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1

Obesity Alters Adipose Tissue Macrophage Iron Content and Tissue Iron Distribution  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is accompanied by the infiltration and accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as a shift in ATM polarization. Several studies have implicated recruited M1 ATMs in the metabolic consequences of obesity; however, little is known regarding the role of alternatively activated resident M2 ATMs in AT homeostasis or how their function is altered in obesity. Herein, we report the discovery of a population of alternatively activated ATMs with elevated cellular iron content and an iron-recycling gene expression profile. These iron-rich ATMs are referred to as MFehi, and the remaining ATMs are referred to as MFelo. In lean mice, ~25% of the ATMs are MFehi; this percentage decreases in obesity owing to the recruitment of MFelo macrophages. Similar to MFelo cells, MFehi ATMs undergo an inflammatory shift in obesity. In vivo, obesity reduces the iron content of MFehi ATMs and the gene expression of iron importers as well as the iron exporter, ferroportin, suggesting an impaired ability to handle iron. In vitro, exposure of primary peritoneal macrophages to saturated fatty acids also alters iron metabolism gene expression. Finally, the impaired MFehi iron handling coincides with adipocyte iron overload in obese mice. In conclusion, in obesity, iron distribution is altered both at the cellular and tissue levels, with AT playing a predominant role in this change. An increased availability of fatty acids during obesity may contribute to the observed changes in MFehi ATM phenotype and their reduced capacity to handle iron. PMID:24130337

Orr, Jeb S.; Kennedy, Arion; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K.; Webb, Corey D.; Fordahl, Steve C.; Erikson, Keith M.; Zhang, Yaofang; Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren K.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

2014-01-01

2

Noninvasive assessment of skin iron content in hemodialysis patients. An index of parenchymal tissue iron content  

SciTech Connect

Iron overload has been described in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid, noninvasive method for determination of skin iron by the technique of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS). Thirty-five patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment entered the study and were compared with 25 normal controls. Since pathological skin iron deposition occurs mainly at the dermal-epidermal junction in the basal cells of the epidermis, measurements were made in the thenar eminence representing mainly epidermal tissue (FeE), and in the forearm representative mainly of dermis (FeD). The mean +/- SD FeE iron concentrations were equivalent to 14.5 +/- 8.8 and 18.2 +/- 10.2 parts per million wet weight tissue (ppm) and both were significantly higher than in normal controls in which they averaged 9.2 +/- 2.5 ppm (P less than 0.005) and 10.2 +/- 3.2 ppm (P less than 0.001), respectively. There was significant positive correlation between individual skin iron determinations with the total number of blood transfusions received, the rate of blood transfusion, and with serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow hemosiderin was examined in six patients and showed a similar trend. Despite correlation only with indirect indices of tissue iron, our findings suggest that DXS may serve as a reliable quick method for noninvasive estimation of nonreticuloendothelial tissue iron deposition in hemodialysis patients suspected of having transfusional iron overload. The method may be valuable in monitoring the effects of chelation therapy.

Friedlaender, M.M.; Kaufman, B.; Rubinger, D.; Moreb, J.; Popovtzer, M.M.; Goredetsky, R.

1988-07-01

3

Evaluating Iron Content and Tissue Microstructure with Off-Resonance Saturation MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, each focused on applying off-resonance saturation (ORS) imaging to a different context or application. Particularly, we are interested in using ORS to evaluate the uptake of superparamagnetic MRI contrast agents in biological tissue, and to evaluate endogenous iron content. This relies on ORS being applied at low off-resonance frequency offsets where most of the negative contrast is due to signal loss from direct saturation of the water content of the sample. Additionally, we wish to combine this information with magnetization transfer contrast, which is obtained by applying ORS at offsets that are far from the resonance frequency, where magnetization transfer (MT) becomes the dominant effect rather than direct saturation (DS). In the first study, we observed the uptake of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles in a simple model system by imaging the uptake in healthy murine liver in vivo, and by testing different metrics to quantify the uptake. Through this process, we discovered an approach that provides high sensitivity and specificity in low-signal scenarios. In the second study, we evaluated image contrast between brain regions in healthy human adults, and related these to the expected iron content in different regions based on age. Images were evaluated based on different MRI contrast mechanisms including quantitative transverse relaxation rates, as well as parameters obtained from ORS imaging. We also performed a field inhomogeneity adjustment on low-offset ORS data using the information obtained from the coarsely sampled ORS spectrum, and this was sufficient to correct for the inhomogeneities. In the third study, we used transverse relaxation, DS - which is strongly dependent on iron content, and MT contrast, in order to classify ex vivo brain samples having Alzheimer's disease pathology and normal controls, and were able to find strong classifiers. The three studies helped elucidate how the parameters of the ORS technique influence contrast based on tissue type, endogenous iron content, or USPIO uptake. They also helped directly inform future research directions in order to tune the approach for the different applications.

Fahmy, Sherif R.

4

Comparison of injectable iron complexes in their ability to iron load tissues and to induce oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and copper homeostasis have been studied in various tissues after iron-loading with the polynuclear ferric hydroxide carbohydrate complexes, iron dextran, iron polymaltose, iron sucrose and iron gluconate for four weeks. There were significant increases in the iron content of the different rat tissues compared to controls, with the exception of the brain, which showed no change in its iron

R. Legssyer; P. Geisser; Harry McArdle; R. R. Crichton; R. J. Ward

2003-01-01

5

Iron biomineralization of brain tissue and neurodegenerative disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain is an organ with a high concentration of iron in specific areas, particularly in the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the red nucleus. In certain pathological states, such as iron overload disease and neurodegenerative disorders, a disturbed iron metabolism can lead to increased accumulation of iron not only in these areas, but also in the brain regions that are typically low in iron content. Recent studies of the physical and magnetic properties of metalloproteins, and in particular the discovery of biogenic magnetite in human brain tissue, have raised new questions about the role of biogenic iron formations in living organisms. Further investigations revealed the presence of magnetite-like crystalline structures in human ferritin, and indicated that released ferritin iron might act as promoter of oxidative damage to tissue, therefore contributing to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. The purpose of this work was to examine the elemental composition and structure of iron deposits in normal brain tissue as well as tissue affected by neurodegenerative disorders. Employing the methods of X-ray microfocus fluorescence mapping, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (XAFS), and light and electron microscopic examinations allows one to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative data with respect to the cellular distribution and chemical state of iron at levels not detected previously. The described tissue preparation technique allows not only satisfactory XAS iron elemental imaging in situ but also multimodal examination with light and electron microscopes of the same samples. The developed protocol has assured consistent and reproducible results on relatively large sections of flat-embedded tissue. The resulting tissue samples were adequate for XAS examination as well as sufficiently well-preserved for future microscopy studies. The continued development of this technique should lead to major advances in mapping iron anomalies and the related chemical and structural information directly to cells and tissue structures in human brain tissue. At present this is done primarily by iron staining methods and any information on the relationship between iron distribution and cellular structures obtained this way is limited. Iron staining also offers no information on the specific compounds of iron that are present. This can be vitally important as the form of iron [including its oxidation state] in the human body can determine whether it plays a detrimental or beneficial role in neurophysiological processes.

Mikhaylova (Mikhailova), Albina

6

Magnetic resonance assessment of iron overload by separate measurement of tissue ferritin and hemosiderin iron  

PubMed Central

With transfusional iron overload, almost all the excess iron is sequestered intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable, dispersed, soluble, ferritin iron, and as aggregated, insoluble hemosiderin iron for long-term storage. Established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of tissue iron (R2, R2*) are principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and change slowly, even with intensive iron chelation. Intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool that can change rapidly with iron chelation. We have developed a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to separately measure ferritin and hemosiderin iron, based on the non-monoexponential signal decay induced by aggregated iron in multiple-spin-echo sequences. We have initially validated the method in agarose phantoms and in human liver explants and shown the feasibility of its application in patients with thalassemia major. Measurement of tissue ferritin iron is a promising new means to rapidly evaluate the effectiveness of iron-chelating regimens. PMID:20712781

Wu, Ed X.; Kim, Daniel; Tosti, Christina L.; Tang, Haiying; Jensen, Jens H.; Cheung, Jerry S.; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S.; Brown, Truman R.; Brittenham, Gary M.

2010-01-01

7

Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron.  

PubMed

Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

Singh, Sudhir P; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Ar?on, Iztok; Vavpeti?, Primož; Jeromel, Luka; Pelicon, Primož; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

2013-08-01

8

Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron  

PubMed Central

Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

Tuli, Rakesh

2013-01-01

9

Intestinal HIF2? promotes tissue-iron accumulation in disorders of iron overload with anemia  

PubMed Central

Several distinct congenital disorders can lead to tissue-iron overload with anemia. Repeated blood transfusions are one of the major causes of iron overload in several of these disorders, including ?-thalassemia major, which is characterized by a defective ?-globin gene. In this state, hyperabsorption of iron is also observed and can significantly contribute to iron overload. In ?-thalassemia intermedia, which does not require blood transfusion for survival, hyperabsorption of iron is the leading cause of iron overload. The mechanism of increased iron absorption in ?-thalassemia is unclear. We definitively demonstrate, using genetic mouse models, that intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor-2? (HIF2?) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) are activated early in the pathogenesis of ?-thalassemia and are essential for excess iron accumulation in mouse models of ?-thalassemia. Moreover, thalassemic mice with established iron overload had significant improvement in tissue-iron levels and anemia following disruption of intestinal HIF2?. In addition to repeated blood transfusions and increased iron absorption, chronic hemolysis is the major cause of tissue-iron accumulation in anemic iron-overload disorders caused by hemolytic anemia. Mechanistic studies in a hemolytic anemia mouse model demonstrated that loss of intestinal HIF2?/DMT1 signaling led to decreased tissue-iron accumulation in the liver without worsening the anemia. These data demonstrate that dysregulation of intestinal hypoxia and HIF2? signaling is critical for progressive iron overload in ?-thalassemia and may be a novel therapeutic target in several anemic iron-overload disorders. PMID:24282296

Anderson, Erik R.; Taylor, Matthew; Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Martin, Angelical; Xie, Liwei; Bredell, Bryce X.; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Shah, Yatrik M.

2013-01-01

10

Intestinal HIF2? promotes tissue-iron accumulation in disorders of iron overload with anemia.  

PubMed

Several distinct congenital disorders can lead to tissue-iron overload with anemia. Repeated blood transfusions are one of the major causes of iron overload in several of these disorders, including ?-thalassemia major, which is characterized by a defective ?-globin gene. In this state, hyperabsorption of iron is also observed and can significantly contribute to iron overload. In ?-thalassemia intermedia, which does not require blood transfusion for survival, hyperabsorption of iron is the leading cause of iron overload. The mechanism of increased iron absorption in ?-thalassemia is unclear. We definitively demonstrate, using genetic mouse models, that intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor-2? (HIF2?) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) are activated early in the pathogenesis of ?-thalassemia and are essential for excess iron accumulation in mouse models of ?-thalassemia. Moreover, thalassemic mice with established iron overload had significant improvement in tissue-iron levels and anemia following disruption of intestinal HIF2?. In addition to repeated blood transfusions and increased iron absorption, chronic hemolysis is the major cause of tissue-iron accumulation in anemic iron-overload disorders caused by hemolytic anemia. Mechanistic studies in a hemolytic anemia mouse model demonstrated that loss of intestinal HIF2?/DMT1 signaling led to decreased tissue-iron accumulation in the liver without worsening the anemia. These data demonstrate that dysregulation of intestinal hypoxia and HIF2? signaling is critical for progressive iron overload in ?-thalassemia and may be a novel therapeutic target in several anemic iron-overload disorders. PMID:24282296

Anderson, Erik R; Taylor, Matthew; Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Martin, Angelical; Xie, Liwei; Bredell, Bryce X; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Shah, Yatrik M

2013-12-10

11

Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron increased the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in lung tissues at high altitudes. • Trolox alleviated the iron-induced histological and biochemical changes to the lungs.

Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

2014-01-01

12

Increased iron (III) and total iron content in post mortem substantia nigra of parkinsonian brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Significant differences in the content of iron (III) and total iron were found in post mortem substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease. There was an increase of 176% in the levels of total iron and 255% of iron (III) in the substantia nigra of the parkinsonian patients compared to age matched controls. In the cortex (Brodmann area 21), hippocampus, putamen,

E. Sofic; P. Riederer; H. Heinsen; H. Beckmann; G. P. Reynolds; G. Hebenstreit; M. B. H. Youdim

1988-01-01

13

Ferritin is the key to dietary iron absorption and tissue iron detoxification in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Mammalian ferritin is predominantly in the cytosol, with a minor portion found in plasma. In most insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, ferritin belongs to the secretory type. The functional role of secretory ferritin in iron homeostasis remains poorly understood in insects as well as in mammalians. Here we used Drosophila to dissect the involvement of ferritin in insect iron metabolism. Midgut-specific knockdown of ferritin resulted in iron accumulation in the gut but systemic iron deficiency (37% control), accompanied by retarded development and reduced survival (3% survival), and was rescued by dietary iron supplementation (50% survival) or exacerbated by iron depletion (0% survival). These results suggest an essential role of ferritin in removing iron from enterocytes across the basolateral membrane. Expression of wild-type ferritin in the midgut, especially in the iron cell region, could significantly rescue ferritin-null mutants (first-instar larvae rescued up to early adults), indicating iron deficiency as the major cause of early death for ferritin flies. In many nonintestinal tissues, tissue-specific ferritin knockdown also caused local iron accumulation (100% increase) and resulted in severe tissue damage, as evidenced by cell loss. Overall, our study demonstrated Drosophila ferritin is essential to two key aspects of iron homeostasis: dietary iron absorption and tissue iron detoxification. PMID:23064556

Tang, Xiaona; Zhou, Bing

2013-01-01

14

Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

2013-01-01

15

Interrelationships between tissue iron status and erythropoiesis during postweaning development following neonatal iron deficiency in rats  

PubMed Central

Dietary iron is particularly critical during periods of rapid growth such as in neonatal development. Human and rodent studies have indicated that iron deficiency or excess during this critical stage of development can have significant long- and short-term consequences. Since the requirement for iron changes during development, the availability of adequate iron is critical for the differentiation and maturation of individual organs participating in iron homeostasis. We have examined in rats the effects of dietary iron supplement following neonatal iron deficiency on tissue iron status in relation to erythropoietic ability during 16 wk of postweaning development. This physiological model indicates that postweaning iron-adequate diet following neonatal iron deficiency adversely affects erythroid differentiation in the bone marrow and promotes splenic erythropoiesis leading to splenomegaly and erythrocytosis. This altered physiology of iron homeostasis during postweaning development is also reflected in the inability to maintain liver and spleen iron concentrations and the altered expression of iron regulatory proteins in the liver. These studies provide critical insights into the consequences of neonatal iron deficiency and the dietary iron-induced cellular signals affecting iron homeostasis during early development. PMID:21193529

Unger, Erica L.; Jensen, Gordon L.; Hankey, Pamela A.; Paulson, Robert F.

2011-01-01

16

Increased content of zinc and iron in human cataractous lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the zinc and iron content of human lenses in different types of cataract and to investigate\\u000a the possible influence of diabetes on the zinc and iron content of the lens. Iron and zinc of 57 human lenses (28 corticonuclear\\u000a cataracts and 29 mature cataracts with a mean age of 70.6±16.1 and 74.7±11.1

J. Dawczynski; M. Blum; K. Winnefeld; J. Strobel

2002-01-01

17

Determining Iron Content in Foods by Spectrophotometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory experiment for secondary school chemistry students utilizing the classic reaction between the iron(III) ion and the thiocyanate ion. The experiment also works very well in other chemistry courses as an experience in spectrophotometric analysis. (PVD)

Adams, Paul E.

1995-01-01

18

Iron overload diseases: the chemical speciation of non-heme iron deposits in iron loaded mammalian tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

57Fe Mössbauer spectra of iron overloaded human spleen, rat spleen and rat liver tissue samples at 78 K were found to consist of a quadrupole doublet (major component) with magnetic sextet (minor component with fractional spectral area F s). The distributions of F s for spleen tissue from two different clinically identifiable groups (n = 7 and n = 12) of thalassemic patients were found to be significantly different. The value of F s for dietary-iron loaded rat liver was found to rise significantly with age/duration (up to 24 months) of iron loading.

St. Pierre, T. G.; Chua-Anusorn, W.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.

2000-07-01

19

Calcium, iron and oxalate content of some condiments and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condiments and spices consumed in India were analysed for their calcium, phosphorus and iron contents and for the content of total and water-soluble oxalates. A number of spices were found to be quite rich in calcium and also in oxalates. In many of the spices the oxalates were mainly in the insoluble form although a few spices were found

B. V. Ramasastri

1983-01-01

20

Iron toxicity mediated by oxidative stress enhances tissue damage in an animal model of diabetes.  

PubMed

Although iron is a first-line pro-oxidant that modulates clinical manifestations of various systemic diseases, including diabetes, the individual tissue damage generated by active oxidant insults has not been demonstrated in current animal models of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in the severity of the tissues injury when iron supplementation is administered in a model of type 1 diabetes. Streptozotocin (Stz)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic Fischer rats were maintained with or without a treatment consisting of iron dextran ip at 0.1 mL day(-1) doses administered for 4 days at intervals of 5 days. After 3 weeks, an extensive increase (p < 0.001) in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils of the diabetic animals on iron overload was observed. Histological analysis revealed that this treatment also resulted in higher (p < 0.05) tissue iron deposits, a higher (p < 0.001) number of inflammatory cells in the pancreas, and apparent cardiac fibrosis, as shown by an increase (p < 0.05) in type III collagen levels, which result in dysfunctional myocardial. Carbonyl protein modification, a marker of oxidative stress, was consistently higher (p < 0.01) in the tissues of the iron-treated rats with diabetes. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between ROS production and iron pancreas stores (r = 0.42, p < 0.04), iron heart stores (r = 0.54, p < 0.04), and change of the carbonyl protein content in pancreas (r = 0.49, p < 0.009), and heart (r = 0.48, p < 0.02). A negative correlation was still found between ROS production and total glutathione content in pancreas (r = -0.50, p < 0.03) and heart (r = -0.45, p < 0.04). In conclusion, our results suggest that amplified toxicity in pancreatic and cardiac tissues in rats with diabetes on iron overload might be attributed to increased oxidative stress. PMID:24549594

Sampaio, Ana Flávia S; Silva, Maisa; Dornas, Waleska C; Costa, Daniela C; Silva, Marcelo E; Dos Santos, Rinaldo C; de Lima, Wanderson G; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

2014-04-01

21

Magnetic resonance imaging contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles developed for hyperthermia is dominated by iron content  

PubMed Central

Purpose Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (~100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia. PMID:24773041

Wabler, Michele; Zhu, Wenlian; Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Zhou, Haoming; Mihalic, Jana; Geyh, Alison; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Ivkov, Robert; Artemov, Dmitri

2015-01-01

22

[The frequency and development of tissue iron deficiency in 6 iron deficiency anemia patients with plummer-vinson syndrome].  

PubMed

The physical signs of tissue iron deficiency include smooth and red tongue, angular stomatitis, koilonychia, and pica. The incidence of these conditions is unknown in Japan. We evaluated the frequency and development of tissue iron deficiency in 353 patients with iron deficiency anemia. The frequency of tissue iron deficiency was 6.8%; papillary atrophy of the tongue, 5.4%; abnormal nails, 5.4%; angular stomatitis, 1.1%; Plummer-Vinson syndrome, 1.7%; and pica, 0.06%. These findings were compared with the date collected by Wintrobe and Beveridge. The development and incidence of tissue iron deficiency correlated significantly with the severity of iron deficiency anemia. PMID:9866421

Uchida, T; Matsuno, M; Ide, M; Kawachi, Y

1998-11-01

23

Layer-specific variation of iron content in cerebral cortex as a source of MRI contrast  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in high-field MRI have dramatically improved the visualization of human brain anatomy in vivo. Most notably, in cortical gray matter, strong contrast variations have been observed that appear to reflect the local laminar architecture. This contrast has been attributed to subtle variations in the magnetic properties of brain tissue, possibly reflecting varying iron and myelin content. To establish the origin of this contrast, MRI data from postmortem brain samples were compared with electron microscopy and histological staining for iron and myelin. The results show that iron is distributed over laminae in a pattern that is suggestive of each region’s myeloarchitecture and forms the dominant source of the observed MRI contrast. PMID:20133720

Fukunaga, Masaki; Li, Tie-Qiang; van Gelderen, Peter; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Shmueli, Karin; Yao, Bing; Lee, Jongho; Maric, Dragan; Aronova, Maria A.; Zhang, Guofeng; Leapman, Richard D.; Schenck, John F.; Merkle, Hellmut; Duyn, Jeff H.

2010-01-01

24

Iron from nanocompounds containing iron and zinc is highly bioavailable in rats without tissue accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective iron fortification of foods is difficult, because water-soluble compounds that are well absorbed, such as ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), often cause unacceptable changes in the colour or taste of foods. Poorly water-soluble compounds, on the other hand, cause fewer sensory changes, but are not well absorbed. Here, we show that poorly water-soluble nanosized Fe and Fe/Zn compounds (specific surface area ~190 m2 g-1) made by scalable flame aerosol technology have in vivo iron bioavailability in rats comparable to FeSO4 and cause less colour change in reactive food matrices than conventional iron fortificants. The addition of Zn to FePO4 and Mg to Fe/Zn oxide increases Fe absorption from the compounds, and doping with Mg also improves their colour. After feeding rats with nanostructured iron-containing compounds, no stainable Fe was detected in their gut wall, gut-associated lymphatics or other tissues, suggesting no adverse effects. Nanosizing of poorly water-soluble Fe compounds sharply increases their absorption and nutritional value.

Hilty, Florentine M.; Arnold, Myrtha; Hilbe, Monika; Teleki, Alexandra; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Ehrensperger, Felix; Hurrell, Richard F.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B.

2010-05-01

25

In-situ Characterization and Mapping of Iron Compounds in AlzheimerÂs Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a well-established link between iron overload in the brain and pathology associated with neurodegeneration in a variety of disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases. This association was first discovered in AD by Goodman in 1953, where, in addition to abnormally high concentrations of iron in autopsy brain tissue, iron has also been shown

J. F. Collingwood; A. Mikhaylova; M. Davidson; C. Batich; W. J. Streit; J. Terry; J. Dobson

2008-01-01

26

Low-aluminum content iron-aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

The low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum program deals with the development of a Fe-Al alloy with aluminum content such as a produce the minimum environmental effect at room temperature. The FAPY is an Fe-16 at. % Al-based alloy developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as the highest aluminum-containing alloy with essentially no environmental effect. The chemical composition for FAPY in weight percent is: aluminum = 8.46, chromium = 5.50, zirconium = 0.20, carbon = 0.03, molybdenum = 2.00, yttrium = 0.10 and iron = 83.71. The ignots of the alloy can be hot worked by extrusion, forging, and rolling processes. The hot-worked cast structure can be cold worked with intermediate anneals at 800{degrees}C. Typical room-temperature ductility of the fine-grained wrought structure is 20 to 25% for this alloy. In contrast to the wrought structure, the cast ductility at room temperature is approximately 1% with a transition temperature of approximately 100 to 150{degrees}C, above which ductility values exceed 20%. The alloy has been melted and processed into bar, sheet, and foil. The alloy has also been cast into slabs, step-blocks of varying thicknesses, and shapes. The purpose of this section is to describe the welding response of cast slabs of three different thicknesses of FAPY alloy. Tensile, creep, and Charpy-impact data of the welded plates are also presented.

Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [and others

1995-06-01

27

Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

Buckley, D. H.

1977-01-01

28

A note on the total and heme iron contents of ready-to-eat doner kebabs.  

PubMed

Total and heme iron contents of ready-to-eat beef and chicken doners collected from restaurants were determined. Total and heme iron contents of beef and chicken doners were 36.70±9.85-15.98±2.86 and 14.27±4.43-4.49±1.95 ?g/g, respectively. The percent heme iron contents in beef and chicken doners were 46.06% and 34.36%, respectively. PMID:22061313

Turhan, Sadettin; Altunkaynak, T Bogachan; Yazici, Fehmi

2004-06-01

29

The effect of iron and zinc supplementation and discontinuation of this practice on iron and zinc level in tissues in rats fed deficient diets.  

PubMed

The effect of iron and iron/zinc supplementation on their levels in tissues of rats fed initially one of the three following regimen: C - control AIN-93 diet, D - iron deficient diet and R - diet with 50% reduction of all vitamins and minerals was investigated. The study was conducted on 6-week male Wistar rats, in 3 stages: (1) 4-week adaptation to the diets (C, D or R); (2) 4-week supplementation with the same regimen enriched with 10-times more iron (CSFe, DSFe, RSFe) or iron/zinc (CSFeZn, DSFeZn, RSFeZn); (3) 2-week post-supplementation period (the same diets as the stage I). Iron and zinc content in serum, the initial segment of intestine, liver and kidney were measured using FAAS method. After supplementation period (stage II) the content of iron in the intestine, liver and kidney in groups of rats fed DSFe and DSFeZn-diet were significantly higher (all p-values?0.05) than in rats fed D-diet (intestine: DSFe=50.1±9.0 ?g/g wet weight, DSFeZn=43.0±9.9 ?g/g vs. D=16.5±2.1 ?g/g; liver: DSFe=149±30 ?g/g, DSFeZn=152±25 ?g/g vs. D=56±13 ?g/g; kidney: DSFe=74.0±8.1 ?g/g, DSFeZn=72.7±6.6 ?g/g vs. D=59.3±9.5 ?g/g). The same significant associations (all p-values?0.05) were observed in R rats in the intestine and liver (intestine: RSFe=60.8±6.6 ?g/g, RSFeZn=54.8±6.6 ?g/g vs. R=31.5±8.2 ?g/g; liver: RSFe=161±10 ?g/g, RSFeZn=166±21 ?g/g vs. R=136±24?g/g). After post-supplementation period the statistically significant differences between supplemented and non-supplemented rats fed D- and R-diets were still observed. There was not found the effect of applied treatments on zinc status. In conclusion, iron or iron/zinc supplementation increased similarly iron level in tissues of rats fed D-diet or R-diet with prolonged effect after supplementation discontinuation. PMID:23726815

Kaluza, Joanna; Madej, Dawid; Brzozowska, Anna

2013-10-01

30

Iron and Iron Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... iron. (NIH) back to top Iron Overload and Hemochromatosis Iron overload is the accumulation of excess iron in body tissues. Hemochromatosis is the disease resulting from significant iron overload. ...

31

Hair iron content: possiblemarker to complement monitoringtherapy of iron deficiencyin patients with chronic inflammatorybowel diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the concentrations of iron in hair from 10 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases and from 10 healthy controls showed that the iron concentra- tions were significantly (P <0.05) lower in patients before iron intake than in controls. Three weeks after beginning iron treatment, the hair iron concentrations were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.68; P

FLORIAN RENNER; STEFAN SU; JURGEN SCH

32

In situ characterization and mapping of iron compounds in Alzheimer's disease tissue.  

PubMed

There is a well-established link between iron overload in the brain and pathology associated with neurodegeneration in a variety of disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases [1]. This association was first discovered in AD by Goodman in 1953 [2], where, in addition to abnormally high concentrations of iron in autopsy brain tissue, iron has also been shown to accumulate at sites of brain pathology such as senile plaques [3]. However, since this discovery, progress in understanding the origin, role and nature of iron compounds associated with neurodegeneration has been slow. Here we report, for the first time, the location and characterisation of iron compounds in human AD brain tissue sections. Iron fluorescence was mapped over a frontal-lobe tissue section from an Alzheimer's patient, and anomalous iron concentrations were identified using synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques at 5 mum spatial resolution. Concentrations of ferritin and magnetite, a magnetic iron oxide potentially indicating disrupted brain-iron metabolism, were evident. These results demonstrate a practical means of correlating iron compounds and disease pathology in-situ and have clear implications for disease pathogenesis and potential therapies. PMID:16131727

Collingwood, J F; Mikhaylova, A; Davidson, M; Batich, C; Streit, W J; Terry, J; Dobson, J

2005-08-01

33

In-situ Characterization and Mapping of Iron Compounds in Alzheimer?s Tissue  

SciTech Connect

There is a well-established link between iron overload in the brain and pathology associated with neurodegeneration in a variety of disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases. This association was first discovered in AD by Goodman in 1953, where, in addition to abnormally high concentrations of iron in autopsy brain tissue, iron has also been shown to accumulate at sites of brain pathology such as senile plaques. However, since this discovery, progress in understanding the origin, role and nature of iron compounds associated with neurodegeneration has been slow. Here we report, for the first time, the location and characterization of iron compounds in human AD brain tissue sections. Iron fluorescence was mapped over a frontal-lobe tissue section from an Alzheimer's patient, and anomalous iron concentrations were identified using synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques at 5 {micro}m spatial resolution. Concentrations of ferritin and magnetite, a magnetic iron oxide potentially indicating disrupted brain-iron metabolism, were evident. These results demonstrate a practical means of correlating iron compounds and disease pathology in-situ and have clear implications for disease pathogenesis and potential therapies.

Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Terry, J.; Dobson, J. (IIT); (Keele); (Florida)

2008-06-16

34

The effect of iron chelate fertilization of poplar upon CO 2 -uptake, leaf size, and content of leaf pigments and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Potted poplars (strainsmarilandica, serotina andFlachslanden ofPopulus euramericana) which developed iron-deficiency symptoms (chlorosis of upper leaves, winter die-back of leader, flushing of lateral buds) were treated with a soil application of iron chelate to study the effect of iron nutrition upon CO2-uptake, iron and pigment content of leaves, and leaf size of a tree species. Foliar content of each iron,

Theodor Keller; Werner Koch

1964-01-01

35

Mapping and characterization of iron compounds in Alzheimer?s tissue  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the management of iron in the brain is of great importance in the study of neurodegeneration, where regional iron overload is frequently evident. A variety of approaches have been employed, from quantifying iron in various anatomical structures, to identifying genetic risk factors related to iron metabolism, and exploring chelation approaches to tackle iron overload in neurodegenerative disease. However, the ease with which iron can change valence state ensures that it is present in vivo in a wide variety of forms, both soluble and insoluble. Here, we review recent developments in approaches to locate and identify iron compounds in neurodegenerative tissue. In addition to complementary techniques that allow us to quantify and identify iron compounds using magnetometry, extraction, and electron microscopy, we are utilizing a powerful combined mapping/characterization approach with synchrotron X-rays. This has enabled the location and characterization of iron accumulations containing magnetite and ferritin in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue sections in situ at micron-resolution. It is hoped that such approaches will contribute to our understanding of the role of unusual iron accumulations in disease pathogenesis, and optimise the potential to use brain iron as a clinical biomarker for early detection and diagnosis.

Collingwood, Joanna; Dobson, Jon (Keele)

2008-06-16

36

The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.  

PubMed

The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

2014-07-01

37

Temperature programmed reduction for measurement of oxygen content in nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has increasingly been used for environmental remediation and in toxic waste treatment. Most applications exploit its large surface area and high reactivity, the latter being a function of zerovalent iron content. In this work, temperature programmed reduction was applied to measure oxygen in nZVI. Iron oxides in nZVI were reduced by hydrogen to form metallic iron and water, which was then measured with an online mass spectrometer to determine oxygen content of the sample. For fresh nZVI prepared by sodium borohydride reduction of iron salts, average oxygen content was 8.21%. Total iron content was approximately 90.35% by the method of acid digestion; Fe(III) content was estimated at 14.37%, and that of zerovalent iron [Fe(0)] at 75.98%. The oxygen content quickly increased to 26.14% after purging with oxygen for four hours. Several other techniques were also used to characterize the iron nanoparticles. High resolution TEM provided direct evidence of the oxide shell structure and indicated that the shell thickness was predominantly in the range of 2-4 nm. The surface elemental composition was determined from high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nZVI oxygen content results fill a knowledge gap on nZVI composition. PMID:18546722

Cao, Jiasheng; Li, Xiaoqin; Tavakoli, Javad; Zhang, Wei-Xian

2008-05-15

38

Tissue fusion bursting pressure and the role of tissue water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue fusion is a complex, poorly understood process which bonds collagenous tissues together using heat and pressure. The goal of this study is to elucidate the role of hydration in bond efficacy. Hydration of porcine splenic arteries (n=30) was varied by pre-fusion treatments: 24-48 hour immersion in isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic baths. Treated arteries were fused in several locations using Conmed's Altrus thermal fusion device and the bursting pressure was then measured for each fused segment. Artery sections were then weighed before and after lyophilization, to quantify water content. Histology (HE, EVG staining) enabled visualization of the bonding interface. Bursting pressure was significantly greater (p=4.17 E-ll) for the hypotonic group (607.6 +/- 83.2mmHg), while no significant difference existed between the isotonic (332.6 +/- 44.7mmHg) and hypertonic (348.7 +/- 44.0mmHg) treatment groups. Total water content varied (p=8.80 E-24) from low water content in the hypertonic samples (72.5% weight +/- 0.9), to high water content in the hypotonic samples (83.1% weight +/- 1.9), while the isotonic samples contained 78.8% weight +/- 1.1. Strength differences between the treated vessels imply that bound water driven from the tissue during fusion may reveal available collagen crosslinking sites to facilitate bond formation during the fusion process. Thus when the tissue contains greater bound water volumes, more crosslinking sites may become available during fusion, leading to a stronger bond. This study provides an important step towards understanding the chemistry underlying tissue fusion and the mechanics of tissue fusion as a function of bound water within the tissue.

Cezo, James; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark

2013-02-01

39

Age-dependent and gender-specific changes in mouse tissue iron by strain.  

PubMed

Iron is necessary for life but also a potent pro-oxidant implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. We sought to determine if iron levels change with age and by sex in various tissues from several commonly studied mouse strains. Brain, liver, heart, retina, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid were dissected from male and female mice of young adult (2-6 month old) and aged (16-19 month old) C57BL/6, DBA/2J, and BALB/c mice. Iron was quantified through a chromagen-based spectrophotometric method or through atomic absorption spectrophotometry for increased sensitivity. Brain, liver, and heart iron increased by 30-70% in aged vs. young adult groups of all strains, while retina and RPE/choroid iron had variable age-related changes. Significant gender differences were observed in BALB/c and DBA/2J strains. Males had as much as 2- to 3-fold more brain, RPE/choroid, and retinal iron, while females had as much as 2- to 3-fold more liver iron. There was no significant gender difference observed in heart iron. The different profiles of change between gender and among strains suggest that hormones and genetics influence iron regulation with aging. Future manipulation of iron levels in mice will test the role of iron in aging and disease, and the data reported herein will be essential in directing such manipulations. PMID:19563877

Hahn, Paul; Song, Ying; Ying, Gui-shuang; He, Xining; Beard, John; Dunaief, Joshua L

2009-09-01

40

Demonstration of iron and thorium in autopsy tissues by x-ray microanalysis  

SciTech Connect

We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined.

Landas, S.; Turner, J.W.; Moore, K.C.; Mitros, F.A.

1984-03-01

41

Tissue distribution and clearance kinetics of non-transferrin-bound iron in the hypotransferrinemic mouse: a rodent model for hemochromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically hypotransferrinemic mice accumulate iron in the liver and pancreas. A similar pattern of tissue iron accumulation occurs in humans with hereditary hemochromatosis. In both disorders, there is a decrease plasma concentration of apotransferrin. To test the hypothesis that nontransferrin-bound iron exists and is clear by the parenchymal tissues, the tissue distribution of ⁵⁹Fe was studied in animals lacking apotransferrin.

C. M. Craven; J. Alexander; M. Eldridge; J. P. Kushner; S. Bernstein; J. Kaplan

1987-01-01

42

Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

J.Y. Hwang

2006-10-04

43

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2* for tissue iron assessment in the heart  

PubMed Central

Until recently, even in Europe and the US, iron induced cardiomyopathy was the most common cause of death for patients with thalassemia major (TM). In order to prevent deaths from this potentially reversible condition, accurate measurement of myocardial iron is needed to detect iron early and guide chelation therapy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T2* is the method of choice for the assessment of cardiac iron and in the UK, where it was first introduced clinically, 60% reductions in overall mortality for TM have been observed. The history of T2* development is described in this article. T2* image acquisition and post processing techniques are reviewed. Remaining challenges and emerging techniques to potentially improve characterization of tissue iron are also discussed. PMID:25392825

2014-01-01

44

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2* for tissue iron assessment in the heart.  

PubMed

Until recently, even in Europe and the US, iron induced cardiomyopathy was the most common cause of death for patients with thalassemia major (TM). In order to prevent deaths from this potentially reversible condition, accurate measurement of myocardial iron is needed to detect iron early and guide chelation therapy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T2* is the method of choice for the assessment of cardiac iron and in the UK, where it was first introduced clinically, 60% reductions in overall mortality for TM have been observed. The history of T2* development is described in this article. T2* image acquisition and post processing techniques are reviewed. Remaining challenges and emerging techniques to potentially improve characterization of tissue iron are also discussed. PMID:25392825

He, Taigang

2014-10-01

45

Desferrithiocin analogue iron chelators: iron clearing efficiency, tissue distribution, and renal toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged\\u000a metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4?-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure–activity relationship studies\\u000a have established that

Raymond J. Bergeron; Jan Wiegand; Neelam Bharti; James S. McManis; Shailendra Singh

2011-01-01

46

Cerebellar pathology in Friedreich's ataxia: Atrophied dentate nuclei with normal iron content  

PubMed Central

Background In Friedreich's ataxia (FA) the genetically decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin leads to disturbance of the mitochondrial iron metabolism. Within the cerebellum the dentate nuclei (DN) are primarily affected. Histopathological studies show atrophy and accumulation of mitochondrial iron in DN. Dentate iron content has been suggested as a biomarker to measure the effects of siderophores/antioxidant treatment of FA. We assessed the iron content and the volume of DN in FA patients and controls based on ultra-high-field MRI (7 Tesla) images. Methods Fourteen FA patients (mean age 38.1 yrs) and 14 age- and gender-matched controls participated. Multi-echo gradient echo and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequences were acquired on a 7 T whole-body scanner. For comparison SWI images were acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Volumes of the DN and cerebellum were assessed at 7 and 1.5 T, respectively. Parametric maps of T2 and T2* sequences were created and proton transverse relaxation rates were estimated as a measure of iron content. Results In FA, the DN and the cerebellum were significantly smaller compared to controls. However, proton transverse relaxation rates of the DN were not significantly different between both groups. Conclusions Applying in vivo MRI methods we could demonstrate significant atrophy of the DN in the presence of normal iron content. The findings suggest that relaxation rates are not reliable biomarkers in clinical trials evaluating the potential effect of FA therapy. PMID:25379420

Solbach, K.; Kraff, O.; Minnerop, M.; Beck, A.; Schöls, L.; Gizewski, E.R.; Ladd, M.E.; Timmann, D.

2014-01-01

47

Magnetic poly(?-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrates for advanced bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

In biomedicine, magnetic nanoparticles provide some attractive possibilities because they possess peculiar physical properties that permit their use in a wide range of applications. The concept of magnetic guidance basically spans from drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment of tumours, to tissue engineering, such as magneto-mechanical stimulation/activation of cell constructs and mechanosensitive ion channels, magnetic cell-seeding procedures, and controlled cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite substrates for bone tissue engineering by embedding iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles in a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix. X-ray diffraction analyses enabled the demonstration that the phase composition and crystallinity of the magnetic FeHA were not affected by the process used to develop the nanocomposite substrates. The mechanical characterization performed through small punch tests has evidenced that inclusion of 10 per cent by weight of FeHA would represent an effective reinforcement. The inclusion of nanoparticles also improves the hydrophilicity of the substrates as evidenced by the lower values of water contact angle in comparison with those of neat PCL. The results from magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic character of the nanocomposite substrates, indicated by a very low coercive field, a saturation magnetization strictly proportional to the FeHA content and a strong history dependence in temperature sweeps. Regarding the biological performances, confocal laser scanning microscopy and AlamarBlue assay have provided qualitative and quantitative information on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and viability/proliferation, respectively, whereas the obtained ALP/DNA values have shown the ability of the nanocomposite substrates to support osteogenic differentiation. PMID:23303218

Gloria, A.; Russo, T.; D'Amora, U.; Zeppetelli, S.; D'Alessandro, T.; Sandri, M.; Bañobre-López, M.; Piñeiro-Redondo, Y.; Uhlarz, M.; Tampieri, A.; Rivas, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Dediu, V. A.; Ambrosio, L.; De Santis, R.

2013-01-01

48

Effect of dietary nickel and iron on the trace element content of rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level and\\/or form of dietary iron, dietary nickel, and the interaction between them affected the trace element content\\u000a of rat liver. Livers were from the offspring of dams fed diets containing 10–16 ng, or 20 ?g, of nickel\\/g. Dietary iron was\\u000a supplied as ferric chloride (30 ?g\\/g) or ferric sulfate (30 ?g, or 60 ?g). In nickel-deprived rats fed

F. H. Nielsen; T. R. Shuler

1979-01-01

49

The Effect of Iron Content on the Iron-Containing Intermetallic Phases in a Cast 6060 Aluminum Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of iron content, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 wt pct, on the formation of Fe-containing intermetallic phases in a cast 6060 aluminum alloy was investigated. Various characterization techniques, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the identity, morphology, and prevalence of the Fe-Al and Fe-Al-Si

L. Sweet; S. M. Zhu; S. X. Gao; J. A. Taylor; M. A. Easton

2011-01-01

50

Hematological and iron content evolution in exclusively breastfed late-preterm newborns  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the evolution of hematological parameters and body iron content between exclusively breastfed late-preterm and term newborns during the first two months of life. METHODS: Cohort study. Weight, length, head circumference, body mass index, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum iron and ferritin were measured in 25 late-preterm and 21 term newborns (at birth and at one and two months of age) who were exclusively breastfed. Statistical analysis: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test; and Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Significance: p<0.05. RESULTS: The corrected gestational ages of the late-preterm infants were 39.98 weeks at one month of life and 44.53 weeks at two months. Anthropometric measures and the body mass index increased over time (p<0.001) and hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes and body iron content decreased (p<0.001). Late-preterm infants at term corrected gestational age had reduced hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte concentrations, and reduced total iron-binding capacity (p<0.001) and serum iron (p?=?0.0034) compared with values observed in term newborns at birth. Late-preterm newborns at a corrected gestational age of one month post-term had hemoglobin (p?=?0.0002), hematocrit (p?=?0.0008), iron (p<0.0001) and transferrin saturation (p<0.001) levels lower than those of term newborns at one month of age and a higher total iron-binding capacity (p?=?0.0018). Ferritin did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Exclusively breastfed late-preterm newborns presented greater reductions in hemoglobin/hematocrit and lower iron stores at a corrected gestational age of one month post-term than did term newborns, suggesting specific iron supplementation needs. PMID:25627989

Yamada, Renato Takeshi; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

2014-01-01

51

Boron, zinc, iron, and manganese content in four grassland species  

SciTech Connect

A post experiment was carried out to test the response of the B, Zn, Fe, and Mn concentration in four wild herbaceous species exposed to three landfill leachate treatments of increasing concentration of contaminants. The species tested were clustered clover (Trifolium glomeratum L.), cotton clover (T. tomentosum L.) wall barley (Hordeum murinum L.), and soft brome (Bromus hordaceus L.). The legume species accumulated more Fe and B than the grasses. The least contaminated leachate (leachate A) significantly increased the Fe and Ma content in T glomeratum. Leachate B significantly increased the Zn content in both clover species and Fe content in T. glomeratum and H. murinum, while it significantly decreased the B content in T. glomeratum. The most contaminated leachate (leachate C) significantly increased the Zn content in T. glomeratum, while it significantly decreased the B and Fe content. In the four species the content of B, Fe, and Mn in the plants under the leachate treatments was in a normal values range, while in T. glomeratum and H. murinum the Zn content had in some cases a toxic level. The dry weight of the four species tested diminished significantly under the most contaminated leachate. The ANOVA confirmed a major significant influence of the species factor on the response of the plant to leachate supply, but the treatment factor also had significant F-values in some cases. The species tested have a potential revegetation value for some areas degraded by landfill leachates.

Adarve, M.J.; Hernandez, A.J. [Univ. de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Gil, A.; Pastor, J. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Environmental Sciences Research Center

1998-11-01

52

Iron, radiation, and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

1990-01-01

53

Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment  

SciTech Connect

Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area.

Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

1988-03-01

54

Mapping and Prediction of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis with Bioavailable Iron Content in the Bituminous Coals  

PubMed Central

Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron’s bioavailability. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal’s toxicity, even before large-scale mining. PMID:16079064

Huang, Xi; Li, Weihong; Attfield, Michael D.; Nádas, Arthur; Frenkel, Krystyna; Finkelman, Robert B.

2005-01-01

55

Effect of staphylococcal iron content on the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Preincubation of Staphylococcus aureus 502A in broth with increasing concentrations of ferrous sulfate progressively increased their iron content, markedly increased their susceptibility to killing by hydrogen peroxide, and did not alter their susceptibility to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:7216492

Repine, J E; Fox, R B; Berger, E M; Harada, R N

1981-01-01

56

Red cell ferritin content: a re-evaluation of indices for iron deficiency in the anaemia of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In iron deficiency anaemia basic red cell content of ferritin is appreciably reduced. This variable was determined in 62 patients with rheumatoid arthritis to evaluate conventional laboratory indices for iron deficiency in the anaemia of rheumatoid arthritis. For 23 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and normocytic anaemia irrespective of plasma ferritin concentration, red cell ferritin content did not differ significantly from

A Davidson; M B Van der Weyden; H Fong; M J Breidahl; P F Ryan

1984-01-01

57

Non-protein-bound iron detection in small samples of biological fluids and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the pro-oxidative nature of non-protein-bound-iron (NPBI) led to the development of an assay for its detection.\\u000a The aim was to set up a reliable method of detecting NPBI in small samples of biological fluids and tissue. The method was\\u000a based on preferential chelation of NPBI by a large excess of the low-affinity ligand nitrilotriacetic acid. To separate NPBI,

Patrizia Paffetti; Serafina Perrone; Mariangela Longini; Antonio Ferrari; Donatella Tanganelli; Barbara Marzocchi; Giuseppe Buonocore

2006-01-01

58

Comparison of Histological Techniques to Visualize Iron in Paraffin-embedded Brain Tissue of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Better knowledge of the distribution of iron in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients may facilitate the development of an in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) marker for AD and may cast light on the role of this potentially toxic molecule in the pathogenesis of AD. Several histological iron staining techniques have been used in the past but they have not been systematically tested for sensitivity and specificity. This article compares three histochemical techniques and ferritin immunohistochemistry to visualize iron in paraffin-embedded human AD brain tissue. The specificity of the histochemical techniques was tested by staining sections after iron extraction. Iron was demonstrated in the white matter, in layers IV/V of the frontal neocortex, in iron containing plaques, and in microglia. In our hands, these structures were best visualized using the Meguro iron stain, a method that has not been described for iron staining in human brain or AD in particular. Ferritin immunohistochemistry stained microglia and iron containing plaques similar to the Meguro method but was less intense in myelin-associated iron. The Meguro method is most suitable for identifying iron-positive structures in paraffin-embedded human AD brain tissue. PMID:23887894

Nabuurs, Rob J.A.; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Natté, Remco

2013-01-01

59

The Effect of Iron Content on the Iron-Containing Intermetallic Phases in a Cast 6060 Aluminum Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of iron content, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 wt pct, on the formation of Fe-containing intermetallic phases in a cast\\u000a 6060 aluminum alloy was investigated. Various characterization techniques, including optical microscopy, scanning electron\\u000a microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine\\u000a the identity, morphology, and prevalence of the Fe-Al and Fe-Al-Si intermetallic phases.

L. Sweet; S. M. Zhu; S. X. Gao; J. A. Taylor; M. A. Easton

2011-01-01

60

The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy  

PubMed Central

Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Asbestos toxicity is ascribed to its particular physico-chemical characteristics, and one of them is the presence of and ability to adsorb iron, which may cause an alteration of iron homeostasis in the tissue. This observational study reports a combination of advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and micro-spectroscopic methods that provide correlative morphological and chemical information for shedding light on iron mobilization features during asbestos permanence in lung tissue. The results show that the processes responsible for the unusual distribution of iron at different stages of interaction with the fibres also involve calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It has been confirmed that the dominant iron form present in asbestos bodies is ferritin, while the concurrent presence of haematite suggests alteration of iron chemistry during asbestos body permanence. PMID:23350030

Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Schneider, Giulia; Salomé, Murielle; Schneider, Manuela; Calligaro, Carla; Kiskinova, Maya; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

2013-01-01

61

Mapping and prediction of coal workers' pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CXXT in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p {lt} 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p {lt} 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p {lt} 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p {lt} 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p {lt} 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailability. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scale mining.

Huang, X.; Li, W.H.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B. [NYU, New York, NY (US). School of Medicine

2005-08-01

62

The Effect of Iron Content on the Iron-Containing Intermetallic Phases in a Cast 6060 Aluminum Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of iron content, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 wt pct, on the formation of Fe-containing intermetallic phases in a cast 6060 aluminum alloy was investigated. Various characterization techniques, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the identity, morphology, and prevalence of the Fe-Al and Fe-Al-Si intermetallic phases. The predominant phase is found to be ?-Al5FeSi at lower Fe levels, but this is replaced by ?-AlFeSi (bcc structure) with increasing Fe content. The Fe containing intermetallic phases observed are compared to those predicted using the Scheil module of THERMO-CALC software, and the similarities and discrepancies are discussed.

Sweet, L.; Zhu, S. M.; Gao, S. X.; Taylor, J. A.; Easton, M. A.

2011-07-01

63

Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

1980-01-01

64

Nitrite induces the extravasation of iron oxide nanoparticles in hypoxic tumor tissue.  

PubMed

Nitrite undergoes reconversion to nitric oxide under conditions characteristic of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia and low pH. This selective conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide in tumor tissue has led to the possibility of using nitrite to enhance drug delivery and the radiation response. In this work, we propose to serially characterize the vascular response of brain tumor-bearing rats to nitrite using contrast-enhanced R2 * mapping. Imaging is performed using a multi-echo gradient echo sequence at baseline, post iron oxide nanoparticle injection and post-nitrite injection, whilst the animal is breathing air. The results indicate that nitrite sufficiently increases the vascular permeability in C6 gliomas, such that the iron oxide nanoparticles accumulate within the tumor tissue. When animals breathed 100% oxygen, the contrast agent remained within the vasculature, indicating that the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide occurs in the presence of hypoxia within the tumor. The hypoxia-dependent, nitrite-induced extravasation of iron oxide nanoparticles observed herein has implications for the enhancement of conventional and nanotherapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24470164

Mistry, Nilesh; Stokes, Ashley M; Gambrell, James Van; Quarles, Christopher Chad

2014-04-01

65

Effects of ferrous sulphate and non-ionic iron-polymaltose complex on markers of oxidative tissue damage in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background: Iron deficiency is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Oral iron therapy may reinforce intestinal tissue injury by catalyzing produc- tion of reactive oxygen species. Aim: To compare the effects of ferrous sulphate and non- ionic iron-polymaltose complex on markers of oxidative tissue damage and clinical disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Forty-one patients

E RICHSEN

66

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

67

Effect of FeO-content and potentials for quality improvements of iron ore pellets  

SciTech Connect

The FeO-content strongly influences the physical and metallurgical properties of iron ore pellets. A wide range of FeO-contents within the pellet deliveries to the Germany market is evaluated. Investigations include the effect of pellet size. The paper concludes potentials for quality improvement of iron ore pellets. Most of the German blast furnaces are operated with high injection rates either of oil or of coal resulting in a decrease of coke consumption down to a level of about 300 kg/t hot metal. As the retention time of the burden increases, blast furnace operators demand higher quality burden material, basically with respect to strength before and during reduction.

Kortmann, H.A.; Mertins, E.; Ritz, V.J. [Studiengesellschaft fuer Eisenerzaufbereitung, Liebenburg-Othfresen (Germany)

1995-12-01

68

Element contents in organs and tissues of Chinese adult men.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to provide reference values for relevant parameters of Chinese Reference Man. Eighteen kinds of major organ or tissue samples, including muscle, rib, liver, and so on, were obtained from autopsies of 68 healthy adult men living in four areas of China with different dietary patterns (Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, Jiangxi or Jiangsu provinces, including Shanghai City) who had just encountered sudden deaths. At the same time, whole blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers living in each of these areas. The concentrations of 60 elements in these samples were detected by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), neutron activation analysis (NAA), fluorometry (FL), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) techniques and necessary quality control (QC) measures. Based on obtained concentrations and reference values of these organ or tissue weights for Chinese Reference Man, the elemental burdens in these organs or tissues were estimated. As a summary report of a series of research studies for Chinese Reference Man, which included three steps (from 1996 to 2006), the concentrations of 60 elements in 18 main organs or tissues were determined and their elemental burdens in the organs or tissues and whole body were estimated. Furthermore, the organ or tissue distributions of some important elements for radiation protection were discussed. These results may provide more reliable and better representative bases than before for establishing related reference values of Chinese Reference Man and revising current reference values of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Reference Man. These basic data will also be very valuable for many other applications in radiation protection and other scientific fields. PMID:19959952

Zhu, Hongda; Wang, Neifen; Zhang, Yongbao; Wu, Quan; Chen, Rusong; Gao, Junquan; Chang, Ping; Liu, Qingfen; Fan, Tijiang; Li, Juan; Wang, Jixian; Wang, Jingyu

2010-01-01

69

Tissue distribution and clearance kinetics of non-transferrin-bound iron in the hypotransferrinemic mouse: a rodent model for hemochromatosis  

SciTech Connect

Genetically hypotransferrinemic mice accumulate iron in the liver and pancreas. A similar pattern of tissue iron accumulation occurs in humans with hereditary hemochromatosis. In both disorders, there is a decrease plasma concentration of apotransferrin. To test the hypothesis that nontransferrin-bound iron exists and is clear by the parenchymal tissues, the tissue distribution of /sup 59/Fe was studied in animals lacking apotransferrin. Two groups of animals were used: normal rats and mice whose transferrin had been saturated by an intravenous injection of nonradiolabeled iron, and mice with congential hypotransferrinemia. In control animals, injected /sup 59/Fe was found primarily in the bone marrow and spleen. In the transferrin iron-saturated animals, injected /sup 59/Fe accumulated in the liver and pancreas. Gastrointestinally absorbed iron in hypotransferrinemic or transferrin iron-saturated mice was deposited in the liver. This indicates that newly absorbed iron is released from mucosal cells not bound to transferrin. Clearance studies demonstrated that transferrin-bound /sup 59/Fe was removed from the circulation of rats with a half-time of 50 min. In transferrin iron-saturated animals, injected /sup 59/Fe was removed with a half-time of <30 s. Analysis of the distribution of /sup 59/Fe in serum samples by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of /sup 59/Fe not bound to transferrin. These results demonstrate the existence of and uptake system for non-transferrin-bound iron. These observations support the hypothesis that parenchymal iron overload is consequence of reduced concentrations of apotransferrin.

Craven, C.M.; Alexander, J.; Eldridge, M.; Kushner, J.P.; Bernstein, S.; Kaplan, J.

1987-05-01

70

Diagnostics of gleyzation upon a low content of iron oxides (Using the example of tundra soils in the Kolyma Lowland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matrix of iron (hydr)oxides exerts a decisive influence on the character of gleyzation. Upon a high content of iron (hydr)oxides, their reduction radically changes the horizon color from warm to cold hues, which is typical of soils on the Russian Plain. Upon the low content of iron (hydr)oxides, iron reduction takes place in phyllosilicates with minimal changes in the soil color. The cold hue of cryohydromorphic soils in the Kolyma Lowland is controlled by the color of the lithogenic matrix with a low content of iron (hydr)oxides. In this case, the soil color characteristics expressed in the Munsell notation or in the CIE-L*a*b* system are ineffective for diagnostic purposes. The colorimetric methods appear to be more efficient after the soil pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide, as the gleyed horizons turn green, while the nongleyed (and not overmoistened) horizons turn red. Physical methods (Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements) are more efficient for characterizing the properties of iron compounds in cryohydromorphic soils as compared with the methods of chemical extraction. Mössbauer spectroscopy proved to be highly efficient, as the iron oxidation index Fe3+/(Fe2++Fe3+) decreases in the gleyed horizons. Chemical reagents (Tamm’s and Mehra-Jackson’s reagents) dissolve Fe-phyllosilicates and are not selective in soils with a low content of iron (hydr)oxides.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Mergelov, N. S.; Goryachkin, S. V.

2008-03-01

71

Efficiency of the Conversion of Low-Silicon Pig Iron with a Low Manganese Content in Oxygen Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technology – the first of its kind in oxygen converter steelmaking – has been developed to make steel from low-silicon, low-manganese pig iron in 350-ton converters. Results are presented from a study of the dependence of the chemical composition and temperature of the pig iron on its manganese content. The first study ever is made of the processes of

R. S. Aizatulov; Yu. A. Pak; V. V. Sokolov; A. B. Yur'ev; V. A. Buimov; M. V. Glukhikh

2002-01-01

72

Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Venton, B Jill

2014-12-01

73

A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time  

PubMed Central

The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-?FeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem ‘tissue fixation’ by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB ? O2 > ?O2 ? +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

Schweitzer, Mary H.; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.

2014-01-01

74

Discrimination between Oral Cancer and Healthy Tissue Based on Water Content Determined by Raman Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Tumor-positive resection margins are a major problem in oral cancer surgery. High-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy is a reliable technique to determine the water content of tissues, which may contribute to differentiate between tumor and healthy tissue. The aim of this study was to examine the use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate tumor from surrounding healthy tissue in oral squamous cell carcinoma. From 14 patients undergoing tongue resection for squamous cell carcinoma, the water content was determined at 170 locations on freshly excised tongue specimens using the Raman bands of the OH-stretching vibrations (3350-3550 cm(-1)) and of the CH-stretching vibrations (2910-2965 cm(-1)). The results were correlated with histopathological assessment of hematoxylin and eosin stained thin tissue sections obtained from the Raman measurement locations. The water content values from squamous cell carcinoma measurements were significantly higher than from surrounding healthy tissue (p-value < 0.0001). Tumor tissue could be detected with a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 92% using a cutoff water content value of 69%. Because the Raman measurements are fast and can be carried out on freshly excised tissue without any tissue preparation, this finding signifies an important step toward the development of an intraoperative tool for tumor resection guidance with the aim of enabling oncological radical surgery and improvement of patient outcome. PMID:25621527

Barroso, E M; Smits, R W H; Bakker Schut, T C; Ten Hove, I; Hardillo, J A; Wolvius, E B; Baatenburg de Jong, R J; Koljenovi?, S; Puppels, G J

2015-02-17

75

Near-infrared excited state dynamics of melanins: the effects of iron content, photo-damage, chemical oxidation, and aggregate size.  

PubMed

Ultrafast pump-probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin's pump-probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump-probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin's pump-probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump-probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported "activation" of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

Simpson, Mary Jane; Wilson, Jesse W; Robles, Francisco E; Dall, Christopher P; Glass, Keely; Simon, John D; Warren, Warren S

2014-02-13

76

Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size  

PubMed Central

Ultrafast pump–probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin’s pump–probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump–probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin’s pump–probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump–probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported “activation” of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

2015-01-01

77

Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability.  

PubMed

The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected. PMID:25177957

Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C

2014-01-01

78

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... mealtime or when you take iron supplements.RiboflavinTaking riboflavin supplements may improve the way iron supplements work ... significant only in people with low levels of riboflavin.SoySoy protein seems to reduce the body's ability ...

79

IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

80

Iron Oxide-labeled Collagen Scaffolds for Non-invasive MR Imaging in Tissue Engineering.  

PubMed

Non-invasive imaging holds significant potential for implementation in tissue engineering. It can e.g. be used to monitor the localization and function of tissue-engineered implants, as well as their resorption and remodelling. Thus far, however, the vast majority of efforts in this area of research have focused on the use of ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle-labeled cells, colonizing the scaffolds, to indirectly image the implant material. Reasoning that directly labeling scaffold materials might be more beneficial (enabling imaging also in case of non-cellularized implants), more informative (enabling the non-invasive visualization and quantification of scaffold degradation) and more easy to translate into the clinic (since cell-free materials are less complex from a regulatory point-of-view), we here prepared three different types of USPIO nanoparticles, and incorporated them both passively and actively (via chemical conjugation; during collagen crosslinking) into collagen-based scaffold materials. We furthermore optimized the amount of USPIO incorporated into the scaffolds, correlated the amount of entrapped USPIO with MR signal intensity, showed that the labeled scaffolds are highly biocompatible, demonstrated that scaffold degradation can be visualized using MRI and provided initial proof-of-principle for the in vivo visualization of the scaffolds. Consequently, USPIO-labeled scaffold materials seem to be highly suitable for image-guided tissue engineering applications. PMID:24569840

Mertens, Marianne E; Hermann, Alina; Bühren, Anne; Olde-Damink, Leon; Möckel, Diana; Gremse, Felix; Ehling, Josef; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

2014-02-12

81

Simultaneous Field and R2* Mapping to Quantify Liver Iron Content Using Autoregressive Moving Average Modeling  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the use of a complex multi-gradient echo (mGRE) acquisition and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for simultaneous susceptibility and R2* measurements for the assessment of liver iron content (LIC) in patients with iron overload. Materials and Methods Fifty MR exams with magnitude and phase mGRE images are processed using the ARMA model which provides fat-separated field maps, R2* maps, and T1-W imaging. The LIC is calculated by measuring the susceptibility between the liver and the right transverse abdominal muscle from the field maps. The relationship between LIC derived from susceptibility measurements and LIC from R2* measurements is determined using linear least squares regression analysis. Results LIC measured from R2* is highly correlated to the LIC from the susceptibility method (mg/g dry = 8.99 ± 0.15 × (mg Fe/ml of wet liver) ?2.38 ± 0.29, R2=0.94). The field inhomogeneity in the liver is correlated with R2* (R2=0.85). Conclusion By using the ARMA model on complex mGRE images, both susceptibility and R2*-based LIC measurements can be made simultaneously. The susceptibility measurement can be used to help verify R2* measurements in the assessment of iron overload. PMID:22180325

Taylor, Brian A.; Loeffler, Ralf B.; Song, Ruitian; McCarville, Mary E.; Hankins, Jane S.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.

2011-01-01

82

Disentangling in vivo the effects of iron content and atrophy on the ageing human brain  

PubMed Central

Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies shows that healthy aging is associated with profound changes in cortical and subcortical brain structures. The reliable delineation of cortex and basal ganglia using automated computational anatomy methods based on T1-weighted images remains challenging, which results in controversies in the literature. In this study we use quantitative MRI (qMRI) to gain an insight into the microstructural mechanisms underlying tissue ageing and look for potential interactions between ageing and brain tissue properties to assess their impact on automated tissue classification. To this end we acquired maps of longitudinal relaxation rate R1, effective transverse relaxation rate R2* and magnetization transfer – MT, from healthy subjects (n = 96, aged 21–88 years) using a well-established multi-parameter mapping qMRI protocol. Within the framework of voxel-based quantification we find higher grey matter volume in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate and prefrontal cortex when tissue classification is based on MT maps compared with T1 maps. These discrepancies between grey matter volume estimates can be attributed to R2* - a surrogate marker of iron concentration, and further modulation by an interaction between R2* and age, both in cortical and subcortical areas. We interpret our findings as direct evidence for the impact of ageing-related brain tissue property changes on automated tissue classification of brain structures using SPM12. Computational anatomy studies of ageing and neurodegeneration should acknowledge these effects, particularly when inferring about underlying pathophysiology from regional cortex and basal ganglia volume changes. PMID:25264230

Lorio, S.; Lutti, A.; Kherif, F.; Ruef, A.; Dukart, J.; Chowdhury, R.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Ashburner, J.; Helms, G.; Weiskopf, N.; Draganski, B.

2014-01-01

83

Hot Tear Susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Fe Alloys with Varying Iron Contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot tear susceptibility in cast Al-0.52Si-0.34Mg- xFe 6060 aluminum alloys was investigated using a hot tearing test apparatus to simulate hot tearing in DC casting. The test apparatus has two cast bars, one that is used to measure the load response and one which is fixed at both ends to restrain thermal contraction so that hot tearing can be observed and rated where it occurred. The iron (Fe) content, ranging from 0.02 to 0.5 wt pct, was seen to have a major influence on the load response during solidification and the tear rating of these alloys. The findings are discussed in terms of Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model sensitivity analysis and related to the effect of Fe content on the morphology and prevalence of the ?-Al5FeSi and ?-AlFeSi intermetallic phases and their influence on the coherency and coalescence of the microstructure.

Sweet, Lisa; Easton, Mark A.; Taylor, John A.; Grandfield, John F.; Davidson, Cameron J.; Lu, Liming; Couper, Malcolm J.; StJohn, David H.

2013-12-01

84

Iron quantification of microbleeds in postmortem brain.  

PubMed

Brain microbleeds (BMB) are associated with chronic and acute cerebrovascular disease and present a source of pathologic iron to the brain proportional to extravasated blood. Therefore, BMB iron content is potentially a valuable biomarker. We tested noninvasive phase image methods to quantify iron content and estimate true source diameter (i.e., unobscured by the blooming effect) of BMB in postmortem human tissue. Tissue slices containing BMB were imaged using a susceptibility weighted imaging protocol at 11.7T. BMB lesions were assayed for iron content using atomic absorption spectrometry. Measurements of geometric features in phase images were related to lesion iron content and source diameter using a mathematical model. BMB diameter was estimated by image feature geometry alone without explicit relation to the magnetic susceptibility. A strong linear relationship (R(2) = 0.984, P < 0.001) predicted by theory was observed in the experimental data, presenting a tentative standardization curve where BMB iron content in similar tissues could be calculated. In addition, we report BMB iron mass measurements, as well as upper bound diameter and lower bound iron concentration estimates. Our methods potentially allows the calculation of brain iron load indices based on BMB iron content and classification of BMB by size unobscured by the blooming effect. PMID:21590801

McAuley, Grant; Schrag, Matthew; Barnes, Samuel; Obenaus, Andre; Dickson, April; Holshouser, Barbara; Kirsch, Wolff

2011-06-01

85

Mercury and selenium content and chemical form in human and animal tissue.  

PubMed

The content, chemical form, and distribution of mercury and selenium were determined for selected samples of human and animal tissue by gas chromatography. Methylmercury averaged 38.7% of the total mercury content in homogenized human brain. For human heart, spleen, liver, kidney and placenta, methylmercury comprised 40.2%, 57.0%, 39.6%, 6.0% and 57.1% respectively, of the total mercury content. Similar results were obtained for the heart and liver of a whitetail deer. Methylmercury represented 9.1%, 62.9% and 24.1% of the total mercury content in seal liver, seal meat and deer meat, respectively. For all samples, a significant portion of the total selenium content, averaging 27%, was present as selenate (Se VI). Tissue selenium content did not correlate with the corresponding mercury content. In brain, heart and placenta, and in seal liver and meat, 53% to 80% of the total mercury content was water-extractable. For human kidney, liver and spleen, and deer meat, only 15% to 45% of the total mercury was extractable. On a percentage basis, inorganic mercury was more extractable than methylmercury, except for human kidney and liver, and deer meat. For all samples, except kidney, liver and deer meat, 55% to 76% of the total selenium content was water-extractable, Se VI being more extractable on a percentage basis than selenite (Se IV) and selenide (Se-II). PMID:7242026

Cappon, C J; Smith, J C

1981-01-01

86

Histamine content, diamine oxidase activity and histamine methyltransferase activity in human tissues: Fact or fictions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of histamine in the aetiology and pathogenesis of human diseases reliable data are urgently needed for the histamine content and for the activities of histamine-forming and-inactivating enzymes in human tissues. In order to make a substantial progress toward this aim a tissue-sampling programme during surgical interventions was carefully conceived and conducted. From March 1982 until January

R. Hesterberg; J. SATTLERt; C.-D. Stahlknecht; H. Barth; M. Crombach; D. Weber

1984-01-01

87

MR of Human Postmortem Brain Tissue: Correlative Study between T2 and Assays of Iron and Ferritin in Parkinson and Huntington Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that the T2 shortening observed on MR images of the brain in patients with Parkinson and Huntington diseases is due to tissue iron deposition. METHODS: Tissue iron and ferritin assays were performed on postmortem putamen and globus pallidus samples from subjects with Huntington and Parkinson disease. The assays were correlated with T2 measurements. Normal samples

J. C. Chen; P. A. Hardy; W. Kucharczyk; M. Clauberg; J. G. Joshi; A. Vourlas; Madhu S Dhar; R. M. Henkelman

1993-01-01

88

Content of lipids in blood and tissues of animals during hypodynamia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments on 97 rats and 50 rabbits were undertaken to study the influence of hypodynamia on the lipid content in the blood, liver, heart, and in the aorta. Reduction of muscular activity contributed to the increase of cholesterol and beta lipoprotein levels in the blood and to accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and the heart. The total lipid content in these tissues decreased. In the aorta the total lipid content increased, while lecithin and cephalin figures went down. The character of biochemical changes in hypodynamia resembles in many ways the lipid metabolism changes in atherosclerosis.

Federov, I. V.; Rylnikov, Y. P.; Lobova, T. M.

1980-01-01

89

Relationships between microsclerotia content and hyperspectral reflectance data in soybean tissue infected by Macrophomina phaseolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative methods are needed to assess the severity of charcoal rot disease [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] in soybean [Glycine max (L.)] plant tissue. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between light reflectance properties and microsclerotia content of soybean stem...

90

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have

VICTOR L. ROGGLI; WILLIAM E. LONGO

1991-01-01

91

Asbestos content of lung tissue in asbestos associated diseases: a study of 110 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases associated with asbestos exposure include asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, carcinoma of the lung, and parietal pleural plaques. In this study the asbestos content of lung tissue was examined in groups of cases representing each of these diseases and in several cases with non-occupational idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asbestos bodies (AB), which are the hallmark of asbestos exposure, were present in the

V L Roggli; P C Pratt; A R Brody

1986-01-01

92

Effects of water and iron content on the rheological contrast between garnet and olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of water and iron content on the relative creep strengths of garnet and olivine were investigated by shear deformation experiments. Garnet and olivine samples were sandwiched together between alumina pistons in a simple shear geometry and were deformed at P = 1-2 GPa, T = 1473 K and strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -3 s -1 using a Griggs-type solid-medium apparatus. The stress- and strain-rate relation, as well as the deformation microstructures including lattice-preferred orientation and dynamic recrystallization, indicates that the deformation by dislocation creep. The creep tests show that the Fe-rich garnet (Alm 67Prp 29Grs 3) was slightly weaker than olivine (Fo90), whereas the Mg-rich garnet (Alm 19Prp 68Grs 12) was significantly stronger than olivine under dry conditions. The wet experiments show that the creep rate of the Mg-rich garnet is more sensitive to water than olivine; the water fugacity exponent on strain rate was estimated to be ˜2.4 for garnet and ˜1.2 for olivine, and the Mg-rich garnet becomes weaker than olivine in a water-rich environment. The experimental results show that the rheological contrast between garnet and olivine depends strongly on water content and to a lesser degree on Fe content. Consequently, the geodynamic behavior of geochemical reservoirs can be sensitive to their chemical environments in the upper mantle.

Katayama, Ikuo; Karato, Shun-Ichiro

2008-01-01

93

The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 ?g/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 ?g/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 ?g Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content in defatted tissue and oil from such tissues and thereby contribute towards our knowledge on aluminium and any role in breast cancer. PMID:23870171

House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

2013-10-01

94

Facilitated Monocyte-Macrophage Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Superparmagnetic Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background We posit that the same mononuclear phagocytes (MP) that serve as target cells and vehicles for a host of microbial infections can be used to improve diagnostics and drug delivery. We also theorize that physical and biological processes such as particle shape, size, coating and opsonization that affect MP clearance of debris and microbes can be harnessed to facilitate uptake of nanoparticles (NP) and tissue delivery. Methods Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were used as vehicles of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) NP and immunoglobulin (IgG) or albumin coated SPIO for studies of uptake and distribution. IgG coated SPIO was synthesized by covalent linkage and uptake into monocytes and MDM investigated related to size, time, temperature, concentration, and coatings. SPIO and IgG SPIO were infused intravenously into naïve mice. T2 measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor tissue distribution in animals. Results Oxidation of dextran on the SPIO surface generated reactive aldehyde groups and permitted covalent linkage to amino groups of murine and human IgG and F(ab')2 fragments and for Alexa Fluor® 488 hydroxylamine to form a Schiff base. This labile intermediate was immediately reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in order to stabilize the NP conjugate. Optical density measurements of the oxidized IgG, F(ab')2, and/or Alexa Fluor® 488 SPIO demonstrated ?50% coupling yield. IgG-SPIO was found stable at 4°C for a period of 1 month during which size and polydispersity index varied little from 175 nm and 200 nm, respectively. In vitro, NP accumulated readily within monocyte and MDM cytoplasm after IgG-SPIO exposure; whereas, the uptake of native SPIO in monocytes and MDM was 10-fold less. No changes in cell viability were noted for the SPIO-containing monocytes and MDM. Cell morphology was not changed as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to unconjugated SPIO, intravenous injection of IgG-SPIO afforded enhanced and sustained lymphoid tissue distribution over 24 hours as demonstrated by MRI. Conclusions Facilitated uptake of coated SPIO in monocytes and MDM was achieved. Uptake was linked to particle size and was time and concentration dependent. The ability of SPIO to be rapidly taken up and distributed into lymphoid tissues also demonstrates feasibility of macrophage-targeted nanoformulations for diagnostic and drug therapy. PMID:19183814

Beduneau, Arnaud; Ma, Zhiya; Grotepas, Cassi B.; Kabanov, Alexander; Rabinow, Barrett E.; Gong, Nan; Mosley, R. Lee; Dou, Huanyu; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.

2009-01-01

95

Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue.  

PubMed

Optical scattering coefficient from ex vivo unfixed normal and malignant ovarian tissue was quantitatively extracted by fitting optical coherence tomography (OCT) A-line signals to a single scattering model. 1097 average A-line measurements at a wavelength of 1310 nm were performed at 108 sites obtained from 18 ovaries. The average scattering coefficient obtained from the normal tissue group consisted of 833 measurements from 88 sites was 2.41 mm(-1) (± 0.59), while the average coefficient obtained from the malignant tissue group consisted of 264 measurements from 20 sites was 1.55 mm(-1) (± 0.46). The malignant ovarian tissue showed significant lower scattering than the normal group (p < 0.001). The amount of collagen within OCT imaging depth was analyzed from the tissue histological section stained with Sirius Red. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the normal tissue group was 48.4% (± 12.3%), while the average CAF obtained from the malignant tissue group was 11.4% (± 4.7%). A statistical significance of the collagen content was found between the two groups (p < 0.001). These results demonstrated that quantitative measurements of optical scattering coefficient from OCT images could be a potential powerful method for ovarian cancer detection. PMID:21950907

Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Biswal, Nrusingh C; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

2011-09-01

96

Upper mantle oxidation state: Ferric iron contents of Iherzolite spinels by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and resultant oxygen fugacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ferric iron contents of spinels from 30 spinel Iherzolite xenoliths have been measured by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples are widely dispersed in geographic and tectonic setting, coming from Southwest United States (San Carlos, Kilbourne Hole), Japan (Ichinomegata), Massif Central, France (Mont Briançon) and Central Asia (Tariat Depression, Vitim Plateau). The total range of Fe 3 O 4

Bernard J. Wood; David Virgo

1989-01-01

97

Variations in T2* and fat content of murine brown and white adipose tissues by chemical-shift MRI  

E-print Network

between brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue in lean and ob/ob mice. Materials and Methods: A group* relaxation; Fat fraction 1. Introduction In rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to thermalVariations in T2* and fat content of murine brown and white adipose tissues by chemical-shift MRI

Southern California, University of

98

Study of Fe: Al2O3 ion beam sputtered thin films with various iron contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and Al2O3 were simultaneously ion beam sputtered on polycrystalline alumina substrate at room temperature. The atomic iron concentration was varied in the range 5-60 at.%. Thicknesses of the films (~450 nm) and iron concentrations were controlled using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Iron charge states and phases were deduced from conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD)

F. Thimon; G. Marest; N. Moncoffre; S. Joshi; S. B. Ogale

1993-01-01

99

Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods  

PubMed Central

Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron. PMID:23737716

Pourkhalili, Azin; Rahimi, Ebrahim

2013-01-01

100

Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress.  

PubMed

Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilization. Transgenic plants developed secondary tillers and set seeds when grown in standard soil although iron concentration remained similar in leaves and seeds compared to wild type. However, when grown in alkaline soil transgenic plants exhibited enhanced growth, yield and iron concentration in leaves compared to the wild type plants which were severely stunted. Transgenic plants took up iron more efficiently from alkaline soil compared to wild type, indicating an enhanced capacity to increase iron mobility ex situ. Interestingly, all the additional iron accumulated in vegetative tissues, i.e. there was no difference in iron concentration in the seeds of wild type and transgenic plants. Our data suggest that iron uptake from the rhizosphere can be enhanced through expression of HvYS1 and confirm the operation of a partitioning mechanism that diverts iron to leaves rather than seeds, under stress. PMID:22316602

Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

2012-04-01

101

Effects of maternal iron nutrition during lactation on milk iron and rat neonatal iron status?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the milk iron content and iron status of lactating rats and their pups to investigatethe relationshipsbetween the iron concentrations of maternal diet and the iron content of milk, and that between the milk iron content and neonatal iron status. Three days after parturition lactating rats were divided into three groups and fed a control (250 ppm iron), a

Sunil G. Anaokar; Philip J. Garry

102

Why iron–dithiocarbamates ensure detection of nitric oxide in cells and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo mechanism of NO trapping by iron–dithiocarbamate complexes is considered. Contrary to common belief, we find that in biological systems the NO radicals are predominantly trapped by ferric iron–dithiocarbamates. Therefore, the trapping leads to ferric mononitrosyl complexes which are diamagnetic and cannot be directly detected with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The ferric mononitrosyl complexes are far easily reduced

Anatoly F. Vanin; Alexander P. Poltorakov; Vasak D. Mikoyan; Lioudmila N. Kubrina; Ernst van Faassen

2006-01-01

103

Functional properties and connective tissue content of pediatric human detrusor muscle.  

PubMed

The functional properties of human pediatric detrusor smooth muscle are poorly described, in contrast to those of adult tissue. Characterization is necessary for more informed management options of bladder dysfunction in children. We therefore compared the histological, contractile, intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses and biomechanical properties of detrusor biopsy samples from pediatric (3-48 mo) and adults (40-60 yr) patients who had functionally normal bladders and were undergoing open surgery. The smooth muscle fraction of biopsies was isolated to measure proportions of smooth muscle and connective tissue (van Gieson stain); in muscle strips, isometric tension to contractile agonists or electrical field stimulation and their passive biomechanical properties; in isolated myocytes, intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to agonists. Pediatric detrusor tissue compared with adult tissue showed several differences: a smaller smooth muscle-to-connective tissue ratio, similar contractures to carbachol or ?,?-methylene ATP when corrected for smooth muscle content, and similar intracellular Ca2+ transients to carbachol, ?,?-methylene ATP, raised K+ concentration or caffeine, but smaller nerve-mediated contractions and greater passive stiffness with slower stress relaxation. In particular, there were significant atropine-resistant nerve-mediated contractions in pediatric samples. Detrusor smooth muscle from functionally normal pediatric human bladders is less contractile than that from adult bladders and exhibits greater passive stiffness. Reduced bladder contractile function is not due to reduced smooth muscle contractility but to greater connective tissue deposition and to functional denervation. Significant atropine resistance in pediatric detrusor, unlike in adult tissue, demonstrates a different profile of functional neurotransmitter activation. These data have implications for the management of pediatric bladder function by therapeutic approaches. PMID:25209864

Johal, Navroop; Wood, Dan N; Wagg, Adrian S; Cuckow, Peter; Fry, Christopher H

2014-11-01

104

Versatile and Biomass Synthesis of Iron-based Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Matrix with High Iron Content and Tunable Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs{at}C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP{at}C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP{at}C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 C (FeNP{at}C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP{at}C prepared at 800 C (FeNP{at}C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP{at}C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5-15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs{at}C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

Zhang, Dongmao [ORNL; Shi, Sheldon Q [ORNL; Jiang, Dongping [Mississippi State University (MSU); Che, Wen [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Arockiasamy, Antonyraj [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2012-01-01

105

The effects of exercise and dietary fat on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc on selected tissues in rats  

E-print Network

when compared with bones from sedentary animals. Calcium content, measured directly in dry ashed bones, increased in all rats following exercise. Magnesium Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the human body and the second most abundant... in the intracellular fluid (29). Bone contains about half the total body magnesium, the remainder being almost equally distributed between muscle and nonmuscular soft tissues (30). Of the nonosseous tissues, liver and striated muscle have the highest concentrations...

Nguyen, Thuy Huong

1989-01-01

106

THE ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF VANADIUM, IRON, AND MANGANESE IN SOME SOLITARY ASCIDIANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vanadium, iron, and manganese contents of 15 species of solitary ascidians belonging to the suborders Phlebobranchia and Stolidobranchia were determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Vanadium was detectable in all species exam med. In general, the vanadium content in various tissues ofthe Phlebobranchia was considerably higher than the iron and manganese contents. The blood cells especially contained a large

H. MICHIBATA; T. TERADA; N. ANADA; K. YAMAKAWA; T. NUMAKUNAI

107

The influence of combined magnesium and vanadate administration on the level of some elements in selected rat organs: V-Mg interactions and the role of iron-essential protein (DMT-1) in the mechanism underlying altered tissues iron level.  

PubMed

The effect of 12 week co-administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV) and magnesium sulfate (MS) on the levels of some elements in selected rats' organs and an attempt to elucidate a role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1) in the mechanism(s) of the SMV-induced disorders in some tissue Fe homeostasis were studied. SMV taken up separately or in combination with MS may pose a risk of the rise and shortage of the total hepatic and splenic Fe and Cu contents, respectively, cerebral Fe deficiency, splenic Ca deposition, and the hepatic, renal, and cerebral DMT-1 down-regulation. When administered alone, SMV may also cause the decrease in the total renal Fe and Cu contents. A visible protective effect of Mg against the renal and cerebral V accumulation and the decrease in the renal Fe and Cu contents during the SMV-MS co-administration together with our previous findings suggest a beneficial role of Mg at SMV exposure. Further, the SMV-induced fall in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), reported previously, and its correlations with the hepatic, splenic, and cerebral Fe levels allow us to suggest that diminished TIBC could be partly involved in the mechanism(s) responsible for the dramatic redistribution of Fe in those tissues. Finally, DMT-1, which potentially could participate in the hepatic non-transferrin Fe-bound uptake, does not play a significant role in this process indicating the need for studying other Fe transporters to more precisely elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying the hepatic Fe loading in our experimental conditions. PMID:24549458

Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Go??biowska, Dorota; Nied?wiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

2014-04-01

108

Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1  

PubMed Central

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

1966-01-01

109

Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.  

PubMed

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

1966-04-01

110

Monoamines tissue content analysis reveals restricted and site-specific correlations in brain regions involved in cognition.  

PubMed

The dopamine (DA), noradrenalin (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) monoaminergic systems are deeply involved in cognitive processes via their influence on cortical and subcortical regions. The widespread distribution of these monoaminergic networks is one of the main difficulties in analyzing their functions and interactions. To address this complexity, we assessed whether inter-individual differences in monoamine tissue contents of various brain areas could provide information about their functional relationships. We used a sensitive biochemical approach to map endogenous monoamine tissue content in 20 rat brain areas involved in cognition, including 10 cortical areas and examined correlations within and between the monoaminergic systems. Whereas DA content and its respective metabolite largely varied across brain regions, the NA and 5-HT contents were relatively homogenous. As expected, the tissue content varied among individuals. Our analyses revealed a few specific relationships (10%) between the tissue content of each monoamine in paired brain regions and even between monoamines in paired brain regions. The tissue contents of NA, 5-HT and DA were inter-correlated with a high incidence when looking at a specific brain region. Most correlations found between cortical areas were positive while some cortico-subcortical relationships regarding the DA, NA and 5-HT tissue contents were negative, in particular for DA content. In conclusion, this work provides a useful database of the monoamine tissue content in numerous brain regions. It suggests that the regulation of these neuromodulatory systems is achieved mainly at the terminals, and that each of these systems contributes to the regulation of the other two. PMID:24120557

Fitoussi, A; Dellu-Hagedorn, F; De Deurwaerdère, P

2013-01-01

111

Tissue magnesium content and histopathological changes in non-survivors of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

The study was conducted in 30 non-survivors of Aluminium Phosphide poisoning and similar number of age and sex matched controls (fatalities as a result of road side accidents, head injury, etc). Magnesium content was estimated in brain, heart, stomach, kidney, liver and lung using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. It was found that tissue magnesium levels were not significantly different (p = NS) when comparison was carried out between controls (Group II) and Patients who were not given magnesium as part of treatment (group IB). However magnesium levels in different organs of patients who received magnesium as part of treatment were found to be significantly higher (group IA)(P < 0.01) in comparison to controls as well as patient group not treated with magnesium sulphate. Significant histopathological changes were observed in almost all the organs. The changes seem to be the result of direct tissue damage by phosphine rather than shock and anoxia which occurred in all these cases. PMID:8773002

Siwach, S B; Dua, A; Sharma, R; Sharma, D; Mehla, R K

1995-10-01

112

Morphine enhances tissue content of collagen and increases wound tensile strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Morphine is a commonly prescribed analgesic for wound pain. Previous studies have shown that morphine enhances accumulation\\u000a of collagen in cultured fibroblasts. Because fibroblasts are important for the remodeling of connective tissue in incisional\\u000a wound, this study investigates the biological effects of morphine on cutaneous collagen content and wound tensile strength.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A full-thickness incisional wound (2 cm in length) was created

Pei-Jung Chang; Meng-Yi Chen; Yu-Sheng Huang; Chou-Hwei Lee; Chien-Chi Huang; Chen-Fuh Lam; Yu-Chuan Tsai

2010-01-01

113

RELEVANT MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE IRON CONTENT OF PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is growing interest in strategies to improve the nutritional quality of our food supply, especially with respect to essential micronutrient minerals, such as iron. Recent estimates indicate that one-third of the world's population is at risk for iron-deficiency induced anemia, a condition con...

114

Increased iron content and RNA oxidative damage in skeletal muscle with aging and disuse atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle atrophy with aging or disuse is associated with deregulated iron homeostasis and increased oxidative stress likely inflicting damage to nucleic acids. Therefore, we investigated RNA and DNA oxidation, and iron homeostasis in gastrocnemius muscles. Disuse atrophy was induced in 6- and 32-month old male Fischer 344\\/Brown Norway rats by 14 days of hind limb suspension (HS). We show that

Tim Hofer; Emanuele Marzetti; Jinze Xu; Arnold Y. Seo; Sukru Gulec; Mitchell D. Knutson; Christiaan Leeuwenburgh; Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden

2008-01-01

115

Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs.  

PubMed

We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. PMID:18201048

Honeyfield, Dale C; Vandergoot, Christopher S; Bettoli, Phillip W; Hinterkopf, Joy P; Zajicek, James L

2007-06-01

116

3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

2014-06-01

117

Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

2007-01-01

118

The structure of tissue on cell culture-extracted thyroglobulin is independent of its iodine content.  

PubMed

The major protein synthesized in vitro by the ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS 6H is the prothyroid hormone thyroglobulin. Purified from serum-free cell culture media using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the thyroglobulin dimer was analysed for iodine content and observed by electron microscopy. In their usual medium, the OVNIS 6H cells produce a very poorly iodinated thyroglobulin containing 0.05 I atom per molecule. When cultured with methimazole or propylthiouracil, two inhibitors of iodide organification, less than 0.007 I atom/molecules was found. These molecules purified from cell cultures were compared to those purified from ovine thyroid tissue containing 26 I atoms/mol. Despite large differences in iodine content, the three preparations all consist of 19 S thyroglobulin dimers with the classical ovoidal shape. The variability in size measurements remains in a 2% range for all thyroglobulin types. Consequently, no real significant variation can be found between the highly iodinated thyroglobulin isolated from tissue, and the poorly or non-iodinated thyroglobulins isolated from cells cultured with or without methimazole or propylthiouracil. PMID:3556752

Delain, E; Aouani, A; Vignal, A; Couture-Tosi, E; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

1987-02-01

119

‘Free’ iron, as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, increases unequally in different tissues during dietary iron overload in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Free’ iron concentration, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as determined by thiobarbituric acid test, were assessed in the lung, heart, liver, spleen, brain and kidney of rats subjected to experimental iron overload. Two tests, Desferal- and NO-available iron, were used to measure ‘free’ iron and gave comparable results. The most pronounced accumulation of

Andrey V. Kozlov; Anna Bini; Daniela Gallesi; Fabiola Giovannini; Anna Iannone; Alberto Masini; Eros Meletti; Aldo Tomasi

1996-01-01

120

Mineral Ion Contents and Cell Transmembrane Electropotentials of Pea and Oat Seedling Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

The relationships of concentration gradients to electropotential gradients resulting from passive diffusion processes, after equilibration, are described by the Nernst equation. The primary criterion for the hypothesis that any given ion is actively transported is to establish that it is not diffusing passively. A test was made of how closely the Nernst equation describes the electrochemical equilibrium in seedling tissues. Segments of roots and epicotyl internodes of pea (Pisum sativum var. Alaska) and of roots and coleoptiles of oat (Avena sativa var. Victory) seedlings were immersed and shaken in defined nutrient solutions containing eight major nutrients (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl?, NO3?, H2PO4? and SO42?) at 1-fold and 10-fold concentrations. The tissue content of each ion was assayed at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hours. A near-equilibrium condition was approached by roots for most ions; however, the segments of shoot tissue generally continued to show a net accumulation of some ions, mainly K+ and NO3?. Only K+ approached a reasonable fit to the Nernst equation and this was true for the 1-fold concentration but not the 10-fold. The data suggest that for Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ the electrochemical gradient is from the external solution to the cell interior; thus passive diffusion should be in an inward direction. Consequently, some mechanism must exist in plant tissue either to exclude these cations or to extrude them (e.g., by an active efflux pump). For each of the anions the electrochemical gradient is from the tissue to the solution; thus an active influx pump for anions seems required. Root segments approach ionic equilibrium with the solution concentration in which the seedlings were grown. Segments of shoot tissue, however, are far removed from such equilibration. Thus in the intact seedling the extracellular (wall space) fluid must be very different from that of the nutrient solution bathing the segments; it would appear that the root is the site of regulation of ion uptake in the intact plant although other correlative mechanisms may be involved. PMID:16656483

Higinbotham, N.; Etherton, Bud; Foster, R. J.

1967-01-01

121

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.

Roggli, V.L.; Longo, W.E. (Department of Pathology, Durham Veterans Administration, NC (United States))

1991-12-31

122

Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.  

PubMed

Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics. PMID:23147319

Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

2012-11-01

123

The Association between Breast Tissue Optical Content and Mammographic Density in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Mammographic density (MD), associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS) is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (? = -0.05, p = 0.0002) and DA (? = -0.05, p = 0.019); water content was significantly positively associated with PD (? = 0.06, p = 0.008). Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (? = -0.03, p = 0.057) but significantly inversely associated with DA (? = -0.10, p = 0.002). Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively) with PD (?lipid = -0.08, ?water = 0.14, both p<0.0001) and DA (?lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; ?water = 0.11, p = 0.001). The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water content in high density tissue. OS may be useful for assessing physiologic tissue differences related to breast cancer risk, particularly when mammography is not feasible or easily accessible. PMID:25590139

Blackmore, Kristina M.; Knight, Julia A.; Walter, Jane; Lilge, Lothar

2015-01-01

124

The Association between Breast Tissue Optical Content and Mammographic Density in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women.  

PubMed

Mammographic density (MD), associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS) is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (? = -0.05, p = 0.0002) and DA (? = -0.05, p = 0.019); water content was significantly positively associated with PD (? = 0.06, p = 0.008). Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (? = -0.03, p = 0.057) but significantly inversely associated with DA (? = -0.10, p = 0.002). Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively) with PD (?lipid = -0.08, ?water = 0.14, both p<0.0001) and DA (?lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; ?water = 0.11, p = 0.001). The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water content in high density tissue. OS may be useful for assessing physiologic tissue differences related to breast cancer risk, particularly when mammography is not feasible or easily accessible. PMID:25590139

Blackmore, Kristina M; Knight, Julia A; Walter, Jane; Lilge, Lothar

2015-01-01

125

Wall effects observed in tissue-equivalent proportional counters from 1.05 GeV/nucleon iron-56 particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have been used to measure energy deposition in simulated volumes of tissue ranging in diameter from 0.1 to 10 microm. There has been some concern that the wall used to define the volume of interest could influence energy deposition within the sensitive volume because it has a density significantly greater than that of the cavity gas. These effects become important for high-velocity heavy ions. Measurements of energy deposition were made for 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles in a TEPC simulating a 1-microm-diameter sphere of tissue. The TEPC was nested within a particle spectrometer that provided identification and flight path of individual particles. Energy deposition was studied as a function of pathlength through the TEPC. Approximately 30% of the energy transfer along trajectories through the center of the detector escapes the sensitive volume. The response of the TEPC, for trajectories through the detector, is always larger than calculations for energy loss in a homogeneous medium. This enhancement is greatest for trajectories near the cavity/wall interface. An integration of the response indicates that charged-particle equilibrium is essentially achieved for a wall thickness of 2.54 mm. However, estimates of the linear energy transfer for the incident particles are influenced by these wall effects.

Rademacher, S. E.; Borak, T. B.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

126

Wall effects observed in tissue-equivalent proportional counters from 1.05 GeV/nucleon iron-56 particles.  

PubMed

Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have been used to measure energy deposition in simulated volumes of tissue ranging in diameter from 0.1 to 10 microm. There has been some concern that the wall used to define the volume of interest could influence energy deposition within the sensitive volume because it has a density significantly greater than that of the cavity gas. These effects become important for high-velocity heavy ions. Measurements of energy deposition were made for 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles in a TEPC simulating a 1-microm-diameter sphere of tissue. The TEPC was nested within a particle spectrometer that provided identification and flight path of individual particles. Energy deposition was studied as a function of pathlength through the TEPC. Approximately 30% of the energy transfer along trajectories through the center of the detector escapes the sensitive volume. The response of the TEPC, for trajectories through the detector, is always larger than calculations for energy loss in a homogeneous medium. This enhancement is greatest for trajectories near the cavity/wall interface. An integration of the response indicates that charged-particle equilibrium is essentially achieved for a wall thickness of 2.54 mm. However, estimates of the linear energy transfer for the incident particles are influenced by these wall effects. PMID:9525504

Rademacher, S E; Borak, T B; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L; Miller, J

1998-04-01

127

[Content of carotenoids and the state of tissue antioxidant enzymatic complex in bivalve mollusc Anadara inaequivalvis Br].  

PubMed

The work studied the content of carotinoids, the state of antioxidant (AO) enzymatic complex, and intensity of lipid peroxidation in tissues (hepatopancreas, gill, foot) of the Black Sea bivalve mollusc Anadara inaequivalvis. Tissues with a high content of the pigment have been established to have had a low activity of the key AO enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and an elevated content of reduced glutathione R2--(0.81-0.97). The recorded intertissue activities reached 1.7-2.9 times (p < or = 0.05-0.01). At increased concentrations (more than 2.5 mg x 100 g(-1) tissue), carotinoids show insignificant prooxidant effect, which is reflected in a rise of glutathione peroxidase activity. The competitive interrelations between these molecular complexes for the same kinds of reactive ocygem species (O2-, OH*, and 1O2) are discussed. PMID:23401963

Gostukhina, O L; Soldatov, A A; Golovina, I V; Borodina, A V

2012-01-01

128

Genetic and physiological analysis of iron content and bioavailability in maize kernels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, biof...

129

Calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, silicon and zinc content of hair in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unknown, but some hypotheses have focused on the imbalances in body levels of metals as co-factors of risk. To assess whether hair could be a reliable marker of possible changes, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si) and zinc (Zn) were determined in hair from 81 patients affected by

Giovanni Forte; Alessandro Alimonti; Nicola Violante; Marco Di Gregorio; Oreste Senofonte; Francesco Petrucci; Giuseppe Sancesario; Beatrice Bocca

2005-01-01

130

Polymorphisms in the calpastatin and mu-calpain genes associated with beef iron content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes with iron stored in muscle fibers in a population of beef cattle. The population consisted of a total of 259 steers produced by inseminating Hereford, Angus, or MARC III cows (¼ Hereford, ¼ Angus, ¼ Red ...

131

Quantification of Apoplastic Potassium Content by Elution Analysis of Leaf Lamina Tissue from Pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Argenteum) 1  

PubMed Central

K+ content and concentration within the apoplast of mesophyll tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L., cv Argenteum) leaflets were determined using an elution procedure. Following removal of the epidermis, a 1 centimeter (inside diameter) glass cylinder was attached to the exposed mesophyll tissue and filled with 5 millimolar CaCl2 solution (1°C). From time-course curves of cumulative K+ diffusion from the tissue, the amount of K+ of extracellular origin was estimated. Apoplastic K+ contents for leaves from plants cultured in nutrient solution containing 2 or 10 millimolar K+ were found to range from 1 to 4.5 micromoles per gram fresh weight, comprising less than 3% of the total K+ content within the lamina tissue. Assuming an apoplastic solution volume of 0.04 to 0.1 milliliters per gram fresh weight and a Donnan cation exchange capacity of 2.63 micromoles per gram fresh weight (experimentally determined), the K+ concentration within apoplastic solution was estimated at 2.4 to 11.8 millimolar. Net movement of Rb+ label from the extracellular compartment within mesophyll tissue into the symplast was demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments. It was concluded that the mesophyll apoplast in pea has a relatively low capacitance as an ion reservoir. Apoplastic K+ content was found to be highly sensitive to changes in xylem solution concentration. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667794

Long, Jean M.; Widders, Irvin E.

1990-01-01

132

Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the centriacinus were used to assess immediate and persistent effects. The oxidant and inflammatory capacity of microdissected airways of exposed animals was used to assess the ability to withstand an additional oxidant insult. Comparing the effects observed in the acute versus subacute inhalation studies, the effects of SWCNTs appeared to follow a dose-response pattern, where the effects were further pronounced and, in some cases, more persistent under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. In addition, results showed different timing and extent of responses resulting from exposure to SWCNTs containing varied amounts of iron. Depending on the endpoint of interest, responses of SWCNTs sometimes followed that of CB while in other circumstances matched that of crocidolite. Notably, FeSWCNTs exposed animals were unable to respond to an additional oxidant challenge and cSWCNTs exposed animals had a delayed and persistent development of mucous cells in the distal airways. In conclusion, while some toxicity endpoints follow patterns comparable to CB or crocidolite, the respiratory effects of inhaled FeSWCNTs and cSWCNTs appear to be unique. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these changes are suggestive of precursor events to pathologic changes that might develop under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. Systematic toxicity testing and intentional physicochemical modifications will provide further insights as to the mechanisms by which SWCNTs cause these unique effects. It would be of hope that nanomaterials, such as SWCNTs, can be designed in way to maximize their societal benefits through various energy, medical, and technological applications but minimize their potential human health and environmental risks.

Madl, Amy Kathleen

133

Iron metabolism and toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

Papanikolaou, G. [First Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Laikon General Hospital, Athens 11527 (Greece); Pantopoulos, K. [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, H3T 1E2 (Canada) and Department of Medicine, McGill University (Canada)]. E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

2005-01-15

134

Effects of subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin in normal subjects: development of decreased reticulocyte hemoglobin content and iron-deficient erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the properties of the reticulocytes produced in healthy volunteers after treatment with different regimens of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO). Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different subcutaneous (SC) r-HuEPO (Protcrit; Ortho Biotech) administration protocols (I: 300 U/kg on days 1, 4, 7, 10; II: 400 U/kg on days 1, 5, 9; III: 600 U/kg on days 1, 10) with oral iron supplementation (Niferex; 150 mg, twice a day). The characteristics of the reticulocytes produced were examined with a flow cytometry method that allows measurements of individual reticulocyte cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and hemoglobin content. Administration of SC r-HuEPO was associated with a significant increase in the production of reticulocytes. The hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (CHr, in picograms of hemoglobin per cell) in the three groups was 28.5 +/- 1.0, 28.2 +/- 0.5, and 28.5 +/- 1.3, respectively, at baseline, decreased to 24.6 +/- 1.6 (p < 0.001), 24.5 +/- 2.3 (p < 0.001), and 27.5 +/- 1.8 (not significant) at day 10, and returned to baseline after r-HuEPO was discontinued (28.8 +/- 0.9, 28 +/- 0.8, and 28.8 +/- 1.4, respectively, at day 22). The percentage of reticulocytes with cell hemoglobin content less than 23 pg was taken as an indicator of iron-deficient erythropoiesis. At baseline, 5.6% +/- 2.7%, 6.9% +/- 3.4%, and 8.3% +/- 3.8% of reticulocytes had less than 23 pg hemoglobin in groups I, II, and III, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8195672

Brugnara, C; Colella, G M; Cremins, J; Langley, R C; Schneider, T J; Rutherford, C J; Goldberg, M A

1994-05-01

135

Influence of Zinc Deficiency on Zinc and Dry Matter Content of Ruminant Tissues and on Excretion of Zinc1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments involving 24 animals, zinc and dry matter contents of various tissues were studied in zinc-deficient and control goats and calves at various time intervals after control animals were fed the zinc- deficient diet. All samples were obtained before any symptoms of a deficiency oc- curred in the controls. Length of time, from 9 to 35 days, which controls

W. J. Miller; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry; G. W. Powell; H. F. Perkins

1966-01-01

136

Preliminary results of a comparison between 4 pig breeds in chemical composition of fatty tissue and intramuscular fat content  

E-print Network

(leaf fat and backfat) and intramuscular fat content (Longissimus dorsi). The study involved 205 pigs of fatty tissues in backfat and leaf fat appeared to be negatively correlated with growth rate and carcass (3.08 - 3.16 and 3.19 kg for fresh hams weighing 8.8 kg). #12;

Boyer, Edmond

137

Preliminary results of a comparison between 4 pig breeds in chemical composition of fatty tissue and intramuscular fat content  

E-print Network

(leaf fat and backfat) and intramuscular fat content (Longissimus dorsi). The study involved 205 pigs of fatty tissues in backfat and leaf fat appeared to be negatively correlated with growth rate and carcass (3.08 - 3.16 and 3.19 kg for fresh hams weighing 8.8 kg). #12;In 8-week or 6-month stored hams

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Effect of dietary copper and zinc levels on tissue copper, zinc, and iron in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between dietary copper and zinc as determined by tissue concentrations of trace elements was investigated\\u000a in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were fed diets in a factorial design with two levels of copper (0.5, 5 ?g\\/g) and five\\u000a levels of zinc (1, 4.5, 10, 100, 1000 ?g\\/g) for 42 d. In rats fed the low copper diet, as dietary

Carl L. Keen; Nancy H. Reinstein; Jo Goudey-Lefevre; Michael Lefevre; Bo Lönnerdal; Barbara O. Schneeman; Lucille S. Hurley

1985-01-01

139

Cholesterol content of longissmus and semimembranosus muscles and associated adipose tissues from beef, pork and lamb  

E-print Network

Trim on Muscle Tissue Cholesterol . . Effect of Species on Muscle Tissue. Effect of Cooking on Muscle Tissue. . Effect of Species on Adipose Tissue Effect of Cooking on Adipose Tissue. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES VITA . VI . . VI I . 15 . . . 15... D rmin i n f I r Lipid extracts of each fraction were saponified by the procedure described by Rhee et al. (1982b). The procedure had to be modified to use 5 ml aliquots of the lipid extract from the lean and adipose tissues. The 5 ml extract...

Dohmann, Sharon Sue

1988-01-01

140

Changes of collagen, elastin, and tryptophan contents in laser welded porcine aorta tissues studied using fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission spectra from welded and un-welded (normal) porcine aorta tissues were measured on both sides of intima and adventitia layers. A tunable Forsterite laser and a Cr4+: YAG laser with wavelengths of 1250nm, 1455nm and 1460nm were used to weld porcine aorta tissues. Three emission bands emitted from three key fluorophores were studied under different welding and excitation conditions. With excitation wavelength of 340nm, the 395nm band is associated with the emission from the structural proteins of collagen type III and type I. The 445nm band obtained is associated with the emission of the structural protein of elastin. The 350nm band recorded with excitation wavelength of 300nm is associated with the amino acid of tryptophan. The relative emission intensities of collagen, elastin and tryptophan at their fluorescence peaks changes with laser tissue welding wavelengths indicate the change of contents of those tissue molecules. The ratio of emission peak intensities of collagen to elastin with welding laser wavelength of 1250nm increases by 0.13 as compared to the normal aorta tissue at the intimal side. For the adventitial side of aorta tissue, this ratio decreases by 0.38 in comparison with the normal tissue. These results indicate that content of collagen changes relative to elastin due to laser tissue welding. The peak fluorescence intensity of tryptophan for both sides of welded tunica intima and adventitia increases significantly in comparison with the normal tissue when the optimum laser welding wavelength of 1455 nm was used.

Liu, C.-H.; Wang, W. B.; Kartazaev, V.; Savage, H.; Alfano, R. R.

2010-02-01

141

Iron Content Differs between Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis and Subspecies holarctica Strains and Correlates to Their Susceptibility to H2O2-Induced Killing? †  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known and is classified as a category A select agent and a facultative intracellular bacterium. Why F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes a more severe form of tularemia than F. tularensis subsp. holarctica does is not known. In this study, we have identified prominent phenotypic differences between the subspecies, since we found that F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strains contained less iron than F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains. Moreover, strain SCHU S4 of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis was less susceptible than FSC200 and the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica to H2O2-induced killing. The activity of the H2O2-degrading enzyme catalase was similar between the strains, whereas the iron content affected their susceptibility to H2O2, since iron starvation rendered F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains more resistant to H2O2. Complementing LVS with fupA, which encodes an important virulence factor that regulates iron uptake, reduced its iron content and increased the resistance to H2O2-mediated killing. By real-time PCR, it was demonstrated that FSC200 and LVS expressed higher levels of gene transcripts related to iron uptake and storage than SCHU S4 did, and this likely explained their high iron content. Together, the results suggest that F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strains have restricted iron uptake and storage, which is beneficial for their resistance to H2O2-induced killing. This may be an important factor for the higher virulence of this subspecies of F. tularensis, as reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, are important bactericidal components during tularemia. PMID:21189323

Lindgren, Helena; Honn, Marie; Salomonsson, Emelie; Kuoppa, Kerstin; Forsberg, Åke; Sjöstedt, Anders

2011-01-01

142

Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

1989-01-01

143

X-Ray Methods to Estimate Breast Density Content in Breast Tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on analyzing x-ray methods to estimate the fat and fibroglandular contents in breast biopsies and in breasts. The knowledge of fat in the biopsies could aid in their wide-angle x-ray scatter analyses. A higher mammographic density (fibrous content) in breasts is an indicator of higher cancer risk. Simulations for 5 mm thick breast biopsies composed of fibrous, cancer, and fat and for 4.2 cm thick breast fat/fibrous phantoms were done. Data from experimental studies using plastic biopsies were analyzed. The 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick plastic samples consisted of layers of polycarbonate (lexan), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-lucite) and polyethylene (polyet). In terms of the total linear attenuation coefficients, lexan ? fibrous, lucite ? cancer and polyet ? fat. The detectors were of two types, photon counting (CdTe) and energy integrating (CCD). For biopsies, three photon counting methods were performed to estimate the fat (polyet) using simulation and experimental data, respectively. The two basis function method that assumed the biopsies were composed of two materials, fat and a 50:50 mixture of fibrous (lexan) and cancer (lucite) appears to be the most promising method. Discrepancies were observed between the results obtained via simulation and experiment. Potential causes are the spectrum and the attenuation coefficient values used for simulations. An energy integrating method was compared to the two basis function method using experimental and simulation data. A slight advantage was observed for photon counting whereas both detectors gave similar results for the 4.2 cm thick breast phantom simulations. The percentage of fibrous within a 9 cm diameter circular phantom of fibrous/fat tissue was estimated via a fan beam geometry simulation. Both methods yielded good results. Computed tomography (CT) images of the circular phantom were obtained using both detector types. The radon transforms were estimated via four energy integrating techniques and one photon counting technique. Contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and pixel values between different regions of interest were analyzed. The two basis function method and two of the energy integrating methods (calibration, beam hardening correction) gave the highest and more linear curves for contrast and SNR.

Maraghechi, Borna

144

Effect of iron content on the electrical conductivity of perovskite and magnesiowuestite assemblages at lower mantle conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical conductivity of (Mg/0.76/Fe/0.24/)SiO3 perovskite and of an assemblage of (Mg/0.89/Fe/0.11/)SiO3 perovskite + (Mg/0.70/Fe/0.30/)O magnesiowiestite was measured at pressures of 45-80 GPa and temperatures from 295 to 3600 K. The apparent activation energy for electrical conduction is 0.24 (+ or - 0.10) eV for the perovskite and 0.20 (+ or - 0.08) eV for the perovskite + magnesiowuestite assemblage. Comparing present results with those derived previously for Fe-poor samples, it is found that the electrical conductivities of both the silicate perovskite and the perovskite + magnesiowuestite assemblage depend strongly on iron content. Thus, the electrical conductivity distribution inside the earth could provide an important constraint in modeling the composition of the lower mantle.

Li, Xiaoyuan; Jeanloz, Raymond

1991-01-01

145

Manipulation of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of muscle and adipose tissue in lambs.  

PubMed

Fifty Suffolk-crossbred wether lambs, with an initial live weight of 29 +/- 2.1 kg, were allocated to one of five concentrate-based diets formulated to have a similar fatty acid content (60 g/kg DM), but containing either linseed oil (high in 18:3n-3); fish oil (high in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3); protected linseed and soybean (PLS; high in 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3); fish oil and marine algae (fish/algae; high in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3); or PLS and algae (PLS/algae; high in 18:3n-3 and 22:6n-3). Lambs were slaughtered when they reached 40 kg. Growth performance and intake were similar (P > 0.35) among treatments. By contrast, gain:feed was higher (P < 0.05) in lambs fed the fish oil compared with the linseed oil or PLS/algae diets. Total fatty acid concentration (mg/100 g) in the neutral lipid of the longissimus muscle was not affected by treatment (P > 0.87) but was least (P < 0.05) in the phospholipid fraction in lambs fed the linseed oil diet. Lambs fed either diet containing marine algae contained the highest (P < 0.05) percentage of 22:6n-3 in the phospholipid (mean of 5.2%), 2.8-fold higher than in sheep fed the fish oil diet. In lambs fed the fish/algae diet, the percentage of 20:5n-3 was highest (P < 0.05), contributing some 8.7, 0.8, and 0.5% of the total fatty acids in the muscle phospholipid, neutral lipids, and adipose tissue, respectively. The percentage of 18:3n-3 in the phospholipid fraction of the LM was highest (P < 0.05) in lambs fed the linseed oil diet (6.9%), a value double that of sheep fed the PLS diet. By contrast, lambs fed the PLS diet had twice the percentage of 18:3n-3 in the muscle neutral lipids (3.8%) than those offered the linseed oil diet, and 5.5-fold greater than lambs fed the fish/algae treatment (P < 0.05), an effect that was similar in the adipose tissue. The percentage of 18:2n-6 was highest (P < 0.05) in lambs fed the PLS diet, where it contributed 33.7, 10.1, and 11.2% in the muscle phospholipid, neutral lipids, and adipose tissue, respectively. The highest (P < 0.05) muscle PUFA-to-saturated fatty acid (P:S) ratio was obtained in lambs fed the PLS diet (0.57), followed by the PLS/algae diet (0.46), and those fed the fish oil or linseed oil diets had the lowest ratios (0.19 and 0.26, respectively). The favorable P:S ratio of lambs fed the PLS/algae diet, in conjunction with the increased levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, enhanced the nutritional qualities of lamb to more closely resemble what is recommended for the human diet. PMID:15144087

Cooper, S L; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Hallett, K G; Enser, M; Wood, J D

2004-05-01

146

Asbestos content of lung tissue and carcinoma of the lung: a clinicopathologic correlation and mineral fiber analysis of 234 cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the asbestos content of lung tissue in a series of patients with lung cancer and some history of asbestos exposure. This information was then correlated with demographic information, occupational and smoking history, presence or absence of pathologic asbestosis or pleural plaques, and pathologic features of the cancer. The pulmonary concentration of asbestos fibers in 234 cases of primary carcinoma of the lung was determined by means of a tissue digestion technique. Asbestos body counts were performed in 229 cases and fiber analysis by scanning electron microscopy in 221 cases. Asbestos content was recorded as total asbestos fibers, commercial amphibole fibers, noncommercial amphibole fibers, and chrysotile fibers 5 microm or greater in length per gram of wet lung tissue. The study group included 70 patients with asbestosis (Group I), 44 patients with parietal pleural plaques but without asbestosis (Group II), and 120 patients with neither (Group III). The median asbestos body content of Group I was more than 35 times greater than Group II and more than 300 times greater than Group III. The total asbestos fiber count for Group I was nearly 20 times greater than Group II and more than 50 times greater than Group III. The difference was due almost entirely to commercial amphiboles. In a series of primary lung cancer cases with some history of asbestos exposure, a markedly elevated asbestos content was identified among those with pathologic asbestosis as compared with patients with pleural plaques alone or with neither plaques nor asbestosis. PMID:10717262

Roggli, V L; Sanders, L L

2000-03-01

147

Ineffective erythropoiesis in beta-thalassemia is characterized by increased iron absorption mediated by down-regulation of hepcidin and up-regulation of ferroportin.  

PubMed

Progressive iron overload is the most salient and ultimately fatal complication of beta-thalassemia. However, little is known about the relationship among ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), the role of iron-regulatory genes, and tissue iron distribution in beta-thalassemia. We analyzed tissue iron content and iron-regulatory gene expression in the liver, duodenum, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and heart of mice up to 1 year old that exhibit levels of iron overload and anemia consistent with both beta-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) and major (th3/th3). Here we show, for the first time, that tissue and cellular iron distribution are abnormal and different in th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, and that transfusion therapy can rescue mice affected by beta-thalassemia major and modify both the absorption and distribution of iron. Our study reveals that the degree of IE dictates tissue iron distribution and that IE and iron content regulate hepcidin (Hamp1) and other iron-regulatory genes such as Hfe and Cebpa. In young th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, low Hamp1 levels are responsible for increased iron absorption. However, in 1-year-old th3/+ animals, Hamp1 levels rise and it is rather the increase of ferroportin (Fpn1) that sustains iron accumulation, thus revealing a fundamental role of this iron transporter in the iron overload of beta-thalassemia. PMID:17299088

Gardenghi, Sara; Marongiu, Maria F; Ramos, Pedro; Guy, Ella; Breda, Laura; Chadburn, Amy; Liu, YiFang; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Breuer, William; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Wrighting, Diedra M; Andrews, Nancy C; de Sousa, Maria; Giardina, Patricia J; Grady, Robert W; Rivella, Stefano

2007-06-01

148

Ineffective erythropoiesis in ?-thalassemia is characterized by increased iron absorption mediated by down-regulation of hepcidin and up-regulation of ferroportin  

PubMed Central

Progressive iron overload is the most salient and ultimately fatal complication of ?-thalassemia. However, little is known about the relationship among ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), the role of iron-regulatory genes, and tissue iron distribution in ?-thalassemia. We analyzed tissue iron content and iron-regulatory gene expression in the liver, duodenum, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and heart of mice up to 1 year old that exhibit levels of iron overload and anemia consistent with both ?-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) and major (th3/th3). Here we show, for the first time, that tissue and cellular iron distribution are abnormal and different in th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, and that transfusion therapy can rescue mice affected by ?-thalassemia major and modify both the absorption and distribution of iron. Our study reveals that the degree of IE dictates tissue iron distribution and that IE and iron content regulate hepcidin (Hamp1) and other iron-regulatory genes such as Hfe and Cebpa. In young th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, low Hamp1 levels are responsible for increased iron absorption. However, in 1-year-old th3/+ animals, Hamp1 levels rise and it is rather the increase of ferroportin (Fpn1) that sustains iron accumulation, thus revealing a fundamental role of this iron transporter in the iron overload of ?-thalassemia. PMID:17299088

Gardenghi, Sara; Marongiu, Maria F.; Ramos, Pedro; Guy, Ella; Breda, Laura; Chadburn, Amy; Liu, YiFang; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.; Breuer, William; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Wrighting, Diedra M.; Andrews, Nancy C.; de Sousa, Maria; Giardina, Patricia J.; Grady, Robert W.

2007-01-01

149

Comparative In Vitro Study on Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MRI Tracking of Adipose Tissue-Derived Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using measurement of the transverse relaxation time (R2*) is to be considered as a promising approach for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. While the relationship between core composition of nanoparticles and their MRI properties is well studied, little is known about possible effects on progenitor cells. This in vitro study aims at comparing two magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle types, single vs. multi-core nanoparticles, regarding their physico-chemical characteristics, effects on cellular behavior of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) like differentiation and proliferation as well as their detection and quantification by means of MRI. Quantification of both nanoparticle types revealed a linear correlation between labeling concentration and R2* values. However, according to core composition, different levels of labeling concentrations were needed to achieve comparable R2* values. Cell viability was not altered for all labeling concentrations, whereas the proliferation rate increased with increasing labeling concentrations. Likewise, deposition of lipid droplets as well as matrix calcification revealed to be highly dose-dependent particularly regarding multi-core nanoparticle-labeled cells. Synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins and mRNA expression of collagen type II was also highly dependent on nanoparticle labeling. In general, the differentiation potential was decreased with increasing labeling concentrations. This in vitro study provides the proof of principle for further in vivo tracking experiments of progenitor cells using nanoparticles with different core compositions but also provides striking evidence that combined testing of biological and MRI properties is advisable as improved MRI properties of multi-core nanoparticles may result in altered cell functions. PMID:25244560

Kasten, Annika; Grüttner, Cordula; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Bader, Rainer; Pasold, Juliane; Frerich, Bernhard

2014-01-01

150

Method development and subsequent survey analysis of biological tissues for platinum, lead, and manganese content.  

PubMed Central

An emission spectrochemical method is described for the determination of trace quantities of platinum, lead, and manganese in biological tissues. Total energy burns in an argon-oxygen atmosphere are employed. Sample preparation, conditions of analysis, and preparation of standards are discussed. The precision of the method is consistently better than +/- 15%, and comparative analyses indicate comparable accuracies. Data obtained for experimental rat tissues and for selected autopsy tissues are presented. PMID:1157798

Yoakum, A M; Stewart, P L; Sterrett, J E

1975-01-01

151

Application of VNIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate soil organic carbon content, and content of different forms of iron and manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a progressive method used for prediction of soil properties. Study was performed on the soils from the agricultural land from the south Moravia municipality of Brumovice. Studied area is characterized by a relatively flat upper part, a tributary valley in the middle and a colluvial fan at the bottom. Haplic Chernozem reminded at the flat upper part of the area. Regosols were formed at steep parts of the valley. Colluvial Chernozem and Colluvial soils were formed at the bottom parts of the valley and at the bottom part of the studied field. The goal of the study was to evaluate relationship between soil spectra curves and organic matter content, and different forms iron and manganese content (Mehlich III extract, ammonium oxalate extract and dithionite-citrate extract). Samples (87) were taken from the topsoil within regular grid covering studied area. The soil spectra curves (of air dry soil and sieved using 2 mm sieve) were measured in the laboratory using spectometer FieldSpec®3 (350 - 2 500 nm). The Fe and Mn contents in different extract were measured using ICP-OES (with an iCAP 6500 Radial ICP Emission spectrometer; Thermo Scientific, UK) under standard analytical conditions. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for modeling of the relationship between spectra and measured soil properties. Prediction ability was evaluated using the R2, root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD). The results showed the best prediction for Mn (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 29, NRMSD = 0.11), Fe in ammonium oxalate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 171, NRMSD = 0.12) and organic matter content (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 0.13, NRMSD = 0.09). The slightly worse prediction was obtained for Mn and Fe in citrate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 21, NRMSD = 0.10; R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 522, NRMSD = 0.23). Poor prediction was evaluated for Mn and Fe in Mehlich III extract (R2 = 0.43, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.17; R2 = 0.39, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.26). In general, the results confirmed that the measurement of soil spectral characteristics is a promising technology for a digital soil mapping and predicting studied soil properties. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319) and the Czech Science Foundation (grant No. GA526/09/1762).

Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Drabek, Ondrej; Boruvka, Lubos

2013-04-01

152

Combined effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on hepatic iron, zinc, manganese, and copper contents.  

PubMed

The present study has been performed in order to establish the relative and combined roles of ethanol and malnutrition on liver Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn alterations in alcoholic male adult Wistar rats, and also the relationships between these alterations and histomorphometrically determined hepatocyte and nuclear areas, perivenular fibrotic rim area, and total amount of fat present in the liver. Four groups of 8 animals each were fed: (1) a nutritionally adequate diet (C); (2) a 36% ethanol-containing (as percent of energy), isocaloric diet (A); (3) a 2% protein-containing, isocaloric diet (PD); and (4) a 36% ethanol, 2% protein-containing, isocaloric diet (A-PD), respectively, following the Lieber-DeCarli model. Ethanol-fed, protein-deficient animals showed the highest liver Fe, and the lowest Zn and Cu values, although differences in liver Zn, Mn, and Cu values were not significantly different between PD and A-PD groups. Statistically significant differences of these parameters were observed between the A and the A-PD groups, and between the A and PD groups, except for liver iron. Except for liver Mn, differences between C and A groups were statistically significant. These alterations correlated with liver fibrosis and steatosis, serum albumin, and weight loss, except for liver Mn, which was not correlated with fibrosis or steatosis. Thus, protein deficiency seems to enhance ethanol-induced liver Fe, Zn, and Cu alterations, whereas protein deficiency, but not ethanol, seems to play a major role on liver Mn alterations. PMID:1418656

Conde-Martel, A; González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Castro-Alemán, V; Galindo-Martín, L; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A

1992-01-01

153

In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The foldover in magnified images was eliminated by exciting limited regions with orthogonal pi/2 and pi pulses. Off-midline regions were imaged by tandemly offsetting the phase-encoding and excitation. Artifacts due to non-steady-state conditions were demonstrated. The approach to steady state was defined by operators and vectors, and any repeated series of RF pulses was proven to produce a steady-state. The vector difference between the magnetization and its steady state value is relatively constant during the approach. The repetition time relative to T_1 is the main determinant of approach rate, and off-resonant RF pulses incoherent with the magnetization produce a more rapid approach than on-resonant pulses.

Conturo, Thomas Edward

154

PLANT SOURCES OF DIETARY IRON: DIVERSITY IN TISSUE IRON CONCENTRATION. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON IRON NUTRITION AND INTERACTIONS IN PLANTS, JULY 3-7, 2006, MONTPELLIER, FRANCE. 2006. P. 56.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron is an essential mineral for all organisms, including humans and other animals. Iron must be obtained through dietary sources, and plant food products are an important provider of this micronutrient. Because all plants contain iron, humans consume this nutrient in all vegetable, grain, and fru...

155

Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment  

SciTech Connect

Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit, E-mail: paramgrover@gmail.com

2013-01-01

156

Quantitation of dopamine, serotonin and adenosine content in a tissue punch from a brain slice using capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection  

PubMed Central

Methods to determine neurochemical concentrations in small samples of tissue are needed to map interactions among neurotransmitters. In particular, correlating physiological measurements of neurotransmitter release and the tissue content in a small region would be valuable. HPLC is the standard method for tissue content analysis but it requires microliter samples and the detector often varies by the class of compound being quantified; thus detecting molecules from different classes can be difficult. In this paper, we develop capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection (CE-FSCV) for analysis of dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content in tissue punches from rat brain slices. Using field-amplified sample stacking, the limit of detection was 5 nM for dopamine, 10 nM for serotonin, and 50 nM for adenosine. Neurotransmitters could be measured from a tissue punch as small as 7 µg (7 nL) of tissue, three orders of magnitude smaller than a typical HPLC sample. Tissue content analysis of punches in successive slices through the striatum revealed higher dopamine but lower adenosine content in the anterior striatum. Stimulated dopamine release was measured in a brain slice, then a tissue punch collected from the recording region. Dopamine content and release had a correlation coefficient of 0.71, which indicates much of the variance in stimulated release is due to variance in tissue content. CE-FSCV should facilitate measurements of tissue content in nanoliter samples, leading to a better understanding of how diseases or drugs affect dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content. PMID:23795210

Fang, Huaifang; Pajski, Megan L.; Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

2013-01-01

157

Digital holography and tissue dynamics spectroscopy: on the road to high-content drug discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital holography, Fourier optics and speckle are combined to enable a new direction in drug discovery. Optical coherence imaging (OCI) is a coherence-gated imaging approach that captures dynamic speckle from inside living tissue. The speckle temporal fluctuations arise from internal motions in the biological tissue, and the changes in these motions caused by applying drugs can be captured and quantified using tissue dynamics spectroscopy (TDS). A phenotypic profile of many reference drugs provides a training set that would help classify new compounds that may be candidates as new anti-cancer drugs.

Nolte, D. D.; An, R.; Jeong, K.; Turek, J.

2011-10-01

158

Effect of dietary oregano oil and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on iron-induced lipid oxidation of turkey breast, thigh, liver and heart tissues.  

PubMed

Twenty-five 12-week-old turkeys randomly divided into five groups were given a basal diet, or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or 100 mg oregano oil/kg or 200 mg oregano oil/kg, or 100 mg oregano oil plus 100 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Breast, thigh, liver and heart tissues were subjected to iron-induced lipid oxidation, the extent of which was determined by third-order derivative spectrophotometry. Results showed that dietary oregano oil at the inclusion level of 200 mg oregano oil/kg diet was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared with the inclusion level of 100 mg/kg, but equivalent to the inclusion of 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet, which in turn was inferior to the combined inclusion of 100 mg oregano oil plus 100 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg, which was superior to all dietary treatments. Thigh tissue was more susceptible to oxidation than breast tissue, although it contained alpha-tocopherol at higher concentrations. Also, lipid oxidation in heart was relatively high, although it contained the highest alpha-tocopherol levels. This indicates that tissue alpha-tocopherol is one important factor influencing the level of lipid oxidation, but the distribution of lipids, iron and oregano oil in tissues must also be taken into consideration. Tissue alpha-tocopherol levels responded to dietary intake of 30-200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg in the order heart > liver > thigh > breast. Breast, thigh and heart tissues from the oregano groups presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of alpha-tocopherol compared with the control, the increase being positively correlated with the supplementation level. The increased levels of alpha-tocopherol in these tissues indicated that the dietary oregano oil exerted a protective action on alpha-tocopherol. PMID:14507415

Papageorgiou, G; Botsoglou, N; Govaris, A; Giannenas, I; Iliadis, S; Botsoglou, E

2003-10-01

159

Tissue-specific functions based on information content of gene ontology using cap analysis gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene expressions differ depending on tissue types and developmental stages. Analyzing how each gene is expressed is thus important.\\u000a One way of analyzing gene expression patterns is to identify tissue-specific functions. This is useful for understanding how\\u000a vital activities are performed. DNA microarray has been widely used to observe gene expressions exhaustively. However, comparing\\u000a the expression value of a gene

Sami Maekawa; Atsuko Matsumoto; Yoichi Takenaka; Hideo Matsuda

2007-01-01

160

The effects of chemical sympathectomy on dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline content in some peripheral tissues.  

PubMed

Dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad) depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and pargyline plus 6-OHDA was investigated in the cat left ventricle, mesenteric and renal arteries, renal cortex, renal medulla and adrenal medulla. Catecholamine concentrations in plasma were also analyzed in these two experimental conditions. 6-OHDA alone or in combination with pargyline induced parallel decreases of NA and dopamine contents in the left ventricle. In the main trunk and proximal branches of the mesenteric artery and renal artery 6-OHDA selectively reduced NA without a parallel decrease in dopamine content. Previous treatment with pargyline abolished this selectivity. In the kidney of control animals, dopamine content was greater than could be attributed to its presence only in noradrenergic neurones. In the renal cortex 6-OHDA reduced significantly dopamine and NA contents, and in the renal medulla only NA levels were decreased by this drug. Pargyline plus 6-OHDA did not deplete the NA content either in the renal cortex or in the renal medulla, and only reduced significantly the dopamine content in the renal cortex. NA concentrations in plasma were increased by pargyline plus 6-OHDA whilst Ad remained unaffected. In the adrenal medulla only NA content was reduced either by 6-OHDA or pargyline plus 6-OHDA. The present findings suggest a NA-independent dopamine pool in both segments of the mesenteric artery and renal artery but not in the left ventricle. PMID:3931730

Caramona, M M; Soares-da-Silva, P

1985-10-01

161

The effects of chemical sympathectomy on dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline content in some peripheral tissues.  

PubMed Central

Dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad) depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and pargyline plus 6-OHDA was investigated in the cat left ventricle, mesenteric and renal arteries, renal cortex, renal medulla and adrenal medulla. Catecholamine concentrations in plasma were also analyzed in these two experimental conditions. 6-OHDA alone or in combination with pargyline induced parallel decreases of NA and dopamine contents in the left ventricle. In the main trunk and proximal branches of the mesenteric artery and renal artery 6-OHDA selectively reduced NA without a parallel decrease in dopamine content. Previous treatment with pargyline abolished this selectivity. In the kidney of control animals, dopamine content was greater than could be attributed to its presence only in noradrenergic neurones. In the renal cortex 6-OHDA reduced significantly dopamine and NA contents, and in the renal medulla only NA levels were decreased by this drug. Pargyline plus 6-OHDA did not deplete the NA content either in the renal cortex or in the renal medulla, and only reduced significantly the dopamine content in the renal cortex. NA concentrations in plasma were increased by pargyline plus 6-OHDA whilst Ad remained unaffected. In the adrenal medulla only NA content was reduced either by 6-OHDA or pargyline plus 6-OHDA. The present findings suggest a NA-independent dopamine pool in both segments of the mesenteric artery and renal artery but not in the left ventricle. PMID:3931730

Caramona, M. M.; Soares-da-Silva, P.

1985-01-01

162

Amplitude and frequency content analysis of optoacoustic signals in laser heated ex-vivo tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser thermal therapy involves heating tissue using light to temperatures between 55 °C and 95 °C for several minutes resulting in coagulation and cell death. This treatment method has been under investigation for use as a minimally invasive method for eradicating solid tumors and cancer cells. Optoacoustic imaging involves exposing optically absorbing media to nanosecond pulsed laser light causing rapid localized heating and inducing acoustic waves to be detected by wideband transducers. It has been proposed as a real-time, noninvasive method for monitoring laser thermal therapy. This thesis investigates the use of optoacoustics to discriminate between native and coagulated ex-vivo tissues (porcine tenderloin muscle, bovine liver and bovine kidney). Tissues were heated using a 1000 mum core optical fibre coupled to an 810 nm diode laser to generate lesions. Samples were scanned at 1064 nm using a prototype reverse-mode optoacoustic system consisting of a pulsed laser coupled to a bifurcated fibre bundle, and an 8 element annular array wideband ultrasound transducer with a central frequency of ˜5 MHz. Thermal coagulation effects were analyzed using optoacoustic signal amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis. Significant differences (p<0.05) in optoacoustic signals, between native and coagulated porcine muscle, were observed with both amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis methods. Inconsistencies in the amplitude-based analysis were observed in the bovine liver and bovine kidney. Significant differences between native and coagulated bovine liver tissues were observed in two of the three frequency parameters of interest (slope and midband fit, p<0.05). No significant differences between native and coagulated bovine kidney tissues using frequency-based analysis. Amplitude-based analysis methods take advantage of the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of the tissues, while the frequency-based method extracts metrics related physical parameters of the absorbers (such as size, shape and concentration). By isolating the samples from temperature influence (by acquiring OA data of native and coagulated tissues at constant temperature) we have demonstrated that optoacoustics can be used to directly detect tissue damage in two of these three tissue types. The results of this work support the evidence that optoacoustic imaging could be a tool for real-time monitoring of laser thermal heating, but warrant further investigation.

Laderoute, Annie

163

Content of Trans Fatty Acids in Human Cheek Epithelium: Comparison with Serum and Adipose Tissue  

PubMed Central

Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA), which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 (P < 0.02) and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (P < 0.019). This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake. PMID:24222900

Abraham, Ransi A.; Bahl, Vinay K.; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, V.; Roy, Ambuj; Golandaz, Smita; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy

2013-01-01

164

Occupancy of the iron binding sites of human transferrin.  

PubMed Central

The in vivo distribution of iron between the binding sites of transferrin was examined. Plasma was obtained from normal subjects under basal conditions and after in vitro and in vivo iron loading. Independent methods, including measurement of the transferrin profile after isoelectric focusing and cross immunoelectrophoresis, and determination of the iron content in the separated fractions were in agreement that there was a random distribution of iron on binding sites. This held true with in vitro loading, when iron was increased by intestinal absorption and with loading from the reticuloendothelial system. The data indicate that the distribution of apo-, monoferric, and diferric transferrins is predictable on the basis of the plasma transferrin saturation and negate the concept that iron loading of transferrin in vitro is a selective process with possible functional consequences in tissue iron delivery. PMID:6589596

Huebers, H A; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Csiba, E; Finch, C A

1984-01-01

165

Paretic Muscle Atrophy and Non-Contractile Tissue Content in Individual Muscles of the Post-Stroke Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Muscle atrophy is one of many factors contributing to post-stroke hemiparetic weakness. Since muscle force is a function of muscle size, the amount of muscle atrophy an individual muscle undergoes has implications for its overall force-generating capability post-stroke. In this study, post-stroke atrophy was determined bilaterally in fifteen leg muscles with volumes quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All muscle volumes were adjusted to exclude non-contractile tissue content, and muscle atrophy was quantified by comparing the volumes between paretic and non-paretic sides. Non-contractile tissue or intramuscular fat was calculated by determining the amount of tissue excluded from the muscle volume measurement. With the exception of the gracilis, all individual paretic muscles examined had smaller volumes in the non-paretic side. The average decrease in volume for these paretic muscles was 23%. The gracilis volume, on the other hand, was approximately 11% larger on the paretic side. The amount of non-contractile tissue was higher in all paretic muscles except the gracilis, where no difference was observed between sides. To compensate for paretic plantar flexor weakness, one idea might be that use of the paretic gracilis actually causes the muscle to increase in size and not develop intramuscular fat. By eliminating non-contractile tissue from our volume calculations, we have presented volume data that more appropriately represents force-generating muscle tissue. Non-uniform muscle atrophy was observed across muscles and may provide important clues when assessing the effect of muscle atrophy on post-stroke gait. PMID:21945568

Ramsay, John W.; Barrance, Peter J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Higginson, Jill S.

2011-01-01

166

EFFECT OF SILICA AND VOLCANIC ASH ON THE CONTENT OF LUNG ALVEOLAR AND TISSUE PHOSPHOLIPIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Silica or volcanic ash (VA) was administered to rats via intratracheal instillation and the changes in extracellular (i.e., lavage fluid) and tissue phospholipids, as well as various biochemical parameters, were monitored over a six month period. VA produced relatively minor (up ...

167

Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. PMID:25624225

Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tom?ala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

2015-06-01

168

Adaptation of the lipase-colipase system to dietary lipid content in pig pancreatic tissue  

E-print Network

: 0.3 ; potassium chloride : 0.4 ; magnesium carbonate : 0.2 ; trace element mixture : 0.1) and 1 p lipid content. Twenty pigs were divided into two lots of ten each. One lot was fed a diet containing 5 p. 100 of peanut oil and the other a diet containing 25 p. 100 of peanut oil. Lipase and colipase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Distribution and quantitation of skin iron in primary haemochromatosis: correlation with total body iron stores in patients undergoing phlebotomy.  

PubMed

Measurement of the concentration of iron in the skin, if correlated with total body iron stores, may enable better informed decisions on when to initiate, change or stop therapy in hereditary heamochromatosis. Naïve haemochromatosis patients with iron overload and with C282Y and/or H63D HFE mutations were evaluated at the following time-points: disease diagnosis, end of the therapy programme, and 6 months after the end of therapy. The distribution and concentration of iron in the skin were assessed by quantitative nuclear microscopy methods, in parallel with serum and plasma iron concentration. Iron content in the liver was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Iron accumulated in the epidermis; its concentration increased from outer to inner layers, being maximal in the basal layer (7.33?±?0.98 µmol/g). At all 3 time-points, most of the iron was associated with the extracellular space. During the phlebotomy programme the iron content of the skin and the liver decreased by a factor of 2. These data suggest that measurements of iron concentration in the epidermis, which is a readily accessible tissue, reflect iron overload in the liver. PMID:23728724

Pinheiro, Teresa; Silva, Raquel; Fleming, Rita; Gonçalves, Afonso; Barreiros, Maria A; Silva, João N; Morlière, Patrice; Santus, René; Filipe, Paulo

2014-01-01

170

Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice  

PubMed Central

Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world's population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes) has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains) and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA) metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings (NTS). Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of yellow stripe like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II) complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content. PMID:23755054

Wang, Meng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

2013-01-01

171

High-resolution cellular MRI: gadolinium and iron oxide nanoparticles for in-depth dual-cell imaging of engineered tissue constructs.  

PubMed

Recent advances in cell therapy and tissue engineering opened new windows for regenerative medicine, but still necessitate innovative noninvasive imaging technologies. We demonstrate that high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows combining cellular-scale resolution with the ability to detect two cell types simultaneously at any tissue depth. Two contrast agents, based on iron oxide and gadolinium oxide rigid nanoplatforms, were used to "tattoo" endothelial cells and stem cells, respectively, with no impact on cell functions, including their capacity for differentiation. The labeled cells' contrast properties were optimized for simultaneous MRI detection: endothelial cells and stem cells seeded together in a polysaccharide-based scaffold material for tissue engineering appeared respectively in black and white and could be tracked, at the cellular level, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, endothelial cells labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles could be remotely manipulated by applying a magnetic field, allowing the creation of vessel substitutes with in-depth detection of individual cellular components. PMID:23924160

Di Corato, Riccardo; Gazeau, Florence; Le Visage, Catherine; Fayol, Delphine; Levitz, Pierre; Lux, François; Letourneur, Didier; Luciani, Nathalie; Tillement, Olivier; Wilhelm, Claire

2013-09-24

172

Effects of Iron on Growth, Pigment Content, Photosystem II Efficiency, and Siderophores Production of Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis wesenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in growth, photosynthetic pigments, and photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency as well as production of siderophores\\u000a of Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis wesenbergii were determined in this experiment. Results showed growths of M. aeruginosa and M. wesenbergii, measured by means of optical density at 665 nm, were severely inhibited under an iron-limited condition, whereas they thrived\\u000a under an iron-replete

Wei Xing; Wen-min Huang; Dun-hai Li; Yong-ding Liu

2007-01-01

173

Simple and Selective Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Iron (III) and Total Iron Content, Based on the Reaction of Fe(III) with 1,2-Dihydroxy-3,4-Diketocyclo-Butene (Squaric Acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Squaric acid (1,2-dihydroxy-3,4-diketo-cyclobutene) is used in a specific reaction with Fe(III) for the spectrophotometric\\u000a determination of Fe(III) and total iron content. The optimization of the experimental parameters leads to the establishment\\u000a of a simple, fast and accurate analytical method. The analytical procedure includes mixing ammonium squarate (40?mM), prepared\\u000a in a phthalate buffer solution of pH 2.7, with the sample and

Constantine D. Stalikas; Alexandros Ch. Pappas; Miltiades I. Karayannis; Panayotis G. Veltsistas

2003-01-01

174

Ultra High Content Image Analysis and Phenotype Profiling of 3D Cultured Micro-Tissues  

PubMed Central

In many situations, 3D cell cultures mimic the natural organization of tissues more closely than 2D cultures. Conventional methods for phenotyping such 3D cultures use either single or multiple simple parameters based on morphology and fluorescence staining intensity. However, due to their simplicity many details are not taken into account which limits system-level study of phenotype characteristics. Here, we have developed a new image analysis platform to automatically profile 3D cell phenotypes with 598 parameters including morphology, topology, and texture parameters such as wavelet and image moments. As proof of concept, we analyzed mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 cells) in a 384-well plate format following exposure to a diverse set of compounds at different concentrations. The result showed concentration dependent phenotypic trajectories for different biologically active compounds that could be used to classify compounds based on their biological target. To demonstrate the wider applicability of our method, we analyzed the phenotypes of a collection of 44 human breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D and showed that our method correctly distinguished basal-A, basal-B, luminal and ERBB2+ cell lines in a supervised nearest neighbor classification method. PMID:25289886

Di, Zi; Klop, Maarten J. D.; Rogkoti, Vasiliki-Maria; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E.; van de Water, Bob; Verbeek, Fons J.; Price, Leo S.; Meerman, John H. N.

2014-01-01

175

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM proteins regulate the translocation of iron, zinc, and nitrogen compounds from vegetative tissues to grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The NAM-B1 gene is a NAC transcription factor that affects grain nutrient concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum). An RNAi line with reduced expression of NAM genes has lower grain protein, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. To determine whether decreased remobilization, lower plant uptak...

176

Friction and wear with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide in contact with iron base binary alloys in oil: Effects of alloying element and its content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a rider of 0.025-millimeter-radius, single-crystal silicon carbide in mineral oil. Results indicate that atomic size and content of alloying element play a dominant role in controlling the abrasive-wear and -friction properties of iron-base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction and groove height (wear volume) general alloy decrease, and the contact pressure increases in solute content. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic radius ratio with the decreasing rate of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of groove height (wear volume), and the increasing rate of contact pressure with increasing solute content C. Those rates increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases from unity.

Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

1979-01-01

177

Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for comparative analysis of iron cores in a human liver ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models Imferon, Maltofer® and Ferrum Lek as well as in iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues allowed to reveal small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters related to differences in the iron core structure. Moreover, it was shown that the best fit of Mössbauer spectra of these samples required different number of components. The latter may indicate that the real iron core structure is more complex than that following from a simple core-shell model. The effect of different living conditions and age on the iron core in chicken liver was also considered.

Alenkina, I. V.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Klepova, Yu. V.; Dubiel, S. M.; Sadovnikov, N. V.; Semionkin, V. A.

178

Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus  

PubMed Central

This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2) as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD) were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0), 21.0 (C21), 40.7 (C41), 83.5 (C83), 162 (C162), 1,387 (C1,387) and 2,743 (C2,743) mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05). Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet. PMID:25049927

Okorie, Okorie E.; Bae, Jun Young; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Seunghyung; Park, Gun-Hyun; Mohseni, Mahmoud; Bai, Sungchul C.

2014-01-01

179

The Non-Heme Iron Content of the Tissues of Mice of High-Cancer and Low-Cancer Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is essentially a disease of later life. This holds good for most types of tumors in all species that have been investigated. It is apparen t that studies of the factors involved in the aging of animals may be of great interest when considered in connection with the spontaneous appearance of cancer. Many investi- gations of aging organisms have

F. L. Warren; F. Goulden

180

Over-expression of the MxIRT1 gene increases iron and zinc content in rice seeds.  

PubMed

Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce Fe-biofortified rice with MxIRT1 to solve the Fe-deficiency problem, plant expression vectors of pCAMBIA1302-MxIRT1:GFP and pCAMBIA1302-anti MxIRT1:GFP were constructed that led to successful production of transgenic rice. The transgenic plant phenotypes showed that the expression of endogenous OsIRT1 was suppressed by anti-MxIRT1 in antisense lines that acted as an opposing control, while sense lines had a higher tolerance under Zn- and Fe-deficient conditions. The iron and zinc concentration in T3 seeds increased by three times in sense lines when compared to the wild type. To understand the MxIRT1 cadmium uptake, the MxIRT1 cadmium absorption trait was compared with AtIRT1 and OsIRT1 in transgenic rice protoplasts, and it was found that MxIRT1 had the lowest Cd uptake capacity. MxIRT1 transgenic tobacco-cultured bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells and rice lines were subjected to different Fe conditions and the results from the non-invasive micro-test technique showed that iron was actively transported compared to cadmium as long as iron was readily available in the environment. This suggests that MxIRT1 is a good candidate gene for plant Fe and Zn biofortification. PMID:25099285

Tan, Song; Han, Rui; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei-Bing; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

2015-02-01

181

Effects of iron and manganese on the growth of rice and on the contents of these elements in rice  

E-print Network

, the Mn content decreased in both plant parts. The increased application of Fe increased the Fe content concentration in both plant parts, but higher Mn levels decreased the Fe content in plant parts. Low levels plants S. M. ALAM Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Tandojam, Pakistan SUMMARY A glasshouse

Boyer, Edmond

182

Effects of selenium on liver and muscle contents and urinary excretion of zinc, copper, iron and manganese.  

PubMed

Selenium is a main component of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), a key antioxidant enzyme. Other elements, such as zinc, copper, manganese and iron, are also involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative damage as well as in other important metabolic pathways. The effects of selenium supplementation on the metabolism of these elements have yield controversial results .The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of selenium supplementation on liver, muscle and urinary excretion of zinc, copper, iron and manganese in a situation of oxidative stress, such as protein deficiency. The experimental design included four groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which received the Lieber-DeCarli control diet, an isocaloric 2 % protein-containing diet and another similar two groups to which selenomethionine (6 mg/l liquid diet) was added. After sacrifice (5 weeks later), muscle, liver and serum selenium were determined, as well as muscle, liver and urinary zinc, copper, manganese and iron and liver GPX activity and liver malondialdehyde. Selenium addition led to decreased liver copper, increased muscle copper, increased copper excretion and increased liver iron, whereas zinc and manganese parameters were essentially unaltered. Muscle, liver and serum selenium were all significantly correlated with liver GPX activity. PMID:24622908

Monedero-Prieto, María José; González-Pérez, José María; González-Reimers, Emilio; Hernández-Pérez, Onán; Monereo-Muñoz, María; Galindo-Martín, Luis; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Abreu-González, Pedro

2014-05-01

183

Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

2012-01-01

184

Effects of nano-selenium on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-selenium (nano-Se) on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. A total of five hundred forty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The 5 treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se. The selenium content of the unsupplemented control diet was 0.09 mg/kg for the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and 0.08 mg/kg for the grower phase (22 to 42 d). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in performance, meat color, or immune organ index (thymus, bursa, and spleen) due to supplementation with nano-Se. On d 42, a significant quadratic effect of nano-Se was observed on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition, contents of IgM, glutathione, and malondialdehyde in serum, on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition in liver, and on glutathione peroxidase activity in muscle, with birds fed 0.30 mg/kg of nano-Se exhibiting the best effect and birds fed 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se showing the worst effect on these parameters. Liver and muscle selenium content increased linearly and quadratically as the dietary nano-Se level increased (P < 0.01), and reached the highest value when 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se was fed. Based on a consideration of all experiment indexes, 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg is suggested to be the optimum level of supplementation of nano-Se, and the maximum supplementation of nano-Se could not be more than 1.0 mg/kg in broilers. PMID:22991539

Cai, S J; Wu, C X; Gong, L M; Song, T; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

2012-10-01

185

Relative and combined effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on zinc, iron, copper, and manganese contents in different organs and urinary and fecal excretion.  

PubMed

The relative contribution of protein deficiency to the altered metabolism of certain trace elements in chronic alcoholics is not well defined, so this study was performed to analyse the relative and combined effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on liver, bone, muscle, and blood cell content of copper, zinc, iron, and manganese, and also on serum levels and urinary and fecal excretion of these elements in four groups of eight animals each that were pair-fed during 8 weeks with a nutritionally adequate diet, a 36% (as energy) ethanol-containing isocaloric diet, a 2% protein isocaloric diet, and a 36% ethanol 2% protein isocaloric diet, respectively, following the Lieber-DeCarli model. Five additional rats were fed ad lib the control diet. Protein malnutrition, but not ethanol, leads to liver zinc depletion. Both ethanol and protein malnutrition cause muscle zinc depletion and increase urinary zinc and manganese excretion, whereas ethanol also increases urinary iron excretion and liver manganese content. No differences were observed regarding copper metabolism. PMID:9650630

Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Martinez-Riera, A; Santolaria-Fernandez, F; Mas-Pascual, A; Rodriguez-Moreno, F; Galindo-Martin, L; Molina-Perez, M; Barros-Lopez, N

1998-07-01

186

Analysis of iron, zinc, selenium and cadmium in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a valuable and abundant resource of pathologic material for various biomedical studies. In the present study, we report the application of high-resolution inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) for quantification of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd in FFPE prostate tissue. These elements have a possible role in the development of prostate diseases: while Zn and Se are needed for a healthy prostate, Cd shows multiple toxic and carcinogenic effects. Excessive accumulation of Fe induces the production of highly reactive hydroxyl radical species, which may play a role in cancer etiopathogenesis. To assess whether the levels of these metals in the FFPE prostate tissue represent their original content, we compared their levels with those in the fresh tissue (on dry weight basis) in samples obtained from 15 patients. We found that in FFPE tissue, the recoveries of Se, Fe, Cd and Zn were progressively decreased, 97??11% (r=0.88), 82??22% (r=0.86), 59??23% (r=0.69) and 24??11% (r=0.38), respectively. Thus, the use of correction factors, determined as k=0.16 for Se, k=0.20 for Fe, k=0.27 for Cd and k=0.67 for Zn, is required to estimate the retrospective levels of these elements in the parental non-processed fresh (wet) prostate tissue. The technique used in this study enables the analysis of archival FFPE prostate tissue for the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd to study association between the levels of these metals and prostate disease. ?? 2008.

Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Gray, Michael A.; MacIas, V.; Centeno, J.A.

2008-01-01

187

Iron-dependent modifications of the flower transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormonal content in an Arabidopsis ferritin mutant.  

PubMed

Iron homeostasis is an important process for flower development and plant fertility. The role of plastids in these processes has been shown to be essential. To document the relationships between plastid iron homeostasis and flower biology further, a global study (transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormone analysis) was performed of Arabidopsis flowers from wild-type and triple atfer1-3-4 ferritin mutant plants grown under iron-sufficient or excess conditions. Some major modifications in specific functional categories were consistently observed at these three omic levels, although no significant overlaps of specific transcripts and proteins were detected. These modifications concerned redox reactions and oxidative stress, as well as amino acid and protein catabolism, this latter point being exemplified by an almost 10-fold increase in urea concentration of atfer1-3-4 flowers from plants grown under iron excess conditions. The mutant background caused alterations in Fe-haem redox proteins located in membranes and in hormone-responsive proteins. Specific effects of excess Fe in the mutant included further changes in these categories, supporting the idea that the mutant is facing a more intense Fe/redox stress than the wild type. The mutation and/or excess Fe had a strong impact at the membrane level, as denoted by the changes in the transporter and lipid metabolism categories. In spite of the large number of genes and proteins responsive to hormones found to be regulated in this study, changes in the hormonal balance were restricted to cytokinins, especially in the mutant plants grown under Fe excess conditions. PMID:23682113

Sudre, Damien; Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Gaymard, Frédéric; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Fiehn, Oliver; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Zamarreño, Angel M; Bacaicoa, Eva; Duy, Daniela; García-Mina, Jose-María; Abadía, Javier; Philippar, Katrin; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Briat, Jean-François

2013-07-01

188

Effect of aluminum content on environmental embrittlement in binary iron-aluminum alloys--Acoustic emission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Intermetallic iron aluminide tensile coupons with 8.5 wt% (16.1 at. %) aluminum were shown to be ductile at room temperature through the use of acoustic emission analysis combined with fractography. Room temperature brittleness of alloys with greater than 12 wt % (22 at. %) aluminum has deterred acceptance as structural materials. The cause of room temperature brittleness in iron aluminides has been determined to be a chemical reaction between the aluminum component and water vapor in the environment. All materials emit sound when stressed to the point of permanent, microscopic change. For metals and alloys this sound has frequencies in the MHz range, but is detectable by ultrasonic methods. The detected ultrasound is termed acoustic emission (AE). Terminology associated with the study of AE is idiomatic. An AE hit refers to continuous detection of ultrasound by one transducer. The amplitude, rise time, duration, ring-down count, and acoustic energy of the hit are characteristic of the microscopic, physical activity taking place, but are unique for each specimen-apparatus system. Since each specimen is unique on a microscopic level, one test constitutes a study. One- to four-thousand data points are typical for an iron aluminide specimen. The individual hit shows that a permanent change has taken place, and the cause of that change can be sought through standard micrographic methods. Tensile studies have been reported elsewhere and this work is a continuation of these studies.

Woodyard, J.R. (Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States)); Sikka, V.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1993-12-01

189

Influence of carbon on physics and chemistry of iron and experimental constraints on carbon content of Earth's core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile elements such as sulfur, phosphorous, silicon, and oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen affect the melting behavior, elasticity, and chemistry of Earth materials and therefore play crucial roles in the differentiation and evolution of the planet. Limited understanding of the Earth's budget and pathways of volatiles arises from uncertainties in the nature and abundances of light elements in the core. Recent studies suggest that iron carbide may exist as a major component of the inner core, making the central sphere potentially the largest reservoir of carbon in Earth. Presented here are experimental results revealing pressure- and temperature-induced magnetic transitions in Fe3C and Fe7C3 and associated effects on their densities and sound velocities, the melting relation of the Fe-C binary system, and the partitioning and diffusion of carbon across the inner-core boundary (ICB) and core-mantle boundary (CMB). By comparing the iron-carbon system with other iron-light-element systems, the abundance and dynamics of carbon in the Earth's interior will be assessed.

Li, J.

2012-12-01

190

[Content of mineral substances in the internal organs of rats on intravenous feeding].  

PubMed

The experiments on rats receiving a complete intravenous nutrition (group 1) during 15 days showed that the concentration of natrium, magnesium and iron was increased in the liver and decreased in the spleen as compared to that in controls given normal feeding (group 2). The content of zink and copper (mg%) was significantly lowered in both the organs of rats in group 1. The growth of the liver and spleen mass during parenteral feeding led to a significant rise in the content of natrium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zink and manganese in the whole liver tissue of group 1 rats, while the content of calcium and copper was similar in both groups of animals. The content of natrium, potassium, magnesium, iron and zink in the whole spleen tissue was significantly higher in group 1 rats, while the content of calcium, copper and manganese was similar in both groups of rats. A correlation was revealed between the content of iron and copper in the liver tissue (r = +0.87) and the levels of natrium and magnesium it the spleen tissue (r = +0.78) of group 1 rats. In group 2 rats a correlation was recorded between the content of calcium and manganese in the liver tissue an the levels of natrium and calcium in the spleen (r = +0.85 and +0.86, respectively). PMID:3094248

Poriadkov, L F; Aleshko-Ozhevski?, Iu P; Narodetskaia, R V; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L F

1986-01-01

191

Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

192

The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

2015-01-01

193

Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.  

PubMed

Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves. PMID:25624215

Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

2015-06-01

194

Effect of Iron and Silicon Content on the Hot Compressive Deformation Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot deformation behavior of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys (1xxx) containing various amounts of Fe (0.1 to 0.7 wt.%) and Si (0.1 to 0.25 wt.%) was studied by uniaxial compression tests conducted at various temperatures (350-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s-1). The flow stress of the 1xxx alloys increased with increasing Fe and Si content. Increasing the Fe content from 0.1 to 0.7% raised the flow stress by 11-32% in Al-Fe-0.1Si alloys, whereas the flow stress increased 5-14% when the Si content increased from 0.1 to 0.25% in Al-0.1Fe-Si alloys. The influence of the temperature and the strain rate on the hot deformation behavior was analyzed using the Zener-Holloman parameter, and the effect of the chemical composition was considered in materials constants in the constitutive analysis. The proposed constitutive equations yielded an excellent prediction of the flow stress over wide ranges of temperature and strain rate with various Fe and Si contents. The microstructural analysis results revealed that the dynamic recovery (DRV) is the sole softening mechanism of the 1xxx alloys during hot deformation. Increasing the Fe and Si content retarded the DRV and resulted in a decrease in the subgrain size and mean misorientation angle of the boundaries.

Shakiba, M.; Parson, N.; Chen, X.-G.

2015-01-01

195

Influence of Iron Chlorosis on Pigment and Protein Metabolism in Leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. 1  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted on Nicotiana tabacum, L. to study the relation in the grana among chlorophylls, carotenoids, and proteins. The effect of iron chlorosis on protein and pigment synthesis was studied at different stages of chlorosis using glycine-U-C14. Pigments were separated by thin layer chromatography. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and protein contents of chloroplasts from chlorotic tissue were less than those of normal tissues. A 25% decrease in protein labeling and a 45% decrease in chlorophyll labeling was noted in deficient tissue compared to normal tissue even before chlorosis was perceptible. Both normal and iron deficient leaf discs which received iron in the incubation medium incorporated higher amounts of radioactive glycine into chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b at all stages of development than their respective counterparts not supplied with iron in the incubation medium. The presence of iron in the incubation medium reduced the amount of glycine incorporated into carotenes and xanthophylls, except where the tissue was severely chlorotic. This may be attributed to active competition for glycine between the iron-dependent- (chlorophyll) and iron-independent-(carotenoid) biosynthetic pathways. Incorporation of glycine into chloroplast pigments was lowest at severe chlorosis, probably due to a reduction in the overall enzyme activity. PMID:16656270

Shetty, A. S.; Miller, G. W.

1966-01-01

196

Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

2014-02-01

197

Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds  

PubMed Central

Background Iron is an important micronutrient for all living organisms. Almost 25% of the world population is affected by iron deficiency, a leading cause of anemia. In plants, iron deficiency leads to chlorosis and reduced yield. Both animals and plants may suffer from iron deficiency when their diet or environment lacks bioavailable iron. A sustainable way to reduce iron malnutrition in humans is to develop staple crops with increased content of bioavailable iron. Knowledge of where and how iron accumulates in seeds of crop plants will increase the understanding of plant iron metabolism and will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells surrounding the provascular tissue of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus seeds. Using the Perls' Prussian blue method, we were able to detect iron in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, cells near the epidermis, and cells surrounding the provascular tissue. In contrast, the protein ferritin that has been suggested as the major iron storage protein in legumes was only detected in the amyloplasts of the seed embryo. Using the non-destructive micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) technique we show that the tissue in the proximity of the provascular bundles holds up to 500 ?g g-1 of iron, depending on the genotype. In contrast to P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, we did not observe iron accumulation in the cells surrounding the provascular tissues of P. lunatus cotyledons. A novel iron-rich genotype, NUA35, with a high concentration of iron both in the seed coat and cotyledons was bred from a cross between an Andean and a Mesoamerican genotype. Conclusions The presented results emphasize the importance of complementing research in model organisms with analysis in crop plants and they suggest that iron distribution criteria should be integrated into selection strategies for bean biofortification. PMID:20149228

2010-01-01

198

Treatment of Rats with a Self-Selected Hyperlipidic Diet, Increases the Lipid Content of the Main Adipose Tissue Sites in a Proportion Similar to That of the Lipids in the Rest of Organs and Tissues  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1–1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28–63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38–44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in “other organs” was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the ”rest” of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed. PMID:24603584

Romero, María del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

2014-01-01

199

Iron Contents of Plagioclases in Dhofar 307 Lunar Meteorite and Surface Materials of the Farside Large Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FeO contents of clear plagioclase crystals in Dhofar 307 lunar meteorite, have been determined in connection with spectral data of the Kaguya mission and propose a model of formation of such breccia in a large basin of the farside.

Takeda, H.; Karouji, Y.; Ogawa, Y.; Otsuki, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Haruyama, J.

2009-03-01

200

Iron economy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

While research on iron nutrition in plants has largely focused on iron-uptake pathways, photosynthetic microbes such as the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provide excellent experimental systems for understanding iron metabolism at the subcellular level. Several paradigms in iron homeostasis have been established in this alga, including photosystem remodeling in the chloroplast and preferential retention of some pathways and key iron-dependent proteins in response to suboptimal iron supply. This review presents our current understanding of iron homeostasis in Chlamydomonas, with specific attention on characterized responses to changes in iron supply, like iron-deficiency. An overview of frequently used methods for the investigation of iron-responsive gene expression, physiology and metabolism is also provided, including preparation of media, the effect of cell size, cell density and strain choice on quantitative measurements and methods for the determination of metal content and assessing the effect of iron supply on photosynthetic performance. PMID:24032036

Glaesener, Anne G.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.

2013-01-01

201

Differences in fluorescence profiles from breast cancer tissues due to changes in relative tryptophan content via energy transfer: tryptophan content correlates with histologic grade and tumor size but not with lymph node metastases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation between histologic grade, an increasingly important measure of prognosis for patients with breast cancer, and tryptophan levels from tissues of 15 breast carcinoma patients was investigated. Changes in the relative content of key native organic biomolecule tryptophan were seen from the fluorescence spectra of cancerous and paired normal tissues with excitation wavelengths of 280 and 300 nm. Due to a large spectral overlap and matching excitation-emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan-donor to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides-acceptor was noted. We used the ratios of fluorescence intensities at their spectral emission peaks, or spectral fingerprint peaks, at 340, 440, and 460 nm. Higher ratios correlated strongly with high histologic grade, while lower-grade tumors had low ratios. Large tumor size also correlated with high ratios, while the number of lymph node metastases, a major factor in staging, was not correlated with tryptophan levels. High histologic grade correlates strongly with increased content of tryptophan in breast cancer tissues and suggests that measurement of tryptophan content may be useful as a part of the evaluation of these patients.

Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

2014-12-01

202

Meat quality, fatty acid composition of tissue and gastrointestinal content, and antioxidant status of lamb fed seed of a halophyte (Suaeda glauca).  

PubMed

Twenty-four Merino lambs were randomly assigned to four treatments: control diet (CT) consisting of 300g concentrates with ad libitum Leymus chinensis hay; C with 150g (T150), 300g (T300) and 450g (T450) Suaeda glauca seed, respectively. Meat quality, fatty acid composition of meat and lipid tissue and antioxidant status of lamb were evaluated. Inclusion of S. glauca seeds significantly increased selenium (Se) concentrations of muscle. The proportions of C18:1 trans-11 in muscle, C18:2 n-6, PUFA, n-6 series fatty acids, and the ratios of P:S in rumen contents, as well as the ratios of n-6:n-3 in adipose tissue, rumen and duodenum content have been significantly (P<0.05) improved with supplementation of S. glauca seeds to lamb diets. No significant effect was found on antioxidant status. The results suggest that S. glauca seed supplementation in lamb diets may change fatty acid composition in tissues and content of digestive tract. PMID:25282041

Sun, H X; Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Wang, M L; Sun, J Y; Zhou, D W

2015-02-01

203

The Influence of the analysis technique on estimating liver iron overload using magnetic resonance imaging T2? quantification.  

PubMed

Iron toxicity is the major cause of tissue damage in patients with iron overload. Iron deposits mainly in the liver, where its concentration closely correlates with whole body iron overload. Different techniques have been proposed for estimating iron content, with liver biopsy being the gold standard despite its invasiveness and influence by sampling error. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as an effective technique for evaluating iron overload by measuring T2(*) in the liver. However, various factors associated with the adopted analysis technique, mainly the exponential fitting model and signal averaging method, affect the resulting measurements. In this study, we evaluate the influences of these factors on T2(*) measurement in numerical phantom, calibrated phantoms, and nine patients with different degrees of iron overload. The results show different performances among the fitting models and signal averaging methods, which are affected by SNR, image quality and signal homogeneity inside the selected ROI for analysis. PMID:25571026

Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Khalifa, Ayman M; Eldaly, Ahmed K

2014-08-01

204

Investigating the role of transferrin in the distribution of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc.  

PubMed

The essential role of transferrin in mammalian iron metabolism is firmly established. Integral to our understanding of transferrin, studies in hypotransferrinemic mice, a model of inherited transferrin deficiency, have demonstrated that transferrin is essential for iron delivery for erythropoiesis and in the regulation of expression of hepcidin, a hormone that inhibits macrophage and enterocyte iron efflux. Here we investigate a potential role for transferrin in the distribution of three other physiologic metals, manganese, copper, and zinc. We first assessed metal content in transferrin-rich fractions of wild-type mouse sera and demonstrate that although both iron and manganese cofractionated predominantly with transferrin, the absolute levels of manganese are several orders of magnitude lower than those of iron. We next measured metal content in multiple tissues in wild-type and hypotransferrinemic mice of various ages. Tissue metal imbalances were severe for iron and minimal to moderate for some metals in some tissues in hypotransferrinemic mice. Metal levels measured in a transferrin-replete yet hepcidin-deficient and iron-loaded mouse strain suggested that the observed imbalances in tissue copper, zinc, and manganese levels were not all specific to hypotransferrinemic mice or caused directly by transferrin deficiency. Overall, our results suggest that transferrin does not have a primary role in the distribution of manganese, copper, or zinc to tissues and that the abnormalities observed in tissue manganese levels are not attributable to a direct role for transferrin in manganese metabolism but rather are attributable to an indirect effect of transferrin deficiency on hepcidin expression and/or iron metabolism. PMID:24567067

Herrera, Carolina; Pettiglio, Michael A; Bartnikas, Thomas B

2014-08-01

205

Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59??mols?TE?g?1?FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27?g GAE 100?g?1?FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

2014-01-01

206

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

2013-01-01

207

Iron in Cereal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is there really iron in breakfast cereal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the removal of iron from a box of high-iron content breakfast cereal. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills being covered, complex reasoning strategies that are used, and a compilation of national science standards about this activity. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies and instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. An explanation of the content of each activity and assessment suggestions are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

208

Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females. PMID:22167309

Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

2012-06-01

209

Ferritin: the protein nanocage and iron biomineral in health and in disease.  

PubMed

At the center of iron and oxidant metabolism is the ferritin superfamily: protein cages with Fe(2+) ion channels and two catalytic Fe/O redox centers that initiate the formation of caged Fe2O3·H2O. Ferritin nanominerals, initiated within the protein cage, grow inside the cage cavity (5 or 8 nm in diameter). Ferritins contribute to normal iron flow, maintenance of iron concentrates for iron cofactor syntheses, sequestration of iron from invading pathogens, oxidant protection, oxidative stress recovery, and, in diseases where iron accumulates excessively, iron chelation strategies. In eukaryotic ferritins, biomineral order/crystallinity is influenced by nucleation channels between active sites and the mineral growth cavity. Animal ferritin cages contain, uniquely, mixtures of catalytically active (H) and inactive (L) polypeptide subunits with varied rates of Fe(2+)/O2 catalysis and mineral crystallinity. The relatively low mineral order in liver ferritin, for example, coincides with a high percentage of L subunits and, thus, a low percentage of catalytic sites and nucleation channels. Low mineral order facilitates rapid iron turnover and the physiological role of liver ferritin as a general iron source for other tissues. Here, current concepts of ferritin structure/function/genetic regulation are discussed and related to possible therapeutic targets such as mini-ferritin/Dps protein active sites (selective pathogen inhibition in infection), nanocage pores (iron chelation in therapeutic hypertransfusion), mRNA noncoding, IRE riboregulator (normalizing the ferritin iron content after therapeutic hypertransfusion), and protein nanovessels to deliver medicinal or sensor cargo. PMID:24102308

Theil, Elizabeth C

2013-11-01

210

Ferritin: The Protein Nanocage and Iron Biomineral in Health and in Disease  

PubMed Central

At the center of iron and oxidant metabolism is the ferritin superfamily: protein cages with Fe2+ ion channels and catalytic di- Fe/O redox centers that initiate formation of caged Fe2O3 • H2O. Ferritin nanominerals, initiated within the protein cage, grow inside the cage cavity (5 or 8 nm in diameter). Ferritins contribute to normal iron flow, maintenance of iron concentrates for iron cofactor syntheses, sequestration of iron from invading pathogens, oxidant protection, oxidative stress recovery and, in diseases where iron accumulates excessively, to iron chelation strategies. In eukaryotic ferritins, biomineral order/crystallinity is influenced by nucleation channels between active sites and the mineral growth cavity. Animal ferritin cages contain, uniquely, mixtures of catalytically active (H) and inactive (L) polypeptide subunits with varied rates of Fe2+/O2 catalysis and mineral crystallinity. The relatively low mineral order in liver ferritin, for example, coincides with a high % of L subunits, and, thus, a low % of catalytic sites and nucleation channels. Low mineral order facilitates rapid iron turnover and the physiological role of liver ferritin as a general iron source for other tissues. Here, current concepts of ferritin structure/function/genetic regulation are discussed and related to possible therapeutic targets such as mini-ferritin/Dps protein active sites (selective pathogen inhibition in infection), the nanocage pores (iron chelation in therapeutic hypertransfusion), the mRNA noncoding, IRE-riboregulator (normalizing ferritin iron content after therapeutic hypertransfusion, and as protein nanovessels to deliver medicinal or sensor cargo. PMID:24102308

Theil, Elizabeth C.

2013-01-01

211

Determination of digestibility, tissue deposition, and metabolism of the omega-3 fatty acid content of krill protein concentrate in growing rats.  

PubMed

Krill protein concentrate (KPC) consists of high-quality protein (77.7% dry basis) and lipids (8.1% dry basis) that are rich (27% of total fatty acids) in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The objective of the study was to determine digestibility, tissue deposition, metabolism, and tissue oxidative stability of the omega-3 PUFAs provided by KPC. Young female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were fed ad libitum isocaloric diets for 4 weeks with either 10% freeze-dried KPC or 10% casein. The casein diet contained 5.3% added corn oil (CO), whereas the KPC contained 5.3% total lipids from 0.9% krill oil (KO) provided by KPC and 4.4% added corn oil (KO + CO). Fatty acid compositions of various tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total antioxidant capacity and urinary eicosanoid metabolites were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The omega-3 PUFAs provided in KO from KPC increased (P = 0.003) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in the brain. DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in fat pads and liver were increased (P < 0.01), whereas the omega-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), was decreased (P < 0.01) in rats fed the KPC diet containing the KO + CO mixture compared to rats fed the casein diet containing pure CO. Feeding the KPC diet decreased pro-inflammatory 2-series prostaglandin and thromboxane metabolites. There was no significant difference in TBARS or total antioxidant capacity in the tissues of rats fed the different diets. On the basis of the study results, the low amount of omega-3 PUFAs provided by the KO content of KPC provides beneficial effects of increasing tissue EPA and DHA deposition and reduced AA-derived 2-series eicosanoid metabolites without increasing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, consumption of KPC has the potential to provide a healthy and sustainable source of omega-3 PUFAs. PMID:20131797

Bridges, Kayla M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Altman, Stephanie; Jaczynski, Jacek; Tou, Janet C

2010-03-10

212

Arterial Oxygen Content Is Precisely Maintained by Graded Erythrocytotic Responses in Settings of High/Normal Serum Iron Levels, and Predicts Exercise Capacity: An Observational Study of Hypoxaemic Patients with Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Background Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. Methodology 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96%) had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. Principal Findings There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5–99, median 95)% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001). Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001). A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8%) patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. Significance Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant oxygen content per unit blood volume. This can be maintained for SaO2 ?78.5%, and resets to the same arterial oxygen content after correction of hypoxaemia. Serum iron concentrations, not ferritin, seem to predict more successful polycythaemic responses. PMID:24637882

Santhirapala, Vatshalan; Williams, Louisa C.; Tighe, Hannah C.; Jackson, James E.; Shovlin, Claire L.

2014-01-01

213

Similarity of Fibroglandular Breast Tissue Content Measured from Magnetic Resonance and Mammographic Images and by a Mathematical Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Women with high breast density (BD) have a 4- to 6-fold greater risk for breast cancer than women with low BD. We found that BD can be easily computed from a mathematical algorithm using routine mammographic imaging data or by a curve-fitting algorithm using fat and nonfat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. These BD measures in a strictly defined group of premenopausal women providing both mammographic and breast MRI images were predicted as well by the same set of strong predictor variables as were measures from a published laborious histogram segmentation method and a full field digital mammographic unit in multivariate regression models. We also found that the number of completed pregnancies, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, and progesterone were more strongly associated with amounts of glandular tissue than adipose tissue, while fat body mass, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin like growth factor-II appear to be more associated with the amount of breast adipose tissue. Our results show that methods of breast imaging and modalities for estimating the amount of glandular tissue have no effects on the strength of these predictors of BD. Thus, the more convenient mathematical algorithm and the safer MRI protocols may facilitate prospective measurements of BD. PMID:25132995

Ju, Hyunsu; Brunder, Donald G.; Anderson, Karl E.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit; Lu, Lee-Jane W.

2014-01-01

214

Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet); soybean oil (S); lard (L); and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H). We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-? and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver. PMID:24027356

dos Santos, Bruno; Estadella, Debora; Hachul, Ana Cláudia Losinskas; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha

2013-01-01

215

Effects of postharvest storage and dormancy status on ABA content, metabolism, and expression of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis and metabolism in potato tuber tissues.  

PubMed

At harvest, and for an indeterminate period thereafter, potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to play a critical role in tuber dormancy control but the mechanisms controlling ABA content during dormancy as well as the sites of ABA synthesis and catabolism are unknown. As a first step in defining the sites of synthesis and cognate processes regulating ABA turnover during storage and dormancy progression, gene sequences encoding the ABA biosynthetic enzymes zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and three catabolism-related genes were used to quantify changes in their relative mRNA abundances in three specific tuber tissues (meristems, their surrounding periderm and underlying cortex) by qRT-PCR. During storage, StZEP expression was relatively constant in meristems, exhibited a biphasic pattern in periderm with transient increases during early and mid-to-late-storage, and peaked during mid-storage in cortex. Expression of two members of the potato NCED gene family was found to correlate with changes in ABA content in meristems (StNCED2) and cortex (StNCED1). Conversely, expression patterns of three putative ABA-8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A) genes during storage varied in a tissue-specific manner with expression of two of these genes rising in meristems and periderm and declining in cortex during storage. These results suggest that ABA synthesis and metabolism occur in all tuber tissues examined and that tuber ABA content during dormancy is the result of a balance of synthesis and metabolism that increasingly favors catabolism as dormancy ends and may be controlled at the level of StNCED and StCYP707A gene activities. PMID:16897484

Destefano-Beltrán, Luis; Knauber, Donna; Huckle, Linda; Suttle, Jeffrey C

2006-07-01

216

Alterations in lignin content and phenylpropanoids pathway in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) tissues affected by brittle leaf disease.  

PubMed

Brittle leaf disease or Maladie de la Feuille Cassante (MFC) is a lethal disorder of date palm that has assumed epidemic proportions in the oases of Tunisia and Algeria. No pathogen could ever be associated with the disease, while leaflets of affected palms have been previously shown to be deficient in manganese. The work reported here aims to understand the biochemical basis of the date palm response to this disorder. Since the typical disease symptom is the leaf fragility, we have investigated lignin content in leaves and roots. Strong decrease in total lignin content was observed in affected leaves, while lignin content increased in affected roots. Histochemical analyses showed hyperlignification thicker suberin layer in roots cortical cells. The phenylpropanoids pathway was also disrupted in leaves and roots, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression was affected by the disease which severely affects the cell wall integrity. PMID:23987806

Saidi, Mohammed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Hammami, Ines; Namsi, Ahmed; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

2013-10-01

217

High-yield isolation of protoplasts from microgram amounts of shoot meristematic tissues and rapid DNA content determination by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel approach to rapid cell-cycle analysis of shoot meristematic cells. The method involves fixation and disaggregation of meristems into protoplast suspension and flow-cytometric analysis of these protoplasts stained with fluorescent dyes. We have developed a procedure for a high-yield isolation of protoplasts allowing an accurate flow-cytometric analysis with a few micrograms of meristem tissues. We present here determinations of total DNA content of protoplasts stained with propidium iodide in the dicotyledon Sinapis alba, and the monocotyledon Lolium temulentum. PMID:1959553

Houssa, C; Bomans, J; Greimers, R; Jacqmard, A

1991-12-01

218

Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well.

Török, B.; Thiele, A.

2013-12-01

219

Iron homeostasis in the liver  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

2014-01-01

220

Connective tissue content and myocardial stiffness in pressure overload hypertrophy A combined study of morphologic, morphometric, biochemical, and mechanical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigated samples of left ventricular myocardium from Goldblatt II (4 and 8 weeks after operation) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; 40 and 80 weeks old) by histological and morphometric methods. From the same hearts, the distensibility of the left ventricular papillary muscle was analyzed by means of resting tension curves, and the collagen content of the whole left

K.-U. Thiedemann; Ch. Holubarsch; I. Medugorac; R. Jacob

1983-01-01

221

Diamine-oxidase activity and tissue di- and poly-amine contents of human ovarian, cervical and endometrial carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the conflicting reports regarding the association of di- and poly-amines along with diamine oxidase (DAO) activity in human carcinomatous growths, the present study was undertaken to establish their interrelation and to justify whether analysis of di- and poly-amine contents along with DAO may have any diagnostic value in the assessment of the carcinomatous state. It was found

Ratna Chanda; A. K. Ganguly

1995-01-01

222

Changes in tissue lipid and cholesterol content in the catfish Clarias batrachus (L. ) exposed to cadmium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Very little is known about the effect of Cd on the physiology of fishes. In the present study, changes in the lipid and cholesterol contents of the brain, liver and gonad of C. batrachus exposed to 50 ppm of Cd chloride for 135 days are reported.

Katti, S.R.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

1984-04-01

223

[Determination of the content and degree of esterification of uronic acids in plant tissues and products of their processing].  

PubMed

A method for quantitative determination of uronic acids and the degree of esterification of their carboxyl groups in plant tissues and products of their processing is described. The method involves determination of the difference between the concentrations of Cu2+ in solution before and after interaction of copper with the substance in question. Copper was determined spectrophotometrically in the form of copper-ammonium complex. PMID:11852573

Filippov, M P; Cherne?, G V

2002-01-01

224

Peptide functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents  

E-print Network

Peptide functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents Selim the MRI signal in tissues of interest. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used of water molecules in different tissues create distinct signal intensities that enable detection

Atalar, Ergin

225

Influence of the content of radioactive wastes with high concentrations of aluminum, sodium, and iron oxides on the phase composition and structure of glassy materials prepared in a “cold crucible”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vitrification of a high-level waste surrogate with high concentrations of aluminum, sodium, and iron oxides in a “cold\\u000a crucible” results in the formation of glassy materials with the phase composition and structure dependent on the ratio between\\u000a waste oxides and borosilicate glass frit. With an increase in the waste content from ?50 to ?66 wt %, the degree of

S. V. Stefanovsky; V. V. Lebedev; D. Yu. Suntsov; B. S. Nikonov; B. I. Omel’yanenko; A. A. Akatov; J. C. Marra

2010-01-01

226

The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

1980-01-01

227

Parathyroid hormone PTH(1–34) increases the volume, mineral content, and mechanical properties of regenerated mineralizing tissue after distraction osteogenesis in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has attracted considerable interest as a bone anabolic agent. Recently, it has been suggested that PTH can also enhance bone repair after fracture and distraction osteogenesis. We analyzed bone density and strength of the newly regenerated mineralized tissue after intermittent treatment with PTH in rabbits, which undergo Haversian bone remodeling similar to that in humans. Methods 72 New Zealand White rabbits underwent tibial mid-diaphyseal osteotomy and the callus was distracted 1 mm/day for 10 days. The rabbits were divided into 3 groups, which received injections of PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 30 days, saline for 10 days and PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 20 days, or saline for 30 days. At the end of the study, the rabbits were killed and the bone density was evaluated with DEXA. The mechanical bone strength was determined by use of a 3-point bending test. Results In the 2 PTH-treated groups the regenerate callus ultimate load was 33% and 30% higher, absorbed energy was 100% and 65% higher, BMC was 61% and 60% higher, and callus tissue volume was 179% and 197% higher than for the control group. Interpretation We found that treatment with PTH during distraction osteogenesis resulted in substantially higher mineralized tissue volume, mineral content, and bending strength. This suggests that treatment with PTH may benefit new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis and could form a basis for clinical application of this therapy in humans. PMID:19995322

2009-01-01

228

Regulation of cellular iron metabolism  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential but potentially hazardous biometal. Mammalian cells require sufficient amounts of iron to satisfy metabolic needs or to accomplish specialized functions. Iron is delivered to tissues by circulating transferrin, a transporter that captures iron released into the plasma mainly from intestinal enterocytes or reticuloendothelial macrophages. The binding of iron-laden transferrin to the cell-surface transferrin receptor 1 results in endocytosis and uptake of the metal cargo. Internalized iron is transported to mitochondria for the synthesis of haem or iron–sulfur clusters, which are integral parts of several metalloproteins, and excess iron is stored and detoxified in cytosolic ferritin. Iron metabolism is controlled at different levels and by diverse mechanisms. The present review summarizes basic concepts of iron transport, use and storage and focuses on the IRE (iron-responsive element)/IRP (iron-regulatory protein) system, a well known post-transcriptional regulatory circuit that not only maintains iron homoeostasis in various cell types, but also contributes to systemic iron balance. PMID:21348856

Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

2011-01-01

229

Manipulation of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of muscle and adipose tissue in lambs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty Suffolk-crossbred wether lambs, with an initial live weight of 29 ± 2.1 kg, were allocated to one of five concentrate-based diets formulated to have a similar fatty acid content (60 g\\/kg DM), but containing either linseed oil (high in 18:3n?3); fish oil (high in 20:5n?3 and 22:6n?3); protected linseed and soybean (PLS; high in 18:2n?6 and 18:3n?3); fish oil

S. L. Cooper; L. A. Sinclair; R. G. Wilkinson; K. G. Hallett; M. Enser; J. D. Wood

230

Detection of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups 0157 and 026 in the cecal content and lymphatic tissue of cattle at slaughter in Italy.  

PubMed

Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) has emerged as a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe and potentially fatal illnesses, such as hemorrhagic colitis or the hemolytic uremic syndrome. In this study, 182 cattle at slaughter (119 dairy cows and 63 feedlot cattle) were randomly selected and tested for the presence of VTEC serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157 in their cecal content and lymphatic tissue (tonsils or mesenteric lymph nodes). A total of 364 samples were evaluated with an immunomagnetic separation technique followed by slide agglutination. Presumptive VTEC 026, O103, O111, O145, and O157 isolates were tested by Vero cell assay for verocytotoxin production and by multiplex PCR assay for the detection of vtxl, vtx2, eae, and E-hlyA genes. VTEC O157 was detected in 6 (3.3%) of 182 animals, and VTEC 026 was detected in 1 (0.5%) of 182 animals. No VTEC O103, VTEC O111, or VTEC O145 isolates were found in cattle feces, but one VTEC O91:H- vtx2+, eae-, E-hlyA+ strain nonspecifically cross-reacted with the VTEC O103 type. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in the lymphatic tissue of cattle was 1.1% in both tonsils (1 of 93 samples) and mesenteric lymph nodes (1 of 89 samples). Lymphatic tissue contamination was observed only in VTEC O157 intestinal carriers; two (33.3%) of six fecal carriers were simultaneously VTEC O157 lymphatic carriers. This finding suggests that VTEC O157 contamination of meat does not necessarily come from feces or the environment. No other VTEC serogroups were detected in the lymphatic tissue of slaughtered cattle. PMID:17612082

Bonardi, Silvia; Foni, Emanuela; Chiapponi, Chiara; Salsi, Alessandra; Brindani, Franco

2007-06-01

231

The role of endocytic pathways in cellular uptake of plasma non-transferrin iron  

PubMed Central

Background In transfusional siderosis, the iron binding capacity of plasma transferrin is often surpassed, with concomitant generation of non-transferrin-bound iron. Although implicated in tissue siderosis, non-transferrin-bound iron modes of cell ingress remain undefined, largely because of its variable composition and association with macromolecules. Using fluorescent tracing of labile iron in endosomal vesicles and cytosol, we examined the hypothesis that non-transferrin-bound iron fractions detected in iron overloaded patients enter cells via bulk endocytosis. Design and Methods Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry served as analytical tools for tracing non-transferrin-bound iron entry into endosomes with the redox-reactive macromolecular probe Oxyburst-Green and into the cytosol with cell-laden calcein green and calcein blue. Non-transferrin-bound iron-containing media were from sera of polytransfused thalassemia major patients and model iron substances detected in thalassemia major sera; cell models were cultured macrophages, and cardiac myoblasts and myocytes. Results Exposure of cells to ferric citrate together with albumin, or to non-transferrin-bound iron-containing sera from thalassemia major patients caused an increase in labile iron content of endosomes and cytosol in macrophages and cardiac cells. This increase was more striking in macrophages, but in both cell types was largely reduced by co-exposure to non-transferrin-bound iron-containing media with non-penetrating iron chelators or apo-transferrin, or by treatment with inhibitors of endocytosis. Endosomal iron accumulation traced with calcein-green was proportional to input non-transferrin-bound iron levels (r2=0.61) and also preventable by pre-chelation. Conclusions Our studies indicate that macromolecule-associated non-transferrin-bound iron can initially gain access into various cells via endocytic pathways, followed by iron translocation to the cytosol. Endocytic uptake of plasma non-transferrin-bound iron is a possible mechanism that can contribute to iron loading of cell types engaged in bulk/adsorptive endocytosis, highlighting the importance of its prevention by iron chelation. PMID:22180428

Sohn, Yang-Sung; Ghoti, Hussam; Breuer, William; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Attar, Samah; Weiss, Guenter; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav

2012-01-01

232

Dietary amylose and amylopectin ratio and resistant starch content affects plasma glucose, lactic acid, hormone levels and protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding different starch sources on piglets. Four diets were formulated with maize, brown rice, sticky rice and Hi-Maize 1043 as starch sources, with resistant starch (RS) contents of 2.3%, 0.9%, 0.0%, 20.6%, and amylose and amylopectin ratio of 0.23%, 0.21%, 0.18%, 0.06% respectively. Fifty-six pigs weaned at 28 days of age were randomly assigned to one of the four diets. In Exp. 1, six piglets in each group were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter. After 25 days of feeding trial, venous blood samples were obtained at time zero and every 1 h for 4 h. In Exp. 2, the remaining piglets were used to determine the effects of different starch sources on the fractional synthesis rate (FSR). The results indicated that feeding the Hi-Maize 1043 diet decreased (p < 0.05) plasma contents of glucose, insulin, lactic acid and T(3), while sticky rice increased plasma contents of glucose and insulin. The insulin contents in piglets fed the sticky rice diet was 69.2 microIU/ml at 1 h post-feeding which was highest among the starch diets. The FSR in the pancreas, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon in the corn group were much higher (p < 0.05) than that in the sticky rice group. These results suggest that RS is potentially beneficial for improving insulin sensitivity in young pigs and that the ratio of amylose and amylopectin have significantly effects on the FSR in splanchnic tissues in weaned piglets. Another finding of this study indicated maize with a ratio of amylose and amylopectin of 0.23 has the best starch sources for pig production. PMID:19175452

Deng, J; Wu, X; Bin, S; Li, T-J; Huang, R; Liu, Z; Liu, Y; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Hou, Y; Yin, Y-L

2010-04-01

233

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 1  

E-print Network

Soil Fertility Program 24 Soil pH 24 Iron Chlorosis/Lime-induced Chlorosis 25 Soil Salinity 25 Tissue Tissue Culture 16 Seed Propagation 17 ORCHARD ESTABLISHMENT 18 Site Selection 18 Soil 18 Planting Time 19

Saskatchewan, University of

234

The pathophysiology of transfusional iron overload.  

PubMed

The pathophysiologic consequences of transfusional iron overload (TIO) as well as the benefits of iron chelation therapy are best described in thalassemia major, although TIO is increasingly seen in other clinical settings. These consequences broadly reflect the levels and distribution of excess storage iron in the heart, endocrine tissues, and liver. TIO also increases the risk of infection, due to increased availability of labile iron to microorganisms. The authors suggest that extrahepatic iron distribution, and hence toxicity, is influenced by balance between generation of nontransferrin-bound iron from red cell catabolism and the utilization of transferrin iron by the erythron. PMID:25064708

Porter, John B; Garbowski, Maciej

2014-08-01

235

Estimating iron and aluminum content of acid mine discharge from a north-central Pennsylvania coal field by use of acidity titration curves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determination of acidity provides a value that denotes the quantitative capacity of the sample water to neutralize a strong base to a particular pH. However, much additional information can be obtained from this determination if a titration curve is constructed from recorded data of titrant increments and their corresponding pH values. The curve can be used to identify buffer capabilities, the acidity with respect to any pH value within the curve limit, and, in the case of acid mine drainage from north-central Pennsylvania, the identification and estimation of the concentration of dissolved ferrous iron, ferric iron, and aluminum. Through use of titration curves, a relationship was observed for the acid mine drainage between: (1) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) to pH 4.0 and the concentration of dissolved ferric iron; and (2) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) from pH 4.0 to 5.0 and the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The presence of dissolved ferrous iron can be detected by the buffering effect exhibited in the area between pH 5.5 to 7.5. The concentration of ferrous iron is estimated by difference between the concentrations of ferric iron in an oxidized and unoxidized sample. Interferences in any of the titrations from manganese, magnesium, and aluminate, appear to be negligible within the pH range of interest.

Ott, A.N.

1986-01-01

236

Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

1996-12-01

237

Iron Deposition following Chronic Myocardial Infarction as a Substrate for Cardiac Electrical Anomalies: Initial Findings in a Canine Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Iron deposition has been shown to occur following myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated whether such focal iron deposition within chronic MI lead to electrical anomalies. Methods Two groups of dogs (ex-vivo (n?=?12) and in-vivo (n?=?10)) were studied at 16 weeks post MI. Hearts of animals from ex-vivo group were explanted and sectioned into infarcted and non-infarcted segments. Impedance spectroscopy was used to derive electrical permittivity () and conductivity (). Mass spectrometry was used to classify and characterize tissue sections with (IRON+) and without (IRON-) iron. Animals from in-vivo group underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for estimation of scar volume (late-gadolinium enhancement, LGE) and iron deposition (T2*) relative to left-ventricular volume. 24-hour electrocardiogram recordings were obtained and used to examine Heart Rate (HR), QT interval (QT), QT corrected for HR (QTc) and QTc dispersion (QTcd). In a fraction of these animals (n?=?5), ultra-high resolution electroanatomical mapping (EAM) was performed, co-registered with LGE and T2* CMR and were used to characterize the spatial locations of isolated late potentials (ILPs). Results Compared to IRON- sections, IRON+ sections had higher, but no difference in. A linear relationship was found between iron content and (p<0.001), but not (p?=?0.34). Among two groups of animals (Iron (<1.5%) and Iron (>1.5%)) with similar scar volumes (7.28%±1.02% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 8.35%±2.98% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.51) but markedly different iron volumes (1.12%±0.64% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 2.47%±0.64% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.02), QT and QTc were elevated and QTcd was decreased in the group with the higher iron volume during the day, night and 24-hour period (p<0.05). EAMs co-registered with CMR images showed a greater tendency for ILPs to emerge from scar regions with iron versus without iron. Conclusion The electrical behavior of infarcted hearts with iron appears to be different from those without iron. Iron within infarcted zones may evolve as an arrhythmogenic substrate in the post MI period. PMID:24066038

Wang, Xunzhang; Yang, Hsin-Jung; Tang, Richard L. Q.; Thajudeen, Anees; Shehata, Michael; Amorn, Allen M.; Liu, Enzhao; Stewart, Brian; Bennett, Nathan; Harlev, Doron; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.; Jackman, Warren M.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Dharmakumar, Rohan

2013-01-01

238

Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, inhibition of lycopene biosynthesis and accumulation of beta-carotene are demonstrated in tissue affected by sunscald physiological disorder. Raman map of diseased sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf shows a local carotenoid decline at infection site while the carotenoid accumulation is evident in parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. Nym.) as a response to Septoria petroselini infestation. Additionally, occurrence of lutein, beta-carotene and capsanthin, and changes in their relative content during bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruit ripening are described by single Raman spectra. Based on these examples, the potential application of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy for a non-destructive analysis of carotenoids in various living plant tissues of the size ranging from about 0.01 mm(2) to 35 cm(2) is discussed. PMID:16007452

Baranski, Rafal; Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig

2005-10-01

239

Comparison of changes in gene expression of transferrin receptor-1 and other iron-regulatory proteins in rat liver and brain during acute-phase response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “acute phase” is clinically characterized by homeostatic alterations such as somnolence, adinamia, fever, muscular weakness,\\u000a and leukocytosis. Dramatic changes in iron metabolism are observed under acute-phase conditions. Rats were administered turpentine\\u000a oil (TO) intramuscularly to induce a sterile abscess and killed at various time points. Tissue iron content in the liver and\\u000a brain increased progressively after TO administration. Immunohistology

Ihtzaz Ahmed Malik; Naila Naz; Nadeem Sheikh; Sajjad Khan; Federico Moriconi; Martina Blaschke; Giuliano Ramadori

2011-01-01

240

New method for determining total calcium content in tissue applied to skeletal muscle with and without calsequestrin.  

PubMed

We describe a new method for determining the concentration of total Ca in whole skeletal muscle samples ([CaT]WM in units of mmoles/kg wet weight) using the Ca-dependent UV absorbance spectra of the Ca chelator BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). Muscle tissue was homogenized in a solution containing 0.15 mM BAPTA and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (to permeabilize membranes and denature proteins) and then centrifuged. The solution volume was adjusted so that BAPTA captured essentially all of the Ca. [CaT]WM was obtained with Beer's law from the absorbance change produced by adding 1 mM EGTA to capture Ca from BAPTA. Results from mouse, rat, and frog muscles were reasonably consistent with results obtained using other methods for estimating total [Ca] in whole muscles and in single muscle fibers. Results with external Ca removed before determining [CaT]WM indicate that most of the Ca was intracellular, indicative of a lack of bound Ca in the extracellular space. In both fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles from mice, [CaT]WM increased approximately linearly with decreasing muscle weight, increasing approximately twofold with a twofold decrease in muscle weight. This suggests that the Ca concentration of smaller muscles might be increased relative to that in larger muscles, thereby increasing the specific force to compensate for the smaller mass. Knocking out the high capacity Ca-binding protein calsequestrin (CSQ) did not significantly reduce [CaT]WM in mouse EDL or soleus muscle. However, in EDL muscles lacking CSQ, muscle weights were significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) muscles and the values of [CaT]WM were, on average, about half the expected WT values, taking into account the above [CaT]WM versus muscle weight relationship. Because greater reductions in [CaT]WM would be predicted in both muscle types, we hypothesize that there is a substantial increase in Ca bound to other sites in the CSQ knockout muscles. PMID:25624449

Lamboley, Cédric R H; Kake Guena, Sandrine A; Touré, Fatou; Hébert, Camille; Yaddaden, Louiza; Nadeau, Stephanie; Bouchard, Patrice; Wei-LaPierre, Lan; Lainé, Jean; Rousseau, Eric C; Frenette, Jérôme; Protasi, Feliciano; Dirksen, Robert T; Pape, Paul C

2015-02-01

241

Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the current UK clinical practice in reducing hepatic fat (IHCL). METHODS: Whole body MRI and 1H MRS were obtained, before and after 6 mo nutritional counselling, from liver, soleus and tibialis muscles in 10 subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). RESULTS: A 500 Kcal-restricted diet resulted in an average weight loss of 4% (-3.4 kg,) accompanied by significant reductions in most adipose tissue (AT) depots, including subcutaneous (-9.9%), abdominal subcutaneous (-10.2%) and intra-abdominal-AT (-11.4%). Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were significantly reduced in the tibialis muscle (-28.2%). Decreases in both IHCL (-39.9%) and soleus IMCL (-12.2%) content were also observed, although these were not significant. Several individuals showed dramatic decreases in IHCL, while others paradoxically showed increases in IHCL content. Changes in body composition were accompanied by improvements in certain liver function tests: serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Significant correlations were found between decreases in IHCL and reductions in both intra-abdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT. Improvements in liver function tests were associated with reductions in intra-abdominal AT, but not with changes in IHCL. CONCLUSION: This study shows that even a very modest reduction in body weight achieved through lifestyle modification can result in changes in body fat depots and improvements in LFTs. PMID:17007047

Thomas, E Louise; Brynes, Audrey E; Hamilton, Gavin; Patel, Nayna; Spong, Adam; Goldin, Robert D; Frost, Gary; Bell, Jimmy D; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

2006-01-01

242

Effects of dietary fat source and breed on the carcass composition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid content of sheep meat and adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Seventy-two 8-week-old ram lambs from three breeds, Suffolk, Soay and Friesland, were offered one of four diets based on dried grass and formulated to have a similar fatty acid content (60 g/kg DM) and containing: Megalac (high in 16 : 0, control; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK), whole linseed (18 : 3n-3), fish oil (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) or whole linseed plus fish oil. The lambs were slaughtered at approximately half of their mature live weight (43, 21 and 43 kg for Suffolk, Soay and Friesland lambs, respectively). Fish oil reduced DM intake and lamb live-weight gain (P<0.001), while DM intake, live-weight gain and subcutaneous fat content were highest in Suffolk and lowest in Soay lambs. Linseed feeding doubled the proportion (x100) of 18 : 3n-3 in the longissimus dorsi from 1.4 to 3.1 and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue from 1.2 to 2.6 (P<0.001). Suffolk and particularly Soay lambs contained higher proportions of 18 : 3n-3 than Friesland lambs in the longissimus dorsi, while in the adipose tissue, Suffolk lambs had the highest level. Feeding fish oil increased the muscle proportion (x100) of 20 : 5n-3 from 0.7 to 2.3 and 22 : 6n-3 from 0.3 to 0.8 (P<0.001). By contrast, the proportions of the longer-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were similar across all three breeds. All three lipid supplements containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased the content of muscle trans-18 : 1 relative to the control values, but conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2) only increased in the muscle of lambs fed linseed. Feeding linseed or fish oil lowered the n-6 : n-3 ratio in sheep meat, but neither diet nor breed had much effect on the polyunsaturated fatty acid: saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:12493092

Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Fisher, A V

2002-12-01

243

Iron regulatory proteins and their role in controlling iron metabolism.  

PubMed

Cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by post-transcriptional feedback mechanisms, which control the expression of proteins involved in iron uptake, release and storage. Two cytoplasmic proteins with mRNA-binding properties, iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) play a central role in this regulation. Foremost, IRPs regulate ferritin H and ferritin L translation and thus iron storage, as well as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) mRNA stability, thereby adjusting receptor expression and iron uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-loaded transferrin. In addition splice variants of iron transporters for import and export at the plasma-membrane, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin are regulated by IRPs. These mechanisms have probably evolved to maintain the cytoplasmic labile iron pool (LIP) at an appropriate level. In certain tissues, the regulation exerted by IRPs influences iron homeostasis and utilization of the entire organism. In intestine, the control of ferritin expression limits intestinal iron absorption and, thus, whole body iron levels. In bone marrow, erythroid heme biosynthesis is coordinated with iron availability through IRP-mediated translational control of erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase mRNA. Moreover, the translational control of HIF2? mRNA in kidney by IRP1 coordinates erythropoietin synthesis with iron and oxygen supply. Besides IRPs, body iron absorption is negatively regulated by hepcidin. This peptide hormone, synthesized and secreted by the liver in response to high serum iron, downregulates ferroportin at the protein level and thereby limits iron absorption from the diet. Hepcidin will not be discussed in further detail here. PMID:25306858

Kühn, Lukas C

2015-02-11

244

Combination of Iron Overload Plus Ethanol and Ischemia Alone Give Rise to the Same Endogenous Free Iron Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron overload aggravates tissue damage caused by ischemia and ethanol intoxication. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon\\u000a are not yet clear. To clarify these mechanisms we followed free iron (“loosely” bound redox-active iron) concentration in\\u000a livers from rats subjected to experimental iron overload, acute ethanol intoxication, and ex vivo warm ischemia. The levels of free iron in non-homogenized liver tissues,

Odile Sergent; Aldo Tomasi; Daniela Ceccarelli; Alberto Masini; Hans Nohl; Pierre Cillard; Josiane Cillard; Yuri A. Vladimirov; Andrey V. Kozlov

2005-01-01

245

Iron homeostasis and eye disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

2009-01-01

246

The Ins and Outs of Iron Homeostasis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Iron is an essential element that is toxic when it accumulates in excess. Intricate regulatory mechanisms have evolved to maintain iron homeostasis within cells and between different tissues of complex organisms. This review discusses the proteins involved in iron transport and storage and their regulation in health and disease.

Adriana Donovan (Harvard Medical School, ChildrenÃÂs Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute); Cindy N. Roy (Harvard Medical School ChildrenÃÂs Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute); Nancy C. Andrews (Harvard Medical School ChildrenÃÂs Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute,)

2006-04-01

247

Effect of diquat-induced oxidative stress on iron metabolism in male Fischer-344 rats.  

PubMed

Diquat toxicity causes iron-mediated oxidative stress; however, it remains unclear how diquat affects iron metabolism. Here, we examined the effect of diquat-induced oxidative stress on iron metabolism in male Fischer-344 rats, with particular focus on gene expression. Hepatic nonheme iron content was unchanged until 20 h after diquat treatment. Hepatic free iron levels increased markedly in the early stages following treatment and remained elevated for at least 6 h, resulting in severe hepatotoxicity, until returning to control levels at 20 h. The level of hepatic ferritin, especially the H-subunit, increased 20 h after diquat treatment due to elevated hepatic ferritin-H mRNA expression. These results indicate that early elevated levels of free iron in the liver of diquat-treated rats cause hepatotoxicity, and that this free iron is subsequently sequestered by ferritin synthesized under conditions of oxidative stress, thus limiting the pro-oxidant challenge of iron. The plasma iron concentration decreased at 6 and 20 h after diquat treatment, whereas the level of plasma interleukin-6 increased markedly at 3 h and remained high until 20 h. In the liver of diquat-treated rats, expression of hepcidin mRNA was markedly upregulated at 3 and 6 h, whereas ferroportin mRNA expression was downregulated slightly at 20 h. Transferrin receptor 1 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated at 3, 6, and 20 h. These results indicate that inhibition of iron release from iron-storage tissues, through stimulation of the interleukin-6-hepcidin-ferroportin axis, and enhanced iron uptake into hepatocytes, mediated by transferrin receptor 1, cause hypoferremia. PMID:21698372

Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka

2011-12-01

248

Reduced UCP-1 Content in In Vitro Differentiated Beige/Brite Adipocytes Derived from Preadipocytes of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissues in Obesity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential therapeutic target to reverse obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary precursor cells isolated from human adult subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) can be induced to differentiate in-vitro into adipocytes that express key markers of brown or beige adipose, and whether the expression level of such markers differs between lean and obese young adult males. Methods Adipogenic precursor cells were isolated from lean and obese individuals from subcutaneous abdominal WAT biopsies. Cells were grown to confluence, differentiated for 2.5 weeks then harvested for measurement of gene expression and UCP1 protein. Results There was no difference between groups with respect to differentiation into adipocytes, as indicated by oil red-O staining, rates of lipolysis, and expression of adipogenic genes (FABP4, PPARG). WAT genes (HOXC9, RB1) were expressed equally in the two groups. Post differentiation, the beige adipose specific genes CITED1 and CD137 were significantly increased in both groups, but classic BAT markers ZIC1 and LHX8 decreased significantly. Cell lines from both groups also equally increased post-differentiation expression of the thermogenic-responsive gene PPARGC1A (PGC-1?). UCP1 gene expression was undetectable prior to differentiation, however after differentiation both gene expression and protein content were increased in both groups and were significantly greater in cultures from lean compared with obese individuals (p<0.05). Conclusion Human subcutaneous WAT cells can be induced to attain BAT characteristics, but this capacity is reduced in WAT cells from obese individuals. PMID:24642703

Carey, Andrew L.; Vorlander, Camilla; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Formosa, Melissa F.; Bertovic, David A.; Anderson, Mitchell J.; Duffy, Stephen J.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

2014-01-01

249

/ http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/recent / 31 July 2014 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1251853 Superconductivity in iron pnictides can be induced by electron or  

E-print Network

-doping of their antiferromagnetic (AF) parent compounds (1­6). The parent compounds exhibit a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural suggesting the involvement of the orbital channel in the nematic phase (19­22). Here, we use inelastic order of the parent compounds of iron pnictide super- conductors is collinear, with the ordered moment

Wang, Wei Hua

250

Brain iron quantification by MRI in mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration under iron-chelating therapy  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic trials for Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation have aimed at a reduction of cerebral iron content. A 13-year-old girl with mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration treated with an iron-chelating agent was monitored by R2 relaxometry, R2* relaxometry, and quantitative susceptibility mapping to estimate the brain iron content. The highly increased brain iron content slowly decreased in the substantia nigra but remained stable for globus pallidus. The estimated iron content was higher by R2* compared to R2 and quantitative susceptibility mapping, a finding not previously observed in the brain of healthy volunteers. A hypothesis explaining this discrepancy is offered. PMID:25574478

Löbel, Ulrike; Schweser, Ferdinand; Nickel, Miriam; Deistung, Andreas; Grosse, Regine; Hagel, Christian; Fiehler, Jens; Schulz, Angela; Hartig, Monika; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Sedlacik, Jan

2014-01-01

251

Influence of dietary vitamin E and C supplementation on vitamin E and C content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in different tissues of growing pigs.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence and possible interactions of dietary vitamin E and C supplementation on vitamin content of both vitamins and oxidative stability of different pork tissues 40 Large White barrows from 25 kg to 106 kg were allocated to four different cereal based diets: Basal diet (B), dl-alpha-tocopherylacetate + 200 mg/kg (E), crystalline ascorbic acid + 300 mg/kg (C) or both vitamins (EC). At slaughtering samples of liver, spleen, heart, kidney, backfat outer layer, ham and M. tongissimus dorsi were obtained. Growth performance of the pigs and carcass characteristics were not influenced by feeding treatments. Dietary vitamin E supplementation had a significant effect on the vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol concentration in all investigated tissues. Backfat outer layer, liver, spleen, kidney and heart had higher vitamin E concentrations than ham and M. longissimus dorsi. Dietary vitamin C supplementation tended towards enhanced vitamin E levels except for ham samples. Therefore, some synergistic actions without dietary vitamin E supplementation between the two vitamins could be shown. The vitamin C concentration and TBARS were increased or at least equal in all tissues due to vitamin C supplementation. Dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in lower TBARS in backfat outer layer (malondialdehyde 0.35 mg/kg in B vs. 0.28 mg/kg in E), but increased in heart and ham. When both vitamins were supplemented (EC) TBARS were lower in M. longissimus dorsi and backfat outer layer, equal in heart and higher in liver and ham compared to a single vitamin C supplementation. Rancimat induction time of backfat outer layer was 0.3 h higher in C compared to B and 0.17 h higher in EC than in E. Correlations between levels of both vitamins were positive for kidney (r = 0.169), M. longissimus dorsi (r = 0.499) and ham (r = 0.361) and negative for heart (r = -0.350). In liver and spleen no interaction could be found. In backfat outer layer vitamin E was positively correlated with rancimat induction time (r = 0.550) and negatively with TBARS (r = -0.202), but provided no evidence that dietary vitamin E supply led to better oxidative stability. PMID:15264669

Eichenberger, Barbara; Pfirter, H P; Wenk, C; Gebert, S

2004-06-01

252

Iron status in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload. PMID:24275120

Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Wawer, Anna A.; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K.

2014-01-01

253

Iron status in the elderly.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload. PMID:24275120

Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Wawer, Anna A; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K

2014-01-01

254

Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ...

255

Hepcidin in human iron disorders: diagnostic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The peptide hormone hepcidin plays a central role in regulating dietary iron absorption and body iron distribution. Many human diseases are associated with alterations in hepcidin concentrations. The measurement of hepcidin in biological fluids is therefore a promising tool in the diagnosis and management of medical conditions in which iron metabolism is affected. CONTENT: We describe hepcidin structure, kinetics,

J. J. C. Kroot; H. Tjalsma; R. E. Fleming; D. W. Swinkels

2011-01-01

256

The Multicomponent Anthropometric Model for Assessing Body Composition in a Male Pediatric Population: A Simultaneous Prediction of Fat Mass, Bone Mineral Content, and Lean Soft Tissue  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to propose and cross-validate an anthropometric model for the simultaneous estimation of fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), and lean soft tissue (LST) using DXA as the reference method. A total of 408 boys (8–18 years) were included in this sample. Whole-body FM, BMC, and LST were measured by DXA and considered as dependent variables. Independent variables included thirty-two anthropometrics measurements and maturity offset determined by the Mirwald equation. From a multivariate regression model (Ymn = x(r + 1)(r + 1)n?m + ?nm), a matrix analysis was performed resulting in a multicomponent anthropometric model. The cross-validation was executed through the sum of squares of residuals (PRESS) method. Five anthropometric variables predicted simultaneously FM, BMC, and LST. Cross-validation parameters indicated that the new model is accurate with high RPRESS2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 and standard error of estimate ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. The newly proposed model represents an alternative to accurately assess the body composition in male pediatric ages. PMID:23555052

Machado, Dalmo; Oikawa, Sérgio; Barbanti, Valdir

2013-01-01

257

Individual variations in the vascular content of retrodiscal tissue in the temporomandibular joint: a study using histological sections of human foetuses and magnetic resonance images of adults without pathology.  

PubMed

The vascular content of retrodiscal tissue in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) plays a critical role in joint function, and its morphology is therefore likely relatedto TMJ pain. Using histological sections of human foetuses as well as T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI), we measured the vascular content of retrodiscal tissue. MRI showing no pathology in and around the TMJ were obtained from18 young patients who had been suffering from headache. In 10 small foetuses (12-14 weeks of gestation) as well as 10 larger foetuses (30-37 weeks), the vascular content showed individual variations exceeding 5 times the minimum value (0.24 vs. 0.04 mm2 per 1 mm²), but no difference between foetal stages was evident. In the MRI from young adults, the variation was less than twice the minimum value (13.6 vs. 8.7 mm² per 100 mm²). The vascular density appeared to be lower in adults than in foetuses. In both foetuses and adults, the thickness (anteroposterior length) of the tissue did not correlate with the vascular sectional area. These findings suggest that the considerable inter-individual differences evident in the vascular content of foetal retrodiscal tissue may be reduced during further development. PMID:24902093

Yamamoto, M; Cho, K H; Choi, S S; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Murakami, G; Abe, S

2014-05-01

258

Pagophagia in iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

The relationship between pagophagia (ice pica) and iron deficiency anemia was studied. All 81 patients with iron deficiency anemia defined as hemoglobin <12.0 g/dl and ferritin level <12 ng/ml were interviewed about their habits of eating ice or other non-food substances. Pagophagia was defined as compulsive and repeated ingestion of at least one tray of ice or ice eating which was relieved after iron administration. Pagophagia was present in 13 patients (16.0%). All patients who received oral iron were periodically assessed employing a questionnaire on pagophagia and laboratory data. Iron therapy can cure the pagophagia earlier than hemoglobin recovery and repair of tissue iron deficiency. Although the pathogenesis of pagophagia is unclear, a biochemical approach involving the central nervous system might elucidate the mechanism underlying these abnormal behaviors. PMID:24850454

Uchida, Tatsumi; Kawati, Yasunori

2014-04-01

259

21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Iron (non-heme) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin...

2010-04-01

260

21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Iron (non-heme) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin...

2014-04-01

261

21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Iron (non-heme) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin...

2012-04-01

262

Iron and cell death in Parkinson's disease: a nuclear microscopic study into iron-rich granules in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of primate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parkinson's disease is a degenerative brain disease characterised by a loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain and accompanying biochemical changes such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, increased iron concentrations and decreased glutathione levels in the parkinsonian SN. Though the aetiology of the disease is still unknown, the observed biochemical changes point to the involvement of oxidative stress. In particular, iron is suspected to play a role by promoting free radical production, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. The increase in iron in the parkinsonian SN has been confirmed by several research groups, both in human post-mortem brains and in brain tissue from parkinsonian animal models. However, the question remains as to whether the observed increase in iron is a cause or a consequence of the SN cell death process. Our previous study using unilaterally 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys in a time sequence experiment has shown that the increase in bulk iron concentrations follow rather than precede dopaminergic cell death. However, changes in the localised iron concentrations, which may play a more direct role in SN cell death, may not be reflected at the bulk level. Indeed, we have observed iron-rich granules in parkinsonian SNs. From this time sequence study into the iron content of iron-rich granules in the SNs of an untreated control and unilaterally MPTP-lesioned parkinsonian models, we present the following observations: (1) Iron-rich granules are found in both control and parkinsonian SNs and are variable in size and iron content in any one model. (2) These iron-rich granules may be associated with neuromelanin granules found in the SN and are known to accumulate transition metal ions such as iron. (3) The early onset of bulk SN cell loss (35%) was accompanied by a significant elevation of iron in granules found in the MPTP-injected SN compared to the contra-lateral SN. This shows that localised iron increase may be an early event contributing to cell death. (4) The iron content in granules found in both the MPTP-injected and contra-lateral SNs is correlated with the degree of bulk SN cell loss (assessed by TH-immunohistochemistry) in individual models. This indicates a correlation between localised iron increase and cell loss, at least at the whole SN level. Our results are consistent with the observation that in Parkinson's disease (PD), neuronal cell death seems to be related to their neuromelanin content and support the proposal that iron-melanin interaction may play a role in oxidative neuronal cell death. Indeed, iron-saturated neuromelanin granules may act as centres of free radical production, contributing to localised cell death.

Thong, P. S. P.; Watt, F.; Ponraj, D.; Leong, S. K.; He, Y.; Lee, T. K. Y.

1999-10-01

263

Room-temperature susceptometry predicts biopsy-determined hepatic iron in patients with elevated serum ferritin  

PubMed Central

Background There is an ongoing clinical need for novel methods to measure hepatic iron content (HIC) noninvasively. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) methods have previously shown promise for estimation of HIC, but these methods can be expensive and are not widely available. Room-temperature susceptometry (RTS) represents an inexpensive alternative and was previously found to be strongly correlated with HIC estimated by SQUID measurements among patients with transfusional iron overload related to thalassemia. Aim The goal of the current study was to examine the relationship between RTS and biochemical HIC measured in liver biopsy specimens in a more varied patient cohort. Methods Susceptometry was performed in a diverse group of patients with hyperferritinemia due to hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) (n=2), secondary iron overload (n=3), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=2), and chronic viral hepatitis (n=3) within one month of liver biopsy in the absence of iron depletion therapy. Results The correlation coefficient between HIC estimated by susceptometry and by biochemical iron measurement in liver tissue was 0.71 (p=0.022). Variance between liver iron measurement and susceptometry measurement was primarily related to reliance on the patient’s body-mass index (BMI) to estimate the magnetic susceptibility of tissue overlying the liver. Conclusions In conclusion, we believe RTS holds promise for noninvasive measurement of HIC. Improved measurement techniques, including more accurate overlayer correction, may further improve the accuracy of liver susceptometry in patients with liver disease. PMID:22166564

Maliken, Bryan D.; Avrin, William F.; Nelson, James E.; Mooney, Jody; Kumar, Sankaran; Kowdley, Kris V.

2012-01-01

264

Eat Iron?!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain an understanding of mixtures and the concept of separation of mixtures, students use strong magnets to find the element of iron in iron-fortified breakfast cereal flakes. Through this activity, they see how the iron component of this heterogeneous mixture (cereal) retains its properties and can thus be separated by physical means.

NSF GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

265

Serum ceruloplasmin protein expression and activity increases in iron-deficient rats and is further enhanced by higher dietary copper intake  

PubMed Central

Increases in serum and liver copper content are noted during iron deficiency in mammals, suggesting that copper-dependent processes participate during iron deprivation. One point of intersection between the 2 metals is the liver-derived, multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) that is important for iron release from certain tissues. The current study sought to explore Cp expression and activity during physiologic states in which hepatic copper loading occurs (eg, iron deficiency). Weanling rats were fed control or low iron diets containing low, normal, or high copper for ? 5 weeks, and parameters of iron homeostasis were measured. Liver copper increased in control and iron-deficient rats fed extra copper. Hepatic Cp mRNA levels did not change; however, serum Cp protein was higher during iron deprivation and with higher copper consumption. In-gel and spectrophotometric ferroxidase and amine oxidase assays demonstrated that Cp activity was enhanced when hepatic copper loading occurred. Interestingly, liver copper levels strongly correlated with Cp protein expression and activity. These observations support the possibility that liver copper loading increases metallation of the Cp protein, leading to increased production of the holo enzyme. Moreover, this phenomenon may play an important role in the compensatory response to maintain iron homeostasis during iron deficiency. PMID:21768302

Ranganathan, Perungavur N.; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Lingli; Kim, Changae

2011-01-01

266

Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios  

PubMed Central

Background & aims Diets with low omega (?)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios have been shown to decrease aortic cholesterol accumulation and have been suggested to promote weight loss. The involvement of the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) in mediating these effects is not well understood. LDL receptor null mice were used to assess the effect of an atherogenic diet with different ?-6:EPA+DHA ratios on weight gain, hepatic and GAT lipid accumulation, and their relationship to atherosclerosis. Methods Four groups of mice were fed a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet (HSF ?-6) alone, or with ?-6 PUFA to EPA+DHA ratios up to 1:1 for 32 weeks. Liver and GAT were collected for lipid and gene expression analysis. Results The fatty acid profile of liver and GAT reflected the diets. All diets resulted in similar weight gains. Compared to HSF ?-6 diet, the 1:1 ratio diet resulted in lower hepatic total cholesterol (TC) content. Aortic TC was positively correlated with hepatic and GAT TC and triglyceride. These differences were accompanied by significantly lower expression of CD36, ATP-transporter cassette A1, scavenger receptor B class 1, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) in GAT, and HMGCR, SCD1 and cytochrome P450 7A1 in liver. Conclusions Dietary ?-6:EPA+DHA ratios did not affect body weight, but lower ?-6:EPA+DHA ratio diets decreased liver lipid accumulation, which possibly contributed to the lower aortic cholesterol accumulation. PMID:23672804

Wang, Shu; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Wu, Dayong; Reed, Debra B.; Bapat, Priyanka; Yin, Xiangling; Grammas, Paula; Shen, Chwan-Li; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

2014-01-01

267

Differential response of groundnut genotypes to iron?deficiency stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential response of groundnut genotypes to iron?deficiency stress was studied in soils containing high calcium carbonate. Genotypes differed significantly for some traits that appeared to be important in determining adaptation to low iron. The genotypes TCGS 273, TCGS 2, TCGS 37, and Kadiri 3 had higher total chlorophyll, total dry matter, and active iron (Fe) contents under iron?deficiency stress conditions.

K. B. Reddy; M. Ashalatha; K. Venkaiah

1993-01-01

268

Preferential deportment of low-iron sphalerite to lead concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEM-EDS analysis was conducted on lead flotation circuit products from three Cominco concentrators: Red Dog, Sullivan and Polaris, to clarify the influence of lattice-iron on sphalerite deportment. The iron content in sphalerite reporting to the lead concentrates was compared with the ore averages. There was a consistent and statistically significant difference in the iron content of the sphalerite in the

P. A. Zieli?ski; K. A. Larson; A. W. Stradling

2000-01-01

269

The combined effects of ionizing radiation and weightlessness on calcium and phosphorus content in the mineral fraction of the calcified tissues in the rat skeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus and calcium content in the ash from skeletal bones (ribs, scapula, vertebra, and crus) of 30 rats exposed to ionizing radiation (800 rads) on the flight of the Kosmos 690 biosatellite was studied. A 10 percent decrease in ash content coefficient and 29 percent decrease in phosphorus content was found immediately after the flight, and a 9 percent decrease in phosphorus content persisted after 26 days of readaptation to terrestrial conditions.

Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Komissarova, N. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Novikov, L. L.

1980-01-01

270

[Effect of decamethoxin, decamine and levorin on the carbohydrate-protein component content in the liver connective tissue of white rats].  

PubMed

It has been shown in rat experiments that decamethoxin increases the level of acid glycosaminoglycans, glyco- and mucoproteins, whereas decamin lowers the content of total glycoproteids at the expense of changes in the content of glyco- and mucoproteins. Levorin has been demonstrated to bring down the content of total glycoproteins and oxyproline in the liver. PMID:7379997

Kovtuniak, N A; Bordiakovskaia, L G; Petrova, I V

1980-01-01

271

Antioxidant and lysosomotropic properties of acute D-propranolol underlies its cardioprotection of postischemic hearts from moderate iron-overloaded rats.  

PubMed

The benefits of acute D-propranolol (D-Pro, non-beta-adrenergic receptor blocker) pretreatment against enhanced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of hearts from moderate iron-overloaded rats were examined. Perfused hearts from iron-dextran-treated rats (450 mg/kg/week for 3 weeks, intraperitoneal administration) exhibited normal control function, despite iron treatment that elevated plasma iron and conjugated diene levels by 8.1-and 2.5-fold, respectively. However, these hearts were more susceptible to 25 mins of global I/R stress compared with non-loaded hearts; the coronary flow rate, aortic output, cardiac work, left ventricular systolic pressure, positive differential left ventricular pressure (dP/dt), and left ventricular developed pressure displayed 38%, 60%, 55%, 13%, 41%, and 15% lower recoveries, respectively, and a 6.5-fold increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Postischemic hearts from iron-loaded rats also exhibited 5.6-, 3.48-, 2.43-, and 3.45-fold increases in total effluent iron content, conjugated diene levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and lysosomal N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAGA) activity, respectively, compared with similarly stressed non-loaded hearts. A comparison of detection time profiles during reperfusion suggests that most of the oxidative injury (conjugated diene) in hearts from iron-loaded rats occurred at later times of reperfusion (8.5-15 mins), and this corresponded with heightened tissue iron and NAGA release. D-Pro (2 microM infused for 30 mins) pretreatment before ischemia protected all parameters compared with the untreated iron-loaded group; pressure indices improved 1.2- to 1.6-fold, flow parameters improved 1.70- to 2.96-fold, cardiac work improved 2.87-fold, and end-diastolic pressure was reduced 56%. D-Pro lowered total release of tissue iron, conjugated diene content, LDH activity, and NAGA activity 4.59-, 2.55-, 3.04-, and 4.14-fold, respectively, in the effluent of I/R hearts from the iron-loaded group. These findings suggest that the enhanced postischemic dysfunction and tissue injury of hearts from iron-loaded rats was caused by excessive iron-catalyzed free radical stress, and that the membrane antioxidant properties of D-Pro and its stabilization of sequestered lysosomal iron by D-Pro may contribute to the cardioprotective actions of D-Pro. PMID:16565443

Kramer, Jay H; Murthi, Sarah B; Wise, Robert M; Mak, I-Tong; Weglicki, William B

2006-04-01

272

Iron accumulation in lung allografts after transplantation.  

PubMed

Lung transplantation has become a therapeutic option for end-stage pulmonary diseases, but after transplantation, infections and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) are major causes of long-term morbidity and mortality. OB is a fibroproliferative disease, of poorly understood etiology, characterized by an irreversible decline in allograft function. Because diseases with tissue iron overload are characterized by fibrosis and end-organ failure, we studied the iron concentrations in BAL fluid and lung tissue in 10 lung allograft patients. BAL fluid revealed significantly elevated iron concentrations in allograft patients compared with five normal volunteers (135+/-16.54 micromol/L vs 33.65+/-7.48 micromol/L, respectively). Prussian blue staining of biopsy specimens of lung allograft tissue revealed an accumulation of iron primarily in alveolar macrophages. Immunohistochemical stains for ferritin revealed accumulation of the protein in macrophages, interstitium, vascular walls, and bronchiolar epithelium. Iron studies of the blood (serum ferritin and iron concentrations) revealed no evidence for systemic iron overload. In conclusion, patients with pulmonary allografts appear to have elevated concentrations of iron in lung tissue. This iron overload may place the allografts at increased risk of metal-mediated injury and fibrosis. PMID:9266881

Baz, M A; Ghio, A J; Roggli, V L; Tapson, V F; Piantadosi, C A

1997-08-01

273

Nitrosative Stress and Apoptosis by Intravenous Ferumoxytol, Iron Isomaltoside 1000, Iron Dextran, Iron Sucrose, and Ferric Carboxymaltose in a Nonclinical Model.  

PubMed

Iron is involved in the formation as well as in the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, iron can induce as well as inhibit both oxidative and nitrosative stress. It also has a key role in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated apoptosis. We assessed the differences in tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys of rats treated weekly with intravenous ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, iron dextran, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose (40?mg iron/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Nitrotyrosine was quantified in tissue homogenates by Western blotting and the distribution of nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 was assessed in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose administration did not result in detectable levels of nitrotyrosine or significant levels of caspase 3?vs. control in any of the tissue studied. Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were significantly (p<0.01) increased in all assessed organs of animals treated with iron dextran and iron isomaltoside 1000, as well as in the liver and kidneys of ferumoxytol-treated animals compared to isotonic saline solution (control). Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were shown to correlate positively with the amount of Prussian blue-detectable iron(III) deposits in iron dextran- and iron isomaltoside 1000-treated rats but not in ferumoxytol-treated rats, suggesting that iron dextran, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferumoxytol induce nitrosative (and oxidative) stress as well as apoptosis via different mechanism(s). PMID:25050519

Toblli, J E; Cao, G; Giani, J F; Dominici, F P; Angerosa, M

2014-07-22

274

Diagenesis of iron in modern marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

Rates of iron liberation to interstitial solution have been measured in vitro on sediments obtained from the rapidly depositing submarine portion of the Mississippi Delta, and from Long Island Sound. Rates were measured by inhibiting sulfate reduction (with molybdate) and following the build-up of dissolved iron with time. Both Mississippi Delta and Long Island Sound sediments show similar exponentially decreasing iron liberation rates with depth. It is found that rates of iron liberation are linearly related to rates of sulfate reduction, with the ratio of sulfide production/iron liberation equal to about 100. Unmodified Mississippi Delta sediment was incubated anoxically, and the behavior of dissolved Fe/sup +2/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/ and H/sub 2/S followed with time. A surprising result is that when abundant reactive iron minerals are present, rates of iron liberation are virtually the same in both the absence and presence of sulfate reduction. This means that for reactive Fe-rich sediments all H/sub 2/S liberated by sulfate reduction can be precipitated by reaction with detrital iron minerals to form iron sulfides so that relatively high concentrations of pore water iron can be observed in the presence of appreciable H/sub 2/S production. It also means that iron liberation to solution is most likely the result of bacterial iron reduction, and not the reduction of ferric oxides by dissolved sulfide. Diagenetic modeling of iron profiles using iron liberation rate measurements backs this contention.

Canfield, D.E.; Berner, R.A.

1985-01-01

275

Physiologia Plantarum 131: 7279. 2007 Copyright Physiologia Plantarum 2007, ISSN 0031-9317 Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and  

E-print Network

. This question was investigated in lemon fruit [Citrus limon (L.) Burm var Eureka], characterized-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and reduction of cytosolic aconitase activity in Citrus fruit vesicles demonstrated that out of two aconitase isozymes, typically detected in citrus fruit, only the cytosolic form

Blumwald, Eduardo

276

Hypochlorous Acid-Induced Heme Degradation from Lactoperoxidase as a Novel Mechanism of Free Iron Release and Tissue Injury in Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is the major consumer of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the airways through its ability to oxidize thiocyanate (SCN?) to produce hypothiocyanous acid, an antimicrobial agent. In nasal inflammatory diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, both LPO and myeloperoxidase (MPO), another mammalian peroxidase secreted by neutrophils, are known to co-localize. The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of LPO and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the final product of MPO. Our rapid kinetic measurements revealed that HOCl binds rapidly and reversibly to LPO-Fe(III) to form the LPO-Fe(III)-OCl complex, which in turn decayed irreversibly to LPO Compound II through the formation of Compound I. The decay rate constant of Compound II decreased with increasing HOCl concentration with an inflection point at 100 µM HOCl, after which the decay rate increased. This point of inflection is the critical concentration of HOCl beyond which HOCl switches its role, from mediating destabilization of LPO Compound II to LPO heme destruction. Lactoperoxidase heme destruction was associated with protein aggregation, free iron release, and formation of a number of fluorescent heme degradation products. Similar results were obtained when LPO-Fe(II)-O2, Compound III, was exposed to HOCl. Heme destruction can be partially or completely prevented in the presence of SCN?. On the basis of the present results we concluded that a complex bi-directional relationship exists between LPO activity and HOCl levels at sites of inflammation; LPO serve as a catalytic sink for HOCl, while HOCl serves to modulate LPO catalytic activity, bioavailability, and function. PMID:22132121

Saed, Ghassan M.; Diamond, Michael P.; Moura, Arlindo A.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

2011-01-01

277

Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels build up with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s Ataxia, and panthothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age- matched controls. Over the past ten years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter 1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, AMD, and conditions causing intraocular hemorrhage. While iron deficiency must be prevented, the therapeutic potential of limiting iron induced ocular oxidative damage is high. Systemic, local, or topical iron chelation with an expanding repertoire of drugs has clinical potential. PMID:17921041

He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L.

2007-01-01

278

Human brain atlas for automated region of interest selection in quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to determine iron content in deep gray matter structures.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to extend the single-subject Eve atlas from Johns Hopkins University, which currently contains diffusion tensor and T1-weighted anatomical maps, by including contrast based on quantitative susceptibility mapping. The new atlas combines a "deep gray matter parcellation map" (DGMPM) derived from a single-subject quantitative susceptibility map with the previously established "white matter parcellation map" (WMPM) from the same subject's T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging data into an MNI coordinate map named the "Everything Parcellation Map in Eve Space," also known as the "EvePM." It allows automated segmentation of gray matter and white matter structures. Quantitative susceptibility maps from five healthy male volunteers (30 to 33 years of age) were coregistered to the Eve Atlas with AIR and Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), and the transformation matrices were applied to the EvePM to produce automated parcellation in subject space. Parcellation accuracy was measured with a kappa analysis for the left and right structures of six deep gray matter regions. For multi-orientation QSM images, the Kappa statistic was 0.85 between automated and manual segmentation, with the inter-rater reproducibility Kappa being 0.89 for the human raters, suggesting "almost perfect" agreement between all segmentation methods. Segmentation seemed slightly more difficult for human raters on single-orientation QSM images, with the Kappa statistic being 0.88 between automated and manual segmentation, and 0.85 and 0.86 between human raters. Overall, this atlas provides a time-efficient tool for automated coregistration and segmentation of quantitative susceptibility data to analyze many regions of interest. These data were used to establish a baseline for normal magnetic susceptibility measurements for over 60 brain structures of 30- to 33-year-old males. Correlating the average susceptibility with age-based iron concentrations in gray matter structures measured by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) allowed interpolation of the average iron concentration of several deep gray matter regions delineated in the EvePM. PMID:23769915

Lim, Issel Anne L; Faria, Andreia V; Li, Xu; Hsu, Johnny T C; Airan, Raag D; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter C M

2013-11-15

279

Human brain atlas for automated region of interest selection in quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to determine iron content in deep gray matter structures  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to extend the single-subject Eve atlas from Johns Hopkins University, which currently contains diffusion tensor and T1-weighted anatomical maps, by including contrast based on quantitative susceptibility mapping. The new atlas combines a “deep gray matter parcellation map” (DGMPM) derived from a single-subject quantitative susceptibility map with the previously established “white matter parcellation map” (WMPM) from the same subject’s T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging data into an MNI coordinate map named the “Everything Parcellation Map in Eve Space,” also known as the “EvePM.” It allows automated segmentation of gray matter and white matter structures. Quantitative susceptibility maps from five healthy male volunteers (30 to 33 years of age) were coregistered to the Eve Atlas with AIR and Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), and the transformation matrices were applied to the EvePM to produce automated parcellation in subject space. Parcellation accuracy was measured with a kappa analysis for the left and right structures of six deep gray matter regions. For multi-orientation QSM images, the Kappa statistic was 0.85 between automated and manual segmentation, with the inter-rater reproducibility Kappa being 0.89 for the human raters, suggesting “almost perfect” agreement between all segmentation methods. Segmentation seemed slightly more difficult for human raters on single-orientation QSM images, with the Kappa statistic being 0.88 between automated and manual segmentation, and 0.85 and 0.86 between human raters. Overall, this atlas provides a time-efficient tool for automated coregistration and segmentation of quantitative susceptibility data to analyze many regions of interest. These data were used to establish a baseline for normal magnetic susceptibility measurements for over 60 brain structures of 30- to 33-year-old males. Correlating the average susceptibility with age-based iron concentrations in gray matter structures measured by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) allowed interpolation of the average iron concentration of several deep gray matter regions delineated in the EvePM. PMID:23769915

Lim, Issel Anne L.; Faria, Andreia V.; Li, Xu; Hsu, Johnny T.C.; Airan, Raag D.; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

2013-01-01

280

The chloroplast permease PIC1 regulates plant growth and development by directing homeostasis and transport of iron.  

PubMed

The membrane-spanning protein PIC1 (for permease in chloroplasts 1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously described to mediate iron transport across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The albino phenotype of pic1 knockout mutants was reminiscent of iron-deficiency symptoms and characterized by severely impaired plastid development and plant growth. In addition, plants lacking PIC1 showed a striking increase in chloroplast ferritin clusters, which function in protection from oxidative stress by sequestering highly reactive free iron in their spherical protein shell. In contrast, PIC1-overexpressing lines (PIC1ox) in this study rather resembled ferritin loss-of-function plants. PIC1ox plants suffered from oxidative stress and leaf chlorosis, most likely originating from iron overload in chloroplasts. Later during growth, plants were characterized by reduced biomass as well as severely defective flower and seed development. As a result of PIC1 protein increase in the inner envelope membrane of plastids, flower tissue showed elevated levels of iron, while the content of other transition metals (copper, zinc, manganese) remained unchanged. Seeds, however, specifically revealed iron deficiency, suggesting that PIC1 overexpression sequestered iron in flower plastids, thereby becoming unavailable for seed iron loading. In addition, expression of genes associated with metal transport and homeostasis as well as photosynthesis was deregulated in PIC1ox plants. Thus, PIC1 function in plastid iron transport is closely linked to ferritin and plastid iron homeostasis. In consequence, PIC1 is crucial for balancing plant iron metabolism in general, thereby regulating plant growth and in particular fruit development. PMID:21343424

Duy, Daniela; Stübe, Roland; Wanner, Gerhard; Philippar, Katrin

2011-04-01

281

The Chloroplast Permease PIC1 Regulates Plant Growth and Development by Directing Homeostasis and Transport of Iron1[W  

PubMed Central

The membrane-spanning protein PIC1 (for permease in chloroplasts 1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously described to mediate iron transport across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The albino phenotype of pic1 knockout mutants was reminiscent of iron-deficiency symptoms and characterized by severely impaired plastid development and plant growth. In addition, plants lacking PIC1 showed a striking increase in chloroplast ferritin clusters, which function in protection from oxidative stress by sequestering highly reactive free iron in their spherical protein shell. In contrast, PIC1-overexpressing lines (PIC1ox) in this study rather resembled ferritin loss-of-function plants. PIC1ox plants suffered from oxidative stress and leaf chlorosis, most likely originating from iron overload in chloroplasts. Later during growth, plants were characterized by reduced biomass as well as severely defective flower and seed development. As a result of PIC1 protein increase in the inner envelope membrane of plastids, flower tissue showed elevated levels of iron, while the content of other transition metals (copper, zinc, manganese) remained unchanged. Seeds, however, specifically revealed iron deficiency, suggesting that PIC1 overexpression sequestered iron in flower plastids, thereby becoming unavailable for seed iron loading. In addition, expression of genes associated with metal transport and homeostasis as well as photosynthesis was deregulated in PIC1ox plants. Thus, PIC1 function in plastid iron transport is closely linked to ferritin and plastid iron homeostasis. In consequence, PIC1 is crucial for balancing plant iron metabolism in general, thereby regulating plant growth and in particular fruit development. PMID:21343424

Duy, Daniela; Stübe, Roland; Wanner, Gerhard; Philippar, Katrin

2011-01-01

282

Protein carbonyl content roughly reflects the unsaturation of lipids in muscle but not in other tissues of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive strain (SHRSP) rats fed different fats and oils.  

PubMed

We examined in vivo the effect of dietary fats and oils with different peroxidizability on protein carbonyl content, the presumed index of free radical-mediated protein oxidation. For 15.6 months, SHRSP (stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive strain) rats were fed a diet supplemented with lard, safflower oil, perilla oil or fish oil/soybean oil, the peroxidizability of which increases in this order. The peroxidizability of tissue lipids was positively correlated with the protein carbonyl content in skeletal muscle, but not in the brain, heart or liver. The protein carbonyl content in the lard group was higher in the brain and liver compared to the other dietary groups. These results contradict the concept that long-term feeding of easily autoxidizable fatty acids allows the accumulation of lipid peroxides to accelerate the development of the free radical diseases, and suggest that tissue protein carbonyl content is not a simple reflection of autoxidizability-related lipid peroxidation but is also influenced by other biochemical processes. PMID:9881637

Sato, A; Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Okuyama, H; Nakamoto, H; Radák, Z; Goto, S

1998-12-01

283

Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (I?B), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and I?B at 3h, ferritin at 24h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis and in its innate immune defense mechanism. PMID:25269138

Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Yong; Peng, Hui-Fang; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

2014-11-01

284

Manipulation of cellular spheroid composition and the effects on vascular tissue fusion.  

PubMed

Cellular spheroids were investigated as tissue-engineered building blocks that can be fused to form functional tissue constructs. While spheroids can be assembled using passive contacts for the fusion of complex tissues, physical forces can be used to promote active contacts to improve tissue homogeneity and accelerate tissue fusion. Understanding the mechanisms affecting the fusion of spheroids is critical to fabricating tissues. Here, manipulation of the spheroid composition was used to accelerate the fusion process mediated by magnetic forces. The Janus structure of magnetic cellular spheroids spatially controls iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to form two distinct domains: cells and extracellular MNPs. Studies were performed to evaluate the influence of extracellular matrix (ECM) content and cell number on the fusion of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs). Results showed that the integration of iron oxide MNPs into spheroids increased the production of collagen over time when compared to spheroids without MNPs. The results also showed that ring tissues composed of JMCSs with high ECM concentrations and high cell numbers fused together, but exhibited less contraction when compared to their lower concentration counterparts. Results from spheroid fusion in capillary tubes showed that low ECM concentrations and high cell numbers experienced more fusion and cellular intermixing over time when compared to their higher counterparts. These findings indicate that cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play an important role in regulating fusion, and this understanding sets the rationale of spheroid composition to fabricate larger and more complex tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:25463485

Olsen, T R; Mattix, B; Casco, M; Herbst, A; Williams, C; Tarasidis, A; Simionescu, D; Visconti, R P; Alexis, F

2015-02-01

285

Adaptive responses to iron-deficiency in callus cultures of two cultivars of Vitis spp.  

PubMed

The correlation between iron chlorosis resistance and induction of adaptive mechanisms in grapevine calli belonging to cultivars with different susceptibility to iron chlorosis has been investigated. Fe(III)-chelate reductase was clearly linked to the Fe-efficiency status of the genotype. When growing on iron deprived medium (-Fe) calli of the Fe-efficient genotype "Cabernet sauvignon" showed a remarkable increase in enzyme activity, up to five times higher, with respect to +Fe cultures. Moreover, 31P-NMR revealed that in -Fe medium the increase of vacuolar Pi content of the Fe-efficient cultures was more pronounced than that recorded for the Fe-inefficient Vitis riparia. Furthermore, Fe starvation also enhanced the production of phenolic compounds in calli of "Cabernet sauvignon" with respect to those of Vitis riparia. The role of H(+)-ATPase as a marker of Fe-efficiency in tissue culture remains ambiguous in the case of grapevines. PMID:12964862

Piagnani, Claudia; De Nisi, Patrizia; Espen, Luca; Zocchi, Graziano

2003-08-01

286

Air oxidation of hydrazine. 1. Reaction kinetics on natural kaolinites, halloysites, and model substituent layers with varying iron and titanium oxide and O- center contents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air oxidation of hydrazine was studied by using a group of kaolinites, halloysites, and substituent oxides as models for the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The rate was found to be linear with oxygen. The stoichiometry showed that oxygen was the primary oxidant and that dinitrogen was the only important nitrogen-containing product. The rates on kaolinites were strongly inhibited by water. Those on three-dimensional silica and gibbsite appeared not to be. That on a supposedly layered silica formed from a natural kaolinite by acid leaching showed transitional behavior--slowed relative to that expected from a second-order reaction relative to that on the gibbsite and silica but faster than those on the kaolinites. The most striking result of the reaction was the marked increase in the rate of reaction of a constant amount of hydrazine as the amount of clay was increased. The increase was apparent (in spite of the water inhibition at high conversions) over a 2 order of magnitude variation of the clay weight. The weight dependence was taken to indicate that the role of the clay is very important, that the number of reactive centers is very small, or that they may be deactivated over the course of the reaction. In contrast to the strong dependence on overall amount of clay, the variation of amounts of putative oxidizing centers, such as structural Fe(III), admixed TiO2 or Fe2O3, or O- centers, did not result in alteration of the rate commensurate with the degree of variation of the entity in question. Surface iron does play some role, however, as samples that were pretreated with a reducing agent were less active as catalysts than the parent material. These results were taken to indicate either that the various centers interact to such a degree that they cannot be considered independently or that the reaction might proceed by way of surface complexation, rather than single electron transfers.

Coyne, L.; Mariner, R.; Rice, A.

1991-01-01

287

Mitochondrial ferritin in the regulation of brain iron homeostasis and neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a novel iron-storage protein in mitochondria. Evidences have shown that FtMt is structurally and functionally similar to the cytosolic H-chain ferritin. It protects mitochondria from iron-induced oxidative damage presumably through sequestration of potentially harmful excess free iron. It also participates in the regulation of iron distribution between cytosol and mitochondrial contents. Unlike the ubiquitously expressed H-ferritin, FtMt is mainly expressed in testis and brain, which suggests its tissue-related roles. FtMt is involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, as its increased expression has been observed in Alzheimer’s disease, restless legs syndrome and Friedreich’s ataxia. Studies from our laboratory showed that in Alzheimer’s disease, FtMt overexpression attenuated the ?-amyloid induced neurotoxicity, which on the other hand increased significantly when FtMt expression was knocked down. It is also found that, by maintaining mitochondrial iron homeostasis, FtMt could prevent 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic cell damage in Parkinson’s disease. These recent findings on FtMt regarding its functions in regulation of brain iron homeostasis and its protective role in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases are summarized and reviewed. PMID:24596558

Gao, Guofen; Chang, Yan-Zhong

2014-01-01

288

Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis  

SciTech Connect

It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2009-01-01

289

Phytostabilization of iron ore tailings through Calophyllum inophyllum L.  

PubMed

The phytostabilization of waste material generated during mining and processing of iron ore through Calophyllum inophyllum L. have been investigated. Iron ore tailings and its varying composition with garden soil were taken to study plant growth, chlorophyll content and metal uptake pattern of Calophyllum inophyllum L. These studies indicate that 100% survival of plant species was noted in all the treatments without any toxicity symptoms. The increase in growth parameters and chlorophyll content along with the high metal accumulation in plant tissues suggests that Calophyllum inophyllum L. may be a potential tool for phytoremediation. The accumulation of Pb (1662 microgm/gm) and Fe (2313 microgm/gm) was observed to be maximum in the plant tissues followed by Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni. The TF values for most of the heavy metals was observed to be > 1 which indicates that the plant can efficiently translocate these toxic metals to its above ground parts. Removal of more than 30% of the most of the heavy metal like Fe, Pb, and Cu & Zn has been observed in all the treatments during one year of observation. The overall study clearly suggests that the plant can be used as an efficient tool for restoration of mining wastes and other similarly contaminated sites. PMID:22908660

Chaturvedi, Nilima; Dhal, N K; Reddy, Palli Sita Rama

2012-12-01

290

Mechanistic and regulatory aspects of intestinal iron absorption.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential trace mineral that plays a number of important physiological roles in humans, including oxygen transport, energy metabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Iron absorption by the proximal small bowel is a critical checkpoint in the maintenance of whole-body iron levels since, unlike most other essential nutrients, no regulated excretory systems exist for iron in humans. Maintaining proper iron levels is critical to avoid the adverse physiological consequences of either low or high tissue iron concentrations, as commonly occurs in iron-deficiency anemia and hereditary hemochromatosis, respectively. Exquisite regulatory mechanisms have thus evolved to modulate how much iron is acquired from the diet. Systemic sensing of iron levels is accomplished by a network of molecules that regulate transcription of the HAMP gene in hepatocytes, thus modulating levels of the serum-borne, iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin decreases intestinal iron absorption by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin 1 on the basolateral surface of duodenal enterocytes, causing its internalization and degradation. Mucosal regulation of iron transport also occurs during low-iron states, via transcriptional (by hypoxia-inducible factor 2?) and posttranscriptional (by the iron-sensing iron-regulatory protein/iron-responsive element system) mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrated that these regulatory loops function in tandem to control expression or activity of key modulators of iron homeostasis. In health, body iron levels are maintained at appropriate levels; however, in several inherited disorders and in other pathophysiological states, iron sensing is perturbed and intestinal iron absorption is dysregulated. The iron-related phenotypes of these diseases exemplify the necessity of precisely regulating iron absorption to meet body demands. PMID:24994858

Gulec, Sukru; Anderson, Gregory J; Collins, James F

2014-08-15

291

IRON METABOLISM IN EXPERIMENTAL ANEMIA  

PubMed Central

In experimental anemia in dogs due to blood loss the term "available iron" as determined by the dipyridyl test has no physiological significance. Iron salts (100 per cent available by dipyridyl) given in optimum dose (560 mg. per 2 weeks) will cause a net production of 50 to 55 gm. hemoglobin above the control base line in anemic dogs. This means that an iron salt which is rated as 100 per cent available by the dipyridyl test is only 35 per cent physiologically available. The term "available iron (dipyridyl)" simmers down to iron not in the form of hematin compounds. The absorption of this "available iron" is conditioned by a great variety of factors, many unknown at this time. Iron is indeed an elusive sprite whose "availability" or comings and goings cannot be determined in dogs by dipyridyl—perhaps only in part by studies of absorption and excretion. Liver contains "available iron (dipyridyl)" but also organic factors influencing hemoglobin regeneration in anemia as liver ash contains only about 50 per cent the potency of the whole liver. One can readily dissociate the iron from other potent factors in various tissues. Fractions of heart, liver, spleen, and kidney may contain very little iron yet cause much hemoglobin regeneration in anemic dogs. No investigator has reported any condition of copper deficiency in man or dog. In fact, in anemias copper is usually above normal concentration in the liver. It is unlikely, therefore, that in experimental anemia in dogs and in the various anemias of man, any significance attaches to the intake of copper. PMID:19870718

Hahn, P. F.; Whipple, G. H.

1938-01-01

292

Bacterial iron homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many

Simon C Andrews; Andrea K Robinson; Francisco Rodr??guez-Quiñones

2003-01-01

293

THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

294

THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

295

Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diets with low omega (u)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios have been shown to decrease aortic cholesterol accumulation and have been suggested to promote weight loss. The involvement of the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT...

296

ImageMiner: a software system for comparative analysis of tissue microarrays using content-based image retrieval, high-performance computing, and grid technology  

PubMed Central

Objective and design The design and implementation of ImageMiner, a software platform for performing comparative analysis of expression patterns in imaged microscopy specimens such as tissue microarrays (TMAs), is described. ImageMiner is a federated system of services that provides a reliable set of analytical and data management capabilities for investigative research applications in pathology. It provides a library of image processing methods, including automated registration, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification, all of which have been tailored, in these studies, to support TMA analysis. The system is designed to leverage high-performance computing machines so that investigators can rapidly analyze large ensembles of imaged TMA specimens. To support deployment in collaborative, multi-institutional projects, ImageMiner features grid-enabled, service-based components so that multiple instances of ImageMiner can be accessed remotely and federated. Results The experimental evaluation shows that: (1) ImageMiner is able to support reliable detection and feature extraction of tumor regions within imaged tissues; (2) images and analysis results managed in ImageMiner can be searched for and retrieved on the basis of image-based features, classification information, and any correlated clinical data, including any metadata that have been generated to describe the specified tissue and TMA; and (3) the system is able to reduce computation time of analyses by exploiting computing clusters, which facilitates analysis of larger sets of tissue samples. PMID:21606133

Foran, David J; Yang, Lin; Hu, Jun; Goodell, Lauri A; Reiss, Michael; Wang, Fusheng; Kurc, Tahsin; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Saltz, Joel H

2011-01-01

297

The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung.  

PubMed

Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L

2015-01-01

298

Identification of rice cultivars with low brown rice mixed cadmium and lead contents and their interactions with the micronutrients iron, zinc, nickel and manganese.  

PubMed

Paddy fields in mining areas are usually co-contaminated by a cocktail of mixed toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb in Pb/Zn mines). However, previous studies on rice cultivars screened for effective metal exclusion have mostly focused on individual metals, and have been conducted under pot-trial or hydroponic solution conditions. This study identified rice cultivars with both low Cd and Pb accumulation under Cd- and Pb-contaminated field conditions, and the interactions of the toxic elements Cd and Pb with the micronutrient elements Fe, Zn, Mn and Ni were also studied. Among 32 rice cultivars tested, there were significant differences in Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg) and Pb (0.25-3.15 mg/kg) levels in their brown rice, and similar results were also found for the micronutrient elements. Significant decreases in concentrations of Fe and Mn were detected with increasing Cd concentrations and a significant elevation in Fe, Mn and Ni with increasing Pb concentrations. A similar result was also shown by Cd and Ni. Three cultivars were identified with a combination of low brown rice Cd and Pb, high micronutrient and grain yield (Wufengyou 2168, Tianyou 196 and Guinongzhan). Present results suggest that it is possible to breed rice cultivars with low mixed toxic element (Cd, Pb) and high micronutrient contents along with high grain yields, thus ensuring food safety and quality. PMID:23520849

Li, Bing; Wang, Xun; Qi, Xiaoli; Huang, Lu; Ye, Zhihong

2012-01-01

299

SreA-mediated iron regulation in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common airborne fungal pathogen of humans, employs two high-affinity iron uptake systems: iron uptake mediated by the extracellular siderophore triacetylfusarinine C and reductive iron assimilation. Furthermore, A. fumigatus utilizes two intracellular siderophores, ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin, to store iron. Siderophore biosynthesis, which is essential for virulence, is repressed by iron. Here we show that this control is mediated by the GATA factor SreA. During iron-replete conditions, SreA deficiency partially derepressed synthesis of triacetylfusarinine C and uptake of iron resulting in increased cellular accumulation of both iron and ferricrocin. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis identified 49 genes that are repressed by iron in an SreA-dependent manner. This gene set, termed SreA regulon, includes all known genes involved in iron acquisition, putative novel siderophore biosynthetic genes, and also genes not directly linked to iron metabolism. SreA deficiency also caused upregulation of iron-dependent and antioxidative pathways, probably due to the increased iron content and iron-mediated oxidative stress. Consistently, the sreA disruption mutant displayed increased sensitivity to iron, menadion and phleomycin but retained wild-type virulence in a mouse model. As all detrimental effects of sreA disruption are restricted to iron-replete conditions these data underscore that A. fumigatus faces iron-depleted conditions during infection. PMID:18721228

Schrettl, Markus; Kim, H Stanley; Eisendle, Martin; Kragl, Claudia; Nierman, William C; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Werner, Ernst R; Jacobsen, Ilse; Illmer, Paul; Yi, Hyojeong; Brakhage, Axel A; Haas, Hubertus

2008-01-01

300

Toxic (Pb, Cd, Hg) and essential (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) metal content of liver tissue of some domestic and bush animals in Ghana.  

PubMed

Accumulation of toxic metals in liver, a rich natural source of essential elements, can present health risks to regular consumers of liver. A total of 35 fresh liver samples of cow, sheep, goat, pig, grass-cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), chicken and antelope (Antilocapra americana) were obtained from three different markets in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and an automatic mercury analyzer. Levels of iron in the grass-cutter and pig of 500.5-645.4 mg kg(-1) were the highest in the animal livers examined. Mn concentrations were highest in grass-cutter and rat liver, ranging 16.5-30.2 mg kg(-1). The safe Cu and Zn permissible limits of 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) were exceeded in 70 and 75% of the liver samples, respectively. Generally, for each animal group studied, at least 50% of the sample livers exceeded the Cd permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). The levels of Pb, which ranged 1.3-13.8 mg kg(-1), exceeded the proposed European Commission (EC) limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). Care must be taken by regular consumers of the iron-rich animal livers of grass-cutter, pig and rat because they also had the highest levels of Pb (in grass-cutter and pig) and Cd (in grass-cutter, rat and pig). The liver samples analyzed for Hg had values far below the permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:24784805

Adei, Evans; Forson-Adaboh, Kwadwo

2008-01-01

301

Iron status of women is associated with the iron concentration of potable groundwater in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Women of reproductive age are at a high risk of iron deficiency, often as a result of diets low in bioavailable iron. In some settings, the iron content of domestic groundwater sources is high, yet its contribution to iron intake and status has not been examined. In a rural Bangladeshi population of women deficient in dietary iron, we evaluated the association between groundwater iron intake and iron status. In 2008, participants (n = 209 with complete data) were visited to collect data on 7-d food frequency, 7-d morbidity history, 24-h drinking water intake, and rice preparation, and to measure the groundwater iron concentration. Blood was collected to assess iron and infection status. Plasma ferritin (?g/L) and body iron (mg/kg) concentrations were [median (IQR)] 67 (46, 99) and 10.4 ± 2.6, respectively, and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 ?g/L) was 0%. Daily iron intake from water [42 mg (18, 71)] was positively correlated with plasma ferritin (r = 0.36) and total body iron (r = 0.35) (P < 0.001 for both). In adjusted linear regression analyses, plasma ferritin increased by 6.1% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.4%) and body iron by 0.3 mg/kg (0.2, 0.4) for every 10-mg increase in iron intake from water (P < 0.001). In this rural area of northern Bangladesh, women of reproductive age had no iron deficiency likely attributable to iron consumed from drinking groundwater, which contributed substantially to dietary intake. These findings suggest that iron intake from water should be included in dietary assessments in such settings. PMID:21451130

Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Labrique, Alain B; Schulze, Kerry; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

2011-05-01

302

ImageMiner: a software system for comparative analysis of tissue microarrays using content-based image retrieval, high-performance computing, and grid technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and designThe design and implementation of ImageMiner, a software platform for performing comparative analysis of expression patterns in imaged microscopy specimens such as tissue microarrays (TMAs), is described. ImageMiner is a federated system of services that provides a reliable set of analytical and data management capabilities for investigative research applications in pathology. It provides a library of image processing

David J Foran; Lin Yang; Wenjin Chen; Jun Hu; Lauri A Goodell; Michael Reiss; Fusheng Wang; Tahsin Kurc; Tony Pan; Ashish Sharma; Joel H Saltz

2011-01-01

303

Measurement of Local Strains in Intervertebral Disc Anulus Fibrosus Tissue under Dynamic Shear: Contributions of Matrix Fiber Orientation and Elastin Content  

PubMed Central

Shear strain has been implicated as an initiator of intervertebral disc anulus failure, however a clear, multi-scale picture of how shear strain affects the tissue microstructure has been lacking. The purposes of this study were to measure microscale deformations in anulus tissue under dynamic shear in two orientations, and to determine the role of elastin in regulating these deformations. Bovine AF tissue was simultaneously shear loaded and imaged using confocal microscopy following either a buffer or elastase treatment. Digital image analysis was used to track through time local shear strains in specimens sheared transversely, and stretch and rotation of collagen fiber bundles in specimens sheared circumferentially. The results of this study suggest that sliding does not occur between AF plies under shear, and that interlamellar connections are governed by collagen and fibrilin rather than elastin The transverse shear modulus was found to be approximately 1.6 times as high in plies the direction of the collagen fibers as in plies across them. Under physiological levels of in-plane shear, fiber bundles stretched and re-oriented linearly. Elastin was found to primarily stiffen plies transversely. We conclude that alterations in the elastic fiber network, as found with IVD herniation and degeneration, can therefore be expected to significantly influence the AF response to shear making it more susceptible to micro failure under bending or torsion loading. PMID:19664773

Michalek, Arthur J; Buckley, Mark R; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai; Iatridis, James C

2009-01-01

304

The Assimilation of Ureides in Shoot Tissues of Soybeans : 1. CHANGES IN ALLANTOINASE ACTIVITY AND UREIDE CONTENTS OF LEAVES AND FRUITS.  

PubMed

The ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid, are major forms of N transported from nodules to shoots in soybeans (Merr.). Little is known about the occurrence, localization, or properties of the enzymes involved in the assimilation of ureides in shoot tissues. We have examined the capacity of the shoot tissues to assimilate allantoin via allantoinase (EC 3.5.2.5) during leaf and fruit development in nodulated soybeans. Specific activity of allantoinase in leaves peaked during pod formation and early seed filling. In developing fruits allantoinase activity in the seeds was 2 to 4 times that in the pods when expressed on a fresh weight or organ basis. In seeds, the embryos contained the highest specific allantoinase activity. Stems and petioles also had appreciable allantoinase activity. With development, peaks in the amounts of allantoic acid, but not allantoin, were measured in both leaves and fruits suggesting that the assimilation of allantoic acid may be a limiting factor in ureide assimilation. Highest amounts of ureides were measured in the pith and xylem of stem tissues and in developing pod walls. PMID:16661804

Thomas, R J; Schrader, L E

1981-05-01

305

Iron in neuronal function and dysfunction.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) is an essential element for many metabolic processes, serving as a cofactor for heme and nonheme proteins. Cellular iron deficiency arrests cell growth and leads to cell death; however, like most transition metals, an excess of intracellular iron is toxic. The ability of Fe to accept and donate electrons can lead to the formation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and oxidative damage to tissue components; contributing to disease and, perhaps, aging itself. It has also been suggested that iron-induced oxidative stress can play a key role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Iron progressively accumulates in the brain both during normal aging and neurodegenerative processes. However, iron accumulation occurs without the concomitant increase in tissue ferritin, which could increase the risk of oxidative stress. Moreover, high iron concentrations in the brain have been consistently observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this regard, metalloneurobiology has become extremely important in understanding the role of iron in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons have developed several protective mechanisms against oxidative stress, among them the activation of cellular signaling pathways. The final response will depend on the identity, intensity, and persistence of the oxidative insult. The characterization of the mechanisms involved in high iron induced in neuronal dysfunction and death is central to understanding the pathology of a number of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20232345

Salvador, Gabriela A

2010-01-01

306

Iron deficiency in the pregnant rat has differential effects on maternal and fetal copper levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency during pregnancy causes problems both for the mother and fetus. Iron deficiency is known to have secondary effects on copper metabolism. In this study, we use a rat model to examine the effect of iron deficiency on copper levels in maternal and fetal tissue. We assess whether the effects of iron deficiency on copper metabolism are due to

Lorraine Gambling; Susan Dunford; Harry J. McArdle

2004-01-01

307

Visualization of iron and detection of microbleeds in the brain using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron is of great importance in neurodegenerative diseases. A considerable amount of work has been done to detect iron in the brain. But what still remains a challenge is quantifying iron deposits in brain tissue using non invasive techniques. Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) is a new technique which enables us to quantify brain iron using phase information based on the

Muhammad Ayaz

2008-01-01

308

Iron overload detection in rats by means of a susceptometer operating at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosusceptometry is a non-invasive procedure for determination of iron overload in a human body; it is essentially an assessment of the diamagnetic (water) and paramagnetic (iron) properties of tissues. We measured in vivo iron overload in the liver region of 12 rats by a room temperature susceptometer. The rats had been injected with sub-toxic doses of iron dextran. A quantitative

M. Marinelli; B. Gianesin; C. Avignolo; V. Minganti; S. Parodi

2008-01-01

309

Toxicity and biodistribution of activated and non-activated intravenous iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nanoparticles in medical treatment has prompted the question of their safety. In this study, the pathophysiology and biodistribution of three different concentrations of intravenously-delivered dextran-coated Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were evaluated in mice. Some groups of mice were exposed to an AC magnetic field (AMF) at levels comparable with those proposed for cancer treatments. Iron biodistribution analysis for both AMF and non-AMF treated mice was performed for all three concentrations used (.6 mg Fe/mouse, 1.8 mg Fe/mouse, and 5.6 mg Fe/mouse). Blood urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total serum protein, and creatinine were also assessed at 4 hours, 7 days, and 14 days post-injection. Histological analysis of lung, spleen, heart, liver, and kidney tissue was conducted at 7 and 14 days post-injection. Prussian blue and H&E stains were used to histomorphometrically assess iron content in the tissues studied. Preliminary results demonstrate small temporary elevation in liver enzymes and hepatocyte vacuolization at all iron concentrations studied. Liver and spleen were the primary sites of IONP deposition. None of the animals demonstrated systemic or local toxicity or illness, with or without AMF activation.

Tate, J. A.; Ogden, J. A.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Pierce, Z. E.; Hoopes, P. J.

2009-02-01

310

Toxicity and Biodistribution of Activated and Non-activated Intravenous Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The use of nanoparticles in medical treatment has prompted the question of their safety. In this study, the pathophysiology and biodistribution of three different concentrations of intravenously-delivered dextran-coated Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were evaluated in mice. Some groups of mice were exposed to an AC magnetic field (AMF) at levels comparable with those proposed for cancer treatments. Iron biodistribution analysis for both AMF and non-AMF treated mice was performed for all three concentrations used (.6 mg Fe/mouse, 1.8 mg Fe/mouse, and 5.6 mg Fe/mouse). Blood urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total serum protein, and creatinine were also assessed at 4 hours, 7 days, and 14 days post-injection. Histological analysis of lung, spleen, heart, liver, and kidney tissue was conducted at 7 and 14 days post-injection. Prussian blue and H&E stains were used to histomorphometrically assess iron content in the tissues studied. Preliminary results demonstrate small temporary elevation in liver enzymes and hepatocyte vacuolization at all iron concentrations studied. Liver and spleen were the primary sites of IONP deposition. None of the animals demonstrated systemic or local toxicity or illness, with or without AMF activation. PMID:25300674

Tate, Ja; Ogden, Ja; Strawbridge, Rr; Pierce, Ze; Hoopes, Pj

2009-02-12

311

Enhanced and selective delivery of enzyme therapy to 9L-glioma tumor via magnetic targeting of PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The stability of enzyme-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in plasma is of great importance for in vivo delivery of the conjugated enzyme. In this study, ?-glucosidase was conjugated on aminated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the glutaraldehyde method (?-Glu-MNP), and further PEGylated via N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-?-Glu-MNPs) were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter distribution, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The results showed that the multidomain structure and magnetization properties of these nanoparticles were conserved well throughout the synthesis steps, with an expected diameter increase and zeta potential shifts. The Michaelis constant was calculated to evaluate the activity of conjugated ?-glucosidase on the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, indicating 73.0% and 65.4% of enzyme activity remaining for ?-Glu-MNP and PEG-?-Glu-MNP, respectively. Both magnetophoretic mobility analysis and pharmacokinetics showed improved in vitro/in vivo stability of PEG-?-Glu-MNP compared with ?-Glu-MNP. In vivo magnetic targeting of PEG-?-Glu-MNP was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and electron spin resonance analysis in a mouse model of subcutaneous 9L-glioma. Satisfactory accumulation of PEG-?-Glu-MNP in tumor tissue was successfully achieved, with an iron content of 627±45 nmol Fe/g tissue and ?-glucosidase activity of 32.2±8.0 mU/g tissue. PMID:24959078

Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Wenxi

2014-01-01

312

Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, ?6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53±0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter. PMID:24498178

Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

2014-01-01

313

Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

Sastri, Sankar

1992-01-01

314

Magnetic Susceptibility Mapping of Brain Tissue In Vivo Using MRI Phase Data  

PubMed Central

Phase images in susceptibility-weighted MRI provide excellent contrast. However, the phase is affected by tissue geometry and orientation relative to the main magnetic field (B0) and phase changes extend beyond areas of altered susceptibility. Magnetic susceptibility, on the other hand, is an intrinsic tissue property, closely reflecting tissue composition. Therefore, recently developed inverse Fourier-based methods were applied to calculate susceptibility maps from high-resolution phase images acquired at a single orientation at 7 Tesla in the human brain (in vivo and fixed) and at 11.7 Tesla in fixed marmoset brain. In susceptibility images, the contrast of cortical layers was more consistent than in phase images and was independent of the structures’ orientation relative to B0. The contrast of iron-rich deep-brain structures (red nucleus and substantia nigra) in susceptibility images agreed more closely with iron-dominated R2* images than the phase image contrast which extended outside the structures. The mean susceptibility in these regions was significantly correlated with their estimated iron content. Susceptibility maps calculated using this method overcome the orientation-dependence and non-locality of phase image contrast and seem to reflect underlying tissue composition. Susceptibility images should be easier to interpret than phase images and could improve our understanding of the sources of susceptibility contrast. PMID:19859937

Shmueli, Karin; de Zwart, Jacco A.; van Gelderen, Peter; Li, Tie-Qiang; Dodd, Stephen J.; Duyn, Jeff H.

2014-01-01

315

The active role of vitamin C in mammalian iron metabolism: much more than just enhanced iron absorption!  

PubMed

Ascorbate is a cofactor in numerous metabolic reactions. Humans cannot synthesize ascorbate owing to inactivation of the gene encoding the enzyme l-gulono-?-lactone oxidase, which is essential for ascorbate synthesis. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance nonheme iron absorption in the gut, ascorbate within mammalian systems can regulate cellular iron uptake and metabolism. Ascorbate modulates iron metabolism by stimulating ferritin synthesis, inhibiting lysosomal ferritin degradation, and decreasing cellular iron efflux. Furthermore, ascorbate cycling across the plasma membrane is responsible for ascorbate-stimulated iron uptake from low-molecular-weight iron-citrate complexes, which are prominent in the plasma of individuals with iron-overload disorders. Importantly, this iron-uptake pathway is of particular relevance to astrocyte brain iron metabolism and tissue iron loading in disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and ?-thalassemia. Recent evidence also indicates that ascorbate is a novel modulator of the classical transferrin-iron uptake pathway, which provides almost all iron for cellular demands and erythropoiesis under physiological conditions. Ascorbate acts to stimulate transferrin-dependent iron uptake by an intracellular reductive mechanism, strongly suggesting that it may act to stimulate iron mobilization from the endosome. The ability of ascorbate to regulate transferrin iron uptake could help explain the metabolic defect that contributes to ascorbate-deficiency-induced anemia. PMID:25048971

Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

2014-10-01

316

Ferrous iron formation following the co-aggregation of ferric iron and the Alzheimer's disease peptide ?-amyloid (1–42)  

PubMed Central

For decades, a link between increased levels of iron and areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has been recognized, including AD lesions comprised of the peptide ?-amyloid (A?). Despite many observations of this association, the relationship between A? and iron is poorly understood. Using X-ray microspectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and spectrophotometric iron(II) quantification techniques, we examine the interaction between A?(1–42) and synthetic iron(III), reminiscent of ferric iron stores in the brain. We report A? to be capable of accumulating iron(III) within amyloid aggregates, with this process resulting in A?-mediated reduction of iron(III) to a redox-active iron(II) phase. Additionally, we show that the presence of aluminium increases the reductive capacity of A?, enabling the redox cycling of the iron. These results demonstrate the ability of A? to accumulate iron, offering an explanation for previously observed local increases in iron concentration associated with AD lesions. Furthermore, the ability of iron to form redox-active iron phases from ferric precursors provides an origin both for the redox-active iron previously witnessed in AD tissue, and the increased levels of oxidative stress characteristic of AD. These interactions between A? and iron deliver valuable insights into the process of AD progression, which may ultimately provide targets for disease therapies. PMID:24671940

Everett, J.; Céspedes, E.; Shelford, L. R.; Exley, C.; Collingwood, J. F.; Dobson, J.; van der Laan, G.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Telling, N. D.

2014-01-01

317

Isolation of two lysosomal populations from iron-overloaded rat liver with different iron concentration and proteolytic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Iron overload results in an accumulation of electron-dense iron-containing particles (IPs) such as ferritin and hemosiderin\\u000a within the lysosomes of rat liver cells. In order to evaluate the effect or iron overload on lysosomal function, efforts were\\u000a made to isolate lysosomes with different iron contents by means of ultracentrifugation in Percoll and Metrizamide gradients.\\u000a \\u000a Lysosomes isolated on the Percoll gradient

Rolf Hultcrantz; Jeanne Ahlberg; Hans Glaumann

1984-01-01

318

How to quantify iron in an aqueous or biological matrix: a technical note.  

PubMed

Iron oxide (nano)particles are powerful contrast agents for MRI and tags for magnetic cellular labeling. The need for quantitative methods to evaluate the iron content of contrast media solutions and biological matrixes is thus obvious. Several convenient methods aiming at the quantification of iron from iron oxide nanoparticle-containing samples are presented. PMID:19998319

Boutry, Sébastien; Forge, Delphine; Burtea, Carmen; Mahieu, Isabelle; Murariu, Oltea; Laurent, Sophie; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

2009-01-01

319

Stainable hepatic iron in 341 African American adults at coroner\\/medical examiner autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls'

James C Barton; Ronald T Acton; Asia K Richardson; Robert M Brissie

2005-01-01

320

Snapshot of iron response in Shewanella oneidensis by gene network reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Iron homeostasis of Shewanella oneidensis, a ?-proteobacterium possessing high iron content, is regulated by a global transcription factor Fur. However, knowledge is incomplete about other biological pathways that respond to changes in iron concentration, as well as details of the responses. In this work, we integrate physiological, transcriptomics and genetic approaches to delineate the iron response of S. oneidensis.

Yunfeng Yang; Daniel P Harris; Feng Luo; Wenlu Xiong; Marcin Joachimiak; Liyou Wu; Paramvir Dehal; Janet Jacobsen; Zamin Yang; Anthony V Palumbo; Adam P Arkin; Jizhong Zhou

2009-01-01

321

Iron and atherosclerosis: nailing down a novel target with magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential mineral in many proteins and enzymes in human physiology, with limited means of iron elimination to maintain iron balance. Iron accrual incurs various pathological mechanisms linked to cardiovascular disease. In atherosclerosis, iron catalyzes the creation of reactive oxygen free radicals that contribute to lipid modification, which is essential to atheroma formation. Inflammation further fuels iron-related pathologic processes associated with plaque progression. Given iron's role in atherosclerosis development, in vivo detection techniques sensitive iron are needed for translational studies targeting iron for earlier diagnosis and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging is uniquely able to quantify iron in human tissues noninvasively and without ionizing radiation, offering appealing for longitudinal and interventional studies. Particularly intriguing is iron's complementary biology vs. calcium, which is readily detectable by computed tomography. This review summarizes the role of iron in atherosclerosis with considerable implications for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24590608

Sharkey-Toppen, Travis P; Tewari, Arun K; Raman, Subha V

2014-07-01

322

Oligodendrogenesis: the role of iron.  

PubMed

Iron seems to be an essential factor in myelination and oligodendrocyte (OLGc) biology. However, the specific role of iron in these processes remains to be elucidated. Iron deficiency (ID) imposed to developing rats has been a relevant model to understand the role of iron in oligodendrogenesis and myelination. During early development ID causes specific changes in myelin composition, including a lower relative content of cholesterol, proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin basic protein 21 (MBP21). These changes could be a consequence of the adverse effects of ID on OLGc development and function. We subsenquently studied the possible corrective effect of a single intracranial injection (ICI) of apotransferrin (aTf) on myelin formation in ID rats OLGc migration and differentiation after an ICI of aTf was evaluated at 3 days of age. ID increased the number of proliferating and undifferentiated cells in the corpus callosum (CC), while a single aTf injection reverts these effects, increasing the number of mature cells and myelin formation. Overall, results of a series of studies supports the concept that iron may affect OLGc development at early stages of embryogenesis rather than during late development. Myelin composition is altered by a limited iron supply, changes that can be reverted by a single injection of aTf. PMID:20336710

Badaracco, Maria Elvira; Siri, Maria Victoria Rosato; Pasquini, Juana Maria

2010-01-01

323

Body iron delocalization: the serious drawback in iron disorders in both developing and developed countries  

PubMed Central

Over 2 billion people in both developing as well as developed countries – over 30% of the world’s population – are anaemic. With the classical preconception that oral iron administration or the intake of foods rich in iron increase haemoglobin concentration and reduce the prevalence of anaemia, specific programs have been designed, but iron supplementations have been less effective than expected. Of note, this hazardous simplification on iron status neglects its distribution in the body. The correct balance of iron, defined iron homeostasis, involves a physiological ratio of iron between tissues/secretions and blood, thus avoiding its delocalization as iron accumulation in tissues/secretions and iron deficiency in blood. Changes in iron status can affect the inflammatory response in multiple ways, particularly in the context of infection, an idea that is worth remembering when considering the value of iron supplementation in areas of the world where infections are highly prevalent. The enhanced availability of free iron can increase susceptibility and severity of microbial and parasitic infections. The discovery of the hepcidin–ferroportin (Fpn) complex, which greatly clarified the enigmatic mechanism that supervises the iron homeostasis, should prompt to a critical review on iron supplementation, ineffective on the expression of the most important proteins of iron metabolism. Therefore, it is imperative to consider new safe and efficient therapeutic interventions to cure iron deficiency (ID) and ID anaemia (IDA) associated or not to the inflammation. In this respect, lactoferrin (Lf) is emerging as an important regulator of both iron and inflammatory homeostasis. Oral administration of Lf in subjects suffering of ID and IDA is safe and effective in significantly increasing haematological parameters and contemporary decreasing serum IL-6 levels, thus restoring iron localization through the direct or indirect modulation of hepcidin and ferroportin synthesis. Of note, the nuclear localization of Lf suggests that this molecule may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of some genes of host inflammatory response. We recently also reported that combined administration of oral and intravaginal Lf on ID and IDA pregnant women with preterm delivery threat, significantly increased haematological parameters, reduced IL-6 levels in both serum and cervicovaginal fluid, cervicovaginal prostaglandin PGF2?, and suppressed uterine contractility. Moreover, Lf combined administration blocked further the shortening of cervical length and the increase of foetal fibronectin, thus prolonging the length of pregnancy until the 37th–38th week of gestation. These new Lf functions effective in curing ID and IDA through the restoring of iron and inflammatory homeostasis and in preventing preterm delivery, could have a great relevance in developing countries, where ID and IDA and inflammation-associated anaemia represent the major risk factors of preterm delivery and maternal and neonatal death. PMID:23265420

Paesano, R; Natalizi, T; Berlutti, F; Valenti, P

2012-01-01

324

Accumulation of Metals by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides in a Subterranean Environment  

E-print Network

Accumulation of Metals by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides in a Subterranean Environment F. G. FERRIS emission spectroscopy revealed iron oxide contents that varied from 60% to 90% (dry weight basis). Metal decreasing with increasing iron oxide content was evident for each metal, implying that metal uptake

Konhauser, Kurt

325

Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis  

SciTech Connect

The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis.

Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

1989-06-01

326

Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)  

SciTech Connect

A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

1987-05-01

327

Pharmacology of Iron Transport  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

2013-01-01

328

Hepatic Iron Overload and Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In recent years it has become increasingly evident that excess body iron may be complicated by the supervention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) was the first condition in which hepatic iron overload was shown to predispose to the development of HCC. The inherited predisposition to excessive absorption of dietary iron in HH is almost always the result of homozygosity of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene, which causes inappropriately low secretion of hepcidin. HCC develops in 8-10% of patients with HH and is responsible for approximately 45% of deaths in the HCC patients. Cirrhosis is almost always present when HCC is diagnosed. Dietary iron overload is a condition which occurs in rural-dwelling Black Africans in southern Africa as a result of the consumption, over time, of large volumes of alcohol home-brewed in iron containers and having, as a consequence, a high iron content. Iron loading of the liver results and may be complicated by malignant transformation of the liver (relative risk of approximately 10.0). Accompanying cirrhosis does occur but is less common than that in HH. The development of HCC as a consequence of increased dietary iron, and the fact that it may develop in the absence of cirrhosis, has been confirmed in an animal model. Drinking water with a high iron content might contribute to the high incidence of HCC in parts of Taiwan. The metabolic syndrome [obesity, insulin resistance type 2 (or diabetes mellitus type 2), non-alcoholic fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] has in recent years become a major public health problem in some resource-rich countries. A link between excess body iron and insulin resistance or the metabolic syndrome has become apparent. The metabolic syndrome may be complicated by the supervention of HCC, and recent evidence suggests that increased body iron may contribute to this complication. PMID:24804175

Kew, Michael C.

2014-01-01

329

Iron storage disease in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus): relationship of blood iron parameters to hepatic iron concentrations and hepatic histopathology.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the relationship between blood iron parameters and hepatic iron concentrations, and correlation of histologic findings with hepatic iron concentrations in a captive population of Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and island flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus). Blood samples were collected for complete blood counts, plasma biochemical profiles, serum iron concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, whole-blood lead concentrations, and plasma ferritin assays. Liver samples obtained by laparotomy were divided, with one half processed for histologic examination and the other half frozen and submitted for tissue mineral analysis. The histologic sections were scored by two blinded observers for iron deposition, necrosis, and fibrosis. The Egyptian fruit bats had significantly higher liver iron (mean = 3,669 +/- 1,823 ppm) and lead (mean = 8.9 +/- 5.8 ppm) concentrations than the island flying foxes (mean [Fe] = 174 +/- 173 ppm, mean [Pb] = 1.9 +/- 0.5 ppm). Hepatic iron concentrations significantly correlated with tissue lead concentrations, histologic grading for iron and necrosis, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and plasma ferritin (P < 0.001). Blood lead concentrations negatively correlated with tissue lead concentrations (P < 0.001). When the product of transferrin saturation and serum iron was greater than 51, an individual animal had a high probability of having iron overload. When the product of these two variables was greater than 90, there was a high probability that the animal had hemochromatosis. On the basis of this study, it appears that evaluation of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and plasma ferritin are useful and noninvasive methods for diagnosis of hemochromatosis in Egyptian fruit bats. PMID:17323561

Farina, Lisa L; Heard, Darryl J; LeBlanc, Dana M; Hall, Jeffery O; Stevens, Gary; Wellehan, James F X; Detrisac, Carol J

2005-06-01

330

Basis of Plasma Iron Exchange in the Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Rabbit transferrin in vitro is shown to load ferrous iron at random on its specific binding sites. The release of iron to reticulocytes is shown to be an all-or-none phenomenon. The two monoferric transferrins have similar in vivo plasma iron clearance rates and tissue distribution. Diferric transferrin, while giving a similar tissue distribution of radioiron, has a plasma iron clearance rate approximately twice that of the monoferric transferrins at low plasma iron concentrations. This difference diminishes as the plasma iron concentration increases. These results are consistent with a progressively greater in vivo conversion of mono- to diferric transferrin as transferrin saturation increases. The in vivo plasma iron turnover in the rabbit increases progressively as the plasma iron increases, from a mean value of ?0.8 mg/dl whole blood per d at a plasma iron concentration of 50 ?g/dl to 2.0 at a plasma iron concentration of 300. The molecular behavior of transferrin and its iron over this range was investigated using 125I-transferrin, [55Fe]monoferric transferrin, and [59Fe]diferric transferrin. The equilibrium distribution of transferrin between its apo-, mono-, and diferric moieties was similar to that predicted on the basis of the percent saturation and random distribution. Rate constants of iron loading and unloading calculated from the percent saturation and from the clearance rates of [55Fe]monoferric and [59Fe]diferric transferrin were similar to those derived from changes in injected 125I-apotransferrin. On the basis of these data, it is concluded that the plasma transferrin pool is nonhomogeneous and that the relative size of the mono- and diferric cycles depends on transferrin saturation. A formula is proposed for correcting the plasma iron turnover, thereby eliminating the effect of plasma iron concentration, so as to reflect directly the number of tissue transferrin receptors. PMID:7119114

Huebers, Helmut; Uvelli, David; Celada, Antonio; Josephson, Betty; Finch, Clement

1982-01-01

331

Iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

Anemia - iron deficiency ... Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. Red blood cells bring oxygen to the ... such as your spleen, remove old blood cells. Iron is a key part of red blood cells. ...

332

Iron Sucrose Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... any other iron injection such as ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed, Proferdex), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other medications; or any of the ingredients in iron sucrose injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list ...

333

Saugus Iron Works Forge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Saugus Iron Works forge, which used a large hammer to compress the iron. Forging strenghened the iron, which, right out of the blast furnace, was brittle. The Saugus River, which powered the forge, can be seen in the background....

334

Desferrioxamine and vitamin E protect against iron and MPTP-induced neurodegeneration in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To elucidate the neuroprotective effects of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO) and the antioxidant vitamin E on excessive iron-induced free radical damage, a chronic iron-loaded mice model was established. The relationship between striatal iron content, oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio, hydroxyl radical (.OH) levels and dopamine concentrations were observed in DFO or vitamin E pretreated iron-loaded\\/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL\\/6 mice.

J. Lan; D. H. Jiang

1997-01-01

335

Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Membrane Vesicles in Iron Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-01-01

336

Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane vesicles in iron acquisition.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C; Piqué, Daniel G; Jacobs, William R; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodriguez, G Marcela

2014-03-01

337

Iron and vegetarian diets.  

PubMed

Vegetarians who eat a varied and well balanced diet are not at any greater risk of iron deficiency anaemia than non-vegetarians. A diet rich in wholegrains, legumes, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, iron-fortified cereals and green leafy vegetables provides an adequate iron intake. Vitamin C and other organic acids enhance non-haem iron absorption, a process that is carefully regulated by the gut. People with low iron stores or higher physiological need for iron will tend to absorb more iron and excrete less. Research to date on iron absorption has not been designed to accurately measure absorption rates in typical Western vegetarians with low ferritin levels. PMID:25369923

Saunders, Angela V; Craig, Winston J; Baines, Surinder K; Posen, Jennifer S

2013-08-19

338

Iron deposition and fat accumulation in dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rat  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate if iron deposition and fat accumulation in the liver play a pathogenetic role in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rat. METHODS: Thirty rats were treated with DMN at does consecutive days of 10 ?L/kg daily, i.p., for 3 consecutive day each week for 4 wk. Rats (n = 30) were sacrificed on the first day (model group A) and 21st d (model group B) after cessation of DMN injection. The control group (n = 10) received an equivalent amount of saline. Liver tissues were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (HE) and Masson and Prussian blue assay and oberserved under electron microscopy. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were tested. RESULTS: The liver fibrosis did not automatically reverse, which was similar to previous reports, the perilobular deposition of iron accompanied with collagen showed marked characteristics at both the first and 21st d after cessation of DMN injection. However, fat accumulation in hepatocytes occurred only at the 21st d after cessation of DMN injection. CONCLUSION: Iron deposition and fat accumulation may play important roles in pathological changes in DMN-induced rat liver fibrosis. The detailed mechanisms of these characteristics need further research. PMID:17465448

He, Jin-Yang; Ge, Wen-Hua; Chen, Yuan

2007-01-01

339

Biodistribution and imaging of fluorescently-tagged iron oxide nanoparticles in a breast cancer mouse model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) hyperthermia is an emerging treatment that shows great potential as a cancer therapy both alone and in synergy with conventional modalities. Pre-clinical studies are attempting to elucidate the mechanisms of action and distributions of IONP in various in vitro and in vivo models, however these studies would greatly benefit from real-time imaging of IONP locations both in cellular and in mammalian systems. To this end, fluorescently-tagged IONP (fIONP) have been employed for real time tracking and co-registration of IONP with iron content. Starch-coated IONP were fluorescently-tagged, purified and analyzed for fluorescent signal at various concentrations. fIONP were incubated with MTGB cells for varying times and cellular uptake analyzed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). fIONP were also injected into a bilateral mouse tumor model for radiation modification of tumor tissue and enhanced fIONP deposition assessed using a Xenogen IVIS fluorescent imager. Results demonstrated that fIONP concentrations in vitro correlated with ICPMS iron readings. fIONP could be tracked in vitro as well as in tissue samples from an in vivo model. Future work will employ whole animal fluorescent imaging to track the biodistribution of fIONP over time.

Tate, Jennifer A.; Savellano, Mark D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

2013-02-01

340

Tissue Photolithography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with chrome metallization) on which there is a thin layer of photoresist. The laser transfers the digital mask onto the photoresist by direct writing, with typical best resolution of 2 micrometers. The plate is then developed to remove the exposed photoresist, which leaves the exposed areas susceptible to chemical chrome etch. The etch removes the unprotected chrome. The rest of the photoresist is then removed, by either ultraviolet organic solvent or over-development. The remaining chrome pattern is quickly oxidized by atmospheric exposure (typically within 30 seconds). The ready chrome mask is now applied to the tissue slide and aligned manually, or using automatic software and pre-designed alignment marks. The slide plate sandwich is then exposed to UV to destroy the DNA of the unwanted cells. The slide and plate are separated and the slide is processed in a standard way to prepare for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and potential identification of cancer sequences.

Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

2011-01-01

341

Dietary vitamin E supplementation affects tissue lipid peroxidation of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus.  

PubMed

A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E contents on the growth, ascorbate induced iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in post-mortem muscle and liver tissue, and Raman spectral changes in lens of juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus). Experimental fish were fed practical diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 200, 450 and 700 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet for 14 weeks. There was no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio among fish fed test diets (P>0.05). Protein content of fish fed diet containing the lowest vitamin E level was the lowest (P<0.05) among all groups. No difference was found in other body constituents among test fish (P>0.05). The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances produced by iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in muscle and liver tissue of fish fed the diet without alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those from fish fed diets containing higher levels of alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E supplementation increased the antioxidant capability of tilapia tissues against lipid peroxidation. Further, dietary vitamin E supplementation also influenced the lens cortical membrane structure of tilapia. PMID:12568804

Huang, Chen-Huei; Chang, Ray-Jane; Huang, Sue-Lan; Chen, Wenlung

2003-02-01

342

Tissue types (image)  

MedlinePLUS

There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue ...

343

Iron fluorophosphates.  

PubMed

18 new iron fluorophosphates and a chlorofluorophosphate have been synthesised hydrothermally in a fluoride-rich medium, using FeF2, FeF3, Fe, HPF6. HCl, monovalent metal fluorides as reactants and amines as templating agents. Products have been fully structurally characterised using single crystal X-ray diffraction, and the stability of some compounds investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Reaction in fluoride-rich conditions produce ribbon-like, layer and framework structures containing new and unusual structural motifs based on the linking of Fe(O,F)6, PO3F, and PO2(OH,F)2 polyhedra. Structures exhibiting inter-layer spaces and channels are frequently lined by terminal fluoride anions of the PO3F, PO2(OH,F)2 and Fe(O,F)6 polyhedra. PMID:23770666

Keates, Adam C; Armstrong, Jennifer A; Weller, Mark T

2013-08-14

344

Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al + DFP (Group III) and Al + DFO + DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al + DFP to Al + DFO + DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO + DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology.

Sivakumar, S.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J.

345

Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques.  

PubMed

The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al+DFP (Group III) and Al+DFO+DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al+DFP to Al+DFO+DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO+DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology. PMID:24583473

Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

2014-05-21

346

Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters  

E-print Network

Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from iron, and dithionite-extractable iron contents. Compositions and absorption properties were comparable to published values for similar particles. Dithionite-extractable iron was strongly correlated with absorption

Boss, Emmanuel S.

347

Production of iron from metallurgical waste  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

2013-09-17

348

Plant mechanisms of siderophore-iron utilization  

SciTech Connect

Mechanisms of siderophore iron-utilization by plants were examined to determine whether plants have direct mechanisms for acquiring iron from microbially-produced hydroxamate siderophores or simply take up inorganic iron in equilibrium with the chelate (shuttle mechanism). Experiments were designed to determine whether the monocot plant species, oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) could acquire iron from ferrichrome under hydroponic conditions in which iron uptake was most likely to occur by direct use of the chelating agent. Ten-day-old iron-deficient seedlings, grown in aerated Hoagland's nutrient solution (minus iron) buffered at pH 7.4 with CaCO/sub 3/, were placed in fresh nutrient solution containing 10/sup -7.4/M radioactive /sup 55/FeCl/sub 3/ (23.7 mCi/mg) with the synthetic chelate, EDDHA (10..pi../sup 5/M), ferrichrome (10/sup -5/M), or with no chelate. After 6 days, shoot content of /sup 55/Fe in shoots of plants provided with ferrichrome was 100-fold greater than that in shoots of plants provided with EDDHA. Therefore iron uptake by oat under these conditions not only indicates direct use of ferrichrome, but also suggest that oat may be better able to acquire iron from siderophores than from synthetic chelates. One possible mechanism for direct use of chelating agents, may involve siderophore binding sites on the plasmalemma of root cortical cells where iron is split from the chelate by enzymatic reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. To demonstrate hypothesized siderophore binding sites on oat roots, experiments examined possible competition for presumed siderophore binding sites by an inert analog of ferrichrome constructed by irreversible chelation with chromium.

Crowley, D.E.

1986-01-01

349

Iron and oxygen sensing: a tale of 2 interacting elements?  

PubMed

Iron and oxygen metabolism are intimately linked with one another. A change in the level of either metabolite results in activation of common pathways. At the heart of these responses lies a group of iron and oxygen dependent enzymes called prolyl hydroxylases. Prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) require both iron and oxygen for optimal activity and their biological activity is to carry out the critical post-translational modification of the addition of a hydroxyl group to specific proline residues within Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIFs)-well known transcription factors originally thought to regulate responses to hypoxia but which are now known to regulate key iron metabolism proteins too. The addition of the hydroxyl group ultimately leads to the unbiquitylation and destruction of HIFs, thus PHDs control appropriate HIF transcriptional responses depending on cellular oxygen or iron levels. There are two major HIFs; HIF1? and HIF2?. In terms of responses to iron HIF2? is of major importance in key tissues such as the intestine where several iron transporters (Ferroportin, Dcytb) contain HREs within their promoters which bind HIF2?. Furthermore the recent discovery that HIF2? contains a 5' iron responsive element (IRE) has underlined the importance of HIF2? as a major player in iron metabolism. This review brings together recent findings with regard to the HIF2?/IRP network as well as other aspects of iron sensing in cells and tissues. PMID:25385426

Simpson, Robert J; McKie, Andrew T

2015-02-11

350

Antimony in iron meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sb concentrations determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in 60 iron meteorites range from 0.2 ng/g to 36 microg/g. The meteorites with the highest Sb concentrations are those of the nonmagmatic groups IAB and IIICD, while meteorites with the lowest Sb concentrations are found in groups IVA and IVB. In all groups Sb is positively correlated with Ni; slopes on log Sb vs log Ni plots decrease with increasing Ni. This decrease may reflect an increasing tendency to avoid schreibersite during the analysis of high-Ni meteorites because Sb partitions strongly into schreibersite. It is found that schreibersite from New Westville is enriched in Cr, Ni, Ge, As, Sb, and Au and depleted in Fe, Co, Ir; the Sb content in schreibersite is 540 times higher than the bulk metal value.

Willis, J.

1981-01-01

351

Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss or failure of an organ or tissue is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly problems in human health care. A new field, tissue engineering, applies the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissue. This article discusses the foundations and challenges of this interdisciplinary field and its attempts to provide

Robert Langer; Joseph P. Vacanti

1993-01-01

352

Hepcidin Regulates Cellular Iron Efflux by Binding to Ferroportin and Inducing Its Internalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepcidin is a peptide hormone secreted by the liver in response to iron loading and inflammation. Decreased hepcidin leads to tissue iron overload, whereas hepcidin overproduction leads to hypoferremia and the anemia of inflammation. Ferroportin is an iron exporter present on the surface of absorptive enterocytes, macrophages, hepatocytes, and placental cells. Here we report that hepcidin bound to ferroportin in

Elizabeta Nemeth; Marie S. Tuttle; Julie Powelson; Michael B. Vaughn; Adriana Donovan; Diane McVey Ward; Tomas Ganz; Jerry Kaplan

2004-01-01

353

Effects of Iron Limitation on Adherence and Cell Surface Carbohydrates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron limitation may cause bacterial pathogens to grow more slowly; however, it may also stimulate these microorganisms to produce greater tissue damage, given that many virulence factors are controlled by the iron supply in the environment. The present study investigated the influence of low iron availability on the expression of proteins and surface sugar residues of two toxigenic strains of

Lílian de Oliveira Moreira; A. F. B. Andrade; M. D. Vale; S. M. S. Souza; R. Hirata; L. M. O. B. Asad; N. R. Asad; L. H. Monteiro-Leal; J. O. Previato; A. L. Mattos-Guaraldi

2003-01-01

354

Evidence for cytochrome P-450 as a source of catalytic iron in myoglobinuric acute renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for cytochrome P-450 as a source of catalytic iron in myoglobinuric acute renal failure. Iron has been implicated to play an important role in several models of tissue injury, including myoglobinuric acute renal failure. In this model, myoglobin released from the injured muscle is generally accepted as a source of iron. In the present study we measured the bleomycin-detectable

Radhakrishna Baliga; Zhiwei Zhang; Mithra Baliga; Sudhir V Shah

1996-01-01

355

Serum transferrin receptor for the detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of circulating transferrin re- ceptor provide a sensitive quantitative index of tissue iron de- ficiency in otherwise healthy subjects. This investigation was undertaken to examine the diagnostic utility of this new iron index in pregnancy. A battery of iron-related measurements, including serum transfemn receptor concentrations, was per- formed on 176 women in third-trimester pregnancy who were attending a university

Marisa T Carriaga; Barry S Skikne; Brent Finley; Bonnie Cutler; James D Cook

356

Experimental detection of iron overload in liver through neutron stimulated emission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron overload disorders have been the focus of several quantification studies involving non-invasive imaging modalities. Neutron spectroscopic techniques have demonstrated great potential in detecting iron concentrations within biological tissue. We are developing a neutron spectroscopic technique called neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT), which has the potential to diagnose iron overload in the liver at clinically acceptable patient dose levels

A J Kapadia; G D Tourassi; A C Sharma; A S Crowell; M R Kiser; C R Howell

2008-01-01

357

A probable risk factor of female breast cancer: study on benign and malignant breast tissue samples.  

PubMed

The study reports enhanced Fe, Cu, and Zn contents in breast tissues, a probable risk factor of breast cancer in females. Forty-one formalin-fixed breast tissues were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twenty malignant, six adjacent to malignant and 15 benign tissues samples were investigated. The malignant tissues samples were of grade 11 and type invasive ductal carcinoma. The quantitative comparison between the elemental levels measured in the two types of specimen (benign and malignant) tissues (removed after surgery) suggests significant elevation of these metals (Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the malignant tissue. The specimens were collected just after mastectomy of women aged 19 to 59 years from the hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan. Findings of study depict that these elements have a promising role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (229?±?121 mg/L) in malignant breast tissue samples of patients (p?tissues samples (49.1?±?11.4 mg/L). Findings indicated that excess accumulation of iron in malignant tissues can be a risk factor of breast cancer. In order to validate our method of analysis, certified reference material muscle tissue lyophilized (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for metal studied. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Asymmetric concentration distribution for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed in both malignant and benign tissue samples. PMID:24254879

Rehman, Sohaila; Husnain, Syed M

2014-01-01

358

Iron metabolism in bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive, anaerobic microaerophilic rods that are capable of internalizing ferrous iron at pH 5.0 and 6.5 when assayed in a post-logarithmic growth phase. Dependent upon iron concentration, iron uptake is most efficient in cells grown in a metal-depleted medium. There are two iron-uptake systems: one operating at low outside iron concentrations (1 to 20 ?M); and one operating

Anatoly Bezkorovainy; Eva Kot; Robin Miller-Catchpole; George Haloftis; Sergey Furmanov

1996-01-01

359

Tissue Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students reflect on their experiences making silly putty (the previous hands-on activity in the unit), especially why changing the borax concentration alters the mechanical properties of silly putty and how this pertains to tissue mechanics. Students learn why engineers must understand tissue mechanics in order to design devices that will be implanted or used inside bodies, to study pathologies of tissues and how this alters tissue function, and to design prosthetics. Finally, students learn about collagen, elastin and proteoglycans and their roles in giving body tissues their unique functions. This prepares them for the culminating design-build-test activity of the unit.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

360

Mössbauer study on iron-polygalacturonate coordination compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the oxidation state and microenvironments of iron in the Fe-polygalacturonate compound prepared by a novel method from pectin. ICP analysis was applied to study the iron content of the coordination compounds. It was found that there are two ferrous and one ferric microenvironments in the compound. In the iron- polygalacturonate compound the ferrous forms occur dominantly. A model for the bonding of Fe in the polygalacturonate chains is proposed.

Fodor, Judit; Kuzmann, Ernö; May, Zoltán; Vértes, Attila; Homonnay, Zoltán; Szentmihályi, Klára

2008-07-01

361

Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

2014-12-01

362

Iron uptake and release by macrophages is sensitive to propranolol.  

PubMed

In this study we have tested the effects of d-propranolol (D-Pro) on the iron uptake, iron release and oxidative response of iron-loaded cells in a cellular model of iron-overload using isolated rat peritoneal macrophages incubated with iron-dextran (Fe-D). Pretreatment of macrophages with D-Pro (5-200 microM) prior to Fe-D exposure decreased the cellular iron content and partially prevented iron release from latex-activated macrophages. Release of reactive oxygen species from activated cells was detected by dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCDHF, 5 microM) oxidation. We found that loading cells with Fe-D increased their response to latex, which was prevented by the lysosomotropic antioxidant agent D-Pro (10 microM). PMID:16718379

Komarov, Andrei M; Hall, Jonathon M; Chmielinska, Joanna J; Weglicki, William B

2006-08-01

363

Transient state kinetic investigation of ferritin iron release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased iron concentration in tissues appears to be a factor in the genesis and development of inflammatory and degenerative diseases. By means of real-time small angle x-ray scattering measurements, we studied the kinetics of iron release from the ferritin inorganic core as a function of time and distance from the iron core centre. Accordingly, the iron release process follows a three step model: (i) a defect nucleation in the outer part of the mineral core, (ii) the diffusion of the reducing agent towards the inner part of the core, and (iii) the erosion of the core from the inner to the outer part.

Ciasca, G.; Papi, M.; Chiarpotto, M.; Rodio, M.; Campi, G.; Rossi, C.; De Sole, P.; Bianconi, A.

2012-02-01

364

Nuclear microscopy of atherosclerotic tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the many proposed coronary disease risk factors, the link between heart disease and stored iron has been the subject of recent interest. Samples of proximal thoracic aorta were taken from rabbits fed with 1% cholesterol for 12 weeks, and also from control animals. Unstained freeze dried sections were scanned using the nuclear microscope at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and results indicate that there is an eightfold increase in iron (from 12 ppm to 90 ppm) within the atherosclerotic lesion compared with normal tissue. This result adds weight to the theory that iron may act as a factor in the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which induces the formation of foam cells, characteristic of early atherosclerotic lesions.

Watt, F.; Selley, M.; Thong, P. S. P.; Tang, S. M.

1995-09-01

365

Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different species. To date, three multi-copper oxidases have been detected in humans—ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Each of these enzymes has a high specificity towards iron with the resulting ferroxidase activity being associated with ferroportin, the only known iron exporter protein in humans. Ferroportin exports iron as Fe2+, but transferrin, the major iron transporter protein of blood, can bind only Fe3+ effectively. Iron oxidation in enterocytes is mediated mainly by hephaestin thus allowing dietary iron to enter the bloodstream. Zyklopen is involved in iron efflux from placental trophoblasts during iron transfer from mother to fetus. Release of iron from the liver relies on ferroportin and the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin which is found in blood in a soluble form. Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen show distinctive expression patterns and have unique mechanisms for regulating their expression. These features of human multi-copper ferroxidases can serve as a basis for the precise control of iron efflux in different tissues. In this manuscript, we review the biochemical and biological properties of the three human MCOs and discuss their potential roles in human iron homeostasis. PMID:23807651

Vashchenko, Ganna; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

2013-01-01

366

Expression and Function of Iron-Regulatory Proteins in Retina  

PubMed Central

Summary Iron is essential for cell survival and function; yet excess iron is toxic to cells. Therefore, the cellular and whole-body levels of iron are regulated exquisitely. At least a dozen proteins participate in the regulation of iron homeostasis. Hemochromatosis, a genetic disorder of iron overload, is caused by mutations in at least five genes, namely HFE, hemojuvelin, Transferrin receptor 2, ferroportin, and hepcidin. Retina is separated from systemic circulation by inner and outer blood-retinal barriers; therefore it is widely believed that this tissue is immune to changes in systemic circulation. Even though hemochromatosis is associated with iron overload and dysfunction of a variety of systemic organs, little is known on the effects of this disease on the retina. Recent studies have shown that all five genes that are associated with hemochromatosis are expressed in the retina in a cell type-specific manner. The retinal pigment epithelium, which forms the outer blood-retinal barrier, expresses all of these five genes. It is therefore clearly evident that iron homeostasis in the retina is maintained locally by active participation of various iron-regulatory proteins. Excess iron is detrimental to the retina as evidenced from human studies and from mouse models of iron overload. Retinal iron homeostasis is disrupted in various clinical conditions such as hemochromatosis, aceruloplasminemia, age-related macular degeneration, and bacterial and viral infections. PMID:20408179

Gnana-Prakasam, Jaya P.; Martin, Pamela M.; Smith, Sylvia B.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

2013-01-01

367

Rapid Spectrophotometric Technique for Quantifying Iron in Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Potential Translation to the Clinic  

PubMed Central

Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles provides the ability to track cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Quantifying intracellular iron concentration in SPIO labeled cells would allow for the comparison of agents and techniques used to magnetically label cells. Here we describe a rapid spectrophotometric technique (ST) to quantify iron content of SPIO labeled cells, circumventing the previous requirement of an overnight acid digestion. Following lysis with 10% SDS of magnetically labeled cells, quantification of SPIO doped or labeled cells was performed using commonly available spectrophotometric instrument(s) by comparing absorptions at 370 and 750 nm with correction for turbidity of cellular products to determine iron content of each sample. Standard curves demonstrated high linear correlation (R2 = 0.998) between absorbance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles and concentration in known SPIO doped cells. Comparisons of the ST to ICP-MS or NMR relaxometric (R2) determinations of intracellular iron contents in SPIO containing samples resulted in significant linear correlation between the techniques (R2 vs. ST, R2>0.992, p<0.0001, ST vs. ICP-MS, R2>0.995, p<0.0001) with the limit of detection of ST for iron = 0.66?g/ml. We have developed a rapid straightforward protocol that does not require overnight acid digestion for quantifying iron oxide content in magnetically labeled cells using readily available analytic instrumentation that should greatly expedite advances in comparing SPIO agents and protocols for labeling cells. PMID:23109392

Dadashzadeh, Esmaeel R.; Hobson, Matthew; Bryant, L. Henry; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

368

Rapid methods of determining cooling rates of iron and stony iron meteorites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two rapid and simple methods have been developed for determining the approximate cooling rates of iron and stony-iron meteorites in which kamacite formed by diffusion-controlled growth along planar fronts. The first method requires only measurements of the mean kamacite bandwidth and the bulk nickel content. The second method requires the determination of the nickel composition near the taenite-kamacite interface with an electron microprobe.

Short, J.M.; Goldstein, J.I.

1967-01-01

369

Limited Role for Iron Regulation in Coxiella burnetii Pathogenesis? †  

PubMed Central

In gram-negative bacteria, iron acquisition proteins are commonly regulated by Fur (ferric uptake regulator), which binds iron-regulated promoters (the Fur box). We hypothesized that Coxiella burnetii requires iron and employs an iron-regulatory system and used various approaches to define a Fur regulon. Cloned C. burnetii fur complemented an Escherichia coli fur deletion mutant. A ferrous iron transporter gene (CBU1766), a putative iron binding protein-encoding gene (CBU0970), and a cation efflux pump gene (CBU1362) were identified by genome annotation and using a Fur titration assay. Bioinformatically predicted Fur box-containing promoters were tested for transcriptional control by iron. Five genes demonstrated at least a twofold induction with minimal iron. Putatively regulated genes were evaluated in a two-plasmid regulator/promoter heterologous expression system. These data suggested a very limited Fur-regulated system in C. burnetii. In an in vitro tissue culture model, a significant increase in bacterial growth was observed with infected cells treated with deferoxamine in comparison to growth under iron-replete conditions. In an iron-overloaded animal model in vivo, the level of bacterial growth detected in the iron-injected animals was significantly decreased in comparison to growth in control animals. In a low-iron-diet animal model, a significant increase in splenomegaly was observed, but no significant change in bacterial growth was identified. The small number of predicted iron acquisition systems, few Fur-regulated genes, and enhanced replication under a decreased iron level predict a requirement of a low level of iron for survival, perhaps to avoid creation of additional reactive oxygen radicals. PMID:18316381

Briggs, Heather L.; Pul, Nicolein; Seshadri, Rekha; Wilson, Mary J.; Tersteeg, Claudia; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Andoh, Masako; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Samuel, James E.

2008-01-01

370

Role of cytochrome P-450 as a source of catalytic iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of cytochrome P-450 as a source of catalytic iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.BackgroundIron plays a role in free radical-mediated tissue injury, including cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. However, the source of iron (catalyzing free radical reactions) is not known. We examined the role of cytochrome P-450 as a source of catalytic iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro.MethodsCisplatin-induced acute renal

Radhakrishna Baliga; Zhiwei Zhang; Mithra Baliga; Norishi Ueda; Sudhir V. Shah

1998-01-01

371

Recovery of iron from high phosphorus oolitic iron ore using coal-based reduction followed by magnetic separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oolitic iron ore is one of the most important iron resources. This paper reports the recovery of iron from high phosphorus oolitic iron ore using coal-based reduction and magnetic separation. The influences of reduction temperature, reduction time, C/O mole ratio, and CaO content on the metallization degree and iron recovery were investigated in detail. Experimental results show that reduced products with the metallization degree of 95.82% could be produced under the optimal conditions (i.e., reduction temperature, 1250°C; reduction time, 50 min; C/O mole ratio, 2.0; and CaO content, 10wt%). The magnetic concentrate containing 89.63wt% Fe with the iron recovery of 96.21% was obtained. According to the mineralogical and morphologic analysis, the iron minerals had been reduced and iron was mainly enriched into the metallic iron phase embedded in the slag matrix in the form of spherical particles. Apatite was also reduced to phosphorus, which partially migrated into the metallic iron phase.

Sun, Yong-sheng; Han, Yue-xin; Gao, Peng; Wang, Ze-hong; Ren, Duo-zhen

2013-05-01

372

Baicalin suppresses iron accumulation after substantia nigra injury: relationship between iron concentration and transferrin expression  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that baicalin prevented iron accumulation after substantia nigra injury, reduced divalent metal transporter 1 expression, and increased ferroportin 1 expression in the substantia nigra of rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease rats. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between iron accumulation and transferrin expression in C6 cells, to explore the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of baicalin on iron accumulation observed in Parkinson's disease rats. Iron content was detected using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron content decreased 41% after blocking divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin 1 proteins. After treatment with ferric ammonium citrate of differing concentrations (10, 50, 100, 400?g/mL) in C6 glioma cells, cell survival rate and ferroportin 1 expression were negatively correlated with ferric ammonium citrate concentration, but divalent metal transporter 1 expression positively correlated with ferric ammonium citrate concentration. Baicalin or deferoxamine reduced divalent metal transporter 1 expression, but increased ferroportin 1 expression in the 100?g/mL ferric ammonium citrate-loaded C6 cells. These results indicate that baicalin down-regulated iron concentration, which positively regulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression and negatively regulated ferroportin 1 expression, and decreased iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. PMID:25206866

Guo, Chunyan; Chen, Xin; Xiong, Pei

2014-01-01

373

Decreased Serum Hepcidin Concentration Correlates with Brain Iron Deposition in Patients with HBV-Related Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. Methods Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. Results Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. Conclusions Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional brain iron repletion. Serum hepcidin may be a clinical biomarker for brain iron deposition in cirrhotic patients, which may have therapeutic potential. PMID:23776499

Liu, Jian-Ying; He, Yi-Feng; Dai, Zhi; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Cheng, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Xin

2013-01-01

374

Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng, Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

2010-07-01

375

Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains  

SciTech Connect

Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E. [Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Webb, Sam [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford Linear Accelerator Complex National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California (United States); Nichol, Helen [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd. Rm A302, Saskatoon, SK S7N5E5 (Canada)

2010-07-23

376

Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains  

SciTech Connect

To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

2012-07-17

377

Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes  

PubMed Central

Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

2014-01-01

378

Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency ...

379

Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity. PMID:19161863

Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

2009-01-01

380

Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Share ... iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis occurs when the body absorbs too much ...

381

Iron Chelation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... This is caused by a hereditary condition called hemochromatosis . Hereditary hemochromatosis is most common in people whose ancestors came ... supplements or multivitamins with iron. Patients with hereditary hemochromatosis may develop iron overload after a very small ...

382

Iron supplements (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

383

Comparison of changes in gene expression of transferrin receptor-1 and other iron-regulatory proteins in rat liver and brain during acute-phase response.  

PubMed

The "acute phase" is clinically characterized by homeostatic alterations such as somnolence, adinamia, fever, muscular weakness, and leukocytosis. Dramatic changes in iron metabolism are observed under acute-phase conditions. Rats were administered turpentine oil (TO) intramuscularly to induce a sterile abscess and killed at various time points. Tissue iron content in the liver and brain increased progressively after TO administration. Immunohistology revealed an abundant expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) in the membrane and cytoplasm of the liver cells, in contrast to almost only nuclear expression of TfR1 in brain tissue. The expression of TfR1 increased at the protein and RNA levels in both organs. Gene expression of hepcidin, ferritin-H, iron-regulatory protein-1, and heme oxygenase-1 was also upregulated, whereas that of hemojuvelin, ferroportin-1, and the hemochromatosis gene was significantly downregulated at the same time points in both the brain and the liver at the RNA level. However, in contrast to observations in the liver, gene expression of the main acute-phase cytokine (interleukin-6) in the brain was significantly upregulated. In vitro experiments revealed TfR1 membranous protein expression in the liver cells, whereas nuclear and cytoplasmic TfR1 protein was detectable in brain cells. During the non-bacterial acute phase, iron content in the liver and brain increased together with the expression of TfR1. The iron metabolism proteins were regulated in a way similar to that observed in the liver, possibly by locally produced acute-phase cytokines. The significance of the presence of TfR1 in the nucleus of the brain cells has to be clarified. PMID:21437659

Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed; Naz, Naila; Sheikh, Nadeem; Khan, Sajjad; Moriconi, Federico; Blaschke, Martina; Ramadori, Giuliano

2011-05-01

384

High iron accumulation in hair and nail of people living in iron affected areas of Assam, India.  

PubMed

Human populace of Assam, India repeatedly exposed to high concentration of iron in groundwater results in adverse health effects like hemochromatosis, liver cirrhosis and siderosis. In the present study, human hair and nail analysis were carried out to establish a possible relationship between iron toxicity and its deposition among the residents. Nail and hair iron concentrations ranged from 28.2 to 1046?gg(-1) (n=114) and 26.5-838 (n=108)?gg(-1) levels, respectively, among all the study participants. The iron content of the groundwater (421-5340?gL(-1)) (n=64) used for drinking purposes was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.788, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.709, p<0.0001) iron concentrations. Age- and sex-matched controls corresponding to each group were selected from population residing in other parts of the country where groundwater does not have excess iron. All the study groups included population drinking iron-contaminated water above the WHO/BIS limit (>300µgL(-1)) for 5 years (Group 1), for more than 5-10 years (Group 2) and for more than 10 years (Group 3). Results suggested that the participants consuming groundwater exceeding the WHO limit of iron had significantly more iron accumulation than those using groundwater containing ?300?gL(-1) iron (p<0.01). There was statistically higher concentration of iron in the nail samples than the hair samples in all the study groups (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation in iron concentration and the residence time of the participants (p<0.01). Iron levels in the male participants were significantly higher than the female participants in the present study (p<0.01). The current findings are sufficiently compelling to warrant more extensive study of iron exposure through drinking water and adverse effects to the human in the areas where iron concentration is high. PMID:25261608

Chaturvedi, Richa; Banerjee, Saumen; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum

2014-12-01

385

Iron and hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum iron markers are often elevated in hepatitis C virus infection, particularly in African-American persons, although the\\u000a clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Although hepatic iron is usually only mildly elevated in hepatitis\\u000a C virus, iron overload is associated with more advanced disease, nonresponse to interferon monotherapy, and increased risk\\u000a of hepatocellular carcinoma. Iron status does not predict response

James E. Nelson; Kris V. Kowdley

2004-01-01

386

Iron in diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - iron ... the body. Treatment consists of a low-iron diet, no iron supplements, and phlebotomy (blood removal) on ... The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends the following: Infants and children Younger than 6 months: 0.27 milligrams ...

387

A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer), a new intravenous iron preparation and its clinical implications.  

PubMed

The treatment of iron deficiency anemia with polynuclear iron formulations is an established therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease but also in other disease areas like gastroenterology, cardiology, oncology, pre/post operatively and obstetrics' and gynecology. Parenteral iron formulations represent colloidal systems in the lower nanometer size range which have traditionally been shown to consist of an iron core surrounded by a carbohydrate shell. In this publication, we for the first time describe the novel matrix structure of iron isomaltoside 1000 which differs from the traditional picture of an iron core surrounded by a carbohydrate. Despite some structural similarities between the different iron formulations, the products differ significantly in their physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, free and labile iron content, and release of iron in serum. This study compares the physiochemical properties of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) with the currently available intravenous iron preparations and relates them to their biopharmaceutical properties and their approved clinical applications. The investigated products encompass low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer), sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit), iron sucrose (Venofer), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject/Injectafer), and ferumoxytol (Feraheme) which are compared to iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer). It is shown that significant and clinically relevant differences exist between sodium ferric gluconate and iron sucrose as labile iron formulations and iron dextran, iron carboxymaltose, ferumoxytol, and iron isomaltoside 1000 as stable polynuclear formulations. The differences exist in terms of their immunogenic potential, safety, and convenience of use, the latter being expressed by the opportunity for high single-dose administration and short infusion times. Monofer is a new parenteral iron product with a very low immunogenic potential and a very low content of labile and free iron. This enables Monofer, as the only IV iron formulation, to be administered as a rapid high dose infusion in doses exceeding 1000 mg without the application of a test dose. This offers considerable dose flexibility, including the possibility of providing full iron repletion in a single infusion (one-dose iron repletion). PMID:21439379

Jahn, Markus R; Andreasen, Hans B; Fütterer, Sören; Nawroth, Thomas; Schünemann, Volker; Kolb, Ute; Hofmeister, Wolfgang; Muñoz, Manuel; Bock, Klaus; Meldal, Morten; Langguth, Peter

2011-08-01

388

Iron chelation studies using desferrioxamine and the potential oral chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, in normal and iron loaded rats.  

PubMed Central

A novel iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, and desferrioxamine were compared for their ability to remove iron and for their site of action in iron release in rats. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of the chelators in rats with widespread tissue labelling by 59Fe derived from transferrin showed comparable 59Fe mobilisation by each chelator in normal and iron loaded rats. Specific labelling of a chelatable "cold" iron pool in hepatocytes by 59Fe derived from ferritin showed this pool to be equally accessible to parenteral doses of both chelators and also to oral 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, which is an effective oral iron chelating agent that removes iron from parenchymal cells. This and other alpha-ketohydroxypyridines need further development as potential therapeutic agents in human iron overload. PMID:3584483

Kontoghiorghes, G J; Sheppard, L; Hoffbrand, A V; Charalambous, J; Tikerpae, J; Pippard, M J

1987-01-01

389

Genetic engineering approaches to improve the bioavailability and the level of iron in rice grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient deficiency world-wide. A major cause is the poor absorption of iron from\\u000a cereal and legume-based diets high in phytic acid. We have explored three approaches for increasing the amount of iron absorbed\\u000a from rice-based meals. We first introduced a ferritin gene from Phaseolus vulgaris into rice grains, increasing their iron content up to

P. Lucca; R. Hurrell; I. Potrykus

2001-01-01

390

[Iron chelating therapy in adults: How and when ?].  

PubMed

Iron overload can lead to tissue damage derived from free radical toxicity. Phlebotomy is the treatment of choice for treating iron overload. However, iron chelating therapy can be used if phlebotomies are impossible, mainly because of anemia. In thalassemia major, iron chelating therapy has dramatically improved life expectancy; it is also used in sickle cell disease and myelodysplastic syndromes. Desferioxamine is the gold standard of iron chelation, but parenteral administration and the burden of a daily infusion pump hinder optimal compliance. Deferiprone is orally active but should be administered three times a day. It has the advantage of removing toxic iron from myocardium, but agranulocytosis (1 %) can limit its use. Deferasirox is orally active in a single daily dose, is well tolerated but its cardiac effect is limited. Iron chelating therapy can be considered if serum ferritin is above 1000?g/L and if liver iron concentration assessing by MRI exceeds 80?mol/g. MRI is a very important mean to monitor cardiac iron load. If the relaxing parameter T2* is lower than 20ms, a cardiac effective iron chelator agent or an association with deferoxamine should be used. Benefit/risk ratio should be closely evaluated, mainly in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:23195912

Ruivard, M

2013-01-01

391

Iron increases diabetes-induced kidney injury and oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy is both a common and a severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Iron is an essential trace element. However, excess iron is toxic, playing a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The present study aimed to determine the extent of the interaction between iron and type 2 diabetes in the kidney. Male rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control, iron (300-mg/kg iron dextran), diabetes (a single dose of intraperitoneal streptozotocin), and iron + diabetes group. Iron supplementation resulted in a higher liver iron content, and diabetic rats showed higher serum glucose compared with control rats, which confirmed the model as iron overload and diabetic. It was found that iron + diabetes group showed a greater degree of kidney pathological changes, a remarkable reduction in body weight, and a significant increase in relative kidney weight and iron accumulation in rat kidneys compared with iron or diabetes group. Moreover, malondialdehyde values in the kidney were higher in iron + diabetes group than in iron or diabetes group, sulfhydryl concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were decreased by the diabetes and iron + diabetes groups, and protein oxidation and nitration levels were higher in the kidney of iron + diabetes group as compared to iron or diabetes group. However, iron supplementation did not elevate the glucose level of a diabetic further. These results suggested that iron increased the diabetic renal injury probably through increased oxidative/nitrative stress and reduced antioxidant capacity instead of promoting a rise in blood sugar levels; iron might be a potential cofactor of diabetic nephropathy, and strict control of iron would be important under diabetic state. PMID:24996958

Gao, Wanxia; Li, Xueli; Gao, Zhonghong; Li, Hailing

2014-09-01

392

Iron abundance in the moon from magnetometer measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 12 and 15 lunar surface magnetometer data with simultaneous lunar orbiting Explorer 35 data are used to plot hysteresis curves for the whole moon. From these curves a whole-moon permeability mu = 1.029 + 0.024 or - 0.019 is calculated. This result implies that the moon is not composed entirely of paramagnetic material, but that ferromagnetic material such as free iron exists in sufficient amounts to dominate the bulk lunar susceptibility. From the magnetic data the ferromagnetic free iron abundance is calculated. Then for assumed compositional models of the moon the additional paramagnetic iron is determined, yielding total lunar iron content. The calculated abundances are as follows: ferromagnetic free iron = 5 + or - 4 wt. percent, and total iron in the moon = 9 + or - 4 wt. percent.

Parkin, C. W.; Dyal, P.; Daily, W. D.

1973-01-01

393

Transplantation of allogeneic T cells alters iron homeostasis in NOD/SCID mice.  

PubMed

Iron overload is common in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but the mechanisms leading to overload are unknown. Here, we determined iron levels and the expression of iron regulatory proteins in the liver and gut of nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice that underwent transplantation with syngeneic (histocompatible) or allogeneic (histoincompatible) T lymphocytes. Infusion of histoincompatible T cells resulted in a significant rise in serum iron levels and liver iron content. Iron deposition was accompanied by hepatocyte injury and intestinal villous damage. Feeding of low- or high-iron diet was associated with appropriate ferroportin 1 and hepcidin respons