficiently meet the minimum requirement of ductility (>7 pct) for critical automotive applications. However, it was found that both the required ductility and tensile strength can be reached at high Fe levels of 0.3 to 0.5 pct for the alloys with well-controlled alloy chemistry and microstructure in the solution and natural aging condition (T4), reinforcing the motivation for developing recyclable high-iron Al-Cu 206 cast alloys.

  13. Mapping and prediction of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.

  14. Iron-induced tissue damage and cancer: the role of reactive oxygen species-free radicals.

    PubMed

    Okada, S

    1996-05-01

    Oxygen is poisonous, but we cannot live without it. The high oxidizing potential of oxygen molecules (dioxygen) is a valuable source of energy for the organism and its reactivity is low; that is, spin forbidden. However, the dioxygen itself is a 'free radical' and, especially in the presence of transition metals, it is a major promoter of radical reactions in the cell. Humans survive only by virtue of their elaborate defense mechanisms against oxygen toxicity. Iron is the most abundant transition metal in the human body. Because iron shows wide variation in redox potential with different co-ordination ligands, it may be used as a redox intermediate in many biological mechanism. However, it is precisely this redox activeness that makes iron a key participant in free radical production. The current research on the relationship between iron and cancer is briefly reviewed. Research results are reported here which indicate that iron, when bound to certain ligands, can cause free-radical mediated tissue damage and become carcinogenic. The present study also suggests that iron may also have a significant role in spontaneous human cancer. PMID:8809878

  15. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  16. [The heavy metal content in the soft tissues and shells of specimens of 3 varieties of the Azov and Black Sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, I M; Glushankova, M A

    1993-01-01

    In representatives of 15 micropopulations of the Black Sea mussels related to three varieties of Mytilus galloprovincialis var. dilatata, var. acrocyrta, var. frecviens the content of iron, zinc, lead, copper and cadmium in the soft tissues and shells has been determined with the use of atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that of importance is the content of industrial wastes in the habitat of the micropopulation examined rather than its attribution to some or other variety. In representatives of all the varieties the accumulation of metals in soft tissues was higher than that is shells. By their concentration in tissues the metals examined can be aligned in the following row in decreasing order: iron, zinc, lead, copper and cadmium. PMID:8266565

  17. Correlation of natural gas content to iron species in the New Albany shale group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1981-01-01

    Mo??ssbauer parameters were obtained for four Illinois Basin shales and their corresponding < 2??m clay fractions from wells drilled through the New Albany Shale Group in Henderson, Tazewell, and Effingham counties in Illinois and Christian County in Kentucky. Off-gas analysis indicated that the Illinois cores were in an area of low gas potential, while the Kentucky core was in an area of moderate-to-good potential. Iron-rich dolomite (ankerite) was found in the Kentucky core but not in the Illinois cores. In the Kentucky core, gas content could be correlated with the ankerite in the bulk sample, the Mo??ssbauer M (2) species in the clay fraction, and a ferrous iron species in the clay fraction. The location of the greatest concentration of natural gas in the Kentucky core could be predicted by following the changes in percentage concentration of these iron species when plotted against the depth of burial of the core sample. ?? 1981.

  18. Novel immunosuppressive agent caerulomycin A exerts its effect by depleting cellular iron content

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Suneet; Srivastava, Gautam; Sharma, Amar Nath; Jolly, Ravinder S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recently, we have described the use of caerulomycin A (CaeA) as a potent novel immunosuppressive agent. Immunosuppressive drugs are crucial for long-term graft survival following organ transplantation and treatment of autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders, hypersensitivity to allergens, etc. The objective of this study was to identify cellular targets of CaeA and decipher its mechanism of action. Experimental Approach Jurkat cells were treated with CaeA and cellular iron content, iron uptake/release, DNA content and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pool determined. Activation of MAPKs; expression level of transferrin receptor 1, ferritin and cell cycle control molecules; reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell viability were measured using Western blotting, qRT-PCR or flow cytometry. Key Results CaeA caused intracellular iron depletion by reducing its uptake and increasing its release by cells. CaeA caused cell cycle arrest by (i) inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme, which catalyses the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of DNA; (ii) stimulating MAPKs signalling transduction pathways that play an important role in cell growth, proliferation and differentiation; and (iii) by targeting cell cycle control molecules such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and p21CIP1/WAF1. The effect of CaeA on cell proliferation was reversible. Conclusions and Implications CaeA exerts its immunosuppressive effect by targeting iron. The effect is reversible, which makes CaeA an attractive candidate for development as a potent immunosuppressive drug, but also indicates that iron chelation can be used as a rationale approach to selectively suppress the immune system, because compared with normal cells, rapidly proliferating cells require a higher utilization of iron. PMID:25537422

  19. Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

  20. Mapping and Prediction of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis with Bioavailable Iron Content in the Bituminous Coals

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Li, Weihong; Attfield, Michael D.; Nádas, Arthur; Frenkel, Krystyna; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron’s bioavailability. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal’s toxicity, even before large-scale mining. PMID:16079064

  1. Total iron concentrations in waters and fish tissues in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir area (Lao PDR).

    PubMed

    Cottet, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Guédant, Pierre; Godon, Arnaud; Cerdan, Philippe; Vigouroux, Régis

    2015-08-01

    Data on total iron concentrations in waters and freshwater fish tissues in man-made reservoirs are scarce, especially in Southeast Asia. Changes in total iron concentrations in water and in fish tissues were studied after the impoundment of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (central Lao PDR). Water quality parameters were monitored at 11 stations (reservoir, upstream area and downstream areas) from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 and 2010, total iron concentrations were measured in three different fish tissues (viscera, gills and flesh) from 14 species belonging to the omnivorous and carnivorous feeding groups. The results indicated that iron concentrations in the water were influenced by the reservoir impoundment during the first year after the creation of the reservoir. Intra-annual variations of the total iron concentration in these waters appeared to be driven by the soil leaching processes mainly during the wet season. In fish, total iron accumulated preferentially in viscera, followed by gills and flesh. Iron concentration was highly species dependant and related to the ecology of the species whereas feeding habits (omnivorous or carnivorous) did not influence total iron concentration in fish tissues. Finally, reservoir impoundment did not affect iron concentrations in fish from the reservoir and from both downstream areas. PMID:26215825

  2. Determination of iron content and dispersity of intact ferritin by superconducting tunnel junction cryodetection mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Plath, Logan D; Ozdemir, Abdil; Aksenov, Alexander A; Bier, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Ferritin is a common iron storage protein complex found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although horse spleen holoferritin (HS-HoloFt) has been widely studied, this is the first report of mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the intact form, likely because of its high molecular weight ∼850 kDa and broad iron-core mass distribution. The 24-subunit ferritin heteropolymer protein shell consists of light (L) and heavy (H) subunits and a ferrihydrite-like iron core. The H/L heterogeneity ratio of the horse spleen apoferritin (HS-ApoFt) shell was found to be ∼1:10 by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Superconducting tunneling junction (STJ) cryodetection matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS was utilized to determine the masses of intact HS-ApoFt, HS-HoloFt, and the HS-HoloFt dimer to be ∼505 kDa, ∼835 kDa, and ∼1.63 MDa, respectively. The structural integrity of HS-HoloFt and the proposed mineral adducts found for both purified L and H subunits suggest a robust biomacromolecular complex that is internally stabilized by the iron-based core. However, cross-linking experiments of HS-HoloFt with glutaraldehyde, unexpectedly, showed the complete release of the iron-based core in a one-step process revealing a cross-linked HS-ApoFt with a narrow fwhm peak width of 31.4 kTh compared to 295 kTh for HS-HoloFt. The MS analysis of HS-HoloFt revealed a semiquantitative description of the iron content and core dispersity of 3400 ± 1600 (2σ) iron atoms. Commercially prepared HS-ApoFt was estimated to still contain an average of 240 iron atoms. These iron abundance and dispersity results suggest the use of STJ cryodetection MS for the clinical analysis of iron deficient/overload diseases. PMID:26266697

  3. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  4. Striatal Iron Content Predicts Its Shrinkage and Changes in Verbal Working Memory after Two Years in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haacke, E. Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of non-heme iron in the brain has been proposed as a harbinger of neural and cognitive decline in aging and neurodegenerative disease, but support for this proposal has been drawn from cross-sectional studies, which do not provide valid estimates of change. Here, we present longitudinal evidence of subcortical iron accumulation in healthy human adults (age 19–77 at baseline). We used R2* relaxometry to estimate regional iron content twice within a 2 year period, measured volumes of the striatum and the hippocampus by manual segmentation, and assessed cognitive performance by working memory tasks. Two-year change and individual differences in the change of regional volumes, regional iron content, and working memory were examined by latent change score models while taking into account the age at baseline and metabolic risk indicators. Over the examined period, volume reduction occurred in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, but iron content increased only in the striatum, where it explained shrinkage. Higher iron content in the caudate nucleus at baseline predicted lesser improvement in working memory after repeat testing. Although advanced age and elevated metabolic syndrome risk were associated with greater iron content in the putamen at baseline, neither age nor metabolic risk influenced change in any variable. Thus, longitudinal evidence supports the notion that accumulation of subcortical iron is a risk factor for neural and cognitive decline in normal aging. PMID:25926451

  5. Magnetoacoustic imaging of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in biological tissues with microsecond magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental study on magnetoacoustic imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles embedded in biological tissues. In experiments, a large-current-carrying coil is used to deliver microsecond pulsed magnetic stimulation to samples. The ultrasound signals induced by magnetic forces on SPIO nanoparticles are measured by a rotating transducer. The distribution of nanoparticles is reconstructed by a back-projection imaging algorithm. The results demonstrated the feasibility to obtain cross-sectional image of magnetic nanoparticle targets with faithful dimensional and positional information, which suggests a promising tool for tomographic reconstruction of magnetic nanoparticle-labeled diseased tissues (e.g., cancerous tumor) in molecular or clinic imaging.

  6. The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Schneider, Giulia; Salomé, Murielle; Schneider, Manuela; Calligaro, Carla; Kiskinova, Maya; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Asbestos toxicity is ascribed to its particular physico-chemical characteristics, and one of them is the presence of and ability to adsorb iron, which may cause an alteration of iron homeostasis in the tissue. This observational study reports a combination of advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and micro-spectroscopic methods that provide correlative morphological and chemical information for shedding light on iron mobilization features during asbestos permanence in lung tissue. The results show that the processes responsible for the unusual distribution of iron at different stages of interaction with the fibres also involve calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It has been confirmed that the dominant iron form present in asbestos bodies is ferritin, while the concurrent presence of haematite suggests alteration of iron chemistry during asbestos body permanence. PMID:23350030

  7. Long-term Interaction of an Iron Fragment with Living Human Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donggao, Zhao; Meifu, Zhou

    An iron fragment was embedded accidentally in a human body and remained inside for nearly 16 years. The fragment underwent significant morphological and chemical changes. The surface of the fragment developed a botryoidal or oolitic form. The fragment was altered to iron oxides and hydroxides and Ca phosphates (likely apatite). Fe, O, P, Ca, Cl, Na, K, and Mg were identified in the fragment. From the rim to the core, the Fe content increased and the P and Ca contents decreased. The fragment absorbed Ca, P, O, Cl, Na, and K from the body. This study shows that apatite or other Ca phosphates can remain stable for as long as 16 years. However, the Ca phosphate is mixed with Fe oxides or hydroxides, and therefore, it may not be strong enough to bond to bone. This study also shows that Fe or Fe-bearing alloys are not stable inside a human body.

  8. Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology. PMID:22954182

  9. Magnetic properties and structure of nanocrystalline FINEMET alloys with various iron contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushnikov, N. V.; Potapov, A. P.; Shishkin, D. A.; Protasov, A. V.; Golovnya, O. A.; Shchegoleva, N. N.; Gaviko, V. S.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.; Bykov, V. A.; Starodubtsev, Yu. N.; Belozerov, V. Ya.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the composition and annealing temperature on the structure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Mo-Si-B alloys has been studied. An increase in the iron content compared to that in the traditional FINEMET alloy is shown to allow one to increase the magnetic induction by 18% at a coercive force of no less than 6 A/m. It has been found that, along with the amorphous phase, rapidly quenched ribbons of alloys enriched in Fe contain crystalline α-Fe-based phase precipitates, the (100) crystallographic directions of which are perpendicular to the ribbon plane. Thermomagnetic analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the temperatures of structural and magnetic phase transformations of the alloys with different iron contents. It was found that the separation of amorphous phase into areas of different compositions precedes the precipitation of nano-sized soft magnetic Fe-Si phase grains in the rapidly quenched iron-enriched ribbons.

  10. Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast pump–probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin’s pump–probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump–probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin’s pump–probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump–probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported “activation” of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

  11. Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C

    2014-01-01

    The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected. PMID:25177957

  12. Evaluation of log K{sub ow} and tissue lipid content as predictors of chemical partitioning to fish tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, S.L.; Gallinat, C.A.; Elonen, C.M.; Hoffman, A.D.; Nichols, J.W.

    1998-08-01

    In vitro equilibrium chemical partition coefficients were determined for six chemicals in selected tissues from four species of fish. Log-transformed values were then regressed in stepwise fashion against chemical log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) and the log of tissue lipid content to derive a series of linear one- and two-variable models. Equations derived for fat indicate that n-octanol is a good surrogate for nonpolar lipid in the range of chemical log K{sub ow} tested (1.46 < log K{sub ow} < 4.04). These equations also support the conclusion that previously developed K{sub ow}-bioconcentration factor relationships are largely a reflection of chemical accumulation in fat. Fitted slope and intercept terms for lean tissues differed from those expected from chemical partitioning to lipid only and were instead consistent with the suggestion that partitioning to nonlipid-nonwater cellular constituents contributes substantially to chemical accumulation. A general equation is presented for prediction of tissue/water and blood/water partitioning from chemical log K{sub ow} and tissue (or blood) lipid content. It is suggested, however, that tissue- and blood-specific equations be used to estimate the tissue/blood partitioning relationships needed for kinetic modeling efforts.

  13. The FRD3 Citrate Effluxer Promotes Iron Nutrition between Symplastically Disconnected Tissues throughout Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation. PMID:21742986

  14. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  15. Simultaneous Field and R2* Mapping to Quantify Liver Iron Content Using Autoregressive Moving Average Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brian A.; Loeffler, Ralf B.; Song, Ruitian; McCarville, Mary E.; Hankins, Jane S.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of a complex multi-gradient echo (mGRE) acquisition and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for simultaneous susceptibility and R2* measurements for the assessment of liver iron content (LIC) in patients with iron overload. Materials and Methods Fifty MR exams with magnitude and phase mGRE images are processed using the ARMA model which provides fat-separated field maps, R2* maps, and T1-W imaging. The LIC is calculated by measuring the susceptibility between the liver and the right transverse abdominal muscle from the field maps. The relationship between LIC derived from susceptibility measurements and LIC from R2* measurements is determined using linear least squares regression analysis. Results LIC measured from R2* is highly correlated to the LIC from the susceptibility method (mg/g dry = 8.99 ± 0.15 × (mg Fe/ml of wet liver) −2.38 ± 0.29, R2=0.94). The field inhomogeneity in the liver is correlated with R2* (R2=0.85). Conclusion By using the ARMA model on complex mGRE images, both susceptibility and R2*-based LIC measurements can be made simultaneously. The susceptibility measurement can be used to help verify R2* measurements in the assessment of iron overload. PMID:22180325

  16. Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  17. Lung dust and lung iron contents of coal workers in different coalfields in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, I.; Casswell, C.

    1972-01-01

    Bergman, I., and Casswell, C. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 160-168. Lung dust and lung iron contents of coal workers in different coalfields in Great Britain. Lung dust analyses from seven coalfields are studied and it is found that the average dust composition varies significantly with the rank of coal. The higher the rank, the higher the coal percentage and the lower the quartz percentage of the lung dust. This holds for all coalfields except in Scotland, where the lung dust contains mainly soot instead of coal. Samples of airborne dust collected at the coalface in different coalfields show a similar but small variability of composition with rank of coal, and the results from Scotland are in good agreement with the results from other coalfields. The amount of iron in simple pneumoconiosis lungs is related to their mineral and coal contents and to the factor `years underground'. The strongest relationship is with coal and mineral for coalface workers from England. For pit accident cases (all simple pneumoconiosis) mineral is important as well as years underground, while for simple pneumoconiosis cases from Scotland, years underground is the most important factor. PMID:4336667

  18. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Mary H.; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-αFeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem ‘tissue fixation’ by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB − O2 > −O2 ≫ +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

  19. The influence of carbon content in the borided Fe-alloys on the microstructure of iron borides

    SciTech Connect

    Kulka, M. . E-mail: coolka@sol.put.poznan.pl; Pertek, A. . E-mail: pertek@sol.put.poznan.pl; Klimek, L. . E-mail: kemilk@p.lodz.pl

    2006-04-15

    This paper presents the results of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analyses of the borided layers produced on substrate of varying carbon content. Two types of materials were investigated: borided Armco iron of very low carbon content and borocarburized chromium- and nickel-based steels of high carbon content beneath iron borides. The tetragonal phase Fe{sub 2}B was identified in all materials studied. It was difficult to obtain an EBSD pattern from iron boride (FeB) because of its presence at low depths below the surface, and because of the rounded corners of the specimens. EBSD provided information on the orientation of Fe{sub 2}B crystals. In case of the low-carbon Armco iron the crystallographic orientation was constant along the full length of the Fe{sub 2}B needle. The EBSPs obtained from borocarburized steel indicate that the crystallographic orientation of the Fe{sub 2}B phase changes along the length of the needle. This is the result of hindered boron diffusion due to boriding of the carburized substrate. The increased resistance to friction wear of borocarburized layers arises from two reasons. One is the decreased microhardness gradient between the iron borides and the substrate, which causes a decrease in the brittleness of the iron borides and an improved distribution of internal stresses in the diffusion layer. The second is the changeable crystallographic orientation of iron borides, which leads to the lower texture and porosity of borided layers. These advantageous properties of the borocarburized layer can be obtained if the carbon content beneath the iron borides is no more than about 1.0-1.2 wt.% C.

  20. The effect of water and iron content on electrical conductivity of upper mantle rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yi, L.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysical observations (MT and GDS) show the conductivity anomaly which may be related to the presence of water and melting. Recently, several researchers have estimated the water content in the transition zone (Huang et al. 2005; Yoshino et al. 2008) and the upper mantle (Wang et al.2006; Yoshino et al. 2006) by electrical conductivity methods. They may underestimate the water content, especially, Yoshino et al did too much underestimate. However, other coexisting phases such as pyroxene and its high-pressure polymorphs may also contribute to the bulk conductivity of the mantle. To test this hypothesis, we measured the electrical conductivity of upper mantle rocks- dunite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at ~ 2-3 GPa and ~1273-1573 K using impedance spectra within a frequency range of 0.1~1000000 Hz. The oxygen fugacity was controlled by a Mo-MoO2 solid buffer. The results show that the electrical conductivity of lherzolite and pyroxenite are ~ half and one order of magnitude higher than that of dunite. These differences were interpreted through a preliminary model involving water and iron content effects on the electrical conductivity. We extrapolated our results and compared the results with some of geophysical observations of the upper mantle. Our results indicate the maximum water content in oceanic upper mantle is as high as ~ 0.09wt % and suggest that pyroxenes dominate the bulk conductivity of upper mantle in hydrous conditions. These results indicated that our model with various water contents could explain the conductivity anomaly in the oceanic upper mantle without involving the presence of partial melt at these depths. This work was supported by national natural science foundation of china (40774036); the special grant from the president of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate University of Chinese Academy Sciences.

  1. Effects of iron supplementation on red blood cell hemoglobin content in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Schoorl, Margreet; Schoorl, Marianne; van der Gaag, Derek; Bartels, Piet C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Although a mild degree of anemia is common in the third trimester of pregnancy, it remains a challenge to establish whether a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is physiological or pathological. The World Health Organization suggested a Hb concentration of 110 g/L to discriminate anemia. Several European investigators recommended Hb cut-off values of between 101–110 g/L. The aim of this study was to establish short-term effects of iron supplementation on the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He) and red blood cells (RBC-He) in case of suspected iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-five subjects with suspected IDE during pregnancy (Hb ≤110g/L, Ret-He <29.6 pg, zinc protoporphyrin >75 mol/mol hem) participated in the study. After iron supplementation, reticulocyte counts increased from 0.061±0.015×1012/L to 0.079±0.026×1012/L and Ret-He increased from 23.6±2.8 pg to 28.3±2.6 pg (P=<0.001). RBC-He increased from 26.9±1.9 pg to 27.4±1.8 pg (not significant, NS) and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio increased from 0.97±0.06 towards 1.07±0.05 (P=<0.001). Hb concentrations demonstrated an obvious increase from 105±6 g/L towards 115±5 g/L (P≤0.001) after supplementation. An obvious increase in RBC distribution width was observed from 45.0±3.6 fL towards 52.3±7.0 fL (P≤0.001). We recommend that Ret-He and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio be integrated into the protocols for anemia screening and for monitoring effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy. In particular, the parameters should be considered in subjects with Hb results in the controversial range of 101–108 g/L. PMID:23355942

  2. Mercury and selenium content and chemical form in human and animal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cappon, C J; Smith, J C

    1981-01-01

    The content, chemical form, and distribution of mercury and selenium were determined for selected samples of human and animal tissue by gas chromatography. Methylmercury averaged 38.7% of the total mercury content in homogenized human brain. For human heart, spleen, liver, kidney and placenta, methylmercury comprised 40.2%, 57.0%, 39.6%, 6.0% and 57.1% respectively, of the total mercury content. Similar results were obtained for the heart and liver of a whitetail deer. Methylmercury represented 9.1%, 62.9% and 24.1% of the total mercury content in seal liver, seal meat and deer meat, respectively. For all samples, a significant portion of the total selenium content, averaging 27%, was present as selenate (Se VI). Tissue selenium content did not correlate with the corresponding mercury content. In brain, heart and placenta, and in seal liver and meat, 53% to 80% of the total mercury content was water-extractable. For human kidney, liver and spleen, and deer meat, only 15% to 45% of the total mercury was extractable. On a percentage basis, inorganic mercury was more extractable than methylmercury, except for human kidney and liver, and deer meat. For all samples, except kidney, liver and deer meat, 55% to 76% of the total selenium content was water-extractable, Se VI being more extractable on a percentage basis than selenite (Se IV) and selenide (Se-II). PMID:7242026

  3. Single cell analysis in native tissue: Quantification of the retinoid content of hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Galler, Kerstin; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Glaser, Uwe; Markwart, Robby; Bocklitz, Thomas; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are retinoid storing cells in the liver: The retinoid content of those cells changes depending on nutrition and stress level. There are also differences with regard to a HSC’s anatomical position in the liver. Up to now, retinoid levels were only accessible from bulk measurements of tissue homogenates or cell extracts. Unfortunately, they do not account for the intercellular variability. Herein, Raman spectroscopy relying on excitation by the minimally destructive wavelength 785 nm is introduced for the assessment of the retinoid state of single HSCs in freshly isolated, unprocessed murine liver lobes. A quantitative estimation of the cellular retinoid content is derived. Implications of the retinoid content on hepatic health state are reported. The Raman-based results are integrated with histological assessments of the tissue samples. This spectroscopic approach enables single cell analysis regarding an important cellular feature in unharmed tissue. PMID:27063397

  4. Single cell analysis in native tissue: Quantification of the retinoid content of hepatic stellate cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galler, Kerstin; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Glaser, Uwe; Markwart, Robby; Bocklitz, Thomas; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are retinoid storing cells in the liver: The retinoid content of those cells changes depending on nutrition and stress level. There are also differences with regard to a HSC’s anatomical position in the liver. Up to now, retinoid levels were only accessible from bulk measurements of tissue homogenates or cell extracts. Unfortunately, they do not account for the intercellular variability. Herein, Raman spectroscopy relying on excitation by the minimally destructive wavelength 785 nm is introduced for the assessment of the retinoid state of single HSCs in freshly isolated, unprocessed murine liver lobes. A quantitative estimation of the cellular retinoid content is derived. Implications of the retinoid content on hepatic health state are reported. The Raman-based results are integrated with histological assessments of the tissue samples. This spectroscopic approach enables single cell analysis regarding an important cellular feature in unharmed tissue.

  5. Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Viana, Daniela S.; Freitas, Sidinea C.; Rocha, Maurisrael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Methods The samples were cooked in both regular pans and pressure cookers with and without previous soaking. Mineral analyses were carried out by Spectrometry of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Results The results showed high contents of iron and zinc in raw samples as well as in cooked ones, with the use of regular pan resulting in greater percentage of iron retention and the use of pressure cooker ensuring higher retention of zinc. Conclusions The best retention of iron was found in the BRS Aracê cultivar prepared in a regular pan with previous soaking. This cultivar may be indicated for cultivation and human consumption. The best retention of zinc was found for the BRS Tumucumaque cultivar prepared in a pressure cooker without previous soaking. PMID:24624050

  6. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (με) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = −0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  7. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (με) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = -0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  8. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... organ failure, coma, convulsions, and death. Child-proof packaging and warning labels on iron supplements have greatly ... levodopa that the body absorbs, making it less effective. Levodopa, found in Sinemet® and Stalevo®, is used ...

  9. Perihematomal Cerebral Tissue Iron Quantification on MRI Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Two Human Subjects: Proof of Principle.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Neeraj; Pandey, Aditya S; Merchak, Kevin; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chenevert, Tom; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a common hemorrhagic stroke subtype with significant neurological sequelae. The management of ICH is usually supportive treatment in the neuro-intensive care setting, while the body humors deal with the hematoma. Treatment of the hematoma is usually expectant management unless there is neurological deterioration caused by mass effect from the hemorrhage. Some minimally invasive techniques have been explored for lysing and evacuating the hematoma, but none of them have gained a stronghold in the routine clinical management of this condition. Studies mainly in animal (rodent and porcine) ICH models have shown the role of bound and unbound iron in causing neurotoxicity following an ICH. There is currently no noninvasive method for assessing iron levels in the cerebral tissue following ICH. Our study intends to explore the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in establishing iron levels in cerebral tissue at the periphery of the hematoma following an ICH. Initially, an MRI phantom was constructed with varying concentrations of liquid iron preparation in a water bath container. Susceptibility weighted sequences were utilized to scan this phantom to generate T2* signal magnitude measurements corresponding to the iron concentration in the phantom. Encouraged by the reliability of the measurements on the phantom, patients with ICH were then recruited into this experimental study once the inclusion criteria were met. One control and two human subjects had their brains scanned in a 3 T MRI scanner utilizing the same susceptibility weighted sequence. We found that ICH perihematomal brain tissue iron susceptibility signal measurements were 4 times higher than those of the baseline control and normal contralateral brain tissue. Three different baseline measurements (one control and two contralateral normal brain) revealed a level of 0.1 mg/ml of iron concentration in the contralateral brain tissue in the identical anatomical

  10. Simple and Precise Quantification of Iron Catalyst Content in Carbon Nanotubes Using UV/Visible Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Agustina, Elsye; Goak, Jeungchoon; Lee, Suntae; Seo, Youngho; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung

    2015-01-01

    Iron catalysts have been used widely for the mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high yield. In this study, UV/visible spectroscopy was used to determine the Fe catalyst content in CNTs using a colorimetric technique. Fe ions in solution form red–orange complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline, producing an absorption peak at λ=510 nm, the intensity of which is proportional to the solution Fe concentration. A series of standard Fe solutions were formulated to establish the relationship between optical absorbance and Fe concentration. Many Fe catalysts were microscopically observed to be encased by graphitic layers, thus preventing their extraction. Fe catalyst dissolution from CNTs was investigated with various single and mixed acids, and Fe concentration was found to be highest with CNTs being held at reflux in HClO4/HNO3 and H2SO4/HNO3 mixtures. This novel colorimetric method to measure Fe concentrations by UV/Vis spectroscopy was validated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, indicating its reliability and applicability to asses Fe content in CNTs. PMID:26491641

  11. On the use of the optothermal window technique for the determination of iron (II) content in fortified commercial milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, S. L.; Dias, C. M. F.; Lima, J. A. P.; Massunaga, M. S. O.; da Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on the use of the optothermal window and a well-proven phenanthroline colorimetry method for determination of iron (II) content in a commercial fortified milk. Initially, iron (II) in distilled water was determined using a series of calibration samples with ferrous sulfate acting as the source of iron (II). In the following phase, this calibration methodology was applied to commercial milk as the sample matrix. The phenanthroline colorimetry [American Public Health Association, Washington, DC (1998)] was chosen in an attempt to achieve proper selectivity (i.e., to obtain the absorption band, the wavelength of which is centered near the radiation wavelength available for our experiments: Excitation wavelength at a 514-nm line of a 20-mW tunable Ar ion laser). Finally, samples of commercially available fortified milk were analyzed in an attempt to access Fe (II) content.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Soft Tissue Infection with Iron Oxide Labeled Granulocytes in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wedekind, Dirk; Meier, Martin; Bleich, André; Glage, Silke; Hedrich, Hans-Juergen; Kutschka, Ingo; Haverich, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Object We sought to detect an acute soft tissue infection in rats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using granulocytes, previously labeled with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO). Materials and Methods Parasternal infection was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus suspension in rats. Granulocytes isolated from isogenic donor rats were labeled with SPIO. Infected rats were imaged by MRI before, 6 and 12 hours after intravenous injection of SPIO-labeled or unlabeled granulocytes. MR findings were correlated with histological analysis by Prussian blue staining and with re-isolated SPIO-labeled granulocytes from the infectious area by magnetic cell separation. Results Susceptibility effects were present in infected sites on post-contrast T2*-weighted MR images in all animals of the experimental group. Regions of decreased signal intensity (SI) in MRI were detected at 6 hours after granulocyte administration and were more pronounced at 12 hours. SPIO-labeled granulocytes were identified by Prussian blue staining in the infected tissue and could be successfully re-isolated from the infected area by magnetic cell separation. Conclusion The application of SPIO-labeled granulocytes in MRI offers new perspectives in diagnostic specificity and sensitifity to detect early infectious processes. PMID:23236524

  13. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  14. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  15. Content of lipids in blood and tissues of animals during hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federov, I. V.; Rylnikov, Y. P.; Lobova, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on 97 rats and 50 rabbits were undertaken to study the influence of hypodynamia on the lipid content in the blood, liver, heart, and in the aorta. Reduction of muscular activity contributed to the increase of cholesterol and beta lipoprotein levels in the blood and to accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and the heart. The total lipid content in these tissues decreased. In the aorta the total lipid content increased, while lecithin and cephalin figures went down. The character of biochemical changes in hypodynamia resembles in many ways the lipid metabolism changes in atherosclerosis.

  16. The influence of chemical composition on the properties of Cepheid stars. II. The iron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, M.; Primas, F.; Mottini, M.; Pedicelli, S.; Lemasle, B.; Bono, G.; François, P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Laney, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The Cepheid period-luminosity (PL) relation is unquestionably one of the most powerful tools at our disposal for determining the extragalactic distance scale. While significant progress has been made in the past few years towards its understanding and characterization both on the observational and theoretical sides, the debate on the influence that chemical composition may have on the PL relation is still unsettled. Aims: With the aim to assess the influence of the stellar iron content on the PL relation in the V and K bands, we have related the V-band and the K-band residuals from the standard PL relations of Freedman et al. (2001, ApJ, 553, 47) and Persson et al. (2004, AJ, 128, 2239), respectively, to [Fe/H]. Methods: We used direct measurements of the iron abundances of 68 Galactic and Magellanic Cepheids from FEROS and UVES high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. Results: We find a mean iron abundance ([Fe/H]) about solar (σ = 0.10) for our Galactic sample (32 stars), ~-0.33 dex (σ = 0.13) for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) sample (22 stars) and ~-0.75 dex (σ = 0.08) for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) sample (14 stars). Our abundance measurements of the Magellanic Cepheids double the number of stars studied up to now at high resolution. The metallicity affects the V-band Cepheid PL relation and metal-rich Cepheids appear to be systematically fainter than metal-poor ones. These findings depend neither on the adopted distance scale for Galactic Cepheids nor on the adopted LMC distance modulus. Current data do not allow us to reach a firm conclusion concerning the metallicity dependence of the K-band PL relation. The new Galactic distances indicate a small effect, whereas the old ones support a marginal effect. Conclusions: Recent robust estimates of the LMC distance and current results indicate that the Cepheid PL relation is not Universal. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at Paranal and La Silla Observatories under

  17. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.), an invasive weed of winter crops in Brazil, was evaluated for glucosinolate content of its plant tissues and nematicidal activity of its dry leaf meal (LM), whole seed meal (WSM) and hexane defatted seed meal (DSM) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants...

  18. TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

  19. Relationships between microsclerotia content and hyperspectral reflectance data in soybean tissue infected by Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative methods are needed to assess the severity of charcoal rot disease [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] in soybean [Glycine max (L.)] plant tissue. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between light reflectance properties and microsclerotia content of soybean stem...

  20. Higher iron pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) provides more absorbable iron that is limited by increased polyphenolic content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Our objective was to compare the capacity of iron (Fe) biofortified and standard pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It is common primarily in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, and ...

  1. Adipose tissue depot specific differences of PLIN protein content in endurance trained rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sofhia V; Turnbull, Patrick C; MacPherson, Rebecca E K

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is classified as either white (WAT) or brown (BAT) and differs not only by anatomical location but also in function. WAT is the main source of stored energy and releases fatty acids in times of energy demand, whereas BAT plays a role in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis and oxidizes fatty acids released from the lipid droplet. The PLIN family of proteins has recently emerged as being integral in the regulation of fatty acid storage and release in adipose tissue. Previous work has demonstrated that PLIN protein content varies among adipose tissue depots, however an examination of endurance training-induced depot specific changes in PLIN protein expression has yet to be done. Male Sprague-dawley rats (n = 10) underwent 8-weeks of progressive treadmill training (18-25 m/min for 30-60 min at 10% incline) or remained sedentary as control. Following training, under isoflurane induced anesthesia epidydmal (eWAT), inguinal subcutaneous (iWAT) and intrascapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) was excised, and plasma was collected. Endurance training resulted in an increase in BAT PLIN5 and iWAT PLIN3 content, while there was no difference in PLIN protein content in endurance trained eWAT. Interestingly, endurance training resulted in a robust increase in ATGL and CGI-58 in eWAT alone. Together these results suggest the potential of a depot specific function of PLIN3 and PLIN5 in adipose tissue in response to endurance training. PMID:27386161

  2. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  3. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; Baek, Ki Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  4. Content of low density lipoprotein receptors in breast cancer tissue related to survival of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rudling, M J; Ståhle, L; Peterson, C O; Skoog, L

    1986-01-01

    The content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in tissue from primary breast cancers was determined and its prognostic information compared with that of variables of established prognostic importance. Frozen tumour specimens were selected, and tissue from 72 patients (32 of whom had died) were studied. The LDL receptor content showed an inverse correlation with the survival time. Analysis by a multivariate statistical method showed that the presence of axillary metastasis, content of receptors for oestrogen and LDL, diameter of the tumour, and DNA pattern were all of prognostic value with regard to patient survival. Improved methods of predicting survival time in patients with breast cancer may be of value in the choice of treatment for individual patients. PMID:3081176

  5. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  6. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  7. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  8. Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Harmankaya, Mustafa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-01-01

    The rate of heavy metal pollution in some minor fruit samples growing at roadsides in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The mineral contents of samples were found to be different depending on the several parts Citrus fruits. The highest minor and heavy metal levels for Citrus fruits were determined between 17.24 and 45.30 mg/kg boron, 2.08 and 15.05 mg/kg copper, 1.01 and 16.00 mg/kg iron and 2.35 and 9.87 mg/kg zinc. Boron content ranged from 16.54 mg/kg (Deveci pear inner pulp) to 89.89 mg/kg (Arjantin apple outer skin). The level of Fe ranged from 1.49 mg/kg (quince pulp) to 25.05 mg/kg (Ankara pear pulp). Cu content of fruits ranged between 2.52 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 25.93 mg/kg quince skin). Zn content was found between 0.46 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) and 14.34 mg/kg (quince skin). P contents ranged from 651 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) to 1269 mg/kg (quince skin). Na was found between 500 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 907 mg/kg (Arjantin apple skin). PMID:21409363

  9. Versatile and Biomass Synthesis of Iron-based Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Matrix with High Iron Content and Tunable Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dongmao; Shi, Sheldon Q; Jiang, Dongping; Che, Wen; Gai, Zheng; Howe, Jane Y; More, Karren Leslie; Arockiasamy, Antonyraj

    2012-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs{at}C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP{at}C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP{at}C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 C (FeNP{at}C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP{at}C prepared at 800 C (FeNP{at}C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP{at}C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5-15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs{at}C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

  10. Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhalili, Azin; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron. PMID:23737716

  11. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Gibberellin Signaling Fine-Tunes Arabidopsis Iron-Deficiency Responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Regnault, Thomas; Sakvarelidze-Achard, Lali; Carrera, Esther; Lopez Diaz, Isabel; Cayrel, Anne; Dubeaux, Guillaume; Vert, Grégory; Achard, Patrick

    2016-04-18

    Iron is an essential element for most living organisms. Plants acquire iron from the rhizosphere and have evolved different biochemical and developmental responses to adapt to a low-iron environment. In Arabidopsis, FIT encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates the expression of iron-uptake genes in root epidermis upon iron deficiency. Here, we report that the gibberellin (GA)-signaling DELLA repressors contribute substantially in the adaptive responses to iron-deficient conditions. When iron availability decreases, DELLAs accumulate in the root meristem, thereby restraining root growth, while being progressively excluded from epidermal cells in the root differentiation zone. Such DELLA exclusion from the site of iron acquisition relieves FIT from DELLA-dependent inhibition and therefore promotes iron uptake. Consistent with this mechanism, expression of a non-GA-degradable DELLA mutant protein in root epidermis interferes with iron acquisition. Hence, spatial distribution of DELLAs in roots is essential to fine-tune the adaptive responses to iron availability. PMID:27093087

  12. Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-09-01

    Optical scattering coefficient from ex vivo unfixed normal and malignant ovarian tissue was quantitatively extracted by fitting optical coherence tomography (OCT) A-line signals to a single scattering model. 1097 average A-line measurements at a wavelength of 1310 nm were performed at 108 sites obtained from 18 ovaries. The average scattering coefficient obtained from the normal tissue group consisted of 833 measurements from 88 sites was 2.41 mm-1 (+/-0.59), while the average coefficient obtained from the malignant tissue group consisted of 264 measurements from 20 sites was 1.55 mm-1 (+/-0.46). The malignant ovarian tissue showed significant lower scattering than the normal group (p < 0.001). The amount of collagen within OCT imaging depth was analyzed from the tissue histological section stained with Sirius Red. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the normal tissue group was 48.4% (+/-12.3%), while the average CAF obtained from the malignant tissue group was 11.4% (+/-4.7%). A statistical significance of the collagen content was found between the two groups (p < 0.001). These results demonstrated that quantitative measurements of optical scattering coefficient from OCT images could be a potential powerful method for ovarian cancer detection.

  13. A method for routine measurements of total sugar and starch content in woody plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Chow, Pak S; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2004-10-01

    Several extraction and measurement methods currently employed in the determination of total sugar and starch contents in plant tissues were investigated with the view to streamline the process of total sugar and starch determination. Depending on the type and source of tissue, total sugar and starch contents estimated from samples extracted with 80% hot ethanol were significantly greater than from samples extracted with a methanol:chloroform:water solution. The residual ethanol did not interfere with the sugar and starch determination, rendering the removal of ethanol from samples unnecessary. The use of phenol-sulfuric acid with a phenol concentration of 2% provided a relatively simple and reliable colorimetric method to quantify the total soluble-sugar concentration. Performing parallel sugar assays with and without phenol was more useful for accounting for the interfering effects of other substances present in plant tissue than using chloroform. For starch determination, an enzyme mixture of 1000 U alpha-amylase and 5 U amyloglucosidase digested starch in plant tissue samples more rapidly and completely than previously recommended enzyme doses. Dilute sulfuric acid (0.005 N) was less suitable for starch digestion than enzymatic hydrolysis because the acid also broke down structural carbohydrates, resulting in overestimates of starch content. After the enzymatic digestion of starch, the glucose hydrolyzate obtained was measured with a peroxidase-glucose oxidase/o-dianisidine reagent; absorbance being read at 525 nm after the addition of sulfuric acid. With the help of this series of studies, we developed a refined and shortened method suitable for the rapid measurement of total sugar and starch contents in woody plant tissues. PMID:15294759

  14. Morphometric analysis of nonsclerosed Glomeruli size and connective tissue content during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Vesna R; Jovanović, Ivan D; Ugrenović, Sladjana Z; Vasović, Ljiljana P; Živković, Vladimir S; Jocić, Miodrag V; Kundalić, Braca K; Pavlović, Miljana N

    2012-01-01

    Number of sclerotic glomeruli increases during the aging process. Consequently, majority of remained nonsclerosed glomeruli become hypertrophic and some of them sclerotic, too. The aim of this study was to quantify the size and connective tissue content of nonsclerosed glomeruli and to evaluate the percentage of hypertrophic ones in examined human cases during the aging. Material was right kidney's tissue of 30 cadavers obtained during routine autopsies. Cadavers were without previously diagnosed kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, or any other systemic disease. Tissue specimens were routinely prepared for histological and morphometric analysis. Images of the histological slices were analyzed and captured under 400x magnification with digital camera. Further they were morphometrically and statistically analyzed with ImageJ and NCSS-PASS software. Multiple and linear regression of obtained morphometric parameters showed significant increase of glomerular connective tissue area and percentage. Cluster analysis showed the presence of two types of glomeruli. Second type was characterized with significantly larger size, connective tissue content, and significantly lower cellularity, in relation to the first type. Such glomeruli might be considered as hypertrophic. First type of glomeruli was predominant in younger cases, while second type of glomeruli was predominant in cases older than 55 years. PMID:22654637

  15. Insulin receptor content in tissues of normal and diabetic rats measured by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Pezzino, V; Costantino, A; Russo, P; Gullo, D; Papa, V

    1996-10-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) content in different tissues has been quantitatively evaluated by means of steady state binding studies with radiolabeled insulin. The information provided by this approach, however, does not give a direct measurement of the receptor protein. Rather, it depends on the binding function of the IR, evaluated on the basis of curvilinear plots derived by Scatchard analysis of the experimental data. In the present report we employed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) that allows a direct measurement of IR in solubilized cells or tissues. By this method we studied: a) IR distribution in several tissues of the rat, the animal model most frequently used in studies of insulin action; b) IR regulation in streptozotocin-treated, diabetic insulin deficient rats. Tissues from male Wistar rats (11 controls and 6 streptozotocin-treated diabetic animals) were homogenized, solubilized with Triton X-100 in the presence of protease inhibitors and stored at -80 C. IR content in the solubilized material was then measured by RIA. IR were detectable in all 11 tissues tested. Liver, kidney and brain neocortex had the highest IR content. (24.7 +/- 1.0, 20.5 +/- 1.1, 25.9 +/- 1.6 ng/mg protein, m +/- SE, respectively). As expected, circulating insulin levels were lower in diabetic rats than in control rats. In diabetic, insulin deficient rats, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle contained more IR than in control rats (p = 0.001; p = 0.018; p = 0.003, respectively), whereas IR content in neocortex was similar in the two groups. The IR RIA may represent a useful tool for the study of IR regulation and patho-physiology. Our data provide a comparative direct measurement of IR distribution in a variety of rat tissues. IR content in diabetic rats is increased in typical target organs for insulin action, as a consequence of up-regulation due to the reduced insulin levels. This is not the case for metabolically insulin-dependent tissues, like brain. PMID:8957742

  16. Effects of Genotype and Growth Temperature on the Contents of Tannin, Phytate and In Vitro Iron Availability of Sorghum Grains

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K.; Bornman, Janet F.; Bennett, Sarita J.; Singh, Vijaya; Simic, Azra; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been predicted that the global temperature will rise in the future, which means crops including sorghum will likely be grown under higher temperatures, and consequently may affect the nutritional properties. Methods The effects of two growth temperatures (OT, day/night 32/21°C; HT 38/21°C) on tannin, phytate, mineral, and in vitro iron availability of raw and cooked grains (as porridge) of six sorghum genotypes were investigated. Results Tannin content significantly decreased across all sorghum genotypes under high growth temperature (P ≤0.05), while the phytate and mineral contents maintained the same level, increased or decreased significantly, depending on the genotype. The in vitro iron availability in most sorghum genotypes was also significantly reduced under high temperature, except for Ai4, which showed a pronounced increase (P ≤0.05). The cooking process significantly reduced tannin content in all sorghum genotypes (P ≤0.05), while the phytate content and in vitro iron availability were not significantly affected. Conclusions This research provides some new information on sorghum grain nutritional properties when grown under predicted future higher temperatures, which could be important for humans where sorghum grains are consumed as staple food. PMID:26859483

  17. Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and on iron-induced lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, N A; Florou-Paneri, P; Christaki, E; Fletouris, D J; Spais, A B

    2002-05-01

    1. We studied the effect of dietary oregano essential oil (50 and 100 mg/kg of feed) on the performance of broilers, and determined the susceptibility of the resulting broiler meat to iron-induced lipid oxidation. 2. Performance of the birds was unaffected by the experimental diets. Therefore, dietary oregano oil exerted no growth-promoting effect on broilers. 3. Iron-induced lipid oxidation showed that as oregano oil increased in the diet, malondialdehyde values decreased in tissue samples, suggesting that the oil, particularly at 100 mg/kg of feed, exerted an antioxidant effect on chicken tissues. 4. Dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at 200 mg/kg of feed displayed greater antioxidant activity than oregano oil at either supplementation rate. 5. Thigh muscle was more susceptible to oxidation than breast muscle, although the former contained alpha-tocopherol at higher concentration. Muscle alpha-tocopherol is an important factor influencing lipid oxidation, but the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and content of pro-oxidants must be taken into consideration too. PMID:12047086

  18. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  19. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  20. [Fatty acid content of the lipid fraction of the liver and fatty tissues of fattened geese].

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, K; Monov, G

    1986-01-01

    The content of fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the liver and in the body fats of fattened gray Landen geese. Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatography Chrom 41 supplied with Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatograph Chrom 41 supplied with a flame-ionization detector. It was found that the average content of fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) as expressed by percent of their total amount was 45.90% and 54.10% (liver), 36.58% and 63.42% (subcutaneous fatty tissue), 42.79% and 57.31% (inner lard), and 39.01% and 60.99% (skin fats). PMID:3727379

  1. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Binding to Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Covalent Versus Adsorptive Approach.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Ralf P; Zaloga, Jan; Schreiber, Eveline; Tóth, Ildikó Y; Tombácz, Etelka; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are frequently used to develop vehicles for drug delivery, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy and as tools used for magnetic separation and purification of proteins or for biomolecular imaging. Depending on the application, there are various possible covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of particles, each of them shows different advantages and disadvantages for drug release and activity at the desired location.Particularly important for the production of adsorptive and covalent bound drugs to nanoparticles is the pureness of the involved formulation. Especially the covalent binding strategy demands defined chemistry of the drug, which is stabilized by excess free amino acids which could reduce reaction efficiency. In this study, we therefore used tangential flow filtration (TFF) method to purify the drugs before the reaction and used the frequently applied and clinically available recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA; Actilyse(®)) as a proof of concept. We then coupled the tPA preparation to polyacrylic acid-co-maleic acid (PAM)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using an amino-reactive activated ester reaction and compared these particles to PAM-coated SPIONs with electrostatically adsorbed tPA.Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and pH-dependent electrokinetic mobility measurements, we showed that surface properties of the SPIONs were significantly greater affected after activation of the particles compared to the adsorption controls. Different in vitro assays were used to investigate the activity of tPA after coupling to the particles and purification of the ferrofluid. Covalent linkage significantly improves the reactivity and long-term stability of the conjugated SPION-tPA system compared to simple adsorption. In conclusion, we have shown an effective way to produce SPIONs with covalent and non-covalent ultra-filtrated drugs. We showed

  2. Comparative structural and chemical studies of ferritin cores with gradual removal of their iron contents.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Natividad; Fernández, Belén; Sánchez, Purificación; Cuesta, Rafael; Ceolín, Marcelo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Trasobares, Susana; López-Haro, Miguel; Calvino, Jose J; Stéphan, Odile; Domínguez-Vera, José M

    2008-06-25

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), and SQUID magnetic studies were performed in a batch of horse spleen ferritins from which iron had been gradually removed, yielding samples containing 2200, 1200, 500, and 200 iron atoms. Taken together, findings obtained demonstrate that the ferritin iron core consists of a polyphasic structure (ferrihydrite, magnetite, hematite) and that the proportion of phases is modified by iron removal. Thus, the relative amount of magnetite in ferritin containing 2200 to 200 iron atoms rose steadily from approximately 20% to approximately 70% whereas the percentage of ferrihydrite fell from approximately 60% to approximately 20%. These results indicate a ferrihydrite-magnetite core-shell structure. It was also found that the magnetite in the ferritin iron core is not a source of free toxic ferrous iron, as previously believed. Therefore, the presence of magnetite in the ferritin cores of patients with Alzheimer's disease is not a cause of their increased brain iron(II) concentration. PMID:18507465

  3. Assessing the effects of model Maillard compound intake on iron, copper and zinc retention and tissue delivery in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Pastoriza, Silvia; Navarro, M Pilar; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of dietary Maillard reaction compounds (MRP) as metal chelating polymers can alter mineral absorption and/or retention. Our aim in this study was to analyse the long-term effects of the consumption of model MRP from glucose-lysine heated for 90 min at 150 °C (GL) on iron, copper and zinc whole-body retention and tissue delivery. For 88 days, weaning rats were fed a Control diet or one containing 3% GL, until reaching the adult stage. During the experimental period a mineral balance was conducted to investigate the mineral retention. At day 88, the animals were sacrificed, blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination and some organs were removed. Copper and zinc balances were unaffected (Cu: 450 vs. 375 μg; Zn: 6.7 vs. 6.2 mg for Control and GL groups, respectively) and no change was observed in whole-body delivery. Iron retention, too, was unaltered (11.2 mg for Control and GL groups) but due to the tendency toward decreased body weight in the GL group (248 vs. 233 g for the Control and GL groups), whole-body iron concentration was 13% higher in the GL group than in the Control group. Absorbed iron accumulated particularly in the liver (144 vs. 190 μg g(-1) for the Control and GL groups), thus reducing haemoglobin levels. The long-term intake of MRP induced iron accumulation in the body but this did not result in enhanced iron functionality, since the haemoglobin concentration declined. Taking into account the findings of our research group's studies of young and adult rats, we now corroborate the hypothesis that the negative effect of GL MRP consumption on iron functionality takes place regardless of the animals' stage of life. PMID:26593232

  4. Effects of acute exercise on the levels of iron, magnesium, and uric acid in liver and spleen tissues.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoğlu, B; Turgut, G; Genç, O; Enli, Y; Karabulut, I; Zencir, M; Turgut, S

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on tissue levels of iron, magnesium, and uric acid of rats. Twenty adult Wistar albino rats were used for the study. They were divided into two groups: controls (n=10) and the study group (n=10). The study group was left into a small water pool and allowed to do swimming exercise for 30 min while controls rested. All of the animals were sacrificed, and their livers and spleens removed and homogenized immediately. The iron, magnesium, and uric acid levels of the homogenates were measured by an autoanalyzer (ILAB 900, Italy) with commercial kits from the same company. Results were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U-test. According to our results, the liver iron levels increased significantly with exercise, whereas spleen iron levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to controls. We found no significant differences in the levels of the other two parameters with exercise. These results show that the iron distribution in organs changes with exercise. PMID:12719612

  5. HO-1-mediated macroautophagy: a mechanism for unregulated iron deposition in aging and degenerating neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Zukor, Hillel; Song, Wei; Liberman, Adrienne; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Fillebeen, Carine; Pantopoulos, Kostas; Wu, Ting-Di; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Schipper, Hyman M

    2009-05-01

    Oxidative stress, deposition of non-transferrin iron, and mitochondrial insufficiency occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). We previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is up-regulated in AD and PD brain and promotes the accumulation of non-transferrin iron in astroglial mitochondria. Herein, dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and other techniques were employed to ascertain (i) the impact of HO-1 over-expression on astroglial mitochondrial morphology in vitro, (ii) the topography of aberrant iron sequestration in astrocytes over-expressing HO-1, and (iii) the role of iron regulatory proteins (IRP) in HO-1-mediated iron deposition. Astroglial hHO-1 over-expression induced cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial membrane damage, and macroautophagy. HO-1 promoted trapping of redox-active iron and sulfur within many cytopathological profiles without impacting ferroportin, transferrin receptor, ferritin, and IRP2 protein levels or IRP1 activity. Thus, HO-1 activity promotes mitochondrial macroautophagy and sequestration of redox-active iron in astroglia independently of classical iron mobilization pathways. Glial HO-1 may be a rational therapeutic target in AD, PD, and other human CNS conditions characterized by the unregulated deposition of brain iron. PMID:19250338

  6. Free-ranging domestic cats are characterized by increased metal content in reproductive tissues.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Paweł; Pacyńska, Joanna; Kozak, Lidia; Dąbrowski, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Trace metals may be supportive to mammalian reproduction but also reveal certain toxicities. The present study investigated the content of selected metals (Ca, Cd, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in uterine and testicular tissue of free-ranging and household cats and its relation with hair metal status, cats' age, weight, physical activity, diet and inhabited environment. Free-rangers and cats not fed by humans were characterized by higher concentrations of essential metals in their reproductive tissues as well as increased levels of toxic elements, particularly Cd and Ni. No difference in metal status was found for household individuals fed on different varieties of commercial food. Cats inhabiting urbanized areas were characterized by higher Pb levels in their reproductive system. Feline hair was found to be less, if at all, susceptible to environmental, lifestyle and dietary variables and most importantly, did not reflect a metal burden in reproductive tissues. PMID:26321139

  7. Tissue content of mercury in rats given methylmercuric chloride orally: influence of intestinal flora

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, I.R.; Davies, M.J.; Evans, J.G.

    1980-05-01

    The effect of intestinal flora on the absorption and disposition of mercury in tissues was investigated using conventional rats, and rats treated with antibiotics to eliminate their gut flora. Antibiotic-treated rats given (/sup 203/Hg) -labeled methylmercuric chloride orally had significantly more mercury in their tissues, especially in kidney, brain, lung, blood, and skeletal muscle, and also excreted less mercury in the feces than conventional rats. Furthermore, in the kidneys of the antibiotic-treated rats, the proportion of mercury present as organic mercury was greater than in the kidneys of the conventional rats. The results support the hypothesis that the metabolism of methylmercuric chloride by the gut flora reduces the tissue content of mercury. When rats were administered 10 mg methylmercuric chloride/Kg.day for 6 days, four or five of those given antibiotics developed neurological symptoms of toxicity, whereas only one of five conventional rats given methylmercuric chloride was affected.

  8. The Content and Size of Hyaluronan in Biological Fluids and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Cowman, Mary K; Lee, Hong-Gee; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L; McCarthy, James B; Turley, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a simple repeating disaccharide polymer, synthesized at the cell surface by integral membrane synthases. The repeating sequence is perfectly homogeneous, and is the same in all vertebrate tissues and fluids. The polymer molecular mass is more variable. Most commonly, hyaluronan is synthesized as a high-molecular mass polymer, with an average molecular mass of approximately 1000-8000 kDa. There are a number of studies showing increased hyaluronan content, but reduced average molecular mass with a broader range of sizes present, in tissues or fluids when inflammatory or tissue-remodeling processes occur. In parallel studies, exogenous hyaluronan fragments of low-molecular mass (generally, <200 kDa) have been shown to affect cell behavior through binding to receptor proteins such as CD44 and RHAMM (gene name HMMR), and to signal either directly or indirectly through toll-like receptors. These data suggest that receptor sensitivity to hyaluronan size provides a biosensor of the state of the microenvironment surrounding the cell. Sensitive methods for isolation and characterization of hyaluronan and its fragments have been developed and continue to improve. This review provides an overview of the methods and our current state of knowledge of hyaluronan content and size distribution in biological fluids and tissues. PMID:26082778

  9. The Content and Size of Hyaluronan in Biological Fluids and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Mary K.; Lee, Hong-Gee; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a simple repeating disaccharide polymer, synthesized at the cell surface by integral membrane synthases. The repeating sequence is perfectly homogeneous, and is the same in all vertebrate tissues and fluids. The polymer molecular mass is more variable. Most commonly, hyaluronan is synthesized as a high-molecular mass polymer, with an average molecular mass of approximately 1000–8000 kDa. There are a number of studies showing increased hyaluronan content, but reduced average molecular mass with a broader range of sizes present, in tissues or fluids when inflammatory or tissue-remodeling processes occur. In parallel studies, exogenous hyaluronan fragments of low-molecular mass (generally, <200 kDa) have been shown to affect cell behavior through binding to receptor proteins such as CD44 and RHAMM (gene name HMMR), and to signal either directly or indirectly through toll-like receptors. These data suggest that receptor sensitivity to hyaluronan size provides a biosensor of the state of the microenvironment surrounding the cell. Sensitive methods for isolation and characterization of hyaluronan and its fragments have been developed and continue to improve. This review provides an overview of the methods and our current state of knowledge of hyaluronan content and size distribution in biological fluids and tissues. PMID:26082778

  10. Effects of tissue water content on the propagation of laser light during low-level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soogeun; Shin, Sungho; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-05-01

    This work reports that the laser fluence rate inside porcine skin varied notably with the change of tissue water content under the same laser irradiation conditions. The laser fluence rate inside skin tissue samples with varying water content was measured using an optical fiber sensor, while the target was irradiated either by a low-level 635 or 830 nm laser (50 mW/cm2). It was demonstrated that the distribution of laser fluence rate inside the target is strongly affected by tissue water content and its profile is determined by the water content dependency of optical properties at the laser wavelength.

  11. Cold acclimation alters the connective tissue content of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy C; Turko, Andy J; Klaiman, Jordan M; Johnston, Elizabeth F; Gillis, Todd E

    2014-06-01

    Thermal acclimation can alter cardiac function and morphology in a number of fish species, but little is known about the regulation of these changes. The purpose of the present study was to determine how cold acclimation affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac morphology, collagen composition and connective tissue regulation. Heart volume, the thickness of the compact myocardium, collagen content and collagen fiber composition were compared between control (27°C) and cold-acclimated (20°C) zebrafish using serially sectioned hearts stained with Picrosirius Red. Collagen content and fiber composition of the pericardial membrane were also examined. Cold acclimation did not affect the volume of the contracted heart; however, there was a significant decrease in the thickness of the compact myocardium. There was also a decrease in the collagen content of the compact myocardium and in the amount of thick collagen fibers throughout the heart. Cold-acclimated zebrafish also increased expression of the gene transcript for matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 and collagen Type I α1. We propose that the reduction in the thickness of the compact myocardium as well as the change in collagen content may help to maintain the compliance of the ventricle as temperatures decrease. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that the zebrafish heart undergoes significant remodeling in response to cold acclimation. PMID:24577447

  12. THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Bennett, David B.; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sayre, James; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Deng, Sophie; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectral properties of human cornea are explored as a function of central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal water content, and the clinical utility of THz-based corneal water content sensing is discussed. Three candidate corneal tissue water content (CTWC) perturbations, based on corneal physiology, are investigated that affect the axial water distribution and total thickness. The THz frequency reflectivity properties of the three CTWC perturbations were simulated and explored with varying system center frequency and bandwidths (Q-factors). The modeling showed that at effective optical path lengths on the order of a wavelength the cornea presents a lossy etalon bordered by air at the anterior and the aqueous humor at the posterior. The simulated standing wave peak-to-valley ratio is pronounced at lower frequencies and its effect on acquired data can be modulated by adjusting the bandwidth of the sensing system. These observations are supported with experimental spectroscopic data. The results suggest that a priori knowledge of corneal thickness can be utilized for accurate assessments of corneal tissue water content. The physiologic variation of corneal thickness with respect to the wavelengths spanned by the THz band is extremely limited compared to all other structures in the body making CTWC sensing unique amongst all proposed applications of THz medical imaging. PMID:26322247

  13. Distribution behavior of phosphorus in the coal-based reduction of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong-sheng; Han, Yue-xin; Gao, Peng; Ren, Duo-zhen

    2014-04-01

    This study focuses on the reduction of phosphorus from high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore via coal-based reduction. The distribution behavior of phosphorus (i.e., the phosphorus content and the phosphorus distribution ratio in the metal, slag, and gas phases) during reduction was investigated in detail. Experimental results showed that the distribution behavior of phosphorus was strongly influenced by the reduction temperature, the reduction time, and the C/O molar ratio. A higher temperature and a longer reaction time were more favorable for phosphorus reduction and enrichment in the metal phase. An increase in the C/O ratio improved phosphorus reduction but also hindered the mass transfer of the reduced phosphorus when the C/O ratio exceeded 2.0. According to scanning electron microscopy analysis, the iron ore was transformed from an integral structure to metal and slag fractions during the reduction process. Apatite in the ore was reduced to P, and the reduced P was mainly enriched in the metal phase. These results suggest that the proposed method may enable utilization of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore resources.

  14. Histamine content, diamine oxidase activity and histamine methyltransferase activity in human tissues: fact or fictions?

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, R; Sattler, J; Lorenz, W; Stahlknecht, C D; Barth, H; Crombach, M; Weber, D

    1984-04-01

    To understand the role of histamine in the aetiology and pathogenesis of human diseases reliable data are urgently needed for the histamine content and for the activities of histamine-forming and -inactivating enzymes in human tissues. In order to make a substantial progress toward this aim a tissue-sampling programme during surgical interventions was carefully conceived and conducted. From March 1982 until January 1983 106 tissue specimens were taken from 56 patients who underwent surgery. Only healthy tissues, not injured or oedematous, and without adherent structures were taken by only one surgeon who was interested in this research and experienced in tissue preparation procedures in biochemistry. The times of 'warm' ischaemia during the operative procedures were visually estimated, the times between resection of the organs or specimens and deep-freezing of the tissues were precisely recorded. Compared to previous work in the literature and especially to our own work using the same assays for determination higher histamine contents were found in this study in most of the tissues, in particular in the gastrointestinal tract. Also the diamine oxidase activities were considerably higher in many organs, e.g. 3-4 times higher in the gastrointestinal tract when compared with those in publications of our group who used always the same analytical test. However, the histamine methyltransferase activities in this study were not at variance to those determined in previous investigations. Many of them were reported in this communication for the first time. Since the methods for histamine determination and those for measuring enzymic activities were not different in this study and in previous communications of our group we are convinced that the optimized tissue-sampling and -preparation techniques were responsible for the higher values in this communication. But the problem of the 'warm' ischaemia period could not be solved by sample-taking procedures of this type during

  15. Impact of carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of microscale zerovalent iron particles on its reactivity towards chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Larsson, Per-Olof; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2013-11-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) abiotically degrades several chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via reductive dechlorination, which offers perspectives for in situ groundwater remediation applications. The difference in reactivity between ZVI particles is often linked with their specific surface area. However, other parameters may influence the reactivity as well. Earlier, we reported for a set of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles the disappearance kinetic of different CAHs which were collected under consistent experimental conditions. In the present study, these kinetic data were correlated with the carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of mZVI particles. It was confirmed that not only the specific surface area affects the disappearance kinetic of CAHs, but also the chemical composition of the mZVI particles. The chemical composition, in addition, influences CAHs removal mechanism inducing sorption onto mZVI particles instead of dechlorination. Generally, high disappearance kinetic of CAHs was observed for particles containing less oxygen. A high carbon content, on the other hand, induced nonreactive sorption of the contaminants on the mZVI particles. To obtain efficient remediation of CAHs by mZVI particles, this study suggested that the carbon and oxygen content should not exceed 0.5% and 1% respectively. Finally, the efficiency of the mZVI particles may be improved to some extent by enriching them with sulfur. However, the impact of sulfur content on the reactivity of mZVI particles is less pronounced than that of the carbon and oxygen content. PMID:23962383

  16. The effects of changing water content, relaxation times, and tissue contrast on tissue segmentation and measures of cortical anatomy in MR images.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Dongrong; Liu, Jun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-12-01

    Water content is the dominant chemical compound in the brain and it is the primary determinant of tissue contrast in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Water content varies greatly between individuals, and it changes dramatically over time from birth through senescence of the human life span. We hypothesize that the effects that individual- and age-related variations in water content have on contrast of the brain in MR images also have important, systematic effects on in vivo, MRI-based measures of regional brain volumes. We also hypothesize that changes in water content and tissue contrast across time may account for age-related changes in regional volumes, and that differences in water content or tissue contrast across differing neuropsychiatric diagnoses may account for differences in regional volumes across diagnostic groups. We demonstrate in several complementary ways that subtle variations in water content across age and tissue compartments alter tissue contrast, and that changing tissue contrast in turn alters measures of the thickness and volume of the cortical mantle: (1) We derive analytic relations describing how age-related changes in tissue relaxation times produce age-related changes in tissue gray-scale intensity values and tissue contrast; (2) We vary tissue contrast in computer-generated images to assess its effects on tissue segmentation and volumes of gray matter and white matter; and (3) We use real-world imaging data from adults with either Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and age- and sex-matched healthy adults to assess the ways in which variations in tissue contrast across diagnoses affects group differences in tissue segmentation and associated volumes. We conclude that in vivo MRI-based morphological measures of the brain, including regional volumes and measures of cortical thickness, are a product of, or at least are confounded by, differences in tissue contrast across individuals, ages, and diagnostic groups, and that differences in

  17. Evaluation of Iron Content in Human Cerebral Cavernous Malformation using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huan; Liu, Tian; Wu, Ying; Thacker, Jon; Shenkar, Robert; Mikati, Abdul Ghani; Shi, Changbin; Dykstra, Conner; Wang, Yi; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Edelman, Robert R.; Awad, Issam A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and validate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for lesional iron quantification in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed in phantoms and 16 patients on a 3T scanner. QSM, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps were reconstructed from in vivo data acquired with a three-dimensional, multi-echo, and T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were correlated to SWI and R2* results. In addition, iron concentrations from surgically excised CCM lesion specimens were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and correlated with QSM measurements. Results The QSM images demonstrated excellent image quality for depicting CCM lesions in both sporadic and familial cases. Susceptibility measurements revealed a positive linear correlation with R2* values (R2 = 0.99 for total, R2 = 0.69 for mean; p < 0.01). QSM values of known iron-rich brain regions matched closely with previous studies and in interobserver consistency. A strong correlation was found between QSM and the concentration of iron phantoms (0.925, p < 0.01), as well as between QSM and mass spectroscopy estimation of iron deposition (0.999 for total iron, 0.86 for iron concentration; p < 0.01) in 18 fragments of 4 excised human CCM lesion specimens. Conclusions The ability of QSM to evaluate iron deposition in CCM lesions was illustrated via phantom, in vivo and ex vivo validation studies. QSM may be a potential biomarker for monitoring CCM disease activity and response to treatments. PMID:24619210

  18. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  19. Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1

    PubMed Central

    Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

  20. Citrulline synthesis in rat tissues and liver content of carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine

    PubMed Central

    Raijman, Luisa

    1974-01-01

    Rat liver ornithine carbamoyltransferase appears to be located exclusively in the mitochondria; the activity that is found in the soluble fraction is indistinguishable from mitochondrial ornithine carbamoyltransferase by simple kinetic criteria, and seems to result from breakage of mitochondria during homogenization. Of several rat tissues studied, only the liver and the mucosa of small intestine contain significant amounts of ornithine carbamoyltransferase; the activity in intestinal mucosa is less than one thousandth of that in liver. Qualitatively, this distribution coincides with that of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I and its cofactor, acetylglutamate. The rat liver contents of carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine were 0.1 and 0.15μmol/g wet wt. of tissue respectively. On the basis of these values, it is proposed that in vivo the ornithine carbamoyltransferase activity of liver may be much lower than its maximal activity in vitro might suggest. PMID:4822731

  1. Effect of glucose content on thermally cross-linked fibrous gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Siimon, Kaido; Reemann, Paula; Põder, Annika; Pook, Martin; Kangur, Triin; Kingo, Külli; Jaks, Viljar; Mäeorg, Uno; Järvekülg, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Thermally cross-linked glucose-containing electrospun gelatin meshes were studied as possible cell substrate materials. FTIR analysis was used to study the effect of glucose on cross-linking reactions. It was found that the presence of glucose increases the extent of cross-linking of fibrous gelatin scaffolds, which in return determines scaffold properties and their usability in tissue engineering applications. Easy to handle fabric-like scaffolds were obtained from blends containing up to 15% glucose. Maximum extent of cross-linking was reached at nearly 20% glucose content. Cross-linking effectively resulted in decreased solubility and increased resistance to enzymatic degradation. Preliminary short-term cell culture experiments indicate that such thermally cross-linked gelatin-glucose scaffolds are suitable for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25063151

  2. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Donald M.; Therrien, François; Habib, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being known for nearly two centuries, new specimens of the derived non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus continue to be discovered and reveal new information about their anatomy and palaeobiology. Here we describe a specimen held in the collections of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Alberta, Canada that shows both preservation and impressions of soft tissues, and also preserves material interpreted as stomach contents of vertebrate remains and, uniquely, a putative coprolite. The specimen also preserves additional evidence for fibers in the uropatagium. PMID:26312182

  3. Evaluation of tissue doppler echocardiography and T2* magnetic resonance imaging in iron load of patients with thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Saravi, Mehrdad; Tamadoni, Ahmad; Jalalian, Rozita; Mahmoodi – Nesheli, Hassan; Hojati, Mosatafa; Ramezani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Iron-mediated cardiomyopathy is the main complication of thalassemia major (TM) patients. Therefore, there is an important clinical need in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue doppler imaging (TDI) to study cardiac iron overload in patients with TM using T2* magnetic resonance (MR) as the gold-standard non-invasive diagnostic test. Methods: A total of 100 TM patients with the mean age of 19±7 years and 100 healthy controls 18.8±7 years were evaluated. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and cardiac MRI T2* were performed in all subjects. TDI measures included myocardial systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities at basal and middle segments of septal and lateral LV wall. The TM patients were also subgrouped according to those with iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) and those without (T2* > 20 ms), and also severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) versus the non-severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms). Results: Using T2* cardiovascular MR, abnormal myocardial iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) was detected in 84% of the patients and among these, 50% (42/84) had severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) iron load. The mean T2* was 11.6±8.6 ms (5–36.7). A negative linear correlation existed between transfusion period of patients and T2* levels (r = -0.53, p=0.02). The following TDI measures were lower in patients than in controls: basal septal Am (p<0.05), mid-septal Em and Am (p<0.05), basal lateral Am (p<0.05), mid-lateral LV wall Sm (p<0.05) and Am (p<0.05). Conclusion: Tissue doppler imaging is helpful in predicting the presence of myocardial iron load in Thalassemia patients. Therefore, it can be used for screening of thalassemia major patients. PMID:24009962

  4. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  5. The structure of tissue on cell culture-extracted thyroglobulin is independent of its iodine content.

    PubMed

    Delain, E; Aouani, A; Vignal, A; Couture-Tosi, E; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1987-02-01

    The major protein synthesized in vitro by the ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS 6H is the prothyroid hormone thyroglobulin. Purified from serum-free cell culture media using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the thyroglobulin dimer was analysed for iodine content and observed by electron microscopy. In their usual medium, the OVNIS 6H cells produce a very poorly iodinated thyroglobulin containing 0.05 I atom per molecule. When cultured with methimazole or propylthiouracil, two inhibitors of iodide organification, less than 0.007 I atom/molecules was found. These molecules purified from cell cultures were compared to those purified from ovine thyroid tissue containing 26 I atoms/mol. Despite large differences in iodine content, the three preparations all consist of 19 S thyroglobulin dimers with the classical ovoidal shape. The variability in size measurements remains in a 2% range for all thyroglobulin types. Consequently, no real significant variation can be found between the highly iodinated thyroglobulin isolated from tissue, and the poorly or non-iodinated thyroglobulins isolated from cells cultured with or without methimazole or propylthiouracil. PMID:3556752

  6. Genetic and physiological analysis of iron content and bioavailability in maize kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, biof...

  7. Polymorphisms in the calpastatin and mu-calpain genes associated with beef iron content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes with iron stored in muscle fibers in a population of beef cattle. The population consisted of a total of 259 steers produced by inseminating Hereford, Angus, or MARC III cows (¼ Hereford, ¼ Angus, ¼ Red ...

  8. Feasibility of combining spectra with texture data of multispectral imaging to predict heme and non-heme iron contents in pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Qin, Hao; Shi, Kefu; Zhou, Cunliu; Chen, Conggui; Hu, Xiaohua; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To precisely determine heme and non-heme iron contents in meat product, the feasibility of combining spectral with texture features extracted from multispectral imaging data (405-970 nm) was assessed. In our study, spectra and textures of 120 pork sausages (PSs) treated by different temperatures (30-80 °C) were analyzed using different calibration models including partial least squares regression (PLSR) and LIB support vector machine (Lib-SVM) for predicting heme and non-heme iron contents in PSs. Based on a combination of spectral and textural features, optimized PLSR models were obtained with determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.912 for heme and of 0.901 for non-heme iron prediction, which demonstrated the superiority of combining spectra with texture data. Results of satisfactory determination and visualization of heme and non-heme iron contents indicated that multispectral imaging could serve as a feasible approach for online industrial applications in the future. PMID:26212953

  9. Hydration and tissue solid content of the lean body on prolonged exposure to altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, H.; Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Zachariah, T.; Kishnani, S.; Pramanik, S. N.; Gupta, A.; Rai, R. M.

    1989-03-01

    Using densitometric, hydrometric and anthropometric techniques, body fat, tissue solids, water and mineral content were quantitatively measured on two groups each of 26 young and healthy Indian soldiers of mixed ethnic composition. The experimental group was exposed to 3500 m altitude for 2 years and the experiments were carried out after 48 h and 3 weeks rehabilitation in Delhi (300 m). The control group was never exposed to high altidues. Inspite of the experimental group being fed with superior rations at high altitude, this group showed significantly hyperhydrated lean body with reduced tissue solids in comparison to the control group which was fed with identical rations in Delhi. The calculated mean density of the fat free body had declined to 0.092×103 kg/m3. The 3 week stay at low altitude had little influence on body composition. Hyperhydration, with reduced tissue solids, would cause reduction in the density of fat free body, and would thus interfere with the estimates of total body fat based on densitometric procedures alone. In the hyperhydrated state, Siri's formula overestimated fat by 22.8% of the true value.

  10. Coherent and incoherent scatterings for measurement of mandibular bone density and stable iodine content of tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Mohinderpal; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, Balvir S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the feasibility of gamma ray scattering for measurements of mandibular bone density and stable iodine content of tissue. Scattered spectra from solutions of K2HPO4 in distilled water (a phantom simulating the mandibular bone) and KI in distilled water filled in a thin plastic vial (a phantom simulating the kinetics of thyroid iodine) are recorded for 59.54 and 145 keV incident gamma rays, respectively. A high-purity germanium detector is placed at various angular positions to record the scattered spectra originating from interactions of incident gamma rays with the phantom. The measured intensity ratio of coherent to incoherent scattered gamma rays, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of HPGe detector, absorption of gamma rays in air column present between phantom and detector, and self-absorption in the phantom, is found to be increasing linearly with increase in concentration of K2HPO4 and KI in distilled water within experimental estimated error of <6%. The regression lines, obtained from experimental data for intensity ratio, provide the bone density and stable iodine contents of thyroid. The present non-destructive technique has the potential for a measure of mandibular bone density and stable iodine contents of thyroid. PMID:20098568

  11. Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Skaat, Hadas; Shahar, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM) cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22419873

  12. [Effects of zinc- and iron deficiency on physiological indices, mineral contents, and leaf ultrastructure of Poncirus trifoliata].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jia-Xin; Qi, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2010-08-01

    By using hydroponics, this paper studied the physiological responses of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings to the deficiency of zinc (0 micromol x L(-1) Zn2+) and/or iron (0 micromol x L(-1) Fe-EDTA). The deficiency of both Zn and Fe decreased the plant biomass and root viability, and increased the leaf-and root SOD activity significantly. Zinc deficiency increased the leaf-and root POD significantly, while Fe deficiency had an adverse effect. The root CAT activity increased significantly under Zn deficiency, but had less difference with the control under Fe deficiency. Fe- and Zn deficiency induced a significant decrease of root potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) contents and of shoot K content, respectively, but resulted in a significant increase in the root- and shoot Zn and Cu contents and in the root Fe and Mn contents and shoot Mn content, respectively. Ultrastructural observation of leaf structure and chloroplast showed that under Fe deficiency, the organelle was damaged seriously, which was revealed by the vacuolization of chloroplast and mitochondria, vague chloroplast membrane and thylakoid lamella, drastic increase of platoglobuli number, and absence of starch grain in the chloroplast. Under Zn deficiency, the thylakoid lamella of chloroplast was loosely distributed with less lamella, but the platoglobuli number was increased. PMID:21043103

  13. The problem of the Earth's CO2 content and the iron core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devore, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    The near absence of metallic iron and the presence of magnetite and FeS in the C-1 chondrites imply that metallic iron was a minor phase present during the accretion process that formed the C-1 chondrites. If the C-1 chondrites provided the bulk of the initial planetary growth materials, the carbon reduction model is favored. The above estimates suggest that some 1240 to 227 times as much CO2 may have been produced during the formation of the core than can be accounted for in the crust and mantle. This discrepancy taken to the extreme suggests either that: (1) the Earth has lost more than 99 percent of its initial CO2 during early differentiation (this is highly unlikely) or: (2) the Earth has acquired some 90 percent of its present mass by the accretion of debris from previously reduced and differentiated but subsequently disrupted planetary bodies whereby the associated CO2 would not be captured, or: (3) the C-1 chondrites represent only a trivial fraction of the initial accretion materials present in the nebular cloud or: (4) condensed iron and anhydrous silicate phases were preferentially accreted during the initial formation of the planetary bodies.

  14. Effect of processing conditions on phytic acid, calcium, iron, and zinc contents of lime-cooked maize.

    PubMed

    Bressani, Ricardo; Turcios, Juan Carlos; Colmenares de Ruiz, Ana Silvia; de Palomo, Patricia Palocios

    2004-03-10

    Tortillas are made by cooking maize in a lime solution during variable times and temperatures, steeping the grain for up to 12 h, washing and grinding it to a fine dough, and cooking portions as flat cakes for up to 6 min. The effects of the main processing steps on the chemical composition, nutritive value, and functional and physicochemical characteristics have been areas of research. The present work evaluates the effect of lime concentration (0, 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6%) and cooking times (45, 60, and 75 min) on phytic acid retention of whole maize, its endosperm, and germ, as well as on the content of calcium, iron, and zinc on the same samples. The effects of steeping time and temperature and steeping medium on the phytic acid of lime-cooked maize were also studied. Finally, phytic acid changes from raw maize to tortilla were also measured. The results indicated that lime concentration and cooking time reduce phytic acid content in whole grain (17.4%), in endosperm (45.8%), and in germ (17.0%). Statistical analyses suggested higher phytic acid loss with 1.2% lime and 75 min of cooking. Cooking with the lime solution is more effective in reducing phytic acid than cooking with water. Steeping maize in lime solution at 50 degrees C during 8 h reduced phytic acid an additional 8%. The total loss of phytic acid from maize to tortilla was 22%. Calcium content increased in whole maize, endosperm, and germ with lime concentration and cooking and steeping times. The increase was higher in the germ than in the endosperm. The level, however, can be controlled if steeping of the cooked grain is conducted in water. Iron and zinc contents were not affected by nixtamalization processing variables but were affected in steeping. PMID:14995114

  15. Plasma dynamic synthesis and obtaining ultrafine powders of iron oxides with high content of ε-Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, Alexander; Naiden, Evgenii; Ivashutenko, Alexander; Shanenkov, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine iron oxide powders were successfully synthesized using the plasma dynamic synthesis method, based on the use of a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with the iron electrode system. The synthesis was implemented in the high-speed iron-containing plasma jet, flowing into the space of the sealed chamber, filled with the gaseous mixture of oxygen and argon at different ratios. The XRD investigations showed that the synthesized products were heterophase and consisted of three main phases such as magnetite Fe3O4, hematite α-Fe2O3 and ε-Fe2O3. The SEM data confirmed the presence of three particle types: the hollow spheroids with sizes about hundreds of micrometers (magnetite), the particles with sizes up to 100 μm from the porous material of sintered submicron particles (hematite), and nanoscale particles (ε-phase). We found that at the higher oxygen concentration the content of ε-Fe2O3 is increased up to ~50% at the same time with decreasing the Fe3O4 phase. The magnetic properties of the products are mainly determined by magnetite characteristics and are significantly reduced with decreasing its content in the powder. In order to investigate the synthesized ε-Fe2O3 on the ability to absorb the electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range, we separated the product with the higher ε-phase concentration. The fraction mainly, consisting of ε-Fe2O3, showed the occurrence of the natural resonance at frequencies of 8.3 GHz and 130 GHz.

  16. Iron and carbon monoxide attenuate Crotalus atrox venom-enhanced tissue-type plasminogen activator-initiated fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V; Matika, Ryan W; Amos, Quinlan; Redford, Daniel T

    2016-07-01

    In addition to degrading fibrinogen as a source of consumptive coagulopathy, rattlesnake venom has also been demonstrated to enhance fibrinolysis and degrade alpha-2-antiplasmin. The goals of this investigation was to characterize the kinetic fibrinolytic profile of Crotalus atrox venom in the absence and presence of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and to also ascertain if iron and carbon monoxide (CO, a positive modulator of alpha-2-antiplasmin) could attenuate venom-enhanced fibrinolysis. Utilizing thrombelastographic methods, the coagulation and fibrinolytic kinetic profiles of human plasma exposed to C. atrox venom (0-2 μg/ml) were determined in the absence or presence of tPA (0-100 IU/ml). Then, either separately or in combination, plasma was exposed to iron (ferric chloride, 10 μmol/l) or CO (carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2, 100 μmol/l) prior to incubation with venom; the plasma sample was subsequently subjected to thrombelastographic analysis with addition of tPA. Venom exposure in the absence of tPA did not result in detectable fibrinolysis. In the presence of tPA, venom markedly enhanced fibrinolysis. Iron and CO, markedly attenuated venom enhancement of fibrinolysis. C. atrox venom enhances tPA-mediated fibrinolysis, and interventions that enhance/protect alpha-2-antiplasmin activity significantly attenuate venom-enhanced fibrinolysis. Future preclinical investigation is required to determine if iron and CO can attenuate venom-mediated degradation of alpha-2-antiplasmin-dependent fibrinolytic resistance. PMID:26575490

  17. Content-based image retrieval applied to BI-RADS tissue classification in screening mammography

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Júlia Epischina Engrácia; de Albuquerque Araújo, Arnaldo; Deserno, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To present a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system that supports the classification of breast tissue density and can be used in the processing chain to adapt parameters for lesion segmentation and classification. METHODS: Breast density is characterized by image texture using singular value decomposition (SVD) and histograms. Pattern similarity is computed by a support vector machine (SVM) to separate the four BI-RADS tissue categories. The crucial number of remaining singular values is varied (SVD), and linear, radial, and polynomial kernels are investigated (SVM). The system is supported by a large reference database for training and evaluation. Experiments are based on 5-fold cross validation. RESULTS: Adopted from DDSM, MIAS, LLNL, and RWTH datasets, the reference database is composed of over 10 000 various mammograms with unified and reliable ground truth. An average precision of 82.14% is obtained using 25 singular values (SVD), polynomial kernel and the one-against-one (SVM). CONCLUSION: Breast density characterization using SVD allied with SVM for image retrieval enable the development of a CBIR system that can effectively aid radiologists in their diagnosis. PMID:21286492

  18. Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madl, Amy Kathleen

    Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the

  19. MRI Detection of Brown Adipose Tissue with Low Fat Content in Newborns with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Wu, Tai-Wei; Yin, Larry; Kim, Mimi S.; Chia, Jonathan M.; Perkins, Thomas G.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the observation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) with low fat content in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after they have undergone hypothermia therapy. Materials and Methods The local ethics committee approved the imaging study. Ten HIE neonates (3 males, 7 females, age range: 2-3 days) were studied on a 3T MRI system using a low-flip-angle (3 degrees) six-echo proton-density-weighted chemical-shift-encoded water-fat pulse sequence. Fat-signal fraction (FF) measurements of supraclavicular and interscapular (nape) BAT and adjacent subcutaneous white adipose tissues (WAT) were compared to those from five non-HIE neonates, two recruited for the present investigation and three from a previous study. Results In HIE neonates, the FF range for the supraclavicular, interscapular, and subcutaneous regions were 10.3-29.9%, 28.0-57.9%, and 62.6-88.0%, respectively. In non-HIE neonates, the values were 23.7-42.2% (p=0.01), 45.4-59.5% (p=0.06), and 67.8-86.3% (p=0.38), respectively. On an individual basis, supraclavicular BAT FF was consistently the lowest, interscapular BAT values were higher, and subcutaneous WAT values were the highest (p<0.01). Conclusion We speculate that hypothermia therapy in HIE neonates likely promotes BAT-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis, which subsequently leads to a depletion of the tissue's intracellular fat stores. We believe this is consequently reflected in lower FF values, particularly in the supraclavicular BAT depot, in contrast to non-HIE neonates. PMID:24239336

  20. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Binding to Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle—Covalent Versus Adsorptive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Ralf P.; Zaloga, Jan; Schreiber, Eveline; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Tombácz, Etelka; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are frequently used to develop vehicles for drug delivery, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy and as tools used for magnetic separation and purification of proteins or for biomolecular imaging. Depending on the application, there are various possible covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of particles, each of them shows different advantages and disadvantages for drug release and activity at the desired location.

  1. Optimization and modeling of reduction of wastewater sludge water content and turbidity removal using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Ha; Han, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Economic and rapid reduction of sludge water content in sewage wastewater is difficult and requires special advanced treatment technologies. This study focused on optimizing and modeling decreased sludge water content (Y1) and removing turbidity (Y2) with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MION) using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). CCD and RSM were applied to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of mixing time (X1) and MION concentration (X2) on chemical flocculent performance. The results show that the optimum conditions were 14.1 min and 22.1 mg L(-1) for response Y1 and 16.8 min and 8.85 mg L(-1) for response Y2, respectively. The two responses were obtained experimentally under this optimal scheme and fit the model predictions well (R(2) = 97.2% for Y1 and R(2) = 96.9% for Y2). A 90.8% decrease in sludge water content and turbidity removal of 29.4% were demonstrated. These results confirm that the statistical models were reliable, and that the magnetic flocculation conditions for decreasing sludge water content and removing turbidity from sewage wastewater were appropriate. The results reveal that MION are efficient for rapid separation and are a suitable alterative to sediment sludge during the wastewater treatment process. PMID:26180919

  2. Degradable segmented polyurethane elastomers for bone tissue engineering: effect of polycaprolactone content.

    PubMed

    Kavlock, Katherine D; Whang, Kyumin; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2013-01-01

    Segmented polyurethanes (PURs), consisting of degradable poly(a-hydroxy ester) soft segments and aminoacid-derived chain extenders, are biocompatible elastomers with tunable mechanical and degradative properties suitable for a variety of tissue-engineering applications. In this study, a family of linear PURs synthesized from poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) diol, 1,4-diisocyanobutane and tyramine with theoretical PCL contents of 65-80 wt% were processed into porous foam scaffolds and evaluated for their ability to support osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical testing of the foams indicated increasing polymer crystallinity and compressive modulus with increasing PCL content. Next, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were seeded into PUR scaffolds, as well as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds, and maintained under osteogenic conditions for 14 and 21 days. Analysis of cell number indicated a systematic decrease in cell density with increasing PUR stiffness at both 14 and 21 days in culture. However, at these same time points the relative mRNA expression for the bone-specific proteins osteocalcin and the growth factors bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression were similar among the PURs. Finally, prostaglandin E2 production, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteopontin mRNA expression were highly elevated on the most-crystalline PUR scaffold as compared to the PLGA and PUR scaffolds. These results suggest that both the modulus and crystallinity of the PUR scaffolds influence cell proliferation and the expression of osteoblastic proteins. PMID:22304961

  3. Evaluation of cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations and tissue distributions in the benthic crab, Dorippe granulata (De Haan, 1841) from Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Depledge, M H; Forbes, T L; Forbes, V E

    1993-01-01

    The distributions of copper, zinc, iron, and cadmium among the tissues of Dorippe granulata were determined. The highest copper concentrations were found in the haemolymph (c. 53 microg ml(-1)) while the highest iron concentrations occurred in the gills (c. 720 microg g(-1) dry weight) and the highest zinc concentrations in the exoskeleton (c. 200 microg g(-1) dry weight). By comparison, concentrations of the non-essential metal, cadmium, were low in all tissues (mean = 10 microg g(-1) dry weight). The highest value was recorded from the midgut gland of a female crab (18.5 microg Cd g(-1) dry weight). Concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron were positively correlated with tissue-hydration levels. Such a relationship was not found for cadmium. The findings are discussed with regard to trace-metal levels found in temperate and tropical brachyurans from clean and polluted localities. PMID:15091832

  4. [Contents and deposition of major minerals in tissues and in the whole bodies of growing young bulls German Simmental breed].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, F J; Heindl, U; Kirchgessner, M

    1995-01-01

    54 bulls of the German Simmental breed were fed either on a high energy level (maize silage ad libitum and 1.8 kg concentrate) or on a low energy level (maize silage restrictively and 1.0 kg concentrate). In dependence on feeding intensity a mean daily weight gain of 870 or 1210 g was obtained. Animals were slaughtered with a live mass of 200 kg, 350 kg, 500 kg, 575 kg and 650 kg. Empty body was divided into 13 cuts and afterwards separated into lean, bone and adipose tissues and tendons. Major mineral element content was determined in these tissues as well as in the noncarcass parts. In the lean tissue the mean content (200 kg) of 0.3 g calcium, 10 g phosphorus, 1 g magnesium, 2.3 g sodium and 14.8 g potassium/kg dry matter decreased slightly with rising live mass (200-650 kg). The contents of major mineral elements were much higher in bone tissue. For the fattening period from 200 to 650 kg of live mass mean contents of 151.5 g calcium, 71.3 g phosphorus, 3.2 g magnesium, 5.1 g sodium and 1.1 g potassium per kg DM were analysed. Mineral element content of bone tissue increased with rising live mass as well as animals on low feeding intensity showed a higher mineral content than on high energy level. In all, major mineral element content in fat tissue was very low. In noncarcass parts head and legs calcium and phosphorus had analogous to bone tissue the highest concentration. Hide showed a high content of sodium, whereas organs and digestive tract had a high content of potassium and phosphorus. Total mass of major mineral elements in the different tissues increased above all in the fattening period of 200 to 350 kg. In carcass as well as in empty body, mass of calcium and phosphorus was much higher than magnesium, sodium and potassium. Also animals on low feeding intensity showed a higher mass of major mineral elements in carcass and empty body than animals on high energy feeding intensity. The intensively fed bulls had a mean deposition of 12.7 g calcium, 6.9 g

  5. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  6. Effect of iron content on the structure and disorder of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses: A high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Im; Sur, Jung Chul; Lee, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Despite its geochemical importance and implications for the properties of natural magmatic melts, understanding the detailed structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses remains among the outstanding problems in geochemistry. This is mainly because solid-state NMR techniques, one of the most versatile experimental methods to probe the structure of oxide glasses, cannot be fully utilized for exploring the structural details of iron-bearing glasses as the unpaired electrons in Fe induce strong local magnetic fields that mask the original spectroscopic features (i.e., paramagnetic effect). Here, we report high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR spectra of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses (Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2, Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.89 ± 0.04, thus containing both ferric and ferrous iron) with varying XFe2O3 [=Fe2O3/(Na2O + Fe2O3)], containing up to 22.9 wt% Fe2O3. This compositional series involves Fe-Na substitution at constant SiO2 contents of 66.7 mol% in the glasses. For both nuclides, the NMR spectra exhibit a decrease in the signal intensities and an increase in the peak widths with increasing iron concentration partly because of the paramagnetic effect. Despite the intrinsic difficulties that result from the pronounced paramagnetic effect, the 29Si and 17O NMR results yield structural details regarding the effect of iron content on Q speciation, spatial distribution of iron, and the extent of polymerization in the iron-bearing silicate glasses. The 29Si NMR spectra show an apparent increase in highly polymerized Q species with increasing XFe2O3 , suggesting an increase in the degree of melt polymerization. The 17O 3QMAS NMR spectra exhibit well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) peaks with varying iron concentration. By replacing Na2O with Fe2O3 (and thus with increasing iron content), the fraction of Na-O-Si decreases. Quantitative consideration of this effect confirms that the degree of polymerization is likely to

  7. Iron and zinc content of selected foods in the diet of schoolchildren in Kumi district, east of Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake. Methods The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis. Results Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc. Conclusions The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination. PMID:21827701

  8. Effect of iron content on the electrical conductivity of perovskite and magnesiowuestite assemblages at lower mantle conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of (Mg/0.76/Fe/0.24/)SiO3 perovskite and of an assemblage of (Mg/0.89/Fe/0.11/)SiO3 perovskite + (Mg/0.70/Fe/0.30/)O magnesiowiestite was measured at pressures of 45-80 GPa and temperatures from 295 to 3600 K. The apparent activation energy for electrical conduction is 0.24 (+ or - 0.10) eV for the perovskite and 0.20 (+ or - 0.08) eV for the perovskite + magnesiowuestite assemblage. Comparing present results with those derived previously for Fe-poor samples, it is found that the electrical conductivities of both the silicate perovskite and the perovskite + magnesiowuestite assemblage depend strongly on iron content. Thus, the electrical conductivity distribution inside the earth could provide an important constraint in modeling the composition of the lower mantle.

  9. Temporal changes in charge content of cultured chondrocytes from bovine cartilaginous tissues.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, M P; Sinnaya, P; Derry, K; Murphy, W H; Preston, B N

    1997-03-01

    The effective charge content of the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes has been determined while the matrix is being synthesized by cells grown in culture for several weeks. The data were compared with estimates determined by chemical analysis. When measurements were performed after digestion of the matrix with papain, there was close agreement between results obtained from both techniques for proteoglycans synthesized by chondrocytes from nasal septum (a non-articular cartilage). By contrast, no such agreement was observed for proteoglycans synthesized by chondrocytes from articular cartilage, even after solubilization of the matrix with papain. While the charge calculated from chemical analysis showed a constant increase with time in culture, that measured by colloid titration showed a cyclical pattern, with maximal values occurring on days 7 and 24 of culture and a minimal value on day 14. This inability to detect all negative groups present in the matrix synthesized by articular chondrocytes would suggest the involvement of these groups in electrostatic interactions. Partial characterization of proteins synthesized by the pericellular matrix indicates that the decrease in charge content observed on day 14 could not be attributed to proteins of a particular molecular mass but possibly to an increase in the total amount of protein present. It is concluded that the marked difference in the availability of negative groups between chondrocytes cultured from articular and non-articular cartilages may reflect differences in the interaction of these negative groups with matrix components; these differences would lead to the distinct structural organization of these two cartilaginous tissues which possess different mechanical functions. PMID:9106160

  10. Degradable Segmented Polyurethane Elastomers for Bone Tissue Engineering: Effect of Polycaprolactone Content

    PubMed Central

    Kavlock, Katherine D.; Whang, Kyumin; Guelcher, Scott A.; Goldstein, Aaron S.

    2016-01-01

    Segmented polyurethanes (PURs) – consisting of degradable poly(α-hydroxy ester) soft segments and amino acid-derived chain extenders – are biocompatible elastomers with tunable mechanical and degradative properties suitable for a variety of tissue engineering applications. In this study, a family of linear PURs synthesized from poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol, 1,4-diisocyanobutane and tyramine with theoretical PCL contents of 65 to 80 wt% were processed into porous foam scaffolds and evaluated for their ability to support osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical testing of the foams indicated increasing polymer crystallinity and compressive modulus with increasing PCL content. Next, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were seeded into PUR scaffolds – as well as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds – and maintained under osteogenic conditions for 14 and 21 days. Analysis of cell number indicated a systematic decrease in cell density with increasing PUR stiffness at both 14 and 21 days in culture. However, at these same time points the relative mRNA expression for the bone-specific proteins osteocalcin and the growth factors bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression were similar among the PURs. Finally, prostaglandin E2 production, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteopontin mRNA expression were highly elevated on the most-crystalline PUR scaffold as compared to the PLGA and PUR scaffolds. These results suggest that both the modulus and crystallinity of the PUR scaffolds influence cell proliferation and the expression of osteoblastic proteins. PMID:22304961

  11. [Effect of cooking on content of nitrates, vitamin C, magnesium and iron in spinach].

    PubMed

    Astier-Dumas, M

    1975-01-01

    Cooking is known to lower the mineral and vitaminic content of foodstuffs. Recently, contaminant became to be a problem in foods, and it was proposed to use blanching or boiling to diminish contaminant residues in foods, specially vegetables. An example of this attitude is given by the use of blanching to lower nitrates levels in spinach specially prepared for baby foods. PMID:1211733

  12. A NAC Gene Regulating Senescence Improves Grain Protein, Zinc, and Iron Content in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing the nutritional value of food crops is a sensible strategy for improving human nutrition and health. We report here the positional cloning of Gpc-B1, a wheat QTL associated with increased grain protein, Zn and Fe contents. The ancestral wild wheat allele encodes a NAC transcription factor ...

  13. Cobalt and scandium partitioning versus iron content for crystalline phases in ultramafic nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassley, W.E.; Piper, D.Z.

    1978-01-01

    Fractionation of Co and Sc between garnets, olivines, and clino- and orthopyroxenes, separated from a suite of Salt Lake Crater ultramafic nodules that equilibrated at the same T and P, is strongly dependent on Fe contents. This observation suggests that petrogenetic equilibrium models of partial melting and crystal fractionation must take into account effects of magma composition, if they are to describe quantitatively geochemical evolutionary trends. ?? 1978.

  14. Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys with iron contents as high as 82 at%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Ding, Hong-Yu; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2015-07-01

    Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs) with high Fe contents are advantageous due to their high saturation magnetization and low cost. However, preparing Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents higher than 80 at% is difficult due to their poor glass forming abilities (GFA). In this study, an Fe81P8.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA with a diameter of 1 mm and a saturation magnetization of 1.56 T was successfully prepared using the fluxing and copper mold casting methods. In addition, by introducing a small amount of elemental Mo to the alloy, an Fe82Mo1P6.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA rod with a diameter of 1 mm, a high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T, a high yield stress of 3265 MPa, and a clear plasticity of 1.3% was prepared in the same way. The cost effectiveness and good magnetic properties of these newly-developed Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents as high as 82 at% would be advantageous and promising for industrial applications.

  15. X-Ray Methods to Estimate Breast Density Content in Breast Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraghechi, Borna

    This work focuses on analyzing x-ray methods to estimate the fat and fibroglandular contents in breast biopsies and in breasts. The knowledge of fat in the biopsies could aid in their wide-angle x-ray scatter analyses. A higher mammographic density (fibrous content) in breasts is an indicator of higher cancer risk. Simulations for 5 mm thick breast biopsies composed of fibrous, cancer, and fat and for 4.2 cm thick breast fat/fibrous phantoms were done. Data from experimental studies using plastic biopsies were analyzed. The 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick plastic samples consisted of layers of polycarbonate (lexan), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-lucite) and polyethylene (polyet). In terms of the total linear attenuation coefficients, lexan ≡ fibrous, lucite ≡ cancer and polyet ≡ fat. The detectors were of two types, photon counting (CdTe) and energy integrating (CCD). For biopsies, three photon counting methods were performed to estimate the fat (polyet) using simulation and experimental data, respectively. The two basis function method that assumed the biopsies were composed of two materials, fat and a 50:50 mixture of fibrous (lexan) and cancer (lucite) appears to be the most promising method. Discrepancies were observed between the results obtained via simulation and experiment. Potential causes are the spectrum and the attenuation coefficient values used for simulations. An energy integrating method was compared to the two basis function method using experimental and simulation data. A slight advantage was observed for photon counting whereas both detectors gave similar results for the 4.2 cm thick breast phantom simulations. The percentage of fibrous within a 9 cm diameter circular phantom of fibrous/fat tissue was estimated via a fan beam geometry simulation. Both methods yielded good results. Computed tomography (CT) images of the circular phantom were obtained using both detector types. The radon transforms were estimated via four energy integrating

  16. [Factors which modify the nutritional state of iron: tannin content of herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Hertrampf, E; Walter, T

    1994-12-01

    Tannins are natural compounds that abound in herbs, wood and fruits. Their numerous hydroxyl radicals confer them a strong avidity for metals such as Fe, Zn and Cu. This property makes them strong inhibitors for the gastrointestinal absorption of these metals. Our purpose was to determine the tannin content of herbal infusions commonly consumed in Chile and other Latino American countries. The determination was performed from dessicated herbs with the Folin-Denis technique. Yerba mate, tea and oregano had the highest tannin content (117, 100 and 84 mg of tannic acid/g dry herb respectively). An intermediate level (between 20 and 40 of tannic acid/g) was for coca, matico, boldo, palto, laurel, orange and binojo. The lowest level of tannin for paico, cedrón, apio and manzanilla (< 10 mg/g). We conclude that the consumption of herbal teas at or around meals may inhibit the absorption of metals such as Fe, Zn, or Cu by decreasing their bioavailability. PMID:8984970

  17. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    transferrin were, however, restricted to areas situated in close proximity to the ventricular and pial surfaces. In particular, transferrin injected into the ventricles was never observed in regions distant from the CSF. It was concluded that choroid plexus-derived transferrin is not likely to play a significant role for binding and transporting iron in the brain interstitium. Transferrin secretion from oligodendrocytes probably plays the key role in this process. In the third part of the thesis, the uptake of iron by neurons devoid of projections beyond the blood-brain barrier and glia is addressed. Given the fact that the demonstration of plasma proteins in brain sections can be hampered by several methodological factors, a mapping of the cellular distribution of transferrin in the brain was performed employing extensive use of tissue-processing and staining protocols. In order to aid in the understanding of cellular iron uptake in the intact brain, attempts were made to identify iron, transferrin, and transferrin receptors at the light microscopic level. Consistent with the widespread distribution of transferrin receptors in neurons, the ligand transferrin was also found in neurons throughout the CNS. When examined at high resolution, transferrin was found to be distributed to the cytoplasm of neurons, exhibiting a dotted appearance, which is probably consistent with a distribution in the endosomallysosomal system. In contrast to the consistent presence of transferrin receptors on neurons, it was not possible to detect transferrin receptors on glial cells. Related to these observations, the presence of non-transferrin-bound iron in the brain suggests that glial cells may take it up by a mechanism that does not involve the transferrin receptor. The widespread distribution of ferritin in glial cells clearly indicates that the glial cells acquire iron. Dietary iron-overload did not change the distribution of transferrin receptors or ferritin in the brain. By contrast, iron

  18. Early detection of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction by pulsed tissue Doppler echocardiography in iron loaded beta thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Agha, Hala Mounir; Beshlawy, Amal; Hamdy, Mona; Sobeih, Alae; El Zahrae, Fatma; Abd El Satar, Inas Abd; AbdelMassih, Antoine; Said, Fadwa; Abd El Aziz, Ossama; El Tagui, Mona; Pennell, Dudley J

    2015-03-01

    Early heart iron overload in beta thalassemia major patients can be quantified through T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). To clarify the value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in early detection of myocardial dysfunction in iron loaded thalassemia patients diagnosed by CMR. Two groups were included in the study; Group I: 69 asymptomatic thalassemia patients (28 females, 41 males), mean age 18.1 ± 7.03 years (range 6-39 years); Group II (n = 41) healthy normal controls matched for age and sex. Serum ferritin and CMR were performed to assess the cardiac siderosis (T2* < 20 ms). Group I was subdivided into two subgroups; Group Ia (n = 26) T2* < 20 ms and Group Ib (n = 43) T2* > 20 ms. Conventional and Doppler echocardiography of LV, RV dimensions and functions and pulmonary artery pressure were evaluated. Right ventricular diastolic function assessed by tricuspid annular E'/A' was positively correlated with T2* value; lower tricuspid E'/A' ratios were correlated with lower T2* values (r = 0.366, P = 0.002). Tricuspid annular A' was significantly higher in group Ia compared to group Ib (16.7 ± 5.2 vs 12.1 ± 4.0 cm/s, P < 0.001). Tricuspid E'/A' < 1 was common in group Ia compared to group Ib (19/26 (73.0) vs 3/43 (6.97%), P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (tricuspid E'/A' < 1) was associated with serum ferritin and T2* level of the thalassemia patients. TDI is a promising tool for quantitative assessment of myocardial function and early detection of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in iron loaded beta thalassemia major patients. PMID:25293426

  19. Label-free and depth resolved optical sectioning of iron-complex deposits in sickle cell disease splenic tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, Genevieve D.; Adami, Alexander J.; Ahmed, Tahsin; Khan, Aamir; Chapman, Sarah; Andemariam, Biree; Thrall, Roger S.; Howard, Scott S.

    2015-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is performed on humanized sickle cell disease (SCD) mouse model splenic tissue. Distinct morphological and spectral features associated with SCD are identified and discussed in terms of diagnostic relevance. Specifically, spectrally unique splenic iron-complex deposits are identified by MPM; this finding is supported by TPEF spectroscopy and object size to standard histopathological methods. Further, iron deposits are found at higher concentrations in diseased tissue than in healthy tissue by all imaging methods employed here including MPM, and therefore, may provide a useful biomarker related to the disease state. These newly characterized biomarkers allow for further investigations of SCD in live animals as a means to gain insight into the mechanisms impacting immune dysregulation and organ malfunction, which are currently not well understood.

  20. Method development and subsequent survey analysis of biological tissues for platinum, lead, and manganese content.

    PubMed Central

    Yoakum, A M; Stewart, P L; Sterrett, J E

    1975-01-01

    An emission spectrochemical method is described for the determination of trace quantities of platinum, lead, and manganese in biological tissues. Total energy burns in an argon-oxygen atmosphere are employed. Sample preparation, conditions of analysis, and preparation of standards are discussed. The precision of the method is consistently better than +/- 15%, and comparative analyses indicate comparable accuracies. Data obtained for experimental rat tissues and for selected autopsy tissues are presented. PMID:1157798

  1. Combined uncertainty estimation for the determination of the dissolved iron amount content in seawater using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Floor, Geerke H.; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C.; Ussher, Simon J.; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work assesses the components contributing to the combined uncertainty budget associated with the measurement of the Fe amount content by flow injection chemiluminescence (FI‐CL) in <0.2 μm filtered and acidified seawater samples. Amounts of loaded standard solutions and samples were determined gravimetrically by differential weighing. Up to 5% variations in the loaded masses were observed during measurements, in contradiction to the usual assumptions made when operating under constant loading time conditions. Hence signal intensities (V) were normalised to the loaded mass and plots of average normalised intensities (in V kg−1) vs. values of the Fe amount content (in nmol kg−1) added to a “low level” iron seawater matrix were used to produce the calibration graphs. The measurement procedure implemented and the uncertainty estimation process developed were validated from the agreement obtained with consensus values for three SAFe and GEOTRACES reference materials (D2, GS, and GD). Relative expanded uncertainties for peak height and peak area based results were estimated to be around 12% and 10% (coverage factor k = 2), respectively. The most important contributory factors were the uncertainty on the sensitivity coefficient (i.e., calibration slope) and the within‐sequence‐stability (i.e., the signal stability over several hours of operation; here 32 h). For GD, using peak height measurements, these factors contributed respectively 69.7% and 21.6% while the short‐term repeatability accounted for only 7.9%. Therefore, an uncertainty estimation based on the intensity repeatability alone, as is often done in FI‐CL studies, is not a realistic estimation of the overall uncertainty of the procedure. PMID:27610049

  2. Effect of Fixatives and Tissue Processing on the Content and Integrity of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Sedmak, Daniel; Jewell, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Clinical and molecular medicines are undergoing a revolution based on the accelerated advances in biotechnology such as DNA microarrays and proteomics. Answers to fundamental questions such as how does the DNA sequence differ between individuals and what makes one individual more prone for a certain disease are eagerly being sought in this postgenomic era. Several government and nonprofit organizations provide the researchers access to human tissues for molecular studies. The tissues procured by the different organizations may differ with respect to fixation and processing parameters that may affect significantly the molecular profile of the tissues. It is imperative that a prospective investigator be aware of the potential contributing factors before designing a project. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the methods of human tissue acquisition, fixation, and preservation. In addition, the parameters of procurement and fixation that affect the quality of the tissues at the molecular level are discussed. PMID:12466110

  3. Beneficial effects of quercetin-iron complexes on serum and tissue lipids and redox status in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25 mg/kg/day), iron (2.5 mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25 mg/2.5 mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations. PMID:26895671

  4. PLANT SOURCES OF DIETARY IRON: DIVERSITY IN TISSUE IRON CONCENTRATION. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON IRON NUTRITION AND INTERACTIONS IN PLANTS, JULY 3-7, 2006, MONTPELLIER, FRANCE. 2006. P. 56.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an essential mineral for all organisms, including humans and other animals. Iron must be obtained through dietary sources, and plant food products are an important provider of this micronutrient. Because all plants contain iron, humans consume this nutrient in all vegetable, grain, and fru...

  5. Comparative In Vitro Study on Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MRI Tracking of Adipose Tissue-Derived Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Annika; Grüttner, Cordula; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Bader, Rainer; Pasold, Juliane; Frerich, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using measurement of the transverse relaxation time (R2*) is to be considered as a promising approach for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. While the relationship between core composition of nanoparticles and their MRI properties is well studied, little is known about possible effects on progenitor cells. This in vitro study aims at comparing two magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle types, single vs. multi-core nanoparticles, regarding their physico-chemical characteristics, effects on cellular behavior of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) like differentiation and proliferation as well as their detection and quantification by means of MRI. Quantification of both nanoparticle types revealed a linear correlation between labeling concentration and R2* values. However, according to core composition, different levels of labeling concentrations were needed to achieve comparable R2* values. Cell viability was not altered for all labeling concentrations, whereas the proliferation rate increased with increasing labeling concentrations. Likewise, deposition of lipid droplets as well as matrix calcification revealed to be highly dose-dependent particularly regarding multi-core nanoparticle-labeled cells. Synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins and mRNA expression of collagen type II was also highly dependent on nanoparticle labeling. In general, the differentiation potential was decreased with increasing labeling concentrations. This in vitro study provides the proof of principle for further in vivo tracking experiments of progenitor cells using nanoparticles with different core compositions but also provides striking evidence that combined testing of biological and MRI properties is advisable as improved MRI properties of multi-core nanoparticles may result in altered cell functions. PMID:25244560

  6. [Water and electrolyte content of the organs and tissues of male rats following a flight on the Kosmos 1667 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Denisova, L A; Lavrova, E A; Natochin, Iu V; Serova, L V

    1988-01-01

    After the 7-day space flight onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 the water, Na, K, Ca and Mg content of the liver, kidney, heart, skin and bone of male rats was measured. No significant changes in the weight or water content of the above organs were seen. The exception was a decrease of water contained in the heart and an increase of water contained in the caudal appendage of the epididymis. After flight the mineral composition of the liver was identical to that after control studies. The K content of the heart of the flight rats was lower and that of Na, Ca and Mg was identical to the parameter in the controls. The K content of the skin and bone increased and the Na content of the skin also grew. In the kidney the Ca content did not change whereas the content of K, Na and Mg decreased significantly. In the testis Na decreased and K increased after flight. Thus, changes in fluid-electrolyte homeostasis at the organ and tissue level can develop within 7 days of space flight. They occur not only in the musculoskeletal system but may also evolve in the nonweight-bearing organs. PMID:2967903

  7. Detection sensitivity of MRI using ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide nano-particles (USPIO) in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Oghabian, M A; Guiti, M; Haddad, P; Gharehaghaji, N; Saber, R; Alam, N R; Malekpour, M; Rafie, B

    2006-01-01

    Today, by injecting iron oxide based nanoparticles (USPIO) as MRI contrast agents, it is possible to study lymphatic system and some specific tumors and their metastasis. The type of surface coating, and coating characteristics of the nanoparticles are important factors for the biological properties of nanoparticles and their destination target. On the other hand, these properties contribute to different signal intensities. This may confine application of all types of USPIO based contrast agents in routine daily experiments. In this study, the ability of detecting these particles having various sizes and coating properties was evaluated for MRI applications. Signal intensity changes after administration of these particles into tissues have been studied and their detection sensitivity was evaluated using a liver phantom and animal model (rat). IO based nanoparticles of various sizes (8-30 nm) functionalized and coated with various surface polymers such as dextran and starch, amine and hydroxide groups, and bear IO particles were used to investigate the signal changes. The optimized pulse sequences for proper demonstration of lymph nodes using these contrast agents were found (T2* FSPGR protocol with fat suppressions). A detection sensitivity of 98% was achieved in most experiments during applying a proper MR protocol. However, the type of surface coating, and coating characteristics such as thickness were shown to be essential factors for MRI signal intensity in both T1 and T2 protocols. PMID:17945909

  8. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska, Anna; Lewandowska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability. PMID:17652829

  9. In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conturo, Thomas Edward

    Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The

  10. Stage- and tissue-specific expression of rice OsIsu1 gene encoding a scaffold protein for mitochondrial iron-sulfur-cluster biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2009-08-01

    Isu is a scaffold protein involved in mitochondrial iron-sulfur-cluster biogenesis, which affects redox and iron homeostasis in human and yeast cells. A BLASTP search identified two putative Isu genes in rice, and we designated one of them as OsIsu1. When expressed in onion epidermal cells, OsIsu1::GFP was localized to the mitochondria. Northern analysis showed that OsIsu1 was down-regulated in iron-deficient rice root. OsIsu1 promoter-GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana and histochemical GUS-staining showed that OsIsu1 expression was regulated in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. OsIsu1 was expressed ectopically in Arabidopsis under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, which increased weight of plants. PMID:19396402

  11. Proteomic Analysis of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 and Implications for Estimates of the Cellular Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. A.; Bertrand, E. M.; Bulygin, V.; Moran, D.; Waterbury, J. B.

    2008-12-01

    The proteome of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 was analyzed by nanospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nLC-MS) with two major goals: to provide a first examination of the relative abundance of the most abundant proteins in this important microbe and to provide the necessary mass spectra for future quantification of biogeochemically significant proteins. Analyses of 37 nLC-MS runs of whole cell tryptic digestions and SDS-PAGE gel separated tryptic digestions resulted in a total of 636 proteins identified, 376 identified with two or more tryptic peptides. The identifications used the Sequest algorithm with stringent data filters on 54003 observed peptides, 3066 of which were unique, with a false positive rate of 2.2%. These measured proteins represent ~ 25.2% (14.8% with >= 2 peptides) of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, similar to or higher than the percentage found in other cyanobacterial proteome studies thus far. The relative abundance of the more abundant proteins in the proteome was examined using the exponentially modified protein abundance index from a single nLC-MS run that identified 372 proteins (14.7% of the ORFs) from 7743 observed peptides (1224 unique peptides). Estimates of the relative abundance showed the photosynthesis and respiration category contributing approximately 32% of the total detected protein, hypothetical proteins contributing about 16%, and translation about 12%. Of biogeochemical interest, multiple types of nitrogen assimilation systems were observed to be simultaneously expressed as proteins, only 5 of the 21 B12 biosynthesis proteins were identified likely due to low abundance, and the metalloproteins metallothionein and nickel superoxide dismutase were relatively abundant. In contrast to previous predictions of a high photosystem I: photosystem II ratio of approximately 3 in the cyanobacteria and a resultant high cellular iron content, the ratio of the average relative abundances of all

  12. [Change in phospholipid content in platelets, immunocompetent cells and myometrial tissue in patients with internal endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Damirov, M M; Kulakov, V I; Sliusra', N N; Bakuleva, L P; Kargapolov, A V

    1994-01-01

    A method of flow horizontal chromatography has been developed permitting investigation of blood and tissue cellular phospholipids ruling out lipid peroxidation effects on cellular membranes. Phospholipid levels of blood and myometrial tissue cells were measured by this method in 67 patients with histologically verified internal endometriosis. Phospholipid and phosphatidyl inosite levels in platelets and immunocompetent cells of these patients reliably differed from those in healthy women. Phosphatidyl inosite levels of heterotopic endometrial tissue was increased by 1.4 times vs. the norm on an average. In parallel with this, a reliable change of phosphatidyl cholines and inosites levels in endometriosis foci were detected as against their levels in intact tissue. The authors suggest a method for the diagnosis of internal endometriosis by phosphatidyl inosite levels in blood lymphocytes. PMID:8209956

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  14. Facile analysis of contents and compositions of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chain in shark and ray tissues.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoko; Horai, Sawako; Tamura, Jun-ichi

    2016-04-01

    The chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) hybrid chain was extracted from specific tissues of several kinds of sharks and rays. The contents and sulfation patterns of the CS/DS hybrid chain were precisely analyzed by digestion with chondroitinases ABC and AC. All samples predominantly contained the A- and C-units. Furthermore, all samples characteristically contained the D-unit. Species-specific differences were observed in the contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain, which were the highest in Mako and Blue sharks and Sharpspine skates, but were lower in Hammerhead sharks. Marked differences were observed in the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit between sharks and rays. The contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain and the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit may be related to an oxidative stress-decreasing ability. PMID:26986023

  15. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana NAR1, a cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly component, in gametophytic gene expression and oxidative stress responses in vegetative tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miyuki; Buzas, Diana Mihaela; Kato, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Kurata, Nori; Kinoshita, Tetsu

    2013-09-01

    Iron-sulfur proteins have iron-sulfur clusters as a prosthetic group and are responsible for various cellular processes, including general transcriptional regulation, photosynthesis and respiration. The cytosolic iron-sulfur assembly (CIA) pathway of yeast has been shown to be responsible for regulation of iron-sulfur cluster assembly in both the cytosol and the nucleus. However, little is known about the roles of this pathway in multicellular organisms. In a forward genetic screen, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with impaired expression of the endosperm-specific gene Flowering Wageningen (FWA). To characterize this mutant, we carried out detailed phenotypic and genetic analyses during reproductive and vegetative development. The mutation affects NAR1, which encodes a homolog of a yeast CIA pathway component. Comparison of embryo development in nar1-3 and other A. thaliana mutants affected in the CIA pathway showed that the embryos aborted at a similar stage, suggesting that this pathway potentially functions in early seed development. Transcriptome analysis of homozygous viable nar1-4 seedlings showed transcriptional repression of a subset of genes involved in 'iron ion transport' and 'response to nitrate'. nar1-4 also exhibited resistance to the herbicide paraquat. Our results indicate that A. thaliana NAR1 has various functions including transcriptional regulation in gametophytes and abiotic stress responses in vegetative tissues. PMID:23734982

  16. Amplitude and frequency content analysis of optoacoustic signals in laser heated ex-vivo tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderoute, Annie

    Laser thermal therapy involves heating tissue using light to temperatures between 55 °C and 95 °C for several minutes resulting in coagulation and cell death. This treatment method has been under investigation for use as a minimally invasive method for eradicating solid tumors and cancer cells. Optoacoustic imaging involves exposing optically absorbing media to nanosecond pulsed laser light causing rapid localized heating and inducing acoustic waves to be detected by wideband transducers. It has been proposed as a real-time, noninvasive method for monitoring laser thermal therapy. This thesis investigates the use of optoacoustics to discriminate between native and coagulated ex-vivo tissues (porcine tenderloin muscle, bovine liver and bovine kidney). Tissues were heated using a 1000 mum core optical fibre coupled to an 810 nm diode laser to generate lesions. Samples were scanned at 1064 nm using a prototype reverse-mode optoacoustic system consisting of a pulsed laser coupled to a bifurcated fibre bundle, and an 8 element annular array wideband ultrasound transducer with a central frequency of ˜5 MHz. Thermal coagulation effects were analyzed using optoacoustic signal amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis. Significant differences (p<0.05) in optoacoustic signals, between native and coagulated porcine muscle, were observed with both amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis methods. Inconsistencies in the amplitude-based analysis were observed in the bovine liver and bovine kidney. Significant differences between native and coagulated bovine liver tissues were observed in two of the three frequency parameters of interest (slope and midband fit, p<0.05). No significant differences between native and coagulated bovine kidney tissues using frequency-based analysis. Amplitude-based analysis methods take advantage of the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of the tissues, while the frequency-based method extracts metrics related physical parameters of

  17. Content of trans fatty acids in human cheek epithelium: comparison with serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ransi A; Bahl, Vinay K; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, V; Roy, Ambuj; Golandaz, Smita; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy

    2013-01-01

    Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA), which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 (P < 0.02) and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (P < 0.019). This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake. PMID:24222900

  18. Characterization of ferredoxin, flavodoxin, and rubredoxin from Clostridium formicoaceticum grown in media with high and low iron contents.

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, S W; Ljungdahl, L G

    1984-01-01

    Ferredoxin, flavodoxin, and rubredoxin were purified to homogeneity from Clostridium formicoaceticum and characterized. Variation of the iron concentration of the growth medium caused substantial changes in the concentrations of ferredoxin and flavodoxin but not of rubredoxin. The ferredoxin has a molecular weight of 6,000 and is a four iron-four sulfur protein with eight cysteine residues. The spectrum is similar to that of other ferredoxins. The molar extinction coefficients are 22.6 X 10(3) and 17.6 X 10(3) at 280 and 390 nm, respectively. From 100 g wet weight of cells grown with 3.6 microM iron and with 40 microM iron, 5 and 20 mg offerredoxin were isolated, respectively. The molecular weight of rubredoxin is 5,800 and it contains one iron and four cysteines. The UV-visible absorption spectrum is dissimilar to those of other rubredoxins in that the 373 nm absorption peak is quite symmetric, lacking the characteristic 350-nm shoulder found in other rubredoxins. The flavodoxin is a 14,500-molecular-weight protein which contains 1 mol of flavin mononucleotide per mol of protein. It forms a stable, blue semiquinone upon light irradiation in the presence of EDTA or during enzymatic reduction. When cells were grown in low-iron medium, flavodoxin constituted at least 2% of the soluble cell protein; however, it was not detected in extracts of cells grown in high-iron medium. The rubredoxin and ferredoxin expressed during growth in low-iron and high-iron media are identical as judged by iron, inorganic sulfide, and amino acid analysis, as well as light absorption spectroscopy. PMID:6690418

  19. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    PubMed

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage. PMID:9429635

  20. Iron content of ferritin modulates its uptake by intestinal epithelium: implications for co-transport of prions.

    PubMed

    Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Luo, Xiu; Das, Dola; Singh, Ajay; Singh, Neena

    2010-01-01

    The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease of humans and Mad Cow Disease of cattle, CWD is caused by PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Since PrPSc is sufficient to cause infection and neurotoxicity if ingested by a susceptible host, it is important to understand the mechanism by which it crosses the stringent epithelial cell barrier of the small intestine. Possible mechanisms include co-transport with ferritin in ingested food and uptake by dendritic cells. Since ferritin is ubiquitously expressed and shares considerable homology among species, co-transport of PrPSc with ferritin can result in cross-species spread with deleterious consequences. We have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal epithelial cell barrier to understand the role of ferritin in mediating PrPSc uptake and transport. In this report, we demonstrate that PrPSc and ferritin from CWD affected deer and elk brains and scrapie from sheep resist degradation by digestive enzymes, and are transcytosed across a tight monolayer of human epithelial cells with significant efficiency. Likewise, ferritin from hamster brains is taken up by mouse intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, indicating that uptake of ferritin is not limited by species differences as described for prions. More importantly, the iron content of ferritin determines its efficiency of uptake and transport by Caco-2 cells and mouse models, providing insight into the mechanism(s) of ferritin and PrPSc uptake by intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:20429907

  1. Claudin-3 and occludin tissue content in the glands of colonic mucosa with and without a fecal stream.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real; de Campos, Fabio Guilherme Caserta Maryssael; de Carvalho, Viviel Rodrigo José; de Castro Ferreira, Caroline; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Pereira, José Aires

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of the proteins of the apical tight junctions (TJs) depends on a continuous supply of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in colonic epithelium. No studies have evaluated the tissue contents of the TJs proteins in colon segments devoid of a fecal stream. To evaluate the contents of claudin-3 and occludin in the glands of colonic mucosa devoid of a fecal stream. Forty-five rats underwent a diversion of the fecal stream via a left side colostomy and distal mucous fistula. Three groups of 15 animals each were sacrificed at 6, 12 or 18 weeks after surgery. The presence and severity of colitis were defined by histology and inflammation grading scales, respectively. The expression of claudin-3 and occludin were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and their contents were evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate the results at a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). The colonic epithelium without a fecal stream had a higher degree of inflammation. Colonic glands without a fecal stream showed a reduction in claudin-3 content independent of the time and reduction in occludin content after 12 weeks of intestinal exclusion. The content of claudin-3 and occludin were mainly reduced at the apical surfaces of the colon glands, whereas segments retaining the fecal stream were maintained. The content of claudin-3 was not reduced with time, although the levels of occludin were reduced after 6 weeks and did not vary thereafter. Deficiencies in SCFAs decreased the content of claudin-3 and occludin in colonic glands with the areas of worst inflammation, confirming the importance of an adequate supply of SCFAs in maintaining the integrity of TJ proteins. PMID:25649016

  2. Postmortem tissue contents of {sup 241}Am in a person with a massive acute exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McInroy, J.F.; Kathren, R.L.; Toohey, R.E. |

    1995-09-01

    {sup 241}Am was determined radiochemically in the tissues of USTUR Case 246, a 76-y-old man who died of cardiovascular disease 11 y after massive percutaneous exposure following a chemical explosion in a glove box. This worker was treated extensively with a chelation drug, DTPA, for over 4 y after exposure. The estimate {sup 241}Am deposition at the time of death was 540 kBq, of which 90% was in the skeleton, 5.1% in the liver, and 3.5% in muscle and fat. Among the soft tissues, the highest concentrations were observed in liver (22 Bq g{sup -1}), certain cartilaginous structures such as the larynx (15 Bq g{sup -1}) and the red marrow (9.7 Bq g{sup -1}), as compared with the mean soft tissue concentration of approximately 1 Bq g{sup -1}. Concentration in muscle was approximately that of the soft tissue average, while concentrations in the pancreas, a hilar lymph node and fat were less than the average. Concentrations in bone ash were inversely related to the ratio of ash weight to wet weight a surrogate for bone volume-to-surface ratio. the distribution of activity in this case is reasonable consistent with that observed in another human case, when allowance is made for chelation therapy, and also tends to support more recent models of {sup 241}Am metabolism. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Corneal tissue water content mapping with THz imaging: preliminary clinical results (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Deng, Sophie X.; Taylor, Zachary; Grundfest, Warren

    2016-03-01

    Well-regulated corneal water content is critical for ocular health and function and can be adversely affected by a number of diseases and injuries. Current clinical practice limits detection of unhealthy corneal water content levels to central corneal thickness measurements performed by ultrasound or optical coherence tomography. Trends revealing increasing or decreasing corneal thickness are fair indicators of corneal water content by individual measurements are highly inaccurate due to the poorly understood relationship between corneal thickness and natural physiologic variation. Recently the utility of THz imaging to accuarately measure corneal water content has been explored on with rabbit models. Preliminary experiments revealed that contact with dielectric windows confounded imaging data and made it nearly impossible to deconvolve thickness variations due to contact from thickness variations due to water content variation. A follow up study with a new optical design allowed the acquisition of rabbit data and the results suggest that the observed, time varying contrast was due entirely to the water dynamics of the cornea. This paper presents the first ever in vivo images of human cornea. Five volunteers with healthy cornea were recruited and their eyes were imaged three times over the course of a few minutes with our novel imaging system. Noticeable changes in corneal reflectivity were observed and attributed to the drying of the tear film. The results suggest that clinically compatible, non-contact corneal imaging is feasible and indicate that signal acquired from non-contact imaging of the cornea is a complicated coupling of stromal water content and tear film.

  4. Absolute Reticulocyte Count and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content as Predictors of Early Response to Exclusive Oral Iron in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Emilia; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Ricceri, Fulvio; Aurucci, Maria Luigia; Mazzone, Raffaela; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    We report data regarding kinetic of response to oral iron in 34 iron deficiency anemia children. Twenty-four/34 patients (70.5%) reached reference value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration for age and sex at day + 30 from the beginning of treatment (complete early responders (CERs)), and 4/34 (12%) reached an Hb concentration at least 50% higher than the original (partial early responders (PERs)). CHr at T1 (within 7 days from the beginning of treatment) was significantly different in the different groups (22.95 in CERs versus 18.41 in other patients; p = 0.001; 22.42 in early responders versus 18.07 in NERs; p = 0.001). Relative increase of CHr from T0 to T1 resulted significantly higher in CERs than in other patients (0.21 versus 0.11, p = 0.042) and in early responders than in NERs (0.22 versus 0.004, p = 0.006). Multivariate logistic models revealed a higher probability of being a complete early responder due to relative increase of ARC from T0 to T1 [OR (95% CI) = 44.95 (1.54-1311.98)] and to CHr at T1 [OR (95% CI) =3.18 (1.24-8.17)]. Our preliminary data confirm CHr as early and accurate predictor of hematological response to oral iron. PMID:27092272

  5. Absolute Reticulocyte Count and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content as Predictors of Early Response to Exclusive Oral Iron in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Emilia; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Ricceri, Fulvio; Aurucci, Maria Luigia; Mazzone, Raffaela; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    We report data regarding kinetic of response to oral iron in 34 iron deficiency anemia children. Twenty-four/34 patients (70.5%) reached reference value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration for age and sex at day + 30 from the beginning of treatment (complete early responders (CERs)), and 4/34 (12%) reached an Hb concentration at least 50% higher than the original (partial early responders (PERs)). CHr at T1 (within 7 days from the beginning of treatment) was significantly different in the different groups (22.95 in CERs versus 18.41 in other patients; p = 0.001; 22.42 in early responders versus 18.07 in NERs; p = 0.001). Relative increase of CHr from T0 to T1 resulted significantly higher in CERs than in other patients (0.21 versus 0.11, p = 0.042) and in early responders than in NERs (0.22 versus 0.004, p = 0.006). Multivariate logistic models revealed a higher probability of being a complete early responder due to relative increase of ARC from T0 to T1 [OR (95% CI) = 44.95 (1.54–1311.98)] and to CHr at T1 [OR (95% CI) =3.18 (1.24–8.17)]. Our preliminary data confirm CHr as early and accurate predictor of hematological response to oral iron. PMID:27092272

  6. Photoinduced effect of hypericin on collagen and tissues with high collagen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yova, Dido M.; Theodossiou, Theodossis; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    The photoinduced effects of hypericin, a polycyclic quinone, on collagen has been investigated. It was found that after laser irradiation at both 532 nm and 337 nm, the spectral form of triple helix structure collagen fluorescence, changed to a spectral profile bearing resemblance to that of its polypeptide single chain counterpart, gelatin, or heated collagen. The effect of Chlorin e6 on collagen was also investigated and proved to be dissimilar to that of hypericin and not indicative of profound structural alterations. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of 1064 nm- nanosecond laser radiation in collagen was studied. While it was very efficient for pure collagen, the signal intensity was found to diminish by at least an order of magnitude after hypericin photosensitization or heating. The above noted fluorescence spectra form alteration was also observed in a smaller scale in collagen rich chicken tissue (tendon). Non sensitized chicken tendon tissue exhibited very efficient SHG, unlike skin and artery samples.

  7. Sensing lanthanide metal content in biological tissues with magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Dina V; Gonzalez, Sandra I; Li, Jessica F; Pagel, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The development and validation of MRI contrast agents consisting of a lanthanide chelate often requires a determination of the concentration of the agent in ex vivo tissue. We have developed a protocol that uses 70% nitric acid to completely digest tissue samples that contain Gd(III), Dy(III), Tm(III), Eu(III), or Yb(III) ions, or the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide. NMR spectroscopy of coaxial tubes containing a digested sample and a separate control solution of nitric acid was used to rapidly and easily measure the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift caused by each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide. Each BMS shift was shown to be linearly correlated with the concentration of each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide in the 70% nitric acid solution and in digested rat kidney and liver tissues. These concentration measurements had outstanding precision, and also had good accuracy for concentrations ≥10 mM for Tm(III) Eu(III), and Yb(III), and ≥3 mM for Gd(III), gadodiamide, and Dy(III). Improved sample handling methods are needed to improve measurement accuracy for samples with lower concentrations. PMID:24152931

  8. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. PMID:25624225

  9. Occupancy of the iron binding sites of human transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Huebers, H A; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Csiba, E; Finch, C A

    1984-01-01

    The in vivo distribution of iron between the binding sites of transferrin was examined. Plasma was obtained from normal subjects under basal conditions and after in vitro and in vivo iron loading. Independent methods, including measurement of the transferrin profile after isoelectric focusing and cross immunoelectrophoresis, and determination of the iron content in the separated fractions were in agreement that there was a random distribution of iron on binding sites. This held true with in vitro loading, when iron was increased by intestinal absorption and with loading from the reticuloendothelial system. The data indicate that the distribution of apo-, monoferric, and diferric transferrins is predictable on the basis of the plasma transferrin saturation and negate the concept that iron loading of transferrin in vitro is a selective process with possible functional consequences in tissue iron delivery. PMID:6589596

  10. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ► Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ► The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ► The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs

  11. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Koné, W Mamidou; Koffi, A G; Bomisso, E L; Tra Bi, F H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been a source of succour in the control of many diseases in developing countries and anaemia is no exception. In this study, ethnomedical survey was carried out for recording medicinal plants used in Northern and South-Eastern Côte d'Ivoire against anaemia. Also iron content was determined for some of the recorded plants using phenanthroline method. Thirty (30) medicinal plants, covering 28 genera and 22 families were recorded. These plants were used to prepare 30 receipts for the treatment of anaemia and aggravating factors such as malaria and gastro-intestinal helminthes. Eleven (11) of these medicinal plants showed presence of iron in various quantities. The most promising were Tectona grandis, Amaranthus spinosus and Stylosanthes erecta which contained the highest iron contents viz; 266.6, 236.6 and 206.6 mg/100 g respectively. They were followed by Hoslundia opposita, Imperata cylindrica, Cajanus cajan, Thalia geniculata and Milicia excelsa. These results lend credence to the traditional use of these plants in Cote d'Ivoire's ethnomedicine for the treatment of anaemia. PMID:23983324

  12. Asbestos content of lung tissue in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A study of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Kraynie, Alyssa; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Oury, Tim D; Roggli, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Lung tissue from 42 peritoneal mesothelioma cases was analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry. There were 34 men and 8 women with a mean age of 61 ± 10 years. Also, 17% of cases had histologically confirmed asbestosis, and 26% had only parietal pleural plaques. The asbestos body count exceeded our normal range in 22 of 42 cases (52%). Cases with asbestos-related pulmonary disease had higher fiber burdens than those without. The vast majority of fibers were commercial amphiboles (amosite with lesser amounts of crocidolite). These findings concur with previously published epidemiological observations. PMID:27281118

  13. Different exercise protocols improve metabolic syndrome markers, tissue triglycerides content and antioxidant status in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increase in the prevalence of obesity entails great expenditure for governments. Physical exercise is a powerful tool in the combat against obesity and obesity-associated diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of three different exercise protocols on metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in adult Wistar rats (120 days old). Methods Animals were randomly divided into four groups: the control (C) group was kept sedentary throughout the study; the aerobic group (A) swam1 h per day, 5 days per week, at 80% lactate threshold intensity; the strength group (S) performed strength training with four series of 10 jumps, 5 days per week; and the Concurrent group (AS) was trained using the aerobic protocol three days per week and the strength protocol two days per week. Results Groups A and S exhibited a reduction in body weight compared to group C. All exercised animals showed a reduction in triglyceride concentrations in fatty tissues and the liver. Exercised animals also exhibited a reduction in lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS) and an increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity. Animals in group A had increased levels of liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Conclusions We concluded that all physical activity protocols improved the antioxidant systems of the animals and decreased the storage of triglycerides in the investigated tissues. PMID:22182600

  14. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world's population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes) has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains) and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA) metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings (NTS). Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of yellow stripe like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II) complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content. PMID:23755054

  15. Glutamyl cysteine dipeptide suppresses ferritin expression and alleviates liver injury in iron-overload rat model.

    PubMed

    Salama, Samir A; Al-Harbi, Mohammad S; Abdel-Bakky, Mohamed S; Omar, Hany A

    2015-08-01

    Despite its biological importance, iron is a pro-oxidant element and its accumulation results in tissue injury. Iron overload diseases such as thalassemia and hereditary hemochromatosis are commonly associated with liver tissue injury. Glutamyl cysteine (GC) is a dipeptide with antioxidant properties owing to its cysteine residue. The aim of the current work was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GC against iron overload-induced liver injury. Rats were distributed into five groups; normal control, GC control, iron-treated (150 mg/kg ip injection) and both iron and GC-treated (total iron: 150 mg/kg ip and GC: 50 mg or 100 mg/kg/day ip for 30 days). Our results showed that treatment with GC at the two-dose levels attenuated iron-induced liver tissue injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum activity of liver enzymes ALT and AST, amelioration of iron-induced histopathological alteration, suppression of iron-induced oxidative stress as demonstrated by significant reduction of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content beside elevation of total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione and the antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD in liver tissue. In addition, GC significantly reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β and activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3 in liver tissues. To our surprise, GC reduced liver iron content and ferritin expression, denoting the possible iron chelation competency. Collectively our results highlight evidence for the hepatoprotective effect of GC against iron overload-induced liver injury that is potentially mediated through suppression of oxidative tissue injury, attenuation of inflammatory response, amelioration of hepatocellular apoptosis and possibly through iron chelation. PMID:26093100

  16. Methodologies of tissue preservation and analysis of the glycogen content of the broiler chick liver.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L W; Keirs, R W; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D

    2007-12-01

    The current study was performed to develop convenient, rapid, reliable, and pragmatic methodologies by which to harvest and preserve liver tissue glycogen and to analyze its levels within reasonable limits of quantification and with extended chromophore stability. Absorbance values decreased by 2 h and again by 24 h after preparation of the iodine-potassium iodide chromophore, whereas absorbance values of the phenol-sulfuric acid chromophore remained constant over the same time period. These absorbance trends for each chromophore followed full color development within 5 min after combining the analyte with the respective chromophore reagent. Use of the phenol-sulfuric acid reagent allowed for a 10-fold reduction in assay limits of detection and quantification when compared with the iodine-potassium iodide reagent. Furthermore, glycogen concentration-absorbance relationships were affected by the source (i.e., rabbit liver vs. bovine liver) of glycogen standards when the iodine-potassium iodide chromophore was used, but the source of the standards had no influence when the phenol-sulfuric acid chromophore was used. The indifference of the phenol-sulfuric acid method to the glycogen source, as exhibited by similar linear regressions of absorbance, may be attributed to actual determination of glucose subunit concentrations after complete glycogen hydrolysis by sulfuric acid. This is in contrast to the actual measurement of whole glycogen, which may exhibit source- or time-related molecular structural differences. The iodine-potassium iodide methodology is a test of whole glycogen concentrations; therefore, it may be influenced by glycogen structural differences. Liver tissue sample weight (between 0.16 and 0.36 g) and processing, which included mincing, immediate freezing, or refrigeration in 10% perchloric acid for 1 wk prior to tissue grinding, had no effect on glycogen concentrations that were analyzed by using the phenol-sulfuric acid reagent. These results

  17. Correlation between carbon activity and carbon content in α-iron in liquid sodium negative electrode of liquid metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sang Hun; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Jung Ki; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Non-metallic elements such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in liquid sodium exert a significant effect on the material behaviour of cell construction materials in liquid metal battery systems. Austenitic Fe-18%Cr-8%Ni foil and α-iron foil are equilibrated at 550 °C in sodium, and, subsequently, the concentration of carbon in the foils is analysed. A new relationship has been obtained between carbon activity and carbon concentration in α-iron foil, and is compared with the previously developed ones involving 304 SS foil reference samples. An equilibrium method has been developed to measure the activity of carbon in liquid sodium by using α-iron with this new expression. The results show similar values to those obtained with the 304 SS foil reference samples.

  18. Over-expression of the MxIRT1 gene increases iron and zinc content in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song; Han, Rui; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei-Bing; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce Fe-biofortified rice with MxIRT1 to solve the Fe-deficiency problem, plant expression vectors of pCAMBIA1302-MxIRT1:GFP and pCAMBIA1302-anti MxIRT1:GFP were constructed that led to successful production of transgenic rice. The transgenic plant phenotypes showed that the expression of endogenous OsIRT1 was suppressed by anti-MxIRT1 in antisense lines that acted as an opposing control, while sense lines had a higher tolerance under Zn- and Fe-deficient conditions. The iron and zinc concentration in T3 seeds increased by three times in sense lines when compared to the wild type. To understand the MxIRT1 cadmium uptake, the MxIRT1 cadmium absorption trait was compared with AtIRT1 and OsIRT1 in transgenic rice protoplasts, and it was found that MxIRT1 had the lowest Cd uptake capacity. MxIRT1 transgenic tobacco-cultured bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells and rice lines were subjected to different Fe conditions and the results from the non-invasive micro-test technique showed that iron was actively transported compared to cadmium as long as iron was readily available in the environment. This suggests that MxIRT1 is a good candidate gene for plant Fe and Zn biofortification. PMID:25099285

  19. Estimation of the content of fat and parenchyma in breast tissue using MRI T1 histograms and phantoms.

    PubMed

    Boston, Raymond C; Schnall, Mitchell D; Englander, Sarah A; Landis, J Richard; Moate, Peter J

    2005-05-01

    Mammographic breast density has been correlated with breast cancer risk. Estimation of the volumetric composition of breast tissue using three-dimensional MRI has been proposed, but accuracy depends upon the estimation methods employed. The use of segmentation based on T1 relaxation rates allows quantitative estimates of fat and parenchyma volume, but is limited by partial volume effects. An investigation employing phantom breast tissue composed of various combinations of chicken breast (to represent parenchyma) and cooking fats was carried out to elucidate the factors that influence MRI T1 histograms. Using the phantoms, T1 histograms and their known fat and parenchyma composition, a logistic distribution function was derived to describe the apportioning of the T1 histogram to fat and parenchyma. This function and T1 histograms were then used to predict the fat and parenchyma content of breasts from 14 women. Using this method, the composition of the breast tissue in the study population was as follows: fat 69.9+/-22.9% and parenchyma 30.1+/-22.9%. PMID:15919606

  20. Relationships between silicon content and glutathione peroxidase activity in tissues of rats receiving lithium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2008-02-01

    Lithium salts are widely used in psychiatry, but their presence in organism can result in both beneficial and adverse effects. Silicon, the third most abundant trace element in humans as well as antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) play important roles in organism. The disturbance of their level can cause severe disorders. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of Li2CO3 administration in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks on Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle in rats. The concentrations of provided solutions were 0.7, 1.4, 2.6, 3.6, 7.1 and 10.7 mmol Li+ x dm-3. GPx activity was decreased versus control as a consequence of Li treatment, particularly in kidney and brain. This effect could be suggested to contribute to renal abnormalities which could occur during Li therapy. Si tissue level was significantly enhanced versus control in liver and femoral muscle in groups receiving high Li doses. In brain no well-marked changes were observed, whereas in kidney we observed the depletion in low-Li-groups, restoration of Si level in higher-Li-groups and unexpected decrease in the highest-Li-group. Positive correlations between Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of kidney (r = 0.677) and brain (r = 0.790) as well as negative correlation (r = -0.819) in femoral muscle were found. We consider that our results give some reason for suggesting that monitoring of silicon level in patients undergoing Li therapy could be recommended. However, more investigations should be performed, particularly regarding the relationships between Si and GPx in blood and urine Si excretion during lithium administration. PMID:17447120

  1. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of Aesculus glabra and Aesculus parviflora walt.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Biernat, Agata

    2015-01-01

    In plants, flavonoids play an important role in biological processes. They are involved in UV-scavenging, fertility and disease resistance. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in Aesculus parviflora Walt. leaves and Aesculus glabra leaves partly suffering from attack by a leaf mining insect (C. ohridella). A total of 28 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in Aesculus parviflora and A. glabra leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polymeric procyanidins in leaves of Aesculus parviflora than in Aesculus glabra may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25635381

  2. Characterization of exogeous particale content: Of canine tissue urban vs. rural inhalation exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Jamell

    Exogenous zinc (Zn) is emerging as a serious contaminant in the environment. Yearly deposition of zinc particles line heavily traveled inner city roadways and less traveled rural roadways. Particle size for zinc ranges from approximately PM10 to PM 2.5 microm or less. These fine particles contain microscopic solids or liquids that can cause serious health problems. PM10 are considered to be "thoracic" sized particles, with the mass fraction of inhaled particles penetrating beyond the larynx. Whereas, PM2.5 are considered to be "respirable" sized particles, with the mass fraction of inhaled particles penetrating to the unciliated airways. Exogenous zinc can be used as a quantifiable marker to contrast the differences in exposures in canines originating from urban and rural environments. These exposures are analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and usage of a morphometric point counting method for a physical count and categorization of composition of inhaled retained particle content.

  3. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  4. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Castellini, J Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; Ballweber, Lora R

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from <1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. PMID:26283618

  5. Epigenetic regulation of iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiewen; Wang, Tianya; Ni, Zhongfu

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is one of the most important microelement required for plant growth and development because of its unique property of catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions. Iron deficiency impairs fundamental processes which could lead to a decrease in chlorophyll production and pollen fertility, thus influencing crop productivity and quality. However, iron in excess is toxic to the cell and is harmful to the plant. To exactly control the iron content in all tissues, plants have evolved many strategies to regulate iron homeostasis, which refers to 2 successive steps: iron uptake at the root surface, and iron distribution in vivo. In the last decades, a number of transporters and regulatory factors involved in this process have been isolated and identified. To cope with the complicated flexible environmental conditions, plants apply diverse mechanisms to regulate the expression and activity of these components. One of the most important mechanisms is epigenetic regulation of iron homeostasis. This review has been presented to provide an update on the information supporting the involvement of histone modifications in iron homeostasis and possible future course of the field. PMID:26313698

  6. Epigenetic regulation of iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jiewen; Wang, Tianya; Ni, Zhongfu

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is one of the most important microelement required for plant growth and development because of its unique property of catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions. Iron deficiency impairs fundamental processes which could lead to a decrease in chlorophyll production and pollen fertility, thus influencing crop productivity and quality. However, iron in excess is toxic to the cell and is harmful to the plant. To exactly control the iron content in all tissues, plants have evolved many strategies to regulate iron homeostasis, which refers to 2 successive steps: iron uptake at the root surface, and iron distribution in vivo. In the last decades, a number of transporters and regulatory factors involved in this process have been isolated and identified. To cope with the complicated flexible environmental conditions, plants apply diverse mechanisms to regulate the expression and activity of these components. One of the most important mechanisms is epigenetic regulation of iron homeostasis. This review has been presented to provide an update on the information supporting the involvement of histone modifications in iron homeostasis and possible future course of the field. PMID:26313698

  7. Friction and wear with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide in contact with iron base binary alloys in oil: Effects of alloying element and its content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a rider of 0.025-millimeter-radius, single-crystal silicon carbide in mineral oil. Results indicate that atomic size and content of alloying element play a dominant role in controlling the abrasive-wear and -friction properties of iron-base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction and groove height (wear volume) general alloy decrease, and the contact pressure increases in solute content. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic radius ratio with the decreasing rate of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of groove height (wear volume), and the increasing rate of contact pressure with increasing solute content C. Those rates increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases from unity.

  8. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normalizing 13C values of animal tissue for lipid content is necessary to accurately interpret food web relationships from stable isotope analysis. This is because lipids are 13C-depleted relative to proteins and carbohydrates, and because lipid content varies among speci...

  9. Mouse genetic background impacts both on iron and non-iron metals parameters and on their relationships.

    PubMed

    Cavey, Thibault; Ropert, Martine; de Tayrac, Marie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Island, Marie-Laure; Leroyer, Patricia; Bendavid, Claude; Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Iron is reported to interact with other metals. In addition, it has been shown that genetic background may impact iron metabolism. Our objective was to characterize, in mice of three genetic backgrounds, the links between iron and several non-iron metals. Thirty normal mice (C57BL/6, Balb/c and DBA/2; n = 10 for each group), fed with the same diet, were studied. Quantification of iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese, magnesium and rubidium was performed by ICP/MS in plasma, erythrocytes, liver and spleen. Transferrin saturation was determined. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. As previously reported, iron parameters were modulated by genetic background with significantly higher values for plasma iron parameters and liver iron concentration in DBA/2 and Balb/c strains. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was lower in DBA/2 mice. No iron parameter was correlated with hepcidin1 mRNA levels. Principal component analysis of the data obtained for non-iron metals indicated that metals parameters stratified the mice according to their genetic background. Plasma and tissue metals parameters that are dependent or independent of genetic background were identified. Moreover, relationships were found between plasma and tissue content of iron and some other metals parameters. Our data: (i) confirms the impact of the genetic background on iron parameters, (ii) shows that genetic background may also play a role in the metabolism of non-iron metals, (iii) identifies links between iron and other metals parameters which may have implications in the understanding and, potentially, the modulation of iron metabolism. PMID:26041486

  10. Influence of high-intensity exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroid treatment on rat tissue glycogen content.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Tatiana Sousa; Tanno, Ana Paula; Costa Sampaio Moura, Maria José; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2005-07-15

    To increase tissue glycogen content many athletes use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the literature concerning the effects of androgens on glycogen metabolism is conflicting. This study aimed to determine the influence of training and AAS on body weight (bw), triglycerides, glucose, tissue glycogen and transaminases levels. Male Wistar rats, randomized into four groups (sedentary vehicle (SV), sedentary AAS (SA), trained vehicle (TV) and trained AAS (TA)), were treated with nadrolone (5 mg/Kg, 2x/week, i.m.) or vehicle. Trained rats performed jumps into water (4 sets, 10 repetitions, 30 sec rest) carrying a 50-70% body wt-load strapped to the chest (5 days/week,6 weeks). Two days after the last session, the animals were killed (bifatorial ANOVA+Tukey test; P < 0.05). Trained animals presented lower bw (TV:345+/-7 vs. SV:380+/-7 and TA:328+/-4 vs SA:370+/-11 g) and triglycerides levels (TV:77+/-3 vs. SV:98+/-4 and TA:79+/-3 vs. SA:98+/-8 mg/dL) and higher glycogen content in liver (TV:5.3+/-0.2 vs. SV:3.9+/-0.1 and TA:5.3+/-0.3 vs. SA:4.6+/-0,2 mg/100 mg) and in gastrocnemious (TV:0.70+/-0.02 vs. SV:0.49+/-0.01 and TA:0.73+/-0.03 vs. SA:0.57+/-0.02 mg/100 mg) than sedentary ones. In the cardiac muscle, the association between training and AAS increased glycogen content (TA:0.19+/-0.01 > SV:0.13+/-0.01=TV:0.13+/-0.01=SA:0.14+/-0.01 mg/100 mg). In the soleus AAS increased glycogen (SA:0.53+/-0.03 vs. SV:0.43+/-0.01 and TA:0.58+/-0.02 vs. TV:0.48+/-0.01 mg/100 mg). Exercise training and AAS had no effect on blood glucose and transaminases levels. Training and AAS effects on glycogen supercompensation are tissue-dependent and the effects of association between them were only observed in the cardiac muscle. These data emphasize the necessity of more studies to confirm greater effects of AAS than those promoted by physical exercise. PMID:15904936