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1

Noninvasive assessment of skin iron content in hemodialysis patients. An index of parenchymal tissue iron content  

SciTech Connect

Iron overload has been described in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid, noninvasive method for determination of skin iron by the technique of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS). Thirty-five patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment entered the study and were compared with 25 normal controls. Since pathological skin iron deposition occurs mainly at the dermal-epidermal junction in the basal cells of the epidermis, measurements were made in the thenar eminence representing mainly epidermal tissue (FeE), and in the forearm representative mainly of dermis (FeD). The mean +/- SD FeE iron concentrations were equivalent to 14.5 +/- 8.8 and 18.2 +/- 10.2 parts per million wet weight tissue (ppm) and both were significantly higher than in normal controls in which they averaged 9.2 +/- 2.5 ppm (P less than 0.005) and 10.2 +/- 3.2 ppm (P less than 0.001), respectively. There was significant positive correlation between individual skin iron determinations with the total number of blood transfusions received, the rate of blood transfusion, and with serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow hemosiderin was examined in six patients and showed a similar trend. Despite correlation only with indirect indices of tissue iron, our findings suggest that DXS may serve as a reliable quick method for noninvasive estimation of nonreticuloendothelial tissue iron deposition in hemodialysis patients suspected of having transfusional iron overload. The method may be valuable in monitoring the effects of chelation therapy.

Friedlaender, M.M.; Kaufman, B.; Rubinger, D.; Moreb, J.; Popovtzer, M.M.; Goredetsky, R.

1988-07-01

2

Elemental analysis of lung tissue particles and intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophages in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease occurred by idiopathic (autoimmune) or secondary to particle inhalation. The in-air microparticle induced X-ray emission (in-air micro-PIXE) system performs elemental analysis of materials by irradiation with a proton microbeam, and allows visualization of the spatial distribution and quantitation of various elements with very low background noise. The aim of this study was to assess the secondary PAP due to inhalation of harmful particles by employing in-air micro-PIXE analysis for particles and intracellular iron in parafin-embedded lung tissue specimens obtained from a PAP patient comparing with normal lung tissue from a non-PAP patient. The iron inside alveolar macrophages was stained with Berlin blue, and its distribution was compared with that on micro-PIXE images. Results The elements composing particles and their locations in the PAP specimens could be identified by in-air micro-PIXE analysis, with magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), scandium (Sc), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganase (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) being detected. Si was the major component of the particles. Serial sections stained by Berlin blue revealed accumulation of sideromacrophages that had phagocytosed the particles. The intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophage from the surfactant-rich area in PAP was higher than normal lung tissue in control lung by both in-air micro-PIXE analysis and Berlin blue staining. Conclusion The present study demonstrated the efficacy of in-air micro-PIXE for analyzing the distribution and composition of lung particles. The intracellular iron content of single cells was determined by simultaneous two-dimensional and elemental analysis of paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections. The results suggest that secondary PAP is associated with exposure to inhaled particles and accumulation of iron in alveolar macrophages.

2011-01-01

3

Comparison of injectable iron complexes in their ability to iron load tissues and to induce oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and copper homeostasis have been studied in various tissues after iron-loading with the polynuclear ferric hydroxide carbohydrate complexes, iron dextran, iron polymaltose, iron sucrose and iron gluconate for four weeks. There were significant increases in the iron content of the different rat tissues compared to controls, with the exception of the brain, which showed no change in its iron

R. Legssyer; P. Geisser; Harry McArdle; R. R. Crichton; R. J. Ward

2003-01-01

4

Iron content (PIXE) in competent and incompetent veins is related to the vein wall morphology and tissue antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Impaired venous drainage of the lower extremities determines a cascade of pathologic events leading to chronic venous disease (CVD). It is believed that the one cause of CVD is red blood cell extravasation and local iron overload that could generate free radicals and iron-dependent inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between: the intracellular iron deposits in varicose veins and tissue oxidative state measured by: the Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (Fe(PIXE)), (tSOD), (tGPx), (tTBARs) and (boxDNA). Patients with diagnosed CVD were qualified for surgical procedure. Entire trunk of the great saphenous vein (GSV) was extracted. Part located near medial ankle was considered competent (C) in duplex ultrasonography (USG) examination. The incompetent (I) part was extracted from GSV where USG showed incompetent valves and massive venous reflux. The difference between local tFe(PIXE), tTBARS, boxDNA, tGPx, tSOD in incompetent and competent part of vein tissue was statistically significant. Intima/media ratio directly correlated with Fe(PIXE) C/I concentration. Iron deposition in competent vs incompetent part of vein was also related to the oxidative stress parameters (boxDNA). The findings from this pilot study suggest that Fe(PIXE) measurement may be useful for explaining the progression of chronic venous disease. PMID:22321300

Krzy?ciak, Wirginia; Kowalska, Joanna; Kózka, Mariusz; Papie?, Monika A; Kwiatek, Wojciech M

2012-01-09

5

Iron biomineralization of brain tissue and neurodegenerative disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain is an organ with a high concentration of iron in specific areas, particularly in the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the red nucleus. In certain pathological states, such as iron overload disease and neurodegenerative disorders, a disturbed iron metabolism can lead to increased accumulation of iron not only in these areas, but also in the brain regions that are typically low in iron content. Recent studies of the physical and magnetic properties of metalloproteins, and in particular the discovery of biogenic magnetite in human brain tissue, have raised new questions about the role of biogenic iron formations in living organisms. Further investigations revealed the presence of magnetite-like crystalline structures in human ferritin, and indicated that released ferritin iron might act as promoter of oxidative damage to tissue, therefore contributing to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. The purpose of this work was to examine the elemental composition and structure of iron deposits in normal brain tissue as well as tissue affected by neurodegenerative disorders. Employing the methods of X-ray microfocus fluorescence mapping, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (XAFS), and light and electron microscopic examinations allows one to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative data with respect to the cellular distribution and chemical state of iron at levels not detected previously. The described tissue preparation technique allows not only satisfactory XAS iron elemental imaging in situ but also multimodal examination with light and electron microscopes of the same samples. The developed protocol has assured consistent and reproducible results on relatively large sections of flat-embedded tissue. The resulting tissue samples were adequate for XAS examination as well as sufficiently well-preserved for future microscopy studies. The continued development of this technique should lead to major advances in mapping iron anomalies and the related chemical and structural information directly to cells and tissue structures in human brain tissue. At present this is done primarily by iron staining methods and any information on the relationship between iron distribution and cellular structures obtained this way is limited. Iron staining also offers no information on the specific compounds of iron that are present. This can be vitally important as the form of iron [including its oxidation state] in the human body can determine whether it plays a detrimental or beneficial role in neurophysiological processes.

Mikhaylova (Mikhailova), Albina

6

Iron and phosphate content of rat ferritin heteropolymers.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to relate the iron and phosphate content of ferritin to its subunit composition. Ferritins from various tissues were separated according to their subunit composition by anion exchange chromatography and according to their iron content by density-gradient centrifugation. Iron and phosphate contents were not related to subunit composition. Recombinant rat liver ferritin heteropolymers of different subunit composition (1, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 17 H chains per 24 mer) were maximally loaded with iron, using ceruloplasmin and phosphate. All loaded approximately the same amount of iron and phosphate (2250 and 380 atoms, respectively). The iron and phosphate content of all ferritin, including the maximally loaded recombinant ferritin heteropolymers, fit an equation we previously reported: [Fe] = 4404 - 5.61 [Pi] (D. deSilva et al., 1993, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 303, 451-455). These results suggest that the amount of iron and apparently the space within the core of ferritin were not related to different subunit composition. PMID:9735170

Juan, S H; Aust, S D

1998-09-15

7

Impact of epidermal desquamation on tissue stores of iron  

PubMed Central

Background Although several billion corneocytes are shed from human skin daily, metabolic studies from 50 years ago led to the conclusion that corneocyte desquamation had no measurable impact on systemic protein or iron status in humans. Objective To measure iron content of internal organs after introducing local genetic changes in epidermis that alter iron metabolism in skin. Methods Iron was measured in tissues and blood from groups of animals 7 weeks after weaning in three different mouse models expressing a transgene in epidermis: a hyperproliferation model in which the HPV16 E7 gene causes a 3-fold increase in epidermal turnover; an epidermal iron sink model in which overexpression of the transferrin receptor causes a 3–4 fold increase of iron in epidermis; a systemic hemochromatosis knockout model that has been crossed with the epidermal iron sink model. Results In the hemochromatosis model with the iron sink transgene in epidermis, there was a statistically significant reduction in non-heme iron in serum and in the liver and kidney. In all models there was a statistically significant reduction in non-heme iron in the kidney. Conclusion Local changes in iron metabolism in epidermis can have a measurable impact on systemic iron metabolism. By implication, disruptions in epidermal homeostasis might affect systemic levels of trace nutrients, and circulating toxins might be remediated by sequestering them in epidermis.

Milstone, Leonard M.; Hu, Rong-Hua; Dziura, James D.; Zhou, Jing

2012-01-01

8

Erythrocyte ferritin content in idiopathic haemochromatosis and alcoholic liver disease with iron overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erythrocyte ferritin content was measured in patients with either idiopathic haemochromatosis or alcoholic liver disease and iron overload to define its value as a marker for an excess of tissue iron. The mean erythrocyte ferritin content in patients with untreated idiopathic haemochromatosis was increased 60-fold and fell with phlebotomy. After phlebotomy many patients had an increased red cell ferritin

Martin B Van Der Weyden; Hubert Fong; H H Salem; R G Batey; F J Dudley

1983-01-01

9

Iron Content and Reducing Capacity of Granites and Bentonite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The iron contents in various granites and in bentonite have been determined. For granites, the content is usually in the range 1-9% (weight) and 2.5-3% for bentonite. Most of the iron is divalent in the granites (70-90%); in bentonite the divalent fractio...

B. Torstenfelt B. Allard W. Johansson T. Ittner

1983-01-01

10

Iron content in groundwaters of Visakhapatnam environs, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace elements are essential for human health. However, excess concentrations of these elements cause health disorders. A\\u000a study has been carried out in Visakhapatnam environs, Andhra Pradesh, India to ascertain the causes for the origin and distribution\\u000a of iron content in the groundwaters. Fifty groundwater samples are collected and analyzed for iron. The content of iron ranges\\u000a from 400 to

N. Subba Rao

2008-01-01

11

Low brain iron content in idiopathic restless legs syndrome patients detected by phase imaging.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to use phase imaging to evaluate brain iron content in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS). METHODS: Fifteen RLS patients and 15 healthy controls were studied using gradient-echo imaging. Phase analysis was performed on localized brain regions of interest selected on phase maps, sensitive to paramagnetic tissue. Differences between the 2 subject groups were evaluated using ANCOVA including age as a covariate. RESULTS: Significantly higher phase values were present in the RLS patients compared with healthy controls at the level of the substantia nigra, thalamus, putamen, and pallidum, indicating reduced iron content in several regions of the brain of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: We have used MRI phase analysis to study brain iron content in idiopathic RLS in vivo for the first time. Our results support the hypothesis of reduced brain iron content in RLS patients, which may have an important role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23780623

Rizzo, Giovanni; Manners, David; Testa, Claudia; Tonon, Caterina; Vetrugno, Roberto; Marconi, Sara; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Pizza, Fabio; Provini, Federica; Malucelli, Emil; Gramegna, Laura Ludovica; Lodi, Raffaele

2013-06-18

12

Concentration-dependent sedimentation properties of ferritin: implications for estimation of iron contents of serum ferritins  

SciTech Connect

Serum ferritins from various sources sedimented at lower densities than tissue ferritins in sucrose gradient centrifugation systems. The sedimentation patterns of ferritins, however, were shown to be dependent on the concentration of the protein; as the concentration decreased the protein appeared to sediment at lower densities. Thus, at the low concentration levels usually used for analysis of serum ferritin, tissue ferritins also sedimented in the same lower density regions. Iron labeling experiments indicated that the sedimentation changes upon dilution were not due to release of iron or was there any indication that the protein dissociated into subunits. The anomalous sedimentation behavior of serum ferritin should therefore not be interpreted in terms of its iron content. The disclosure that serum ferritins may have full complements of iron is counter to the prevalent view that serum ferritins are low iron forms and has potential implications with regard to the sources and possible function of this protein in the circulation.

Niitsu, Y.; Adachi, C.; Takahashi, F.; Goto, Y.; Kohgo, Y.; Urushizaki, I.; Listowsky, I.

1985-04-01

13

Trace Element Contents in Iron Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of lithophile trace elements in most iron meteorites are extremely low with Si, Al, V, Cr at sub-ppm level, reflecting low temperature equilibration. Conditions for metal segregation at high temperatures cannot be inferred.

Zipfel, J.; Palme, H.; Chaussidon, M.

2013-09-01

14

Iron, zinc, copper and phytate content of standardized Nigerian dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative samples of 20 standardized Nigerian dishes were analyzed for Iron, Copper and Zinc using the automated method of flame atomic absorption spectrophotoscopy (AAS) and for phytate using a colorimetric method. Iron contents ranged from 2.28mg\\/100g for cowpeas and yam pottage to 22.10mg\\/100g for Apapafufu with tuwon shinkafa. The zinc contents ranged from 0.43mg\\/100g for stewed beans and fried plantain

O. O Onabanjo; Clara R. B Oguntona

2003-01-01

15

The ubiquinone content of animal tissues  

PubMed Central

1. A method was developed for the analysis of ubiquinone in animal tissues and the recovery of added ubiquinone tested in liver of the rat, Crocodylus porosus and Squalus acanthias. 2. The ubiquinone content of heart, liver and gut (or breast muscle in birds) was measured in 67 different animal species, selected to be representative of all the vertebrate classes. 3. The suggestion is advanced that the possession of appreciable amounts of endogenous tissue ubiquinone is usually characteristic of evolutionarily advanced vertebrates, and the biological and biochemical significance of the results is discussed.

Diplock, A. T.; Haslewood, G. A. D.

1967-01-01

16

Protective effects of baicalin and quercetin on an iron-overloaded mouse: comparison of liver, kidney and heart tissues.  

PubMed

Excessive accumulation of iron in the body can lead to organ injury. Some flavonoids which possess high affinity to iron can be used as iron chelators for curing iron overload diseases such as haemochromatosis. In this article, the effects of baicalin and quercetin on different mouse tissues (liver, kidney and heart) afflicted with iron overload-induced injury were studied. It was found that after administration of 500 mg kg?¹ iron dextran for 45 days, the degree of oxidative injury in the three organs was different. When iron dextran-induced iron-overloaded mice were fed a diet containing baicalin or quercetin (1% w/w), both flavonoids showed significant effects in suppressing iron overload-induced injury. The efficiencies of both flavonoids on different tissues varied. Both flavonoids caused a significant decrease of iron content in liver and kidney tissues but not in the heart, whereas the flavonoids were more efficient in inhibiting the increase of carbonyl content and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels in heart tissues. The results indicate that the protective effects of baicalin and quercetin on different tissues of iron-overloaded mice are different. PMID:21740280

Zhang, Yan; Gao, Zhonghong; Liu, Jiaqin; Xu, Zhihong

2011-07-01

17

Dietary iron concentration may influence aging process by altering oxidative stress in tissues of adult rats.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

2013-04-12

18

Calcium, iron and oxalate content of some condiments and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condiments and spices consumed in India were analysed for their calcium, phosphorus and iron contents and for the content of total and water-soluble oxalates. A number of spices were found to be quite rich in calcium and also in oxalates. In many of the spices the oxalates were mainly in the insoluble form although a few spices were found

B. V. Ramasastri

1983-01-01

19

Dietary fat level affects tissue iron levels but not the iron regulatory gene HAMP in rats.  

PubMed

Because dietary fats affect the regulation and use of body iron, we hypothesized that iron regulatory and transport genes may be affected by dietary fat. A model of early-stage I to II, nonalcoholic fatty liver was used in which rats were fed standard (35% energy from fat) or high-fat (71% energy from fat) liquid diets with normal iron content (STD/HF groups). In addition, intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran were given to iron-loaded (STD+/HF+ groups) and iron-deficient diets to STD-/HF- groups. Plasma osmolality, hemoglobin level, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were increased in all STD diet groups compared with all HF diet groups. Plasma iron and transferrin saturation were affected by an interaction between dietary fat and iron. They were high in the STD group (normal iron) compared with their respective HF group. Similarly, this group also showed a 4-fold increase in the messenger RNA expression of the hepatic hemochromatosis gene. Spleen iron was high in the iron-loaded STD+ group compared with all other groups. Hepatic iron and messenger RNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?, interleukin-6, and iron transport genes (transferrin receptor 2, divalent metal transporter 1 iron-responsive element, and divalent metal transporter 1 non-iron-responsive element) were increased, whereas tumor necrosis factor ? was decreased in the HF diet groups. The expression of iron regulatory gene HAMP was not increased in the HF diet groups. Iron regulatory and transport genes involved in cellular and systemic iron homeostasis may be affected by the macronutrient composition of the diet. PMID:23399663

Ahmed, Umbreen; Oates, Phillip S

2012-12-20

20

Magnetic properties of glasses with high iron oxide content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the magnetic properties of glasses with high iron oxide content has been carried out. This glass series was obtained by recycling goethite (FeOOH) industrial waste, with dolomite and glass cullet as complementary raw materials. The magnetisation as a function of applied magnetic field for these glasses was measured. According to the magnetic behaviour, which closely correlates with

Maximina Romero-Perez; Jesús Ma. Rincón; Carlos J. R. González Oliver; Claudio D’Ovidio; Daniel Esparza

2001-01-01

21

Iron overload diseases: the chemical speciation of non-heme iron deposits in iron loaded mammalian tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

57Fe Mössbauer spectra of iron overloaded human spleen, rat spleen and rat liver tissue samples at 78 K were found to consist of a quadrupole doublet (major component) with magnetic sextet (minor component with fractional spectral area F s). The distributions of F s for spleen tissue from two different clinically identifiable groups (n = 7 and n = 12) of thalassemic patients were found to be significantly different. The value of F s for dietary-iron loaded rat liver was found to rise significantly with age/duration (up to 24 months) of iron loading.

St. Pierre, T. G.; Chua-Anusorn, W.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.

2000-07-01

22

Total iron, heme iron, zinc, and copper content in rabbit meat and viscera.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the content of total iron (TFe), heme iron (HeFe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in different cuts of meat and viscera from rabbit. Five young New Zealand rabbits were used in the study. Samples in triplicate were obtained from three meat cuts (foreleg, hind leg, and loin) and from main viscera. TFe, Zn, and Cu concentrations from samples were determined by wet acid digestion followed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), while HeFe was determined by acid extraction followed by AAS. Mean TFe, HeFe, Zn, and Cu in meat was 0.83?±?0.09, 0.56?±?0.11, 0.95?±?0.35, and 0.08?±?0.01 mg/100 g, respectively. TFe content was less than 1 mg/100 g in all meat cuts. Sixty-seven percent of iron content was HeFe. The cut of meat with highest Zn concentrations was the foreleg with 1.33?±?0.12 mg/100 g. Cu content was low for all meat cuts. TFe, HeFe, Zn, and Cu content in viscera varied greatly. The spleen was the organ with the highest TFe and Zn concentrations (82.79?±?9.22 mg/100 g and 3.49?±?0.63 mg/100 g, respectively). Nevertheless, the lungs had the highest concentration of HeFe (5.79?±?0.90 mg/100 g), accounting for 91% of the total iron. The liver had the highest Cu content (3.89?±?0.89 mg/100 g). Rabbit meat has low TFe concentration, similar to that of poultry, and most of the iron is HeFe. The amount of minerals in viscera closely depends on their function. PMID:21344293

Valenzuela, Carolina; de Romaña, Daniel Lopez; Schmiede, Camila; Morales, María Sol; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Fernando

2011-02-23

23

Layer-specific variation of iron content in cerebral cortex as a source of MRI contrast  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in high-field MRI have dramatically improved the visualization of human brain anatomy in vivo. Most notably, in cortical gray matter, strong contrast variations have been observed that appear to reflect the local laminar architecture. This contrast has been attributed to subtle variations in the magnetic properties of brain tissue, possibly reflecting varying iron and myelin content. To establish the origin of this contrast, MRI data from postmortem brain samples were compared with electron microscopy and histological staining for iron and myelin. The results show that iron is distributed over laminae in a pattern that is suggestive of each region’s myeloarchitecture and forms the dominant source of the observed MRI contrast.

Fukunaga, Masaki; Li, Tie-Qiang; van Gelderen, Peter; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Shmueli, Karin; Yao, Bing; Lee, Jongho; Maric, Dragan; Aronova, Maria A.; Zhang, Guofeng; Leapman, Richard D.; Schenck, John F.; Merkle, Hellmut; Duyn, Jeff H.

2010-01-01

24

Failure of serum ferritin levels to predict bone-marrow iron content after intravenous iron-dextran therapy.  

PubMed

The relation between serum ferritin levels and stainable-iron deposits in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow was investigated in 36 patients with chronic renal failure who died after being on haemodialysis for 1-103 months. Elemental iron (mean, 5450 mg) had been given intravenously as iron dextran to patients in a long-term subgroup, who had been on dialysis for more than 3 months. The results of semiquantitative histochemical assessment of tissue iron in slides obtained at necropsy (scale 0 to 4+) were confirmed by chemical analyses of tissue iron. Serum ferritin levels correlated well with the degree of hepatosplenic siderosis but did not always correlate with bone-marrow iron stores in these patients. Serum ferritin concentrations were raised in 10 marrow-iron-depleted subjects (mean, 1336 ng/dl). The paradoxical association of hepatosplenic siderosis with marrow iron depletion was observed in most of the patients on dialysis for less than 40 months. The histochemical data show that the bulk of intravenously injected iron dextran is taken up by the liver and spleen; that the hepatosplenic stores fail to be mobilised to the bone marrow; and that intravenous iron-dextran therapy, by-passing the intestinal mechanism for the regulation of iron absorption, carries a high risk of long-term hepatosplenic siderosis. PMID:6121967

Ali, M; Rigolosi, R; Fayemi, A O; Braun, E V; Frascino, J; Singer, R

1982-03-20

25

Tissue water content in rats measured by desiccation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue water content was determined by desiccation to constant weight at 40°–50°C in 14 tissues from two groups of rats weighing 200–250 and 270–430 g, respectively. The water content (mean ± SE; ml\\/g) was highest in testes (0.861 ± 0.002) and lowest in adipose (0.183 ± 0.017) followed by bone (0.446 ± 0.017) and skin (0.651 ± 0.007). The average

Raquel F. Reinoso; Brian A. Telfer; Malcolm Rowland

1997-01-01

26

Desferrithiocin Analogue Iron Chelators: Iron Clearing Efficiency, Tissue Distribution, and Renal Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4?-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure-activity relationship studies have established that the length and the position of the polyether backbone controlled: (1) the ligand’s iron clearing efficiency (ICE), (2) chelator tissue distribution, (3) biliary ferrokinetics, and (4) tissue iron reduction. The current investigation compares the ICE and tissue distribution of a series of (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazole-carboxylic acids (Table 1, 3–5) and the (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acids (Table 1, 8–10). The three most effective polyether analogues, in terms of performance ratio (PR), defined as mean ICEprimate/ICErodent, are 3 (PR 1.1), 8, (PR 1.5), and 9, now in human trials, (PR 2.2). At the onset of the clinical trial on 9, no data were available for ligand 3 or 8. This is unfortunate, as 3 has many advantages over 9, e.g., the ICE of 3 in rats is 2.5-fold greater than that of 9 and analogue 3 achieves very high levels in the liver, pancreas, and heart, the organs most affected by iron overload. Finally, the impact of 3 on the urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), an early diagnostic biomarker for monitoring acute kidney toxicity, has been carried out in rats; no evidence of nephrotoxicity was found. Overall, the results suggest that 3 would be a far superior clinical candidate to 9.

Bergeron, Raymond J.; Wiegand, Jan; Bharti, Neelam; McManis, James S.; Singh, Shailendra

2012-01-01

27

Iron and other elements (Cu, Zn, Ca) contents in retina of rats during development and hereditary retinal degeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retina as well as other tissues needs iron to survive, but modifications in iron metabolism have also been suggested to contribute to cerebral neurodegenerative diseases. Our study was intended to investigate iron distribution in the retina of normal rats and Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats affected by hereditary degeneration of the photoreceptors at different developmental stages (35, 45 and 55 days after birth). Iron (Fe) distribution was determined by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microanalysis on retinal sections and compared to other tissues (cornea, liver, spleen) and to other elements (Cu, Zn, Ca). Elemental concentrations were determined in different retinal layers especially the photoreceptors, which are progressively altered and disappear in the RCS rats. Iron is unevenly distributed throughout the rat retina. The highest concentration is observed in the choroid and the retinal pigmented epithelium and in the inner segments of photoreceptors. Iron content is lower in the outer segments but still significant. It increases during both the development and the disease at the level of the segments. This last localised iron increase can result in an overproduction of free radicals and be correlated with the photoreceptor cell loss. The distributions of other elements (Cu, Zn, Ca) revealed interesting temporal progressions.

Sergeant, C.; Llabador, Y.; Devès, G.; Vesvres, M. H.; Simonoff, M.; Yefimova, M.; Courtois, Y.; Jeanny, J. C.

2001-07-01

28

Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue  

SciTech Connect

As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

1988-12-01

29

Influence of the leaf iron contents on the ferredoxin levels in citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial purification of the ferredoxin form crude extracts and their spectrophotometric quantification by means the measuring at 312 nm permit the determination of the ferredoxin levels in leaves of citrus plants. The leaf contents of this protein are related with the total iron concentrations, as well as with the iron chlorosis symptoms of the plants. On the other hand, iron

C. F. Alcaraz; E. Hellín; F. Sevilla

1985-01-01

30

Iron content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown under iron-deficient and iron-overload conditions.  

PubMed

Fermenting cells were grown under Fe-deficient and Fe-overload conditions, and their Fe contents were examined using biophysical spectroscopies. The high-affinity Fe import pathway was active only in Fe-deficient cells. Such cells contained ~150 ?M Fe, distributed primarily into nonheme high-spin (NHHS) Fe(II) species and mitochondrial Fe. Most NHHS Fe(II) was not located in mitochondria, and its function is unknown. Mitochondria isolated from Fe-deficient cells contained [Fe(4)S(4)](2+) clusters, low- and high-spin hemes, S = (1)/(2) [Fe(2)S(2)](+) clusters, NHHS Fe(II) species, and [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) clusters. The presence of [Fe(2)S(2)](2+) clusters was unprecedented; their presence in previous samples was obscured by the spectroscopic signature of Fe(III) nanoparticles, which are absent in Fe-deficient cells. Whether Fe-deficient cells were grown under fermenting or respirofermenting conditions had no effect on Fe content; such cells prioritized their use of Fe to essential forms devoid of nanoparticles and vacuolar Fe. The majority of Mn ions in wild-type yeast cells was electron paramagnetic resonance-active Mn(II) and not located in mitochondria or vacuoles. Fermenting cells grown on Fe-sufficient and Fe-overloaded medium contained 400-450 ?M Fe. In these cells, the concentration of nonmitochondrial NHHS Fe(II) declined 3-fold, relative to that in Fe-deficient cells, whereas the concentration of vacuolar NHHS Fe(III) increased to a limiting cellular concentration of ~300 ?M. Isolated mitochondria contained more NHHS Fe(II) ions and substantial amounts of Fe(III) nanoparticles. The Fe contents of cells grown with excessive Fe in the medium were similar over a 250-fold change in nutrient Fe levels. The ability to limit Fe import prevents cells from becoming overloaded with Fe. PMID:23253189

Holmes-Hampton, Gregory P; Jhurry, Nema D; McCormick, Sean P; Lindahl, Paul A

2012-12-19

31

Nondestructive evaluation of cementite content in steel and white cast iron using inductive Barkhausen noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondestructive testing method for the determination of the cementite content in iron-carbon steel and white cast iron is presented. The method is based on micromagnetic measuring parameters derived from inductive Barkhausen noise measurements taken under room temperature and with temperatures above the Curie temperature. The influence of different cementite contents and cementite modifications on the micromagnetic measuring quantities for

I. Altpeter

1996-01-01

32

Iron and phosphorus contents of soybean oil from normal and damaged beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of commercial crude soybean oils showed a highly significant correlation of 0.74 between free fatty acid and iron\\u000a content. Poor flavor characteristics exhibited by finished oils extracted from damaged beans may be caused in part by a higher\\u000a free fatty acid and related higher iron content in crude oils. Source of the increased iron appears to be both damaged

C. D. Evans; G. R. List; R. E. Beal; L. T. Black

1974-01-01

33

Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using

L. C. Chang

1998-01-01

34

Iron content of eggs from hens given diets containing organic forms of iron, serine and methyl group donors, or phytoestogens.  

PubMed

1. This investigation included three experiments to determine whether the iron content of egg yolks could be enriched by supplementation of the laying diet with iron bound to organic compounds (Experiment 1), serine and methyl group donors methionine and choline (Experiment 2) or phytoestrogens (Experiment 3). 2. Hens at 34, 54 and 56 weeks of age were given experimental diets for 6, 4 and 4 weeks, respectively, in Experiments 1-3. Yolks from eggs laid over three successive days in the final week of feeding were pooled for each hen for analysis of iron by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 3. Iron concentration in egg yolk averaged 68-70, 66-71 and 62-69 microg/g in the respective experiments. 4. The addition of bloodmeal (1.22 mg Fe/egg) or phytoestrogens (1.25 mg Fe/egg) increased the total iron content of yolks by over 15% compared with the control diet (1.10 mg Fe/egg), and although this increase was not statistically significant it suggests that the iron content of eggs could be sufficiently manipulated to justify a nutritional claim of iron enrichment. PMID:19735024

Revell, D K; Zarrinkalam, M R; Hughes, R J

2009-07-01

35

The changes in crosslink contents in tissues after formalin fixation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect crosslinks of collagen and elastin in formalin-fixed tissue, to perform quantification of these crosslinks, and to investigate the effects of formalin fixation on crosslink contents in human yellow ligament and cartilage. Pyridinoline (Pyr) is a stable and nonreducible crosslink of collagen. Pentosidine (Pen) is a senescent crosslink formed between arginine and lysine in matrix proteins, including collagen. Desmosine (Des) and its isomer isodesmosine (Isodes) are crosslinks specifically found in elastin. It is useful to measure crosslink contents of collagen and elastin as a way of investigating the properties of various tissues or their pathological changes. If it is possible to evaluate crosslinks of collagen and elastin in formalin-fixed tissues, we can investigate crosslinks in a wide variety of tissues. We used HPLC to compare the concentrations of Pyr, Pen, Des, and Isodes in the formalin-fixed tissues with their concentrations in the frozen tissues. Pyr and Pen were detected in both the formalin-fixed yellow ligament and the cartilage, and their concentrations were not significantly affected by or related to the duration of formalin fixation. Des and Isodes were detected in the formalin-fixed yellow ligament but in significantly lower amounts compared to the frozen samples. We concluded that crosslinks of collagen were preserved in formalin, but crosslinks of elastin were not preserved in it. The reason for this might be that formalin did not fix elastin tissues sufficiently or it destroyed, masked, or altered elastin crosslinks. PMID:12782039

Abe, Masashi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Kentaro; Nagano, Akira

2003-07-01

36

The effect of iron and zinc supplementation and discontinuation of this practice on iron and zinc level in tissues in rats fed deficient diets.  

PubMed

The effect of iron and iron/zinc supplementation on their levels in tissues of rats fed initially one of the three following regimen: C - control AIN-93 diet, D - iron deficient diet and R - diet with 50% reduction of all vitamins and minerals was investigated. The study was conducted on 6-week male Wistar rats, in 3 stages: (1) 4-week adaptation to the diets (C, D or R); (2) 4-week supplementation with the same regimen enriched with 10-times more iron (CSFe, DSFe, RSFe) or iron/zinc (CSFeZn, DSFeZn, RSFeZn); (3) 2-week post-supplementation period (the same diets as the stage I). Iron and zinc content in serum, the initial segment of intestine, liver and kidney were measured using FAAS method. After supplementation period (stage II) the content of iron in the intestine, liver and kidney in groups of rats fed DSFe and DSFeZn-diet were significantly higher (all p-values?0.05) than in rats fed D-diet (intestine: DSFe=50.1±9.0?g/g wet weight, DSFeZn=43.0±9.9?g/g vs. D=16.5±2.1?g/g; liver: DSFe=149±30?g/g, DSFeZn=152±25?g/g vs. D=56±13?g/g; kidney: DSFe=74.0±8.1?g/g, DSFeZn=72.7±6.6?g/g vs. D=59.3±9.5?g/g). The same significant associations (all p-values?0.05) were observed in R rats in the intestine and liver (intestine: RSFe=60.8±6.6?g/g, RSFeZn=54.8±6.6?g/g vs. R=31.5±8.2?g/g; liver: RSFe=161±10?g/g, RSFeZn=166±21?g/g vs. R=136±24?g/g). After post-supplementation period the statistically significant differences between supplemented and non-supplemented rats fed D- and R-diets were still observed. There was not found the effect of applied treatments on zinc status. In conclusion, iron or iron/zinc supplementation increased similarly iron level in tissues of rats fed D-diet or R-diet with prolonged effect after supplementation discontinuation. PMID:23726815

Kaluza, Joanna; Madej, Dawid; Brzozowska, Anna

2013-04-09

37

A re-analysis of the iron content of plant based foods in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

In the UK contemporary estimates of dietary iron intakes rely upon food iron content data from the 1980s or before. Moreover, there has been speculation that the natural iron content of foods has fallen over time, predominantly due to changes in agricultural practices. Therefore, we re-analysed common plant based foods of the UK diet for their iron content (the “2000s analyses”) and compared the values to the most recent published values (the “1980s analyses”) and the much older published values (the “1930s analyses”), the latter two being from different editions of the McCance and Widdowson food tables. Overall, there was remarkable consistency between analytical data for foods spanning the 70 years. There was a marginal, but significant, apparent decrease in natural food iron content from the 1930s to 1980s/2000s. Whether this represents a true difference or is analytical error between the eras is unclear and how it could translate into differences in intake requires clarification. However, fortificant iron levels (and fortificant iron intake based upon linked national data) did appear to have increased between the 1980s and 2000s, and deserves further attention in light of recent potential concerns over the long term safety and effectiveness of fortificant iron. In conclusion, the overall iron content of plant based foods is largely consistent between the 1930s and 2000s, with a fall in natural dietary iron content negated or even surpassed by a rise in fortificant iron but for which the long term effects are uncertain.

Bruggraber, Sylvaine FA; Chapman, Thomas PE; Thane, Christopher W; Olson, Ashley; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Powell, Jonathan J

2012-01-01

38

Effect of iron content in sphalerite on flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of iron, substituted in the mineral lattice, on the froth flotation of sphalerite has been investigated at alkaline pH. It has been found that a critical copper sulphate concentration exists where sphalerite recovery is maximized, above which the recovery of sphalerite then decreases. The presence of iron in sphalerite is detrimental to the rate of sphalerite flotation and

A. Boulton; D. Fornasiero; J. Ralston

2005-01-01

39

[Relationship between dopamine and iron contents in the brain of parkinsonian rats].  

PubMed

Using fast cyclic voltammetry (FCV), atomic absorption/flame emission spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography for electrochemical detection, we studied the change in iron content in the substantia nigra (SN) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned Parkinsonian (PD) rats and the toxic effect of intranigral injection of iron on DA neurons. The neuroprotective effect of desferrioxamine mesylate was also observed. The results are as follows. (1) The iron content in SN on the lesioned side of 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats was about three times as high as that in nonstandard PD rats. (2) The iron content in caudate putamen (CPu) on the lesioned side of PD rats was not different from that on the unlesioned side. (3) DA release as well as the content of DA and its metabolites were significantly decreased on the lesioned side of PD rats. (4) In the rats pretreated with intracerebroventricular desferrioxamine mesylate before 6-OHDA injection, the release and content of DA on the lesioned side were not significantly different from those on the unlesioned side. (5) Intranigral injection of 40 micrograms FeCl3 resulted in a dramatic reduction of both DA release and content in CPu. The above results strongly suggest that 6-OHDA reduces the DA release from CPu, in which iron plays an important role. Elevation of iron content in SN is one of the mechanisms responsible for the reduction of DA content. Desferrioxamine mesylate may exert a protective action on dopaminergic neurons. PMID:11833414

Jiang, H; Chen, W F; Xie, J X

2001-10-01

40

High-Content Drug Screening with Engineered Musculoskeletal Tissues  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering for in vitro drug-screening applications based on tissue function is an active area of translational research. Compared to targeted high-throughput drug-screening methods that rapidly analyze hundreds of thousands of compounds affecting a single biochemical reaction or gene expression, high-content screening (HCS) with engineered tissues is more complex and based on the cumulative positive and negative effects of a compound on the multiple pathways altering tissue function. It may therefore serve as better predictor of in vivo activity and serve as a bridge between high-throughput drug screening and in vivo animal studies. In the case of the musculoskeletal system, tissue function includes determining improvements in the mechanical properties of bone, tendon, cartilage, and, for skeletal muscle, contractile properties such as rate of contraction/relaxation, force generation, fatigability, and recovery from fatigue. HCS of compound banks with engineered tissues requires miniature musculoskeletal organs as well as automated functional testing. The resulting technologies should be rapid, cost effective, and reduce the number of small animals required for follow-on in vivo studies. Identification of compounds that improve the repair/regeneration of damaged tissues in vivo would have extensive clinical applications for treating musculoskeletal disorders.

2010-01-01

41

Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron  

SciTech Connect

The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using the thermodynamics principles. It is the purpose here to demonstrate that the data of ADI from numerous sources have a similar trend.

Chang, L.C. [Kuang Wu Inst. of Tech. and Commerce, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-06-05

42

Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in zinc and iron, many also contained high levels of phytic acid and tannins,

Melaku Umeta; Clive E. West; Habtamu Fufa

2005-01-01

43

Total phosphorus content of river sediments in relationship to calcium, iron and organic matter concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the total concentrations of phosphorus, calcium, iron and organic matter in surface bed-sediments taken from rivers in the Thames catchment (Wey, Blackwater, Thame and Kennet), the River Swale in Yorkshire (data excludes the organic matter content) as well as the headwaters of the Great Ouse, are collated and compared. Total concentrations of phosphorus, iron and calcium range from

William A House; Frank H Denison

2002-01-01

44

Measurement of reticulocyte hemoglobin content to diagnose iron deficiency in Saudi children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions in children, especially in developing countries. It is often difficult for the pediatrician to know which indices should be used in the diagnosis of these conditions in children. Reticulocyte hemoglobin (Hb) content (CHr) has been shown to be an accurate indicator of anemia, however whether its use suits the situation in

Ahmad Fayez Bakr; Gale Sarette

2006-01-01

45

Low temperature magnetic analysis in the identification of iron compounds from human brain tumour tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the brain, iron plays an important role, but also is potentially toxic if iron metabolism is disrupted. Excess iron accumulation in the brain has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, identification of iron compounds in human tissue is difficult because concentrations are very low. Three types of magnetic methods were used to characterize iron compounds in tumour tissue from epileptic patients. Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) was measured at 77 K and 300 K and reveals a low-coercivity phase with the properties of magnetite or maghemite. Induced magnetization was measured between 2 K and 300 K after cooling in zero-field and in a 50 mT field. These curves reveal an average blocking temperature of 11 K, which is compatible with ferritin. The results of this study show that the combination of different magnetic methods provides a useful and sensitive tool for the characterisation of magnetic iron compounds in human tissue.

Brem, F.; Hirt, A. M.; Simon, C.; Wieser, H.-G.; Dobson, J.

2005-01-01

46

Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

J.Y. Hwang

2006-10-04

47

Taurine content in tissues from aged Fischer 344 rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work in our laboratory had shown that serum TAU was lower in aged rats when compared to adult controls. The present\\u000a study sought to determine if the age-related changes in serum TAU were reflected in tissues where TAU was known to have significant\\u000a physiological relevance. TAU content was found to be significantly decreased in the atria, kidney and caudal

Ralph Dawson; David R. Wallace

1992-01-01

48

A General Map of Iron Metabolism and Tissue-specific Subnetworks  

PubMed Central

Iron is required for survival of mammalian cells. Recently, understanding of iron metabolism and trafficking has increased dramatically, revealing a complex, interacting network largely unknown just a few years ago. This provides an excellent model for systems biology development and analysis. The first step in such an analysis is the construction of a structural network of iron metabolism, which we present here. This network was created using CellDesigner version 3.5.2 and includes reactions occurring in mammalian cells of numerous tissue types. The iron metabolic network contains 151 chemical species and 107 reactions and transport steps. Starting from this general model, we construct iron networks for specific tissues and cells that are fundamental to maintaining body iron homeostasis. We include subnetworks for cells of the intestine and liver, tissues important in iron uptake and storage, respectively; as well as the reticulocyte and macrophage, key cells in iron utilization and recycling. The addition of kinetic information to our structural network will permit the simulation of iron metabolism in different tissues as well as in health and disease.

Hower, Valerie; Mendes, Pedro; Torti, Frank M.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Akman, Steven; Shulaev, Vladmir; Torti, Suzy V.

2009-01-01

49

Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 {micro}m. This technique represents a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds in brain tissue. The potential for high-resolution iron mapping using microfocused X-ray beams has direct application to investigations of the location and structural form of iron compounds associated with human neurodegenerative disorders - a problem which has vexed researchers for 50 years.

Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Toastmann, H.; Channell, J.E.T.; Guyodo, Y.; Batich, C.; Dobson, J. (Keele); (Florida); (IRM)

2008-06-16

50

Content and binding forms of heavy metals, aluminium and phosphorus in bog iron ores from Poland.  

PubMed

Bog iron ores are widespread in Polish wetland soils used as meadows or pastures. They are suspected to contain high concentrations of heavy metals, which are precipitated together with Fe along a redox gradient. Therefore, soils with bog iron ore might be important sources for a heavy metal transfer from meadow plants into the food chain. However, this transfer depends on the different binding forms of heavy metals. The binding forms were quantified by sequential extraction analysis of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb) as well as Al and P on 13 representative samples of bog iron ores from central and southwestern Poland. Our results showed total contents of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb not to exceed the natural values for sandy soils from Poland. Only the total Mn was slightly higher. The highest contents of all heavy metals have been obtained in iron oxide fractions V (occluded in noncrystalline and poorly crystalline Fe oxides) and VI (occluded in crystalline Fe oxides). The results show a distinct relationship between the content of Fe and the quantity of Zn and Pb as well P. Water soluble as well as plant available fractions were below the detection limit in most cases. From this we concluded bog iron ores not to be an actual, important source of heavy metals in the food chain. However, a remobilization of heavy metals might occur due to any reduction of iron oxides in bog iron ores, for example, by rising groundwater levels. PMID:19398508

Kaczorek, Danuta; Brümmer, Gerhard W; Sommer, Michael

2009-04-27

51

Variation of Hydrogen Content in Molten Heavy Rail Steel at Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At Panzhihua Iron and Steel Company, hydrogen (H) content in molten heavy rail steel is rather low during smelting in the oxygen top-blown converter, and slightly increases in tapping and pouring. Average H content varies from 2.0 ppm (dry season) to 2.4 ...

A. Xian P. Li W. Chen Y. Wang R. Chen D. Mei

1994-01-01

52

Effect of Cu, Mo, Si on the content of retained austenite of austempered ductile iron  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effects of Cu, Mo, Si contents on the volume fraction of retained austenite of austempered ductile iron (ADI) are analyzed exactly by X-ray diffraction, and the fracture modes of test samples with different volume fraction of retained austenite are investigated by SEM. It is shown that the retained austenite content increases with the content of copper, decreases with the content of molybdenum, and reaches the maximum with a certain content of silicon. When the retained austenite content decreases, the fracture modes of test samples change from ductile fracture to cleavage fracture.

Mi, Y. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-05-01

53

Quantification of melanin and iron content in uveal malignant melanomas and correlation with magnetic resonance image.  

PubMed Central

Eleven patients with uveal malignant melanomas (MM) were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before enucleation. The MR appearances varied, but often were different from those previously reported to be characteristic of these tumours. Using an image analyser to assess quantitatively the melanin and iron content of each tumour, a wide range of tumour melanin concentrations was found, but universally low tumour iron concentrations. These values were compared with MR appearances that were quantified and expressed as contrast to noise ratios. The correlation between T1 and T2 shortening and increasing melanin content did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between MR appearances and iron content. The theories postulated to explain the diverse MR appearances of uveal MMs are discussed and variations in tumour melanin content and differences in scanner strengths are suggested as the most likely explanations. Images

Ferris, J D; Bloom, P A; Goddard, P R; Collins, C

1993-01-01

54

Boron, zinc, iron, and manganese content in four grassland species  

SciTech Connect

A post experiment was carried out to test the response of the B, Zn, Fe, and Mn concentration in four wild herbaceous species exposed to three landfill leachate treatments of increasing concentration of contaminants. The species tested were clustered clover (Trifolium glomeratum L.), cotton clover (T. tomentosum L.) wall barley (Hordeum murinum L.), and soft brome (Bromus hordaceus L.). The legume species accumulated more Fe and B than the grasses. The least contaminated leachate (leachate A) significantly increased the Fe and Ma content in T glomeratum. Leachate B significantly increased the Zn content in both clover species and Fe content in T. glomeratum and H. murinum, while it significantly decreased the B content in T. glomeratum. The most contaminated leachate (leachate C) significantly increased the Zn content in T. glomeratum, while it significantly decreased the B and Fe content. In the four species the content of B, Fe, and Mn in the plants under the leachate treatments was in a normal values range, while in T. glomeratum and H. murinum the Zn content had in some cases a toxic level. The dry weight of the four species tested diminished significantly under the most contaminated leachate. The ANOVA confirmed a major significant influence of the species factor on the response of the plant to leachate supply, but the treatment factor also had significant F-values in some cases. The species tested have a potential revegetation value for some areas degraded by landfill leachates.

Adarve, M.J.; Hernandez, A.J. [Univ. de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Gil, A.; Pastor, J. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Environmental Sciences Research Center

1998-11-01

55

Effects of Iron Status on Transpulmonary Transport and Tissue Distribution of Mn and Fe  

PubMed Central

Manganese transport into the blood can result from inhaling metal-containing particles. Intestinal manganese and iron absorption is mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and is upregulated in iron deficiency. Since iron status alters absorption of Fe and Mn in the gut, we tested the hypothesis that iron status may alter pulmonary transport of these metals. DMT1 expression in the lungs was evaluated to explore its role in metal transport. The pharmacokinetics of intratracheally instilled 54Mn or 59Fe in repeatedly bled or iron oxide–exposed rats were compared with controls. Iron oxide exposure caused a reduction in pulmonary transport of 54Mn and 59Fe, and decreased uptake in other major organs. Low iron status from repeated bleeding also reduced pulmonary transport of iron but not of manganese. However, uptake of manganese in the brain and of iron in the spleen increased in bled rats. DMT1 transcripts were detected in airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue in all rats. Focal increases were seen in particle-containing macrophages and adjacent epithelial cells, but no change was observed in bled rats. Although lung DMT1 expression did not correlate with iron status, differences in pharmacokinetics of instilled metals suggest that their potential toxicity can be modified by iron status.

Brain, Joseph D.; Heilig, Elizabeth; Donaghey, Thomas C.; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Molina, Ramon M.

2006-01-01

56

Effect of iron content on the spin transition pressure of ferropericlase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure-induced electronic spin transition of iron in ferropericlase was investigated as a function of iron content in ferropericlase by in situ electrical conductivity measurement. The electrical conductivity of ferropericlase, (Mg1-x,Fex)O (x = 0.07, 0.10, 0.13, 0.17, 0.24) was measured up to 53 GPa and 600 K using the Kawai-type multi anvil apparatus equipped with sintered diamond anvils. At pressures up to 25 GPa, the electrical conductivity of ferropericlase generally increases with increasing pressure and both the activation energy and activation volume of ferropericlase decrease with increasing iron content. For the samples with x = 0.07 and 0.10, the electrical conductivity shows a slight initial decrease and becomes constant between 25 and 40 GPa upon which it increases slightly as the pressure increases. For the samples with higher iron content, the electrical conductivity constantly increases with pressure over the investigated pressure range. If these changes in the electrical conductivity are due to the isosymmetric high to low spin transition of iron in ferropericlase, this conductivity change suggests that the spin transition pressure significantly decreases with decreasing iron content in ferropericlase. Because the amount of iron in ferropericlase that coexists with the Al-bearing perovskite seems to be less than that in the Al-free perovskite, the influence of the iron partitioning between perovskite and ferropericlase by the spin transition appears in a pressure range of about 30-40 GPa in the lower mantle of the Earth.

Yoshino, T.; Ito, E.; Katsura, T.; Yamazaki, D.; Guo, X.; Shan, S.; Nishi, M.; Higo, Y.; Funakoshi, K.

2011-12-01

57

Hepatic iron content corresponds with the susceptibility of lymphocytes to oxidative stress in neonatal pigs.  

PubMed

The pig is born with limited iron supplies. If not supplemented, piglets dramatically loose their body iron stores during the first few days of postnatal life. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hepatic iron content on susceptibility of blood cells to oxidative stress. Four 1-day-old and three 7-days-old animals were used in this study. The alkaline version of the comet assay was used to measure DNA damage. As expected, iron body stores of non-supplemented animals decrease significantly during the first 4 days of life. However, no difference in background DNA damage was found between untreated lymphocytes from these two groups of animals, despite the difference in their hepatic iron content. Interestingly, DNA damage induced by H2O2 and X-radiation in lymphocytes taken from 1-day-old piglets was significantly higher than in those taken from 7-days-old animals. In contrast, NaOCl or tert-butyl-hydroxide also induced significant amounts of DNA damage, but no differences between the two groups of piglets were found. Our data show that decreased hepatic iron content corresponds with decreased susceptibility of blood lymphocytes to oxidative stressors. PMID:18824129

Kruszewski, Marcin; Iwane?ko, Teresa; Bart?omiejczyk, Teresa; Woli?ski, Jaros?aw; Starzy?ski, Rafa? R; Gralak, Miko?aj A; Zabielski, Romuald; Lipi?ski, Pawe?

2008-09-09

58

Observations of the concentration of zinc and iron in tissues of vitamin B6-deficient germ-free rats.  

PubMed

The transition of zinc and iron metabolism in vitamin B6 deficiency was investigated using germ-free and conventional rats. In contrast to previous reports, a decrease in zinc content was not observed in the liver, pancreas, kindney, spleen, lung or testes of vitamin B6-deficient conventional and germ-free rats, but we found an increase in zinc content in the kidney of conventional rats and in the liver and spleen of germ-free rats. Vitamin B6-deficient conventional and germ-free rats retained more iron in their tissues than the control animals did, except for the spleen of germ-free rats. The deposit of iron was more evident in vitamin B6-deficient germ-free rats than in vitamin B6-deficient conventional rats, and is possibly proportional to the degree of vitamin B6 deficiency. It is possible that the deposit of iron in the organs had some influence on metabolic disorders in vitamin B6-deficient rats. PMID:501447

Ikeda, M; Hosotani, T; Ueda, T; Kotake, Y; Sakakibara, B

1979-01-01

59

Breast carcinoma and the role of iron metabolism. A cytochemical, tissue culture, and ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

Transferrin receptors on proliferating and malignant cells are well documented. Iron is an essential micronutrient for cell growth that plays an important role in energy metabolism and DNA synthesis. Malignant cells requiring more iron modulate a transferrin receptor. Iron-bound transferrin interacts with this receptor, facilitating the transport of iron across the cell membrane. Transferrin is a glycoprotein and is the chief iron transport protein in mammalian blood. The more aggressive the tumor, the higher the transferrin receptor levels and the greater the proliferative index. We have found by cytochemical and ultrastructural studies that ferritin, an iron storage protein, is increased in breast cancer tissue. Anaplastic tumors have higher tissue ferritin levels. Tissue ferritin concentration may be an indirect method of measuring transferrin receptors and thus might be an index of proliferation and a prognostic indicator. Transferrin may be used as a carrier to target toxic therapy selectively to tumor tissue. A platinum transferrin complex (MPTC-63) has been developed and shown to be cytostatic in tissue culture, animal, and human studies. It also sensitizes tissue to agents that produce free radicals, such as adriamycin, and thus is synergistic with other drugs and radiation. Other transferrin complexes and conjugates of gallium, indium, and daunorubicin have also shown growth inhibition in tissue culture and animals. Human studies are in progress. By studying iron metabolism in breast cancer, we may be able to selectively inhibit tumor growth without toxic effects, and with other tumor biologic data be better able to select the stage I patient for adjuvant therapy. PMID:8279755

Elliott, R L; Elliott, M C; Wang, F; Head, J F

1993-11-30

60

Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment  

SciTech Connect

Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area.

Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

1988-03-01

61

Total phosphorus content of river sediments in relationship to calcium, iron and organic matter concentrations.  

PubMed

Data on the total concentrations of phosphorus, calcium, iron and organic matter in surface bed-sediments taken from rivers in the Thames catchment (Wey, Blackwater, Thame and Kennet), the River Swale in Yorkshire (data excludes the organic matter content) as well as the headwaters of the Great Ouse, are collated and compared. Total concentrations of phosphorus, iron and calcium range from 1.7-649, 12-8,333 and 9-4,605 micromol g(-1) (dry weight), respectively, with organic matter in the range of 0.6-19% by dry weight. For the Wey, Blackwater and Great Ouse, sewage inflows had no detectable effect on the sediment concentrations of total calcium, iron and organic matter whereas for the Blackwater and Great Ouse, the total phosphorus contents of the sediment were higher downstream of the effluent input in comparison with a less impacted upstream location. Relationships between the total phosphorus content of the sediments and contents of iron, calcium and organic matter indicated marked differences between the rivers. Although the organic matter content of the sediments was found to be a significant predictor for the total phosphorus concentration for the Blackwater and Great Ouse, the total iron content was also useful for the Blackwater and total calcium for the Great Ouse. It is postulated that this difference is a result of the sediment processes that are known to occur in these two systems, i.e. co-precipitation of phosphate with calcite in the Great Ouse and the formation of vivianite in anoxic sediments of the Blackwater. PMID:11846078

House, William A; Denison, Frank H

2002-01-23

62

Determination of Calcium and Iron and Measurements of Ash Content in the Brown Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying the XRF technique and the low-energy X-ray backscattering method an attempt of calcium and iron determination, as well as measurement of the ash content in the brown coal was made. A Pu source, an argon filled propotional counter and a three channel pulse height analyser were used. A simple theoretical model is proposed and obtained results are discussed.

P. Urba?ski; M. Jankowska; E. Kowalska; D. Wagner

1983-01-01

63

Effect of iron content on the tolerability of prenatal multivitamins in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal irritability can deter pregnant women from starting or continuing prenatal multivitamin supplementation. In a previous study, suboptimal tolerability was observed among pregnant women taking a large tablet (18 mm × 8 mm × 8 mm) multivitamin with high elemental iron content (60 mg as ferrous fumarate). The objective of the present study was to compare rates of adherence

Patricia Nguyen; Alejandro Nava-Ocampo; Amalia Levy; Deborah L O'Connor; Tom R Einarson; Anna Taddio; Gideon Koren

2008-01-01

64

Iron and Copper Content of Non-Milk Products Commonly Used in Ice Cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of information on the iron and copper content of the non-dairy ingredients that commonly are used in conjunction with dairy products in the manufacture of ice cream. These materials include such products as stabilizers, emulsifying agents, sugar, cocoas, vanillas, chocolate liquors and coatings, and flavoring extracts. It is possible that one or more of these ingredients

Harry Pyenson; P. H. Tracy

1948-01-01

65

EFFECTS OF IRON CONTENT IN COAL COMBUSTION FLY ASHES ON SPECIATION OF MERCURY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effects of iron content in coal combustion fly ashes on speciation of mercury. (NOTE: The chemical form of mercury species in combustion flue gases is an important influence on the control of mercury emissions from coal combustion). The study focused on th...

66

Desferrithiocin analogue iron chelators: iron clearing efficiency, tissue distribution, and renal toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged\\u000a metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4?-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure–activity relationship studies\\u000a have established that

Raymond J. Bergeron; Jan Wiegand; Neelam Bharti; James S. McManis; Shailendra Singh

2011-01-01

67

Tumour cell labelling by magnetic nanoparticles with determination of intracellular iron content and spatial distribution of the intracellular iron.  

PubMed

Magnetically labelled cells are used for in vivo cell tracking by MRI, used for the clinical translation of cell-base therapies. Studies involving magnetic labelled cells may include separation of labelled cells, targeted delivery and controlled release of drugs, contrast enhanced MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for the in situ ablation of tumours. Dextran-coated super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) ferumoxides are used clinically as an MR contrast agents primarily for hepatic imaging. The material is also widely used for in vitro cell labelling, as are other SPIO-based particles. Our results on the uptake by human cancer cell lines of ferumoxides indicate that electroporation in the presence of protamine sulphate (PS) results in rapid high uptake of SPIO nanoparticles (SPIONs) by parenchymal tumour cells without significant impairment of cell viability. Quantitative determination of cellular iron uptake performed by colorimetric assay is in agreement with data from the literature. These results on intracellular iron content together with the intracellular distribution of SPIONs by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) following in vitro uptake by parenchymal tumour cells confirm the potential of this technique for clinical tumour cell detection and destruction. PMID:23624604

Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

2013-04-26

68

Tumour Cell Labelling by Magnetic Nanoparticles with Determination of Intracellular Iron Content and Spatial Distribution of the Intracellular Iron  

PubMed Central

Magnetically labelled cells are used for in vivo cell tracking by MRI, used for the clinical translation of cell-base therapies. Studies involving magnetic labelled cells may include separation of labelled cells, targeted delivery and controlled release of drugs, contrast enhanced MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for the in situ ablation of tumours. Dextran-coated super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) ferumoxides are used clinically as an MR contrast agents primarily for hepatic imaging. The material is also widely used for in vitro cell labelling, as are other SPIO-based particles. Our results on the uptake by human cancer cell lines of ferumoxides indicate that electroporation in the presence of protamine sulphate (PS) results in rapid high uptake of SPIO nanoparticles (SPIONs) by parenchymal tumour cells without significant impairment of cell viability. Quantitative determination of cellular iron uptake performed by colorimetric assay is in agreement with data from the literature. These results on intracellular iron content together with the intracellular distribution of SPIONs by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) following in vitro uptake by parenchymal tumour cells confirm the potential of this technique for clinical tumour cell detection and destruction.

Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

2013-01-01

69

Nitric oxide and glutathione impact the expression of iron uptake- and iron transport-related genes as well as the content of metals in A. thaliana plants grown under iron deficiency  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence indicate that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule mediating iron deficiency responses through the upregulation of the expression of iron uptake-related genes. Accordingly, NO donors such as nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) were reported to improve the fitness of plants grown under iron deficiency. Here, we showed that glutathione, a by-product of GSNO, triggered the upregulation of the expression of iron uptake- and transport-related gene and an increase of iron concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings facing iron deficiency. Furthermore, we provided evidence that under iron deficiency, NO released by GSNO did not improve the root iron concentration but impacted the content of copper. Collectively, our data highlight the complexity of interpreting data based on the use of NO donors when investigating the role of NO in iron homeostasis.

Koen, Emmanuel; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Klinguer, Agnes; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Besson-Bard, Angelique; Wendehenne, David

2012-01-01

70

Iron, radiation, and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer.

Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

1990-01-01

71

Effect of iron status on the absorption, speciation and tissue distribution of aluminium in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium absorption, distribution and speciation in rats have been investigated by administering a single oral dose of 26Al to three groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats with the first group having normal, the second group having iron overloaded and the third group having iron deficient status before administration. The dose was 20 ng 26Al together with 200 ?g 27Al as AlCl3. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after administration of 26Al. Samples of blood plasma, urine, femur, liver and spleen were taken. 26Al was measured in the samples with accelerator mass spectrometry. The group with iron deficiency had a larger intestinal uptake and higher concentrations in liver, spleen and plasma than the control group whereas iron overload decreased intestinal absorption and tissue concentrations of 26Al.

Winklhofer, C.; Steinhausen, C.; Beck, E.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Kinzel, S.; Ittel, T.-H.; Nolte, E.

2000-10-01

72

Magnetic poly(?-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrates for advanced bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In biomedicine, magnetic nanoparticles provide some attractive possibilities because they possess peculiar physical properties that permit their use in a wide range of applications. The concept of magnetic guidance basically spans from drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment of tumours, to tissue engineering, such as magneto-mechanical stimulation/activation of cell constructs and mechanosensitive ion channels, magnetic cell-seeding procedures, and controlled cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite substrates for bone tissue engineering by embedding iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles in a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix. X-ray diffraction analyses enabled the demonstration that the phase composition and crystallinity of the magnetic FeHA were not affected by the process used to develop the nanocomposite substrates. The mechanical characterization performed through small punch tests has evidenced that inclusion of 10 per cent by weight of FeHA would represent an effective reinforcement. The inclusion of nanoparticles also improves the hydrophilicity of the substrates as evidenced by the lower values of water contact angle in comparison with those of neat PCL. The results from magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic character of the nanocomposite substrates, indicated by a very low coercive field, a saturation magnetization strictly proportional to the FeHA content and a strong history dependence in temperature sweeps. Regarding the biological performances, confocal laser scanning microscopy and AlamarBlue assay have provided qualitative and quantitative information on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and viability/proliferation, respectively, whereas the obtained ALP/DNA values have shown the ability of the nanocomposite substrates to support osteogenic differentiation. PMID:23303218

Gloria, A; Russo, T; D'Amora, U; Zeppetelli, S; D'Alessandro, T; Sandri, M; Bañobre-López, M; Piñeiro-Redondo, Y; Uhlarz, M; Tampieri, A; Rivas, J; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Dediu, V A; Ambrosio, L; De Santis, R

2013-01-09

73

Iron from nanocompounds containing iron and zinc is highly bioavailable in rats without tissue accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective iron fortification of foods is difficult, because water-soluble compounds that are well absorbed, such as ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), often cause unacceptable changes in the colour or taste of foods. Poorly water-soluble compounds, on the other hand, cause fewer sensory changes, but are not well absorbed. Here, we show that poorly water-soluble nanosized Fe and Fe\\/Zn compounds (specific surface area

Florentine M. Hilty; Myrtha Arnold; Monika Hilbe; Alexandra Teleki; Jesper T. N. Knijnenburg; Felix Ehrensperger; Richard F. Hurrell; Sotiris E. Pratsinis; Wolfgang Langhans; Michael B. Zimmermann

2010-01-01

74

Effect of Iron Content on Sintering Behavior of Ti-V-Fe-Al Near- ? Titanium Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two near- ? Ti-10V-3Fe-3Al and Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloys were produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy using hydrogenated titanium and V-Fe-Al master alloy powders. The distributions of the alloying elements were investigated at different stages of transformation of the heterogeneous powder compacts into the final homogeneous alloy product. The influence of iron content on chemical homogenization, densification, microstructure, and mechanical properties of as-sintered alloys was discussed with respect to the fast diffusion mobility of iron in titanium. It was concluded that a 1 pct increase in Fe content, as the alloying element with the fastest diffusivity in titanium, has a positive effect on densification. However, this also results in some grain coarsening of the final material. The attained mechanical properties were comparable with those of cast/wrought near-beta titanium alloys.

Savvakin, Dmytro G.; Carman, Andrew; Ivasishin, Orest M.; Matviychuk, Mykhailo V.; Gazder, Azdiar A.; Pereloma, Elena V.

2012-02-01

75

Prognostic Value of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Tumor Tissue Content in Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of the combined measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tissue content with respect to relapse-free and overall survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Quantitative evaluation of VEGF and CEA content was performed on protein extracts obtained from tissue biopsies from 69 CRC patients

Patrizia Ferroni; Raffaele Palmirotta; Antonella Spila; Francesca Martini; Vincenzo Formica; Ilaria Portarena; Girolamo Del Monte; Oreste Buonomo; Mario Roselli; Fiorella Guadagni

2006-01-01

76

Diagnostics of gleyzation upon a low content of iron oxides (Using the example of tundra soils in the Kolyma Lowland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matrix of iron (hydr)oxides exerts a decisive influence on the character of gleyzation. Upon a high content of iron (hydr)oxides, their reduction radically changes the horizon color from warm to cold hues, which is typical of soils on the Russian Plain. Upon the low content of iron (hydr)oxides, iron reduction takes place in phyllosilicates with minimal changes in the soil color. The cold hue of cryohydromorphic soils in the Kolyma Lowland is controlled by the color of the lithogenic matrix with a low content of iron (hydr)oxides. In this case, the soil color characteristics expressed in the Munsell notation or in the CIE-L*a*b* system are ineffective for diagnostic purposes. The colorimetric methods appear to be more efficient after the soil pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide, as the gleyed horizons turn green, while the nongleyed (and not overmoistened) horizons turn red. Physical methods (Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements) are more efficient for characterizing the properties of iron compounds in cryohydromorphic soils as compared with the methods of chemical extraction. Mössbauer spectroscopy proved to be highly efficient, as the iron oxidation index Fe3+/(Fe2++Fe3+) decreases in the gleyed horizons. Chemical reagents (Tamm’s and Mehra-Jackson’s reagents) dissolve Fe-phyllosilicates and are not selective in soils with a low content of iron (hydr)oxides.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Mergelov, N. S.; Goryachkin, S. V.

2008-03-01

77

Non-protein-bound iron detection in small samples of biological fluids and tissues.  

PubMed

Interest in the pro-oxidative nature of non-protein-bound-iron (NPBI) led to the development of an assay for its detection. The aim was to set up a reliable method of detecting NPBI in small samples of biological fluids and tissue. The method was based on preferential chelation of NPBI by a large excess of the low-affinity ligand nitrilotriacetic acid. To separate NPBI, a two-step filtration procedure was used. All glassware and plasticware were treated to minimize iron contamination. Measurements were performed in plasma, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, and brain tissues. The analytic system detected iron as ferric nitrate standard down to a concentration of 0.01 microM. The 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridone-Fe(DHP-Fe) complex eluted with a retention time of about 2.6 min. The standard curve for the DHP-Fe complex was linear between 0.01 and 400 microMin water as well as in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage, brain tissue, and amniotic fluid. The detection limit was 0.01 muM for all biological fluids and brain tissue. The data show that reliable measurements of NPBI are possible in studies on oxidative stress under experimental and clinical conditions. The possibility of investigating NPBI involvement in free-radical injury might be useful in all human diseases in which oxidative stress occur. PMID:17057261

Paffetti, Patrizia; Perrone, Serafina; Longini, Mariangela; Ferrari, Antonio; Tanganelli, Donatella; Marzocchi, Barbara; Buonocore, Giuseppe

2006-09-01

78

Hair iron content: possible marker to complement monitoring therapy of iron deficiency in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases?  

PubMed

Measurements of the concentration of iron in hair from 10 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases and from 10 healthy controls showed that the iron concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in patients before iron intake than in controls. Three weeks after beginning iron treatment, the hair iron concentrations were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.68; P < 0.05) to reticulocyte counts. Changes in the hair iron concentrations were accompanied by similar changes in the concentrations of the markers most commonly used to diagnose and monitor iron deficiency. The results suggest that quantification of hair iron may be useful to complement evaluations of the body iron status. PMID:8697588

Bissé, E; Renner, F; Sussmann, S; Schölmerich, J; Wieland, H

1996-08-01

79

Tissue content of dihydrotestosterone in human prostatic hyperplasis is not supranormal.  

PubMed Central

The dihydrotestosterone content of normal peripheral and benign hyperplastic prostates was measured in tissue obtained at open surgical procedures on 29 men of ages 36 to 82 yr. The dihydrotestosterone content in normal prostates (mean +/- SE, 5.1 +/- 0.4 ng/g tissue) and in benign hyperplastic prostates (5.0 +/- 0.4) was similar. In 11 patients in whom both normal and hyperplastic prostatic tissue was harvested simultaneously at the same operation, there was no significant difference in the content of dihydrotestosterone in the two types of tissue. These findings fail to confirm the widespread belief that dihydrotestosterone content is elevated in benign hyperplastic prostates. Our data differ from the reported literature in one major respect: the dihydrotestosterone content of normal peripheral prostate in this study is three to four times higher than previously reported. This difference between the present and earlier studies was resolved by experiments performed on cadavers, which were the source of normal prostatic tissue used by other investigators. Dihydrotestosterone content was measured in seven cadavers ranging in age from 19 to 82 yr of age. The results of this experiment indicate that the dihydrotestosterone content of prostatic tissue removed at autopsy is factitiously low (0.7-1.0 ng/g tissue). This finding was confirmed by in vitro incubations of fresh prostatic tissue at 37 degrees C that demonstrated reduction of dihydrotestosterone content to low levels within 2 h. When taken together, these results indicate that when prostatic tissue is harvested appropriately, the dihydrotestosterone content of normal peripheral and hyperplastic tissues is the same. This finding should influence future research into the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Walsh, P C; Hutchins, G M; Ewing, L L

1983-01-01

80

Extracellular matrix content of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) can rupture with simple movements, suggesting that structural changes in the ligament may reduce the loading capacity of the ligament. We aimed to investigate if proteoglycan and collagen levels were different between ruptured and non-ruptured ACLs. We also compared changes in ruptured tissue over time.During arthroscopic knee reconstruction surgery 24 ruptured ACLs were collected from participants

Kate Young; Tom Samiric; Julian Feller; Jill Cook

2011-01-01

81

Comparison of Histological Techniques to Visualize Iron in Paraffin-embedded Brain Tissue of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

Better knowledge of the distribution of iron in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may facilitate the development of an in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) marker for AD and may cast light on the role of this potentially toxic molecule in the pathogenesis of AD. Several histological iron staining techniques have been used in the past but they have not been systematically tested for sensitivity and specificity. This article compares three histochemical techniques and ferritin immunohistochemistry to visualize iron in paraffin-embedded human AD brain tissue. The specificity of the histochemical techniques was tested by staining sections after iron extraction. Iron was demonstrated in the white matter, in layers IV/V of the frontal neocortex, in iron containing plaques, and in microglia. In our hands, these structures were best visualized using the Meguro iron stain, a method that has not been described for iron staining in human brain or AD in particular. Ferritin immunohistochemistry stained microglia and iron containing plaques similar to the Meguro method but was less intense in myelin-associated iron. The Meguro method is most suitable for identifying iron-positive structures in paraffin-embedded human AD brain tissue. PMID:23887894

van Duijn, Sara; Nabuurs, Rob J A; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Natté, Remco

2013-07-25

82

Mineral content of calcified tissues in cystic fibrosis mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although abnormal hard tissue mineralization is a recognized complication of cystic fibrosis (CF), the pathogenesis leading\\u000a from the defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is poorly understood. We hypothesized\\u000a that CFTR plays a direct role in the mineralization of bone and teeth and tested the hypothesis using CF mouse models [CFTR(?)\\u000a mice]. In vivo measurements by dual-emission X-ray

Lara R. Gawenis; Paulette Spencer; Laura S. Hillman; Matthew C. Harline; J. Steven Morris

2001-01-01

83

IL-6 Is Not Necessary for the Regulation of Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Content  

PubMed Central

Background Adipose tissue mitochondria have been implicated as key mediators of systemic metabolism. We have shown that IL-6 activates AMPK, a mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis, in adipose tissue; however, IL-6?/? mice fed a high fat diet have been reported to develop insulin resistance. These findings suggest that IL-6 may control adipose tissue mitochondrial content in vivo, and that reductions in adipose tissue mitochondria may be causally linked to the development of insulin resistance in IL-6?/? mice fed a high fat diet. On the other hand, IL-6 has been implicated as a negative regulator of insulin action. Given these discrepancies the purpose of the present investigation was to further evaluate the relationship between IL-6, adipose tissue mitochondrial content and whole body insulin action. Methodology and Principal Findings In cultured epididymal mouse adipose tissue IL-6 (75 ng/ml) induced the expression of the transcriptional co-activators PGC-1? and PRC, reputed mediators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Similarly, IL-6 increased the expression of COXIV and CPT-1. These effects were absent in cultured subcutaneous adipose tissue and were associated with lower levels of GP130 and IL-6 receptor alpha protein content. Markers of mitochondrial content were intact in adipose tissue from chow fed IL-6?/? mice. When fed a high fat diet IL-6?/? mice were more glucose and insulin intolerant than controls fed the same diet; however this was not explained by decreases in adipose tissue mitochondrial content or respiration. Conclusions and Significance Our findings demonstrate depot-specific differences in the ability of IL-6 to induce PGC-1? and mitochondrial enzymes and demonstrate that IL-6 is not necessary for the maintenance of adipose tissue mitochondrial content in vivo. Moreover, reductions in adipose tissue mitochondria do not explain the greater insulin resistance in IL-6?/? mice fed a high fat diet. These results question the role of adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction in the etiology of insulin resistance.

Wan, Zhongxiao; Perry, Christopher G. R.; Macdonald, Tara; Chan, Catherine B.; Holloway, Graham P.; Wright, David C.

2012-01-01

84

Magnetoacoustic imaging of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in biological tissues with microsecond magnetic stimulation  

PubMed Central

We present an experimental study on magnetoacoustic imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles embedded in biological tissues. In experiments, a large-current-carrying coil is used to deliver microsecond pulsed magnetic stimulation to samples. The ultrasound signals induced by magnetic forces on SPIO nanoparticles are measured by a rotating transducer. The distribution of nanoparticles is reconstructed by a back-projection imaging algorithm. The results demonstrated the feasibility to obtain cross-sectional image of magnetic nanoparticle targets with faithful dimensional and positional information, which suggests a promising tool for tomographic reconstruction of magnetic nanoparticle-labeled diseased tissues (e.g., cancerous tumor) in molecular or clinic imaging.

Hu, Gang; He, Bin

2012-01-01

85

Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology. PMID:22954182

Schellenberger, Eyk; Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd

86

Temporal variability in, and impact of food availability on vanadium and iron concentrations in Ciona intestinalis tissues (Tunicata, Ascidiacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascidians accumulate high levels of iron and\\/or vanadium in their tissues, the function of which is unknown. There is little directed study of the ecophysiological variation in the trait. We examined the variation in vanadium and iron levels in the hemocytes, body wall and tunic of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis over several seasons, including the spring bloom period. There were

J. E. Stacey; W. R. Driedzic

2010-01-01

87

Simultaneous Field and R2* Mapping to Quantify Liver Iron Content Using Autoregressive Moving Average Modeling  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the use of a complex multi-gradient echo (mGRE) acquisition and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for simultaneous susceptibility and R2* measurements for the assessment of liver iron content (LIC) in patients with iron overload. Materials and Methods Fifty MR exams with magnitude and phase mGRE images are processed using the ARMA model which provides fat-separated field maps, R2* maps, and T1-W imaging. The LIC is calculated by measuring the susceptibility between the liver and the right transverse abdominal muscle from the field maps. The relationship between LIC derived from susceptibility measurements and LIC from R2* measurements is determined using linear least squares regression analysis. Results LIC measured from R2* is highly correlated to the LIC from the susceptibility method (mg/g dry = 8.99 ± 0.15 × (mg Fe/ml of wet liver) ?2.38 ± 0.29, R2=0.94). The field inhomogeneity in the liver is correlated with R2* (R2=0.85). Conclusion By using the ARMA model on complex mGRE images, both susceptibility and R2*-based LIC measurements can be made simultaneously. The susceptibility measurement can be used to help verify R2* measurements in the assessment of iron overload.

Taylor, Brian A.; Loeffler, Ralf B.; Song, Ruitian; McCarville, Mary E.; Hankins, Jane S.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.

2011-01-01

88

IRON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron is an essential mineral. Although abundant in nature, it is mostly insoluble and biological absorbable forms are limited to most organisms. Iron is of fundamental importance to a variety of iron-containing proteins, especially the oxygen-carrying molecules hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron may als...

89

Hot Tear Susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Fe Alloys with Varying Iron Contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot tear susceptibility in cast Al-0.52Si-0.34Mg-xFe 6060 aluminum alloys was investigated using a hot tearing test apparatus to simulate hot tearing in DC casting. The test apparatus has two cast bars, one that is used to measure the load response and one which is fixed at both ends to restrain thermal contraction so that hot tearing can be observed and rated where it occurred. The iron (Fe) content, ranging from 0.02 to 0.5 wt pct, was seen to have a major influence on the load response during solidification and the tear rating of these alloys. The findings are discussed in terms of Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model sensitivity analysis and related to the effect of Fe content on the morphology and prevalence of the ?-Al5FeSi and ?-AlFeSi intermetallic phases and their influence on the coherency and coalescence of the microstructure.

Sweet, Lisa; Easton, Mark A.; Taylor, John A.; Grandfield, John F.; Davidson, Cameron J.; Lu, Liming; Couper, Malcolm J.; StJohn, David H.

2012-12-01

90

Tracing the evolution in the iron content of the intra-cluster medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: We present a Chandra analysis of the X-ray spectra of 56 clusters of galaxies at z ? 0.3, which cover a temperature range of 3 ? kT ? 15 keV. Aims: Our analysis is aimed at measuring the iron abundance in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) out to the highest redshift probed to date. Methods: We made use of combined spectral analysis performed over five redshift bins at 0.3? z ? 1.3 to estimate the average emission weighted iron abundance. We applied non-parametric statistics to assess correlations between temperature, metallicity, and redshift. Results: We find that the emission-weighted iron abundance measured within (0.15-0.3) R_vir in clusters below 5 keV is, on average, a factor of 2 higher than in hotter clusters, following Z(T)? 0.88 T-0.47 Z_?, which confirms the trend seen in local samples. We also find a constant average iron abundance Z_Fe? 0.25 Z_? as a function of redshift, but only for clusters at z?0.5. The emission-weighted iron abundance is significantly higher (Z_Fe?0.4 Z_?) in the redshift range z?0.3-0.5, approaching the value measured locally in the inner 0.15 R_vir radii for a mix of cool-core and non cool-core clusters in the redshift range 0.1iron content of the ICM at the present epoch is a factor of 2 larger than at z? 1.2. We confirm that the ICM is already significantly enriched (Z_Fe?0.25 Z_?) at a look-back time of 9 Gyr. Our data provide significant constraints on the time scales and physical processes that drive the chemical enrichment of the ICM. The Appendix is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Balestra, I.; Tozzi, P.; Ettori, S.; Rosati, P.; Borgani, S.; Mainieri, V.; Norman, C.; Viola, M.

2007-02-01

91

Content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Polish and other European sugar factories.  

PubMed

White sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small, significant amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The aim was to evaluate the content of iron, copper and zinc in samples of white sugar from Polish factories compared with commercial white sugar samples from other European countries. The investigations were conducted on 72 campaign-averaged white sugar samples from 37 different Polish sugar factories from 1996 to 2000 and on 16 commercial white sugar samples from nine European countries. The content of iron, copper and zinc in those sugar samples was determined by means of FAAS both in the sediment and in the solution after filtration on 0.45- micro m filters of sugar water solution. The content of iron, copper and zinc was low (averages 0.29, 0.06 and 0.07 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in all the white sugar samples from Polish sugar factories and other European countries. Iron and copper found in all white sugar samples were mainly in insoluble form - 77 and 69%, respectively. The contents of water-insoluble iron and water-soluble zinc in white sugar increase with a lowering of the quality of sugar evaluated according to the standards of the EU sugar market regime. PMID:12443561

Wojtczak, M; Król, B

2002-10-01

92

Altered Catecholamine Contents in Vascular and Nonvascular Tissues in Genetically Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the catecholamine (CA) contents in hearts, mesenteric vasculature, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, vasa deferentia and salivary glands from genetically hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Kyoto-Wistar rats (WKY). We noted differences between the norepinephrine (NE) contents of individual tissues from SHR and WKY rats and have used two different analytical procedures for the measurement of NE to

R. J. Head; L. A. Cassis; R. L. Robinson; D. P. Westfall; R. E. Stitzel

1985-01-01

93

Certification of three mussel tissue standard reference materials (SRM) for methylmercury and total mercury content  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRM 1974a, Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis); SRM 2974, Organics in Mussel Tissue (freeze-dried); and SRM 2976, Mussel Tissue (trace elements and methylmercury) have\\u000a been recently certified for methylmercury and total mercury content. Three independent analytical procedures were used to\\u000a determine the certified methylmercury concentrations. Four independent procedures combined with data from two intercomparison\\u000a exercises were used to determine

Mary Kate Donais; Rajananda Saraswati; Elizabeth Mackey; Rabia Demiralp; Barbara Porter; Mark Vangel; Mark Levenson; Vesna Mandic; Sabine Azemard; Milena Horvat; Karl May; Hendrik Emons; Stephen Wise

1997-01-01

94

Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p < 0.001) as compared to LND group. In SAT we found positive correlation between HOMA-IR and C16:0-Cer (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and between HOMA-IR and C16:0/18:2 DAG (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). In EAT we found a strong correlation between C16:0-CoA content and HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). The study showed that in obese and obese diabetic patients, bioactive lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR. PMID:23054552

B?achnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

2012-10-10

95

The influence of carbon content in the borided Fe-alloys on the microstructure of iron borides  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analyses of the borided layers produced on substrate of varying carbon content. Two types of materials were investigated: borided Armco iron of very low carbon content and borocarburized chromium- and nickel-based steels of high carbon content beneath iron borides. The tetragonal phase Fe{sub 2}B was identified in all materials studied. It was difficult to obtain an EBSD pattern from iron boride (FeB) because of its presence at low depths below the surface, and because of the rounded corners of the specimens. EBSD provided information on the orientation of Fe{sub 2}B crystals. In case of the low-carbon Armco iron the crystallographic orientation was constant along the full length of the Fe{sub 2}B needle. The EBSPs obtained from borocarburized steel indicate that the crystallographic orientation of the Fe{sub 2}B phase changes along the length of the needle. This is the result of hindered boron diffusion due to boriding of the carburized substrate. The increased resistance to friction wear of borocarburized layers arises from two reasons. One is the decreased microhardness gradient between the iron borides and the substrate, which causes a decrease in the brittleness of the iron borides and an improved distribution of internal stresses in the diffusion layer. The second is the changeable crystallographic orientation of iron borides, which leads to the lower texture and porosity of borided layers. These advantageous properties of the borocarburized layer can be obtained if the carbon content beneath the iron borides is no more than about 1.0-1.2 wt.% C.

Kulka, M. [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Pl. M.Sklodowskiej-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail: coolka@sol.put.poznan.pl; Pertek, A. [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Pl. M.Sklodowskiej-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail: pertek@sol.put.poznan.pl; Klimek, L. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Stefanowskiego St.1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: kemilk@p.lodz.pl

2006-04-15

96

Mesoporous ferrosilicates with high content of isolated iron species synthesized in mild buffer solution and their catalytic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesoporous ferrosilicates with high content of framework iron species have been synthesized under mild acidic conditions (pH 4.4, buffer solution) by co-condensation of iron acetylacetonate and a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and sodium silicate using block copolymer Pluronic P123 as the template. The XRD, N2 sorption and TEM results show that the materials have well-ordered, two-dimensional, hexagonal mesoporous structure

Hongchuan Xin; Jian Liu; Fengtao Fan; Zhaochi Feng; Guoqing Jia; Qihua Yang

2008-01-01

97

Mercury content in amalgam tattoos of human oral mucosa and its relation to local tissue reactions.  

PubMed

Mucosal biopsies from 48 patients with and 9 without amalgam tattoos were analysed with respect to their mercury content, distribution of mercury in the tissue, and histological tissue reactions. The distribution of mercury was assessed by autometallography (AMG), a silver amplification technique. The mercury content was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), a multielemental analysis. Mercury was observed in connective tissue where it was confined to fibroblasts and macrophages, in vessel walls and in structures with the histological character of nerve fibres. A correlation was found between the histopathological tissue reaction, the type of mercury deposition, the intensity of the AMG reaction, and the mercury content. Mercury was also found in patients with amalgam dental fillings but without amalgam tattoos. PMID:9527359

Forsell, M; Larsson, B; Ljungqvist, A; Carlmark, B; Johansson, O

1998-02-01

98

Optimum wavelengths for measurement of blood hemoglobin content and tissue hydration by NIR spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines non-invasive methods for absolute determination of the hemoglobin content of arterial blood and the water content of skin. Both methods are based on diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry in the near-infrared band (800 - 1600 nm). Separation of blood and background tissue spectra is accomplished by a technique similar to pulse oximetry, with the added feature that the set of measurement wavelengths is chosen to be sensitive to both hemoglobin and water concentration in the blood. Regressions performed on a simulated tissue spectra suggest that {1060, 1160, 1200 and 1320 nm} is an optimal set of wavelengths for measurement of tissue hydration and {1040, 1120, 1140 and 1200 nm} is an optimal set of wavelengths for measurement of hemoglobin content under typical measurement conditions. A simple in vitro tissue phantom whose optical properties can be altered in a controlled manner was developed to test the feasibility of the methods. Measurements were made with a custom-designed NIR spectrophotometer.

Kumar, Gitesh; Schmitt, Joseph M.

1996-05-01

99

Expression of HMGR and corresponding cholesterol content in tissues of two pig breeds.  

PubMed

The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is an essential enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. To study the expression of HMGR and corresponding cholesterol content in liver, adipose and muscle, six Chinese local breed (Huai pig) and Landrace pigs were selected. The results indicated that significant differences of cholesterol content in adipose (P < 0.01), liver (P < 0.05) and muscle (P < 0.01) tissues were detected between pigs of differing genetic backgrounds. HMGR mRNA expression were noted for adipose, liver and muscle of the two vastly differing genetics. Moreover cholesterol content differed (P < 0.01) among tissues across breed. Likewise, HMGR mRNA expression was different between adipose and liver tissues, muscle and liver tissues in both breeds; however, no difference was noted between adipose and muscle tissues. Results from this study indicate that cholesterol content and HMGR mRNA expression are higher in Huai pig tissues suggesting this gene is expressed in a breed- and tissue-dependent manner in pigs. Understanding the causes of variation in HMGR gene expression may provide crucial information about cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:22444938

Liu, G-F; Fang, W-N; Lin, H-C; Wang, X-F; Fu, J-L; Wang, A-G

2009-10-01

100

[Dynamics of the change in cyclic nucleotide content in wound tissues].  

PubMed

Changes in the content of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) in the wound tissues (muscles and granulations) were studied in experiments on rats. A wound with skin defect in the dorsal area with a crushed underlying muscle served as an experimental model. It was shown that the cAMP content in the muscular tissue rises twice: during the 1st day and to a greater measure on the 7th day. The cGMP content slightly increases on the 1-4th day, drops on the 7th day and increases cAMP concentration changes similarly to that inthe muscular tissue: it increases on the 7th day and drops on the 14th day. On the contrary, the cGMP content curve in granulations is more monotonous, only a slight increase being observed on the 7th day. PMID:223686

Nosova, I M; Za?denberg, M A; Petrosova, V N; Se?fulla, R D; Karelin, A A

1979-06-01

101

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... high in calories but low in vitamins and minerals. Sugar sweetened sodas and most desserts are examples ... higher doses of iron supplementation [ 86 ]. Iron and mineral interactions Some researchers have raised concerns about interactions ...

102

IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

103

Effects of water and iron content on the rheological contrast between garnet and olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of water and iron content on the relative creep strengths of garnet and olivine were investigated by shear deformation experiments. Garnet and olivine samples were sandwiched together between alumina pistons in a simple shear geometry and were deformed at P = 1-2 GPa, T = 1473 K and strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -3 s -1 using a Griggs-type solid-medium apparatus. The stress- and strain-rate relation, as well as the deformation microstructures including lattice-preferred orientation and dynamic recrystallization, indicates that the deformation by dislocation creep. The creep tests show that the Fe-rich garnet (Alm 67Prp 29Grs 3) was slightly weaker than olivine (Fo90), whereas the Mg-rich garnet (Alm 19Prp 68Grs 12) was significantly stronger than olivine under dry conditions. The wet experiments show that the creep rate of the Mg-rich garnet is more sensitive to water than olivine; the water fugacity exponent on strain rate was estimated to be ˜2.4 for garnet and ˜1.2 for olivine, and the Mg-rich garnet becomes weaker than olivine in a water-rich environment. The experimental results show that the rheological contrast between garnet and olivine depends strongly on water content and to a lesser degree on Fe content. Consequently, the geodynamic behavior of geochemical reservoirs can be sensitive to their chemical environments in the upper mantle.

Katayama, Ikuo; Karato, Shun-Ichiro

2008-01-01

104

Siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) overload-dependent pulmonary toxicity is determined by the poorly soluble particle not the iron content.  

PubMed

The two poorly soluble iron containing solid aerosols of siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) were compared in a 4-week inhalation study on rats at similar particle mass concentrations of approximately 30 or 100?mg/m³. The particle size distributions were essentially identical (MMAD ?1.4 ?m). The iron-based concentrations were 12 or 38 and 22 or 66?mg Fe/m³ for FeCO? and Fe?O?, respectively. Modeled and empirically determined iron lung burdens were compared with endpoints suggestive of pulmonary inflammation by determinations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oxidative stress in lung tissue during a postexposure period of 3 months. The objective of study was to identify the most germane exposure metrics, that are the concentration of elemental iron (mg Fe/m³), total particle mass (mg PM/m³) or particle volume (?l PM/m³) and their associations with the effects observed. From this analysis it was apparent that the intensity of pulmonary inflammation was clearly dependent on the concentration of particle-mass or -volume and not of iron. Despite its lower iron content, the exposure to FeCO? caused a more pronounced and sustained inflammation as compared to Fe?O?. Similarly, borderline evidence of increased oxidative stress and inflammation occurred especially following exposure to FeCO? at moderate lung overload levels. The in situ analysis of 8-oxoguanine in epithelial cells of alveolar and bronchiolar regions supports the conclusion that both FeCO? and Fe?O? particles are effectively endocytosed by macrophages as opposed to epithelial cells. Evidence of intracellular or nuclear sources of redox-active iron did not exist. In summary, this mechanistic study supports previous conclusions, namely that the repeated inhalation exposure of rats to highly respirable pigment-type iron oxides cause nonspecific pulmonary inflammation which shows a clear dependence on the particle volume-dependent lung overload rather than any increased dissolution and/or bioavailability of redox-active iron. PMID:22035119

Pauluhn, Jürgen; Wiemann, Martin

2011-11-01

105

Contents of erythorbic acid in the tissues of guinea pigs intraperitoneally administered erythorbic acid.  

PubMed

The contents of ascorbic acid (AsA) and erythrobic acid (ErA) in the tissues of guinea pigs intraperitoneally injected with AsA and/or ErA were determined to learn the difference in their retention in the tissues. After 10 d of AsA depletion, the guinea pigs were intraperitoneally injected with 5 mg of AsA, or 5 mg of ErA, or 5 mg of each. At day 5 of repletion, the guinea pigs were killed and liver, adrenal glands, spleen, and kidneys were removed. AsA and ErA in these tissues were measured by using HPLC. The contents of AsA in the tissues of only the AsA-injected guinea pigs were similar to those of the AsA- + ErA-injected guinea pigs. The contents of ErA in the tissues of the ErA-injected guinea pigs were higher than those of the AsA- + ErA-injected guinea pigs, but apparently lower than the contents of AsA in the AsA-injected guinea pigs. ErA was scarcely retained in the tissues of guinea pigs. PMID:9919478

Suzuki, E; Kurata, T; Arakawa, N

1998-10-01

106

Effects of iron supplementation on red blood cell hemoglobin content in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Although a mild degree of anemia is common in the third trimester of pregnancy, it remains a challenge to establish whether a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is physiological or pathological. The World Health Organization suggested a Hb concentration of 110 g/L to discriminate anemia. Several European investigators recommended Hb cut-off values of between 101–110 g/L. The aim of this study was to establish short-term effects of iron supplementation on the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He) and red blood cells (RBC-He) in case of suspected iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-five subjects with suspected IDE during pregnancy (Hb ?110g/L, Ret-He <29.6 pg, zinc protoporphyrin >75 mol/mol hem) participated in the study. After iron supplementation, reticulocyte counts increased from 0.061±0.015×1012/L to 0.079±0.026×1012/L and Ret-He increased from 23.6±2.8 pg to 28.3±2.6 pg (P=<0.001). RBC-He increased from 26.9±1.9 pg to 27.4±1.8 pg (not significant, NS) and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio increased from 0.97±0.06 towards 1.07±0.05 (P=<0.001). Hb concentrations demonstrated an obvious increase from 105±6 g/L towards 115±5 g/L (P?0.001) after supplementation. An obvious increase in RBC distribution width was observed from 45.0±3.6 fL towards 52.3±7.0 fL (P?0.001). We recommend that Ret-He and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio be integrated into the protocols for anemia screening and for monitoring effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy. In particular, the parameters should be considered in subjects with Hb results in the controversial range of 101–108 g/L.

Schoorl, Margreet; Schoorl, Marianne; van der Gaag, Derek; Bartels, Piet C. M.

2012-01-01

107

Mercury and selenium content and chemical form in human and animal tissue.  

PubMed

The content, chemical form, and distribution of mercury and selenium were determined for selected samples of human and animal tissue by gas chromatography. Methylmercury averaged 38.7% of the total mercury content in homogenized human brain. For human heart, spleen, liver, kidney and placenta, methylmercury comprised 40.2%, 57.0%, 39.6%, 6.0% and 57.1% respectively, of the total mercury content. Similar results were obtained for the heart and liver of a whitetail deer. Methylmercury represented 9.1%, 62.9% and 24.1% of the total mercury content in seal liver, seal meat and deer meat, respectively. For all samples, a significant portion of the total selenium content, averaging 27%, was present as selenate (Se VI). Tissue selenium content did not correlate with the corresponding mercury content. In brain, heart and placenta, and in seal liver and meat, 53% to 80% of the total mercury content was water-extractable. For human kidney, liver and spleen, and deer meat, only 15% to 45% of the total mercury was extractable. On a percentage basis, inorganic mercury was more extractable than methylmercury, except for human kidney and liver, and deer meat. For all samples, except kidney, liver and deer meat, 55% to 76% of the total selenium content was water-extractable, Se VI being more extractable on a percentage basis than selenite (Se IV) and selenide (Se-II). PMID:7242026

Cappon, C J; Smith, J C

108

The importance of carbon content beneath iron borides after boriding of chromium and nickel-based low-carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex (B+C) diffusion layers have been formed on chromium- and nickel-based low-carbon steels. Gas boriding applied to these steels that have been previously carburized enables the production of wear-resistant borocarburized layers. After combined surface hardening with boron and carbon in the microstructure two zones have been observed: iron borides (FeB+Fe 2B) and carburized zones. The iron borides in borocarburized layer show the tendencies towards lose of the needle-like nature. The depth of iron borides zone depend on pre-carburizing parameters. Although borocarburizing causes reducing of the depth of iron borides zone, it also reduces the microhardness gradient across the case. An increase of distance from the surface is accompanied by a gradual decrease of carbon content and microhardness in carburized zone. Probably, the brittleness of borocarburized layer is lower. In the consequence, the frictional wear resistance of borocarburized layers is essentially higher than that obtained in case of only borided layers. There is every indication that the carbon content beneath iron borides has an important effect on wear resistance, too. The highest wear resistance of borocarburized layer has been observed in case of about 1.2% C below iron borides.

Kulka, M.; Pertek, A.

2003-05-01

109

Adipose tissue arachidonic acid content is associated with the expression of 5-lipoxygenase in atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Background The content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue is positively associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, whereas the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue has been reported to be negatively associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. Both arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are substrates for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes and leukotrienes derived from eicosapentaenoic acid are generally much less potent. In this study we hypothesized that a high content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue would reflect a high formation of arachidonic acid derived leukotrienes and a high expression of 5-lipoxygenase in atherosclerotic plaques. Likewise, we hypothesized that a high content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue would reflect a low formation of arachidonic acid derived leukotrienes and a low expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques. Methods In a cross sectional study we included 45 consecutive subjects undergoing femoral thrombendarterectomy. The expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques was assessed by a semi-automated image analysis computer programme after immunohistochemical staining with mono-clonal 5-lipoxygenase antibodies. Leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotriene formation from stimulated femoral artery plaques was quantified using ELISA methods. The fatty acid content of adipose tissue biopsies from the thigh was analyzed using gas chromatography. Associations between variables were assessed by Pearson correlations and were further explored in a multivariable linear regression model adjusting for potential confounders. Results A high content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue was associated with a higher expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques (r?=?0.32, p?=?0.03), but no significant associations with leukotriene B4 (r?=?0.22, p?=?0.14) and cysteinyl leukotriene (r?=??0.11, p?=?0.46) formation was seen. No significant associations were found between the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue and 5-lipoxygenase expression or leukotriene formation in plaque. Conclusions Adipose tissue arachidonic acid contents correlated positively with the expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques. This association might represent a causal link between adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the risk of myocardial infarction but confirmatory studies are needed.

2013-01-01

110

Tissue type is a major modifier of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content of human genes  

PubMed Central

The discovery of substantial amounts of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), formed by the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), in various mouse tissues and human embryonic stem (ES) cells has necessitated a reevaluation of our knowledge of 5mC/5hmC patterns and functions in mammalian cells. Here, we investigate the tissue specificity of both the global levels and locus-specific distribution of 5hmC in several human tissues and cell lines. We find that global 5hmC content of normal human tissues is highly variable, does not correlate with global 5mC content, and decreases rapidly as cells from normal tissue adapt to cell culture. Using tiling microarrays to map 5hmC levels in DNA from normal human tissues, we find that 5hmC patterns are tissue specific; unsupervised hierarchical clustering based solely on 5hmC patterns groups independent biological samples by tissue type. Moreover, in agreement with previous studies, we find 5hmC associated primarily, but not exclusively, with the body of transcribed genes, and that within these genes 5hmC levels are positively correlated with transcription levels. However, using quantitative 5hmC-qPCR, we find that the absolute levels of 5hmC for any given gene are primarily determined by tissue type, gene expression having a secondary influence on 5hmC levels. That is, a gene transcribed at a similar level in several different tissues may have vastly different levels of 5hmC (>20-fold) dependent on tissue type. Our findings highlight tissue type as a major modifier of 5hmC levels in expressed genes and emphasize the importance of using quantitative analyses in the study of 5hmC levels.

Nestor, Colm E.; Ottaviano, Raffaele; Reddington, James; Sproul, Duncan; Reinhardt, Diana; Dunican, Donncha; Katz, Elad; Dixon, J. Michael; Harrison, David J.; Meehan, Richard R.

2012-01-01

111

Mapping and characterization of iron compounds in AlzheimerÂs tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the management of iron in the brain is of great importance in the study of neurodegeneration, where regional iron overload is frequently evident. A variety of approaches have been employed, from quantifying iron in various anatomical structures, to identifying genetic risk factors related to iron metabolism, and exploring chelation approaches to tackle iron overload in neurodegenerative disease. However, the

Joanna Collingwood; Jon Dobson

2008-01-01

112

Tribology of Si 3N 4 with different glassy phase content sliding against grey cast iron lubricated with water  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that Si3N4 shows excellent tribological properties in water. This is attributed to the hydrolysis of Si3N4 itself. The glassy phase content in Si3N4 is considered to be an important factor affecting the hydrolysis of Si3N4 during friction. In the present paper the effect of glassy phase content in silicon nitride against grey iron in water on its

Liang Fang; Yimin Gao; Zhen Zhang

1999-01-01

113

Distributions of manganese, iron, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria in Lake Superior sediments of different organic carbon content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin

Laurie L. Richardson; Kenneth H. Nealson

1989-01-01

114

Upper mantle oxidation state: Ferric iron contents of Iherzolite spinels by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and resultant oxygen fugacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ferric iron contents of spinels from 30 spinel Iherzolite xenoliths have been measured by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples are widely dispersed in geographic and tectonic setting, coming from Southwest United States (San Carlos, Kilbourne Hole), Japan (Ichinomegata), Massif Central, France (Mont Briançon) and Central Asia (Tariat Depression, Vitim Plateau). The total range of Fe 3 O 4

Bernard J. Wood; David Virgo

1989-01-01

115

The influence of chemical composition on the properties of Cepheid stars. II. The iron content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: The Cepheid period-luminosity (PL) relation is unquestionably one of the most powerful tools at our disposal for determining the extragalactic distance scale. While significant progress has been made in the past few years towards its understanding and characterization both on the observational and theoretical sides, the debate on the influence that chemical composition may have on the PL relation is still unsettled. Aims: With the aim to assess the influence of the stellar iron content on the PL relation in the V and K bands, we have related the V-band and the K-band residuals from the standard PL relations of Freedman et al. (2001, ApJ, 553, 47) and Persson et al. (2004, AJ, 128, 2239), respectively, to [Fe/H]. Methods: We used direct measurements of the iron abundances of 68 Galactic and Magellanic Cepheids from FEROS and UVES high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. Results: We find a mean iron abundance ([Fe/H]) about solar (? = 0.10) for our Galactic sample (32 stars), ~-0.33 dex (? = 0.13) for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) sample (22 stars) and ~-0.75 dex (? = 0.08) for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) sample (14 stars). Our abundance measurements of the Magellanic Cepheids double the number of stars studied up to now at high resolution. The metallicity affects the V-band Cepheid PL relation and metal-rich Cepheids appear to be systematically fainter than metal-poor ones. These findings depend neither on the adopted distance scale for Galactic Cepheids nor on the adopted LMC distance modulus. Current data do not allow us to reach a firm conclusion concerning the metallicity dependence of the K-band PL relation. The new Galactic distances indicate a small effect, whereas the old ones support a marginal effect. Conclusions: Recent robust estimates of the LMC distance and current results indicate that the Cepheid PL relation is not Universal. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at Paranal and La Silla Observatories under proposal ID 66.D-0571. Full Table [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Romaniello, M.; Primas, F.; Mottini, M.; Pedicelli, S.; Lemasle, B.; Bono, G.; François, P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Laney, C. D.

2008-09-01

116

Effect of temperature, pressure and iron content on the electrical conductivity of olivine and its high-pressure polymorphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical conductivity of olivine and its high-pressure polymorphs with various iron contents [XFe = Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0] was measured over a wide range of pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions covering the stability field of olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite in a Kawai-type multianvil apparatus. The pressure was determined using in situ X-ray diffraction of MgO as a pressure marker in SPring 8. Molybdenum electrodes were used so that oxygen fugacity is similar to that for the iron-wüstite buffer. The transition from low-pressure phase to high-pressure phase led to an increase of conductivity. In the stability field of each phase, the electrical conductivity slightly increased with increasing pressure at a constant temperature, suggesting a negative activation volume. The conductivity increased with increasing total iron content for each phase. All electrical conductivity data fit the formula for electrical conductivity ? = ?0 XFeexp{-[?E0 - ?XFe1/3 + P(?V0 - ?XFe)]/kT}, where ?0 is the pre-exponential term, ?E0 and ?V0 are the activation energy and the activation volume at very low total iron concentration, respectively, and k is the Boltzmann constant. The activation energy decreased with increasing total Fe content in olivine and ringwoodite. Dependence of the activation energy on the total Fe content suggests that the dominant mechanism of charge transport is Fe2+-Fe3+ hopping (small polaron). The activation volume for small polaron conduction in olivine and its high-pressure polymorphs tends to decrease with total Fe content. For olivine with low Fe content, the activation volume for small polaron conduction still is negative and very small. Assuming constant Fe content (XFe = 0.1) and oxygen buffer condition, the conductivity will increase with depth mainly due to the increase of the temperature along the mantle adiabat.

Yoshino, Takashi; Shimojuku, Akira; Shan, Shuanming; Guo, Xinzhuan; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Ito, Eiji; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi

2012-08-01

117

Tissue iron evaluation in chronically transfused children shows significant levels of iron loading at a very young age.  

PubMed

Chronic blood transfusions start at a very young age in subjects with transfusion-dependent anemias, the majority of whom have hereditary anemias. To understand how rapidly iron overload develops, we retrospectively reviewed 308 MRIs for evaluation of liver, pancreatic, or cardiac iron in 125 subjects less than 10 years old. Median age at first MRI evaluation was 6.0 years. Median liver iron concentrations in patients less than 3.5 years old were 14 and 13 mg/g dry weight in thalassemia major (TM) and Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) patients, respectively. At time of first MRI, pancreatic iron was markedly elevated (> 100 Hz) in DBA patients, and cardiac iron ( R2* >50 Hz) was present in 5/112 subjects (4.5%), including a 2.5 years old subject with DBA. Five of 14 patients (38%) with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) developed excess cardiac iron before their 10th birthday. Thus, clinically significant hepatic and cardiac iron accumulation occurs at an early age in patients on chronic transfusions, particularly in those with ineffective or absent erythropoiesis, such as DBA, CDA, and TM, who are at higher risk for iron cardiomyopathy. Performing MRI for iron evaluation in the liver, heart, and pancreas as early as feasible, particularly in those conditions in which there is suppressed bone marrow activity is very important in the management of iron loaded children in order to prescribe appropriate chelation to prevent long-term sequelae. Am. J. Heamtol. 88:E283-E285, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23861216

Berdoukas, Vasilios; Nord, Anne; Carson, Susan; Puliyel, Mammen; Hofstra, Thomas; Wood, John; Coates, Thomas D

2013-09-02

118

Flow microfluorometric DNA content measurements of tissue culture cells and peripheral lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference in DNA content of peripheral lymphocytes from normal males, normal females, and an individual with a 48 (xxxy) chromosome constitution was determined by rapid flow microfluorometric techniques. A similar comparison was performed using tissue culture fibroblasts derived from an individual with a 49 (xxxxy) chromosome constitution and WI-38 cells as a normal control. Less than 60 min were

L. S. Cram; J. M. Lehman

1977-01-01

119

The effect of isoflurane on brain amino acid release and tissue content induced by energy deprivation.  

PubMed

This article describes the effect of isoflurane on amino acid release and tissue content induced by energy deprivation in slices of rat hippocampus. Energy deprivation (95% N2 / 5% CO2 and glucose free medium) (ED) induced an increase in the release of all amino acids measured, with the exception of glutamine. The tissue content of all amino acids except gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and arginine was concomitantly reduced. Isoflurane (1.5% and 3.0%) reduced glutamate release during ED by 27% and 28% (p < 0.05 as compared with release without isoflurane), respectively, whereas the tissue content was slightly increased. Similarly, GABA release was reduced by 25% and 25% (p < 0.05 as compared with release without isoflurane) accompanied by an insignificant enhancement in tissue content as compared with ED without isoflurane. Isoflurane reduced the release of taurine and most of the other amino acids. The total amount of all amino acids (both released and retained) was not significantly altered by the anesthetic. These observations demonstrate that isoflurane can modify the changes in amino acid handling induced by energy deprivation. PMID:9681405

Larsen, M; Haugstad, T S; Berg-Johnsen, J; Langmoen, I A

1998-07-01

120

Hydration and tissue solid content of the lean body on prolonged exposure to altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using densitometric, hydrometric and anthropometric techniques, body fat, tissue solids, water and mineral content were quantitatively measured on two groups each of 26 young and healthy Indian soldiers of mixed ethnic composition. The experimental group was exposed to 3500 m altitude for 2 years and the experiments were carried out after 48 h and 3 weeks rehabilitation in Delhi (300

H. Bharadwaj; M. V. Singh; S. B. Rawal; T. Zachariah; S. Kishnani; S. N. Pramanik; A. Gupta; R. M. Rai

1989-01-01

121

TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

122

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation and Water Contents in Normal Tissues and Five Types of Cancer Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By studying NMR water proton spin lattice relaxation times (T1) of normal mouse and rat tissues at varying water contents and by comparing the data obtained with similar data obtained from 5 strains of pure cancer cells, we reached the conclusion that dif...

G. N. Ling M. Tucker

1983-01-01

123

Anticonvulsant-induced changes in tissue manganese, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Human epileptics have been reported to have low blood manganese (Mn) concentrations in comparison to nonepileptics, an observation that is important because Mn deficiency can increase seizure susceptibility in experimental animals. Factors that have been suggested to contribute to the low blood Mn levels in epileptics include anticonvulsant use, seizure-induced tissue redistribution of Mn, and genetics; in the present study, the first of these possibilities was tested. Wistar rats were fed semipurified diets containing diphenylhydantoin ([DPH] 3 g/kg diet), phenobarbital ([PB] 2 g/kg diet), or primidone ([PRIM] 3 g/kg diet) for 7 weeks, at which time they were killed and tissues collected and analyzed for Mn, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) concentrations. In comparison to pair-fed rats, DPH- and PRIM-fed rats had significantly elevated liver Mn concentrations, while Mn concentrations in blood, brain, heart, and kidney were unaffected by anticonvulsant exposure. Changes in the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe in specific tissues were also found. Overall, these findings suggest that the anticonvulsants tested do not lead to significant derangements in the metabolism of Mn. PMID:8345801

Critchfield, J W; Carl, F G; Keen, C L

1993-07-01

124

Multimode near-field microwave monitoring of free water content of skin and imaging of tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) technique in the 1-10 GHz range to monitor the free water content of skin. The water content is interpreted from the measured dielectric properties of the epidermis. The finger skin was first hydrated by soaking in water at 37 °C for 30 min followed by monitoring of water content as the free water evaporated under ambient conditions. The same technique has also been employed to image a 1 cm × 1 cm sample of chicken skin. It has been shown that variations exist in the resonant frequencies and quality factors of tissue under varying physical parameters. The samples analysed were as-received and thermally dehydrated or damaged chicken tissue samples. We contrast between the dielectric properties with the optical images. We also discuss possible application of our imaging technique in clinical monitoring of the wound healing process.

Lofland, S. E.; Mazzatenta, J. D.; Croman, J.; Tyagi, S. D.

2007-03-01

125

Effects of olanzapine on extracellular concentrations and tissue content of neurotensin in rat brain regions.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that both the psychostimulant d-amphetamine and the antipsychotics haloperidol and risperidone affect extracellular concentrations and tissue content of neurotensin (NT) in distinct brain regions. This study investigated the effects of acute olanzapine (1, 5mg/kg, s.c.) on extracellular NT-like immunoreactivity (-LI) concentrations in the ventral striatum (vSTR) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the effects of acute d-amphetamine (1.5mg/kg, s.c.) on extracellular NT-LI in these brain regions after a 30-day olanzapine (15mg/kg, p.o.) administration in rats. The effects of a 30-day olanzapine (3, 15mg/kg, p.o.) administration and d-amphetamine (1.5mg/kg, s.c.) coadministration during either the last day (acute) or the last 8days (chronic) on NT-LI tissue content in distinct rat brain regions were also studied. Acute olanzapine increased extracellular NT-LI, in both the vSTR and the mPFC. Chronic olanzapine increased and decreased basal extracellular NT-LI in the vSTR and the mPFC, respectively, and abolished the stimulatory effects of acute d-amphetamine on extracellular NT-LI in these brain regions. Chronic olanzapine as well as acute and chronic d-amphetamine affected NT-LI tissue content in a brain region-dependent manner. Chronic olanzapine prevented the effects of acute and chronic d-amphetamine on NT-LI tissue content in certain brain regions. The fact that olanzapine and d-amphetamine affected extracellular NT-LI in the vSTR and mPFC as well as NT-LI tissue content in distinct brain regions further supports the notion that NT plays a role in the therapeutic actions of antipsychotic drugs and possibly also in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:21316929

Gruber, Susanne H M; Angelucci, Francesco; Nomikos, George G; Mathé, Aleksander A

2011-02-12

126

Effects of Iron Status on Transpulmonary Transport and Tissue Distribution of Mn and Fe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese transport into the blood can result from inhaling metal- containing particles. Intestinal manganese and iron absorption is mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and is upregu- lated in iron deficiency. Since iron status alters absorption of Fe and Mn in the gut, we tested the hypothesis that iron status may alter pulmonary transport of these metals. DMT1 expression

Joseph D. Brain; Elizabeth Heilig; Thomas C. Donaghey; Mitchell D. Knutson; Marianne Wessling-Resnick; Ramon M. Molina

127

The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48?g/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80?g/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39?g Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content in defatted tissue and oil from such tissues and thereby contribute towards our knowledge on aluminium and any role in breast cancer. PMID:23870171

House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

2013-06-01

128

Cellular iron concentrations directly affect the expression levels of norepinephrine transporter in PC12 cells and rat brain tissue.  

PubMed

Neurological development and functioning are adversely affected by iron deficiency in early life. Iron-deficient rats are known to have elevations in extracellular DA and NE, suggesting alterations in reuptake of these monoamines. To explore possible mechanisms by which cellular iron concentrations may alter NE transporter functioning, we utilized NET expressing PC12 cells and iron-deficient rats to explore the relationship between NET protein and mRNA expression patterns and iron concentrations. Treatment of PC12 with the iron chelator, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO, 50 microM for 24 h), significantly decreased [3H] NE uptake by more than 35% with no apparent change in Km. PC12 cells exposed to increasing concentrations of DFO (25-100 microM) exhibited a dose response decrease in [3H] NE uptake within 24 h (38-73% of control) that paralleled a decrease in cellular NET protein content. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide resulted in NET disappearance rates from DFO-treated cells greatly exceeding the rate of loss from control cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed only a modest decrease in NET mRNA levels. Rat brain locus ceruleus and thalamus NET mRNA levels were also only modestly decreased (10-15%) despite a 40% reduction in regional brain iron. In contrast, NET proteins levels in thalamus and locus ceruleus were strongly affected by regional iron deficiency with high correlations with iron concentrations (r > 0.94 and r > 0.80 respectively). The present findings demonstrate that NET protein concentrations and functioning are dramatically reduced with iron deficiency; the modest effect on mRNA levels suggests a stronger influence on NET trafficking and degradation than on protein synthesis. PMID:16650837

Beard, John L; Wiesinger, Jason A; Jones, Byron C

2006-05-02

129

A method for intercultivar comparison of potato tuber nutrient content using specific tissue weight proportions.  

PubMed

Potato tubers are a staple food item in the North American diet. Each potato cultivar has unique tuber appearance and nutritional composition. A method was developed to facilitate better cultivar selection for dietary purposes and obtain a better understanding of the nutrient distribution within specific tissues of potato tubers. This involved a procedure for estimating the percent weight contribution of the 3 major tissue components, including periderm or "skin," cortex, and pith for 20 potato cultivars. Weight determination was based on the volume (calculated through an ellipsoid formula) and density of each component tissue. Calculated percent weight and dry matter data for each tuber tissue provided conversion factor values that were tabulated for all cultivars. An example is provided to illustrate the application of this procedure in facilitating identification of cultivars with significantly greater or lesser protein content. PMID:19646054

Ortiz-Medina, E; Sosle, V; Raghavan, V; Donnelly, D J

2009-06-01

130

Evaluating the effect of SiC content on iron-based nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron has wide application in manufacturing industries and the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) particles on iron-based nanocomposites. SiC is effectively reinforced into iron matrix by mechanical alloying process using high-energy ball mill. The Fe–SiC nanocomposites with various compositions of SiC viz., 15%, 20% and 25% are characterised using X-ray diffraction and

N. Poornaprakash; N. Selvakumar; K. Jeyasubramanian; K. Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

131

Dysfunction of the heme recycling system in heme oxygenase 1-deficient mice: effects on macrophage viability and tissue iron distribution  

PubMed Central

To better understand the tissue iron overload and anemia previously reported in a human patient and mice that lack heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), we studied iron distribution and pathology in HO-1(Hmox1)?/? mice. We found that resident splenic and liver macrophages were mostly absent in HO-1?/? mice. Erythrophagocytosis caused the death of HO-1?/? macrophages in in vitro experiments, supporting the hypothesis that HO-1?/? macrophages died of exposure to heme released on erythrophagocytosis. Rupture of HO-1?/? macrophages in vivo and release of nonmetabolized heme probably caused tissue inflammation. In the spleen, initial splenic enlargement progressed to red pulp fibrosis, atrophy, and functional hyposplenism in older mice, recapitulating the asplenia of an HO-1–deficient patient. We postulate that the failure of tissue macrophages to remove senescent erythrocytes led to intravascular hemolysis and increased expression of the heme and hemoglobin scavenger proteins, hemopexin and haptoglobin. Lack of macrophages expressing the haptoglobin receptor, CD163, diminished the ability of haptoglobin to neutralize circulating hemoglobin, and iron overload occurred in kidney proximal tubules, which were able to catabolize heme with HO-2. Thus, in HO-1?/? mammals, the reduced function and viability of erythrophagocytosing macrophages are the main causes of tissue damage and iron redistribution.

Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Ghosh, Manik C.; Ollivierre-Wilson, Hayden

2010-01-01

132

Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical scattering coefficient from ex vivo unfixed normal and malignant ovarian tissue was quantitatively extracted by fitting optical coherence tomography (OCT) A-line signals to a single scattering model. 1097 average A-line measurements at a wavelength of 1310 nm were performed at 108 sites obtained from 18 ovaries. The average scattering coefficient obtained from the normal tissue group consisted of 833 measurements from 88 sites was 2.41 mm-1 (+/-0.59), while the average coefficient obtained from the malignant tissue group consisted of 264 measurements from 20 sites was 1.55 mm-1 (+/-0.46). The malignant ovarian tissue showed significant lower scattering than the normal group (p < 0.001). The amount of collagen within OCT imaging depth was analyzed from the tissue histological section stained with Sirius Red. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the normal tissue group was 48.4% (+/-12.3%), while the average CAF obtained from the malignant tissue group was 11.4% (+/-4.7%). A statistical significance of the collagen content was found between the two groups (p < 0.001). These results demonstrated that quantitative measurements of optical scattering coefficient from OCT images could be a potential powerful method for ovarian cancer detection.

Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

2011-09-01

133

Quantitative multispectral imaging of Herovici's polychrome for the assessment of collagen content and tissue remodelling.  

PubMed

Bioprosthetic devices, constructed from a variety of materials, are routinely implanted in a variety of anatomical locations. Essential to their success is the formation of a non-destructive interface with the host tissue and appropriate tissue remodelling. Traditionally, the main method of assessing the host-material interface has been qualitative histological evaluation, using pattern recognition and comparative assessment to identify changes in the normal tissue architecture that are characteristic of scar tissue. In the present study, the recently developed technique of multispectral imaging was used to revisit a little-described histological stain, Herovici's polychrome, which is capable of distinguishing between types I and III collagen. Combined, these techniques allowed quantification of collagen content and distribution of collagen types within a tissue sample. Samples of rat tail and human scar tissue were used to optimize the staining, while comparison with immunolabelled samples was used to develop a reproducible quantification system, based on the specific colour profiles for types I and III collagen. Finally the remodelling of rat abdominal wall defects repaired with crosslinked or non-crosslinked extracellular matrix scaffolds derived from porcine urinary bladder was assessed with this technique. Compared to standard histological assessment, the combination of multispectral imaging and Herovici's polychrome staining presents a quick, simple, reliable technique that can provide accurate quantification of tissue remodelling and specifically identify the expression and distribution of types I and III collagen. PMID:22072426

Turner, Neill J; Pezzone, Michael A; Brown, Bryan N; Badylak, Stephen F

2011-11-09

134

Sphingolipid content of human adipose tissue: relationship to adiponectin and insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Ceramides (Cer) are implicated in obesity-associated skeletal muscle and perhaps adipocyte insulin resistance. We examined whether the sphingolipid content of human subcutaneous adipose tissue and plasma varies by obesity and sex as well as the relationship between ceramide content and metabolic indices. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose biopsies were performed on 12 lean adults (males = 6), 12 obese adults (males =6) for measurement of sphingolipid content and activity of the main ceramide metabolism enzymes. Blood was sampled for glucose, insulin (to calculate HOMA-IR) adiponectin and IL-6 concentrations. Results Compared to lean controls, total ceramide content (pg/adipocyte) was increased by 31 % (p<0.05) and 34 % (p<0.05) in obese females and males, respectively. In adipocytes from obese adults sphingosine, sphinganine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, C14-Cer, C16-Cer and C24-Cer were all increased. C18:1-Cer was increased in obese males and C24:1-Cer in obese females. For women only, there was a negative correlation between C16-Cer ceramide and plasma adiponectin (r=?0.77, p= 0.003) and a positive correlation between total ceramide content and HOMA-IR (r=0.74, p= 0.006). For men only there were significant (at least P < 0.05), positive correlations between adipocyte ceramides containing saturated FA and plasma IL-6 concentration. We conclude that the sexual dimorphism in adipose tissue behavior in humans extends to adipose tissue sphingolipid content its association with adiponectin, IL-6 and insulin resistance.

Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U.; Koutsari, Christina; Tchkonia, Tamara; Jensen, Michael D.

2012-01-01

135

Sphingolipid content of human adipose tissue: relationship to adiponectin and insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Ceramides (Cer) are implicated in obesity-associated skeletal muscle and perhaps adipocyte insulin resistance. We examined whether the sphingolipid content of human subcutaneous adipose tissue and plasma varies by obesity and sex as well as the relationship between ceramide content and metabolic indices. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose biopsies were performed on 12 lean adults (males = 6), 12 obese adults (males = 6) for measurement of sphingolipid content and activity of the main ceramide metabolism enzymes. Blood was sampled for glucose, insulin (to calculate homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR))) adiponectin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. Compared to lean controls, total ceramide content (pg/adipocyte) was increased by 31% (P < 0.05) and 34% (P < 0.05) in obese females and males, respectively. In adipocytes from obese adults sphingosine, sphinganine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, C14-Cer, C16-Cer, and C24-Cer were all increased. C18:1-Cer was increased in obese males and C24:1-Cer in obese females. For women only, there was a negative correlation between C16-Cer ceramide and plasma adiponectin (r = -0.77, P = 0.003) and a positive correlation between total ceramide content and HOMA(IR) (r = 0.74, P = 0.006). For men only there were significant (at least P < 0.05), positive correlations between adipocyte Cer-containing saturated fatty acid and plasma IL-6 concentration. We conclude that the sexual dimorphism in adipose tissue behavior in humans extends to adipose tissue sphingolipid content its association with adiponectin, IL-6 and insulin resistance. PMID:22677645

Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Koutsari, Christina; Tchkonia, Tamara; Jensen, Michael D

2012-05-07

136

Genetic polymorphisms in bovine transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) genes and their association with beef iron content.  

PubMed

Beef is considered to be an excellent source of dietary iron. However, little is known about the genetic control of beef iron content. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) could influence skeletal muscle iron content. The objective of this study was to use Angus cattle to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and flanking regions of the bovine TFR2 and SLC40A1 genes and to evaluate the extent to which genetic variation in them was associated with bovine longissimus dorsi muscle iron content. Ten novel SNPs were identified in TFR2, of which one SNP tended to be associated (P?iron content. Nine novel SNPs in SLC40A1, NC007300: rs133108154, rs137140497, rs135205621, rs136600836, rs134388440, rs136347850, rs134186279, rs134621419 and rs137555693, were identified, of which SNPs rs134388440, rs136347850 and rs137555693 were significantly associated (P?iron content. High linkage disequilibrium was observed among SLC40A1 SNPs rs134388440, rs136347850 and rs137555693 (R(2) ?>?0.99), from which two haplotypes, TGC and CAT, were defined. Beef from individuals that were homozygous for the TGC haplotype had significantly (P?iron content than did beef from CAT homozygous or heterozygous individuals. The estimated size of effect of the identified haplotypes was 0.3% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for genetic control of beef iron concentration. Moreover, SNPs identified in SLC40A1, rs134388440, rs136347850 and rs137555693 might be useful markers for the selection of Angus cattle for altered iron content. PMID:22404347

Duan, Q; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Garrick, D J; Liu, Q; Van Eenennaam, A L; Mateescu, R G; Van Overbeke, D L; Garmyn, A J; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M

2011-07-07

137

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Soft Tissue Infection with Iron Oxide Labeled Granulocytes in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Object We sought to detect an acute soft tissue infection in rats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using granulocytes, previously labeled with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO). Materials and Methods Parasternal infection was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus suspension in rats. Granulocytes isolated from isogenic donor rats were labeled with SPIO. Infected rats were imaged by MRI before, 6 and 12 hours after intravenous injection of SPIO-labeled or unlabeled granulocytes. MR findings were correlated with histological analysis by Prussian blue staining and with re-isolated SPIO-labeled granulocytes from the infectious area by magnetic cell separation. Results Susceptibility effects were present in infected sites on post-contrast T2*-weighted MR images in all animals of the experimental group. Regions of decreased signal intensity (SI) in MRI were detected at 6 hours after granulocyte administration and were more pronounced at 12 hours. SPIO-labeled granulocytes were identified by Prussian blue staining in the infected tissue and could be successfully re-isolated from the infected area by magnetic cell separation. Conclusion The application of SPIO-labeled granulocytes in MRI offers new perspectives in diagnostic specificity and sensitifity to detect early infectious processes.

Wedekind, Dirk; Meier, Martin; Bleich, Andre; Glage, Silke; Hedrich, Hans-Juergen; Kutschka, Ingo; Haverich, Axel

2012-01-01

138

Manganese content of mustard leaves in relation to iron and major nutrient supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a study of manganese uptake by mustard plants in nutrient culture, the Mn\\/Fe, P\\/Fe, and K\\/Ca ratios in the leaves have been shown to vary in the same way with change in iron concentration of the medium. Copper shows similar inverse changes with iron. The metabolic significance of these ratios is discussed.

P. C. Dekock; R. H. E. Inkson

1962-01-01

139

Effects of C content on the thermal fatigue resistance of cast iron with biomimetic non-smooth surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve thermal fatigue resistance of brake drum materials, cast iron samples with biomimetic non-smooth surface were processed by laser to imitate the alternately soft and hard structure of nacreous layer. In addition, C contents were adjusted for further investigating the effect on thermal fatigue resistance of non-smooth sample. The results indicated that biomimetic non-smooth surface had a

Tong Xin; Zhou Hong; Chen Li; Zhang Zhi-hui; Ren Lu-quan

2008-01-01

140

Changes in iron content in sphalerites in relation to structural conditions and localization of ores in Kholst deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consistent, relatively rapid decrease in FeS molecular content of sphalerites at decreasing depth is recognizable in upper parts of this structurally controlled Pb-Zn ore deposit, as an expression of tectonic calm and continuity of the productive stages of the mineralization. Elsewhere, in the depths, abrupt changes in quantity of isomorphous iron in sphalerites, within a relatively short depth-span, signify

Ye M. Nekrasav

1971-01-01

141

Degradable Segmented Polyurethane Elastomers for Bone Tissue Engineering: Effect of Polycaprolactone Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmented polyurethanes (PURs), consisting of degradable poly(a-hydroxy ester) soft segments and aminoacid-derived chain extenders, are biocompatible elastomers with tunable mechanical and degradative properties suitable for a variety of tissue-engineering applications. In this study, a family of linear PURs synthesized from poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diol, 1,4-diisocyanobutane and tyramine with theoretical PCL contents of 65–80 wt% were processed into porous foam scaffolds and

Katherine D. Kavlock; Kyumin Whang; Scott A. Guelcher; Aaron S. Goldstein

2012-01-01

142

Grass Carp: Effects of Salinity on Survival, Weight Loss, and Muscle Tissue Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerling grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 100-120 mm total length, were exposed to various hypotonic and hypertonic waters to determine tolerance, body weight loss, and muscle tissue water content. After acclimation at 8.0‰, LD50's for 24, 48, and 96 h were of 15.7, 15.1, and 15.1‰ salinity, respectively. No mortalities occurred in fish exposed at 14.0‰ for 96 h; at 12.0

Michael J. Maceina; Jerome V. Shireman

1979-01-01

143

Asbestos content of lung tissue in asbestos associated diseases: a study of 110 cases.  

PubMed Central

Diseases associated with asbestos exposure include asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, carcinoma of the lung, and parietal pleural plaques. In this study the asbestos content of lung tissue was examined in groups of cases representing each of these diseases and in several cases with non-occupational idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asbestos bodies (AB), which are the hallmark of asbestos exposure, were present in the lungs of virtually everyone in the general population and present at increased levels in individuals with asbestos associated diseases. The highest numbers of AB occurred in individuals with asbestosis, all of whom had levels greater than or equal to 2000 ABs/g wet lung tissue. Every case with a content of 100,000 ABs/g or higher had asbestosis. Intermediate levels occurred in individuals with malignant mesothelioma and the lowest levels in patients with parietal pleural plaques. There was no overlap between the asbestos content of lung tissue from patients with asbestosis and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung cancer was present in half the patients with asbestosis, and the distribution of histological patterns did not differ from that in patients with lung cancer without asbestosis. The asbestos body content in patients with lung cancer was highly variable. Control cases had values within our previously established normal range (0-20 ABs/g). There was a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between AB counted by light microscope and AB and uncoated fibres counted by scanning electron microscopy. The previous observation that the vast majority of asbestos bodies isolated from human tissues have an amphibole core was confirmed. Images

Roggli, V L; Pratt, P C; Brody, A R

1986-01-01

144

Significance of herbal medicine in removing excessive iron content in human.  

PubMed

Heavy metals in cigarette tobacco such as iron may cause a serious damage on human health. Surveys showed that the accumulation of certain toxic heavy metals like cadmium, mercury, iron is very often due to the effect of smoking. This work involved 15 volunteers in two randomly divided groups having the habit of cigarette smoking over 15 cigarettes / day. Concentration level of iron in blood and urine before and after treatment using the herbal medicine, widely used in Europe, is analyzed. Determination of Iron concentration in blood and urine was calculated by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) according to the procedure DIN EN ISO 11885 ("E22" from April 1998). The analysis shows that the concentration of iron in blood and urine samples in both groups increased in some volunteers instead of decrease. The independent T-test shows that the mean of iron concentration in the group A and group B had no significant difference (p>0.05). The results suggested that the herbal medicine under test does not have significant influence on reduction of iron concentration levels. PMID:23811465

Wbin-Wan-Ibrahim, Wanmohd Azhar; Mirza, Eraj Humayun; Akbar Ali, Syed Fahad

2013-07-01

145

Increased RNA oxidative damage and iron content in skeletal muscle with aging and disuse atrophy  

PubMed Central

Muscle atrophy with aging or disuse is associated with deregulated iron homeostasis and increased oxidative stress likely inflicting damage to nucleic acids. Therefore, we investigated RNA and DNA oxidation, and iron homeostasis in gastrocnemius muscles. Disuse atrophy was induced in 6- and 32-month old male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats by 14 days of hind limb suspension (HS). We show that RNA, but not DNA, oxidative damage increased 85% with age and 36% with HS in aged muscle. Additionally, non-heme iron levels increased 233% with aging and 83% with HS at old age, while staining for free iron was strongest in the smallest fibers. Simultaneously, the mRNA abundance of transferrin receptor-1 decreased by 80% with age and 48% with HS for young animals, while that of the hepcidin regulator hemojuvelin decreased 37% with age, but increased about 44% with disuse, indicating a dysregulation of iron homeostasis favoring increased intracellular free iron in atrophied muscles. RNA and DNA concentrations increased with age and were negatively correlated with muscle mass, whereas protein concentrations decreased with aging, indicating a preferential loss of protein compared to nucleic acids. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase activity increased with age, but not with HS, while mRNA abundance of the Y box-binding protein-1, which has been suggested to bind oxidized RNA, did not change with age or HS. These results suggest that RNA oxidation, possibly mediated by increased non-heme iron, might contribute to muscle atrophy due to disuse particularly in aged muscle.

Hofer, Tim; Marzetti, Emanuele; Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y.; Gulec, Sukru; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

2008-01-01

146

Tissue distribution and effects of heat treatments on the content of domoic acid in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heat treatment on domoic acid (DA) content in soft tissues of mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. DA concentrations in whole flesh, hepatopancreas and tissue remainder were measured in fresh, steamed and autoclaved mussel flesh. Relative decreases in DA and tissue fluid following heat treatments of whole flesh were similar resulting in approximately

Pearse McCarron; Philipp Hess

2006-01-01

147

Phytate, zinc, iron and calcium content of selected raw and prepared foods consumed in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, and implications for bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative staple foods from Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, were analyzed for phytate using HPLC, and for Zn, Fe and Ca by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Enset starchy foods had the lowest phytic acid content, followed by fermented injera prepared from tef. Oleaginous seeds (niger and sesame) had the highest phytate content (?1600mg\\/100g). The iron content of raw tef and tef

Yewelsew Abebe; Alemtsehay Bogale; K. Michael Hambidge; Barbara J. Stoecker; Karl Bailey; Rosalind S. Gibson

2007-01-01

148

Facilitated Monocyte-Macrophage Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Superparmagnetic Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background We posit that the same mononuclear phagocytes (MP) that serve as target cells and vehicles for a host of microbial infections can be used to improve diagnostics and drug delivery. We also theorize that physical and biological processes such as particle shape, size, coating and opsonization that affect MP clearance of debris and microbes can be harnessed to facilitate uptake of nanoparticles (NP) and tissue delivery. Methods Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were used as vehicles of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) NP and immunoglobulin (IgG) or albumin coated SPIO for studies of uptake and distribution. IgG coated SPIO was synthesized by covalent linkage and uptake into monocytes and MDM investigated related to size, time, temperature, concentration, and coatings. SPIO and IgG SPIO were infused intravenously into naïve mice. T2 measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor tissue distribution in animals. Results Oxidation of dextran on the SPIO surface generated reactive aldehyde groups and permitted covalent linkage to amino groups of murine and human IgG and F(ab')2 fragments and for Alexa Fluor® 488 hydroxylamine to form a Schiff base. This labile intermediate was immediately reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in order to stabilize the NP conjugate. Optical density measurements of the oxidized IgG, F(ab')2, and/or Alexa Fluor® 488 SPIO demonstrated ?50% coupling yield. IgG-SPIO was found stable at 4°C for a period of 1 month during which size and polydispersity index varied little from 175 nm and 200 nm, respectively. In vitro, NP accumulated readily within monocyte and MDM cytoplasm after IgG-SPIO exposure; whereas, the uptake of native SPIO in monocytes and MDM was 10-fold less. No changes in cell viability were noted for the SPIO-containing monocytes and MDM. Cell morphology was not changed as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to unconjugated SPIO, intravenous injection of IgG-SPIO afforded enhanced and sustained lymphoid tissue distribution over 24 hours as demonstrated by MRI. Conclusions Facilitated uptake of coated SPIO in monocytes and MDM was achieved. Uptake was linked to particle size and was time and concentration dependent. The ability of SPIO to be rapidly taken up and distributed into lymphoid tissues also demonstrates feasibility of macrophage-targeted nanoformulations for diagnostic and drug therapy.

Beduneau, Arnaud; Ma, Zhiya; Grotepas, Cassi B.; Kabanov, Alexander; Rabinow, Barrett E.; Gong, Nan; Mosley, R. Lee; Dou, Huanyu; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.

2009-01-01

149

The influence of bottom water oxygenation and reactive iron content on sulfur incorporation into bitumens from Jurassic marine shales  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur isotope studies of bitumens (dichloromethane- extractable) from jurassic marine shales indicate that most sulfur is derived, at least initially, from diagenetic sulfate reduction. Under euxinic or semi-euxinic conditions sulfur incorporation in the Jet Rock and Posidonienschiefer bitumens appears to post-date formation of most reactive syngenetic pyrite but occurs contemporaneously with the formation small concentrations of later pyrite, relatively depleted in [sup 32]S. The most reactive iron minerals were mainly pyritized before any significant incorporation of sulfur occurred, and subsequent solidification reactions only occurred in response to prolonged contact between dissolved sulfide and residual, poorly reactive iron minerals (forming in the later pyrite) and organic matter (incorporating sulfur into bitumen). In these circumstances, which are typical of most euxinic or semi-euxinic sediments, the abundance of reactive iron is not the main control on the incorporation of sulfur (0.8 wt percent in the Jet Rock, 1.5 wt percent in the Posidonienschiefer) into bitumen. Consistent with this, variable concentrations of bitumen S occur in the Alum Shales (2.48 and 0.86 wt percent) which have uniform reactive iron contents. In the Alum Shales, the weakly bioturbated and more oxygenated depositional environments appear to favor sulfur incorporation into bitumens, which may occur here via partially oxidized sulfur species. Bitumen compositions suggest that oxygen is eliminated as sulfur is incorporated, possibly due to the dehydration of polar compounds followed by nucleophilic addition of sulfur. 64 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Raiswell, R.; Bottrell, S.H.; Al-Biatty, H.J.; Tan, M.MD. (Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

150

Increased Myocyte Content and Mechanical Function Within a Tissue-Engineered Myocardial Patch Following Implantation  

PubMed Central

During the past few years, studies involving the implantation of stem cells, chemical factors, and scaffolds have demonstrated the ability to augment the mammalian heart's native regenerative capacity. Scaffolds comprised of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used to repair myocardial defects. These scaffolds become populated with myocytes and provide regional contractile function, but quantification of the myocyte population has not yet been conducted. The purpose of this study was to quantitate the myocyte content within the ECM bioscaffold and to correlate this cell population with the regional mechanical function over time. Xenogenic ECM scaffolds derived from porcine urinary bladder were implanted into a full-thickness, surgically induced, right ventricular-free wall defect in a dog model. Zero, 2, and 8 weeks following implantation, regional function and myocyte content were determined in each patch region. Regional function did not significantly increase from 0 to 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, however, regional stroke work increased to 3.7?±?0.7% and systolic contraction increased to 4.4?±?1.2%. The myocyte content also significantly increased during that period generating a linear relationship between regional function and myocyte content. In conclusion, ECM used as a myocardial patch increases both the regional function and the myocyte content over time. The mechanical function generated in the patch region is correlated with the quantity of local tissue myocytes.

Kelly, Damon J.; Rosen, Amy B.; Schuldt, Adam J.T.; Kochupura, Paul V.; Doronin, Sergey V.; Potapova, Irina A.; Azeloglu, Evren U.; Badylak, Stephen F.; Brink, Peter R.; Cohen, Ira S.

2009-01-01

151

Evaluation of tissue doppler echocardiography and T2* magnetic resonance imaging in iron load of patients with thalassemia major  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron-mediated cardiomyopathy is the main complication of thalassemia major (TM) patients. Therefore, there is an important clinical need in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue doppler imaging (TDI) to study cardiac iron overload in patients with TM using T2* magnetic resonance (MR) as the gold-standard non-invasive diagnostic test. Methods: A total of 100 TM patients with the mean age of 19±7 years and 100 healthy controls 18.8±7 years were evaluated. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and cardiac MRI T2* were performed in all subjects. TDI measures included myocardial systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities at basal and middle segments of septal and lateral LV wall. The TM patients were also subgrouped according to those with iron load (T2* ? 20 ms) and those without (T2* > 20 ms), and also severe (T2* ? 10 ms) versus the non-severe (T2* ? 10 ms). Results: Using T2* cardiovascular MR, abnormal myocardial iron load (T2* ? 20 ms) was detected in 84% of the patients and among these, 50% (42/84) had severe (T2* ? 10 ms) iron load. The mean T2* was 11.6±8.6 ms (5–36.7). A negative linear correlation existed between transfusion period of patients and T2* levels (r = -0.53, p=0.02). The following TDI measures were lower in patients than in controls: basal septal Am (p<0.05), mid-septal Em and Am (p<0.05), basal lateral Am (p<0.05), mid-lateral LV wall Sm (p<0.05) and Am (p<0.05). Conclusion: Tissue doppler imaging is helpful in predicting the presence of myocardial iron load in Thalassemia patients. Therefore, it can be used for screening of thalassemia major patients.

Saravi, Mehrdad; Tamadoni, Ahmad; Jalalian, Rozita; Mahmoodi - Nesheli, Hassan; Hojati, Mosatafa; Ramezani, Saeed

2013-01-01

152

Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail. [Coturnix coturnix japonica  

SciTech Connect

Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. 13 references, 11 tables.

Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Stone, C.L.; Fry, B.E. Jr.

1984-03-01

153

Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1  

PubMed Central

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images

Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

1966-01-01

154

Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.  

PubMed

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

1966-04-01

155

Effects of weaning cereals with different phytate contents on hemoglobin, iron stores, and serum zinc: a randomized intervention in infants from 6 to 12 mo of age1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Weaning foods frequently contain phytate, an inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption, which may contribute to the high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency seen in infancy. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether either an extensive reduction in the phytate content of infant cereals or the use of milk-based, iron-fortified infant formula would improve iron and zinc status

Torbjörn Lind; Bo Lönnerdal; Lars-Åke Persson; Hans Stenlund; Catharina Tennefors; Olle Hernell

156

Do Secular Trends in the Nickel Content of Banded Iron Formation Record a Methanogen Famine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As ancient chemical sediments whose composition was dictated by contemporaneous seawater, Banded Iron Formations (BIF) may prove to be one of the most useful indicators of changing oceanic trace element concentrations over geological timescales. We report here new trace element analyses of over 20 BIF spanning roughly 3 billion years of ocean history. Our data indicate a progressive decline in

S. V. Lalonde; E. Pecoits; D. Papineau; E. G. Nisbet; M. E. Barley; N. T. Arndt; K. Zahnle; B. S. Kamber; K. O. Konhauser

2008-01-01

157

Effect of copper content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a modified nodular iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the drilling operation of two crankshafts, both made of modified nodular iron, the drilling tool failed in one of them and a failure analysis was conducted on the two crankshafts. Results indicate that in the crankshaft where the drilling tool failed had a finer pearlitic microstructure with a higher hardness compared with the other. This difference in the microstructure

M. A. Neri; C. Carreño

2003-01-01

158

The structure of tissue on cell culture-extracted thyroglobulin is independent of its iodine content.  

PubMed

The major protein synthesized in vitro by the ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS 6H is the prothyroid hormone thyroglobulin. Purified from serum-free cell culture media using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the thyroglobulin dimer was analysed for iodine content and observed by electron microscopy. In their usual medium, the OVNIS 6H cells produce a very poorly iodinated thyroglobulin containing 0.05 I atom per molecule. When cultured with methimazole or propylthiouracil, two inhibitors of iodide organification, less than 0.007 I atom/molecules was found. These molecules purified from cell cultures were compared to those purified from ovine thyroid tissue containing 26 I atoms/mol. Despite large differences in iodine content, the three preparations all consist of 19 S thyroglobulin dimers with the classical ovoidal shape. The variability in size measurements remains in a 2% range for all thyroglobulin types. Consequently, no real significant variation can be found between the highly iodinated thyroglobulin isolated from tissue, and the poorly or non-iodinated thyroglobulins isolated from cells cultured with or without methimazole or propylthiouracil. PMID:3556752

Delain, E; Aouani, A; Vignal, A; Couture-Tosi, E; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

1987-02-01

159

Hydration and tissue solid content of the lean body on prolonged exposure to altitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using densitometric, hydrometric and anthropometric techniques, body fat, tissue solids, water and mineral content were quantitatively measured on two groups each of 26 young and healthy Indian soldiers of mixed ethnic composition. The experimental group was exposed to 3500 m altitude for 2 years and the experiments were carried out after 48 h and 3 weeks rehabilitation in Delhi (300 m). The control group was never exposed to high altidues. Inspite of the experimental group being fed with superior rations at high altitude, this group showed significantly hyperhydrated lean body with reduced tissue solids in comparison to the control group which was fed with identical rations in Delhi. The calculated mean density of the fat free body had declined to 0.092×103 kg/m3. The 3 week stay at low altitude had little influence on body composition. Hyperhydration, with reduced tissue solids, would cause reduction in the density of fat free body, and would thus interfere with the estimates of total body fat based on densitometric procedures alone. In the hyperhydrated state, Siri's formula overestimated fat by 22.8% of the true value.

Bharadwaj, H.; Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Zachariah, T.; Kishnani, S.; Pramanik, S. N.; Gupta, A.; Rai, R. M.

1989-03-01

160

Non-invasive measurement and imaging of tissue iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations in vivo using proton relaxometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles can be found in biological tissues for a variety of reasons including pathological deposition of biogenic particles, administration of synthetic particles for scientific or clinical reasons, and the inclusion of biogenic magnetic particles for the sensing of the geomagnetic field. In applied magnetic fields, the magnetisation of tissue protons can be manipulated with radiofrequency radiation such that the macroscopic magnetisation of the protons precesses freely in the plane perpendicular to the applied static field. The presence of magnetic particles within tissue enhances the rate of dephasing of proton precession with higher concentrations of particles resulting in higher dephasing rates. Magnetic resonance imaging instruments can be used to measure and image the rate of decay of spin echo recoverable proton transverse magnetisation (R2) within tissues enabling the measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations with the aid of suitable calibration curves. Applications include the non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentrations in iron-overload disorders and measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Future applications may include the tracking of magnetically labelled drugs or biomolecules and the measurement of fibrotic liver damage.

St. Pierre, T. G.; Clark, P. R.; Chua-anusorn, W.; Fleming, A.; Pardoe, H.; Jeffrey, G. P.; Olynyk, J. K.; Pootrakul, P.; Jones, S.; Moroz, P.

2005-01-01

161

Influence of high-intensity exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroid treatment on rat tissue glycogen content  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase tissue glycogen content many athletes use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the literature concerning the effects of androgens on glycogen metabolism is conflicting. This study aimed to determine the influence of training and AAS on body weight (bw), triglycerides, glucose, tissue glycogen and transaminases levels. Male Wistar rats, randomized into four groups (sedentary vehicle (SV), sedentary AAS (SA),

Tatiana Sousa Cunha; Ana Paula Tanno; Maria José Costa Sampaio Moura; Fernanda Klein Marcondes

2005-01-01

162

Mineral contents of tissues and body fluids and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral contents and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta: African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata), African land snail (Achatina fulica), water snail (Pila ovata) and garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) were evaluated. Snail tissues and body fluids were harvested having cracked the tail-end of the shell. Triplicate samples of macerated snail tissues and body fluids

H. D. Mepba; C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

163

Effects of the interaction of diabetes and iron supplementation on hepatic and pancreatic tissues, oxidative stress markers, and liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? expression  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effects of the interaction of diabetes and a carbonyl iron supplemented on hepatic and pancreatic tissues, oxidative stress markers and liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? expressions. Hamsters were divided: Control which received a standard AIN 93 diet; Control Iron, composed of control animals that received a diet with 0.83% carbonyl iron; Diabetic, composed of animals that received a injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on day 35; and Diabetic Iron composed of streptozotocin treated animals that received a diet supplemented with carbonyl iron. Diabetes increased the glucose level and reduced triglycerides. Diabetic Iron group showed higher levels of glucose and serum triglycerides as compared to the Diabetic group. Diabetes decreased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. Iron attenuated the diabetes induced down regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? mRNA. Moreover, diabetes increased carbonyl protein and decreased glutathione levels and catalase activity, while iron attenuated the increase in levels of carbonyl protein and attenuated the decrease in those of glutathione level and catalase activity. Histological analysis shows that supplementation iron caused an increase in the size of the islets in Control Iron. The results show that iron does not aggravated liver oxidant/antioxidant status and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? expression in diabetic hamsters.

Silva, Maisa; Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Geraldo de Lima, Wanderson; Silva, Marcelo Eustaquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

2011-01-01

164

Steps toward interstellar silicate mineralogy. VI. Dependence of crystalline olivine IR spectra on iron content and particle shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystalline olivines are an important component of silicate dust particles in space. ISO observations revealed the presence of crystalline silicates in comets, protoplanetary accretion disks, and outflows from evolved stars. For the interpretation of astronomical spectra, the relevant material data at a variety of temperatures and over a broad wavelength range, are urgently needed. In contrast to this need, optical properties of the astronomically interesting olivines are scarcely available at present. In order to close this gap, we studied the optical properties of three minerals of the olivine group by reflection spectroscopy on single crystals in the infrared spectral range. We measured the iron endmember (fayalite, Fe2SiO4), an Mg-rich olivine (Mg1.9Fe0.1SiO4), and the magnesium endmember (forsterite, Mg2SiO4) of the (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 series. For a direct comparison with astronomical observations, we present calculated mass absorption coefficients in the Rayleigh limit for different shapes and varying iron content of the dust particles. The laboratory data together with a set of ISO data for envelopes around evolved stars (Molster 2000) are used to constrain the properties of circumstellar silicates. We find that essentially all band positions are shifted to larger wavelengths with increasing iron content. The particle shape influences very significantly the strong bands such as the B1u:nu3 mode that appears as the ``11.4 mu m'' band of forsterite, whereas e.g. the two FIR modes longward of 40 mu m remain practically unaffected by the particle shape but shift due to increasing iron content. The comparison with the band positions in ISO spectra points to the presence of olivine crystals strongly elongated along the crystallographic c-axis. In addition, we apply the calculated mass absorption coefficients to evaluate transmission measurements of particles embedded in a matrix - a technique which is frequently used in laboratory astrophysics. All data shown in this paper will be made available in digital form via the electronic database http://www.astro.uni-jena.de.

Fabian, D.; Henning, T.; Jäger, C.; Mutschke, H.; Dorschner, J.; Wehrhan, O.

2001-10-01

165

Short chain saturated fatty acids decrease circulating cholesterol and increase tissue PUFA content in the rat.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of various dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) profiles on plasma lipid parameters and tissue fatty acid composition in rats. The experiment was designed to monitor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels, while examining different amounts and types of SFA. Four isocaloric diets were prepared, containing 10-11 mol% of fatty acids (FA) as linoleic acid (LNA) and 2.5 mol% as ?-linolenic acid (ALA), leading to an identical and well-balanced LNA/ALA ratio. The initial rapeseed oil/corn oil mixture providing ALA and LNA was enriched with olive oil to prepare the olive oil diet. The butterfat diet was supplemented with butterfat, containing short-chain SFA (C4:0-C10:0, 17 mol% of FA), lauric acid (C12:0, 3.2 mol%), myristic acid (C14:0, 10.5 mol%) and palmitic acid (C16:0, 14.5 mol%). The saturates diet was supplemented with trilaurin, trimyristin and tripalmitin to obtain the same level of lauric, myristic and palmitic acids as the butterfat diet, without the short-chain SFA. The trimyristin diet was enriched with trimyristin only. The results showed that the butterfat diet contributed to specific effects, compared to the olive oil diet and the saturates and trimyristin diets: a decrease in plasma total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, higher tissue storage of ALA and LNA, and a higher level of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids in some tissues. This study supports the hypothesis that in diets with identical well-balanced LNA/ALA ratios, short chain SFA may decrease circulating cholesterol and increase tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the rat. PMID:20924709

Legrand, Philippe; Beauchamp, Erwan; Catheline, Daniel; Pédrono, Frédérique; Rioux, Vincent

2010-10-06

166

[Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and magnetic resonance's response characterstics of folic acid-O-carboxymethyl chitosan ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in mice and rats].  

PubMed

Folic acid-O-carboxymethyl chitosan ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (FA-OCMCS-USPIO-NPs) are a novel molecular targeting MR contrast agent. This paper reperts the pharmacokinetics and magnetic resonance response characteristics of FA-OCMCS-USPIO-NPs in normal rats and mice, and discussed its distributing regularity in animals, providing basis for tumor targeting imaging. O-phenanthroline method was used to determine iron content in rats' plasma and mice's organs following high and low doses of nanoparticles injected through tail vein, and the blood concentration-time curve was drawn, the calculated t1/2 of two groups were greater than 7 h. The results of tissue distribution showed that only a small part of nanoparticles were swallowed by the liver and spleen, while none in the heart, lung and kidney. At the same times, the phagocytosis of nanoparticles did not change with the dose. The results of MRI showed that renal excretion occurred 4 hours after injection, and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of liver and kidney returned to normal levels 24 hours after injection. There were no nanoparticles in the lungs. So a part of nanoparticles escaped from phagocytosis of liver and spleen, and it owned lower toxicity and longer half-life. indicated its use for tumor-targeting imaging. All of these indicated its use for tumor-targeting imaging. PMID:22010356

Gao, Wen-Hui; Liu, Shi-Ting; Fan, Cai-Xia; Qi, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhi-Liang

2011-07-01

167

Mineral ion contents and cell transmembrane electropotentials of pea and oat seedling tissue.  

PubMed

The relationships of concentration gradients to electropotential gradients resulting from passive diffusion processes, after equilibration, are described by the Nernst equation. The primary criterion for the hypothesis that any given ion is actively transported is to establish that it is not diffusing passively. A test was made of how closely the Nernst equation describes the electrochemical equilibrium in seedling tissues. Segments of roots and epicotyl internodes of pea (Pisum sativum var. Alaska) and of roots and coleoptiles of oat (Avena sativa var. Victory) seedlings were immersed and shaken in defined nutrient solutions containing eight major nutrients (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cl(-), NO(3) (-), H(2)PO(4) (-) and SO(4) (2-)) at 1-fold and 10-fold concentrations. The tissue content of each ion was assayed at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hours. A near-equilibrium condition was approached by roots for most ions; however, the segments of shoot tissue generally continued to show a net accumulation of some ions, mainly K(+) and NO(3) (-). Only K(+) approached a reasonable fit to the Nernst equation and this was true for the 1-fold concentration but not the 10-fold. The data suggest that for Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) the electrochemical gradient is from the external solution to the cell interior; thus passive diffusion should be in an inward direction. Consequently, some mechanism must exist in plant tissue either to exclude these cations or to extrude them (e.g., by an active efflux pump). For each of the anions the electrochemical gradient is from the tissue to the solution; thus an active influx pump for anions seems required. Root segments approach ionic equilibrium with the solution concentration in which the seedlings were grown. Segments of shoot tissue, however, are far removed from such equilibration. Thus in the intact seedling the extracellular (wall space) fluid must be very different from that of the nutrient solution bathing the segments; it would appear that the root is the site of regulation of ion uptake in the intact plant although other correlative mechanisms may be involved. PMID:16656483

Higinbotham, N; Etherton, B; Foster, R J

1967-01-01

168

Effect of olive oil- and corn oil-enriched diets on the tissue mineral content in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral content (zinc, iron, magnesium, and calcium) in the liver, spleen, and thymus of male Balb\\/C mice was analyzed.\\u000a Animals were fed, over 21 d, diets enriched with corn oil (FCO diet) or olive oil (FOO diet) (5% addition to standard pellet,\\u000a w\\/w). Olive oil with predominant oleic acid (C18:1, n-9) had a quite different composition than corn oil,

?edomila Milin; Robert Domitrovi?; Marin Tota; Jasminka Giacometti; Mira ?uk; Biserka Radoševi?-Staši?; Zlatko Ciganj

2001-01-01

169

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs. building occupants.  

PubMed

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma. PMID:1809164

Roggli, V L; Longo, W E

1991-12-31

170

Photon absorptiometry of soft tissue and fluid content: the method and its precision and accuracy.  

PubMed

Dichromatic absorptiometry (DA) is a new, non-invasive method for determining soft tissue (STC) and fluid content (FC), and their changes. The technique uses linear transmission scans made across the limbs with a congruent 125I and 241Am dual-photon source and a NaI(TI)--PMT detector. Patient measurements could be made at the bedside with the mobile system. Factors affecting the precision and accuracy were evaluated theoretically and experimentally. Repositioning and subject motion were the greatest sources of variation and limited the precision to 2--3% in normals and 3--7% in patients; instrumental variation was 0.5%. The accuracy was 4% for typical (p10%) fluid changes observed in vivo. The ease, simplicity and small errors of the technique suggest its utility in monitoring the time course and degree of fluid changes in patients. PMID:704666

Witt, R M; Mazess, R B

1978-07-01

171

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.

Roggli, V.L.; Longo, W.E. (Department of Pathology, Durham Veterans Administration, NC (United States))

1991-12-31

172

Silicon and iron levels in tissues of animals treated with a "ferrimagnetic ceramic" with oncotherapeutic potential (anti-tumor) value.  

PubMed

The stability in a biological environment of an injectable cement with oncotherapeutic potential--consisting of a glass powder of SiO2 (35.6%), CaO (42.4%), P2O5 (17%), Na2O (5%) and 30% of its weight of Fe3O4 dissolved in (NH4)2HPO4 plus NH4H2PO4--was evaluated referring to the release of silicon and iron. The experimental model was the rat, and organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain) of the implanted and control animals were collected for quantification of these elements by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry methods. In most of the analysed organs no significant difference in the contents of silicon and iron between the implanted and the control animals was found. PMID:12530589

Almeida, Teresa; Soares, Maria Elisa; Cavalheiro, José; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria

2002-01-01

173

Liver fat content is linked to inflammatory changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes patients.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are typically overweight and have an increased liver fat content (LFAT). High LFAT may be explained by an increased efflux of free fatty acids from the adipose tissue, which is partly instigated by inflammatory changes. This would imply an association between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. OBJECTIVE: To analyse associations between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: Twenty-seven obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM were studied. MEASUREMENTS: LFAT content was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A subcutaneous (sc) fat biopsy was obtained to determine morphology and protein levels within adipose tissue. In addition to fat cell size, the percentage of macrophages and the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) within sc fat were assessed by CD68-immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Mean LFAT percentage was 11·1 ± 1·7% (range: 0·75-32·9%); 63% of the patients were diagnosed with an elevated LFAT (upper range of normal ?5·5%). Whereas adipocyte size did not correlate with LFAT, 3 of 4 subjects with CLSs in sc fat had elevated LFAT and the percentage of macrophages present in sc adipose tissue was positively associated with LFAT. Protein concentrations of adiponectin within adipose tissue negatively correlated with LFAT. Adipose tissue protein levels of the key inflammatory adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with LFAT. CONCLUSIONS: Several pro-inflammatory changes in sc adipose tissue associate with increased LFAT content in obese insulin-treated patients with T2DM. These findings suggest that inflammatory changes at the level of the adipose tissue may drive liver fat accumulation. PMID:23167778

Jansen, Henry J; Vervoort, Gerald M; van der Graaf, Marinette; Stienstra, Rinke; Tack, Cees J

2012-11-20

174

Content-based image retrieval applied to BI-RADS tissue classification in screening mammography  

PubMed Central

AIM: To present a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system that supports the classification of breast tissue density and can be used in the processing chain to adapt parameters for lesion segmentation and classification. METHODS: Breast density is characterized by image texture using singular value decomposition (SVD) and histograms. Pattern similarity is computed by a support vector machine (SVM) to separate the four BI-RADS tissue categories. The crucial number of remaining singular values is varied (SVD), and linear, radial, and polynomial kernels are investigated (SVM). The system is supported by a large reference database for training and evaluation. Experiments are based on 5-fold cross validation. RESULTS: Adopted from DDSM, MIAS, LLNL, and RWTH datasets, the reference database is composed of over 10 000 various mammograms with unified and reliable ground truth. An average precision of 82.14% is obtained using 25 singular values (SVD), polynomial kernel and the one-against-one (SVM). CONCLUSION: Breast density characterization using SVD allied with SVM for image retrieval enable the development of a CBIR system that can effectively aid radiologists in their diagnosis.

de Oliveira, Julia Epischina Engracia; de Albuquerque Araujo, Arnaldo; Deserno, Thomas M

2011-01-01

175

Degradable segmented polyurethane elastomers for bone tissue engineering: effect of polycaprolactone content.  

PubMed

Segmented polyurethanes (PURs), consisting of degradable poly(a-hydroxy ester) soft segments and aminoacid-derived chain extenders, are biocompatible elastomers with tunable mechanical and degradative properties suitable for a variety of tissue-engineering applications. In this study, a family of linear PURs synthesized from poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diol, 1,4-diisocyanobutane and tyramine with theoretical PCL contents of 65-80 wt% were processed into porous foam scaffolds and evaluated for their ability to support osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical testing of the foams indicated increasing polymer crystallinity and compressive modulus with increasing PCL content. Next, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were seeded into PUR scaffolds, as well as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds, and maintained under osteogenic conditions for 14 and 21 days. Analysis of cell number indicated a systematic decrease in cell density with increasing PUR stiffness at both 14 and 21 days in culture. However, at these same time points the relative mRNA expression for the bone-specific proteins osteocalcin and the growth factors bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression were similar among the PURs. Finally, prostaglandin E2 production, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteopontin mRNA expression were highly elevated on the most-crystalline PUR scaffold as compared to the PLGA and PUR scaffolds. These results suggest that both the modulus and crystallinity of the PUR scaffolds influence cell proliferation and the expression of osteoblastic proteins. PMID:22304961

Kavlock, Katherine D; Whang, Kyumin; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S

2012-05-11

176

Influence of the Mn content on the kinetics of austempering transformation in compacted graphite cast iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mossbauer spectroscopy has been used to monitor the kinetics of austempering transformation in two compacted graphite (CG) cast irons alloyed with 0.11 and 0.58 wt pct of Mn, respectively. The phase relations were analyzed in terms of the Johnson-Mehl’s equation, determining the kinetics parameters n (time exponent) and k (constant rate of the transformation). The values obtained were n=1.4 and k=7.47 × 10-3 s-1 for the low-Mn alloy, and n=2.2 and k=3.9×10-3 s-1 for the high-Mn alloy. These results, which reveal a faster kinetics for the low-Mn alloy, are coherent with metallographic observations, and the driving force obtained through the determination of the austenite carbon concentration that was determined from the Mossbauer data using the Genins model for the Fe-C configurations in the fcc lattice. The kinetics parameters are further compared to those obtained in austempered ductile iron (ADI), by analyzing the graphite morphology influence on the austempering transformation.

Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C.; Laneri, K.; Gregorutti, R.; Sarutti, J. L.

1999-11-01

177

Influence of the Mn content on the kinetics of austempering transformation in compacted graphite cast iron  

SciTech Connect

Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to monitor the kinetics of austempering transformation in two compacted graphite (CG) cast irons alloyed with 0.11 and 0.58 wt pct of Mn, respectively. The phase relations were analyzed in terms of the Johnson-Mehl's equation, determining the kinetics parameters n (time exponent) and k (constant rate of the transformation). The values obtained were n = 1.4 and k = 7.47 x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} for the low-Mn alloy, and n = 2.2 and k = 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} for the high-Mn alloy. These results, which reveal a faster kinetics for the low-Mn alloy, are coherent with metallographic observations, and the driving force obtained through the determination of the austenite carbon concentration that was determined from the Moessbauer data using the Genins model for the Fe-C configurations in the fcc lattice. The kinetics parameters are further compared to those obtained in austempered ductile iron (ADI), by analyzing the graphite morphology influence on the austempering transformation.

Desimoni, J.; Gregorutti, R.; Laneri, K.; Sarutti, J.L.; Mercader, R.C.

1999-11-01

178

Distributions of manganese, iron, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria in Lake Superior sediments of different organic carbon content  

SciTech Connect

Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacterial and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrated primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

Richardson, L.L.; Nealson, K.H.

1989-01-01

179

Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM) cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22419873

Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Skaat, Hadas; Shahar, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

2012-03-06

180

Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM) cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Skaat, Hadas; Shahar, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

2012-01-01

181

Effect of iron content on wear behavior of AlCoCrFe x Mo 0.5Ni high-entropy alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-entropy alloy system, AlCoCrFeMoNi, was designed based on the AlCoCrCuFeNi, by replacing Cu with Mo to improve strength and thermal stability. The effect of iron content on hardness and wear behavior of AlCoCrFexMo0.5Ni alloys is related to the microstructural change. As the iron content is increased, the microstructure changes from “dendritic” for Fe0.6 and Fe1.0 alloys to “polygrain”

Chin-You Hsu; Tsing-Shien Sheu; Jien-Wei Yeh; Swe-Kai Chen

2010-01-01

182

Evaluation of Brain Iron Content Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Comparison among Phase Value, R2* and Magnitude Signal Intensity  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are being exploited to measure brain iron levels increasingly as iron deposition has been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. However, there remains no unified evaluation of these methods as postmortem measurement isn't commonly available as the reference standard. The purpose of this study was to make a comparison among these methods and try to find a new index of brain iron. Methods We measured both phase values and R2* in twenty-four adults, and performed correlation analysis among the two methods and the previously published iron concentrations. We also proposed a new method using magnitude signal intensity and compared it with R2* and brain iron. Results We found phase value correlated with R2* in substantia nigra (r?=??0.723, p<0.001) and putamen (r?=??0.514, p?=?0.010), while no correlations in red nucleus (r?=??0.236, p?=?0.268) and globus pallidus (r?=??0.111, p?=?0.605). And the new magnitude method had significant correlations in red nucleus (r?=??0.593, p?=?0.002), substantia nigra (r?=??0.521, p?=?0.009), globus pallidus (r?=??0.750, p<0.001) and putamen (r?=??0.547, p?=?0.006) with R2*. A strong inverse correlation was also found between the new magnitude method and previously published iron concentrations in seven brain regions (r?=??0.982, P<0.001). Conclusions Our study indicates that phase value may not be used for assessing the iron content in some brain regions especially globus pallidus. The new magnitude method is highly consistent with R2* especially in globus pallidus, and we assume that this approach may be acceptable as an index of iron content in iron-rich brain regions.

Yan, Shen-Qiang; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Yan, Yu-Qing; Wang, He; Lou, Min

2012-01-01

183

Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc content of hair from two populations of rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in hair of caged (in Maryland) and free-ranging (in Puerto Rico) rhesus monkey populations were determined. Significant chronological age-related decreases were evident for the trace elements Mn and Zn in both populations (P < or = 0.01) and for Cu and Fe in free-ranging monkeys (P < or = 0.005). The only overall gender difference was higher hair Mn concentration in free-ranging males than in females (P < 0.03). There were no significant differences in hair Cu, Fe, or Mn related to pregnancy status. Hair Zn was lower in samples from pregnant than from nonpregnant monkeys from the caged monkeys (P < or = 0.05), but did not differ in the free-ranging monkeys. Comparison of the two populations revealed that hair Zn levels were significantly higher in caged vs free-ranging animals (P < 0.001). We attribute this higher hair Zn in the caged monkeys to contact and ingestion of Zn from their galvanized enclosures. Hair iron levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in free-ranging monkeys, possibly as a result of Fe-rich soil ingestion from their environment. These data support continued investigation of the use of hair as an indicator of the exposure of large groups or populations to potentially high levels of specific minerals, and the use of nonhuman primates as models for the study of trace element deficiency and/or toxicity in humans. PMID:8862746

Marriott, B M; Smith, J C; Jacobs, R M; Jones, A O; Altman, J D

1996-01-01

184

Influence of added limestone and fertilizers upon the micro-nutrient content of forage tissue and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Five rates of limestone and 4 rates of fertilizers were used in a split-plot design to study their effects under field conditions\\u000a on Mo, Cu, B, Mn, and Zn levels in mixed forage tissue and soil, and on the forage yield. An increase in soil pH resulted\\u000a in an increase in Mo and Cu content of plant tissue while B,

Umesh C. Gupta; F. W. Calder; L. B. Macleod

1971-01-01

185

Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Excessive iron buildup in the body's tissues ... Learn more about hemochromatosis, a type of iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis ...

186

Application of VNIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate soil organic carbon content, and content of different forms of iron and manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a progressive method used for prediction of soil properties. Study was performed on the soils from the agricultural land from the south Moravia municipality of Brumovice. Studied area is characterized by a relatively flat upper part, a tributary valley in the middle and a colluvial fan at the bottom. Haplic Chernozem reminded at the flat upper part of the area. Regosols were formed at steep parts of the valley. Colluvial Chernozem and Colluvial soils were formed at the bottom parts of the valley and at the bottom part of the studied field. The goal of the study was to evaluate relationship between soil spectra curves and organic matter content, and different forms iron and manganese content (Mehlich III extract, ammonium oxalate extract and dithionite-citrate extract). Samples (87) were taken from the topsoil within regular grid covering studied area. The soil spectra curves (of air dry soil and sieved using 2 mm sieve) were measured in the laboratory using spectometer FieldSpec®3 (350 - 2 500 nm). The Fe and Mn contents in different extract were measured using ICP-OES (with an iCAP 6500 Radial ICP Emission spectrometer; Thermo Scientific, UK) under standard analytical conditions. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for modeling of the relationship between spectra and measured soil properties. Prediction ability was evaluated using the R2, root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD). The results showed the best prediction for Mn (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 29, NRMSD = 0.11), Fe in ammonium oxalate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 171, NRMSD = 0.12) and organic matter content (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 0.13, NRMSD = 0.09). The slightly worse prediction was obtained for Mn and Fe in citrate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 21, NRMSD = 0.10; R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 522, NRMSD = 0.23). Poor prediction was evaluated for Mn and Fe in Mehlich III extract (R2 = 0.43, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.17; R2 = 0.39, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.26). In general, the results confirmed that the measurement of soil spectral characteristics is a promising technology for a digital soil mapping and predicting studied soil properties. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319) and the Czech Science Foundation (grant No. GA526/09/1762).

Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Drabek, Ondrej; Boruvka, Lubos

2013-04-01

187

Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented.

Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

2010-01-01

188

Spinal cord edema and changes in tissue content of Na+, K+, and Mg2+ after impact trauma in rats.  

PubMed

Changes in the tissue content of water, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were measured in spinal cord samples from anesthetized rats subjected to impact trauma (T9 spinal segment) of varying severity: 25 g-cm (low injury), 100 g-cm (high injury). Laminectomized animals served as controls. Rats with high injury were killed at 15 min, 60 min, 4 hr, 24 hr, 3 days, or 7 days after trauma. Those with low injury were killed at 24-hr postinjury. In all groups, spinal cord tissue was rapidly removed (less than 30 sec), frozen in liquid nitrogen, and dissected into the injured segment and adjacent two caudal and rostral segments. Water content was determined as wet weight/dry weight ratios, and cations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. High injury resulted in statistically significant increases in water content as early as 15 min after trauma. There were concomitant increases in Na+ and decreases in K+ that were apparent at 15 min and were statistically significant by 60-min posttrauma. The increases in water content and Na+ were present to a similar degree in the 4-hr, 24-hr, 3-day, and 7-day groups. In contrast, tissue Mg2+ was reduced and significantly decreased at 4 hr and 24 hr; Mg2+ levels had recovered partially by 3 days and completely by 7 days. Whereas changes in the tissue content of water, Na+, and K+ occurred at 24 hr regardless of the injury severity, changes in total Mg2+ were correlated with the degree of injury. These data are consistent with the conclusion that edema formation (and associated Na+ and K+ changes) after spinal cord trauma may be an epiphenomenon and does not significantly contribute to injury progression. In contrast, reductions in Mg2+ content may represent an important factor in the development of irreversible tissue damage. PMID:2396516

Demediuk, P; Lemke, M; Faden, A I

1990-01-01

189

Cadmium effects in rats on tissue iron, selenium, and blood pressure: blood and hair cadmium in some Oregon residents  

PubMed Central

Exposure of rats to cadmium causes a marked depletion of iron in liver and kidney. Selenium neither counteracts or intensifies the influence of cadmium on tissue iron levels. Selenium injections protect against cadmium-induced testicular damage but cause this element to accumulate in the testes at higher concentration than in animals exposed to cadmium without selenium. Selenium injection diverts the binding of cadmium from low molecular weight proteins to high molecular weight ones. Dosing rats with selenium and cadmium or inclusion of Se or Cd in the diet did not result in altered cadmium binding in tissues, raising some questions concerning the environmental significance of these injection experiments. Addition of selenium to a diet containing cadmium decreased the accumulation of cadmium in liver and kidney, but increased its deposition in testes. The metabolism of cadmium bound to metallothionein was markedly different as compared to the inorganic salt of this element. Dietary ascorbate, but not citrate or cysteine, decreased the deposition of cadmium in rat tissues. In some low-level exposure experiments with cadmium (1 to 1000 ppb), no differences were found in the percentage of dose absorbed or rate of cadmium accumulation when provided in food versus water. Female rats tended to absorb more cadmium than males. The binding of cadmium to cytosolic proteins was found to be different between rats fed low levels of cadmium (up to 1 ppm) as compared to those fed high levels of this element (100 ppm). Cadmium was not found to contribute to hypertension in rats, and a summary of results by various investigators is presented. Blood and hair cadmium levels in Oregon residents were found to be highest in employees of a mine, and hair cadmium was found to be respectively higher in smokers than nonsmokers and in metal workers than office workers. No relationships were observed in humans between blood or hair cadmium levels and blood pressure.

Whanger, P. D.

1979-01-01

190

Calculating iron contents of lunar highland materials surrounding Tycho crater from integrated Clementine UV-visible and near-infrared data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical properties of lunar surface materials are modified by exposure to the space environment, including bombardment by solar wind particles and micrometeorites. One of the main problems in the interpretation of lunar spectral observations is to separate the effects of exposure (``space weathering'') and those due to the composition of the soils (mainly iron and titanium content). Here we use

Stéphane Le Mouélic; P. G. Lucey; Yves Langevin; B. Ray Hawke

2002-01-01

191

Effect of iron on lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and bacoside-A content in medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Fe was investigated in medicinally important plant, Bacopa monnieri L. and the response on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was found different in roots and leaves of the metal treated plants. Iron induced stress was observed as indicated by high level of lipid peroxidation, being more steep increase in leaves

Sarita Sinha; Rohit Saxena

2006-01-01

192

Application of the wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique to determine soil fluorine with consideration of iron content in the matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of the wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) technique for the quantitative analysis of fluorine in soil was assessed in this study. Fluorine standards for WD-XRF calibration with soil matrices consisting of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CaO were prepared by varying the concentrations of CaF2 as a source of fluorine. Based on the standard calibration, the limits of detection and quantification were calculated as 812 and 2690 mg-F/kg-solid (or 1.62 and 5.39 mg-F in absolute mass term), respectively. In addition, the fluorine intensities of the standard samples with high iron content increased significantly compared to those with low iron content. Because of proximity between F-K? and Fe-L? line, the higher iron content preferably helped increase background fluorine intensities. As a means to compensate for the iron interference effect in fluorine analysis, the correction factor (CF) (0.0045) was derived based on the slope ratios between the measured X-ray intensity at the Bragg angle of 43.174° and iron content in the standard sample. The soil fluorine concentration determined by WD-XRF after the CF adjustment exhibited a significantly high correlation with that of the classical alkali fusion-ISE analysis. These findings clearly demonstrated that the WD-XRF technique is reliable enough to allow an easy, precise, and rapid quantitative determination of fluorine in a solid sample (such as iron-bound soil) compared to conventional methods.

An, Jinsung; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Seo, Jungju

193

Effect of pressmud amended pyrite on symbiotic N2?fixation, active iron contents of nodules, grain yield and quality of chick pea (cicer arietinum Linn.) Genotypes in calcareous soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressmud amended pyrite (8 q pyrite + 50 q\\/ha pressmud or 16 q pyrite + 50 q pressmud\\/ha) resulted in significantly higher nodule number\\/ plant, their dry?weight\\/plant, N2ase activity, active iron content of nodules, grain yield, acetone soluble content of leaves, iron content of seeds, methionine and cysteine contents of seeds than pyrite or pressmud alone. Differential response of genotypes

Raman Rai; S. N. Singh; V. Prasad

1982-01-01

194

Mineral nutrient and protein contents in tissues, and yield of navy bean, in response to nitrogen fertilization and row spacing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most interest concerning nutrient content in dry bean is concerned with levels found in mature seed. Nutrient levels in seed may be affected by cultural activities and developmental stage of the plant. The effects of two rates of ammonium nitrate (85 and 170 kg.ha**1) and two row spacings on tissu...

195

Variation in thyroid hormone action and tissue content underlies species differences in the timing of metamorphosis in desert frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Hormonal control of post-embryonic morpho- genesis is well established, but it is not clear how differences in developmental endocrinology between species may under- lie animal diversity. We studied this issue by comparing metamorphic thyroid hormone (TH) physiology and gonad development across spadefoot toad species divergent in metamorphic rate. Tissue TH content, in vitro tail tip sensitivity to TH, and

Daniel R. Buchholz; Tyrone B. Hayes

2005-01-01

196

CHANGES OF MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDE CONTENT AND OF HYALURONIDASE INHIBITOR ACTIVITY IN THE BLOOD AND TISSUES DURING ACUTE RADIATION SICKNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the amount of polysaccharides and the hyaluronidase ; activity in the tissues of the small intestine, storoach, lungs, and blood serum ; of guinea pigs, white rats, and dogs at various periods of acute radiation ; sickness were studied. Mucopolysaccharides were determined by the content of ; glucosamine and tyrosine by Elson and Morgan's method and by

Z. I. Sheremet; V. M. Manteifel; M. O. Rayshenbakh

1959-01-01

197

[Factors which modify the nutritional state of iron: tannin content of herbal teas].  

PubMed

Tannins are natural compounds that abound in herbs, wood and fruits. Their numerous hydroxyl radicals confer them a strong avidity for metals such as Fe, Zn and Cu. This property makes them strong inhibitors for the gastrointestinal absorption of these metals. Our purpose was to determine the tannin content of herbal infusions commonly consumed in Chile and other Latino American countries. The determination was performed from dessicated herbs with the Folin-Denis technique. Yerba mate, tea and oregano had the highest tannin content (117, 100 and 84 mg of tannic acid/g dry herb respectively). An intermediate level (between 20 and 40 of tannic acid/g) was for coca, matico, boldo, palto, laurel, orange and binojo. The lowest level of tannin for paico, cedrón, apio and manzanilla (< 10 mg/g). We conclude that the consumption of herbal teas at or around meals may inhibit the absorption of metals such as Fe, Zn, or Cu by decreasing their bioavailability. PMID:8984970

Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Hertrampf, E; Walter, T

1994-12-01

198

X-Ray Methods to Estimate Breast Density Content in Breast Tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on analyzing x-ray methods to estimate the fat and fibroglandular contents in breast biopsies and in breasts. The knowledge of fat in the biopsies could aid in their wide-angle x-ray scatter analyses. A higher mammographic density (fibrous content) in breasts is an indicator of higher cancer risk. Simulations for 5 mm thick breast biopsies composed of fibrous, cancer, and fat and for 4.2 cm thick breast fat/fibrous phantoms were done. Data from experimental studies using plastic biopsies were analyzed. The 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick plastic samples consisted of layers of polycarbonate (lexan), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-lucite) and polyethylene (polyet). In terms of the total linear attenuation coefficients, lexan ? fibrous, lucite ? cancer and polyet ? fat. The detectors were of two types, photon counting (CdTe) and energy integrating (CCD). For biopsies, three photon counting methods were performed to estimate the fat (polyet) using simulation and experimental data, respectively. The two basis function method that assumed the biopsies were composed of two materials, fat and a 50:50 mixture of fibrous (lexan) and cancer (lucite) appears to be the most promising method. Discrepancies were observed between the results obtained via simulation and experiment. Potential causes are the spectrum and the attenuation coefficient values used for simulations. An energy integrating method was compared to the two basis function method using experimental and simulation data. A slight advantage was observed for photon counting whereas both detectors gave similar results for the 4.2 cm thick breast phantom simulations. The percentage of fibrous within a 9 cm diameter circular phantom of fibrous/fat tissue was estimated via a fan beam geometry simulation. Both methods yielded good results. Computed tomography (CT) images of the circular phantom were obtained using both detector types. The radon transforms were estimated via four energy integrating techniques and one photon counting technique. Contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and pixel values between different regions of interest were analyzed. The two basis function method and two of the energy integrating methods (calibration, beam hardening correction) gave the highest and more linear curves for contrast and SNR.

Maraghechi, Borna

199

Iron metabolism and toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

Papanikolaou, G. [First Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Laikon General Hospital, Athens 11527 (Greece); Pantopoulos, K. [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, H3T 1E2 (Canada) and Department of Medicine, McGill University (Canada)]. E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

2005-01-15

200

Effect of As on Chlorophyll and Protein Contents and enzymic Activities in Greening Maize Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is known to have several phytotoxic effects and one of them is the reduction inchlorophyll content. Determination of chlorophyll content is often accomplished to assess theimpact of most environmental stresses, as the pigment content is linked to the visual symptomsand photosynthetic plant productivity. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to studythe effect of As on chlorophyll synthesis with a

Meeta Jain

1997-01-01

201

Low ferric iron content of (Mg,Fe)O at high pressures and temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New results from high-pressure multi-anvil and diamond anvil cell experiments show that the Fe3+ content of (Mg,Fe)O is low at high pressures and temperatures, and relatively independent of oxygen fugacity. At 18 GPa and 1000°C, the maximum solubility of Fe3+ in Mg0.8Fe0.2O ranges from approximately 2% Fe3+/?Fe at the Fe-FeO buffer to 3-7% Fe3+/?Fe at the Re-ReO2 buffer. These low values are likely due to a high-pressure phase transition in the system Fe3O4-MgFe2O4, resulting in preferential partitioning of Fe3+ into the high-pressure phase. (Fe,Mg)Fe2O4 would be exsolved in (Mg,Fe)O depending on the oxygen fugacity, which could have significant effects on transport properties. Exsolved (Fe,Mg)Fe2O4 could also be useful as an oxygen barometer.

McCammon, Catherine; Peyronneau, Jean; Poirier, Jean-Paul

202

Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.  

PubMed

Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish. PMID:21371606

Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

2010-12-28

203

Upper mantle oxidation state: Ferric iron contents of Iherzolite spinels by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and resultant oxygen fugacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferric iron contents of spinels from 30 spinel Iherzolite xenoliths have been measured by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples are widely dispersed in geographic and tectonic setting, coming from Southwest United States (San Carlos, Kilbourne Hole), Japan (Ichinomegata), Massif Central, France (Mont Briançon) and Central Asia (Tariat Depression, Vitim Plateau). The total range of Fe 3O 4 contents of the spinels is from 1.7 to 5.2 mol% with an uncertainty of 0.2 to 0.3 mol%. These data were used to calculate the oxygen fugacities recorded by the spinel Iherzolites using the oxygen thermobarometer 6 Fe 2SiO 4 + O 2 = 3 Fe 2Si 2O 6 + 2 Fe 3O 4. olivine orthopyroxene spinel The Fe(III) contents of the spinels translate to oxygen fugacities which, at 15 kb, range between 1.7 log units below and 1.2 log units above FMQ using either the Mattioli and Wood (1988) or O'neill and Wall (1987) version of Fe 3O 4 activity. There are distinct regional differences ƒO 2, the specimens from SW U.S.A. and Central Asia exhibiting values from slightly above FMQ to 1.5 log units below FMQ. At an estimated pressure of 15 kb, these values overlap with the ƒO 2- T field of MORB glasses, indicating, in agreement with trace element abundances, that many of these samples are related to the MORB source region. Samples from Ichinomegata and Mont Briançon are all above the MORB range, however, suggesting progressive oxidation related to subduction processes. All of our samples give oxygen fugacities more than 2 log units above IW, implying that C?H?O fluids in the upper mantle are dominated by CO 2 and H 2O and that CH 4 is a minor (< 10%) component. A detailed comparison of Fe(III) contents determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy and those obtained from microprobe analysis indicates that the latter are sufficiently precise (± 0.002 fXFe3O 4) but, in general, too inaccurate for oxygen thermobarometry. Use of Mössbauer-analyzed spinels as microprobe standards enables accuracy to approach precision, however, and appropriate standards are available on request.

Wood, Bernard J.; Virgo, David

204

Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrous Oxide by Ammonia on Iron Zeolite Beta Catalysts in an Oxygen Rich Atmosphere: Effect of Iron Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of iron-exchanged zeolite beta (BEA) has been characterized by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of oxygen and tested in the catalytic reduction of N2O by NH3. TPD of O2 has clearly shown that iron-oxo species formed upon reoxidation by nitrous oxide of Fe2+-BEA are more labile than those generated by calcination in air. In the selective catalytic reduction of

G Delahay; M Mauvezin; B Coq; S Kieger

2001-01-01

205

CLP-Induced Impairment of Innate Immune Function is Caused by Exposure to the Cecal Lumenal Contents and Not the Tissue Trauma or Tissue Ischemia/Necrosis Components  

PubMed Central

When mice are subjected to a Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge 5 days after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), clearance of the Pseudomonas is diminished when compared to sham mice. The object of this study was to determine which component(s) of CLP contributed to the impairment of the innate immune response. Mice subjected to either trauma alone or cecal ischemia/necrosis alone did not have impaired ability to clear a subsequent Pseudomonas challenge (determined by colony-forming units (cfu’s) after culture of spleen tissue). However, mice subjected to abdominal contamination with heat-killed cecal contents had reduced ability to clear the subsequent Pseudomonas challenge. In contrast to normobiotic mice, neither CLP performed in germ-free mice nor abdominal contamination of mice with cecal contents from germ-free mice adversely affected clearance of a subsequent Pseudomonas challenge. These data suggest that suppressed immune function after CLP is due to exposure to microbial ligands within the cecal lumen rather than tissue trauma, ischemia, or necrosis. However, suppression of immune function did not appear to be due to exposure to LPS as TLR4-deficient mice subject to abdominal contamination with cecal contents had diminished clearance of a Pseudomonas challenge similar to that seen in wild-type mice.

Murphey, E.D.

2011-01-01

206

Leaf?tissue silicon content of sugarcane genotypes grown on everglades histosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

On soils low in plant?available silicon (Si), fertilization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) with calcium silicate slag increases plant Si content and sugar yield. However, Si fertilization is costly. Plants which are more efficient in accumulating available Si may have an economic advantage, and selection for genotypes with greater Si content may be warranted. The purpose of this study was to

C. W. Deren; B. Glaz; G. H. Snyder

1993-01-01

207

Reducing Glycosphingolipid Content in Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice Restores Insulin Sensitivity, Adipogenesis and Reduces Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an explanation for the observed improved glucose homeostasis. Leptin-deficient obese (LepOb) mice were fed AMP-DNM and its effects on insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammation were monitored in fat tissue. We show that reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in adipose tissue of LepOb mice restores insulin signalling in isolated ex vivo insulin-stimulated adipocytes. We observed improved adipogenesis as the number of larger adipocytes was reduced and expression of genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 and adipsin increased. In addition, we found that adiponectin gene expression and protein were increased by AMP-DNM. As a consequence of this improved function of fat tissue we observed less inflammation, which was characterized by reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (crown-like structures) and reduced levels of the macrophage chemo attractants monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1/Ccl2) and osteopontin (OPN). In conclusion, pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids by inhibition of glucosylceramide biosynthesis improves adipocyte function and as a consequence reduces inflammation in adipose tissue of obese animals.

van Eijk, Marco; Aten, Jan; Bijl, Nora; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.; Seeman, Ingar; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, Karen; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Arbeeny, Cynthia; Groen, Albert K.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

2009-01-01

208

Cholesterol, Lipid Content, and Fatty Acid Composition of Different Tissues of Farmed Cobia ( Rachycentron canadum ) from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fishes are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic\\u000a acid (DHA), which are extremely important for human health. The objective of our work was to determine the content and composition\\u000a of lipids and fatty acids in the different tissues of cobia from China and to evaluate their nutritional value. The results\\u000a showed that

Shu Cheng Liu; De Tao Li; Peng Zhi Hong; Chao Hua Zhang; Hong Wu Ji; Jia Long Gao; Li Zhang

2009-01-01

209

In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The foldover in magnified images was eliminated by exciting limited regions with orthogonal pi/2 and pi pulses. Off-midline regions were imaged by tandemly offsetting the phase-encoding and excitation. Artifacts due to non-steady-state conditions were demonstrated. The approach to steady state was defined by operators and vectors, and any repeated series of RF pulses was proven to produce a steady-state. The vector difference between the magnetization and its steady state value is relatively constant during the approach. The repetition time relative to T_1 is the main determinant of approach rate, and off-resonant RF pulses incoherent with the magnetization produce a more rapid approach than on-resonant pulses.

Conturo, Thomas Edward

210

Annealing behaviour and crystal structure of RF-sputtered Bi-substituted dysprosium iron-garnet films having excess co-sputtered Bi-oxide content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magneto-optic properties, crystal structure and annealing behaviour of nano-composite media with record-high magneto-optic quality exceeding the levels reported so far in sputtered iron-garnet films. Bi-substituted dysprosium-gallium iron-garnet films having excess bismuth oxide content are deposited using RF co-sputtering, and a range of garnet materials are crystallized using conventional oven-annealing processes. We report, for the first time ever, the results of optimization of thermal processing regimes for various high-performance magneto-optic iron-garnet compositions synthesized and describe the evolution of the optical and magneto-optical properties of garnet-Bi-oxide composite-material films occurring during the annealing processes. The crystallization temperature boundaries of the system (BiDy)3(FeGa)5O12 : Bi2O3 are presented. We also report the results of x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy studies of this recently developed class of high-performance magneto-optic composites. Our hypothesis of iron oxides being the cause of excess optical absorption in sputtered Bi-iron-garnet films is confirmed experimentally.

Vasiliev, M.; Nur-E-Alam, M.; Alameh, K.; Premchander, P.; Lee, Y. T.; Kotov, V. A.; Lee, Y. P.

2011-02-01

211

Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment.  

PubMed

Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe(2)O(3)-30nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000mg/kg bw of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3) -bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p>0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe(2)O(3)-30nm. Fe(2)O(3) NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe(2)O(3) NMs. PMID:23142030

Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M F; Murty, U S N; Mahboob, M; Grover, Paramjit

2012-11-06

212

Reduced adipose tissue macrophage content is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in thiazolidinedione-treated diabetic humans.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration, and rodent studies suggest that inflammatory factors produced by ATMs contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, a relationship between ATM content and insulin resistance has not been clearly established in humans. Since thiazolidinediones attenuate adipose tissue inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity, we examined the temporal relationship of the effects of pioglitazone on these two parameters. The effect of 10 and 21 days of pioglitazone treatment on insulin sensitivity in 26 diabetic subjects was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Because chemoattractant factors, cytokines, and immune cells have been implicated in regulating the recruitment of ATMs, we studied their temporal relationship to changes in ATM content. Improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity was seen after 21 days of pioglitazone. We found early reductions in macrophage chemoattractant factors after only 10 days of pioglitazone, followed by a 69% reduction in ATM content at 21 days and reduced ATM activation at both time points. Although markers for dendritic cells and neutrophils were reduced at both time points, there were no significant changes in regulatory T cells. These results are consistent with an association between adipose macrophage content and systemic insulin resistance in humans. PMID:23349486

Koppaka, Sudha; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Carey, Michelle; Li, Weijie; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Lee, Do-Eun; Lee, Hanna; Chen, Julie; Carrasco, Emilce; Kishore, Preeti; Zhang, Kehao; Hawkins, Meredith

2013-01-24

213

The response of L5178Y lymphoma sublines to oxidative stress: Antioxidant defence, iron content and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-B  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the response to hydrogen peroxide of two L5178Y (LY) sublines which are inversely cross-sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and X-rays: LY-R cells are radio- resistant and hydrogen peroxide-sensitive, whereas LY-S cells are radiosensitive and hydrogen peroxide-resistant. Higher initial DNA breaks and higher iron content (po- tentially active in the Fenton reaction) were found in the hydrogen peroxide sensitive LY-R

Marcin Kruszewski; Barbara Sochanowicz; Irena Szumiel

214

Analysis of vitamins A, E and C, iron and selenium contents in infant milk-based powdered formula during full shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of vitamins A, E and C, and the iron and selenium content were determined in two types of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplemented milk-based powdered infant formulas (IF), during an 18-month storage period at 25 and 40°C. The first type (IF-A) was supplemented with vitamin A as retinol acetate. The second type (IF-B) was supplemented with vitamin

Jorge L. Chávez-Servín; Ana I. Castellote; Montserrat Rivero; M. Carmen López-Sabater

2008-01-01

215

Effect of nitrogen, salt, and iron content in the growth medium and light intensity on lipid production by microalgae isolated from freshwater sources in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four green microalgae (TRG, KB, SK, and PSU) identified as Botryococcus spp. by morphological criteria were isolated from lakes and freshwater ponds in southern Thailand. In nitrogen-rich medium the strains achieved a lipid content of 25.8%, 17.8%, 15.8% and 5.7%, respectively. A combination of nitrogen deficiency, moderately high light intensity (82.5?Em?2s?1) and high level of iron (0.74mM) improved lipid accumulation

Chittra Yeesang; Benjamas Cheirsilp

2011-01-01

216

Characterization of ferredoxin, flavodoxin, and rubredoxin from Clostridium formicoaceticum grown in media with high and low iron contents.  

PubMed Central

Ferredoxin, flavodoxin, and rubredoxin were purified to homogeneity from Clostridium formicoaceticum and characterized. Variation of the iron concentration of the growth medium caused substantial changes in the concentrations of ferredoxin and flavodoxin but not of rubredoxin. The ferredoxin has a molecular weight of 6,000 and is a four iron-four sulfur protein with eight cysteine residues. The spectrum is similar to that of other ferredoxins. The molar extinction coefficients are 22.6 X 10(3) and 17.6 X 10(3) at 280 and 390 nm, respectively. From 100 g wet weight of cells grown with 3.6 microM iron and with 40 microM iron, 5 and 20 mg offerredoxin were isolated, respectively. The molecular weight of rubredoxin is 5,800 and it contains one iron and four cysteines. The UV-visible absorption spectrum is dissimilar to those of other rubredoxins in that the 373 nm absorption peak is quite symmetric, lacking the characteristic 350-nm shoulder found in other rubredoxins. The flavodoxin is a 14,500-molecular-weight protein which contains 1 mol of flavin mononucleotide per mol of protein. It forms a stable, blue semiquinone upon light irradiation in the presence of EDTA or during enzymatic reduction. When cells were grown in low-iron medium, flavodoxin constituted at least 2% of the soluble cell protein; however, it was not detected in extracts of cells grown in high-iron medium. The rubredoxin and ferredoxin expressed during growth in low-iron and high-iron media are identical as judged by iron, inorganic sulfide, and amino acid analysis, as well as light absorption spectroscopy.

Ragsdale, S W; Ljungdahl, L G

1984-01-01

217

Effects of iron glycine chelate on growth, tissue mineral concentrations, fecal mineral excretion, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities in broilers.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to determine the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on growth, tissue mineral concentrations, fecal mineral excretion, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities in broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old commercial broilers (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with six replications of ten chicks per replicate. Broilers were fed a control diet with no Fe supplementation, while five other treatments consisted of 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg Fe/kg diets from Fe-Gly, and 160 mg Fe/kg from ferrous sulfate, respectively. After a 42-day feeding trial, the results showed that 120 and 160 mg Fe/kg as Fe-Gly improved the average daily gain (P < 0.05) and average daily feed intake (P < 0.05) of broilers (4-6 weeks). Addition with 120 and 160 mg Fe/kg from Fe-Gly and 160 mg Fe/kg from FeSO(4) increased Fe concentration in serum (P < 0.05), liver (P < 0.05), breast muscle (P < 0.05), tibia (P < 0.05), and feces (P < 0.01) at 21 and 42 days. There were linear responses to the addition of Fe-Gly from 0 to 160 mg/kg Fe on Fe concentration in serum (21 days, P = 0.005; 42 days, P = 0.001), liver (P = 0.001), breast muscle (P = 0.001), tibia (P = 0.001), and feces (21 days, P = 0.011; 42 days, P = 0.032). Liver Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities of chicks were increased by the addition of 80, 120, and 160 mg Fe/kg as Fe-Gly to diets at 42 days. There were no differences in liver catalase activities of chicks among the treatments (P > 0.05). This study indicates that addition with Fe-Gly could improve growth performance and iron tissue storage and improves the antioxidant status of broiler chickens. PMID:22549700

Ma, W Q; Sun, H; Zhou, Y; Wu, J; Feng, J

2012-05-02

218

Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content  

PubMed Central

To examine the mechanism by which fish oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle. We found that, in contrast to control and safflower oil-fed rats, fish oil feeding induced a 150% increase in the abundance of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in liver but lacked similar effects in muscle. This was paralleled by an almost twofold increase in hepatic peroxisome content (both P < 0.002 vs. control and safflower). These changes in the fish oil-fed rats were associated with a more than twofold lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol, as well as intramuscular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA, content. In conclusion, these data strongly support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against fat-induced insulin resistance by serving as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? ligands and thereby induce hepatic, but not intramuscular, peroxisome proliferation. In turn, an increased hepatic ?-oxidative capacity results in lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol and intramyocellular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA content.

Neschen, Susanne; Moore, Irene; Regittnig, Werner; Yu, Chun Li; Wang, Yanlin; Pypaert, Marc; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I.

2010-01-01

219

PLANT SOURCES OF DIETARY IRON: DIVERSITY IN TISSUE IRON CONCENTRATION. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON IRON NUTRITION AND INTERACTIONS IN PLANTS, JULY 3-7, 2006, MONTPELLIER, FRANCE. 2006. P. 56.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron is an essential mineral for all organisms, including humans and other animals. Iron must be obtained through dietary sources, and plant food products are an important provider of this micronutrient. Because all plants contain iron, humans consume this nutrient in all vegetable, grain, and fru...

220

Calculating iron contents of lunar highland materials surrounding Tycho crater from integrated Clementine UV-visible and near-infrared data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties of lunar surface materials are modified by exposure to the space environment, including bombardment by solar wind particles and micrometeorites. One of the main problems in the interpretation of lunar spectral observations is to separate the effects of exposure (``space weathering'') and those due to the composition of the soils (mainly iron and titanium content). Here we use Clementine near-infrared (NIR) data to investigate this problem for highland-type soils in the Tycho crater area. Our approach is based on the methods developed for an analysis of a mare region near Aristarchus Plateau [Le Mouélic et al., 2000]. We show that the systematic relationships between spectral parameters (1-?m band depth and continuum slope), which were previously observed in a mare area with varying maturity degree, are also valid for highland-type soils. This technique aimed at evaluating the iron content of the surface materials from Clementine UV-visible (UVVIS) and near-infrared data can therefore be applied globally. This approach complements the widely used method of Lucey and coworkers, which relies on the UV-visible bands only. The proposed method relies mostly on band ratios. The iron map produced from this method is therefore less dependent on topography than the iron estimates obtained with UV-visible data alone, where brightness is one of the controlling parameters. Therefore the proposed approach should be particularly useful at middle to high latitudes, where local topography generates large variations in brightness and therefore hampers the interpretation of iron maps produced from UV-visible bands only.

Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lucey, P. G.; Langevin, Yves; Hawke, B. Ray

2002-10-01

221

Systemic iron homeostasis.  

PubMed

The iron hormone hepcidin and its receptor and cellular iron exporter ferroportin control the major fluxes of iron into blood plasma: intestinal iron absorption, the delivery of recycled iron from macrophages, and the release of stored iron from hepatocytes. Because iron losses are comparatively very small, iron absorption and its regulation by hepcidin and ferroportin determine total body iron content. Hepcidin is in turn feedback-regulated by plasma iron concentration and iron stores, and negatively regulated by the activity of erythrocyte precursors, the dominant consumers of iron. Hepcidin and ferroportin also play a role in host defense and inflammation, and hepcidin synthesis is induced by inflammatory signals including interleukin-6 and activin B. This review summarizes and discusses recent progress in molecular characterization of systemic iron homeostasis and its disorders, and identifies areas for further investigation. PMID:24137020

Ganz, Tomas

2013-10-01

222

Electrolyte content of serum, erythrocyte, kidney and heart tissue in salt induced hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salt load on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and electrolyte levels of serum, erythrocyte, kidney and heart tissue was studied in rats. NaCl treatment increased sodium (5.69 ± 0.4 mmol\\/L p

Tabassum Mahboob; Majid Mumtaz; M. A. Haleem

1996-01-01

223

Postmortem tissue contents of 241Am in a person with a massive acute exposure.  

PubMed

241Am was determined radiochemically in the tissues of USTUR Case 246, a 76-y-old man who died of cardiovascular disease 11 y after massive percutaneous exposure following a chemical explosion in a glove box. This worker was treated extensively with a chelation drug, DTPA, for over 4 y after exposure. The estimated 241Am deposition at the time of death was 540 kBq, of which 90% was in the skeleton, 5.1% in the liver, and 3.5% in muscle and fat. Among the soft tissues, the highest concentrations were observed in liver (22 Bq g-1), certain cartilaginous structures such as the larynx (15 Bq g-1) and the red marrow (9.7 Bq g-1), as compared with the mean soft tissue concentration of approximately 1 Bq g-1. Concentration in muscle was approximately that of the soft tissue average, while concentrations in the pancreas, a hilar lymph node and fat were less than the average. Concentrations in bone ash were inversely related to the ratio of ash weight to wet weight, a surrogate for bone volume-to-surface ratio. The distribution of activity in this case is reasonably consistent with that observed in another human case, when allowance is made for chelation therapy, and also tends to support more recent models of 241Am metabolism. PMID:7635727

McInroy, J F; Kathren, R L; Toohey, R E; Swint, M J; Breitenstein, B D

1995-09-01

224

Postmortem tissue contents of {sup 241}Am in a person with a massive acute exposure  

SciTech Connect

{sup 241}Am was determined radiochemically in the tissues of USTUR Case 246, a 76-y-old man who died of cardiovascular disease 11 y after massive percutaneous exposure following a chemical explosion in a glove box. This worker was treated extensively with a chelation drug, DTPA, for over 4 y after exposure. The estimate {sup 241}Am deposition at the time of death was 540 kBq, of which 90% was in the skeleton, 5.1% in the liver, and 3.5% in muscle and fat. Among the soft tissues, the highest concentrations were observed in liver (22 Bq g{sup -1}), certain cartilaginous structures such as the larynx (15 Bq g{sup -1}) and the red marrow (9.7 Bq g{sup -1}), as compared with the mean soft tissue concentration of approximately 1 Bq g{sup -1}. Concentration in muscle was approximately that of the soft tissue average, while concentrations in the pancreas, a hilar lymph node and fat were less than the average. Concentrations in bone ash were inversely related to the ratio of ash weight to wet weight a surrogate for bone volume-to-surface ratio. the distribution of activity in this case is reasonable consistent with that observed in another human case, when allowance is made for chelation therapy, and also tends to support more recent models of {sup 241}Am metabolism. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

McInroy, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Toohey, R.E. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

225

[Endosperm-specific expression of the ferritin gene in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) results in increased iron content of milling rice].  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient deficiency world-wild, and is estimated to affect about 30% of the world population. To increase the iron content of rice in Chinese, the 764 bp cDNA of ferritin gene was cloned from soybean (Phaseolus limensis), and constructed between the 1 353 bp rice glutelin GluB-1 promoter and NOS terminator in a binary vector pCAMIBA1301. The constructed pYF1067 vector was introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105, and used for transformation of the primary callus derived from immature embryos of a high-yielding rice ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) variety Wuxiangjin 9. Under the selection on hygromycin-containing medium, seventeen independent transgenic rice lines, total more than 80 transgenic plants, were finally regenerated, and most of these transgenic rice plants grew normally. PCR and Southern blot analysis of total DNA from primary transformants confirmed that one to three copies of the transgenes integrated into the genome of most of the transgenic plants, and they could be stably transmitted into the progeny of the transgenic rice. Northern blot analysis showed that the ferritin gene could specifically express in the endosperm of transgenic rice with high level, while no or low expression in leaves. The expression level varied among different independent transgenic rice plants. There was a significant effect of the high-expression of ferritin on the increased iron content in transgenic rice, the iron content in the milling rice of transgenic rice was up to 64% higher than that of the untransformed wild-type plant, whereas no significant alteration of the zinc level occurred between these two type rice plants. PMID:15478615

Liu, Qiao-Quan; Yao, Quan-Hong; Wang, Hong-Mei; Gu, Ming-Hong

2004-05-01

226

The importance of carbon content beneath iron borides after boriding of chromium and nickel-based low-carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex (B+C) diffusion layers have been formed on chromium- and nickel-based low-carbon steels. Gas boriding applied to these steels that have been previously carburized enables the production of wear-resistant borocarburized layers. After combined surface hardening with boron and carbon in the microstructure two zones have been observed: iron borides (FeB+Fe2B) and carburized zones. The iron borides in borocarburized layer

M. Kulka; A. Pertek

2003-01-01

227

Valence state and speciation of uranium ions in borosilicate glasses with a high iron and aluminum content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valence state and the local environment of uranium ions in borosilicate glasses intended for immobilizing high-level wastes\\u000a with high concentrations of iron and aluminum ions are investigated using X-ray absorption (XANES, EXAFS) spectroscopy. It\\u000a is demonstrated that, in glasses predominantly containing iron oxides, at least 80% of the total uranium exists in a hexavalent\\u000a form as uranyl ions. In

S. V. Stefanovsky; A. A. Shiryaev; J. V. Zubavitchus; A. A. Veligjanin; J. C. Marra

2009-01-01

228

Iron deficiency and renal development in the newborn rat.  

PubMed

Iron is essential for fetal organ development, but the effect of isolated iron deficiency on nephrogenesis is unknown. Human premature infants are at risk for disrupted nephrogenesis because glomerular development is incomplete until 36-wk gestation. We modeled the effects of iron on postnatal glomerulogenesis in four groups of immature rats from P4 to P12: dam fed controls (DF), dam fed with sham gastrostomy surgery (DF + SS), iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), fed iron-deficient formula through gastrostomy apart from the dam, and IDA plus simultaneous enteral iron rescue (IDA+Fe). Hematocrit, plasma ferritin, and body and kidney tissue iron contents were measured. Tissue was examined. Rats grew similarly, but IDA rats exhibited lower hematocrit, plasma ferritin, and body and kidney iron contents than DF, DF + SS, or IDA + Fe. IDA exhibited 1.7 fewer radial glomerular counts (RGCs), 26% reduced glomerular density, and 29% less planar glomerular surface area than DF, with partial improvement in IDA + Fe. Compared with DF or DF + SS, we observed elevated plasma CRP levels and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the IDA and IDA + Fe groups. IDA reduced glomerular density, glomerular surface area, and promoted fibrosis. Iron substantially rescued renal growth and development, supporting the critical role of iron in late nephrogenesis. PMID:19730160

Drake, Keri A; Sauerbry, Molly J; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Repyak, Kristin S; Kling, Pamela J

2009-12-01

229

Paretic Muscle Atrophy and Non-Contractile Tissue Content in Individual Muscles of the Post-Stroke Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Muscle atrophy is one of many factors contributing to post-stroke hemiparetic weakness. Since muscle force is a function of muscle size, the amount of muscle atrophy an individual muscle undergoes has implications for its overall force-generating capability post-stroke. In this study, post-stroke atrophy was determined bilaterally in fifteen leg muscles with volumes quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All muscle volumes were adjusted to exclude non-contractile tissue content, and muscle atrophy was quantified by comparing the volumes between paretic and non-paretic sides. Non-contractile tissue or intramuscular fat was calculated by determining the amount of tissue excluded from the muscle volume measurement. With the exception of the gracilis, all individual paretic muscles examined had smaller volumes in the non-paretic side. The average decrease in volume for these paretic muscles was 23%. The gracilis volume, on the other hand, was approximately 11% larger on the paretic side. The amount of non-contractile tissue was higher in all paretic muscles except the gracilis, where no difference was observed between sides. To compensate for paretic plantar flexor weakness, one idea might be that use of the paretic gracilis actually causes the muscle to increase in size and not develop intramuscular fat. By eliminating non-contractile tissue from our volume calculations, we have presented volume data that more appropriately represents force-generating muscle tissue. Non-uniform muscle atrophy was observed across muscles and may provide important clues when assessing the effect of muscle atrophy on post-stroke gait.

Ramsay, John W.; Barrance, Peter J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Higginson, Jill S.

2011-01-01

230

Sensing lanthanide metal content in biological tissues with magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The development and validation of MRI contrast agents consisting of a lanthanide chelate often requires a determination of the concentration of the agent in ex vivo tissue. We have developed a protocol that uses 70% nitric acid to completely digest tissue samples that contain Gd(III), Dy(III), Tm(III), Eu(III), or Yb(III) ions, or the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide. NMR spectroscopy of coaxial tubes containing a digested sample and a separate control solution of nitric acid was used to rapidly and easily measure the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift caused by each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide. Each BMS shift was shown to be linearly correlated with the concentration of each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide in the 70% nitric acid solution and in digested rat kidney and liver tissues. These concentration measurements had outstanding precision, and also had good accuracy for concentrations ³10 mM for Tm(III) Eu(III), and Yb(III), and ³3 mM for Gd(III), gadodiamide, and Dy(III). Improved sample handling methods are needed to improve measurement accuracy for samples with lower concentrations. PMID:24152931

Hingorani, Dina V; Gonzalez, Sandra I; Li, Jessica F; Pagel, Mark D

2013-10-11

231

Telomere DNA content and allelic imbalance demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors.  

PubMed

Cancer arises from an accumulation of mutations that promote the selection of cells with progressively malignant phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells, is a driving force in this process. In the present study, two markers of genomic instability, telomere DNA content and allelic imbalance, were examined in two independent cohorts of mammary carcinomas. Altered telomeres and unbalanced allelic loci were present in both tumors and surrounding histologically normal tissues at distances at least 1 cm from the visible tumor margins. Although the extent of these genetic changes decreases as a function of the distance from the visible tumor margin, unbalanced loci are conserved between the surrounding tissues and the tumors, implying cellular clonal evolution. Our results are in agreement with the concepts of "field cancerization" and "cancer field effect," concepts that were previously introduced to describe areas within tissues consisting of histologically normal, yet genetically aberrant, cells that represent fertile grounds for tumorigenesis. The finding that genomic instability occurs in fields of histologically normal tissues surrounding the tumor is of clinical importance, as it has implications for the definition of appropriate tumor margins and the assessment of recurrence risk factors in the context of breast-sparing surgery. PMID:16450377

Heaphy, Christopher M; Bisoffi, Marco; Fordyce, Colleen A; Haaland, Christina M; Hines, William C; Joste, Nancy E; Griffith, Jeffrey K

2006-07-01

232

High isoflavone content and estrogenic activity of 25 year-old Glycine max tissue cultures.  

PubMed

Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens which have been associated with several health benefits. In the present study, we report the production of isoflavones in a collection of 40 strains of soya cell cultures established in 1975. A large variability in the isoflavone composition was observed and high-producing strains, with an isoflavone content of up to 46.3 mg g(-1) dry wt., were found. In comparison with soybeans, many callus strains had a higher isoflavone concentration (10-40 times) and a different ratio of genistin to daidzin forms. The highest producing strain was transferred to liquid medium in an Erlenmeyer flask and in a 10 l stirred-tank bioreactor where high isoflavone content (7% dry wt.), concentration (880 mg l(-1)) and a maximum productivity estimated to 60 mg l(-1) d(-1) were obtained. We further studied the estrogenic activity of pure compounds compared to plant cell culture extracts in the estrogen-responsive human endometrial Ishikawa cell line. Estrogen was confirmed to be 1000-10,000 times more active than isoflavones. The estrogenic activity of the extracts correlated to their isoflavone content. The activity of the malonyl isoflavones, assessed here for the first time, was lower than the aglycones. Taken together, these results suggest that soya cell cultures can be used as an alternative source to soybeans to provide high concentrations of bioactive isoflavones. PMID:13679094

Federici, Ermanno; Touché, André; Choquart, Sandie; Avanti, Ornella; Fay, Laurent; Offord, Elizabeth; Courtois, Didier

2003-10-01

233

Different exercise protocols improve metabolic syndrome markers, tissue triglycerides content and antioxidant status in rats  

PubMed Central

Background An increase in the prevalence of obesity entails great expenditure for governments. Physical exercise is a powerful tool in the combat against obesity and obesity-associated diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of three different exercise protocols on metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in adult Wistar rats (120 days old). Methods Animals were randomly divided into four groups: the control (C) group was kept sedentary throughout the study; the aerobic group (A) swam1 h per day, 5 days per week, at 80% lactate threshold intensity; the strength group (S) performed strength training with four series of 10 jumps, 5 days per week; and the Concurrent group (AS) was trained using the aerobic protocol three days per week and the strength protocol two days per week. Results Groups A and S exhibited a reduction in body weight compared to group C. All exercised animals showed a reduction in triglyceride concentrations in fatty tissues and the liver. Exercised animals also exhibited a reduction in lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS) and an increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity. Animals in group A had increased levels of liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Conclusions We concluded that all physical activity protocols improved the antioxidant systems of the animals and decreased the storage of triglycerides in the investigated tissues.

2011-01-01

234

Changes in visceral adipose tissue mitochondrial content with type 2 diabetes and daily voluntary wheel running in OLETF rats  

PubMed Central

Using the hyperphagic, obese, Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, we sought to determine if progression to type 2 diabetes alters visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial content and if these changes are modified through prevention of type 2 diabetes with daily exercise. At 4 weeks of age, OLETF rats began voluntary wheel running (OLETF-EX) while additional OLETF rats (OLETF-SED) and Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO-SED) rats served as obese and lean sedentary controls, respectively, for 13, 20 and 40 weeks of age (n= 6–8 for each group at each age). OLETF-SED animals displayed insulin resistance at 13 and 20 weeks and type 2 diabetes by 40 weeks. OLETF-SED animals gained significantly (P < 0.001) more weight and omental fat mass compared with OLETF-EX and LETO-SED. Markers of WAT mitochondrial protein content (cytochrome c, COXIV-subunit I, and citrate synthase activity) significantly increased (P < 0.05) from 13 to 40 weeks in the LETO-SED, but were significantly attenuated in the OLETF-SED rats. Daily exercise normalized WAT cytochrome c and COXIV-subunit I protein content in the OLETF-EX to the healthy LETO-SED animals. In conclusion, increases in omental WAT mitochondrial content between 20 and 40 weeks of age in LETO control animals are attenuated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat. These alterations occurred in conjunction with the progression from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes and were prevented with daily exercise. Reduced ability to increase WAT mitochondrial content does not appear to be a primary cause of insulin resistance, but may play a key role in the worsening of the disease condition.

Laye, Matthew J; Rector, R Scott; Warner, Shana O; Naples, Scott P; Perretta, Aspen L; Uptergrove, Grace M; Laughlin, M Harold; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W; Ibdah, Jamal A

2009-01-01

235

Iron metabolism in mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most living things require iron to exist. Iron has many functions within cells but is rarely found unbound because of its propensity to catalyze the formation of toxic free radicals. Thus the regulation of iron requirements by cells and the acquisition and uptake of iron into tissues in multicellular organisms is tightly regulated. In humans, understanding iron transport and utility

Brandie L Walker; Jacqueline W. C Tiong; Wilfred A Jefferies

2001-01-01

236

Distribution and Quantitation of Skin Iron in Primary Haemochromatosis: Correlation with Total Body Iron Stores in Patients Undergoing Phlebotomy.  

PubMed

Measurement of the concentration of iron in the skin, if correlated with total body iron stores, may enable better informed decisions on when to initiate, change or stop therapy in hereditary heamochromatosis. Naïve haemochromatosis patients with iron overload and with C282Y and/or H63D HFE mutations were evaluated at the following time-points: disease diagnosis, end of the therapy programme, and 6 months after the end of therapy. The distribution and concentration of iron in the skin were assessed by quantitative nuclear microscopy methods, in parallel with serum and plasma iron concentration. Iron content in the liver was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Iron accumulated in the epidermis; its concentration increased from outer to inner layers, being maximal in the basal layer (7.33?±?0.98 µmol/g). At all 3 time-points, most of the iron was associated with the extracellular space. During the phlebotomy programme the iron content of the skin and the liver decreased by a factor of 2. These data suggest that measurements of iron concentration in the epidermis, which is a readily accessible tissue, reflect iron overload in the liver. PMID:23728724

Pinheiro, Teresa; Silva, Raquel; Fleming, Rita; Gonçalves, Afonso; Barreiros, Maria A; Silva, João N; Morlière, Patrice; Santus, René; Filipe, Paulo

2013-05-27

237

Metal and metallothionein content in tissues from wild and farmed Anguilla anguilla at commercial size.  

PubMed

Metallothionein and metal content (Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, Fe, Pb and Mn) were determined in various organs of commercially available eel (Anguilla anguilla) of similar size obtained from a local farm and from The Albufera Lake in Valencia (Spain). Farmed fish showed statistically significant higher Cd concentrations in liver and kidney whereas wild individuals had higher levels of Pb in blood and Zn in kidney. Significant positive correlations were found between metallothionein and Cd in kidney of farmed eel and between metallothionein and Cu in liver of wild ones. No statistically significant differences were found between the two populations in the concentration of any of the metals analyzed in muscle and in all instances these levels were lower than the limits established by the Spanish legislation for fish destined for human consumption. PMID:17157913

Ureña, R; Peri, S; del Ramo, J; Torreblanca, A

2006-12-08

238

Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths  

PubMed Central

The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6–20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ?5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The data were analysed to detect associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, pubertal stages, and physical activity scores. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS) was 3.04 (range 1.32–5.02). The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8–46.7), and 118 (74.2%) of 159 patients had an MFC ?5%. Children with an MFC ?5%, compared with children with an MFC <5%, had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03), a higher VAT (P=0.04), and elevated intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) contents (both P<0.0001). SAT, SAT/VAT ratio, blood values, pubertal stages and physical activity scores did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and youths tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT, IMCL, and EMCL contents. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose these young people to obesity-related complications.

Fonvig, Cilius E.; Bille, Dorthe S.; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Nielsen, Tenna R. H.; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Holm, Jens-Christian

2012-01-01

239

Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body-weight was significantly increased in diabetics (p < 0.0005) vs. normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (p < 0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of PM extract. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10-fold while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls vs. controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by PM. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35,50 and 60% of the controls and PM completely corrected this alteration in PFK and only partly in HK and GK. PMID:12482025

Grover, Jagdish Kumari; Vats, Vikrant; Yadav, Satyapal

2002-12-01

240

Iron-Fortified Infant Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants are particularly susceptible to iron deficiency and related anemia due to their high growth rates and the low iron content of breast milk and most unfortified weaning foods. Cows' milk also is poor in iron, and certain forms of cows' milk cause blood and thus iron loss from the gastrointestinal tract. Iron-fortified cereal-based complementary foods – infant cereals –

Richard C. Theuer

2008-01-01

241

Regional and total body bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and total body tissue composition in children 8–16 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Normative values for total body bone mineral content (TBBM) and total body bone mineral density (TBMD) were derived from measurements on 234 children 8–16 years of age. In addition, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) values for selected regions of interest and soft tissue (bone free lean and fat) for the total body are presented. Bone

R. A. Faulkner; D. A. Bailey; D. T. Drinkwater; A. A. Wilkinson; C. S. Houston; H. A. McKay

1993-01-01

242

Rapid quantification of muscle fat content and subcutaneous adipose tissue in fish using MRI.  

PubMed

The potentiality of MRI to quantify fat content in flesh and subcutaneous fat in fish cutlets was investigated. Low measurement time was aimed at in a view to handling large number of samples needed in selective breeding programs for example. Results on fresh and frozen-thawed cutlets were compared to assess this way of conservation. As MRI generates unwanted spatial variations of the signal, a correction method was developed enabling the measurement on several cutlets simultaneously in less than 3 min per sample. For subcutaneous fat, the results were compared with vision measurements. High correlations between both techniques were found (R(2)=0.77 and 0.87 for the ventral and dorsal part). Fat in flesh was validated vs NMR measurements. No statistical difference was found between fresh and frozen-thawed cutlets. RMSE was respectively 0.8% and 0.89%. These results confirmed the potentiality of MRI for fat measurement in fish particularly for a large number of samples. PMID:23411337

Collewet, Guylaine; Bugeon, Jérôme; Idier, Jérôme; Quellec, Stéphane; Quittet, Benjamin; Cambert, Mireille; Haffray, Pierrick

2012-11-15

243

Non-Invasive Quantification of White and Brown Adipose Tissues and Liver Fat Content by Computed Tomography in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obesity and its distribution pattern are important factors for the prediction of the onset of diabetes in humans. Since several mouse models are suitable to study the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes the aim was to validate a novel computed tomograph model (Aloka-Hitachi LCT-200) for the quantification of visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat depots in mice. Methods Different lean and obese mouse models (C57BL/6, B6.V-Lepob, NZO) were used to determine the most adequate scanning parameters for the detection of the different fat depots. The data were compared with those obtained after preparation and weighing the fat depots. Liver fat content was determined by biochemical analysis. Results The correlations between weights of fat tissues on scale and weights determined by CT were significant for subcutaneous (r2?=?0.995), visceral (r2?=?0.990) and total white adipose tissue (r2?=?0.992). Moreover, scans in the abdominal region, between lumbar vertebrae L4 to L5 correlated with whole-body fat distribution allowing experimenters to reduce scanning time and animal exposure to radiation and anesthesia. Test-retest reliability and measurements conducted by different experimenters showed a high reproducibility in the obtained results. Intrahepatic fat content estimated by CT was linearly related to biochemical analysis (r2?=?0.915). Furthermore, brown fat mass correlated well with weighted brown fat depots (r2?=?0.952). In addition, short-term cold-expose (4°C, 4 hours) led to alterations in brown adipose tissue attributed to a reduction in triglyceride content that can be visualized as an increase in Hounsfield units by CT imaging. Conclusion The 3D imaging of fat by CT provides reliable results in the quantification of total, visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat in mice. This non-invasive method allows the conduction of longitudinal studies of obesity in mice and therefore enables experimenters to investigate the onset of complex diseases such as diabetes and obesity.

Lubura, Marko; Hesse, Deike; Neumann, Nancy; Scherneck, Stephan; Wiedmer, Petra; Schurmann, Annette

2012-01-01

244

[Characteristics of the radiation-induced changes in the content of sterols and squalene in the lymphoid system tissues and erythrocyte membranes of rats].  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation causes considerable changes in the content of sterols and squalene in the lymphoid system tissues and erythrocyte membranes which is in accordance with the concept of high radiosensitivity of haemopoietic tissue. The processes of cholesterol conversion to its oxy-derivatives are increased under the effect of radiation. The content of some lipid components in the lymphoid system tissues and erythrocyte membranes is changed depending on the dose and time after irradiation. There is a relationship between the changes in the sterol composition and in the properties of erythrocyte membranes. PMID:2371389

Palamarchuk, V I

245

Effect of latent iron deficiency on gaba and glutamate neuroreceptors in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight weeks of latent iron deficiency in weaned female rats of Sprague Dawley strain maintained on experimental low-iron diet\\u000a (18–20 mg\\/Kg) did not significantly change the gross body weight and tissue weights of brain and liver. Packed cell volume\\u000a (PCV) and hemoglobin concentration remained unaltered. However, non-heme iron content in liver and brain decreased significantly\\u000a (P<0.001). The activities of glutamate

Rama Devi Mittal; Amita Pandey; Balraj Mittal; Kailash Nath Agarwal

2002-01-01

246

Effect of Carbon Content on the Magnetic Properties of Iron30% Cobalt15% Chromium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies have indicated that an alloy containing 55% iron-30% cobalt and 15% chromium could be substituted for the more costly Remendur alloy (48% Fe-48% Co-4% V) now being used in ferreed cross point switching devices. However, commercial utilization of this alloy has not been realized mainly because of difficulties in obtaining reproducible magnetic properties in cold worked rod or

K. M. Olsen; R. C. Stoffers

1971-01-01

247

The wear behaviour of high-chromium white cast irons as a function of silicon and Mischmetal content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sliding wear behaviour of high-chromium white cast iron (16.8% Cr) has been examined as a function of silicon and Mischmetal alloy additions (1, 2, 3 and 5% Si and 0.1 and 0.3% Mischmetal). Such additions are known to modify the structure, but there is considerable controversy as to the exact effect. Silicon was found to refine the dendritic structure

A. Bedolla Jacuinde; W. M. Rainforth

2001-01-01

248

Effect of aluminum content on environmental embrittlement in binary iron-aluminum alloys--Acoustic emission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Intermetallic iron aluminide tensile coupons with 8.5 wt% (16.1 at. %) aluminum were shown to be ductile at room temperature through the use of acoustic emission analysis combined with fractography. Room temperature brittleness of alloys with greater than 12 wt % (22 at. %) aluminum has deterred acceptance as structural materials. The cause of room temperature brittleness in iron aluminides has been determined to be a chemical reaction between the aluminum component and water vapor in the environment. All materials emit sound when stressed to the point of permanent, microscopic change. For metals and alloys this sound has frequencies in the MHz range, but is detectable by ultrasonic methods. The detected ultrasound is termed acoustic emission (AE). Terminology associated with the study of AE is idiomatic. An AE hit refers to continuous detection of ultrasound by one transducer. The amplitude, rise time, duration, ring-down count, and acoustic energy of the hit are characteristic of the microscopic, physical activity taking place, but are unique for each specimen-apparatus system. Since each specimen is unique on a microscopic level, one test constitutes a study. One- to four-thousand data points are typical for an iron aluminide specimen. The individual hit shows that a permanent change has taken place, and the cause of that change can be sought through standard micrographic methods. Tensile studies have been reported elsewhere and this work is a continuation of these studies.

Woodyard, J.R. (Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States)); Sikka, V.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1993-12-01

249

Elemental analysis of lung tissue particles and intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophages in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease occurred by idiopathic (autoimmune) or secondary to particle inhalation.\\u000a The in-air microparticle induced X-ray emission (in-air micro-PIXE) system performs elemental analysis of materials by irradiation\\u000a with a proton microbeam, and allows visualization of the spatial distribution and quantitation of various elements with very\\u000a low background noise. The aim of this study was

Yasuo Shimizu; Shinichi Matsuzaki; Kunio Dobashi; Noriko Yanagitani; Takahiro Satoh; Masashi Koka; Akihito Yokoyama; Takeru Ohkubo; Yasuyuki Ishii; Tomihiro Kamiya; Masatomo Mori

2011-01-01

250

Exercise Stress Echocardiography with Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) Detects Early Systolic Dysfunction in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients without Cardiac Iron Overload  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate left and right myocardial performance at rest and after maximal exercise by conventional and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) echocardiography. Background Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy (IOC) is the main cause of death in thalassemia major (TM) patients but conventional Echocardiography fails to predict early cardiac dysfunction. As TDI is able to demonstrate regional myocardial dysfunction and stress test may reveal abnormalities which are not evident at rest, we wondered if echocardiographic parameters may reveal abnormalities when applied first at rest and then after a physical effort. Methods We enrolled 46 consecutive beta-TM patients and 39 control subjects without evidence of cardiac disease; two echocardiograms, at baseline and at the end of maximal exercise on supine bicycle ergometer, were done. All TM patients had a liver iron assessment by SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) and a cardiac iron one by MRI (T2*) evaluation. Results 38 TM patients had no evidence of cardiac iron overload. Whereas TM patients did not shown diastolic dysfunction and all of them presented a good global response to exercise, TDI detected a reduced increase of the S’ waves of left ventricle basal segment during exercise. This finding seems to have some weak but interesting relations with iron overload markers. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAPs) values were greater than in control subjects both at rest and after exercise Conclusions in our study, exercise stress TDI-echocardiography was able to demonstrate subtle systolic abnormalities that were missed by Conventional Echocardiography. Further studies are required to determine the meaning and the clinical impact of these results.

Barbero, Umberto; Destefanis, Paola; Pozzi, Roberto; Longo, Filomena; Piga, Antonio

2012-01-01

251

Material-Related Forensic Analysis and Special Testing: Assessment of Original Free Lime Content of Weathered Iron and Steel Slag.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Work Order No. 96-09-21 is to conduct Thermogravimetric Analysis and either ASTMC 114 total lime content and/or the anhydrous ethylene glycol total lime content determinations. The hydration and dissolution of calcium oxide to form calcium ...

M. Boyle E. Shkolnik

2000-01-01

252

Developmental and Neurophysiologic Deficits in Iron Deficiency in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Several studies in animals and humans have clearly demonstrated the effect of ID on development, cognition, behavior and neurophysiology.\\u000a The effect of ID have been shown: on brain metabolism, neurotransmitter function, and myelination. Changes in brain iron content\\u000a caused by early ID in animals are not reversible by iron therapy, inspite of correction of anemia and other tissue deficits\\u000a and

Nishi Madan; Usha Rusia; Meera Sikka; Satendra Sharma; Nilima Shankar

2011-01-01

253

Effects of nano-selenium on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-selenium (nano-Se) on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. A total of five hundred forty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The 5 treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se. The selenium content of the unsupplemented control diet was 0.09 mg/kg for the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and 0.08 mg/kg for the grower phase (22 to 42 d). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in performance, meat color, or immune organ index (thymus, bursa, and spleen) due to supplementation with nano-Se. On d 42, a significant quadratic effect of nano-Se was observed on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition, contents of IgM, glutathione, and malondialdehyde in serum, on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition in liver, and on glutathione peroxidase activity in muscle, with birds fed 0.30 mg/kg of nano-Se exhibiting the best effect and birds fed 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se showing the worst effect on these parameters. Liver and muscle selenium content increased linearly and quadratically as the dietary nano-Se level increased (P < 0.01), and reached the highest value when 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se was fed. Based on a consideration of all experiment indexes, 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg is suggested to be the optimum level of supplementation of nano-Se, and the maximum supplementation of nano-Se could not be more than 1.0 mg/kg in broilers. PMID:22991539

Cai, S J; Wu, C X; Gong, L M; Song, T; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

2012-10-01

254

Effect of the trivalent iron content in a pyrrhotine concentrate on the reaction mechanism of its sulfuric acid leaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laws of atmospheric sulfuric acid leaching of pyrrhotine concentrate are analyzed as a function of the redox potential of a reaction system, which is determined by the Fe(III) content in a solution.

D'yachenko, V. T.; Bryukvin, V. A.; Tsybin, O. I.

2012-01-01

255

Chromium III?iron interaction in Fe?deficient and Fe?sufficient bean plants. I. Growth and nutrient content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of low Cr III concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ?M as CrCl3–6H2O) on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, the concentration of selected mineral nutrients (Fe, Mn, P), and Cr content was determined in both Fe?control (10 ?M Fe as Fe?EDTA) and Fe?deficient (no Fe supply) bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown hydroponically. Chromium significantly enhanced growth

A. Bonet; Ch. Poschenrieder; J. Barcelo

1991-01-01

256

Transient increase of the labile iron pool in HepG2 cells by intravenous iron preparations.  

PubMed

Intravenous iron, used for the treatment of anemia in chronic renal failure and other diseases, represents a possible source of free iron in tissue cells, particularly in the liver. In this study we examined the effect of different sources of intravenous iron (IVI) on the labile iron pool (LIP) which represents the nonferritin-bound, redox-active iron that is implicated in oxidative stress and cell injury. Furthermore, we examined the role of the LIP for the synthesis of ferritin. We used HepG2 cells as a well known model for hepatoma cells and monitored the LIP with the metal-sensitive fluorescent probe, calcein-AM, the fluorescence of which is quenched on binding to iron. We showed that steady state LIP levels in HepG2 cells were increased transiently, up to three-fold compared to control cells, as an adaptive response to long-term IVI exposure. In relation to the amount of iron in the LIP, the ferritin levels increased and the iron content of ferritin decreased. As any fluctuation in the LIP, even when it is only transient (e.g. after exposure to intravenous iron in this study), may result either in impairment of synthesis of iron containing proteins or in cell injury by pro-oxidants. Such findings in nonreticuloendothelial cells may have important implications in the generation of the adverse effects of chronic iron exposure reported in dialysis patients. PMID:12950256

Sturm, Brigitte; Goldenberg, Hans; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara

2003-09-01

257

Potential myocardial iron content evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging in thalassemia major patients treated with Deferoxamine or Deferiprone during a randomized multicenter prospective clinical study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the variations of heart magnetic resonance imaging in beta-thalassemia major patients treated with Deferoxamine B mesylate (DF) or Deferiprone (L1) chelation therapy is a useful tool of the indirect myocardial iron content determination. For this reason, a prospective study was carried out. Seventy-two consecutive patients with beta-thalassemia major (35 treated with DF and 37 with L1) were studied. The main outcome results were laboratory parameters including determination of the liver iron concentration (LIC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart and liver. The heart to muscle signal intensity ratios (HSIRs) were significantly increased in both the DF (t = -2.8; p < 0.01) and L1 (t = -3.1; p < 0.01) groups after one year of treatment No statistically significant difference in the values of HSIRs was present between the two groups at the beginning of treatment (p = 0.25; t = 1.13), and after one year of treatment (p = 0.20; t = 1.28). The HSIR were inversely correlated to the LIC (r = -0.52; p < 0.001) but not with ferritin levels (r = 0.10; p = 0.18). A positive correlation was found between the variation of HSIRs and that of the liver signal intensity ratios (r=0.52; p < 0.001), and a mild correlation (r = 0.40; p < 0.001) was found between the gamma glutamyltransferase (gammaGt) levels and the HSIRs values. Our data confirm that heart MRI is sensitive enough to detect significant variations of the mean HSIR during iron chelation with DF or L1. PMID:12779268

Galia, Massimo; Midiri, Massimo; Bartolotta, Vincenzo; Morabito, Alberto; Rizzo, Michele; Mangiagli, Antonino; Malizia, Roberto; Borsellino, Zelia; Capra, Marcello; D'Ascola, Domenico G; Magnano, Carmelo; Gerardi, Calogera; Rigano, Paolo; Maggio, Aurelio

2003-05-01

258

Viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass melts as a function of waste composition. [Effect of iron and aluminum content of viscosity and electrical conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant contains high concentrations of nonradioactive compounds of iron and aluminum. Simulated waste compositions containing varying ratios of iron to aluminum were added to glass melts to determine the effect on the melt properties. Waste containing high-aluminum increased the melt viscosity, but waste containing high-iron reduced the melt viscosity. Aluminum and iron both reduced

M. J. Plodinec; J. R. Wiley

1979-01-01

259

Iron Deficiency: Beyond Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder affecting at least one third of world’s population. Though anemia\\u000a is common manifestation of iron deficiency, other effects of iron deficiency on various tissues, organs and systems are usually\\u000a under recognized. Impaired brain development and cognitive, behavioural and psychomotor impairment are most worrisome manifestations\\u000a of iron deficiency. Studies have demonstrated that some

Dinesh Yadav; Jagdish Chandra

2011-01-01

260

A re-analysis of the iron content of plant-based foods in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

In the UK contemporary estimates of dietary Fe intakes rely upon food Fe content data from the 1980s or before. Moreover, there has been speculation that the natural Fe content of foods has fallen over time, predominantly due to changes in agricultural practices. Therefore, we re-analysed common plant-based foods of the UK diet for their Fe content (the '2000s analyses') and compared the values with the most recent published values (the '1980s analyses') and the much older published values (the '1930s analyses'), the latter two being from different editions of the McCance and Widdowson food tables. Overall, there was remarkable consistency between analytical data for foods spanning the 70 years. There was a marginal, but significant, apparent decrease in natural food Fe content from the 1930s to 1980s/2000s. Whether this represents a true difference or is analytical error between the eras is unclear and how it could translate into differences in intake requires clarification. However, fortificant Fe levels (and fortificant Fe intake based upon linked national data) did appear to have increased between the 1980s and 2000s, and deserve further attention in light of recent potential concerns over the long-term safety and effectiveness of fortificant Fe. In conclusion, the overall Fe content of plant-based foods is largely consistent between the 1930s and 2000s, with a fall in natural dietary Fe content negated or even surpassed by a rise in fortificant Fe but for which the long-term effects are uncertain. PMID:22377356

Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Chapman, Thomas P E; Thane, Christopher W; Olson, Ashley; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Powell, Jonathan J

2012-03-01

261

The metal content of bulge field stars from FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra. I. Stellar parameters and iron abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We determine the iron distribution function (IDF) for bulge field stars, in three different fields along the Galactic minor axis and at latitudes b = -4°, b = -6°, and b = -12°. A fourth field including NGC 6553 is also included in the discussion. Methods: About 800 bulge field K giants were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph of FLAMES@VLT at spectral resolution R ~ 20 000. Several of them were observed again with UVES at R ~ 45 000 to insure the accuracy of the measurements. The LTE abundance analysis yielded stellar parameters and iron abundances that allowed us to construct an IDF for the bulge that, for the first time, is based on high-resolution spectroscopy for each individual star. Results: The IDF derived here is centered on solar metallicity, and extends from [Fe/H] ~ -1.5 to [Fe/H] ~ +0.5. The distribution is asymmetric, with a sharper cutoff on the high-metallicity side, and it is narrower than previously measured. A variation in the mean metallicity along the bulge minor axis is clearly between b = -4° and b = -6° ([Fe/H] decreasing ~ by 0.6 dex per kpc). The field at b = -12° is consistent with the presence of a gradient, but its quantification is complicated by the higher disk/bulge fraction in this field. Conclusions: Our findings support a scenario in which both infall and outflow were important during the bulge formation, and then suggest the presence of a radial gradient, which poses some challenges to the scenario in which the bulge would result solely from the vertical heating of the bar. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617 and 73.B-0074). Full Table [see full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Zoccali, M.; Hill, V.; Lecureur, A.; Barbuy, B.; Renzini, A.; Minniti, D.; Gómez, A.; Ortolani, S.

2008-07-01

262

Micrometer-sized Iron Oxide Particle Labeling of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Monitoring of Cartilage Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) labeling with micrometer-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based tracking, and its application to monitoring articular cartilage regeneration. Methods Rabbit MSCs were labeled using commercial MPIOs. In vitro MRI was performed with gradient echo (GRE) and spin echo (SE) sequences at 3 tesla, and quantitatively characterized using line profile and region of interest analysis. Ex vivo MRI of hydrogel- encapsulated labeled MSCs implanted within a bovine knee was performed with spoiled GRE (SPGR) and T1? sequences. Fluorescence microscopy, labeling efficiency, and chondrogenesis of MPIO-labeled cells were also examined. Results MPIO-labeling results in efficient contrast uptake, and signal loss that can be visualized and quantitatively characterized via MRI. SPGR imaging of implanted cells results in ex vivo detection within native tissue, and T1? imaging is unaffected by the presence of labeled cells immediately following implantation. MPIO labeling does not affect quantitative glycosaminoglycan production during chondrogenesis, but iron aggregation hinders extracellular matrix visualization. This aggregation may result from excess unincorporated particles following labeling, and is an issue that necessitates further investigation. Conclusion This study demonstrates the promise of MPIO labeling for monitoring cartilage regeneration, and highlights its potential in the development of cell-based tissue engineering strategies.

Saldanha, Karl J; Doan, Ryan P; Ainslie, Kristy M; Desai, Tejal A; Majumdar, Sharmila

2010-01-01

263

Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution.  

PubMed

Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for comparative analysis of iron cores in a human liver ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models Imferon, Maltofer(®) and Ferrum Lek as well as in iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues allowed to reveal small variations in the (57)Fe hyperfine parameters related to differences in the iron core structure. Moreover, it was shown that the best fit of Mössbauer spectra of these samples required different number of components. The latter may indicate that the real iron core structure is more complex than that following from a simple core-shell model. The effect of different living conditions and age on the iron core in chicken liver was also considered. PMID:22465305

Alenkina, I V; Oshtrakh, M I; Klepova, Yu V; Dubiel, S M; Sadovnikov, N V; Semionkin, V A

2012-03-02

264

Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for comparative analysis of iron cores in a human liver ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models Imferon, Maltofer® and Ferrum Lek as well as in iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues allowed to reveal small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters related to differences in the iron core structure. Moreover, it was shown that the best fit of Mössbauer spectra of these samples required different number of components. The latter may indicate that the real iron core structure is more complex than that following from a simple core-shell model. The effect of different living conditions and age on the iron core in chicken liver was also considered.

Alenkina, I. V.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Klepova, Yu. V.; Dubiel, S. M.; Sadovnikov, N. V.; Semionkin, V. A.

265

Iron Contents of Plagioclases in Dhofar 307 Lunar Meteorite and Surface Materials of the Farside Large Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FeO contents of clear plagioclase crystals in Dhofar 307 lunar meteorite, have been determined in connection with spectral data of the Kaguya mission and propose a model of formation of such breccia in a large basin of the farside.

Takeda, H.; Karouji, Y.; Ogawa, Y.; Otsuki, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Haruyama, J.

2009-03-01

266

Iron Contents of Plagioclases in Dhofar 307 Lunar Meteorite and Surface Materials of the Farside Large Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

FeO contents of clear plagioclase crystals in Dhofar 307 lunar meteorite, have been determined in connection with spectral data of the Kaguya mission and propose a model of formation of such breccia in a large basin of the farside.

H. Takeda; Y. Karouji; Y. Ogawa; M. Otsuki; A. Yamaguchi; M. Ohtake; T. Arai; T. Matsunaga; J. Haruyama

2009-01-01

267

Iron transport and the kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade there has been an explosion in our understanding of the proteins that modulate iron homeostasis. Much research has focused on the tissues classically associated with iron absorption and metabolism, namely the duodenum, the liver and the reticulo-endothelial system. Expression profiling has highlighted that many of the components associated with iron homeostasis, are also expressed in tissues

Craig P. Smith; Frank Thévenod

2009-01-01

268

Neonatal iron nutrition.  

PubMed

Preterm infants are prone to iron deficiency. Their total body iron content at birth is low and gets further depleted by clinical practices such as uncompensated phlebotomy losses and exogenous erythropoietin administration during the neonatal period. Early iron deficiency appears to adversely affect cognitive development in human infants. To maintain iron sufficiency and meet the iron demands of catch-up postnatal growth, iron supplementation is prudent in preterm infants. A dose of 2-4 mg/kg/day is recommended for preterm infants who are fed exclusively human milk. A dose of 6 mg/kg/day or more is needed with the use of exogenous erythropoietin or to correct preexisting iron deficiency. However, due to the poor antioxidant capabilities of preterm infants and the potential role of iron in several oxidant-related perinatal disorders, indiscriminate iron supplementation should be avoided. PMID:11988032

Rao, R; Georgieff, M K

2001-10-01

269

Effects of CO2 concentration and moisture content of sugar-free media on the tissue-cultured plantlets in a large growth chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic fluctuations of CO2 concentration in the tissue culture growth chamber after transplantation of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato plantlets were recorded with a real-time control system to determine the critical CO2 concentration levels of 35 ?l l-1 at which CO2 enrichment is needed. The experimental data showed that the tissue-cultured plantlets of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato had the same CO2 concentration dynamics. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment was proper on the second day after transplantation. Petunia plantlets were used to conduct experiments under PPFD of 80 ?mol m-2 s-1, and CO2 concentrations of 350 ± 50 ?l l-1, 650 ± 50 ?l l-1 and 950 ± 50 ?l l-1 as well as medium moisture contents of 60%, 70% and 80%, with the result that plantlets grew better under CO2 concentration of 650 ± 50 ?l l-1 than under the other two concentrations with all the different media water contents. Three media water contents under the same CO2 concentration produced plantlets with the same quality. The impacts of CO2 concentrations on plantlets are more important than those of the media water contents. Sugar-free tissue culture, as compared with the conventional culture, showed that CO2 enrichment to 350 ± 50 ?l l-1 can promote the growth of the cultured plantlets. Sugar-free tissue culture produced healthy plantlets with thick roots, almost equivalent to the common plantlets.

Qu, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Y.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

2009-01-01

270

Effect of Olive Oil-Fried Sardine Consumption on Cholesterol Content in the Serum, Lipoproteins, Spleen and Adipose Tissue of Hypercholesterolemic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The information about the effect of fried-oily fish consumption on cholesterol metabolism is rather scarce. Aim: To test the effect of olive oil-fried sardine consumption on cholesterol content in the serum, lipoproteins, spleen and adipose tissue of hypercholesterolemic rats. Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced for 3 weeks by a casein + olive diet containing cholesterol and bovine bile (COC). Rats

Sara Bastida; M. Carmen García-Linares; Jesús Viejo; M. Trinidad García-Arias; Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz

2006-01-01

271

Crucial role of lysosomal iron in the formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes in vivo.  

PubMed

Dinitrosyl non-heme-iron complexes (DNIC) are found in many nitric oxide producing tissues. A prerequisite of DNIC formation is the presence of nitric oxide, iron and thiol/imidazole groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cellular labile iron pool in the formation of DNIC in erythroid K562 cells. The cells were treated with a nitric oxide donor in the presence of a permeable (salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone) or a nonpermeable (desferrioxamine mesylate) iron chelator and DNIC formation was recorded using electron paramagnetic resonance. Both chelators inhibited DNIC formation up to 50% after 6 h of treatment. To further investigate the role of lysosomal iron in DNIC formation, we prevented lysosomal proteolysis by pretreatment of whole cells with NH4Cl. Pretreatment with NH4Cl inhibited the formation of DNIC in a time-dependent manner that points to the importance of the degradation of iron metalloproteins in DNIC formation in vivo. Fractionation of the cell content after treatment with the nitric oxide donor revealed that DNIC is formed predominantly in the endosomal/lysosomal fraction. Taken together, these data indicate that lysosomal iron plays a crucial role in DNIC formation in vivo. Degradation of iron-containing metalloproteins seems to be important for this process. PMID:17136409

Lewandowska, Hanna; Meczy?ska, Sylwia; Sochanowicz, Barbara; Sad?o, Jaros?aw; Kruszewski, Marcin

2006-11-29

272

Establishment of secondary iron overloaded mouse model: evaluation of cardiac function and analysis according to iron concentration.  

PubMed

Periodic blood transfusion can lead to secondary iron overload in patients with hematologic and oncologic diseases. Iron overload can result in iron deposition in heart tissue, which decreases cardiac function and can ultimately lead to death due to dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure. In this study, we established murine model of secondary iron overload, studied the changes in cardiac function with echocardiography, and examined the histopathologic changes. Three experimental groups of the six week-old C57/BL mice (H-2(b)) were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg of iron dextran daily 5 days a week for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Cumulative doses of iron for the three experimental groups were 100, 200, and 300 mg, while the control groups were injected with the same amounts of phosphate-buffered saline. We studied the cardiac function under anesthesia with echocardiography using a GE Vivid7 Dimension system. Plasma iron levels and liver iron contents were measured. The hearts and livers were harvested and stained with H&E and Perls Prussian blue for iron, and the levels of iron deposit were examined. We assessed the cardiac measurements after adjustment for weight. On echocardiography, thicknesses of the interventricular septum and posterior ventricular wall (PS) during diastole showed correlation with the amount of iron deposit (P < 0.01). End-diastolic volume showed dilatation of the left ventricle in the 300 mg group (P < 0.01). Changes in the fractional shortening were not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Plasma iron levels and liver iron contents were increased proportionally according to the amount of iron loaded. The histopathologic findings of PS and liver showed higher grade of iron deposit proportional to the cumulated iron dose. In this study, we present an animal model which helps understand the cardiac function changes in patients with secondary iron overload due to repeated blood transfusions. Our results may help characterize the pathophysiologic features of cardiomyopathy in patients with secondary iron overload, and our model may be applied to in vivo iron-chelating therapy studies. PMID:21656238

Moon, Se Na; Han, Ji Whan; Hwang, Hui Seung; Kim, Mee Jeong; Lee, Soon Ju; Lee, Jae Young; Oh, Chang Kyu; Jeong, Dae Chul

2011-06-09

273

The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls  

PubMed Central

Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4–10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

2013-01-01

274

The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.  

PubMed

Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race. PMID:23951544

L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

2013-04-10

275

Vitamin B12 Supplementation to Mink (Mustela vison) in the Prevention of Feed-Induced Iron Deficiency Anaemia: II. Effect on Haematological Parameters and Mineral Content of the Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effect of oral vitamin B12 administration on growth performance and fur quality characteristics in mink kits fed an anaemiogenic diet has earlier been found. The present data confirmed that kits fed the unsupplemented anaemiogenic diet developed anaemia with low haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte counts, microcytosis, anisocytosis, and low iron and cobalt contents in the liver. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation,

Anne-Helene Tauson; Maria Neil

1993-01-01

276

Action of chelators in iron-loaded cardiac cells: accessibility to intracellular labile iron and functional consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labile iron in hemosiderotic plasma and tissue are sources of iron toxicity. We compared the iron chelators deferox- amine, deferiprone, and deferasirox as scavengers of labile iron in plasma and cardiomyocytes at therapeutic concentra- tions. This comprised chelation of labile plasma iron (LPI) in samples from thalas- semia patients; extraction of total cellular iron; accessing labile iron accumulated in organelles

Hava Glickstein; Rinat Ben El; Gabi Link; William Breuer; Abraham M. Konijn; Chaim Hershko; Hanspeter Nick; Z. Ioav Cabantchik; Charles E. Smith

2006-01-01

277

Iron and iron derived radicals  

SciTech Connect

We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

1987-04-01

278

Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis).  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST. PMID:17242887

Davis, W Clay; Christopher, S J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Donard, O F X; Krupp, Eva A; Point, David; Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D; Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M

2007-01-23

279

Iron and Iron Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... them to get enough iron from their normal diet. Women who are pregnant have higher iron needs. To ... iron sources in the diet (e.g., vegetarian diets) Low absorption Taking antacids beyond ... Young children and pregnant women are at higher risk of iron deficiency because ...

280

Relationship Between the Melting Temperature of hcp Iron at ICB Pressure and the Light Impurity Content of Earth's Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The table below leads the reader through calculation of the core density deficit starting from the melting temperature (solidus), Tm, at the pressure, P, of the inner core boundary (ICB) (330 GPa). Tm values come from recent data of four sets of authors. Thermal pressure, ? PTH, values were calculated in the author's laboratory. P0 = 330 - PTH is the P corresponding to the volume, V, of iron at Tm, V0 (sol.). P0 yields V0 (sol.) from an equation of state. The volume change of melting, ? Vm, which leads to the liquidus V, V0 (liq.), was determined by the author. The liquidus density, ? 0 (liq.), is higher than the seismic density at 330 GPa by the core density deficit. S wt.% is the amount of sulfur alone that satisfies the core ? deficit. ? Tf is the freezing point depression arising from impurities. %table { \\setlength{\\tabcolsep}{.05truein} \\begin{center} \\begin{tabular}{lcccc} \\multicolumn{5}{l}{ Core density deficit and freezing point depression} multicolumn{5}{l}{calculated from Tm} \\hline Tm (330)& 4800 K& 5850 K& 6700 K& 7500 K \\hline ? PTH& 64.0& 82.0& 97.0& 112\\P0 (330 K)& 266& 248& 233& 218\\V0 (sol.)& 4.25& 4.30& 4.37& 4.43? Vm& .055& .055& .055& .055\\V0 (liq.)& 4.305& 4.355& 4.425& 4.485? (liq.)& 13.09& 12.94& 12.73& 12.48 core ? def.& 7.1& 6& 4& 2.9 S wt.% & 7.3& 6.2& 3.8& 2.5 ? Tf& ~ 330& ~ 300& ~ 200& ~ 150 \\hline \\multicolumn{5}{l}{Units: PTH & P0, GPa; V0 & ? Vm, cm3mol.-1;} multicolumn{5}{l}{? , kg m-3x 103; core ? def., %; ? Tf, K.}\\ } Cosmochemists' estimates of viable amounts of S and Si in the core are most easily satisfied by the core density deficit arising from Tm = 5850 K. High Tm values result in surprisingly high values for Earth's ICB temperature, because ? Tf is low. A large ? PTH results in a low ? Tf.

Anderson, O. L.

2001-12-01

281

Genetic diversity of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in iron and zinc content as impacted by farmers' varietal selection in Northern India.  

PubMed

From the last few years a debate has been continuing over the issue of malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries. The present article investigates the importance of participatory varietal selection in the development of a suitable cultivar of mungbean along with the nutritional content and the agronomic traits of the cultivars selected by farmers in participatory varietal selection. A combination of the conventional survey strategy, participatory varietal selection, molecular markers, and chemical analysis were used to carry out the study, and results revealed that the farmers have the capacity to utilize available genetic resources to manage disease, and they can identify the disease at early stages of plant development. The genetic diversity was studied using 23 inter-simple sequence repeat marker, which shows that the extent of genetic diversity ranges from 65% to 87%, while chemical analysis of selected mungbean cultivars shows a moderate amount of iron (3.9 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.5 mg/100 g). PMID:23445393

Singh, Renu; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Kumar, Ram; Visser, Richard G F; Yadav, Ram C

2013-01-01

282

The application of microspectrocytofluorometric measurement of Feulgen nuclear DNA content in experimental tumors of rat submandibular gland, 2. The correlation between proliferative ability and nuclear DNA content of tumor tissue in autotransplanted areas.  

PubMed

We have reported that there is a difference in the variation of the nuclear DNA content of tumor cells among cases of squamous cell carcinoma induced by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) in the rat submandibular gland. In the present investigation, the relationship between the nuclear DNA content of tumor cells in autotransplanted sections collected from primary lesions of DMBA-induced tumors and their proliferative ability in the subfascial area of the rat abdomen was examined. As a result of autotransplantation, proliferation in the autotransplanted area was observed in 6 of 14 (42.8%) cases of autotransplantation. Five of these had a keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma while the remaining one had a sarcomatoid tumor. The histological type of the tumor of the proliferative lesion in the transplanted area was very similar to that of the tumor tissues in the primary lesion or the transplanted section collected from the primary lesions. In the proliferative group, marked variation of the nuclear DNA content was observed in the tumor cells of the transplanted section. The proliferative index (PI) was high for these tumor cells in this group. There was no variation in the nuclear DNA content in the tumor cells of the nonproliferative group, and the PI was also low. These results were considered to suggest that there was a correlation between the nuclear DNA content of these experimental tumor cell and their proliferative ability in the autotransplanted area. Therefore, the determination of nuclear DNA content by this method can be used as an objective index of the proliferative ability of tumor tissue. PMID:3112351

Watanabe, Y; Seshimo, Z; Maesaka, H; Hisada, T; Heyden, G

1987-02-01

283

Influence of chelation and oxidation state on vanadium bioavailability, and their effects on tissue concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, vanadium compounds are frequently included in nutritional supplements and are also being developed for therapeutic\\u000a use in diabetes mellitus. Previously, tissue uptake of vanadium from bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV) was shown to be\\u000a increased compared to its uptake from vanadyl sulfate (VS). Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that complexation\\u000a increases vanadium uptake and that this effect is independent

Katherine H. Thompson; Yoko Tsukada; Zhaoming Xu; Mary Battell; John H. McNeill; Chris Orvig

2002-01-01

284

Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females. PMID:22167309

Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

2011-12-14

285

Iron in Cereal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is there really iron in breakfast cereal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the removal of iron from a box of high-iron content breakfast cereal. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills being covered, complex reasoning strategies that are used, and a compilation of national science standards about this activity. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies and instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. An explanation of the content of each activity and assessment suggestions are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

286

Lipids in grain tissues of oat (Avena sativa): differences in content, time of deposition, and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Oat (Avena sativa) is unusual in comparison with other cereals since there are varieties with up to 18% oil content. The lipid content and fatty acid composition in different parts of the grain during seed development were characterized in cultivars Freja (6% oil) and Matilda (10% oil), using thin-layer and gas chromatography, and light and electron microscopy. The majority of lipids (86-90%) were found in the endosperm. Ninety-five per cent of the higher oil content of cv. Matilda compared with cv. Freja was due to increased oil content of the endosperm. Up to 84% of the lipids were deposited during the first half of seed development, when seeds where still green with a milky endosperm. Microscopy studies revealed that whereas oil bodies of the embryo and scutellum still contained a discrete shape upon grain maturation, oil bodies of the endosperms fused upon maturation and formed smears of oil. PMID:17586606

Banas, Antoni; Debski, Henryk; Banas, Walentyna; Heneen, Waheeb K; Dahlqvist, Anders; Bafor, Maureen; Gummeson, Per-Olov; Marttila, Salla; Ekman, Asa; Carlsson, Anders S; Stymne, Sten

2007-06-22

287

Iron and thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Although essential for cell physiology, an increase or depletion of body iron has harmful effects on health. Apart from iron deficiency anemia and iron overload-related organ tissue damage, there are increasing evidences that body iron status is implicated in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The hypothesis formulated in 1981 that iron depletion may protect against cardiovascular events is intriguing and has generated a significant debate in the last two decades. Indeed, to study this phenomenon, several investigators have tried to design appropriate experimental and clinical studies and to identify useful biochemical and genetic markers of iron status. The results of the literature on the effect of iron deficiency and overload on vascular health are critically reviewed in this study from a pathogenic and clinical point of view.

Targher, Giovanni; Montagnana, Martina; Lippi, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

288

The Contribution of Maternal Iron Stores to Fetal Iron in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of maternal iron stores to fetal iron content in rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain has been examined. 59Fe was injected intramuscularly into two groups of rats to label iron in the liver. Two weeks later one group was bred. After delivery of fetuses, all animals were killed and examined for distribution of radioactivity and nonheme iron content in

M. J. MURRAY

289

Quantification of the herpesvirus content in various tissues and organs, and associated post mortem lesions of psittacine birds which died during an epornithic of pacheco's parrot disease (PPD).  

PubMed

This paper reports on the viral content of up to 52 tissue and organ samples of 18 individual large psittacines which died during an epornithic of Pacheco's parrot disease (PPD) caused by psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV1). Associated clinical signs and pathological lesions are described. The large spectrum of samples found to be positive for PsHVl suggests that birds succumb to PPD during viraemia. Tissues and organs from which the virus could be isolated included the integument and associated structures, the muscular, respiratory and circulatory system, bone marrow, the nervous system, thyroid and adrenal glands, spleen and liver, the urogenital tract and the gastro-intestinal tract. Nevertheless, individual and organ (but not species)-specific variation does occur. Virus isolation appears to be most promising from the respiratory, vascular and nervous system and the liver. Highest titres were obtained from heart blood and liver (up to 7.6 log(10)/g tissue), airsac, Nervus vagus and pulp and quill of pin feathers. Pin feathers may therefore be suitable for in-vivo diagnosis. In contrast, HV could not be isolated from any of the feather vanes examined. For the most part, post mortem lesions do not reflect the organ pattern found to be most permissive for virus replication as judged by the success of virus isolation and virus titres. A closer quantitative correlation is indicated for the lungs, spleen and liver, only. Corresponding findings as to frequency of gross pathological lesions and virus quantification appear to be restricted to the liver. In accordance with clinical observations and experimental findings, tissue virus content indicates that horizontal spread of herpesviruses is mediated by cloacal contents or secretions from the respiratory system. PMID:18484032

Gravendyck, M; Balks, E; Schroder-Gravendyck, A S; Eskens, U; Frank, H; Marschang, R E; Kaleta, E F

1998-01-01

290

Adipose tissue accumulation of d-limonene with the consumption of a lemonade preparation rich in d-limonene content.  

PubMed

d-limonene is a bioactive food component found in high concentration in citrus peel oil with anticancer effects in preclinical studies of mammary carcinogenesis. Extrapolation of preclinical data to human cancer is limited, in part, by inadequate information on the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of d-limonene in humans. As a fat-soluble compound, d-limonene is more likely to deposit in fatty tissues such as the breast. To assess disposition of d-limonene in humans, we conducted a pilot study of oral d-limonene-rich lemonade. Following a 1-wk washout period devoid of citrus, healthy adults consumed 40 oz. of freshly prepared lemonade containing 500 to 600 mg d-limonene daily for 4 wk. On the first and last consumption days, blood and buttock fat biopsy were collected. Matched preintervention and postintervention fat biopsies (n = 7), and matched preintervention and postintervention plasma samples (n = 6), were analyzed for d-limonene levels using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. There was a significant increase in d-limonene levels in the fat biopsies after 4 wk (P = 0.009); initial levels ranged from nondetectable to 7.79 micromol/kg tissue, and postintervention levels ranged from 53.6 to 294 micromol/kg tissue. Plasma d-limonene levels increased from 0.35 to 0.72 micromol/l initially to postintervention levels of 0.54 to 1.65 micromol/l (P = 0.016). Postintervention adipose d-limonene levels were 51.0 to 195 times higher than plasma levels (P = 0.009). Our results demonstrate accumulation of d-limonene in adipose tissue after oral dosing and support additional studies of d-limonene for chemoprevention in tissues such as the breast that are comprised of a significant fat fraction. PMID:20661827

Miller, Jessica A; Hakim, Iman A; Chew, Wade; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A; Chow, H-H Sherry

2010-01-01

291

Effects of Exercise on Haematologic Parameters, Serum Iron, Serum Ferritin, Red Cell 2,3Diphosphoglycerate and Creatine Contents, and Serum Erythropoietin in Long-Distance Runners during Basal Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 18 well-trained male long-distance runners during the basal training. Haematologic parameters, serum iron and ferritin, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and creatine contents, serum erythropoietin were investigated before and after the daily training and were compared with a group of healthy untrained controls. Red blood cell parameters did not change with the training, even though they were significantly lower

G. Ricci; M. Masotti; De Paoli Vitali; M. Vedovato; G. Z. Zanotti

1988-01-01

292

Alterations in lignin content and phenylpropanoids pathway in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) tissues affected by brittle leaf disease.  

PubMed

Brittle leaf disease or Maladie de la Feuille Cassante (MFC) is a lethal disorder of date palm that has assumed epidemic proportions in the oases of Tunisia and Algeria. No pathogen could ever be associated with the disease, while leaflets of affected palms have been previously shown to be deficient in manganese. The work reported here aims to understand the biochemical basis of the date palm response to this disorder. Since the typical disease symptom is the leaf fragility, we have investigated lignin content in leaves and roots. Strong decrease in total lignin content was observed in affected leaves, while lignin content increased in affected roots. Histochemical analyses showed hyperlignification thicker suberin layer in roots cortical cells. The phenylpropanoids pathway was also disrupted in leaves and roots, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression was affected by the disease which severely affects the cell wall integrity. PMID:23987806

Saidi, Mohammed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Hammami, Ines; Namsi, Ahmed; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

2013-06-21

293

Bone loss caused by iron overload in a murine model: importance of oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a frequent problem in disorders characterized by iron overload, such as the thalassemias and hereditary hemochromatosis. The exact role of iron in the development of osteoporosis in these disorders is not established. To define the effect of iron excess in bone, we generated an iron-overloaded mouse by injecting iron dextran at 2 doses into C57/BL6 mice for 2 months. Compared with the placebo group, iron-overloaded mice exhibited dose-dependent increased tissue iron content, changes in bone composition, and trabecular and cortical thinning of bone accompanied by increased bone resorption. Iron-overloaded mice had increased reactive oxygen species and elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 concentrations that correlated with severity of iron overload. Treatment of iron-overloaded mice with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented the development of trabecular but not cortical bone abnormalities. This is the first study to demonstrate that iron overload in mice results in increased bone resorption and oxidative stress, leading to changes in bone microarchitecture and material properties and thus bone loss.

Tsay, Jaime; Yang, Zheiwei; Ross, F. Patrick; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Lin, Hong; Coleman, Rhima; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Doty, Stephen B.; Grady, Robert W.; Giardina, Patricia J.; Boskey, Adele L.

2010-01-01

294

Early Organ-Specific Hemorrhage-Induced Increases in Tissue Cytokine Content: Associated Neurohormonal and Opioid Alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemorrhage is associated with an impairment in the immune response and with increased concentrations of circulating inflammatory cytokines. The present study determined the time course and localization of alterations in circulating and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1-? and -?) in response to fixed-pressure (40 mm Hg) hemorrhage as well as the associated hanges in circulating neurohormonal and opioid mediators. Conscious

Patricia E. Molina; Sayeed Malek; Charles H. Lang; Luping Qian; Rebecca Naukam; Naji N. Abumrad

1997-01-01

295

Translucent Tissue Defects in Solanum tuberosum L: I. Alterations in Amyloplast Membrane Integrity, Enzyme Activities, Sugars, and Starch Content.  

PubMed

Kennebec (cv) potatoes randomly developed translucent areas in their centrally located pith-parenchymal cells during storage. These defective areas were characterized as having reduced starch concentration and increased levels of free sugars (i. e. sucrose and glucose) and inorganic phosphate. Electron micrographs of potato tubers stored at 10 degrees +/- 1 degrees C for 8 months indicated that the amyloplast membrane was still intact and continuous around starch granules in both normal and prematurely sweetened tissue. The total activities of phosphorylase and sucrose-6-P synthase were elevated 5.4- and 3.8-fold, respectively, in the defective tissue compared to healthy nonsweetened tubers while there were no significant differences in the levels of sucrose synthase, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase, invertase, or alpha-amylase. Total and specific activities of acid phosphatase were only slightly elevated in translucent tissue but their increase was significant (P < 0.05, t test) over that seen in healthy tubers. The premature sweetening in storage may have been indirectly triggered by moisture and heat stress experienced during development. Translucency eventually led to physical deterioration of the tissue. PMID:16664271

Sowokinos, J R; Lulai, E C; Knoper, J A

1985-07-01

296

Tissue Accretion and Milk Content of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Female Rats after Supplementation with Different Docosahexaenoic Acid Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is highly concentrated in the mammalian nervous and visual system. The fatty acid, which is required by the fetus and the newborn, is supplied by the mother from their tissue reservoirs. It has been suggested that mother’s supplementation with DHA during pregnancy and even before pregnancy. Different sources of DHA are available for supplementation such as:

Alfonso Valenzuela; Susana Nieto; Julio Sanhueza; María José Nuñez; Carolina Ferrer

2005-01-01

297

Assessment of oestrogen receptor content of breast carcinoma by immunohistochemical techniques on fixed and frozen tissue and by biochemical ligand binding assay.  

PubMed Central

The oestrogen receptor content of 61 breast carcinomas was assessed by biochemical ligand binding assay and three immunohistochemical techniques--a frozen section method (Abbott ER-ICA) and on paraffin wax sections after fixation by two methods. The two fixatives used were Carson's buffered formalin and methacarn, and a DNAse pretreatment of sections was used. Overall agreement for the immunohistochemical methods with the ligand binding technique were 95%, 85%, and 86% for the frozen, formalin, and methacarn methods, respectively. A semiquantitative staining score was performed and all three methods gave significant correlations of staining scores with biochemical ligand binding values. The frozen section method was best (r = 0.88) with the fixed tissue methods yielding poorer correlation coefficients. Several factors affected staining, including the nature of the fixative and variable activity of DNAse. It is concluded that immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen receptor content on fixed tissue provides acceptable qualitative information but that standardisation of protocols for tissue processing will be necessary for optimal utility and especially for quantitative assessments. Images

Paterson, D A; Reid, C P; Anderson, T J; Hawkins, R A

1990-01-01

298

Changes in tissue lipid and cholesterol content in the catfish Clarias batrachus (L. ) exposed to cadmium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Very little is known about the effect of Cd on the physiology of fishes. In the present study, changes in the lipid and cholesterol contents of the brain, liver and gonad of C. batrachus exposed to 50 ppm of Cd chloride for 135 days are reported.

Katti, S.R.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

1984-04-01

299

Use of skin and blubber tissues of small cetaceans to assess the trace element content of internal organs.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the use of biopsy samples as non-destructive tool for assessing trace element concentrations in small cetaceans, the concentrations of 14 trace elements were determined in skin, blubber, liver and kidneys of four species of small cetaceans (i.e. common dolphin Delphinus delphis, harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and striped dolphin Stenella coeruleolba), stranded and/or by-caught along the NE Atlantic Ocean coast between 2001 and 2008. Only Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni and Zn were above the detection limit of the instruments and showed recoveries satisfactory enough to be interpreted. Among these trace elements, Hg was the only one showing a significant correlation between concentrations in and those in liver and kidneys. In consequence skin and blubber can only be used as non-invasive monitoring tissues to investigate Hg bioaccumulation in internal tissues for cetacean populations. PMID:24064373

Aubail, A; Méndez-Fernandez, P; Bustamante, P; Churlaud, C; Ferreira, M; Vingada, J V; Caurant, F

2013-09-21

300

Adipose Tissue Accumulation of d-Limonene With the Consumption of a Lemonade Preparation Rich in d-Limonene Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Limonene is a bioactive food component found in high concentration in citrus peel oil with anticancer effects in preclinical studies of mammary carcinogenesis. Extrapolation of preclinical data to human cancer is limited, in part, by inadequate information on the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of d-limonene in humans. As a fat-soluble compound, d-limonene is more likely to deposit in fatty

Jessica A. Miller; Iman A. Hakim; Wade Chew; Patricia Thompson; Cynthia A. Thomson; H. H. Sherry Chow

2010-01-01

301

Selenium Content and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Tissues of the Dairy Cow After Short-Term Feeding[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of selenium and vitamin E on concentrations of selenium and selenium-dependent glutathione per- oxidase in tissues of dairy cows was studied. Selenium (5 rag\\/day) and vitamin E (2 g\\/day) were supplemented for 10 days in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Selenium supplementation increased con- tent of selenium in whole blood, plasma, ovary, and liver and increased activity

Joseph H. Harrison; H. Russell Conrad

1984-01-01

302

Iron homeostasis: new players, newer insights.  

PubMed

Although iron is a relatively abundant element in the universe, it is estimated that more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency results in impaired production of iron-containing proteins, the most prominent of which is hemoglobin. Cellular iron deficiency inhibits cell growth and subsequently leads to cell death. Hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder results in disproportionate absorption of iron and the extra iron builds up in tissues resulting in organ damage. As both iron deficiency and iron overload have adverse effects, cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is critically important. Recent advances in the field of iron metabolism have led to newer understanding of the pathways involved in iron homeostasis and the diseases which arise from alteration in the regulators. Although insight into this complex regulation of the proteins involved in iron homeostasis has been obtained mainly through animal studies, it is most likely that this knowledge can be directly extrapolated to humans. PMID:18754855

Edison, Eunice S; Bajel, Ashish; Chandy, Mammen

2008-09-13

303

Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet); soybean oil (S); lard (L); and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H). We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-? and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.

dos Santos, Bruno; Estadella, Debora; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha

2013-01-01

304

Plant Cell Nucleolus as a Hot Spot for Iron*  

PubMed Central

Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes.

Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conejero, Genevieve; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stephane

2011-01-01

305

Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.  

PubMed

Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes. PMID:21719700

Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

2011-06-30

306

Estimating iron and aluminum content of acid mine discharge from a north-central Pennsylvania coal field by use of acidity titration curves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determination of acidity provides a value that denotes the quantitative capacity of the sample water to neutralize a strong base to a particular pH. However, much additional information can be obtained from this determination if a titration curve is constructed from recorded data of titrant increments and their corresponding pH values. The curve can be used to identify buffer capabilities, the acidity with respect to any pH value within the curve limit, and, in the case of acid mine drainage from north-central Pennsylvania, the identification and estimation of the concentration of dissolved ferrous iron, ferric iron, and aluminum. Through use of titration curves, a relationship was observed for the acid mine drainage between: (1) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) to pH 4.0 and the concentration of dissolved ferric iron; and (2) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) from pH 4.0 to 5.0 and the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The presence of dissolved ferrous iron can be detected by the buffering effect exhibited in the area between pH 5.5 to 7.5. The concentration of ferrous iron is estimated by difference between the concentrations of ferric iron in an oxidized and unoxidized sample. Interferences in any of the titrations from manganese, magnesium, and aluminate, appear to be negligible within the pH range of interest.

Ott, A. N.

1986-01-01

307

Stage and tissue-specific expression of rice OsIsu1 gene encoding a scaffold protein for mitochondrial iron–sulfur-cluster biogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isu is a scaffold protein involved in mitochondrial iron–sulfur-cluster biogenesis, which affects redox and iron homeostasis\\u000a in human and yeast cells. A BLASTP search identified two putative Isu genes in rice, and we designated one of them as OsIsu1. When expressed in onion epidermal cells, OsIsu1::GFP was localized to the mitochondria. Northern analysis showed that OsIsu1 was down-regulated in iron-deficient

Daisuke Tsugama; Shenkui Liu; Tetsuo Takano

2009-01-01

308

Case studies: iron1234  

PubMed Central

Iron biomarkers were developed to define the size of iron stores and the adequacy of the iron supply required to meet functional needs. Approximately 80% of the iron delivered to tissues through the circulating plasma pool will be incorporated into hemoglobin. Consequently, with the exception of serum ferritin, iron biomarkers are measures of iron sufficiency for erythrocyte production. They have proven to be very valuable in the determination of the cause of anemia in the clinical setting in which additional information about factors that affect the patient's health is available. However, all current biomarkers are affected by factors other than iron status, which limit their utility for the determination of the prevalence of iron deficiency in some populations, particularly in populations who live in developing countries. Furthermore, relations between iron status and functional outcomes such as neonatal and infant mortality; motor, cognitive, and emotional development in infants; and severe morbidity from malaria in young children are inadequately characterized. There is a need to identify and standardize biomarkers that have the highest predictive value for specific functional outcomes in each setting. The most appropriate biomarkers may vary with the setting and be influenced by age, sex, gestational stage of pregnancy, and environmental factors such as repeated or chronic infections. There is also an urgent need for improved technology to permit the use of specific biomarkers in field studies in resource-poor regions. Finally, more research is required to define the potential role of hepcidin and non–transferrin-bound iron assays.

Lynch, Sean

2011-01-01

309

Adsorption Properties of As(III) on Iron Oxide Modified Filter Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron oxide modified filter media was prepared and the content of the iron oxide on the surface, alkaline and antacid of iron oxide, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms were studied. Results showed the surface content of iron oxide calculated as Fe is 5.604 mg\\/g and the surface of iron oxide is stable. The adsorption of As (III) using iron oxide

Jincheng Li; Jie Li; Wenxiang Xia; Peng Li; Xuesong Ye

2011-01-01

310

Monitoring metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in Hydropsyche (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) to evaluate metal pollution in a mining river. Whole body versus tissue content.  

PubMed

Whole body metal concentration is easier to analyse than concentration in tissues, but is often not an accurate measure of the potential toxicity of the metal. We tested if whole body metal and metalloid concentrations in the caddisfly Hydropsyche (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae), common in a mine-polluted river (Guadiamar River, SW Spain), were a useful measure to extrapolate environmental degradation. Our results confirmed that metal and metalloid accumulation by Hydropsyche strongly correlated with metal and metalloid concentration both in the water and the sediment, and also correlated with macroinvertebrate community parameters such as total richness and abundance, as well as the richness of some taxonomic groups (EPT and OCH). Seven elements were analysed, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Tl and Sb; only As did not show significant correlations. In addition, after leaving live organisms in clean water for 24 or 48 h, we found that 24 h were sufficient to clean the gut content and that between 33% and 75% of the whole body metal content were concentrated in this organ. Although concentration in tissues also discriminated between control and affected stations, we found better results with whole body concentrations when evaluating environmental quality. PMID:15907976

Solà, Carolina; Prat, Narcís

2006-04-15

311

The effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage content of edible and inedible components in Koluda White geese.  

PubMed

The parts of carcasses of slaughtered animals that are not intended for human consumption are referred to as inedible components. The total percentage of edible to inedible components in the carcasses of different poultry species is an important economic consideration. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage change in edible to inedible components in geese. A flock of 240 Polish Koluda White geese was raised to 12 wk of age. The percentage content of edible components increased (P < 0.001) and the percentage content of inedible parts decreased (P < 0.001) as the birds grew older. Among edible components, the most considerable changes were noted in the growth rates of muscle tissue (10.5% increase; P < 0.001) and giblets (5.1% decrease; P < 0.001). The percentage share of muscle tissue increased to 10 wk of age. Lean meat weight increased from 175 g in wk 2 to 1,482 g in wk 12. The increase in lean meat weight varied considerably between body parts. The proportion of breast muscles in total meat weight increased substantially (by 26%), whereas the proportion of leg muscles decreased (by 34%). An increase in the weight of skin with subcutaneous fat was observed until the end of the rearing period, but the percentage content of this component remained at a similar level throughout the experiment (19.1 to 19.6%). The decrease in the percentage content of inedible components was mostly due to a decrease in the share of slaughter offal (by approximately 6.5%) because the proportion of bones remained at a stable level (approximately 11.9 to 11.5%). The weight of abdominal fat, which can be classified as edible or inedible, increased significantly with age, from 15.1 g in wk 2 to 205.1 g in wk 12, accounting for 1.6% and 4.0% total BW, respectively. PMID:23571352

Murawska, Daria

2013-05-01

312

Variations in T2* and Fat Content of Murine Brown and White Adipose Tissues by Chemical-Shift MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare T2* relaxation times and proton density fat-fraction (PDFF) values between brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue in lean and ob/ob mice. Materials and Methods A group of lean male mice (n=6), and two groups of ob/ob male mice placed on similar four-week (n=6) and eight-week (n=8) ad libitum diets, were utilized. The animals were imaged at 3 Tesla using a T2*-corrected chemical-shift based water-fat MRI method that provides simultaneous estimation of T2* and PDFF on a voxel-wise basis. Regions of interest were drawn within the interscapular BAT and gonadal WAT depots on co-registered T2* and PDFF maps. Measurements were assessed using analysis of variance, Bonferroni-adjusted t-test for multi-group comparisons, and the Tukey post-hoc test. Results Significant differences (p<0.01) in BAT T2* and PDFF were observed between the lean and ob/ob groups. The ob/ob animals exhibited longer BAT T2* and greater PDFF than lean animals. However, only BAT PDFF was significantly different (p<0.01) between the two ob/ob groups. When comparing BAT to WAT within each group, T2* and PDFF values were consistently lower in BAT than WAT (p<0.01). The difference was most prominent in the lean animals. In both ob/ob groups, BAT exhibited very WAT-like appearances and properties on the MRI images. Conclusion T2* and PDFF are lower in BAT than WAT. This is likely due to variations in tissue composition. The values were consistently lower in lean mice than in ob/ob mice, suggestive of the former’s greater demand for BAT thermogenesis and reflective of leptin hormone deficiencies and diminished BAT metabolic activity in the latter.

Hu, Houchun H.; Hines, Catherine D.G.; Smith, Daniel L.; Reeder, Scott B.

2011-01-01

313

Combination of iron overload plus ethanol and ischemia alone give rise to the same endogenous free iron pool.  

PubMed

Iron overload aggravates tissue damage caused by ischemia and ethanol intoxication. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not yet clear. To clarify these mechanisms we followed free iron ("loosely" bound redox-active iron) concentration in livers from rats subjected to experimental iron overload, acute ethanol intoxication, and ex vivo warm ischemia. The levels of free iron in non-homogenized liver tissues, liver homogenates, and hepatocyte cultures were analyzed by means of EPR spectroscopy. Ischemia gradually increased the levels of endogenous free iron in liver tissues and in liver homogenates. The increase was accompanied by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products. Iron overload alone, known to increase significantly the total tissue iron, did not affect either free iron levels or lipid peroxidation. Homogenization of iron-loaded livers, however, resulted in the release of a significant portion of free iron from endogenous depositories. Acute ethanol intoxication increased free iron levels in liver tissue and diminished the portion of free iron releasing during homogenization. Similarly to liver tissue, the primary hepatocyte culture loaded with iron in vitro released significantly more free iron during homogenization compared to non iron-loaded hepatocyte culture. Analyzing three possible sources of free iron release under these experimental conditions in liver cells, namely ferritin, intracellular transferrin-receptor complex and heme oxygenase, we suggest that redox active free iron is released from ferritin under ischemic conditions whereas ethanol and homogenization facilitate the release of iron from endosomes containing transferrin-receptor complexes. PMID:16388396

Sergent, Odile; Tomasi, Aldo; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Masini, Alberto; Nohl, Hans; Cillard, Pierre; Cillard, Josiane; Vladimirov, Yuri A; Kozlov, Andrey V

2005-12-01

314

Parathyroid hormone PTH(1-34) increases the volume, mineral content, and mechanical properties of regenerated mineralizing tissue after distraction osteogenesis in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has attracted considerable interest as a bone anabolic agent. Recently, it has been suggested that PTH can also enhance bone repair after fracture and distraction osteogenesis. We analyzed bone density and strength of the newly regenerated mineralized tissue after intermittent treatment with PTH in rabbits, which undergo Haversian bone remodeling similar to that in humans. Methods 72 New Zealand White rabbits underwent tibial mid-diaphyseal osteotomy and the callus was distracted 1 mm/day for 10 days. The rabbits were divided into 3 groups, which received injections of PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 30 days, saline for 10 days and PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 20 days, or saline for 30 days. At the end of the study, the rabbits were killed and the bone density was evaluated with DEXA. The mechanical bone strength was determined by use of a 3-point bending test. Results In the 2 PTH-treated groups the regenerate callus ultimate load was 33% and 30% higher, absorbed energy was 100% and 65% higher, BMC was 61% and 60% higher, and callus tissue volume was 179% and 197% higher than for the control group. Interpretation We found that treatment with PTH during distraction osteogenesis resulted in substantially higher mineralized tissue volume, mineral content, and bending strength. This suggests that treatment with PTH may benefit new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis and could form a basis for clinical application of this therapy in humans.

2009-01-01

315

Changes in tissue free amino acid contents, branchial Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and bimodal breathing pattern in the freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch), during seawater acclimation.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine effects of short- or long-term acclimation to brackish water or seawater on the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, which is an aquatic air-breathing teleost living typically in freshwater. A. testudineus exhibits hypoosmotic and hypoinoic osmoregulation; the plasma osmolality, [Na+] and [Cl-] of fish acclimated to seawater were consistently lower than those of the external medium. However, during short-term (1 day) exposure to brackish water (15 per thousand) or seawater (30 per thousand), these three parameters increased significantly. There were also significant increases in tissue ammonia and urea contents, contents of certain free amino acids (FAAs) in the muscle, and rates of ammonia and urea excretion in the experimental fish. The accumulated FAAs might have a transient role in cell volume regulation. In addition, these results indicate that increases in protein degradation and amino acid catabolism had occurred, possibly providing energy for the osmoregulatory acclimation of the gills in fish exposed to salinity stress. Indeed, there was a significant increase in the branchial Na+/K+ -ATPase activity in fish exposed to seawater for a prolonged period (7 days), and the plasma osmolality, [Na+] and [Cl-] and the tissue FAA contents of these fish returned to control levels. More importantly, there was a significant increase in the dependence on water-breathing in fish acclimated to seawater for 7 days. This suggests for the first time that A. testudineus could alter its bimodal breathing pattern to facilitate the functioning of branchial Na+/K+ -ATPase for osmoregulatory purposes. PMID:17963240

Chang, Esther Wei Yin; Loong, Ai May; Wong, Wai Peng; Chew, Shit Fun; Wilson, Jonathan M; Ip, Yuen Kwong

2007-12-01

316

Iron absorption in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

2013-05-17

317

Regulation of cellular iron metabolism  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential but potentially hazardous biometal. Mammalian cells require sufficient amounts of iron to satisfy metabolic needs or to accomplish specialized functions. Iron is delivered to tissues by circulating transferrin, a transporter that captures iron released into the plasma mainly from intestinal enterocytes or reticuloendothelial macrophages. The binding of iron-laden transferrin to the cell-surface transferrin receptor 1 results in endocytosis and uptake of the metal cargo. Internalized iron is transported to mitochondria for the synthesis of haem or iron–sulfur clusters, which are integral parts of several metalloproteins, and excess iron is stored and detoxified in cytosolic ferritin. Iron metabolism is controlled at different levels and by diverse mechanisms. The present review summarizes basic concepts of iron transport, use and storage and focuses on the IRE (iron-responsive element)/IRP (iron-regulatory protein) system, a well known post-transcriptional regulatory circuit that not only maintains iron homoeostasis in various cell types, but also contributes to systemic iron balance.

Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

2011-01-01

318

Dietary amylose and amylopectin ratio and resistant starch content affects plasma glucose, lactic acid, hormone levels and protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding different starch sources on piglets. Four diets were formulated with maize, brown rice, sticky rice and Hi-Maize 1043 as starch sources, with resistant starch (RS) contents of 2.3%, 0.9%, 0.0%, 20.6%, and amylose and amylopectin ratio of 0.23%, 0.21%, 0.18%, 0.06% respectively. Fifty-six pigs weaned at 28 days of age were randomly assigned to one of the four diets. In Exp. 1, six piglets in each group were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter. After 25 days of feeding trial, venous blood samples were obtained at time zero and every 1 h for 4 h. In Exp. 2, the remaining piglets were used to determine the effects of different starch sources on the fractional synthesis rate (FSR). The results indicated that feeding the Hi-Maize 1043 diet decreased (p < 0.05) plasma contents of glucose, insulin, lactic acid and T(3), while sticky rice increased plasma contents of glucose and insulin. The insulin contents in piglets fed the sticky rice diet was 69.2 microIU/ml at 1 h post-feeding which was highest among the starch diets. The FSR in the pancreas, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon in the corn group were much higher (p < 0.05) than that in the sticky rice group. These results suggest that RS is potentially beneficial for improving insulin sensitivity in young pigs and that the ratio of amylose and amylopectin have significantly effects on the FSR in splanchnic tissues in weaned piglets. Another finding of this study indicated maize with a ratio of amylose and amylopectin of 0.23 has the best starch sources for pig production. PMID:19175452

Deng, J; Wu, X; Bin, S; Li, T-J; Huang, R; Liu, Z; Liu, Y; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Hou, Y; Yin, Y-L

2009-01-13

319

Zinc Protoporphyrin and Iron Deficient Erythropoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron-deficient erythropoiesis may occur in patients with adequate levels of storage iron as well as those with tissue iron deficiency. Here we compare two methods of detecting iron-deficient erythropoiesis. The measurement of percent hypochromic cells in the full blood count provides a direct indicator of iron-deficient erythropoiesis. The zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) determination is simple, precise and reproducible, and also appears

Sally Garrett; Mark Worwood

1994-01-01

320

Role of the Ferroportin Iron-Responsive Element in Iron and Nitric Oxide Dependent Gene Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThe newly described iron transporter, ferroportin (MTP1, IREG1), is expressed in a variety of tissues including the duodenum and cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). In the MPS, ferroportin is hypothesized to be a major exporter of iron scavenged from senescent erythrocytes. Changes in iron metabolism, including the sequestration of iron in the MPS, are characteristic of both acute

Xiao-bing Liu; Ping Hill; David J. Haile

2002-01-01

321

MR characterization of hepatic storage iron in transfusional iron overload.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To quantify the two principal forms of hepatic storage iron, diffuse, soluble iron (primarily ferritin), and aggregated, insoluble iron (primarily hemosiderin) using a new MRI method in patients with transfusional iron overload. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six healthy volunteers and 20 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia syndromes and iron overload were examined. Ferritin- and hemosiderin-like iron were determined based on the measurement of two distinct relaxation parameters: the "reduced" transverse relaxation rate, RR2 , and the "aggregation index," A, using three sets of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) datasets with different interecho spacings. Agarose phantoms, simulating the relaxation and susceptibility properties of tissue with different concentrations of dispersed (ferritin-like) and aggregated (hemosiderin-like) iron, were used for validation. RESULTS: Both phantom and in vivo human data confirmed that transverse relaxation components associated with the dispersed and aggregated iron could be separated using the two-parameter (RR2 , A) method. The MRI-determined total hepatic storage iron was highly correlated (r?=?0.95) with measurements derived from biopsy or biosusceptometry. As total hepatic storage iron increased, the proportion stored as aggregated iron became greater. CONCLUSION: This method provides a new means for noninvasive MRI determination of the partition of hepatic storage iron between ferritin and hemosiderin in iron overload disorders. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23720394

Tang, Haiying; Jensen, Jens H; Sammet, Christina L; Sheth, Sujit; Swaminathan, Srirama V; Hultman, Kristi; Kim, Daniel; Wu, Ed X; Brown, Truman R; Brittenham, Gary M

2013-05-29

322

Iron Uptake and Release by Macrophages is Sensitive to Propranolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have tested the effects of d-propranolol (D-Pro) on the iron uptake, iron release and oxidative response of iron-loaded cells in a cellular model of iron-overload using isolated rat peritoneal macrophages incubated with iron-dextran (Fe-D). Pretreatment of macrophages with D-Pro (5–200 ? M) prior to Fe-D exposure decreased the cellular iron content and partially prevented iron release

Andrei M. Komarov; Jonathon M. Hall; Joanna J. Chmielinska; William B. Weglicki

2006-01-01

323

Iron studies in hemophilia  

SciTech Connect

Although iron deficiency is not recognized as a usual complication of hemophilia, we questioned whether intermittent occult loss of blood in urine or stool might predispose hemophiliacs to chronic iron deficiency. Seven men with factor VII and one with factor IX deficiency were studied. Blood studied, bone marrow aspirates, urine and stool samples, and ferrokinetics with total-body counting up to five months were examined. These data showed no excessive loss of blood during the study period; however, marrow iron stores were decidedly decreased, being absent in four subjects. We suggest that in some hemophiliacs, iron deposits in tissues such as synovial membranes may form a high proportion of the body's total iron stores.

Lottenberg, R.; Kitchens, C.S.; Roessler, G.S.; Noyes, W.D.

1981-12-01

324

Estimates of dry and wet deposition using tissue N contents and 15N natural abundance in epilithic mosses in atmospheric NHy-dominated areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of dry N deposition by physical methods is time-consuming because it is usually difficult to measure directly. In this study, an alternative approach has successfully been proposed by coupling isotopic ratios with tissue N contents of epilithic mosses. The method is to use moss N contents to quantitatively estimate total N (TN) deposition and then to use 15N natural abundance in mosses to discriminate dry and wet deposition in atmospheric NHy-dominated areas (NHy/TN > 0.75). On the basis of the isotopic balance between atmospheric NHy and moss tissue N and the correlation between atmospheric NHy concentrations and their isotopes, both wet and dry N deposition can be estimated. By the approach, we have estimated rainwater ammonium concentrations and contribution percentage of wet deposition to total N deposition (fwet) in some areas of southern China. The results indicated that rainwater ammonium concentrations increased relative to those reported previously in most cities, owing to stronger anthropogenic activity. The fwet values estimated in most sites were found to be slightly higher than those reported, because faster transformation rates due to higher SO2 emission later in acid rain areas of southern China favored deposition in the form of wet deposition instead of dry deposition. The largest uncertainty of the approach comes from the influence of NOx in the atmosphere, and thus it cannot be used in areas where NOx deposition is high. The presented isotopic approach represents a new application of moss biomonitoring for estimating atmospheric N deposition in NHy-dominated areas.

Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang

2011-02-01

325

The Effect of Reductive Ventricular Osmotherapy on the Osmolarity of Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid and the Water Content of Cerebral Tissue Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore a novel treatment involving removal of free water from ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the reduction of cerebra]l edema. The hypothesis is that removal of free water from the CSF will increase the osmolarity of the CSF, which will favor movement of tissue-bound water into the ventricles, where the water can be removed. Reductive ventricular osmotherapy (RVOT) was tested in a flowing solution of artificial CSF (aCSF) with two end-points: (1) the effect of RVOT on osmolarity of the CSF, and (2) the effect of RVOT on water content of ex vivo cerebral tissue. RVOT catheters are made up of membranes permeable only to water vapor. When a sweep gas is drawn through the catheter, free water in the form of water vapor is removed from the solution. With RVOT treatment, aCSF osmolarity increased from a baseline osmolarity of 318.8?±?0.8 mOsm/L to 339.0?±?3.3 mOsm/L (mean?±?standard deviation) within 2?h. After 10?h of treatment, aCSF osmolarity approached an asymptote at 344.0?±?4.2 mOsm/L, which was significantly greater than control aCSF osmolarity (p?<<0.001 by t-test, n?=?8). Water content at the end of 6?h of circulating aCSF exposure was 6.4?±?0.9?g H2O (g dry wt)?1 in controls, compared to 6.1?±?0.7?g H2O (g dry wt)? after 6?h of RVOT treatment of aCSF (p?=?0.02, n?=?24). The results support the potential of RVOT as a treatment for cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension.

Panter, S. Scott; Rockswold, Gaylan L.

2011-01-01

326

Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, inhibition of lycopene biosynthesis and accumulation of beta-carotene are demonstrated in tissue affected by sunscald physiological disorder. Raman map of diseased sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf shows a local carotenoid decline at infection site while the carotenoid accumulation is evident in parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. Nym.) as a response to Septoria petroselini infestation. Additionally, occurrence of lutein, beta-carotene and capsanthin, and changes in their relative content during bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruit ripening are described by single Raman spectra. Based on these examples, the potential application of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy for a non-destructive analysis of carotenoids in various living plant tissues of the size ranging from about 0.01 mm(2) to 35 cm(2) is discussed. PMID:16007452

Baranski, Rafal; Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig

2005-07-09

327

Seasonal regulations of energetics, serum concentrations of leptin, and uncoupling protein 1 content of brown adipose tissue in root voles (Microtus oeconomus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

Survival of small mammals in winter requires proper adjustments in physiology, behavior and morphology. The present study was designed to examine the changes in serum leptin concentration and the molecular basis of thermogenesis in seasonally acclimatized root voles (Microtus oeconomus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. In January root voles had lower body mass and body fat mass coupled with higher nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity. Consistently, cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) protein contents in brown adipose tissues were higher in January as compared to that in July. Circulating level of serum leptin was significantly lower in winter and higher in July. Correlation analysis showed that serum leptin levels were positively related with body mass and body fat mass while negatively correlated with UCP1 protein contents. Together, these data provided further evidence for our previous findings that root voles from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau mainly depend on higher NST coupled with lower body mass to enhance winter survival. Further, fat deposition was significantly mobilized in cold winter and leptin was potentially involved in the regulation of body mass and thermogenesis in root voles. Serum leptin might act as a starvation signal in winter and satiety signal in summer. PMID:16786335

Wang, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Wang, De-Hua

2006-06-20

328

Expression profile of small RNAs in Acacia mangium secondary xylem tissue with contrasting lignin content - potential regulatory sequences in monolignol biosynthetic pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Lignin, after cellulose, is the second most abundant biopolymer accounting for approximately 15-35% of the dry weight of wood. As an important component during wood formation, lignin is indispensable for plant structure and defense. However, it is an undesirable component in the pulp and paper industry. Removal of lignin from cellulose is costly and environmentally hazardous process. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to understand the role of enzymes and genes in controlling the amount and composition of lignin to be deposited in the cell wall. However, studies on the impact of downregulation and overexpression of monolignol biosynthesis genes in model species on lignin content, plant fitness and viability have been inconsistent. Recently, non-coding RNAs have been discovered to play an important role in regulating the entire monolignol biosynthesis pathway. As small RNAs have critical functions in various biological process during wood formation, small RNA profiling is an important tool for the identification of complete set of differentially expressed small RNAs between low lignin and high lignin secondary xylem. Results In line with this, we have generated two small RNAs libraries from samples with contrasting lignin content using Illumina GAII sequencer. About 10 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am48 with high lignin content (41%) and a corresponding 14 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am54 with low lignin content (21%). Our results suggested that A. mangium small RNAs are composed of a set of 12 highly conserved miRNAs families found in plant miRNAs database, 82 novel miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved small RNAs with low expression levels. The predicted target genes of those differentially expressed conserved and non-conserved miRNAs include transcription factors associated with regulation of the lignin biosynthetic pathway genes. Some of these small RNAs play an important role in epigenetic silencing. Differential expression of the small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content suggests that a cascade of miRNAs play an interconnected role in regulating the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Acacia species. Conclusions Our study critically demonstrated the roles of small RNAs during secondary wall formation. Comparison of the expression pattern of small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content strongly indicated that small RNAs play a key regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA targets on the basis of the length of their 5’ and 3’ UTRs and their cellular roles. The results obtained can be used to better understand the roles of small RNAs during lignin biosynthesis and for the development of gene constructs for silencing of specific genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis with minimal effect on plant fitness and viability. For the first time, small RNAs were proven to play an important regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis in A. mangium.

2011-01-01

329

Iron Deposition following Chronic Myocardial Infarction as a Substrate for Cardiac Electrical Anomalies: Initial Findings in a Canine Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Iron deposition has been shown to occur following myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated whether such focal iron deposition within chronic MI lead to electrical anomalies. Methods Two groups of dogs (ex-vivo (n?=?12) and in-vivo (n?=?10)) were studied at 16 weeks post MI. Hearts of animals from ex-vivo group were explanted and sectioned into infarcted and non-infarcted segments. Impedance spectroscopy was used to derive electrical permittivity () and conductivity (). Mass spectrometry was used to classify and characterize tissue sections with (IRON+) and without (IRON-) iron. Animals from in-vivo group underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for estimation of scar volume (late-gadolinium enhancement, LGE) and iron deposition (T2*) relative to left-ventricular volume. 24-hour electrocardiogram recordings were obtained and used to examine Heart Rate (HR), QT interval (QT), QT corrected for HR (QTc) and QTc dispersion (QTcd). In a fraction of these animals (n?=?5), ultra-high resolution electroanatomical mapping (EAM) was performed, co-registered with LGE and T2* CMR and were used to characterize the spatial locations of isolated late potentials (ILPs). Results Compared to IRON- sections, IRON+ sections had higher, but no difference in. A linear relationship was found between iron content and (p<0.001), but not (p?=?0.34). Among two groups of animals (Iron (<1.5%) and Iron (>1.5%)) with similar scar volumes (7.28%±1.02% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 8.35%±2.98% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.51) but markedly different iron volumes (1.12%±0.64% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 2.47%±0.64% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.02), QT and QTc were elevated and QTcd was decreased in the group with the higher iron volume during the day, night and 24-hour period (p<0.05). EAMs co-registered with CMR images showed a greater tendency for ILPs to emerge from scar regions with iron versus without iron. Conclusion The electrical behavior of infarcted hearts with iron appears to be different from those without iron. Iron within infarcted zones may evolve as an arrhythmogenic substrate in the post MI period.

Wang, Xunzhang; Yang, Hsin-Jung; Tang, Richard L. Q.; Thajudeen, Anees; Shehata, Michael; Amorn, Allen M.; Liu, Enzhao; Stewart, Brian; Bennett, Nathan; Harlev, Doron; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.; Jackman, Warren M.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Dharmakumar, Rohan

2013-01-01

330

Effects of dietary fat source and breed on the carcass composition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid content of sheep meat and adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Seventy-two 8-week-old ram lambs from three breeds, Suffolk, Soay and Friesland, were offered one of four diets based on dried grass and formulated to have a similar fatty acid content (60 g/kg DM) and containing: Megalac (high in 16 : 0, control; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK), whole linseed (18 : 3n-3), fish oil (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) or whole linseed plus fish oil. The lambs were slaughtered at approximately half of their mature live weight (43, 21 and 43 kg for Suffolk, Soay and Friesland lambs, respectively). Fish oil reduced DM intake and lamb live-weight gain (P<0.001), while DM intake, live-weight gain and subcutaneous fat content were highest in Suffolk and lowest in Soay lambs. Linseed feeding doubled the proportion (x100) of 18 : 3n-3 in the longissimus dorsi from 1.4 to 3.1 and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue from 1.2 to 2.6 (P<0.001). Suffolk and particularly Soay lambs contained higher proportions of 18 : 3n-3 than Friesland lambs in the longissimus dorsi, while in the adipose tissue, Suffolk lambs had the highest level. Feeding fish oil increased the muscle proportion (x100) of 20 : 5n-3 from 0.7 to 2.3 and 22 : 6n-3 from 0.3 to 0.8 (P<0.001). By contrast, the proportions of the longer-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were similar across all three breeds. All three lipid supplements containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased the content of muscle trans-18 : 1 relative to the control values, but conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2) only increased in the muscle of lambs fed linseed. Feeding linseed or fish oil lowered the n-6 : n-3 ratio in sheep meat, but neither diet nor breed had much effect on the polyunsaturated fatty acid: saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:12493092

Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Fisher, A V

2002-12-01

331

Does vertebral bone marrow fat content correlate with abdominal adipose tissue, lumbar spine BMD and blood biomarkers in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare vertebral bone marrow fat content quantified with proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) with the volume of abdominal adipose tissue, lumbar spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and blood biomarkers in postmenopausal women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods Thirteen postmenopausal women with T2DM and 13 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls were included in this study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of L1–L3 to quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content (FC) and unsaturated lipid fraction (ULF). QCT was performed to assess vBMD of L1–L3. The volumes of abdominal subcutaneous/visceral/total adipose tissue were determined from the QCT images and adjusted for abdominal body volume (SATadj/VATadj/TATadj). Fasting blood tests included plasma glucose and HbA1c. Results Mean FC showed an inverse correlation with vBMD (r=?0.452; p<0.05) in the whole study population. While mean FC was similar in the diabetic women and healthy controls (69.3 ± 7.5% vs. 67.5 ± 6.1%; p>0.05), mean ULF was significantly lower in the diabetic group (6.7 ± 1.0% vs. 7.9 ± 1.6%; p<0.05). SATadj and TATadj correlated significantly with mean FC in the whole study population (r=0.538 and r=0.466; p<0.05). In contrast to the control group, significant correlations of mean FC with VATadj and HbA1c were observed in the diabetic group (r=0.642 and r=0.825; p<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated that vertebral bone marrow fat content correlates significantly with SATadj, TATadj, and lumbar spine vBMD in postmenopausal women with and without T2DM, but with VATadj and HbA1c only in women with T2DM.

Baum, Thomas; Yap, Samuel P.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Nardo, Lorenzo; Kuo, Daniel; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Masharani, Umesh B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

332

Effect of molybdenum and chromium contents in sliding wear of high-chromium white cast iron: The relationship between microstructure and wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-chromium white cast irons are commonly used in applications requiring excellent abrasion resistance, as in the mining and mineral ore processing industry. Their excellent abrasion resistance is mainly due to their solidification microstructures. During their solidification, high levels of chromium (16–32%) lead to the formation of a high-volume fraction of eutectic M7C3-carbides, which may or may not be associated with

C. Scandian; C. Boher; J. D. B. de Mello; F. Rézaï-Aria

2009-01-01

333

Placental Expression of the Heme Transporter, Feline Leukemia Virus Subgroup C Receptor, Is related to Maternal Iron Status in Pregnant Adolescents123  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the expression of heme transporters in human placenta and possible associations between these transporters and maternal or neonatal iron status. To address this area of research, relative protein expression of 2 heme transporters, Feline Leukemia Virus, Subgroup C, Receptor 1 (FLVCR1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP), was assessed using Western-blot analysis in human placental tissue in relation to maternal/neonatal iron status and placental iron concentration. Placental FLVCR1 (n = 71) and BCRP (n = 83) expression were assessed at term (36.6–41.7 wk gestation) in a cohort of pregnant adolescents (13–18 y of age) at high-risk of iron deficiency. Both FLVCR1 and BCRP were detected in all placental samples assayed. Placental FLVCR1 expression was positively related to placental BCRP expression (n = 69; R2 = 0.104; P < 0.05). Adolescents that were anemic at delivery had lower placental FLVCR1 expression (n = 49; P < 0.05). Placental FLVCR1 expression was positively associated with placental iron concentration at delivery (n = 61; R2 = 0.064; P < 0.05). In contrast, placental BCRP expression was not significantly associated with maternal iron status or placental iron content. Both FLVCR1 and BCRP are highly expressed in human placental tissue, but only FLVCR1 was significantly inversely associated with maternal iron status and placental iron concentration. Further analysis is needed to explore potential functional roles of FLVCR1 in human placental iron transport.

Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Young, Melissa F.; Essley, Bridget V.; McNanley, Thomas J.; Cooper, Elizabeth M.; Pressman, Eva K.; McIntyre, Allison W.; Orlando, Mark S.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; Guillet, Ronnie; O'Brien, Kimberly O.

2011-01-01

334

Effect of cellular iron concentration on iron uptake by hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The effect of intracellular iron content on transferrin and iron uptake by cultured hepatocytes isolated from fetal rat liver was examined with ferric ammonium citrate and the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). Incubation of the cells with ferric ammonium citrate for 24 h significantly increased the cellular nonheme iron level, whereas the number of transferrin binding sites and the uptake of transferrin and iron were reduced. In contrast, when iron-treated cells were incubated with DFO for 24 h, the cellular nonheme iron level was not altered, but the number of transferrin binding sites was increased. Treatment of the cells with exogenous iron and/or DFO did not affect the uptake of transferrin and iron by the nonsaturable processes. These results indicated that, in cultured hepatocytes, transferrin receptor expression and the subsequent uptake of transferrin and iron are regulated by the size of an intracellular, chelatable iron pool, whereas the uptake of iron by the nonsaturable processes is dependent on the extracellular transferrin concentration. PMID:2221071

Trinder, D; Batey, R G; Morgan, E H; Baker, E

1990-10-01

335

On the origin of lipofuscin; the iron content of residual bodies, and the relation of these organelles to the lysosomal vacuome. A study on cultured human glial cells  

SciTech Connect

Cultured human glial cells constitute a suitable model system for the study of lipofuscinogenesis in vitro. These cells, although not post-mitotic, can be kept for several months in stable monolayers due to their display of very pronounced density-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Residual bodies, or lipofuscin pigment granules, accumulate over time in this pseudo post-mitotic cell system. I. In early dense cultures, exposed to purified rat liver mitochondriae, it was possible to follow the uptake of mitochondriae and their degradation, which was found to be incomplete and result in the formation of numerous residual bodies containing lipofuscin-type material. It was concluded that incomplete degradation of mitochondriae may be an important origin of lipofuscin. II. Dense, older cultures exposed to electron dense marker particles (colloidal thorium dioxide) accumulated these markers within endosomes, and later in secondary lysosomes of various types, including residual bodies. It was concluded that residual bodies constitute an integral part of the lysosomal vacuome system. III. Phase III glial cells were cultured on formvar-coated gold EM-grids and studied by whole cell transmission electron microscopy using TEM and STEM techniques in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. It was found that residual bodies contained iron. This fact was taken as a further indication that lipofuscin has its origin in autophagocytosed mitochondriae and ER-material rich in metallo-enzymes. Due to their high concentration of iron, residual bodies may constitute unstable structures within the cells. Since iron is a well known catalyst of various peroxidative processes, the surrounding lysosomal membrane might be damaged, e.g. by oxidative stress, with risk for leakage of degradative lysosomal enzymes into the cell sap.

Brunk, U.T. (Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden))

1989-01-01

336

Comparison of changes in gene expression of transferrin receptor-1 and other iron-regulatory proteins in rat liver and brain during acute-phase response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “acute phase” is clinically characterized by homeostatic alterations such as somnolence, adinamia, fever, muscular weakness,\\u000a and leukocytosis. Dramatic changes in iron metabolism are observed under acute-phase conditions. Rats were administered turpentine\\u000a oil (TO) intramuscularly to induce a sterile abscess and killed at various time points. Tissue iron content in the liver and\\u000a brain increased progressively after TO administration. Immunohistology

Ihtzaz Ahmed Malik; Naila Naz; Nadeem Sheikh; Sajjad Khan; Federico Moriconi; Martina Blaschke; Giuliano Ramadori

2011-01-01

337

Reactive oxygen intermediates and glutathione regulate the expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase during iron-mediated oxidative stress in bean.  

PubMed

Excess of free iron is thought to harm plant cells by enhancing the intracellular production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) is an iron-containing, ROI-detoxifying enzyme induced in response to iron overload or oxidative stress. We studied the expression of cAPX in leaves of de-rooted bean plants in response to iron overload. cAPX expression, i.e., mRNA and protein, was rapidly induced in response to iron overload. This induction correlated with the increase in iron content in leaves and occurred in the light as well as in the dark. Reduced glutathione (GSH), which plays an important role in activating the ROI signal transduction pathway as well as in ROI detoxification, was found to enhance the induction of APX mRNA by iron. To determine whether cAPX induction during iron overload was due to an increase in the amount of free iron, which serves as a co-factor for cAPX synthesis, or due to iron-mediated increase in ROI production, we tested the expression of APX in leaves under low oxygen pressure. This treatment, which suppresses the formation of ROI, completely abolished the induction of cAPX mRNA during iron overload, without affecting the rate of iron uptake by plants. Taken together, our results suggest that high intracellular levels of free iron in plants lead to the enhanced production of ROI, which in turn induces the expression of cAPX, possibly using GSH as an intermediate signal. We further show, using cAPX-antisense transgenic plants, that cAPX expression is essential to prevent iron-mediated tissue damage in tobacco. PMID:12090619

Pekker, Irena; Tel-Or, Elisha; Mittler, Ron

2002-07-01

338

Folic Acid and Protein Content in Maternal Diet and Postnatal High-Fat Feeding Affect the Tissue Levels of Iron, Zinc, and Copper in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although maternal, fetal, and placental mechanisms compensate for disturbances in the fetal environment, any nutritional inadequacies\\u000a present during pregnancy may affect fetal metabolism, and their consequences may appear in later life. The aim of the present\\u000a study is to investigate the influence of maternal diet during gestation on Fe, Zn, and Cu levels in the livers and kidneys\\u000a of adult

Ewelina Król; Zbigniew Krejpcio; Agata Chmurzynska

339

Archaeometallurgy of Iron and Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

century in some areas. At higher temperatures (1300°-1600°), carbon diffuses in the iron and the melting occurs. The product is cast iron that can be moulded but is too brittle to be hammered. It is necessary to remelt the alloy in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to reduce the carbon content (finery process). Then, the metal can be shaped by hammering. This

Vincent Serneels

340

Internal regulation of iron absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCCANCE and Widdowson1 concluded that body iron content is regulated by variation in the amount absorbed and not by variation in excretion, and many workers have since attempted to define the factors which relate iron absorption to the needs of the body. Although there is a large body of data on the intracellular mechanisms of absorption2 this has not advanced

I. Cavill; M. Worwood; A. Jacobs

1975-01-01

341

Bioaccessibility of Se, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe, and heme iron content in unaged and aged meat of Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture.  

PubMed

The content and the bioaccessibility of Se, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe were determined in unaged and aged meat (14days) from the Psoas major (PM), Gluteus medius (GM) and Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles of Hereford (H) and Braford breed (B) steers fed pasture. Furthermore, the content of heme-Fe was determined in the same muscles. The H had a lower content of Cu and a higher content of Fe. Also, H had more heme-Fe than B. The bioaccessibility in unaged meat for Se, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe ranged between 75 and 91%, 30 and 45%, 40 and 68%, 55 and 95%, and 60 and 70%, respectively. After aging, the bioaccessibility for the same minerals ranged between 58 and 80%, 30 and 48%, 40 and 58%, 75 and 95%, and 59 and 70%, respectively. Aging affected negatively the Se content and its bioaccessibility, in the two breeds. Also, the heme-Fe content was negatively affected by aging in all muscles and breeds. PMID:22296840

Ramos, A; Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

2012-01-14

342

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-05-09

343

Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism. (ERB)

Ho, S.Y.

1981-01-01

344

The Multicomponent Anthropometric Model for Assessing Body Composition in a Male Pediatric Population: A Simultaneous Prediction of Fat Mass, Bone Mineral Content, and Lean Soft Tissue  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to propose and cross-validate an anthropometric model for the simultaneous estimation of fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), and lean soft tissue (LST) using DXA as the reference method. A total of 408 boys (8–18 years) were included in this sample. Whole-body FM, BMC, and LST were measured by DXA and considered as dependent variables. Independent variables included thirty-two anthropometrics measurements and maturity offset determined by the Mirwald equation. From a multivariate regression model (Ymn = x(r + 1)(r + 1)n?m + ?nm), a matrix analysis was performed resulting in a multicomponent anthropometric model. The cross-validation was executed through the sum of squares of residuals (PRESS) method. Five anthropometric variables predicted simultaneously FM, BMC, and LST. Cross-validation parameters indicated that the new model is accurate with high RPRESS2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 and standard error of estimate ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. The newly proposed model represents an alternative to accurately assess the body composition in male pediatric ages.

Machado, Dalmo; Oikawa, Sergio; Barbanti, Valdir

2013-01-01

345

Influence of temperature, salinity and E. coli tissue content on immune gene expression in mussel: results from a 2005-2008 survey.  

PubMed

Several bivalves, including mussels, suffered from mortalities particularly in summer. To look for the possible effect of environmental parameters on immune capacities, Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected monthly from August 2005 to July 2008 from the Palavas Laguna, French Mediterranean coast. Q-PCR was used to quantify the expression of three antimicrobial peptide genes (defensin, mytilin B and myticin B), in addition to lysozyme and HSP70. House keeping gene was 28S rRNA. Defensin, myticin B and lysozyme appeared more expressed in spring-summer than in winter. In contrast, HSP70 expression was higher in winter. Statistical studies using principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression models revealed positive influence of temperature on 28S rRNA, defensin, myticin B and lysozyme expressions, but not on mytilin B and HSP70. The positive influence was significant for defensin and lysozyme expression, but relationships cannot be quantified. Similarly, salinity appeared to influence defensin expression, but this relationship cannot be quantified neither. E. coli tissue content appeared without influence. Consequently, there was no clear relationship between environmental parameters and immune-related gene expressions, demonstrating anti-infectious capabilities cannot be evaluated using only the expression of such genes as markers. PMID:19409926

Li, Hui; Toubiana, Mylène; Monfort, Patrick; Roch, Philippe

2009-05-13

346

Expression pattern of fifteen genes of non-mevalonate (MEP) and mevalonate (MVA) pathways in different tissues of endangered medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa with respect to picrosides content.  

PubMed

Picrorhiza kurroa, has become an endangered medicinal herb due to excessive utilization, therefore it necessitates the understanding of biology and molecular basis of major chemical constituents i.e. Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II). Estimation of P-I and P-II in different tissues of P. kurroa showed that shoots contain only P-I whereas P-II is present only in roots. Differential conditions with varying concentrations of P-I (0-27 ?g/mg) and P-II (0-4 ?g/mg) were selected. Four genes of MEP pathway; DXPS, ISPD, ISPE, MECPS and one gene of MVA pathway PMK showed elevated levels of transcripts in shoots (57-166 folds) and stolons (5-15 folds) with P-I contents 0-27 ?g/mg and 2.9-19.7 ?g/mg, respectively. Further HDS and DXPR genes of MEP pathway showed higher expression ~9-12 folds in roots having P-II (0-4 ?g/mg). The expression of ISPH and ISPE was also high ~5 folds in roots accumulating P-II. GDPS was the only gene with high transcript level in roots (9 folds) and shoots (20 folds). Differential biosynthesis and accumulation of picrosides would assist in regulating quality of plant material for herbal drug formulations. PMID:23065284

Pandit, Saurabh; Shitiz, Kirti; Sood, Hemant; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

2012-10-14

347

Hepatic iron in dialysed patients given intravenous iron dextran.  

PubMed Central

Five percutaneous biopsy and 17 necropsy liver specimens were analysed histologically and chemically for iron content in 22 patients receiving dialysis for chronic renal failure, 13 of whom were given intravenous iron-dextran. Brissot scores for assessing histological hepatic iron deposition and chemically measured liver iron concentrations correlated closely. Both variables depended on total cumulative dose of iron, and to a lesser extent, on time since the last dose. Fibrosis (seen in five patients) was minimal and non-specific. Electron microscopic examination showed that there was no generalised damage and confirmed the presence of iron in the hepatocytes in the form of ferritin. High liver iron concentrations, in excess of 1000 micrograms/100 mg dry weight, were seen in two patients. Four others given comparable cumulated amounts (18-23 g iron) did not have such high concentrations. Plasma ferritin concentrations were high in eight patients, some with and some without fibrosis. The risk of temporarily high iron deposition in the liver causing damage seemed to be minimal when weighed against the benefit of increased haemoglobin in most of the patients. Intravenous iron treatment merits further evaluation, particularly with the advent of erythropoietin treatment, which requires continuously available iron. Images

Fleming, L W; Hopwood, D; Shepherd, A N; Stewart, W K

1990-01-01

348

Influence of the iron content on the formation process of substituted Co–Nd strontium hexaferrite prepared by the citrate precursor method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium hexaferrite samples of different composition were prepared by the self-combustion method and heat-treated in air at 1100°C for 2h: SrFe12O19 (S0), Sr0.7Nd0.3Fe11.7Co0.3O19 (SS), Sr0.7Nd0.3Fe10.7Co0.3O19 (SM) and Sr0.7Nd0.3Fe8.4Co0.3O19 (SL). The phase identification of the powders was performed using XRD. Only sample SL (with the lowest iron concentration) shows well-defined peaks of the hexaferrite phase with no secondary phases. Nd–Co substitution

S. E. Jacobo; C. Herme; P. G. Bercoff

2010-01-01

349

Iron dysregulation in movement disorders.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element necessary for energy production, DNA and neurotransmitter synthesis, myelination and phospholipid metabolism. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) involves several genetic disorders, two of which, aceruloplasminemia and neuroferritinopathy, are caused by mutations in genes directly involved in iron metabolic pathway, and others, such as pantothenate-kinase 2, phospholipase-A2 and fatty acid 2-hydroxylase associated neurodegeneration, are caused by mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in phospholipid metabolism. Phospholipids are major constituents of myelin and iron accumulation has been linked to myelin derangements. Another group of NBIAs is caused by mutations in lysosomal enzymes or transporters such as ATP13A2, mucolipin-1 and possibly also ?-galactosidase and ?-fucosidase. Increased cellular iron uptake in these diseases may be caused by impaired recycling of iron which normally involves lysosomes. Abnormal iron utilization by mitochondria, as has been proposed in Friedreich's ataxia, is another possible mechanism of iron accumulation. Other, more common degenerative movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy also exhibit increased brain iron content. Finally, brain iron deficiency has been implicated in restless legs syndrome. This review provides an update on recent findings related to genetics, pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of movement disorders associated with dysregulation of brain iron. We also propose a new classification of NBIAs. PMID:22266337

Dusek, Petr; Jankovic, Joseph; Le, Weidong

2012-01-12

350

Iron overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Ferrous sulfate overdose; Ferrous gluconate overdose; Ferrous fumarate overdose ... Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron ... (Femiron, Feostat) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

351

Iron metabolism in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Most living things require iron to exist. Iron has many functions within cells but is rarely found unbound because of its propensity to catalyze the formation of toxic free radicals. Thus the regulation of iron requirements by cells and the acquisition and uptake of iron into tissues in multicellular organisms is tightly regulated. In humans, understanding iron transport and utility has recently been advanced by a "great conjunction" of molecular genetics in simple organisms, identifying genes involved in genetic diseases of metal metabolism and by the application of traditional cell physiology approaches. We are now able to approach a rudimentary understanding of the "iron cycle" within mammals. In the future, this information will be applied toward modulating the outcome of therapies designed to overcome diseases involving metals. PMID:11597005

Walker, B L; Tiong, J W; Jefferies, W A

2001-01-01

352

Nifedipine prevents iron accumulation and reverses iron-overload-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra of rats.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of iron accumulation in substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's diseases remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of nifedipine on iron-overload-induced iron accumulation and neurodegeneration in SN of rats. By high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, and iron content array, we first quantified iron content and the number of dopamine neurons in SN of experimental rats treated with iron dextran. We further assessed effects of treatment with nifedipine. Our results showed that nifedipine treatment prevents iron dextran-induced dopamine depletion in the striatum. Consistently, we found that nifedipine restores the number of TH-positive neurons reduced by iron dextran overload and prevents increase of iron content in the SN. These results suggested that nifedipine may suppress iron toxicity in dopamine neurons and prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:22259026

Ma, ZeGang; Zhou, Yu; Xie, JunXia

2012-01-19

353

Iron chelators and iron toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron chelation may offer new approaches to the treatment and prevention of alcoholic liver disease. With chronic excess, either iron or alcohol alone may individually injure the liver and other organs. In combination, each exaggerates the adverse effects of the other. In alcoholic liver disease, both iron and alcohol contribute to the production of hepatic fibrosis through their effects on

Gary M. Brittenham

2003-01-01

354

Ferric iron content of ferropericlase as a function of composition, oxygen fugacity, temperature and pressure: Implications for redox conditions during diamond formation in the lower mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the ferric iron (Fe3+) concentration in (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase using the flank method applied to Mg-Fe interdiffusion couples of ferropericlase. Diffusion couples with Mg/(Mg+Fe) in the range 0.44 to 1 were annealed at temperatures of 1673-1873 K and pressures of 5-24 GPa over a wide range of oxygen fugacities. Oxygen fugacity was controlled by Fe, Ni, Mo, and Re metal capsules and their corresponding oxide phases. Based on our results and available experimental data, we derived an equation for the Fe3+ solubility in ferropericlase applicable to depths at the top of the lower mantle: [Fe3+]=C (XFe4fO2)m exp{-((1-XFe)E*Mg+XFeE*Fe+PV*)/RT}, where C=2.6(1)×10-3, m=0.114(3), E*Mg=-35(3) [kJ/mol], E*Fe=-98(2) [kJ/mol], and V*=2.09(3) [cm3/mol]. The value of the oxygen fugacity exponent m implies that Fe3+ mostly occupies tetrahedral sites under these conditions, which is consistent with the results of previously reported Mössbauer spectroscopy studies. Based on this relationship, we calculated the redox conditions of ferropericlase inclusions in diamonds believed to have come from the lower mantle. The estimated oxygen fugacities are close to the upper stability limit of diamond in mantle peridotite at the top of the lower mantle at adiabatic or slightly superadiabatic temperatures, which suggests that ferropericlase inclusions recorded and preserved the conditions at which diamond was precipitated from carbonates or carbonatite melts near the top of the lower mantle.

Otsuka, Kazuhiko; Longo, Micaela; McCammon, Catherine A.; Karato, Shun-ichiro

2013-03-01

355

Air oxidation of hydrazine. 1. Reaction kinetics on natural kaolinites, halloysites, and model substituent layers with varying iron and titanium oxide and O- center contents.  

PubMed

Air oxidation of hydrazine was studied by using a group of kaolinites, halloysites, and substituent oxides as models for the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The rate was found to be linear with oxygen. The stoichiometry showed that oxygen was the primary oxidant and that dinitrogen was the only important nitrogen-containing product. The rates on kaolinites were strongly inhibited by water. Those on three-dimensional silica and gibbsite appeared not to be. That on a supposedly layered silica formed from a natural kaolinite by acid leaching showed transitional behavior--slowed relative to that expected from a second-order reaction relative to that on the gibbsite and silica but faster than those on the kaolinites. The most striking result of the reaction was the marked increase in the rate of reaction of a constant amount of hydrazine as the amount of clay was increased. The increase was apparent (in spite of the water inhibition at high conversions) over a 2 order of magnitude variation of the clay weight. The weight dependence was taken to indicate that the role of the clay is very important, that the number of reactive centers is very small, or that they may be deactivated over the course of the reaction. In contrast to the strong dependence on overall amount of clay, the variation of amounts of putative oxidizing centers, such as structural Fe(III), admixed TiO2 or Fe2O3, or O- centers, did not result in alteration of the rate commensurate with the degree of variation of the entity in question. Surface iron does play some role, however, as samples that were pretreated with a reducing agent were less active as catalysts than the parent material. These results were taken to indicate either that the various centers interact to such a degree that they cannot be considered independently or that the reaction might proceed by way of surface complexation, rather than single electron transfers. PMID:11538370

Coyne, L; Mariner, R; Rice, A

1991-01-01

356

Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values.  

PubMed

Iron differs from other minerals because iron balance in the human body is regulated by absorption only because there is no physiologic mechanism for excretion. On the basis of intake data and isotope studies, iron bioavailability has been estimated to be in the range of 14-18% for mixed diets and 5-12% for vegetarian diets in subjects with no iron stores, and these values have been used to generate dietary reference values for all population groups. Dietary factors that influence iron absorption, such as phytate, polyphenols, calcium, ascorbic acid, and muscle tissue, have been shown repeatedly to influence iron absorption in single-meal isotope studies, whereas in multimeal studies with a varied diet and multiple inhibitors and enhancers, the effect of single components has been, as expected, more modest. The importance of fortification iron and food additives such as erythorbic acid on iron bioavailability from a mixed diet needs clarification. The influence of vitamin A, carotenoids, and nondigestible carbohydrates on iron absorption and the nature of the "meat factor" remain unresolved. The iron status of the individual and other host factors, such as obesity, play a key role in iron bioavailability, and iron status generally has a greater effect than diet composition. It would therefore be timely to develop a range of iron bioavailability factors based not only on diet composition but also on subject characteristics, such as iron status and prevalence of obesity. PMID:20200263

Hurrell, Richard; Egli, Ines

2010-03-03

357

Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, ferritin in normal human spleen and ferritin in spleen from patient with primary myelofibrosis: preliminary results of comparative analysis.  

PubMed

Comparative study of human liver ferritin and spleen tissues from healthy human and patient with primary myelofibrosis was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 295 and 90 K and with a low velocity resolution at 20 K. The results obtained demonstrated that the iron content in patient's spleen in the form of iron storage proteins was about ten times larger than that in normal tissue. However, in the case of patient with primary myelofibrosis the magnetic anisotropy energy barrier differed from that in normal case and, probably, the iron core size was supposed to be slightly larger than that in both normal spleen tissue and normal human liver ferritin in contrast to well-known data for iron overload in patients with thalassemia accompanied by the iron-core size increase. Therefore, the iron overload in the case of patient with primary myelofibrosis may be related to increase in the ferritin content mainly. It was also found that Mössbauer hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's spleen and normal human liver ferritin demonstrated some small differences related, probably, to some small structural variations in the ferritin iron cores of patient's spleen. PMID:23460118

Oshtrakh, M I; Alenkina, I V; Vinogradov, A V; Konstantinova, T S; Kuzmann, E; Semionkin, V A

2013-03-05

358

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mRNA abundance in human adipose tissue: relationship to cell size and membrane cholesterol content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has a well-defined role in plasma neutral lipid transport. CETP synthesized by human adipose tissue may contribute to the plasma CETP pool. CETP mRNA abundance increases in subcutaneous adipose tissue in response to cholesterol feed- ing and we have hypothesized that CETP gene expression is regulated by a specific pool of cellular sterol. In the

Thierry Radeau; Paulina Lau; Malcolm Robb; Gerard Ailhaud; Ruth McPherson

359

Iron toxicity  

PubMed Central

During the past half century, excessive/misplaced iron has been observed to be a risk factor for an increasing number and diversity of disease conditions. An extensive list of conditions and of the types of iron association were published in early 2008. Within the subsequent year, four additional disorders have been recognized to be enhanced by iron: aging muscle atrophy, viral replication, rosacea and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. This paper adds new data and emphasis on these disorders as entities associated with increased iron load and toxicity.

2009-01-01

360

First human studies with a high-molecular-weight iron chelator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of free, reactive iron from cellular iron stores has been implicated as an important contributor to tissue damage in a variety of clinical situations, including ischemia and reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, and burn injury. Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), the only iron chelator currently approved for clinical use, is used for the treatment of iron overload, including acute iron poisoning

Paul R. Dragsten; Philip E. Hallaway; Gregory J. Hanson; Arthur E. Berger; Bruce Bernard; Bo E. Hedlund

2000-01-01

361

Effects of Dietary Canola Seed and Soy Lecithin in High-Forage Diets on Cholesterol Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Carcass Tissues of Growing Ram Lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

S Phospholipids (soy lecithin) are important in the emulsification of lipids and may escape the men and influence the absorption of fatty acids in the small intestine. Our objectives were to determine the influence of dietary canola seed (high in unsaturated fatty acids) and soy lecithin in high-forage diets on total lipid content, cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition of

D. S. Lough; M. B. Solomon; T. S. Rumseyt; T. H. Elsassert; L. L. Slytert; S. Kahl; G. P. Lynch

362

Iron plaque formation and morphoanatomy of roots from species of restinga subjected to excess iron.  

PubMed

The restingas, a sandy coastal plain ecosystem of Brazil, have received an additional amount of iron due to the activity of mining industries. The present study aims to characterize morphoanatomically and histochemically the iron plaque formation on roots of Ipomoea pes-caprae L. and Canavalia rosea DC, cultivated in hydroponic solution with and without excess iron. The iron plaque formation as well as changes in the external morphology of the lateral roots of both species were observed after the subjection to excess iron. Changes in the nutrient uptake, and in the organization and form of the pericycle and cortex cells were observed for both species. Scanning electron microscopy showed evident iron plaques on the whole surface of the root. The iron was histolocalized in all root tissues of both species. The species of restinga studied here formed iron plaque in their roots when exposed to excess of this element, which may compromise their development in environments polluted by particulated iron. PMID:22169228

Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves; Oliva, Marco Antonio

2011-12-09

363

Iron uptake and translocation by macrocystis pyrifera  

SciTech Connect

Parameters of iron uptake have been determined for blade tissue of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. These include the effects of iron concentration, light, various inhibitors, and blade type. All experiments were conducted in the defined artificial seawater Aquil. Iron uptake is light independent, energy dependent, and dependent on the reduction from Fe/sup 3+/ to Fe/sup 2+/. Iron is concentrated in the sieve tube exudate; exudate analysis revealed the presence of other micronutrients. Iron and other micronutrient translocation is discussed.

Manley, S.L.

1981-10-01

364

Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

2013-02-01

365

Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration.  

PubMed

Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels buildup with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age-matched controls. Over the past 10 years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron-regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, AMD, and conditions causing intraocular hemorrhage. While iron deficiency must be prevented, the therapeutic potential of limiting iron-induced ocular oxidative damage is high. Systemic, local, or topical iron chelation with an expanding repertoire of drugs has clinical potential. PMID:17921041

He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L

2007-08-11

366

Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels build up with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s Ataxia, and panthothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age- matched controls. Over the past ten years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter 1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, AMD, and conditions causing intraocular hemorrhage. While iron deficiency must be prevented, the therapeutic potential of limiting iron induced ocular oxidative damage is high. Systemic, local, or topical iron chelation with an expanding repertoire of drugs has clinical potential.

He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L.

2007-01-01

367

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

2013-06-01

368

THE INFLUENCE OF DIET ON IRON ABSORPTION  

PubMed Central

Rats placed on a corn grit diet and added iron absorbed large amounts of iron in contrast to control groups. The histological picture was that of progressive hemosiderosis of the hepatic parenchyma and of the reticuloendothelial system. On chemical analysis, the iron content of the liver was found to be greatly increased. This supports the concept that the liver represents the chief storage organ for iron so absorbed. These data indicate that a normal block for iron absorption may be overcome under certain circumstances.

Kinney, Thomas D.; Hegsted, D. Mark; Finch, Clement A.

1949-01-01

369

Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5' and 3' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

2003-09-01

370

TCDD, dietary iron and hepatic iron distribution in female rats  

SciTech Connect

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a prototype for a large group of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and is the most potent of these compounds. TCDD is an environmental pollutant with exceptional toxicity for certain mammalian and avian species. The liver is one of the principal target organs affected by TCDD in the rat and other laboratory species. TCDD induces many functional, biochemical and pathological changes, including altered lipid metabolism in the liver. Ferrous iron plays an important role in the initiation of lipid peroxidation. A proposed mechanism for the production of liver injury in chronic iron overload is that organelle damage leading to cell death occurs as a result of membrane lipid peroxidation initiated and promoted by intracellular iron. The presence of iron in subcellular fractions in vitro may catalyze lipid peroxidation and produce membrane damage. There is evidence for the occurrence of hepatic lipid peroxidation after TCDD administration. The purpose of this study was to determine if TCDD induced lipid peroxidation was associated with an increase in the iron content of liver and its subcellular fractions. The effect of TCDD administration on the iron content of whole homogenate, microsomes, mitochondria, and cytosol of livers of female rats fed defined diets containing deficient, normal and excessive levels of iron for 17, 24 and 31 days was investigated.

Al-Bayati, Z.A.F.; Stohs, S.J.; Al-Turk, W.A.

1987-02-01

371

The Chloroplast Permease PIC1 Regulates Plant Growth and Development by Directing Homeostasis and Transport of Iron1[W  

PubMed Central

The membrane-spanning protein PIC1 (for permease in chloroplasts 1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously described to mediate iron transport across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The albino phenotype of pic1 knockout mutants was reminiscent of iron-deficiency symptoms and characterized by severely impaired plastid development and plant growth. In addition, plants lacking PIC1 showed a striking increase in chloroplast ferritin clusters, which function in protection from oxidative stress by sequestering highly reactive free iron in their spherical protein shell. In contrast, PIC1-overexpressing lines (PIC1ox) in this study rather resembled ferritin loss-of-function plants. PIC1ox plants suffered from oxidative stress and leaf chlorosis, most likely originating from iron overload in chloroplasts. Later during growth, plants were characterized by reduced biomass as well as severely defective flower and seed development. As a result of PIC1 protein increase in the inner envelope membrane of plastids, flower tissue showed elevated levels of iron, while the content of other transition metals (copper, zinc, manganese) remained unchanged. Seeds, however, specifically revealed iron deficiency, suggesting that PIC1 overexpression sequestered iron in flower plastids, thereby becoming unavailable for seed iron loading. In addition, expression of genes associated with metal transport and homeostasis as well as photosynthesis was deregulated in PIC1ox plants. Thus, PIC1 function in plastid iron transport is closely linked to ferritin and plastid iron homeostasis. In consequence, PIC1 is crucial for balancing plant iron metabolism in general, thereby regulating plant growth and in particular fruit development.

Duy, Daniela; Stube, Roland; Wanner, Gerhard; Philippar, Katrin

2011-01-01

372

MRI estimates of brain iron concentration in normal aging using quantitative susceptibility mapping.  

PubMed

Quantifying tissue iron concentration in vivo is instrumental for understanding the role of iron in physiology and in neurological diseases associated with abnormal iron distribution. Herein, we use recently-developed Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) methodology to estimate the tissue magnetic susceptibility based on MRI signal phase. To investigate the effect of different regularization choices, we implement and compare ?1 and ?2 norm regularized QSM algorithms. These regularized approaches solve for the underlying magnetic susceptibility distribution, a sensitive measure of the tissue iron concentration, that gives rise to the observed signal phase. Regularized QSM methodology also involves a pre-processing step that removes, by dipole fitting, unwanted background phase effects due to bulk susceptibility variations between air and tissue and requires data acquisition only at a single field strength. For validation, performances of the two QSM methods were measured against published estimates of regional brain iron from postmortem and in vivo data. The in vivo comparison was based on data previously acquired using Field-Dependent Relaxation Rate Increase (FDRI), an estimate of MRI relaxivity enhancement due to increased main magnetic field strength, requiring data acquired at two different field strengths. The QSM analysis was based on susceptibility-weighted images acquired at 1.5 T, whereas FDRI analysis used Multi-Shot Echo-Planar Spin Echo images collected at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Both datasets were collected in the same healthy young and elderly adults. The in vivo estimates of regional iron concentration comported well with published postmortem measurements; both QSM approaches yielded the same rank ordering of iron concentration by brain structure, with the lowest in white matter and the highest in globus pallidus. Further validation was provided by comparison of the in vivo measurements, ?1-regularized QSM versus FDRI and ?2-regularized QSM versus FDRI, which again yielded perfect rank ordering of iron by brain structure. The final means of validation was to assess how well each in vivo method detected known age-related differences in regional iron concentrations measured in the same young and elderly healthy adults. Both QSM methods and FDRI were consistent in identifying higher iron concentrations in striatal and brain stem ROIs (i.e., caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra) in the older than in the young group. The two QSM methods appeared more sensitive in detecting age differences in brain stem structures as they revealed differences of much higher statistical significance between the young and elderly groups than did FDRI. However, QSM values are influenced by factors such as the myelin content, whereas FDRI is a more specific indicator of iron content. Hence, FDRI demonstrated higher specificity to iron yet yielded noisier data despite longer scan times and lower spatial resolution than QSM. The robustness, practicality, and demonstrated ability of predicting the change in iron deposition in adult aging suggest that regularized QSM algorithms using single-field-strength data are possible alternatives to tissue iron estimation requiring two field strengths. PMID:21925274

Bilgic, Berkin; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

2011-09-08

373

Cellular Iron Distribution in Bacillus anthracis  

PubMed Central

Although successful iron acquisition by pathogens within a host is a prerequisite for the establishment of infection, surprisingly little is known about the intracellular distribution of iron within bacterial pathogens. We have used a combination of anaerobic native liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, principal-component analysis, and peptide mass fingerprinting to investigate the cytosolic iron distribution in the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. Our studies identified three of the major iron pools as being associated with the electron transfer protein ferredoxin, the miniferritin Dps2, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes SodA1 and SodA2. Although both SOD isozymes were predicted to utilize manganese cofactors, quantification of the metal ions associated with SodA1 and SodA2 in cell extracts established that SodA1 is associated with both manganese and iron, whereas SodA2 is bound exclusively to iron in vivo. These data were confirmed by in vitro assays using recombinant protein preparations, showing that SodA2 is active with an iron cofactor, while SodA1 is cambialistic, i.e., active with manganese or iron. Furthermore, we observe that B. anthracis cells exposed to superoxide stress increase their total iron content more than 2-fold over 60 min, while the manganese and zinc contents are unaffected. Notably, the acquired iron is not localized to the three identified cytosolic iron pools.

Tu, Wang Yung; Pohl, Susanne; Gray, Joe; Robinson, Nigel J.; Harwood, Colin R.

2012-01-01

374

Iron regulatory proteins in pathobiology.  

PubMed

The capacity of readily exchanging electrons makes iron not only essential for fundamental cell functions, but also a potential catalyst for chemical reactions involving free-radical formation and subsequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Cellular iron levels are therefore carefully regulated in order to maintain an adequate substrate while also minimizing the pool of potentially toxic 'free iron'. Iron homoeostasis is controlled through several genes, an increasing number of which have been found to contain non-coding sequences [i.e. the iron-responsive elements (IREs)] which are recognized at the mRNA level by two cytoplasmic iron-regulatory proteins (IRP-1 and IRP-2). The IRPs belong to the aconitase superfamily. By means of an Fe-S-cluster-dependent switch, IRP-1 can function as an mRNA-binding protein or as an enzyme that converts citrate into isocitrate. Although structurally and functionally similar to IRP-1, IRP-2 does not seem to assemble a cluster nor to possess aconitase activity; moreover, it has a distinct pattern of tissue expression and is modulated by means of proteasome-mediated degradation. In response to fluctuations in the level of the 'labile iron pool', IRPs act as key regulators of cellular iron homoeostasis as a result of the translational control of the expression of a number of iron metabolism-related genes. Conversely, various agents and conditions may affect IRP activity, thereby modulating iron and oxygen radical levels in different pathobiological settings. As the number of mRNAs regulated through IRE-IRP interactions keeps growing, the definition of IRPs as iron-regulatory proteins may in the near future become limiting as their role expands to other essential metabolic pathways. PMID:11085915

Cairo, G; Pietrangelo, A

2000-12-01

375

Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis  

SciTech Connect

It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2009-01-01

376

Effect of different iron loads on serum and tissue biochemical parameters and liver hepcidin mRNA abundance of neonatal piglets.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) is an essential and important trace element for animals. In order to study its metabolism and relationship with hepcidin, piglet models of Fe-deficiency and Fe-overload were established by intramuscular injection with different doses of Fe-dextran (150 mg Fe/ml) within 1 week of age. Twelve piglets were divided into three groups of four animals: deficiency, regular and overload group, receiving 0 ml, 1 ml and 6 ml Fe-dextran, respectively. The piglets were euthanised at the age of 7 days for analysis. The results showed that the Fe-concentrations in liver, spleen and serum of piglets in the overload group were higher than in the regular and deficiency groups (p < 0.05). In the overload group, several serum biochemical parameters, e.g. globulin, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase and xanthine oxidase were higher, while alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and triglycerides were lower, compared with the regular group (p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of AKP, total bilirubin and peroxidase in the deficiency group were lower, while HDL and GPx were higher, compared with the regular group (p < 0.05). Hepcidin mRNA abundance was 131 times lower in the liver of piglets with Fe-deficiency, and 7 times higher in the overloaded group than that in the regular group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Fe-overload and deficiency would influence Fe-metabolism, serum biochemical indexes, oxidation state and hepcidin mRNA abundance in piglet liver. PMID:22256677

Lia, Mengyun; Yin, Qingqiang; Dang, Xiaowei; Chang, Juan; Zuo, Ruiyu; Zheng, Qiuhong

2011-12-01

377

Hypochlorous acid-induced heme degradation from lactoperoxidase as a novel mechanism of free iron release and tissue injury in inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is the major consumer of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the airways through its ability to oxidize thiocyanate (SCN(-)) to produce hypothiocyanous acid, an antimicrobial agent. In nasal inflammatory diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, both LPO and myeloperoxidase (MPO), another mammalian peroxidase secreted by neutrophils, are known to co-localize. The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of LPO and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the final product of MPO. Our rapid kinetic measurements revealed that HOCl binds rapidly and reversibly to LPO-Fe(III) to form the LPO-Fe(III)-OCl complex, which in turn decayed irreversibly to LPO Compound II through the formation of Compound I. The decay rate constant of Compound II decreased with increasing HOCl concentration with an inflection point at 100 µM HOCl, after which the decay rate increased. This point of inflection is the critical concentration of HOCl beyond which HOCl switches its role, from mediating destabilization of LPO Compound II to LPO heme destruction. Lactoperoxidase heme destruction was associated with protein aggregation, free iron release, and formation of a number of fluorescent heme degradation products. Similar results were obtained when LPO-Fe(II)-O(2), Compound III, was exposed to HOCl. Heme destruction can be partially or completely prevented in the presence of SCN(-). On the basis of the present results we concluded that a complex bi-directional relationship exists between LPO activity and HOCl levels at sites of inflammation; LPO serve as a catalytic sink for HOCl, while HOCl serves to modulate LPO catalytic activity, bioavailability, and function. PMID:22132121

Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Maitra, Dhiman; Saed, Ghassan M; Diamond, Michael P; Moura, Arlindo A; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

2011-11-22

378

Iron redistribution as a therapeutic strategy for treating diseases of localized iron accumulation.  

PubMed

Defective iron utilization leading to either systemic or regional misdistribution of the metal has been identified as a critical feature of several different disorders. Iron concentrations can rise to toxic levels in mitochondria of excitable cells, often leaving the cytosol iron-depleted, in some forms of neurodegeneration with brain accumulation (NBIA) or following mutations in genes associated with mitochondrial functions, such as ABCB7 in X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia (XLSA/A) or the genes encoding frataxin in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). In anemia of chronic disease (ACD), iron is withheld by macrophages, while iron levels in extracellular fluids (e.g., plasma) are drastically reduced. One possible therapeutic approach to these diseases is iron chelation, which is known to effectively reduce multiorgan iron deposition in iron-overloaded patients. However, iron chelation is probably inappropriate for disorders associated with misdistribution of iron within selected tissues or cells. One chelator in clinical use for treating iron overload, deferiprone (DFP), has been identified as a reversed siderophore, that is, an agent with iron-relocating abilities in settings of regional iron accumulation. DFP was applied to a cell model of FRDA, a paradigm of a disorder etiologically associated with cellular iron misdistribution. The treatment reduced the mitochondrial levels of labile iron pools (LIP) that were increased by frataxin deficiency. DFP also conferred upon cells protection against oxidative damage and concomitantly mediated the restoration of various metabolic parameters, including aconitase activity. Administration of DFP to FRDA patients for 6 months resulted in selective and significant reduction in foci of brain iron accumulation (assessed by T2* MRI) and initial functional improvements, with only minor changes in net body iron stores. The prospects of drug-mediated iron relocation versus those of chelation are discussed in relation to other disorders involving iron misdistribution, such as ACD and XLSA/A. PMID:20393584

Kakhlon, Or; Breuer, William; Munnich, Arnold; Cabantchik, Z Ioav

2010-03-01

379

Iron chelators and iron toxicity.  

PubMed

Iron chelation may offer new approaches to the treatment and prevention of alcoholic liver disease. With chronic excess, either iron or alcohol alone may individually injure the liver and other organs. In combination, each exaggerates the adverse effects of the other. In alcoholic liver disease, both iron and alcohol contribute to the production of hepatic fibrosis through their effects on damaged hepatocytes, hepatic macrophages, hepatic stellate cells, and the extracellular matrix. The pivotal role of iron in these processes suggests that chelating iron may offer a new approach to arresting or ameliorating liver injury. For the past four decades, deferoxamine B mesylate has been the only iron-chelating agent generally available for clinical use. Clinical experience with deferoxamine has demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of iron chelation for the prevention and treatment of iron overload. Determined efforts to develop alternative agents have at last resulted in the development of a variety of candidate iron chelators that are now in or near clinical trial, including (a) the hexadentate phenolic aminocarboxylate HBED [N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid], (b) the tridentate desferrithiocin derivative 4'-OH-dadmDFT [4'-hydroxy-(S)-desazadesmethyl-desferrithiocin; (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid], (c) the tridentate triazole ICL670A [CGP72 670A; 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid], and (d) the bidentate hydroxypyridin-4-one deferiprone [L1, CP20; 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one]. These agents may provide new pharmacological means of averting or ameliorating liver damage in alcoholic liver disease by binding, inactivating, and eliminating the reactive forms of iron that contribute to oxidative injury of cellular components, are involved in signal transduction, or both. PMID:12957300

Brittenham, Gary M

2003-06-01

380

Dose-related effects of dietary iron supplementation in producing hepatic iron overload in rats.  

PubMed

The influence of varying the level of supplemental dietary iron on the development of hepatic iron overload was examined in rats. Two days after giving birth, Porton rats were fed a diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 or 2% carbonyl iron, to institute dietary iron supplementation to the young via breast milk. After weaning, the offspring continued to receive the assigned diet until 32 weeks of age. Liver biopsies were taken from some rats at 8, 16 and 24 weeks of age and from all rats at 32 weeks of age, for assessment of iron overload. For both male and female rats, hepatic iron content was increased in a dose-related manner by feeding supplemented diet. Hepatic iron content of male rats tended to reach a plateau after 8, 16 weeks of supplementation, while that of female rats continued to rise throughout the experimental period, such that the hepatic iron content of female rats was 2.8-fold that of similarly treated males at 32 weeks of age. Iron supplementation was associated with only moderate retardation of growth. By choosing an appropriate level of iron supplementation, good (grade III-IV) hepatic iron loading can be achieved with minimal adverse effects on the animals' overall health. PMID:9504895

Plummer, J L; MacKinnon, M; Cmielewski, P L; Williams, P; Ahern, M J; Ilsley, A H; de la M Hall, P

1997-12-01

381

Progressive brain iron accumulation in neuroferritinopathy measured by the thalamic T2* relaxation rate.  

PubMed

Neuroferritinopathy is an autosomal dominant extrapyramidal movement disorder, caused by FTL gene mutations. Iron decreases the MR T2* decay time, therefore increasing the R2* (R2* = 1 /T2*), which correlates with brain tissue iron content. 3T structural and quantitative MR imaging assessment of R2* in 10 patients with neuroferritinopathy demonstrated a unique pattern of basal ganglia cavitation involving the substantia nigra in older patients and increasing thalamic R2* signal intensity detectable during 6 months. Increasing R2* signal intensity in the thalamus correlated with progression on a clinical rating scale measuring dystonia severity. Thalamic R2* signal intensity is a clinically useful method of objectively tracking disease progression in this form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. PMID:22499840

McNeill, A; Gorman, G; Khan, A; Horvath, R; Blamire, A M; Chinnery, P F

2012-04-12

382

Environmental impacts of iron ore tailings—The case of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of iron ore tailings along the shore of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong has altered the adjacent environment. Due to the ever-expanding population, the vast development of various industries, and the lack of sanitary control, the existing pollution problem of Tolo Harbour is serious. The iron ore tailings consist of a moderate amount of various heavy metals, e.g., copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and a lower level of macronutrients. A few living organisms have been found colonizing this manmade habitat. Higher metal contents were also found in the tissue of Paphia sp. (clam); Scopimera intermedia (crab); Chaetomorpha brychagona (green alga); Enteromorpha crinita (green alga); and Neyraudia reynaudiana (grass). The area can be reclaimed by surface amelioration using inert materials, soils, or organic substrates, and by direct seeding, using nontolerant and tolerant plant materials. Reclamation of the tailings would improve the amenity of the adjacent environment and also mitigate pollution escaping to the sea.

Wong, M. H.

1981-03-01

383

Monitoring metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in Hydropsyche (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) to evaluate metal pollution in a mining river. Whole body versus tissue content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body metal concentration is easier to analyse than concentration in tissues, but is often not an accurate measure of the potential toxicity of the metal. We tested if whole body metal and metalloid concentrations in the caddisfly Hydropsyche (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae), common in a mine-polluted river (Guadiamar River, SW Spain), were a useful measure to extrapolate environmental degradation. Our results

Carolina Solà; Narcís Prat

2006-01-01

384

Low Number of Insulin Receptors but High Receptor Protein Content in Adipose Tissue of Rats with Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to insulin resis- tance, the number of fat tissue insulin receptors, their anity and insulin receptor protein in rats with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity were studied. Obese rats displayed signicantly lower number of insulin receptors with high anity. Sur- prisingly, the amount of insulin receptor protein was signicantly elevated in these animals. The

S. Zora; D. Jezova; L. Szabova; L. Macho; K. Tybitanclova

2003-01-01

385

Developing an indicator of nutrient enrichment in coastal estuaries and lagoons using tissue nitrogen content of the opportunistic alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Link)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the use of an opportunistic green alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Link), as an indicator of N enrichment in a southern California salt marsh. In conjunction with N additions to cordgrass (Spartina foliosa, Trin) in April, June and August 1995, mesh bags containing N-starved algal tissue were placed within cordgrass patches, at their edges along islands, and in adjacent

Peggy Fong; Katharyn E. Boyer; Joy B. Zedler

1998-01-01

386

THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

387

THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

388

ImageMiner: a software system for comparative analysis of tissue microarrays using content-based image retrieval, high-performance computing, and grid technology  

PubMed Central

Objective and design The design and implementation of ImageMiner, a software platform for performing comparative analysis of expression patterns in imaged microscopy specimens such as tissue microarrays (TMAs), is described. ImageMiner is a federated system of services that provides a reliable set of analytical and data management capabilities for investigative research applications in pathology. It provides a library of image processing methods, including automated registration, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification, all of which have been tailored, in these studies, to support TMA analysis. The system is designed to leverage high-performance computing machines so that investigators can rapidly analyze large ensembles of imaged TMA specimens. To support deployment in collaborative, multi-institutional projects, ImageMiner features grid-enabled, service-based components so that multiple instances of ImageMiner can be accessed remotely and federated. Results The experimental evaluation shows that: (1) ImageMiner is able to support reliable detection and feature extraction of tumor regions within imaged tissues; (2) images and analysis results managed in ImageMiner can be searched for and retrieved on the basis of image-based features, classification information, and any correlated clinical data, including any metadata that have been generated to describe the specified tissue and TMA; and (3) the system is able to reduce computation time of analyses by exploiting computing clusters, which facilitates analysis of larger sets of tissue samples.

Foran, David J; Yang, Lin; Hu, Jun; Goodell, Lauri A; Reiss, Michael; Wang, Fusheng; Kurc, Tahsin; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Saltz, Joel H

2011-01-01

389

The use of two species of crayfish as environmental quality sentinels: the relationship between heavy metal content, cell and tissue biomarkers and physico-chemical characteristics of the environment.  

PubMed

In systems as heavily disturbed as rivers, the use of biological sentinels is a most interesting way of obtaining continuous assessment of environmental quality. This study seeks to establish the value of such sentinels of two species of crayfish: the native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, Lereboullet 1858) and an introduced species, signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus, Dana 1852), by comparing the habitat quality (water and sediments) and heavy metal contents in crayfish with the degree of stress manifested by the animals, measured by cell and tissue biomarkers. For this purpose a histological study of the digestive gland was carried out together with measurements of heavy metal contents in samples from various points of the river network of Bizkaia (Spain), selected on the basis of their degree of disturbance. The results establish a positive correlation between these environmental conditions, the cell and tissue biomarkers of the digestive gland (thinning of the digestive epithelium, enlargement of digestive lysosomes) and the heavy metal contents of the animals (converted to an index of pollutant load). PMID:10803551

Antón, A; Serrano, T; Angulo, E; Ferrero, G; Rallo, A

2000-03-20

390

Do regional modifications in tissue mineral content and microscopic mineralization heterogeneity adapt trabecular bone tracts for habitual bending? Analysis in the context of trabecular architecture of deer calcanei.  

PubMed

Calcanei of mature mule deer have the largest mineral content (percent ash) difference between their dorsal 'compression' and plantar 'tension' cortices of any bone that has been studied. The opposing trabecular tracts, which are contiguous with the cortices, might also show important mineral content differences and microscopic mineralization heterogeneity (reflecting increased hemi-osteonal renewal) that optimize mechanical behaviors in tension vs. compression. Support for these hypotheses could reveal a largely unrecognized capacity for phenotypic plasticity - the adaptability of trabecular bone material as a means for differentially enhancing mechanical properties for local strain environments produced by habitual bending. Fifteen skeletally mature and 15 immature deer calcanei were cut transversely into two segments (40% and 50% shaft length), and cores were removed to determine mineral (ash) content from 'tension' and 'compression' trabecular tracts and their adjacent cortices. Seven bones/group were analyzed for differences between tracts in: first, microscopic trabecular bone packets and mineralization heterogeneity (backscattered electron imaging, BSE); and second, trabecular architecture (micro-computed tomography). Among the eight architectural characteristics evaluated [including bone volume fraction (BVF) and structural model index (SMI)]: first, only the 'tension' tract of immature bones showed significantly greater BVF and more negative SMI (i.e. increased honeycomb morphology) than the 'compression' tract of immature bones; and second, the 'compression' tracts of both groups showed significantly greater structural order/alignment than the corresponding 'tension' tracts. Although mineralization heterogeneity differed between the tracts in only the immature group, in both groups the mineral content derived from BSE images was significantly greater (P < 0.01), and bulk mineral (ash) content tended to be greater in the 'compression' tracts (immature 3.6%, P = 0.03; mature 3.1%, P = 0.09). These differences are much less than the approximately 8% greater mineral content of their 'compression' cortices (P < 0.001). Published data, suggesting that these small mineralization differences are not mechanically important in the context of conventional tests, support the probability that architectural modifications primarily adapt the tracts for local demands. However, greater hemi-osteonal packets in the tension trabecular tract of only the mature bones (P = 0.006) might have an important role, and possible synergism with mineralization and/or microarchitecture, in differential toughening at the trabeculum level for tension vs. compression strains. PMID:22220639

Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Farnsworth, Ryan W; Bloebaum, Roy D

2012-01-06