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Sample records for tissue iron content

  1. Iron biomineralization of brain tissue and neurodegenerative disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylova (Mikhailova), Albina

    The brain is an organ with a high concentration of iron in specific areas, particularly in the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the red nucleus. In certain pathological states, such as iron overload disease and neurodegenerative disorders, a disturbed iron metabolism can lead to increased accumulation of iron not only in these areas, but also in the brain regions that are typically low in iron content. Recent studies of the physical and magnetic properties of metalloproteins, and in particular the discovery of biogenic magnetite in human brain tissue, have raised new questions about the role of biogenic iron formations in living organisms. Further investigations revealed the presence of magnetite-like crystalline structures in human ferritin, and indicated that released ferritin iron might act as promoter of oxidative damage to tissue, therefore contributing to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. The purpose of this work was to examine the elemental composition and structure of iron deposits in normal brain tissue as well as tissue affected by neurodegenerative disorders. Employing the methods of X-ray microfocus fluorescence mapping, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (XAFS), and light and electron microscopic examinations allows one to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative data with respect to the cellular distribution and chemical state of iron at levels not detected previously. The described tissue preparation technique allows not only satisfactory XAS iron elemental imaging in situ but also multimodal examination with light and electron microscopes of the same samples. The developed protocol has assured consistent and reproducible results on relatively large sections of flat-embedded tissue. The resulting tissue samples were adequate for XAS examination as well as sufficiently well-preserved for future microscopy studies. The continued development of this technique should lead to major advances in mapping iron anomalies and the related chemical and structural information directly to cells and tissue structures in human brain tissue. At present this is done primarily by iron staining methods and any information on the relationship between iron distribution and cellular structures obtained this way is limited. Iron staining also offers no information on the specific compounds of iron that are present. This can be vitally important as the form of iron [including its oxidation state] in the human body can determine whether it plays a detrimental or beneficial role in neurophysiological processes.

  2. Magnetic resonance assessment of iron overload by separate measurement of tissue ferritin and hemosiderin iron

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ed X.; Kim, Daniel; Tosti, Christina L.; Tang, Haiying; Jensen, Jens H.; Cheung, Jerry S.; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S.; Brown, Truman R.; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    With transfusional iron overload, almost all the excess iron is sequestered intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable, dispersed, soluble, ferritin iron, and as aggregated, insoluble hemosiderin iron for long-term storage. Established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of tissue iron (R2, R2*) are principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and change slowly, even with intensive iron chelation. Intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool that can change rapidly with iron chelation. We have developed a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to separately measure ferritin and hemosiderin iron, based on the non-monoexponential signal decay induced by aggregated iron in multiple-spin-echo sequences. We have initially validated the method in agarose phantoms and in human liver explants and shown the feasibility of its application in patients with thalassemia major. Measurement of tissue ferritin iron is a promising new means to rapidly evaluate the effectiveness of iron-chelating regimens. PMID:20712781

  3. Alterations of iron distribution in Arabidopsis tissues infected by Dickeya dadantii.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Aude; Patrit, Oriane; Berger, Adeline; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-06-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for plant soft rot disease in a wide range of hosts, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Iron distribution in infected A.?thaliana was investigated at the cellular scale using the Perls'-diaminobenzidine-H2 O2 (PDH) method. Iron visualization during infection reveals a loss of iron from cellular compartments and plant cell walls. During symptom progression, two distinct zones are clearly visible: a macerated zone displaying weak iron content and a healthy zone displaying strong iron content. Immunolabelling of cell wall methylated pectin shows that pectin degradation is correlated with iron release from cell walls, indicating a strong relationship between cell wall integrity and iron in plant tissues. Using a D.?dadantii lipopolysaccharide antibody, we show that bacteria are restricted to the infected tissue, and that they accumulate iron in?planta. In conclusion, weak iron content is strictly correlated with bacterial cell localization in the infected tissues, indicating a crucial role of this element during the interaction. This is the first report of iron localization at the cellular level during a plant-microbe interaction and shows that PDH is a method of choice in this type of investigation. PMID:25266463

  4. Intestinal HIF2? promotes tissue-iron accumulation in disorders of iron overload with anemia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erik R; Taylor, Matthew; Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Martin, Angelical; Xie, Liwei; Bredell, Bryce X; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Shah, Yatrik M

    2013-12-10

    Several distinct congenital disorders can lead to tissue-iron overload with anemia. Repeated blood transfusions are one of the major causes of iron overload in several of these disorders, including ?-thalassemia major, which is characterized by a defective ?-globin gene. In this state, hyperabsorption of iron is also observed and can significantly contribute to iron overload. In ?-thalassemia intermedia, which does not require blood transfusion for survival, hyperabsorption of iron is the leading cause of iron overload. The mechanism of increased iron absorption in ?-thalassemia is unclear. We definitively demonstrate, using genetic mouse models, that intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor-2? (HIF2?) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) are activated early in the pathogenesis of ?-thalassemia and are essential for excess iron accumulation in mouse models of ?-thalassemia. Moreover, thalassemic mice with established iron overload had significant improvement in tissue-iron levels and anemia following disruption of intestinal HIF2?. In addition to repeated blood transfusions and increased iron absorption, chronic hemolysis is the major cause of tissue-iron accumulation in anemic iron-overload disorders caused by hemolytic anemia. Mechanistic studies in a hemolytic anemia mouse model demonstrated that loss of intestinal HIF2?/DMT1 signaling led to decreased tissue-iron accumulation in the liver without worsening the anemia. These data demonstrate that dysregulation of intestinal hypoxia and HIF2? signaling is critical for progressive iron overload in ?-thalassemia and may be a novel therapeutic target in several anemic iron-overload disorders. PMID:24282296

  5. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron increased the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in lung tissues at high altitudes. • Trolox alleviated the iron-induced histological and biochemical changes to the lungs.

  6. Melanin content of hamster tissues, human tissues, and various melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.P.; Fairchild, R.G.; Slatkin, D.N.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Hannon, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    Melanin content (percentage by weight) was determined in both pigmented and nonpigmented tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma. Melanin content was also measured in various other melanoma models (B-16 in C57 mice, Harding-Passey in BALB/c mice, and KHDD in C3H mice) and in nine human melanomas, as well as in selected normal tissues. The purpose was to evaluate the possible efficacy of chlorpromazine, which is known to bind to melanin, as a vehicle for boron transport in neutron capture therapy. Successful therapy would depend upon selective uptake and absolute concentration of borated compounds in tumors; these parameters will in turn depend upon melanin concentration in melanomas and nonpigmented ''background'' tissues. Hamster whole eyes, hamster melanomas, and other well-pigmented animal melanomas were found to contain 0.3 to 0.8% melanin by weight, whereas human melanomas varied from 0.1 to 0.9% (average, 0.35%). Other tissues, with the exception of skin, were lower in content by a factor of greater than or equal to30. Melanin pigment was extracted from tissues, and the melanin content was determined spectrophotometrically. Measurements were found to be sensitive to the presence of other proteins. Previous procedures for isolating and quantifying melanin often neglected the importance of removing proteins and other interfering nonmelanic substances.

  7. Dual-Energy CT for Patients Suspected of Having Liver Iron Overload: Can Virtual Iron Content Imaging Accurately Quantify Liver Iron Content?

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian Fu; Xie, Xue Qian; Cheng, Shu; Yang, Yi; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Huan; Chai, Wei Min; Schmidt, Bernhard; Yan, Fu Hua

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To prospectively assess the feasibility of using virtual iron content (VIC) imaging at dual-energy computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the liver iron content (LIC) in patients suspected of having liver iron overload and to compare the LIC grading performance of VIC imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Fifty-six patients suspected of having liver iron overload (serum ferritin concentrations >500 ?g/L) underwent unenhanced dual-energy CT and MR imaging of the liver. MR imaging-measured LICs were obtained in 34 of the 56 patients. VIC images were generated with dual-energy analysis. R2* and MR-measured LIC were obtained with gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences, respectively. Correlations between CT and MR measurements were analyzed. The diagnostic performance of VIC and R2* in the differentiation of different LIC thresholds were evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Hepatic VIC showed significant correlation with R2* and MR-measured LIC (r = 0.885 and 0.871, respectively; P < .0001). To differentiate among different LIC thresholds of 1.8, 3.2, 7.0, and 15.0 mg of iron per gram of dry tissue, the corresponding optimal cutoff values for VIC were 2.50, 5.13, 8.93, and 17.97 HU, respectively. At a LIC threshold of 7.0 mg of iron per gram of dry tissue or higher, 100% sensitivity (15 of 15 patients) and 100% specificity (19 of 19 patients) were obtained for VIC. There was no significant difference between VIC and R2* (area under the ROC curve, 0.964 vs 0.993, respectively; P = .299) in grading LIC levels at a LIC threshold of 3.2 mg of iron per gram of dry tissue or higher. Conclusion Hepatic VIC is a potential index for accurately evaluating and grading clinically significant liver iron accumulation, with a diagnostic performance similar to that of MR imaging. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25880263

  8. Tissue Iron Distribution Assessed by MRI in Patients with Iron Loading Anemias

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lucía; House, Michael J.; Vasavda, Nisha; Drašar, Emma; Gonzalez-Gascon y Marin, Isabel; Kulasekararaj, Austin G.; St Pierre, Tim G.; Thein, Swee L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow, spleen, liver and kidney proton transverse relaxation rates (R2), together with cardiac R2* from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and non-transfusion dependent thalassemia (NTDT) have been compared with a control group. Increased liver and bone marrow R2 values for the three groups of patients in comparison with the controls have been found. SCD and PNH patients also present an increased spleen R2 in comparison with the controls. The simultaneous measurement of R2 values for several tissue types by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed the identification of iron distribution patterns in diseases associated with iron imbalance. Preferential liver iron loading is found in the highly transfused SCD patients, while the low transfused ones present a preferential iron loading of the spleen. Similar to the highly transfused SCD group, PNH patients preferentially accumulate iron in the liver. A reduced spleen iron accumulation in comparison with the liver and bone marrow loading has been found in NTDT patients, presumably related to the differential increased intestinal iron absorption. The correlation between serum ferritin and tissue R2 is moderate to good for the liver, spleen and bone marrow in SCD and PNH patients. However, serum ferritin does not correlate with NTDT liver R2, spleen R2 or heart R2*. As opposed to serum ferritin measurements, tissue R2 values are a more direct measurement of each tissue’s iron loading. This kind of determination will allow a better understanding of the different patterns of tissue iron biodistribution in diseases predisposed to tissue iron accumulation. PMID:26406992

  9. Concentration-dependent sedimentation properties of ferritin: implications for estimation of iron contents of serum ferritins

    SciTech Connect

    Niitsu, Y.; Adachi, C.; Takahashi, F.; Goto, Y.; Kohgo, Y.; Urushizaki, I.; Listowsky, I.

    1985-04-01

    Serum ferritins from various sources sedimented at lower densities than tissue ferritins in sucrose gradient centrifugation systems. The sedimentation patterns of ferritins, however, were shown to be dependent on the concentration of the protein; as the concentration decreased the protein appeared to sediment at lower densities. Thus, at the low concentration levels usually used for analysis of serum ferritin, tissue ferritins also sedimented in the same lower density regions. Iron labeling experiments indicated that the sedimentation changes upon dilution were not due to release of iron or was there any indication that the protein dissociated into subunits. The anomalous sedimentation behavior of serum ferritin should therefore not be interpreted in terms of its iron content. The disclosure that serum ferritins may have full complements of iron is counter to the prevalent view that serum ferritins are low iron forms and has potential implications with regard to the sources and possible function of this protein in the circulation.

  10. Dietary vitamin E reduces labile iron in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wissam; Chow, Ching Kuang

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that dietary vitamin E reduced generation and/or levels of superoxide. As superoxide has potential to release iron from its transport and storage proteins, and labile or available form of iron is capable of catalyzing the formation of reactive hydroxyl radicals, the effect of dietary vitamin E on labile iron pool was studied in rats. One-month-old Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were fed a basal vitamin E-deficient diet supplemented with 0, 20, 200, or 2,000 IU vitamin E/kg diet for 90 days. The levels of labile iron were measured in the liver, kidney, spleen, heart and skeletal muscle. Additionally, the levels of lipid peroxidation products were measured. The results showed that, except for labile iron in the heart of male rats, dietary vitamin E dose dependently reduced the levels of labile iron and lipid peroxidation products in all tissues of male and female rats. The findings suggest that dietary vitamin E may protect against oxidative tissue damage by reducing the generation and/or level of superoxide, which in turn attenuates the release of iron from its protein complexes. PMID:16292753

  11. Iron overload diseases: the chemical speciation of non-heme iron deposits in iron loaded mammalian tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pierre, T. G.; Chua-Anusorn, W.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.

    2000-07-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectra of iron overloaded human spleen, rat spleen and rat liver tissue samples at 78 K were found to consist of a quadrupole doublet (major component) with magnetic sextet (minor component with fractional spectral area F s). The distributions of F s for spleen tissue from two different clinically identifiable groups (n = 7 and n = 12) of thalassemic patients were found to be significantly different. The value of F s for dietary-iron loaded rat liver was found to rise significantly with age/duration (up to 24 months) of iron loading.

  12. Prostaglandin content of tissue lining vascular prostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Greisler, H.P.; Kim, D.U.; Nussbaum, M.; Ellinger, J.; Schwarcz, T.H.

    1986-03-01

    This laboratory previously demonstrated arterial regeneration with a confluent endothelial-like flow surface 3-4 weeks after interposition of absorbable prostheses but not of dacron prostheses into the rabbit aorta. This study evaluates prostaglandin contents of inner capsular tissues within arterial prostheses. 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and TxB/sub 2/ were assayed (/sup 3/H-RIA) in supernatants of sonicated homogenates of tissues on the inner aspect of (a) absorbable polydioxanone (PDS), (b) absorbable polyglactin 910 (PG910), or (c) compound dacron-PG910 prostheses 3 or 6 months following implantation into rabbit aortas. Normal aortic controls from each rabbit were similarly treated. The 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ values for all groups were lower than normal controls (p < .05). The ratio 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha..//TxB/sub 2/ for PDS was nearly identical to normal aorta (1.69 +/- .54). This study shows that the quantity and ratio of eicosanoids in the inner capsular tissues is modified by the composition of the implanted arterial prosthesis.

  13. Insulin resistance modulates iron-related proteins in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Novelle, Marta G; Catalán, Victoria; Ortega, Francisco; Moreno, Maria; Gomez-Ambrosi, Javier; Xifra, Gemma; Serrano, Marta; Guerra, Ester; Ricart, Wifredo; Frühbeck, Gema; Diéguez, Carlos; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Circulating markers of iron overload are associated with insulin resistance. Less is known about the impact of iron overload on adipose tissue (AT). We hypothesized that gene expression markers of iron metabolism in AT could be associated with insulin action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The AT expression of ferroportin (SLC40A1), transferrin (TF), TF receptor (TFRC), ferritin (FT) heavy polypeptide 1 (FTH1), and FT light polypeptide (FTL) was analyzed cross-sectionally in three independent cohorts and also after weight loss-induced changes in insulin sensitivity (clamp M value) in an independent fourth cohort. RESULTS In human AT, TF mRNA and protein levels were decreased with obesity and insulin resistance in the three cohorts and were positively associated with adipogenic mRNAs and insulin action. Otherwise, FTL mRNA and protein and SLC40A1 transcripts were positively associated with BMI and negatively linked to adipogenic genes and insulin action. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss led to increased TF and decreased TFRC, FTH1, FTL, and SLC40A1 in subcutaneous AT in parallel to improved insulin action. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that iron overload impacts on AT in association with insulin resistance. PMID:24496804

  14. Metabolic adaptation to tissue iron overload confers tolerance to malaria.

    PubMed

    Gozzelino, Raffaella; Andrade, Bruno Bezerril; Larsen, Rasmus; Luz, Nivea F; Vanoaica, Liviu; Seixas, Elsa; Coutinho, Antonio; Cardoso, Sílvia; Rebelo, Sofia; Poli, Maura; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Darshan, Deepak; Kühn, Lukas C; Soares, Miguel P

    2012-11-15

    Disease tolerance is a defense strategy that limits the fitness costs of infection irrespectively of pathogen burden. While restricting iron (Fe) availability to pathogens is perceived as a host defense strategy, the resulting tissue Fe overload can be cytotoxic and promote tissue damage to exacerbate disease severity. Examining this interplay during malaria, the disease caused by Plasmodium infection, we find that expression of the Fe sequestering protein ferritin H chain (FtH) in mice, and ferritin in humans, is associated with reduced tissue damage irrespectively of pathogen burden. FtH protection relies on its ferroxidase activity, which prevents labile Fe from sustaining proapoptotic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. FtH expression is inhibited by JNK activation, promoting tissue Fe overload, tissue damage, and malaria severity. Mimicking FtH's antioxidant effect or inhibiting JNK activation pharmacologically confers therapeutic tolerance to malaria in mice. Thus, FtH provides metabolic adaptation to tissue Fe overload, conferring tolerance to malaria. PMID:23159058

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles developed for hyperthermia is dominated by iron content

    PubMed Central

    Wabler, Michele; Zhu, Wenlian; Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Zhou, Haoming; Mihalic, Jana; Geyh, Alison; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Ivkov, Robert; Artemov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (~100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia. PMID:24773041

  16. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: Iron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency in humans occurs in all regions of the world. Potatoes are a modest source of iron. The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic variation for potato tuber iron content exists. Iron content in potato was measured in 33 clones, including varieties and advanced breeding sele...

  17. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Jon R. (Edgewood, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shagam, Richard N. (Albuquerque, NM); Gooris, Luc (Rancho Santa Margarita, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  18. Iron from nanocompounds containing iron and zinc is highly bioavailable in rats without tissue accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilty, Florentine M.; Arnold, Myrtha; Hilbe, Monika; Teleki, Alexandra; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Ehrensperger, Felix; Hurrell, Richard F.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2010-05-01

    Effective iron fortification of foods is difficult, because water-soluble compounds that are well absorbed, such as ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), often cause unacceptable changes in the colour or taste of foods. Poorly water-soluble compounds, on the other hand, cause fewer sensory changes, but are not well absorbed. Here, we show that poorly water-soluble nanosized Fe and Fe/Zn compounds (specific surface area ~190 m2 g-1) made by scalable flame aerosol technology have in vivo iron bioavailability in rats comparable to FeSO4 and cause less colour change in reactive food matrices than conventional iron fortificants. The addition of Zn to FePO4 and Mg to Fe/Zn oxide increases Fe absorption from the compounds, and doping with Mg also improves their colour. After feeding rats with nanostructured iron-containing compounds, no stainable Fe was detected in their gut wall, gut-associated lymphatics or other tissues, suggesting no adverse effects. Nanosizing of poorly water-soluble Fe compounds sharply increases their absorption and nutritional value.

  19. Quenching of cast iron with a high copper content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Natalia; Bataev, Anatoly; Razumakov, Aleksey

    2015-10-01

    The structure, hardness, and microhardness of hypoeutectic white cast iron alloyed with copper after quenching at 1000 and 1120°C is studied. Features of cupric inclusion separation are detected and its size distribution is shown. After quenching the structure consists of martensite, residual austenite, and vermicular graphite. A decrease in the size and volume fraction of globular cupric inclusions is detected, along with the complete dissolution of nanoscale cupric inclusions, which are located in the ferrite of pearlite colonies. The result of these structural changes is a 30% increase in iron hardness. Cast iron quenching at 1120° C is followed by an increase in the austenite volume fraction to 69%. This effect is due to a decrease in the volume fraction of graphite and a corresponding increase in the carbon content in ?-Fe. Cupric inclusions are located mainly along boundaries of austenitic grains.

  20. The association of bound aldehyde content with bioprosthetic tissue calcification.

    PubMed

    Tod, Tara J; Dove, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progression of mineralization seen in glutaraldehyde-treated valves has prompted a wide variety of secondary treatments aimed at mitigating dystrophic calcification. We tested the hypothesis that aldehyde residuals bound to bioprosthetic tissue is a significant promoter of calcification. We developed a novel assay to measure residual aldehyde functional groups and assessed aldehyde content in three different groups: glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue (Glut-only), Edwards ThermaFix™ treated tissue and Edwards RESILIA™ tissue. The amount of tissue calcification in these same groups was assessed in vivo using a well-established rabbit model, in which tissue samples were implanted intramuscularly for 60 days. The aldehyde content of the Glut-only, ThermaFix™ treated and RESILIA™ tissues were 225.7 ± 31.5, 101.9 ± 79.7 and 32.5 ± 48.4 nmol/g, respectively. The differences among all three groups were highly significant (p < 0.001, Student's unpaired t test). The median (interquartile range) calcium content of the Glut-only, ThermaFix™ treated and RESILIA™ tissues were 227.4 (221.8-243.6), 101.0 (23.05-169.6), and 10.1 (0.28-51.7) ?g/mg. The differences among all three groups were highly significant (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). The results indicated that our novel assay was able to reliably measure aldehyde content in bovine pericardial tissue. Furthermore, there appeared to be a close association between aldehyde content and tissue calcium content. The processing of bioprosthetic valves to reduce their aldehyde content may offer a significant advantage in terms of reducing the potential for long-term calcification in human implants. PMID:26610931

  1. Toxin content, phallotoxin and amatoxin composition of Amanita phalloides tissues.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Gallion, C; Jehl, F; Monteil, H

    1993-06-01

    The toxin content and composition of Amanita phalloides tissues were determined in three specimens at two carpophore development stages. The carpophore was subdivided into six parts, namely, the cap, gills, ring, stipe, volva and bulb. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such an investigation on the ring and the bulb. Substantial differences in the tissue toxin content were revealed. The ring displayed a very high amount of toxins, whereas the bulb had the lowest toxin content. Compositional differences in relation to the nature of the tissue were also noted. The highest amatoxin content was found in the ring, gills and cap, whereas the bulb and volva were the richest in phallotoxins. Furthermore, variability in the toxin composition was observed. The differences in the distribution of individual toxins in the tissues might be related to the carpophore developmental stage. PMID:8342178

  2. In-situ Characterization and Mapping of Iron Compounds in Alzheimer?s Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Terry, J.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    There is a well-established link between iron overload in the brain and pathology associated with neurodegeneration in a variety of disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases. This association was first discovered in AD by Goodman in 1953, where, in addition to abnormally high concentrations of iron in autopsy brain tissue, iron has also been shown to accumulate at sites of brain pathology such as senile plaques. However, since this discovery, progress in understanding the origin, role and nature of iron compounds associated with neurodegeneration has been slow. Here we report, for the first time, the location and characterization of iron compounds in human AD brain tissue sections. Iron fluorescence was mapped over a frontal-lobe tissue section from an Alzheimer's patient, and anomalous iron concentrations were identified using synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques at 5 {micro}m spatial resolution. Concentrations of ferritin and magnetite, a magnetic iron oxide potentially indicating disrupted brain-iron metabolism, were evident. These results demonstrate a practical means of correlating iron compounds and disease pathology in-situ and have clear implications for disease pathogenesis and potential therapies.

  3. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  4. Mapping and characterization of iron compounds in Alzheimer?s tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Collingwood, Joanna; Dobson, Jon

    2008-06-16

    Understanding the management of iron in the brain is of great importance in the study of neurodegeneration, where regional iron overload is frequently evident. A variety of approaches have been employed, from quantifying iron in various anatomical structures, to identifying genetic risk factors related to iron metabolism, and exploring chelation approaches to tackle iron overload in neurodegenerative disease. However, the ease with which iron can change valence state ensures that it is present in vivo in a wide variety of forms, both soluble and insoluble. Here, we review recent developments in approaches to locate and identify iron compounds in neurodegenerative tissue. In addition to complementary techniques that allow us to quantify and identify iron compounds using magnetometry, extraction, and electron microscopy, we are utilizing a powerful combined mapping/characterization approach with synchrotron X-rays. This has enabled the location and characterization of iron accumulations containing magnetite and ferritin in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue sections in situ at micron-resolution. It is hoped that such approaches will contribute to our understanding of the role of unusual iron accumulations in disease pathogenesis, and optimise the potential to use brain iron as a clinical biomarker for early detection and diagnosis.

  5. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Toastmann, H.; Channell, J.E.T.; Guyodo, Y.; Batich, C.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 {micro}m. This technique represents a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds in brain tissue. The potential for high-resolution iron mapping using microfocused X-ray beams has direct application to investigations of the location and structural form of iron compounds associated with human neurodegenerative disorders - a problem which has vexed researchers for 50 years.

  6. Estimating tissue iron burden: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wood, John C

    2015-07-01

    Iron overload is becoming an increasing problem as haemoglobinopathy patients gain greater access to good medical care and as therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes improve. Therapeutic options for iron chelation therapy have increased and many patients now receive combination therapies. However, optimal utilization of iron chelation therapy requires knowledge not only of the total body iron burden but the relative iron distribution among the different organs. The physiological basis for extrahepatic iron deposition is presented in order to help identify patients at highest risk for cardiac and endocrine complications. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art for monitoring global iron overload status as well as its compartmentalization. Plasma markers, computerized tomography, liver biopsy, magnetic susceptibility devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are all discussed but MRI has come to dominate clinical practice. The potential impact of recent pancreatic and pituitary MRI studies on clinical practice are discussed as well as other works-in-progress. Clinical protocols are derived from experience in haemoglobinopathies but may provide useful guiding principles for other iron overload disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25765344

  7. Differences in tissue distribution of iron from various clinically used intravenous iron complexes in fetal avian heart and liver.

    PubMed

    Spicher, Karsten; Brendler-Schwaab, Susanne; Schlösser, Christoph; Catarinolo, Maria; Fütterer, Sören; Langguth, Peter; Enzmann, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Nanomedicines are more complex than most pharmacologically active substances or medicines and have been considered as non-biological complex drugs. For nanomedicines pivotal pharmacokinetic properties cannot be assessed by plasma concentration data from standard bioequivalence studies. Using intravenous iron complexes (IICs) as model we show that fetal avian tissues can be used to study time dependent tissue concentrations in heart and liver. Clear differences were found between equimolar doses of sucrose, gluconate or carboxymaltose coated iron particles. The range in tissue iron concentrations observed with these clinically widely used IICs provides an orientation as to what should be acceptable for any new IICs. Moreover, sensitivity of the experimental model was high enough to detect a 20% difference in tissue iron concentration. For the authorization of generic products under Article 10 (1) of Directive 2001/83/EC a plasma concentration of an active substance in the range of 80%-125% versus the reference product is usually considered acceptable. Based on its high discriminatory sensitivity this method was used to support a positive marketing authorization decision for a generic nanomedicine product. PMID:26111606

  8. Mössbauer spectroscopic study of iron oxide deposits in liver tissue from the marine mammal Dugong dugong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua-Anusorn, W.; Pierre, T. G. St.; Black, G.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.; Parry, D.

    1994-12-01

    A sample of liver from the marine mammal Dugong dugong was found to have an iron concentration of 137 000 ?g g-1 Fe dry weight. Histological examination of the tissue revealed dense extracellular deposits of iron-containing particles about 40 to 80 ?m in diameter. Mössbauer spectra of the sample at temperatures between 17 and 200 K show superparamagnetic behaviour with a mean superparamagnetic blocking temperature of about 67 K, with the sextet being extinguished between 160 and 200 K. The blocking temperature and spectral parameters are indicative of the goethite-like form of hemosiderin that has previously been reported in some iron-loaded thalassemic human tissues.

  9. Total and haem iron content lean meat cuts and the contribution to the diet.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Beulah; Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Hall, Nicolette

    2016-02-15

    This study provides data on the total and haem iron contents in raw lean beef, chicken, lamb and pork meat samples. Total iron, expressed as mg/100g edible portion on fresh weight basis in raw lean beef (A-age), lamb, pork and chicken average 1.58, 1.64, 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. The haem iron content in beef (A-age), lamb, pork and chicken are 77%, 81%, 88% and 74% respectively of total iron. This has important dietary implications in calculating haem iron fractions of meat as this is higher than the common value used in the Monsen equation. PMID:26433293

  10. A Survey of Plant Iron Content—A Semi-Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ancuceanu, Robert; Dinu, Mihaela; Hovane?, Marilena Viorica; Anghel, Adriana Iuliana; Popescu, Carmen Violeta; Negre?, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word “iron” in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed. PMID:26690470

  11. A Survey of Plant Iron Content-A Semi-Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ancuceanu, Robert; Dinu, Mihaela; Hovane?, Marilena Viorica; Anghel, Adriana Iuliana; Popescu, Carmen Violeta; Negre?, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word "iron" in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed. PMID:26690470

  12. Effect of cadmium intoxication on collagen and elastin content in tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharz, E.J.

    1988-02-01

    Cadmium produces a variety of pathological effects in various organs in experimental animals or in accidentally intoxicated humans. The mechanism of these phenomena has been the subject of numerous investigations. Many of the observed toxic effects are thought to be the results of secondary deficiencies in such essential trace elements as zinc, copper and iron. Metabolism of the fibrous components of connective tissue, i.e. collagen and elastin, requires the presence of so me trace elements. It is also believed that elastin biosynthesis depends on the presence of some trace metals. Copper deficiency produces significant decrease in elastic tissue resistance, caused by diminished cross-link formation. Experimental studies showed that cadmium treatment of rats produced an increase in the urinary excretion of collagen catabolites. It was also shown that cadmium intoxication influenced bone structure and fetal growth. These two effects on connective tissue were probably accompanied by disturbances in collagen metabolism. Moreover, it is known that fungal collagenase activity was affected by cadmium. In the present paper a decrease in collagen and elastin content, and impaired extracellular maturation of the collagen fibers in some tissues of rats intoxicated with cadmium were described.

  13. Effect of iron status on the absorption, speciation and tissue distribution of aluminium in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklhofer, C.; Steinhausen, C.; Beck, E.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Kinzel, S.; Ittel, T.-H.; Nolte, E.

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium absorption, distribution and speciation in rats have been investigated by administering a single oral dose of 26Al to three groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats with the first group having normal, the second group having iron overloaded and the third group having iron deficient status before administration. The dose was 20 ng 26Al together with 200 ?g 27Al as AlCl 3. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after administration of 26Al. Samples of blood plasma, urine, femur, liver and spleen were taken. 26Al was measured in the samples with accelerator mass spectrometry. The group with iron deficiency had a larger intestinal uptake and higher concentrations in liver, spleen and plasma than the control group whereas iron overload decreased intestinal absorption and tissue concentrations of 26Al.

  14. Prostaglandin content in blood and lung tissue during alveolar hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, T; Vaage, J; Bjertnaes, L; Hauge, A; Gautvik, K M

    1978-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate whether prostaglandins (PGs) are synthetized and released from isolated blood-perfused rat and cat lungs secondary to vasoconstriction induced by alveolar hypoxia. The lungs were perfused with autologous blood with constant volume inflow via the pulmonary artery in a recirculating system. They were ventilated with constant volume positive pressure, and acute alveolar hypoxia was induced by ventilation with a gas containing 2% O2. A superfusion bioassay technique was used to measure PG-like activity in the perfusate from the lungs, the blood being re-oxygenated before reaching the assay tissues. The oxygenator prevented the perfusate hypoxia induced by ventilation hypoxia to affect the bioassay tissues. The assay tissues were rat stomach strip, rat colon and chick rectum. They were sensitive to calibrating doses of 0.5--1 ng/ml PGE2 and 1--2 ng/ml PGF2alpha. In another series of experiments PGs of the F-series were measured in lung tissue from normoxic and hypoxic lungs with radioimmunoassay technique. No increase in PG-like activity could be detected in the venous effluent by means of bioassay during hypoxia, nor was the lung tissue content of immunoactive PGF increased by hypoxia. The present findings indicate that alveolar hypoxia does not stimulate PG-synthesis in lungs, refuting that PGs are important mediators of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to alveolar hypoxia. It is concluded that PGs play no significant role in producing the pressor response to alveolar hypoxia. PMID:343502

  15. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

  16. Iron, radiation, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.; Kalkwarf, D.R. )

    1990-07-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. 151 references.

  17. Iron, radiation, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

    1990-01-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

  18. Cerebellar pathology in Friedreich's ataxia: Atrophied dentate nuclei with normal iron content

    PubMed Central

    Solbach, K.; Kraff, O.; Minnerop, M.; Beck, A.; Schöls, L.; Gizewski, E.R.; Ladd, M.E.; Timmann, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Friedreich's ataxia (FA) the genetically decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin leads to disturbance of the mitochondrial iron metabolism. Within the cerebellum the dentate nuclei (DN) are primarily affected. Histopathological studies show atrophy and accumulation of mitochondrial iron in DN. Dentate iron content has been suggested as a biomarker to measure the effects of siderophores/antioxidant treatment of FA. We assessed the iron content and the volume of DN in FA patients and controls based on ultra-high-field MRI (7 Tesla) images. Methods Fourteen FA patients (mean age 38.1 yrs) and 14 age- and gender-matched controls participated. Multi-echo gradient echo and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequences were acquired on a 7 T whole-body scanner. For comparison SWI images were acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Volumes of the DN and cerebellum were assessed at 7 and 1.5 T, respectively. Parametric maps of T2 and T2* sequences were created and proton transverse relaxation rates were estimated as a measure of iron content. Results In FA, the DN and the cerebellum were significantly smaller compared to controls. However, proton transverse relaxation rates of the DN were not significantly different between both groups. Conclusions Applying in vivo MRI methods we could demonstrate significant atrophy of the DN in the presence of normal iron content. The findings suggest that relaxation rates are not reliable biomarkers in clinical trials evaluating the potential effect of FA therapy. PMID:25379420

  19. Comparison of histological techniques to visualize iron in paraffin-embedded brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van Duijn, Sara; Nabuurs, Rob J A; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Natté, Remco

    2013-11-01

    Better knowledge of the distribution of iron in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may facilitate the development of an in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) marker for AD and may cast light on the role of this potentially toxic molecule in the pathogenesis of AD. Several histological iron staining techniques have been used in the past but they have not been systematically tested for sensitivity and specificity. This article compares three histochemical techniques and ferritin immunohistochemistry to visualize iron in paraffin-embedded human AD brain tissue. The specificity of the histochemical techniques was tested by staining sections after iron extraction. Iron was demonstrated in the white matter, in layers IV/V of the frontal neocortex, in iron containing plaques, and in microglia. In our hands, these structures were best visualized using the Meguro iron stain, a method that has not been described for iron staining in human brain or AD in particular. Ferritin immunohistochemistry stained microglia and iron containing plaques similar to the Meguro method but was less intense in myelin-associated iron. The Meguro method is most suitable for identifying iron-positive structures in paraffin-embedded human AD brain tissue. PMID:23887894

  20. The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Schneider, Giulia; Salomé, Murielle; Schneider, Manuela; Calligaro, Carla; Kiskinova, Maya; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Asbestos toxicity is ascribed to its particular physico-chemical characteristics, and one of them is the presence of and ability to adsorb iron, which may cause an alteration of iron homeostasis in the tissue. This observational study reports a combination of advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and micro-spectroscopic methods that provide correlative morphological and chemical information for shedding light on iron mobilization features during asbestos permanence in lung tissue. The results show that the processes responsible for the unusual distribution of iron at different stages of interaction with the fibres also involve calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It has been confirmed that the dominant iron form present in asbestos bodies is ferritin, while the concurrent presence of haematite suggests alteration of iron chemistry during asbestos body permanence. PMID:23350030

  1. Iron Overload Favors the Elimination of Leishmania infantum from Mouse Tissues through Interaction with Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Gomes-Pereira, Sandra; Teixeira, Carlos Miguel; Rosa, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno; Tomás, Ana; Appelberg, Rui; Gomes, Maria Salomé

    2013-01-01

    Iron plays a central role in host-parasite interactions, since both intervenients need iron for survival and growth, but are sensitive to iron-mediated toxicity. The host's iron overload is often associated with susceptibility to infection. However, it has been previously reported that iron overload prevented the growth of Leishmania major, an agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in BALB/c mice. In order to further clarify the impact of iron modulation on the growth of Leishmania in vivo, we studied the effects of iron supplementation or deprivation on the growth of L. infantum, the causative agent of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis, in the mouse model. We found that dietary iron deficiency did not affect the protozoan growth, whereas iron overload decreased its replication in the liver and spleen of a susceptible mouse strain. The fact that the iron-induced inhibitory effect could not be seen in mice deficient in NADPH dependent oxidase or nitric oxide synthase 2 suggests that iron eliminates L. infantum in vivo through the interaction with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Iron overload did not significantly alter the mouse adaptive immune response against L. infantum. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of iron towards L. infantum was also observed, in a dose dependent manner, in axenic cultures of promastigotes and amastigotes. Importantly, high iron concentrations were needed to achieve such effects. In conclusion, externally added iron synergizes with the host's oxidative mechanisms of defense in eliminating L. infantum from mouse tissues. Additionally, the direct toxicity of iron against Leishmania suggests a potential use of this metal as a therapeutic tool or the further exploration of iron anti-parasitic mechanisms for the design of new drugs. PMID:23459556

  2. Determination of iron content and dispersity of intact ferritin by superconducting tunnel junction cryodetection mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Plath, Logan D; Ozdemir, Abdil; Aksenov, Alexander A; Bier, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Ferritin is a common iron storage protein complex found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although horse spleen holoferritin (HS-HoloFt) has been widely studied, this is the first report of mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the intact form, likely because of its high molecular weight ?850 kDa and broad iron-core mass distribution. The 24-subunit ferritin heteropolymer protein shell consists of light (L) and heavy (H) subunits and a ferrihydrite-like iron core. The H/L heterogeneity ratio of the horse spleen apoferritin (HS-ApoFt) shell was found to be ?1:10 by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Superconducting tunneling junction (STJ) cryodetection matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS was utilized to determine the masses of intact HS-ApoFt, HS-HoloFt, and the HS-HoloFt dimer to be ?505 kDa, ?835 kDa, and ?1.63 MDa, respectively. The structural integrity of HS-HoloFt and the proposed mineral adducts found for both purified L and H subunits suggest a robust biomacromolecular complex that is internally stabilized by the iron-based core. However, cross-linking experiments of HS-HoloFt with glutaraldehyde, unexpectedly, showed the complete release of the iron-based core in a one-step process revealing a cross-linked HS-ApoFt with a narrow fwhm peak width of 31.4 kTh compared to 295 kTh for HS-HoloFt. The MS analysis of HS-HoloFt revealed a semiquantitative description of the iron content and core dispersity of 3400 ± 1600 (2?) iron atoms. Commercially prepared HS-ApoFt was estimated to still contain an average of 240 iron atoms. These iron abundance and dispersity results suggest the use of STJ cryodetection MS for the clinical analysis of iron deficient/overload diseases. PMID:26266697

  3. Genetic modification of low phytic acid 1-1 maize to enhance iron content and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Aluru, Maneesha R; Rodermel, Steve R; Reddy, Manju B

    2011-12-28

    High phytate content in staple food crops is a major barrier to successful iron biofortification. We have exploited the low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) mutant of maize to generate transgenic plants with up-to 70 ?g/g seed iron through the endosperm-specific overexpression of soybean ferritin, resulting in more than 2-fold improvement in iron bioavailability. The levels of bioavailable seed iron achieved in this study greatly exceed any achieved thus far and closely approach values estimated to have a nutritional impact on target populations. Gene expression studies reveal a large induction of the YS1 transporter in leaves and severe repression of an iron acquisition gene DMAS1 in roots, suggesting significant alterations in the iron homeostatic mechanisms in transgenic lpa1-1. Furthermore, preliminary tests show that the high-iron lpa1-1 seeds have higher germination rates and seedling vigor when compared to those of the nontransgenic seeds, which may help improve their value to plant breeders. PMID:22088162

  4. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  5. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are available? Iron is available in many multivitamin-mineral supplements and in supplements that contain only iron. Iron in supplements is often in the form of ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, ferric citrate, or ferric sulfate. Dietary ...

  6. EFFECTS OF IRON CONTENT IN COAL COMBUSTION FLY ASHES ON SPECIATION OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effects of iron content in coal combustion fly ashes on speciation of mercury. (NOTE: The chemical form of mercury species in combustion flue gases is an important influence on the control of mercury emissions from coal combustion). The study focused on th...

  7. Influence of polarization and iron content on the transport properties of praseodymium-barium manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmouni, H.; Cherif, B.; Khirouni, K.; Baazaoui, M.; Zemni, S.

    2016-01-01

    Polarization and iron effects on the electrical properties of Pr0.67Ba0.33Mn1-xFexO3 have been studied using impedance measurements. When iron is introduced, the insulator-metal transition (MI), observed in free compound, disappears and destroying such transition needs an iron concentration less than 5%. We also found that electrical conductance decreases when increasing Fe content. Such results are attributed to the decrease of Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio. Also, they are ascribed to the high probability of encountering Fe3+-O-Fe3+ and Mn3+-O-Fe3+ interactions, which greatly weakens the influence of Mn3+-O-Mn4+ interactions. The AC conductivity studies indicate that different types of hopping are involved. The contribution of hopping mechanism is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent 's'. Conductivity analysis shows that small polaron hopping (SPH) and variable range hopping (VRH) models are present in the conduction process. For small iron concentrations (x<0.1), we found that activation energy (Ea) does not changes significantly. Such result is in good agreement with the literature. But, for high iron concentrations (x>0.1), we found that Ea depend strongly in Fe content. We also found in this work that DC-bias does not affect the conduction process but proves its thermal activation. The variation of the conductance with polarization is a proof of an electro-resistance effect.

  8. Mapping and prediction of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.

  9. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Mary H.; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-?FeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem ‘tissue fixation’ by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB ? O2 > ?O2 ? +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

  10. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P; Goodwin, Mark B; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C

    2014-01-22

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-?FeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem 'tissue fixation' by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB - O2 > -O2 > +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

  11. Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

  12. Correlation of natural gas content to iron species in the New Albany shale group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1981-01-01

    Mo??ssbauer parameters were obtained for four Illinois Basin shales and their corresponding < 2??m clay fractions from wells drilled through the New Albany Shale Group in Henderson, Tazewell, and Effingham counties in Illinois and Christian County in Kentucky. Off-gas analysis indicated that the Illinois cores were in an area of low gas potential, while the Kentucky core was in an area of moderate-to-good potential. Iron-rich dolomite (ankerite) was found in the Kentucky core but not in the Illinois cores. In the Kentucky core, gas content could be correlated with the ankerite in the bulk sample, the Mo??ssbauer M (2) species in the clay fraction, and a ferrous iron species in the clay fraction. The location of the greatest concentration of natural gas in the Kentucky core could be predicted by following the changes in percentage concentration of these iron species when plotted against the depth of burial of the core sample. ?? 1981.

  13. Striatal Iron Content Predicts Its Shrinkage and Changes in Verbal Working Memory after Two Years in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haacke, E. Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of non-heme iron in the brain has been proposed as a harbinger of neural and cognitive decline in aging and neurodegenerative disease, but support for this proposal has been drawn from cross-sectional studies, which do not provide valid estimates of change. Here, we present longitudinal evidence of subcortical iron accumulation in healthy human adults (age 19–77 at baseline). We used R2* relaxometry to estimate regional iron content twice within a 2 year period, measured volumes of the striatum and the hippocampus by manual segmentation, and assessed cognitive performance by working memory tasks. Two-year change and individual differences in the change of regional volumes, regional iron content, and working memory were examined by latent change score models while taking into account the age at baseline and metabolic risk indicators. Over the examined period, volume reduction occurred in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, but iron content increased only in the striatum, where it explained shrinkage. Higher iron content in the caudate nucleus at baseline predicted lesser improvement in working memory after repeat testing. Although advanced age and elevated metabolic syndrome risk were associated with greater iron content in the putamen at baseline, neither age nor metabolic risk influenced change in any variable. Thus, longitudinal evidence supports the notion that accumulation of subcortical iron is a risk factor for neural and cognitive decline in normal aging. PMID:25926451

  14. Effect of Iron Content on Sintering Behavior of Ti-V-Fe-Al Near- ? Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvakin, Dmytro G.; Carman, Andrew; Ivasishin, Orest M.; Matviychuk, Mykhailo V.; Gazder, Azdiar A.; Pereloma, Elena V.

    2012-02-01

    Two near- ? Ti-10V-3Fe-3Al and Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloys were produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy using hydrogenated titanium and V-Fe-Al master alloy powders. The distributions of the alloying elements were investigated at different stages of transformation of the heterogeneous powder compacts into the final homogeneous alloy product. The influence of iron content on chemical homogenization, densification, microstructure, and mechanical properties of as-sintered alloys was discussed with respect to the fast diffusion mobility of iron in titanium. It was concluded that a 1 pct increase in Fe content, as the alloying element with the fastest diffusivity in titanium, has a positive effect on densification. However, this also results in some grain coarsening of the final material. The attained mechanical properties were comparable with those of cast/wrought near-beta titanium alloys.

  15. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... avoid taking it with foods containing dairy products, coffee, tea, or cereals. There are many forms of ... Coffee and teaTaking iron supplements with coffee or tea can reduce the amount of iron the body ...

  16. Modeling of ferrite formation in nodular cast iron: Influence of silicon content

    SciTech Connect

    Wessen, M.

    1995-12-31

    Silicon is commonly used in nodular cast iron due to its graphitizing and ferritizing effect. A usual silicon content is 2.2 to 2.7%. Nodular cast iron is often alloyed with pearlite-promoting elements, such as Mn, Cu or Sn, to increase the strength. The result is usually a casting with a considerable variation in ferrite/pearlite ratio in different parts due to the variation in thermal history. When increasing the silicon content up to a level of about 3.5 to 4%, the structure will usually be predominantly ferritic. However, due to the solution hardening of ferrite by silicon, a good strength is obtained. This is a promising way to obtain nodular iron castings with desirable and predictable properties. Plate castings (3 to 50 mm) have been cast with five different silicon contents (1.7 to 4.9%). The cooling curves were analyzed by thermal analysis in order to derive the transformation kinetics for the ferrite growth. The results have been the basis for the derivation of a new growth model for the ferrite during an interface controlled stage. It is shown that the action of silicon on the ferrite growth only is related to the transformation temperature, which drastically increases when the silicon content is raised. To verify the models, a redesigned plate casting was cast with a nodular iron containing 4.00 % silicon. The filling sequence, solidification and solid state transformation in this casting have been simulated using a FDM-program with models for nucleation and growth of all relevant phases. It is shown that the presented models can be used to predict the structure development in the complex situation of continuous cooling in a sand mould.

  17. Element contents in organs and tissues of Chinese adult men.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongda; Wang, Neifen; Zhang, Yongbao; Wu, Quan; Chen, Rusong; Gao, Junquan; Chang, Ping; Liu, Qingfen; Fan, Tijiang; Li, Juan; Wang, Jixian; Wang, Jingyu

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide reference values for relevant parameters of Chinese Reference Man. Eighteen kinds of major organ or tissue samples, including muscle, rib, liver, and so on, were obtained from autopsies of 68 healthy adult men living in four areas of China with different dietary patterns (Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, Jiangxi or Jiangsu provinces, including Shanghai City) who had just encountered sudden deaths. At the same time, whole blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers living in each of these areas. The concentrations of 60 elements in these samples were detected by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), neutron activation analysis (NAA), fluorometry (FL), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) techniques and necessary quality control (QC) measures. Based on obtained concentrations and reference values of these organ or tissue weights for Chinese Reference Man, the elemental burdens in these organs or tissues were estimated. As a summary report of a series of research studies for Chinese Reference Man, which included three steps (from 1996 to 2006), the concentrations of 60 elements in 18 main organs or tissues were determined and their elemental burdens in the organs or tissues and whole body were estimated. Furthermore, the organ or tissue distributions of some important elements for radiation protection were discussed. These results may provide more reliable and better representative bases than before for establishing related reference values of Chinese Reference Man and revising current reference values of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Reference Man. These basic data will also be very valuable for many other applications in radiation protection and other scientific fields. PMID:19959952

  18. Iron Oxide-labeled Collagen Scaffolds for Non-invasive MR Imaging in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Marianne E.; Hermann, Alina; Bühren, Anne; Olde-Damink, Leon; Möckel, Diana; Gremse, Felix; Ehling, Josef; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging holds significant potential for implementation in tissue engineering. It can e.g. be used to monitor the localization and function of tissue-engineered implants, as well as their resorption and remodelling. Thus far, however, the vast majority of efforts in this area of research have focused on the use of ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle-labeled cells, colonizing the scaffolds, to indirectly image the implant material. Reasoning that directly labeling scaffold materials might be more beneficial (enabling imaging also in case of non-cellularized implants), more informative (enabling the non-invasive visualization and quantification of scaffold degradation) and more easy to translate into the clinic (since cell-free materials are less complex from a regulatory point-of-view), we here prepared three different types of USPIO nanoparticles, and incorporated them both passively and actively (via chemical conjugation; during collagen crosslinking) into collagen-based scaffold materials. We furthermore optimized the amount of USPIO incorporated into the scaffolds, correlated the amount of entrapped USPIO with MR signal intensity, showed that the labeled scaffolds are highly biocompatible, demonstrated that scaffold degradation can be visualized using MRI and provided initial proof-of-principle for the in vivo visualization of the scaffolds. Consequently, USPIO-labeled scaffold materials seem to be highly suitable for image-guided tissue engineering applications. PMID:24569840

  19. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  20. Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast pump–probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin’s pump–probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump–probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin’s pump–probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump–probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported “activation” of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

  1. Copper and iron are mobilized following myocardial ischemia: possible predictive criteria for tissue injury.

    PubMed Central

    Chevion, M; Jiang, Y; Har-El, R; Berenshtein, E; Uretzky, G; Kitrossky, N

    1993-01-01

    Direct evidence for substantial mobilization of copper in the coronary flow immediately following prolonged, but not short, cardiac ischemia is presented. In the first coronary flow fraction (CFF) of reperfusion (0.15 ml), after 35 min of ischemia, the level of copper (as well as of iron) was 8- to 9-fold higher than the preischemic value. The levels in subsequent CFFs decreased and reached the preischemic value, indicating that both metals appear in a burst at the resumption of coronary flow. When the first CFF was used in a reaction mixture containing ascorbate and salicylate, the latter underwent chemical hydroxylation and was converted to its dihydroxybenzoate derivatives. Likewise, this CFF promoted the ascorbate-driven DNA degradation. Subsequent 150 CFFs were serially collected and demonstrated low activities. Following 18 min of ischemia, the copper level in the first CFF of reperfusion was only 15% over the preischemic value. In contrast, the mobilization of iron into coronary flow was significant but markedly lower than after 35 min. The levels of copper and the redox activity of the first CFF correlated well with the degree of loss of cardiac function, after 18 and 35 min of ischemia, respectively. After 18 min of ischemia, cardiac function was about 50% and the damage is considered reversible, whereas after 35 min the functional loss exceeded 80% and is considered irreversible. These results are in accord with the causative role that copper and iron can play in heart injury following ischemia, by virtue of their capacity to catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals, and could lead to the development of new modalities for intervention in tissue injury. Images PMID:8430081

  2. Analysis of neurotransmitter tissue content of Drosophila melanogaster in different life stages.

    PubMed

    Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-21

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  3. Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  4. Perihematomal Cerebral Tissue Iron Quantification on MRI Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Two Human Subjects: Proof of Principle.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Neeraj; Pandey, Aditya S; Merchak, Kevin; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chenevert, Tom; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a common hemorrhagic stroke subtype with significant neurological sequelae. The management of ICH is usually supportive treatment in the neuro-intensive care setting, while the body humors deal with the hematoma. Treatment of the hematoma is usually expectant management unless there is neurological deterioration caused by mass effect from the hemorrhage. Some minimally invasive techniques have been explored for lysing and evacuating the hematoma, but none of them have gained a stronghold in the routine clinical management of this condition. Studies mainly in animal (rodent and porcine) ICH models have shown the role of bound and unbound iron in causing neurotoxicity following an ICH. There is currently no noninvasive method for assessing iron levels in the cerebral tissue following ICH. Our study intends to explore the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in establishing iron levels in cerebral tissue at the periphery of the hematoma following an ICH. Initially, an MRI phantom was constructed with varying concentrations of liquid iron preparation in a water bath container. Susceptibility weighted sequences were utilized to scan this phantom to generate T2* signal magnitude measurements corresponding to the iron concentration in the phantom. Encouraged by the reliability of the measurements on the phantom, patients with ICH were then recruited into this experimental study once the inclusion criteria were met. One control and two human subjects had their brains scanned in a 3 T MRI scanner utilizing the same susceptibility weighted sequence. We found that ICH perihematomal brain tissue iron susceptibility signal measurements were 4 times higher than those of the baseline control and normal contralateral brain tissue. Three different baseline measurements (one control and two contralateral normal brain) revealed a level of 0.1 mg/ml of iron concentration in the contralateral brain tissue in the identical anatomical location as the hematoma, typically in the basal ganglia region. T2 * signal measurements in the brain tissue at the periphery of the basal ganglia hematoma at day 7 following hemorrhage revealed iron concentration of 0.4 mg/ml (approximately 4 times the baseline/control) in two human subjects included in the study. These measurements mimic those obtained in published animal ICH model studies. PMID:26463945

  5. Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C

    2014-01-01

    The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected. PMID:25177957

  6. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... on food sources of iron: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for Iron ( ...

  7. [Organ hematocrit and determining the blood content of tissue homogenates].

    PubMed

    Kiradzhiev, G; Khadzhirusev, S; Slavov, S

    1976-01-01

    The authors determined the mean normal values of organ homogenates and their significance in evaluating blood amount, contained in the organs. They used radioisotope method with two kers 131 J and 51Cz for determining organ hematocrit. The hematocrit values of the organ blood differed significantly from the venous hematocrit as the values of the spleen were higher, but those of liver, kideny, cerebrum, testis and skeletal muscles-lower. On the basis of these data they proposed to apply respective correction factors, checking the differences between venous and organ hematocrits, when the amount of blood in single organs, determined by hemoglobin content, was estimated. The validity of this correction was illustrated by experimental results. PMID:1021410

  8. Disentangling in vivo the effects of iron content and atrophy on the ageing human brain.

    PubMed

    Lorio, S; Lutti, A; Kherif, F; Ruef, A; Dukart, J; Chowdhury, R; Frackowiak, R S; Ashburner, J; Helms, G; Weiskopf, N; Draganski, B

    2014-12-01

    Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies shows that healthy aging is associated with profound changes in cortical and subcortical brain structures. The reliable delineation of cortex and basal ganglia using automated computational anatomy methods based on T1-weighted images remains challenging, which results in controversies in the literature. In this study we use quantitative MRI (qMRI) to gain an insight into the microstructural mechanisms underlying tissue ageing and look for potential interactions between ageing and brain tissue properties to assess their impact on automated tissue classification. To this end we acquired maps of longitudinal relaxation rate R1, effective transverse relaxation rate R2* and magnetization transfer - MT, from healthy subjects (n=96, aged 21-88 years) using a well-established multi-parameter mapping qMRI protocol. Within the framework of voxel-based quantification we find higher grey matter volume in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate and prefrontal cortex when tissue classification is based on MT maps compared with T1 maps. These discrepancies between grey matter volume estimates can be attributed to R2* - a surrogate marker of iron concentration, and further modulation by an interaction between R2* and age, both in cortical and subcortical areas. We interpret our findings as direct evidence for the impact of ageing-related brain tissue property changes on automated tissue classification of brain structures using SPM12. Computational anatomy studies of ageing and neurodegeneration should acknowledge these effects, particularly when inferring about underlying pathophysiology from regional cortex and basal ganglia volume changes. PMID:25264230

  9. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (??) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = -0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  10. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (??) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = ?0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  11. Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail. [Coturnix coturnix japonica

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Stone, C.L.; Fry, B.E. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. 13 references, 11 tables.

  12. Content of lipids in blood and tissues of animals during hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federov, I. V.; Rylnikov, Y. P.; Lobova, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on 97 rats and 50 rabbits were undertaken to study the influence of hypodynamia on the lipid content in the blood, liver, heart, and in the aorta. Reduction of muscular activity contributed to the increase of cholesterol and beta lipoprotein levels in the blood and to accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and the heart. The total lipid content in these tissues decreased. In the aorta the total lipid content increased, while lecithin and cephalin figures went down. The character of biochemical changes in hypodynamia resembles in many ways the lipid metabolism changes in atherosclerosis.

  13. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.), an invasive weed of winter crops in Brazil, was evaluated for glucosinolate content of its plant tissues and nematicidal activity of its dry leaf meal (LM), whole seed meal (WSM) and hexane defatted seed meal (DSM) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants...

  14. Relationships between microsclerotia content and hyperspectral reflectance data in soybean tissue infected by Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative methods are needed to assess the severity of charcoal rot disease [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] in soybean [Glycine max (L.)] plant tissue. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between light reflectance properties and microsclerotia content of soybean stem...

  15. TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

  16. HO-1-mediated macroautophagy: a mechanism for unregulated iron deposition in aging and degenerating neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Zukor, Hillel; Song, Wei; Liberman, Adrienne; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Fillebeen, Carine; Pantopoulos, Kostas; Wu, Ting-Di; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Schipper, Hyman M

    2009-05-01

    Oxidative stress, deposition of non-transferrin iron, and mitochondrial insufficiency occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). We previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is up-regulated in AD and PD brain and promotes the accumulation of non-transferrin iron in astroglial mitochondria. Herein, dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and other techniques were employed to ascertain (i) the impact of HO-1 over-expression on astroglial mitochondrial morphology in vitro, (ii) the topography of aberrant iron sequestration in astrocytes over-expressing HO-1, and (iii) the role of iron regulatory proteins (IRP) in HO-1-mediated iron deposition. Astroglial hHO-1 over-expression induced cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial membrane damage, and macroautophagy. HO-1 promoted trapping of redox-active iron and sulfur within many cytopathological profiles without impacting ferroportin, transferrin receptor, ferritin, and IRP2 protein levels or IRP1 activity. Thus, HO-1 activity promotes mitochondrial macroautophagy and sequestration of redox-active iron in astroglia independently of classical iron mobilization pathways. Glial HO-1 may be a rational therapeutic target in AD, PD, and other human CNS conditions characterized by the unregulated deposition of brain iron. PMID:19250338

  17. Anserine and carnosine contents in muscular tissue of rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, N; Nakamura, M; Harada, M; Kimura, K; Kawano, H

    1977-01-01

    The effect of various muscle conditions on anserine and carnosine contents suggests that these peptides have some physiological role in muscular functions. These conditions are: 1) Although the anserine content in rat gastrocnemius muscle was not changed by ischiamic denervation, the carnosine content was significantly decreased. Carnosinase activity in the denerved gastrocnemius muscle was two times stronger than that of intact gastrocnemius muscle. 2) Carnosine content in rat gastrocnemius muscle was also decreased by forced swimming exercise. 3) Neither anserine nor carnosine was detected in sarcoma and granuloma. 4) In rabbit, anserine and carnosine contents in white muscle fibers were 12-17 and 1-2 mumole/g of wet tissue and were approximately 10 and 2 times more than those in red muscle fibers, respectively. PMID:915561

  18. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 ?g/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 ?g/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 ?g Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content in defatted tissue and oil from such tissues and thereby contribute towards our knowledge on aluminium and any role in breast cancer. PMID:23870171

  19. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also used for improving athletic performance and treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and canker sores. Some people also use ... body when taken by women who are pregnant.Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Developing research shows that taking iron sulfate ( ...

  20. The role of nickel content and the magnetic remanence in iron-nickel alloys of lunar composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar samples are magnetic primarily due to the body centered cubic (BCC) iron and iron-nickel alloys they contain. Presented for the first time are results which demonstrate that the magnitude of the martensitic thermal remanence (MTRM) induced on quenching iron-nickel alloy in the geomagnetic field depends on the nickel content of the alloy. High magnetic stability is due to the increasing dislocation density and increasingly complex microstructures associated with increasing nickel content in the alloys. The results agree with the mechanical and structural properties of the alloys. The characteristic quench martensite microstructure observed on metallographic examination provides a recognition criterion for the MTRM mechanism. These results are important for lunar and meteoritic research intending to ascertain the paleofield responsible for the observed remanent magnetization.-

  1. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore »during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  2. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  3. The influence of combined magnesium and vanadate administration on the level of some elements in selected rat organs: V-Mg interactions and the role of iron-essential protein (DMT-1) in the mechanism underlying altered tissues iron level.

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Go??biowska, Dorota; Nied?wiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of 12 week co-administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV) and magnesium sulfate (MS) on the levels of some elements in selected rats' organs and an attempt to elucidate a role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1) in the mechanism(s) of the SMV-induced disorders in some tissue Fe homeostasis were studied. SMV taken up separately or in combination with MS may pose a risk of the rise and shortage of the total hepatic and splenic Fe and Cu contents, respectively, cerebral Fe deficiency, splenic Ca deposition, and the hepatic, renal, and cerebral DMT-1 down-regulation. When administered alone, SMV may also cause the decrease in the total renal Fe and Cu contents. A visible protective effect of Mg against the renal and cerebral V accumulation and the decrease in the renal Fe and Cu contents during the SMV-MS co-administration together with our previous findings suggest a beneficial role of Mg at SMV exposure. Further, the SMV-induced fall in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), reported previously, and its correlations with the hepatic, splenic, and cerebral Fe levels allow us to suggest that diminished TIBC could be partly involved in the mechanism(s) responsible for the dramatic redistribution of Fe in those tissues. Finally, DMT-1, which potentially could participate in the hepatic non-transferrin Fe-bound uptake, does not play a significant role in this process indicating the need for studying other Fe transporters to more precisely elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying the hepatic Fe loading in our experimental conditions. PMID:24549458

  4. Effects of tissue water content on the propagation of laser light during low-level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soogeun; Shin, Sungho; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-05-01

    This work reports that the laser fluence rate inside porcine skin varied notably with the change of tissue water content under the same laser irradiation conditions. The laser fluence rate inside skin tissue samples with varying water content was measured using an optical fiber sensor, while the target was irradiated either by a low-level 635 or 830 nm laser (50 mW/cm2). It was demonstrated that the distribution of laser fluence rate inside the target is strongly affected by tissue water content and its profile is determined by the water content dependency of optical properties at the laser wavelength. PMID:25611979

  5. Effects of tissue water content on the propagation of laser light during low-level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soogeun; Shin, Sungho; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-05-01

    This work reports that the laser fluence rate inside porcine skin varied notably with the change of tissue water content under the same laser irradiation conditions. The laser fluence rate inside skin tissue samples with varying water content was measured using an optical fiber sensor, while the target was irradiated either by a low-level 635 or 830 nm laser (50 mW/cm2). It was demonstrated that the distribution of laser fluence rate inside the target is strongly affected by tissue water content and its profile is determined by the water content dependency of optical properties at the laser wavelength.

  6. Lipid content and fatty acid distribution in tissues from Portuguese dogfish, leafscale gulper shark and black dogfish.

    PubMed

    Remme, Jannicke Fugledal; Larssen, Wenche Emblem; Bruheim, Inge; Saebø, Per Christian; Saebø, Asgeir; Stoknes, Iren S

    2006-04-01

    The lipid characterization in tissues from the three deep-sea sharks leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus), Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis) and black dogfish (Centrocyllium fabricii) captured at Hatton Bank in the North Atlantic were examined. The objective was to determine the lipid content and the fatty acid composition in different tissues. In addition, the fatty acid composition in tissues and species was compared. The tissues examined were pancreas, heart, kidney, stomach, spleen and liver. The lipid content was high in liver (40-50%) and ranged from 1% to 5% in the other tissues. The dominant fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1 (n-9), C18:1 (n-7) and C22:6 (n-3) in all tissues. All tissues had a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:16460979

  7. Simple and Precise Quantification of Iron Catalyst Content in Carbon Nanotubes Using UV/Visible Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Agustina, Elsye; Goak, Jeungchoon; Lee, Suntae; Seo, Youngho; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung

    2015-01-01

    Iron catalysts have been used widely for the mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high yield. In this study, UV/visible spectroscopy was used to determine the Fe catalyst content in CNTs using a colorimetric technique. Fe ions in solution form red–orange complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline, producing an absorption peak at ?=510?nm, the intensity of which is proportional to the solution Fe concentration. A series of standard Fe solutions were formulated to establish the relationship between optical absorbance and Fe concentration. Many Fe catalysts were microscopically observed to be encased by graphitic layers, thus preventing their extraction. Fe catalyst dissolution from CNTs was investigated with various single and mixed acids, and Fe concentration was found to be highest with CNTs being held at reflux in HClO4/HNO3 and H2SO4/HNO3 mixtures. This novel colorimetric method to measure Fe concentrations by UV/Vis spectroscopy was validated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, indicating its reliability and applicability to asses Fe content in CNTs. PMID:26491641

  8. Higher iron pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) provides more absorbable iron that is limited by increased polyphenolic content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Our objective was to compare the capacity of iron (Fe) biofortified and standard pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It is common primarily in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, and ...

  9. The Content and Size of Hyaluronan in Biological Fluids and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Mary K.; Lee, Hong-Gee; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a simple repeating disaccharide polymer, synthesized at the cell surface by integral membrane synthases. The repeating sequence is perfectly homogeneous, and is the same in all vertebrate tissues and fluids. The polymer molecular mass is more variable. Most commonly, hyaluronan is synthesized as a high-molecular mass polymer, with an average molecular mass of approximately 1000–8000?kDa. There are a number of studies showing increased hyaluronan content, but reduced average molecular mass with a broader range of sizes present, in tissues or fluids when inflammatory or tissue-remodeling processes occur. In parallel studies, exogenous hyaluronan fragments of low-molecular mass (generally, <200?kDa) have been shown to affect cell behavior through binding to receptor proteins such as CD44 and RHAMM (gene name HMMR), and to signal either directly or indirectly through toll-like receptors. These data suggest that receptor sensitivity to hyaluronan size provides a biosensor of the state of the microenvironment surrounding the cell. Sensitive methods for isolation and characterization of hyaluronan and its fragments have been developed and continue to improve. This review provides an overview of the methods and our current state of knowledge of hyaluronan content and size distribution in biological fluids and tissues. PMID:26082778

  10. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  11. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  12. THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Bennett, David B.; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sayre, James; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Deng, Sophie; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectral properties of human cornea are explored as a function of central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal water content, and the clinical utility of THz-based corneal water content sensing is discussed. Three candidate corneal tissue water content (CTWC) perturbations, based on corneal physiology, are investigated that affect the axial water distribution and total thickness. The THz frequency reflectivity properties of the three CTWC perturbations were simulated and explored with varying system center frequency and bandwidths (Q-factors). The modeling showed that at effective optical path lengths on the order of a wavelength the cornea presents a lossy etalon bordered by air at the anterior and the aqueous humor at the posterior. The simulated standing wave peak-to-valley ratio is pronounced at lower frequencies and its effect on acquired data can be modulated by adjusting the bandwidth of the sensing system. These observations are supported with experimental spectroscopic data. The results suggest that a priori knowledge of corneal thickness can be utilized for accurate assessments of corneal tissue water content. The physiologic variation of corneal thickness with respect to the wavelengths spanned by the THz band is extremely limited compared to all other structures in the body making CTWC sensing unique amongst all proposed applications of THz medical imaging. PMID:26322247

  13. Versatile and Biomass Synthesis of Iron-based Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Matrix with High Iron Content and Tunable Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dongmao; Shi, Sheldon Q; Jiang, Dongping; Che, Wen; Gai, Zheng; Howe, Jane Y; More, Karren Leslie; Arockiasamy, Antonyraj

    2012-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs{at}C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP{at}C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP{at}C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 C (FeNP{at}C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP{at}C prepared at 800 C (FeNP{at}C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP{at}C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5-15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs{at}C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

  14. Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Skaat, Hadas; Shahar, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM) cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22419873

  15. Measuring iron in the brain using quantitative susceptibility mapping and X-ray fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weili; Nichol, Helen; Liu, Saifeng; Cheng, Yu-Chung N.; Haacke, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Measuring iron content in the brain has important implications for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), derived from magnetic resonance images, has been used to measure total iron content in vivo and in post mortem brain. In this paper, we show how magnetic susceptibility from QSM correlates with total iron content measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The relationship between susceptibility and ferritin iron was estimated at 1.10 ± 0.08 ppb susceptibility per ?g iron/g wet tissue, similar to that of iron in fixed (frozen/thawed) cadaveric brain and previously published data from unfixed brains. We conclude that magnetic susceptibility can provide a direct and reliable quantitative measurement of iron content and that it can be used clinically at least in regions with high iron content. PMID:23591072

  16. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite.

    PubMed

    Hone, David; Henderson, Donald M; Therrien, François; Habib, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite being known for nearly two centuries, new specimens of the derived non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus continue to be discovered and reveal new information about their anatomy and palaeobiology. Here we describe a specimen held in the collections of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Alberta, Canada that shows both preservation and impressions of soft tissues, and also preserves material interpreted as stomach contents of vertebrate remains and, uniquely, a putative coprolite. The specimen also preserves additional evidence for fibers in the uropatagium. PMID:26312182

  17. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Donald M.; Therrien, François; Habib, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being known for nearly two centuries, new specimens of the derived non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus continue to be discovered and reveal new information about their anatomy and palaeobiology. Here we describe a specimen held in the collections of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Alberta, Canada that shows both preservation and impressions of soft tissues, and also preserves material interpreted as stomach contents of vertebrate remains and, uniquely, a putative coprolite. The specimen also preserves additional evidence for fibers in the uropatagium. PMID:26312182

  18. RELEVANT MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE IRON CONTENT OF PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in strategies to improve the nutritional quality of our food supply, especially with respect to essential micronutrient minerals, such as iron. Recent estimates indicate that one-third of the world's population is at risk for iron-deficiency induced anemia, a condition con...

  19. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  20. The structure of tissue on cell culture-extracted thyroglobulin is independent of its iodine content.

    PubMed

    Delain, E; Aouani, A; Vignal, A; Couture-Tosi, E; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1987-02-01

    The major protein synthesized in vitro by the ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS 6H is the prothyroid hormone thyroglobulin. Purified from serum-free cell culture media using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the thyroglobulin dimer was analysed for iodine content and observed by electron microscopy. In their usual medium, the OVNIS 6H cells produce a very poorly iodinated thyroglobulin containing 0.05 I atom per molecule. When cultured with methimazole or propylthiouracil, two inhibitors of iodide organification, less than 0.007 I atom/molecules was found. These molecules purified from cell cultures were compared to those purified from ovine thyroid tissue containing 26 I atoms/mol. Despite large differences in iodine content, the three preparations all consist of 19 S thyroglobulin dimers with the classical ovoidal shape. The variability in size measurements remains in a 2% range for all thyroglobulin types. Consequently, no real significant variation can be found between the highly iodinated thyroglobulin isolated from tissue, and the poorly or non-iodinated thyroglobulins isolated from cells cultured with or without methimazole or propylthiouracil. PMID:3556752

  1. Evaluation of inelastic hadronic processes for 250 MeV proton interactions in tissue and iron using GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Ahmad, S

    2009-08-01

    When high-energy protons interact in beam delivery systems and are stopped in patients, a fraction of beam will undergo nuclear interactions that release secondary particles, in particular, neutrons of different energies. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo Code was used to simulate the interaction of 250 MeV proton beam in tissue and iron to calculate the energy and angular distributions of generated protons, neutrons and photons, and thus provide H* (10), the ambient dose equivalent. A modular physics list by utilising electromagnetic interactions and hadronic interactions was constructed. Three different GEANT4 models that include the low-energy parameterisation, binary cascade and pre-compound model with Bertini cascade for proton inelastic interactions were compared. The findings suggest that the models play critical roles in terms of secondary particle generation. Further benchmarks are necessary to select the best model predicting a realistic scenario. PMID:19689963

  2. Evaluation of Iron Content in Human Cerebral Cavernous Malformation using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huan; Liu, Tian; Wu, Ying; Thacker, Jon; Shenkar, Robert; Mikati, Abdul Ghani; Shi, Changbin; Dykstra, Conner; Wang, Yi; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Edelman, Robert R.; Awad, Issam A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and validate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for lesional iron quantification in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed in phantoms and 16 patients on a 3T scanner. QSM, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps were reconstructed from in vivo data acquired with a three-dimensional, multi-echo, and T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were correlated to SWI and R2* results. In addition, iron concentrations from surgically excised CCM lesion specimens were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and correlated with QSM measurements. Results The QSM images demonstrated excellent image quality for depicting CCM lesions in both sporadic and familial cases. Susceptibility measurements revealed a positive linear correlation with R2* values (R2 = 0.99 for total, R2 = 0.69 for mean; p < 0.01). QSM values of known iron-rich brain regions matched closely with previous studies and in interobserver consistency. A strong correlation was found between QSM and the concentration of iron phantoms (0.925, p < 0.01), as well as between QSM and mass spectroscopy estimation of iron deposition (0.999 for total iron, 0.86 for iron concentration; p < 0.01) in 18 fragments of 4 excised human CCM lesion specimens. Conclusions The ability of QSM to evaluate iron deposition in CCM lesions was illustrated via phantom, in vivo and ex vivo validation studies. QSM may be a potential biomarker for monitoring CCM disease activity and response to treatments. PMID:24619210

  3. Feasibility of combining spectra with texture data of multispectral imaging to predict heme and non-heme iron contents in pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Qin, Hao; Shi, Kefu; Zhou, Cunliu; Chen, Conggui; Hu, Xiaohua; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To precisely determine heme and non-heme iron contents in meat product, the feasibility of combining spectral with texture features extracted from multispectral imaging data (405-970 nm) was assessed. In our study, spectra and textures of 120 pork sausages (PSs) treated by different temperatures (30-80 °C) were analyzed using different calibration models including partial least squares regression (PLSR) and LIB support vector machine (Lib-SVM) for predicting heme and non-heme iron contents in PSs. Based on a combination of spectral and textural features, optimized PLSR models were obtained with determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.912 for heme and of 0.901 for non-heme iron prediction, which demonstrated the superiority of combining spectra with texture data. Results of satisfactory determination and visualization of heme and non-heme iron contents indicated that multispectral imaging could serve as a feasible approach for online industrial applications in the future. PMID:26212953

  4. Mutual interaction between iron homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is identified as an important medical problem. One of the pathologic conditions observed in obesity is systemic iron deficiency and hypoferremia. Along with a large number of studies indicating disturbed iron homeostasis in obesity, recent data indicate a cause-effect relationship between iron status and obesity-related pathologies. The primary objective of the article is to consider two aspects of the iron-obesity interplay: (1) the mechanisms leading to impaired iron balance, and (2) the pathways of iron participation in obesity-related pathogenesis. While considering disturbance of iron homeostasis in obesity, a number of potential mechanisms of hypoferremia are proposed. At the same time, the inflammation of obesity and obesity-related hepcidin and lipocalin 2 hyperproduction seem to be the most probable reasons of obesity-related hypoferremia. Oversecretion of these proteins leads to iron sequestration in reticuloendothelial system cells. The latter also leads to increased adipose tissue iron content, thus producing preconditions for adverse effects of local iron overload. Being a redox-active metal, iron is capable of inducing oxidative stress as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction. Iron-mediated mechanisms of toxicity may influence aspects of obesity pathogenesis possibly even leading to obesity aggravation. Thus, a mutual interaction between disturbance in iron homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis is proposed. All sides of this interaction should be considered to design new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of disturbed iron homeostasis in obesity. PMID:24916791

  5. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K. . E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

    2005-01-15

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

  6. Label-free and depth resolved optical sectioning of iron-complex deposits in sickle cell disease splenic tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, Genevieve D.; Adami, Alexander J.; Ahmed, Tahsin; Khan, Aamir; Chapman, Sarah; Andemariam, Biree; Thrall, Roger S.; Howard, Scott S.

    2015-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is performed on humanized sickle cell disease (SCD) mouse model splenic tissue. Distinct morphological and spectral features associated with SCD are identified and discussed in terms of diagnostic relevance. Specifically, spectrally unique splenic iron-complex deposits are identified by MPM; this finding is supported by TPEF spectroscopy and object size to standard histopathological methods. Further, iron deposits are found at higher concentrations in diseased tissue than in healthy tissue by all imaging methods employed here including MPM, and therefore, may provide a useful biomarker related to the disease state. These newly characterized biomarkers allow for further investigations of SCD in live animals as a means to gain insight into the mechanisms impacting immune dysregulation and organ malfunction, which are currently not well understood.

  7. Label-free and depth resolved optical sectioning of iron-complex deposits in sickle cell disease splenic tissue by multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Genevieve D; Adami, Alexander J; Ahmed, Tahsin; Khan, Aamir; Chapman, Sarah; Andemariam, Biree; Thrall, Roger S; Howard, Scott S

    2015-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is performed on humanized sickle cell disease (SCD) mouse model splenic tissue. Distinct morphological and spectral features associated with SCD are identified and discussed in terms of diagnostic relevance. Specifically, spectrally unique splenic iron-complex deposits are identified by MPM; this finding is supported by TPEF spectroscopy and object size to standard histopathological methods. Further, iron deposits are found at higher concentrations in diseased tissue than in healthy tissue by all imaging methods employed here including MPM, and therefore, may provide a useful biomarker related to the disease state. These newly characterized biomarkers allow for further investigations of SCD in live animals as a means to gain insight into the mechanisms impacting immune dysregulation and organ malfunction, which are currently not well understood. PMID:26042382

  8. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M F; Murty, U S N; Mahboob, M; Grover, Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe(2)O(3)-30nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000mg/kg bw of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3) -bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p>0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe(2)O(3)-30nm. Fe(2)O(3) NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe(2)O(3) NMs. PMID:23142030

  9. Effect of zinc on the content of chemical elements in the lung tissue during obesity in the experiment.

    PubMed

    Churin, B V; Trunova, V A; Sidorina, A V; Zvereva, V V; Astashov, V V

    2015-02-01

    We found no deviations from normalcy in the content of chemical elements (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and Sr) in the lungs of rats with mild alimentary obesity, but revealed redistribution of correlations between the elements indicating impaired metabolism in this organ. Zinc supplementation had no effect on the body weight and content of chemical elements (including zinc) in the lung tissue in rats fed high fat diet, but led to significant changes in the correlations between the elements. Bromine, rubidium, and strontium are actively involved in interelement interactions in the lung tissue. These elements should be given more attention in considering biological processes including alimentary obesity. PMID:25711662

  10. Polymorphisms in the calpastatin and mu-calpain genes associated with beef iron content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes with iron stored in muscle fibers in a population of beef cattle. The population consisted of a total of 259 steers produced by inseminating Hereford, Angus, or MARC III cows (¼ Hereford, ¼ Angus, ¼ Red ...

  11. Genetic and physiological analysis of iron content and bioavailability in maize kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, biof...

  12. Content of trace metals (iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, copper, nickel) in canned variegated scallops (Chlamys varia).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Angel J; González-Weller, Dailos; González, Tomás; Burgos, Antonio; Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2008-09-01

    This article presents the results obtained through a study of the concentration of trace metals (iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, copper, nickel) in some conserves of variegated scallops (Chlamys varia, Bivalvia, Mollusca). A total of 300 samples of seven different commercial brands (named A, B, D, H, J, L and M) and one processing type, 'scallop sauce', were analysed. Samples were collected weekly in a large shopping centre in Santa Cruz de Tenerife during a 12-month period. Variegated scallops have considerable concentrations of zinc, cupper and manganese, so that their dietary intake constitutes an important source of these metals. However, they have low concentrations of chrome and nickel, and the levels of iron are similar to those found in other bivalve molluscs. PMID:19086337

  13. Optimization and modeling of reduction of wastewater sludge water content and turbidity removal using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Ha; Han, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Economic and rapid reduction of sludge water content in sewage wastewater is difficult and requires special advanced treatment technologies. This study focused on optimizing and modeling decreased sludge water content (Y1) and removing turbidity (Y2) with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MION) using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). CCD and RSM were applied to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of mixing time (X1) and MION concentration (X2) on chemical flocculent performance. The results show that the optimum conditions were 14.1 min and 22.1 mg L(-1) for response Y1 and 16.8 min and 8.85 mg L(-1) for response Y2, respectively. The two responses were obtained experimentally under this optimal scheme and fit the model predictions well (R(2) = 97.2% for Y1 and R(2) = 96.9% for Y2). A 90.8% decrease in sludge water content and turbidity removal of 29.4% were demonstrated. These results confirm that the statistical models were reliable, and that the magnetic flocculation conditions for decreasing sludge water content and removing turbidity from sewage wastewater were appropriate. The results reveal that MION are efficient for rapid separation and are a suitable alterative to sediment sludge during the wastewater treatment process. PMID:26180919

  14. Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madl, Amy Kathleen

    Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the centriacinus were used to assess immediate and persistent effects. The oxidant and inflammatory capacity of microdissected airways of exposed animals was used to assess the ability to withstand an additional oxidant insult. Comparing the effects observed in the acute versus subacute inhalation studies, the effects of SWCNTs appeared to follow a dose-response pattern, where the effects were further pronounced and, in some cases, more persistent under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. In addition, results showed different timing and extent of responses resulting from exposure to SWCNTs containing varied amounts of iron. Depending on the endpoint of interest, responses of SWCNTs sometimes followed that of CB while in other circumstances matched that of crocidolite. Notably, FeSWCNTs exposed animals were unable to respond to an additional oxidant challenge and cSWCNTs exposed animals had a delayed and persistent development of mucous cells in the distal airways. In conclusion, while some toxicity endpoints follow patterns comparable to CB or crocidolite, the respiratory effects of inhaled FeSWCNTs and cSWCNTs appear to be unique. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these changes are suggestive of precursor events to pathologic changes that might develop under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. Systematic toxicity testing and intentional physicochemical modifications will provide further insights as to the mechanisms by which SWCNTs cause these unique effects. It would be of hope that nanomaterials, such as SWCNTs, can be designed in way to maximize their societal benefits through various energy, medical, and technological applications but minimize their potential human health and environmental risks.

  15. Effect of iron content on the structure and disorder of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses: A high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Im; Sur, Jung Chul; Lee, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Despite its geochemical importance and implications for the properties of natural magmatic melts, understanding the detailed structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses remains among the outstanding problems in geochemistry. This is mainly because solid-state NMR techniques, one of the most versatile experimental methods to probe the structure of oxide glasses, cannot be fully utilized for exploring the structural details of iron-bearing glasses as the unpaired electrons in Fe induce strong local magnetic fields that mask the original spectroscopic features (i.e., paramagnetic effect). Here, we report high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR spectra of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses (Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2, Fe3+/?Fe = 0.89 ± 0.04, thus containing both ferric and ferrous iron) with varying XFe2O3 [=Fe2O3/(Na2O + Fe2O3)], containing up to 22.9 wt% Fe2O3. This compositional series involves Fe-Na substitution at constant SiO2 contents of 66.7 mol% in the glasses. For both nuclides, the NMR spectra exhibit a decrease in the signal intensities and an increase in the peak widths with increasing iron concentration partly because of the paramagnetic effect. Despite the intrinsic difficulties that result from the pronounced paramagnetic effect, the 29Si and 17O NMR results yield structural details regarding the effect of iron content on Q speciation, spatial distribution of iron, and the extent of polymerization in the iron-bearing silicate glasses. The 29Si NMR spectra show an apparent increase in highly polymerized Q species with increasing XFe2O3 , suggesting an increase in the degree of melt polymerization. The 17O 3QMAS NMR spectra exhibit well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) peaks with varying iron concentration. By replacing Na2O with Fe2O3 (and thus with increasing iron content), the fraction of Na-O-Si decreases. Quantitative consideration of this effect confirms that the degree of polymerization is likely to increase with iron content and that Fe3+ is predominantly a network-former. The 17O NMR spectra suggest a moderate degree of preferential partitioning of iron between NBO and BO clusters. The present results bear strong promise for studying iron-bearing silicate glasses using solid-state NMR techniques, constraining the effect of iron content on the degree of polymerization. The observed changes in atomic structures of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses will be helpful for unraveling atomic origins of the properties of natural silicate melts.

  16. An unusual case of iron deficiency anemia is associated with extremely low level of transferrin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shuangying; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Juan; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-01-01

    A case study of a female patient, diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia, was unresponsive to oral iron treatment and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy, a clinical profile resembling the iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) disorder. However, the patient failed to exhibit microcytic phenotype, one of the IRIDA hallmarks. Biochemical assays revealed that serum iron, hepcidin, interluekin 6, and transferrin saturation were within the normal range of references or were comparable to her non-anemic offspring. Iron contents in serum and red blood cells and hemoglobin levels were measured, which confirmed the partial improvement of anemia after parenteral iron therapy. Strikingly, serum transferrin receptor in patient was almost undetectable, reflecting the very low activity of bone-marrow erythropoiesis. Our data demonstrate that this is not a case of systemic iron deficiency, but rather cellular iron deficit due to the low level of transferrin receptor, particularly in erythroid tissue. PMID:26339443

  17. PLANT SOURCES OF DIETARY IRON: DIVERSITY IN TISSUE IRON CONCENTRATION. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON IRON NUTRITION AND INTERACTIONS IN PLANTS, JULY 3-7, 2006, MONTPELLIER, FRANCE. 2006. P. 56.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an essential mineral for all organisms, including humans and other animals. Iron must be obtained through dietary sources, and plant food products are an important provider of this micronutrient. Because all plants contain iron, humans consume this nutrient in all vegetable, grain, and fru...

  18. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

  19. Evaluation of Brain Iron Content Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Comparison among Phase Value, R2* and Magnitude Signal Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shen-Qiang; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Yan, Yu-Qing; Wang, He; Lou, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are being exploited to measure brain iron levels increasingly as iron deposition has been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. However, there remains no unified evaluation of these methods as postmortem measurement isn't commonly available as the reference standard. The purpose of this study was to make a comparison among these methods and try to find a new index of brain iron. Methods We measured both phase values and R2* in twenty-four adults, and performed correlation analysis among the two methods and the previously published iron concentrations. We also proposed a new method using magnitude signal intensity and compared it with R2* and brain iron. Results We found phase value correlated with R2* in substantia nigra (r?=??0.723, p<0.001) and putamen (r?=??0.514, p?=?0.010), while no correlations in red nucleus (r?=??0.236, p?=?0.268) and globus pallidus (r?=??0.111, p?=?0.605). And the new magnitude method had significant correlations in red nucleus (r?=??0.593, p?=?0.002), substantia nigra (r?=??0.521, p?=?0.009), globus pallidus (r?=??0.750, p<0.001) and putamen (r?=??0.547, p?=?0.006) with R2*. A strong inverse correlation was also found between the new magnitude method and previously published iron concentrations in seven brain regions (r?=??0.982, P<0.001). Conclusions Our study indicates that phase value may not be used for assessing the iron content in some brain regions especially globus pallidus. The new magnitude method is highly consistent with R2* especially in globus pallidus, and we assume that this approach may be acceptable as an index of iron content in iron-rich brain regions. PMID:22363719

  20. Iron and zinc content of selected foods in the diet of schoolchildren in Kumi district, east of Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake. Methods The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis. Results Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc. Conclusions The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination. PMID:21827701

  1. Noble gas content and isotope abundances in phases of the Saint-Aubin (UNGR) iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Chikako; Matsuda, Jun-Ichi; Kurat, Gero

    2008-08-01

    We analyzed the noble gas isotopes in the Fe-Ni metal and inclusions of the Saint-Aubin iron meteorite, utilizing the stepwise heating technique to separate the various components of noble gases. The light noble gases in all samples are mostly cosmogenic, with some admixture from the terrestrial atmosphere. Total abundances of noble gases in metal are one of the lowest found so far in iron meteorites and the 4He/21Ne ratio is as high as 503, suggesting that the Saint-Aubin iron meteorite was derived from a very large meteoroid in space. The exposure ages obtained from cosmogenic 3He were 9-16 Ma. Saint-Aubin is very peculiar because it contains very large chromite crystals, which—like the metal—contain only cosmogenic and atmospheric noble gases. The noble gases in all the samples do not reveal any primordial components. The only exception is the 1000 °C fraction of schreibersite which contained about 5% of the Xe-HL component. The Xe-Q and the El Taco Xe components were not found and only the Xe-HL is present in this fraction. Some presolar diamond, the only carrier for the HL component known today, must have been available during growth of the schreibersite. However, it is also possible that this excess is due to the addition of cosmogenic and fission components. In this case, all the primordial components are masked (or lost) by the later events such as cosmic-ray irradiation, heating, and radioactive decay.

  2. The genetic architecture of zinc and iron content in maize grains as revealed by QTL mapping and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tiantian; Zhou, Jinfeng; Chen, Jingtang; Zhu, Liying; Zhao, Yongfeng; Huang, Yaqun

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency in diets, has aroused worldwide attention. Biofortification of food crops has been considered as a promising approach for alleviating this deficiency. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to dissect the genetic mechanism of Zn and Fe content in maize grains using a total of 218 F2:3 families derived from a cross between inbred lines 178 and P53. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detect Meta-QTL (MQTL) across several independent QTL researches for traits related to Zn or Fe content. Five significant QTLs and 10 MQTLs were detected. Two informative genomic regions, bins 2.07 and 2.08, showed a great importance for Zn and Fe content QTLs. The correlation between Zn and Fe level in maize grains was proposed by MQTLs as 8 of the 10 involved both traits. The results of this study suggest that QTL mapping and meta-analysis is an effective approach to understand the genetic basis of Zn and Fe accumulation in maize grains. PMID:24273427

  3. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  4. Influence of the Mn content on the kinetics of austempering transformation in compacted graphite cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C.; Laneri, K.; Gregorutti, R.; Sarutti, J. L.

    1999-11-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy has been used to monitor the kinetics of austempering transformation in two compacted graphite (CG) cast irons alloyed with 0.11 and 0.58 wt pct of Mn, respectively. The phase relations were analyzed in terms of the Johnson-Mehl’s equation, determining the kinetics parameters n (time exponent) and k (constant rate of the transformation). The values obtained were n=1.4 and k=7.47 × 10-3 s-1 for the low-Mn alloy, and n=2.2 and k=3.9×10-3 s-1 for the high-Mn alloy. These results, which reveal a faster kinetics for the low-Mn alloy, are coherent with metallographic observations, and the driving force obtained through the determination of the austenite carbon concentration that was determined from the Mossbauer data using the Genins model for the Fe-C configurations in the fcc lattice. The kinetics parameters are further compared to those obtained in austempered ductile iron (ADI), by analyzing the graphite morphology influence on the austempering transformation.

  5. Effect of iron content on the electrical conductivity of perovskite and magnesiowuestite assemblages at lower mantle conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of (Mg/0.76/Fe/0.24/)SiO3 perovskite and of an assemblage of (Mg/0.89/Fe/0.11/)SiO3 perovskite + (Mg/0.70/Fe/0.30/)O magnesiowiestite was measured at pressures of 45-80 GPa and temperatures from 295 to 3600 K. The apparent activation energy for electrical conduction is 0.24 (+ or - 0.10) eV for the perovskite and 0.20 (+ or - 0.08) eV for the perovskite + magnesiowuestite assemblage. Comparing present results with those derived previously for Fe-poor samples, it is found that the electrical conductivities of both the silicate perovskite and the perovskite + magnesiowuestite assemblage depend strongly on iron content. Thus, the electrical conductivity distribution inside the earth could provide an important constraint in modeling the composition of the lower mantle.

  6. X-Ray Methods to Estimate Breast Density Content in Breast Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraghechi, Borna

    This work focuses on analyzing x-ray methods to estimate the fat and fibroglandular contents in breast biopsies and in breasts. The knowledge of fat in the biopsies could aid in their wide-angle x-ray scatter analyses. A higher mammographic density (fibrous content) in breasts is an indicator of higher cancer risk. Simulations for 5 mm thick breast biopsies composed of fibrous, cancer, and fat and for 4.2 cm thick breast fat/fibrous phantoms were done. Data from experimental studies using plastic biopsies were analyzed. The 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick plastic samples consisted of layers of polycarbonate (lexan), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-lucite) and polyethylene (polyet). In terms of the total linear attenuation coefficients, lexan ? fibrous, lucite ? cancer and polyet ? fat. The detectors were of two types, photon counting (CdTe) and energy integrating (CCD). For biopsies, three photon counting methods were performed to estimate the fat (polyet) using simulation and experimental data, respectively. The two basis function method that assumed the biopsies were composed of two materials, fat and a 50:50 mixture of fibrous (lexan) and cancer (lucite) appears to be the most promising method. Discrepancies were observed between the results obtained via simulation and experiment. Potential causes are the spectrum and the attenuation coefficient values used for simulations. An energy integrating method was compared to the two basis function method using experimental and simulation data. A slight advantage was observed for photon counting whereas both detectors gave similar results for the 4.2 cm thick breast phantom simulations. The percentage of fibrous within a 9 cm diameter circular phantom of fibrous/fat tissue was estimated via a fan beam geometry simulation. Both methods yielded good results. Computed tomography (CT) images of the circular phantom were obtained using both detector types. The radon transforms were estimated via four energy integrating techniques and one photon counting technique. Contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and pixel values between different regions of interest were analyzed. The two basis function method and two of the energy integrating methods (calibration, beam hardening correction) gave the highest and more linear curves for contrast and SNR.

  7. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism. PMID:26458428

  8. A NAC Gene Regulating Senescence Improves Grain Protein, Zinc, and Iron Content in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing the nutritional value of food crops is a sensible strategy for improving human nutrition and health. We report here the positional cloning of Gpc-B1, a wheat QTL associated with increased grain protein, Zn and Fe contents. The ancestral wild wheat allele encodes a NAC transcription factor ...

  9. [Effect of cooking on content of nitrates, vitamin C, magnesium and iron in spinach].

    PubMed

    Astier-Dumas, M

    1975-01-01

    Cooking is known to lower the mineral and vitaminic content of foodstuffs. Recently, contaminant became to be a problem in foods, and it was proposed to use blanching or boiling to diminish contaminant residues in foods, specially vegetables. An example of this attitude is given by the use of blanching to lower nitrates levels in spinach specially prepared for baby foods. PMID:1211733

  10. In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conturo, Thomas Edward

    Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The foldover in magnified images was eliminated by exciting limited regions with orthogonal pi/2 and pi pulses. Off-midline regions were imaged by tandemly offsetting the phase-encoding and excitation. Artifacts due to non-steady-state conditions were demonstrated. The approach to steady state was defined by operators and vectors, and any repeated series of RF pulses was proven to produce a steady-state. The vector difference between the magnetization and its steady state value is relatively constant during the approach. The repetition time relative to T_1 is the main determinant of approach rate, and off-resonant RF pulses incoherent with the magnetization produce a more rapid approach than on-resonant pulses.

  11. Contraction and increase in tissue calcium content induced by maitotoxin, the most potent known marine toxin, in intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ohizumi, Y.; Yasumoto, T.

    1983-01-01

    Maitotoxin (MTX), the most potent known marine toxin, isolated from toxic dinoflagellates and poisonous fish, caused a dose-dependent contraction of the guinea-pig isolated ileum and taenia caeci at concentrations of 100 pg to 30 ng/ml. These contractile responses to MTX (3 ng/ml) in both tissues were abolished by incubation in Ca2+-free solution and were markedly inhibited by treatment with methoxyverapamil (D600), but were not affected by tetrodotoxin and atropine. Furthermore, MTX markedly elevated tissue Ca2+ content of the taenia caeci. These results suggest that MTX activates Ca2+ channels in the smooth muscle membrane of both tissues to increase Ca2+ influx and thus induces contractions. PMID:6871549

  12. Contraction and increase in tissue calcium content induced by maitotoxin, the most potent known marine toxin, in intestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ohizumi, Y; Yasumoto, T

    1983-05-01

    Maitotoxin (MTX), the most potent known marine toxin, isolated from toxic dinoflagellates and poisonous fish, caused a dose-dependent contraction of the guinea-pig isolated ileum and taenia caeci at concentrations of 100 pg to 30 ng/ml. These contractile responses to MTX (3 ng/ml) in both tissues were abolished by incubation in Ca2+-free solution and were markedly inhibited by treatment with methoxyverapamil (D600), but were not affected by tetrodotoxin and atropine. Furthermore, MTX markedly elevated tissue Ca2+ content of the taenia caeci. These results suggest that MTX activates Ca2+ channels in the smooth muscle membrane of both tissues to increase Ca2+ influx and thus induces contractions. PMID:6871549

  13. Quantitation of dopamine, serotonin and adenosine content in a tissue punch from a brain slice using capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Huaifang; Pajski, Megan L.; Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Methods to determine neurochemical concentrations in small samples of tissue are needed to map interactions among neurotransmitters. In particular, correlating physiological measurements of neurotransmitter release and the tissue content in a small region would be valuable. HPLC is the standard method for tissue content analysis but it requires microliter samples and the detector often varies by the class of compound being quantified; thus detecting molecules from different classes can be difficult. In this paper, we develop capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection (CE-FSCV) for analysis of dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content in tissue punches from rat brain slices. Using field-amplified sample stacking, the limit of detection was 5 nM for dopamine, 10 nM for serotonin, and 50 nM for adenosine. Neurotransmitters could be measured from a tissue punch as small as 7 µg (7 nL) of tissue, three orders of magnitude smaller than a typical HPLC sample. Tissue content analysis of punches in successive slices through the striatum revealed higher dopamine but lower adenosine content in the anterior striatum. Stimulated dopamine release was measured in a brain slice, then a tissue punch collected from the recording region. Dopamine content and release had a correlation coefficient of 0.71, which indicates much of the variance in stimulated release is due to variance in tissue content. CE-FSCV should facilitate measurements of tissue content in nanoliter samples, leading to a better understanding of how diseases or drugs affect dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content. PMID:23795210

  14. Effect of Fixatives and Tissue Processing on the Content and Integrity of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Sedmak, Daniel; Jewell, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Clinical and molecular medicines are undergoing a revolution based on the accelerated advances in biotechnology such as DNA microarrays and proteomics. Answers to fundamental questions such as how does the DNA sequence differ between individuals and what makes one individual more prone for a certain disease are eagerly being sought in this postgenomic era. Several government and nonprofit organizations provide the researchers access to human tissues for molecular studies. The tissues procured by the different organizations may differ with respect to fixation and processing parameters that may affect significantly the molecular profile of the tissues. It is imperative that a prospective investigator be aware of the potential contributing factors before designing a project. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the methods of human tissue acquisition, fixation, and preservation. In addition, the parameters of procurement and fixation that affect the quality of the tissues at the molecular level are discussed. PMID:12466110

  15. Effect of fixatives and tissue processing on the content and integrity of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Sedmak, Daniel; Jewell, Scott

    2002-12-01

    Clinical and molecular medicines are undergoing a revolution based on the accelerated advances in biotechnology such as DNA microarrays and proteomics. Answers to fundamental questions such as how does the DNA sequence differ between individuals and what makes one individual more prone for a certain disease are eagerly being sought in this postgenomic era. Several government and nonprofit organizations provide the researchers access to human tissues for molecular studies. The tissues procured by the different organizations may differ with respect to fixation and processing parameters that may affect significantly the molecular profile of the tissues. It is imperative that a prospective investigator be aware of the potential contributing factors before designing a project. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the methods of human tissue acquisition, fixation, and preservation. In addition, the parameters of procurement and fixation that affect the quality of the tissues at the molecular level are discussed. PMID:12466110

  16. Cobalt and scandium partitioning versus iron content for crystalline phases in ultramafic nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassley, W.E.; Piper, D.Z.

    1978-01-01

    Fractionation of Co and Sc between garnets, olivines, and clino- and orthopyroxenes, separated from a suite of Salt Lake Crater ultramafic nodules that equilibrated at the same T and P, is strongly dependent on Fe contents. This observation suggests that petrogenetic equilibrium models of partial melting and crystal fractionation must take into account effects of magma composition, if they are to describe quantitatively geochemical evolutionary trends. ?? 1978.

  17. Application of VNIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate soil organic carbon content, and content of different forms of iron and manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Drabek, Ondrej; Boruvka, Lubos

    2013-04-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a progressive method used for prediction of soil properties. Study was performed on the soils from the agricultural land from the south Moravia municipality of Brumovice. Studied area is characterized by a relatively flat upper part, a tributary valley in the middle and a colluvial fan at the bottom. Haplic Chernozem reminded at the flat upper part of the area. Regosols were formed at steep parts of the valley. Colluvial Chernozem and Colluvial soils were formed at the bottom parts of the valley and at the bottom part of the studied field. The goal of the study was to evaluate relationship between soil spectra curves and organic matter content, and different forms iron and manganese content (Mehlich III extract, ammonium oxalate extract and dithionite-citrate extract). Samples (87) were taken from the topsoil within regular grid covering studied area. The soil spectra curves (of air dry soil and sieved using 2 mm sieve) were measured in the laboratory using spectometer FieldSpec®3 (350 - 2 500 nm). The Fe and Mn contents in different extract were measured using ICP-OES (with an iCAP 6500 Radial ICP Emission spectrometer; Thermo Scientific, UK) under standard analytical conditions. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for modeling of the relationship between spectra and measured soil properties. Prediction ability was evaluated using the R2, root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD). The results showed the best prediction for Mn (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 29, NRMSD = 0.11), Fe in ammonium oxalate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 171, NRMSD = 0.12) and organic matter content (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 0.13, NRMSD = 0.09). The slightly worse prediction was obtained for Mn and Fe in citrate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 21, NRMSD = 0.10; R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 522, NRMSD = 0.23). Poor prediction was evaluated for Mn and Fe in Mehlich III extract (R2 = 0.43, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.17; R2 = 0.39, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.26). In general, the results confirmed that the measurement of soil spectral characteristics is a promising technology for a digital soil mapping and predicting studied soil properties. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319) and the Czech Science Foundation (grant No. GA526/09/1762).

  18. The influence of humic acid and clay content on the transport of polymer-coated iron nanoparticles through sand.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bahngmi; O'Carroll, Denis; Sleep, Brent

    2014-10-15

    The introduction of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) into the subsurface has recently received significant attention as a potentially effective method for remediation of source zones of chlorinated solvents present as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). One of the challenges in the deployment of nZVI is to achieve good subsurface nZVI mobility to permit delivery of the nZVI to the target treatment zone. Stabilization of nZVI with various polymers has shown promise for enhancing nZVI subsurface mobility, but the impact of subsurface conditions on nZVI mobility has not been fully explored. In this study, the effect of humic acid and kaolinite on the transport of polymer-stabilized nZVI (carboxylmethyl cellulose-surface modified nZVI, CMC90K-RNIP) in sand was investigated using column experiments. In addition, effects of electrolytes on the stability of CMC90K-RNIP in the presence of humic acid, and the stability of humic acid-coated reactive nanoscale iron particles (HA-RNIP) at various humic acid concentrations were investigated. Humic acid enhanced the mobility of bare RNIP, whereas the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was not significantly affected by humic acid injected as a background solution, except at the highest concentration of 500mg/L. At lower pore water velocity, the effect of humic acid on the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was greater than that at high water velocity. Adding kaolinite up to 2% by weight to the sand column reduced the retention of CMC90K-RNIP, but further increases in kaolinite content (to 5%) did not significantly affect nZVI retention. The impact of kaolinite on nZVI retention was more pronounced at lower pore water velocities. PMID:25079234

  19. Rat liver regeneration: the novel use of hepatic iron content after iron loading as a stable reference base for evaluation of the effects of chemical sympathectomy of 6-OH-dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Toribara, N.W.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes: (a) the development of methods to quantitate hepatic regeneration in the rat after 2/3 hepatectomy and (b) the application of these methods to assessing the effects on the regenerating liver of pretreating rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (abbr. 60HDA), a specific sympathetic neurotoxin. A major difficulty in the investigation of hepatic regeneration has been the lack of an analytical reference standard. Experiments are described in which rats were injected with 50 mg of iron (as iron dextran) in order to iron load their livers. Stored hepatic iron was found to be stable enough to be used as a reference standard in the regenerating rat liver system. The effectiveness of 60HDA in producing a chemical sympathectomy in the rat was tested by administering /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and measuring the uptake in the heart and in the liver. 60HDA was used to assess the effects of destruction of the sympathetic nervous system on the regenerative response in the partially hepatectomized rat. Variations in the size of the thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) and thymidine diphosphate (dTDP) pools, and the increase in DNA content with time after partial hepatectomy were measured using hepatic iron as a reference standard. 150 references, 20 figures, 9 tables. (ACR)

  20. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world's population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes) has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains) and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA) metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings (NTS). Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of yellow stripe like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II) complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content. PMID:23755054

  1. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20??g?g?1 body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  2. Mouse genetic background impacts both on iron and non-iron metals parameters and on their relationships.

    PubMed

    Cavey, Thibault; Ropert, Martine; de Tayrac, Marie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Island, Marie-Laure; Leroyer, Patricia; Bendavid, Claude; Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Iron is reported to interact with other metals. In addition, it has been shown that genetic background may impact iron metabolism. Our objective was to characterize, in mice of three genetic backgrounds, the links between iron and several non-iron metals. Thirty normal mice (C57BL/6, Balb/c and DBA/2; n = 10 for each group), fed with the same diet, were studied. Quantification of iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese, magnesium and rubidium was performed by ICP/MS in plasma, erythrocytes, liver and spleen. Transferrin saturation was determined. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. As previously reported, iron parameters were modulated by genetic background with significantly higher values for plasma iron parameters and liver iron concentration in DBA/2 and Balb/c strains. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was lower in DBA/2 mice. No iron parameter was correlated with hepcidin1 mRNA levels. Principal component analysis of the data obtained for non-iron metals indicated that metals parameters stratified the mice according to their genetic background. Plasma and tissue metals parameters that are dependent or independent of genetic background were identified. Moreover, relationships were found between plasma and tissue content of iron and some other metals parameters. Our data: (i) confirms the impact of the genetic background on iron parameters, (ii) shows that genetic background may also play a role in the metabolism of non-iron metals, (iii) identifies links between iron and other metals parameters which may have implications in the understanding and, potentially, the modulation of iron metabolism. PMID:26041486

  3. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tom?ala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. PMID:25624225

  4. Effect of silica and volcanic ash on the content of lung alveolar and tissue phospholipids. [In rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Hatch, G.E.

    1984-10-01

    Silica or volcanic ash (VA) was administered to rats via intratracheal instillation and the changes in extracellular (i.e., lavage fluid) and tissue phospholipids, as well as various biochemical parameters, were monitored over a 6-month period. VA produced relatively minor (up to 2.8-fold) increases in lung tissue or lavage fluid phospholipids that were maximal at month postinstillation. These increases were quantitatively similar to the increases in protein and DNA content of lung tissue and lavage fluid induced by VA and, thus, may be attributable to hypercellularity and accumulation of cellular breakdown products in the alveolar lumen. Instillation of silica produced a much greater (up to 11-fold) increase than VA in total phospholipid over time, primarily due to a 14-fold increase in phosphatidylcholine (PC). The accumulation of PC was more pronounced in the lavage fluid during the first month following silica instillation, but thereafter progressed more rapidly in the lung tissue. The relatively small increases (1.3- to 3.5-fold) in other phospholipids induced by silica appeared to be nonspecific, since they did not differ greatly from the increases in lung weight, DNA, and protein. Collectively, these results indicate that intratracheal instillation of silica induces selective accumulation of lung PC, implying enhanced synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant from alveolar epithelial Type II cells into the lumen.

  5. Effect of hydroxyapatite content on physical properties and connective tissue reactions to a chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Hidaka, Y; Nakajima, M; Yagasaki, H; Kafrawy, A H

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect on certain physical properties of adding various amounts of hydroxyapatite (HAP) to chitosan sol. Also investigated were connective tissue reactions to a composite membrane that is being developed for possible use in guided tissue regeneration and for the limitation of HA particle migration at sites of implantation. The physical properties evaluated were shrinkage, tensile strength, hardness, calcium ion release, and morphology. Assessment of physical properties indicated that a ratio of HA to chitosan sol of 4/11 by weight is optimal in the preparation of the composite membrane. Subperiosteal implantation of the membranes over rat calvaria revealed that the membranes were well tolerated, with fibrous encapsulation and occasional areas of osteogenesis. Increasing the hydroxyapatite content seems to enhance membrane degradation. PMID:10397977

  6. Postmortem tissue contents of {sup 241}Am in a person with a massive acute exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McInroy, J.F.; Kathren, R.L.; Toohey, R.E. |

    1995-09-01

    {sup 241}Am was determined radiochemically in the tissues of USTUR Case 246, a 76-y-old man who died of cardiovascular disease 11 y after massive percutaneous exposure following a chemical explosion in a glove box. This worker was treated extensively with a chelation drug, DTPA, for over 4 y after exposure. The estimate {sup 241}Am deposition at the time of death was 540 kBq, of which 90% was in the skeleton, 5.1% in the liver, and 3.5% in muscle and fat. Among the soft tissues, the highest concentrations were observed in liver (22 Bq g{sup -1}), certain cartilaginous structures such as the larynx (15 Bq g{sup -1}) and the red marrow (9.7 Bq g{sup -1}), as compared with the mean soft tissue concentration of approximately 1 Bq g{sup -1}. Concentration in muscle was approximately that of the soft tissue average, while concentrations in the pancreas, a hilar lymph node and fat were less than the average. Concentrations in bone ash were inversely related to the ratio of ash weight to wet weight a surrogate for bone volume-to-surface ratio. the distribution of activity in this case is reasonable consistent with that observed in another human case, when allowance is made for chelation therapy, and also tends to support more recent models of {sup 241}Am metabolism. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Influence of age on lipase, amylase, and protease activities in pancreatic tissue and intestinal contents of young turkeys.

    PubMed

    Krogdahl, A; Sell, J L

    1989-11-01

    Day-old male turkeys were fed either a reference diet with 12% sucrose or experimental diets with 12% tallow or 12% animal-vegetable blend (A-V fat) replacing sucrose until 56 days of age. Poults were sampled at 1 day of age and every 2 to 7 days thereafter for determination of enzyme activities of pancreas and contents of the proximal one-fourth of the small intestine. In pancreatic tissue, trypsin, protease, and lipase activities increased with age after a lag period of about 14 days. Amylase activity increased rapidly during the first 14 days. In intestinal contents, trypsin, protease, and amylase increased from Day 1 until Day 21. Development of intestinal lipase activity seemed to depend on dietary fat level. Low activities were observed with low fat diets throughout the study. With high fat diets, a lag period of about 3 wk was followed by a five-fold increase in lipase activity. PMID:2481853

  8. Proteomic Analysis of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 and Implications for Estimates of the Cellular Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. A.; Bertrand, E. M.; Bulygin, V.; Moran, D.; Waterbury, J. B.

    2008-12-01

    The proteome of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 was analyzed by nanospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nLC-MS) with two major goals: to provide a first examination of the relative abundance of the most abundant proteins in this important microbe and to provide the necessary mass spectra for future quantification of biogeochemically significant proteins. Analyses of 37 nLC-MS runs of whole cell tryptic digestions and SDS-PAGE gel separated tryptic digestions resulted in a total of 636 proteins identified, 376 identified with two or more tryptic peptides. The identifications used the Sequest algorithm with stringent data filters on 54003 observed peptides, 3066 of which were unique, with a false positive rate of 2.2%. These measured proteins represent ~ 25.2% (14.8% with >= 2 peptides) of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, similar to or higher than the percentage found in other cyanobacterial proteome studies thus far. The relative abundance of the more abundant proteins in the proteome was examined using the exponentially modified protein abundance index from a single nLC-MS run that identified 372 proteins (14.7% of the ORFs) from 7743 observed peptides (1224 unique peptides). Estimates of the relative abundance showed the photosynthesis and respiration category contributing approximately 32% of the total detected protein, hypothetical proteins contributing about 16%, and translation about 12%. Of biogeochemical interest, multiple types of nitrogen assimilation systems were observed to be simultaneously expressed as proteins, only 5 of the 21 B12 biosynthesis proteins were identified likely due to low abundance, and the metalloproteins metallothionein and nickel superoxide dismutase were relatively abundant. In contrast to previous predictions of a high photosystem I: photosystem II ratio of approximately 3 in the cyanobacteria and a resultant high cellular iron content, the ratio of the average relative abundances of all detected proteins in each photosystem was only 1.2, and the median was only 0.72 based on the median. These results contradict the earlier predication of a biochemical basis for a high cellular iron in Synechococcus and may extend to the marine cyanobacteria in general.

  9. Determination of divalent iron content in igneous rocks of ultrabasic, basic and intermediate compositions by a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarov, Victor M.; Finkelshtein, Alexandr L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes the quantitative wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique of divalent iron content determination in igneous rocks and reports specifics of this technique in terms of classifying rocks into ultrabasic, basic, intermediate and acid ones. Unlike the widely used technique of titration, the proposed XRF technique does not require a labor-consuming procedure for sample preparation. In the fields of FeK?5 line, and FeK?? and FeK?? satellites relative intensities of XRF emission spectrum lines are dependent on the valence state of iron in minerals. The ratio FeK?5/FeK?1,3 is preferred as the analytical parameter. The XRF method allows divalent iron content (expressed as FeO oxide) over 1.5% to be measured in igneous rocks of ultrabasic and basic compositions by the common calibration equation with the error below 10 rel. %, that is comparable with the error of titrimetric analysis. The samples of igneous rocks of intermediate composition and granodiorites should be analyzed using calibration equations obtained with certified reference materials corresponding in composition to the study samples. For the samples of alkaline rocks the errors of FeO content determination might be in excess of 50 rel. %.

  10. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normalizing ?13C values of animal tissue for lipid content is necessary to accurately interpret food web relationships from stable isotope analysis. This is because lipids are 13C-depleted relative to proteins and carbohydrates, and because lipid content varies among speci...

  11. Iron content of ferritin modulates its uptake by intestinal epithelium: implications for co-transport of prions.

    PubMed

    Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Luo, Xiu; Das, Dola; Singh, Ajay; Singh, Neena

    2010-01-01

    The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease of humans and Mad Cow Disease of cattle, CWD is caused by PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Since PrPSc is sufficient to cause infection and neurotoxicity if ingested by a susceptible host, it is important to understand the mechanism by which it crosses the stringent epithelial cell barrier of the small intestine. Possible mechanisms include co-transport with ferritin in ingested food and uptake by dendritic cells. Since ferritin is ubiquitously expressed and shares considerable homology among species, co-transport of PrPSc with ferritin can result in cross-species spread with deleterious consequences. We have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal epithelial cell barrier to understand the role of ferritin in mediating PrPSc uptake and transport. In this report, we demonstrate that PrPSc and ferritin from CWD affected deer and elk brains and scrapie from sheep resist degradation by digestive enzymes, and are transcytosed across a tight monolayer of human epithelial cells with significant efficiency. Likewise, ferritin from hamster brains is taken up by mouse intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, indicating that uptake of ferritin is not limited by species differences as described for prions. More importantly, the iron content of ferritin determines its efficiency of uptake and transport by Caco-2 cells and mouse models, providing insight into the mechanism(s) of ferritin and PrPSc uptake by intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:20429907

  12. Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kaitha, Sindhu; Bashir, Muhammad; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-08-15

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is frequently overlooked as a complication. Patients with IBD are commonly found to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) secondary to chronic blood loss, and impaired iron absorption due to tissue inflammation. Patients with iron deficiency may not always manifest with signs and symptoms; so, hemoglobin levels in patients with IBD must be regularly monitored for earlier detection of anemia. IDA in IBD is associated with poor quality of life, necessitating prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. IDA is often associated with inflammation in patients with IBD. Thus, commonly used laboratory parameters are inadequate to diagnose IDA, and newer iron indices, such as reticulocyte hemoglobin content or percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin, are required to differentiate IDA from anemia of chronic disease. Oral iron preparations are available and are used in patients with mild disease activity. These preparations are inexpensive and convenient, but can produce gastrointestinal side effects, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, that limit their use and patient compliance. These preparations are partly absorbed due to inflammation. Non-absorbed iron can be toxic and worsen IBD disease activity. Although cost-effective intravenous iron formulations are widely available and have improved safety profiles, physicians are reluctant to use them. We present a review of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of IDA in IBD, improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, efficacy, and safety of iron replacement in IBD. PMID:26301120

  13. Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaitha, Sindhu; Bashir, Muhammad; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is frequently overlooked as a complication. Patients with IBD are commonly found to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) secondary to chronic blood loss, and impaired iron absorption due to tissue inflammation. Patients with iron deficiency may not always manifest with signs and symptoms; so, hemoglobin levels in patients with IBD must be regularly monitored for earlier detection of anemia. IDA in IBD is associated with poor quality of life, necessitating prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. IDA is often associated with inflammation in patients with IBD. Thus, commonly used laboratory parameters are inadequate to diagnose IDA, and newer iron indices, such as reticulocyte hemoglobin content or percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin, are required to differentiate IDA from anemia of chronic disease. Oral iron preparations are available and are used in patients with mild disease activity. These preparations are inexpensive and convenient, but can produce gastrointestinal side effects, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, that limit their use and patient compliance. These preparations are partly absorbed due to inflammation. Non-absorbed iron can be toxic and worsen IBD disease activity. Although cost-effective intravenous iron formulations are widely available and have improved safety profiles, physicians are reluctant to use them. We present a review of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of IDA in IBD, improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, efficacy, and safety of iron replacement in IBD. PMID:26301120

  14. A comparison of MRI tissue relaxometry and ROI methods used to determine regional brain iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hye-Jin; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Yeong Seon; Song, Huijin; Chang, Hyuk Won; Ku, Jeonghun; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J; Cho, Yong Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging relaxometry studies differed on the relaxometry methods and their approaches to determining the regions of interest (ROIs) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients. These differences could account for the variable and inconsistent results found across these studies. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the different relaxometry methods and different ROI approaches using each of these methods on a single population of controls and RLS subjects. Methods A 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging with the gradient-echo sampling of free induction decay and echo pulse sequence was used. The regional brain “iron concentrations” were determined using three relaxometry metrics (R2, R2*, and R2?) through two different ROI methods. The substantia nigra (SN) was the primary ROI with red nucleus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus as the secondary ROIs. Results Thirty-seven RLS patients and 40 controls were enrolled. The iron concentration as determined by R2 did not correlate with either of the other two methods, while R2* and R2? showed strong correlations, particularly for the substantia nigra and red nucleus. In the fixed-shape ROI method, the RLS group showed a lower iron index compared to the control group in the substantia nigra and several other regions. With the semi-automated ROI method, however, only the red nucleus showed a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion Both the relaxometry and ROI determination methods significantly influenced the outcome of studies that used these methods to estimate regional brain iron concentrations. PMID:26257527

  15. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. ?13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  16. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Castellini, J Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; Ballweber, Lora R

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from <1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. ?13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. PMID:26283618

  17. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Narayanan; Beyene, Getu; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Gaitán-Solis, Eliana; Grusak, Michael A; Taylor, Nigel; Anderson, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indicates a potential application for iron biofortification in crop plants. Here, we have overexpressed AtVIT1 in the starchy root crop cassava using a patatin promoter. Under greenhouse conditions, iron levels in mature cassava storage roots showed 3-4 times higher values when compared with wild-type plants. Significantly, the expression of AtVIT1 showed a positive correlation with the increase in iron concentration of storage roots. Conversely, young leaves of AtVIT1 transgenic plants exhibit characteristics of iron deficiency such as interveinal chlorosis of leaves (yellowing) and lower iron concentration when compared with the wild type plants. Interestingly, the AtVIT1 transgenic plants showed 4 and 16 times higher values of iron concentration in the young stem and stem base tissues, respectively. AtVIT1 transgenic plants also showed 2-4 times higher values of iron content when compared with wild-type plants, with altered partitioning of iron between source and sink tissues. These results demonstrate vacuolar iron sequestration as a viable transgenic strategy to biofortify crops and to help eliminate micronutrient malnutrition in at-risk human populations. PMID:26475197

  18. Analysis of iron, zinc, selenium and cadmium in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Gray, Michael A.; MacIas, V.; Centeno, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a valuable and abundant resource of pathologic material for various biomedical studies. In the present study, we report the application of high-resolution inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) for quantification of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd in FFPE prostate tissue. These elements have a possible role in the development of prostate diseases: while Zn and Se are needed for a healthy prostate, Cd shows multiple toxic and carcinogenic effects. Excessive accumulation of Fe induces the production of highly reactive hydroxyl radical species, which may play a role in cancer etiopathogenesis. To assess whether the levels of these metals in the FFPE prostate tissue represent their original content, we compared their levels with those in the fresh tissue (on dry weight basis) in samples obtained from 15 patients. We found that in FFPE tissue, the recoveries of Se, Fe, Cd and Zn were progressively decreased, 97??11% (r=0.88), 82??22% (r=0.86), 59??23% (r=0.69) and 24??11% (r=0.38), respectively. Thus, the use of correction factors, determined as k=0.16 for Se, k=0.20 for Fe, k=0.27 for Cd and k=0.67 for Zn, is required to estimate the retrospective levels of these elements in the parental non-processed fresh (wet) prostate tissue. The technique used in this study enables the analysis of archival FFPE prostate tissue for the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd to study association between the levels of these metals and prostate disease. ?? 2008.

  19. Characterization of exogeous particale content: Of canine tissue urban vs. rural inhalation exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Jamell

    Exogenous zinc (Zn) is emerging as a serious contaminant in the environment. Yearly deposition of zinc particles line heavily traveled inner city roadways and less traveled rural roadways. Particle size for zinc ranges from approximately PM10 to PM 2.5 microm or less. These fine particles contain microscopic solids or liquids that can cause serious health problems. PM10 are considered to be "thoracic" sized particles, with the mass fraction of inhaled particles penetrating beyond the larynx. Whereas, PM2.5 are considered to be "respirable" sized particles, with the mass fraction of inhaled particles penetrating to the unciliated airways. Exogenous zinc can be used as a quantifiable marker to contrast the differences in exposures in canines originating from urban and rural environments. These exposures are analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and usage of a morphometric point counting method for a physical count and categorization of composition of inhaled retained particle content.

  20. Chemical effects correlated to nitrogen content of iron nitride films observed in the Fe L-shell X-rays induced by 5-keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, R.; Bertol, A. P. L.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Castellano, G.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Iron nitride thin films, produced by reactive magnetron sputtering, were characterized with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. Their characteristic L-X-rays spectra, obtained with an electron microprobe analyzer equipped with a wavelength dispersive spectrometer, were compared to the spectrum of an iron standard. The spectra from the nitrides presented several chemical effects: change in the relative peak areas and shifts of the positions of the L?1,2 and the L?1 peaks (chemical shift). The change in relative peak areas, namely the ratio between the L?1 and the L?1,2 peaks, correlated well with the nitrogen content measured with RBS.

  1. Friction and wear with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide in contact with iron base binary alloys in oil: Effects of alloying element and its content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a rider of 0.025-millimeter-radius, single-crystal silicon carbide in mineral oil. Results indicate that atomic size and content of alloying element play a dominant role in controlling the abrasive-wear and -friction properties of iron-base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction and groove height (wear volume) general alloy decrease, and the contact pressure increases in solute content. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic radius ratio with the decreasing rate of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of groove height (wear volume), and the increasing rate of contact pressure with increasing solute content C. Those rates increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases from unity.

  2. Ultra High Content Image Analysis and Phenotype Profiling of 3D Cultured Micro-Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Di, Zi; Klop, Maarten J. D.; Rogkoti, Vasiliki-Maria; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E.; van de Water, Bob; Verbeek, Fons J.; Price, Leo S.; Meerman, John H. N.

    2014-01-01

    In many situations, 3D cell cultures mimic the natural organization of tissues more closely than 2D cultures. Conventional methods for phenotyping such 3D cultures use either single or multiple simple parameters based on morphology and fluorescence staining intensity. However, due to their simplicity many details are not taken into account which limits system-level study of phenotype characteristics. Here, we have developed a new image analysis platform to automatically profile 3D cell phenotypes with 598 parameters including morphology, topology, and texture parameters such as wavelet and image moments. As proof of concept, we analyzed mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 cells) in a 384-well plate format following exposure to a diverse set of compounds at different concentrations. The result showed concentration dependent phenotypic trajectories for different biologically active compounds that could be used to classify compounds based on their biological target. To demonstrate the wider applicability of our method, we analyzed the phenotypes of a collection of 44 human breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D and showed that our method correctly distinguished basal-A, basal-B, luminal and ERBB2+ cell lines in a supervised nearest neighbor classification method. PMID:25289886

  3. Cardiac denervation in the calf using cryoablation: functional evidence and regional tissue catecholamine content.

    PubMed

    Gaer, J A; Wharton, J; Gordon, L; Swift, R I; Munsch, C; Inglis, G C; Polak, J M; Taylor, K M

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-six calves were subjected to a technique of cryoablation in order to establish an animal model of complete cardiac denervation. All 26 survived the procedure, and 20 were alive to be re-evaluated 2-4 weeks later. Mean heart rate in the denervated animals rose from 77 +/- 7.8 beats/min to 102 +/- 16.4 (P less than 0.01). Cryoablation abolished the heart rate responses to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve and thoracic sympathetic trunk. The reduction in myocardial noradrenaline concentrations averaged 99% in the right atrium, 90% in the left atrium, 85% in the right ventricle and 90% in the left ventricle, when compared with tissue obtained from control animals. Cryoablation is a relatively simple means of accomplishing complete functional cardiac denervation in the calf. On the basis of the observed change in heart rate, the calf model appears to be more comparable with human heart transplant recipients than the dog. PMID:1586495

  4. A novel protein of rat neutrophils (NDP): its use in estimating the neutrophil content of solid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, D. A.; Dean, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    A protein has been isolated from rat neutrophils which does not appear to be present in other rat cells. This protein, which we have called neutrophil-derived protein or NDP, is confined to the cytosol of the cell and we estimate that it constitutes at least 6% of the total protein of the neutrophil. The native molecule is a cationic protein (pI approximately 9) of mol. wt 34-36,000 daltons that on SDS-PAGE yields two subunits of 10,000 and 13,000 daltons. The NDP does not bind lectins, is protease-resistant and strongly antigenic in the rabbit. Its behaviour on electrophoresis in agar and agarose show unusual features which may be relevant to other cationic proteins. NDP does not appear to correspond to any of the hitherto characterized neutrophil proteins and the only activity so far detected is a reaction of the protein with rat plasma (but not serum). Using simple immunological methods we have determined the concentration of NDP in various tissues of the rat to obtain an estimate of their neutrophil content. In addition, the NDP content in various body fluids has been determined. A similar protein to the rat NDP has been detected in the mouse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6786317

  5. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  6. A Hyperlipidic Diet Combined with Short-Term Ovariectomy Increases Adiposity and Hyperleptinemia and Decreases Cytokine Content in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Nelson Inacio Pinto; Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth Sousa; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6R?, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet. PMID:26170534

  7. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  8. Ferric iron content of ferropericlase as a function of composition, oxygen fugacity, temperature and pressure: Implications for redox conditions during

    E-print Network

    and pressure: Implications for redox conditions during diamond formation in the lower mantle Kazuhiko Otsuka a ferropericlase diffusion lower mantle diamond a b s t r a c t We investigated the ferric iron (Fe3þ stability limit of diamond in mantle peridotite at the top of the lower mantle at adiabatic or slightly

  9. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties. PMID:25582178

  10. Magnetically Guided Fabrication of Multilayered Iron Oxide/Polycaprolactone/Gelatin Nanofibrous Structures for Tissue Engineering and Theranostic Application.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingtao; Ge, Liangpeng; Wan, Wenbing; Jiang, Junzi; Zhong, Wen; Ouyang, Jun; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    A persistent challenge in tissue engineering is the fabrication of manipulatable scaffolds for implantation in clinical treatments and use in disease models for drug screening. Electrospinning of nanofibrous membranes is an emerging technology in artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) design that can offer precisely tunable microenvironments upon assembly into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that mimic the in vivo ECM structure. In this study, we report a facile and versatile strategy for preparing 3D multilayered constructs from Fe3O4/polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin nanofibrous membranes. This method combines membrane assembly with noncontact magnetic force to preserve the mechanical integrity and interconnectivity of the 3D scaffolds. An ordered layer structure can be achieved using a magnetic control technique through the addition of magnetic nanoparticles into the PCL/gelatin nanofibers. We first verified the magnetic properties and structures of magnetic nanofibers according to X-ray diffraction, hysteresis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We tested the potential toxicity and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells seeded on the layered scaffolds. To add further functionality to the scaffolds, the membranes were coated with silver nanoparticles and shown to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are responsible for most cases of infection-related implant failure. Finally, we tested the utility of magnetic membranes implanted in an animal model as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Scaffolds formed using the presented magnetically guided fabrication strategy have the potential to mimic the structure and function of human tissues and also may be applied in disease models to study cell-cell interactions. PMID:25951851

  11. THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Bennett, David B.; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sayre, James W.; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Deng, Sophie X.; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system and millimeter-wave reflectometer were used to acquire images and point measurements, respectively, of five rabbit cornea in vivo. These imaging results are the first ever produced of in vivo cornea. A modified version of a standard protocol using a gentle stream of air and a Mylar window was employed to slightly dehydrate healthy cornea. The sensor data and companion central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were acquired every 10–15 min over the course of two hours using ultrasound pachymmetry.. Statistically significant positive correlations were established between CCT measurements and millimeter wave reflectivity. Local shifts in reflectivity contrast were observed in the THz imagery; however, the THz reflectivity did not display a significant correlation with thickness in the region probed by the 100 GHz and CCT measurements. This is explained in part by a thickness sensitivity at least 10× higher in the mm-wave than the THz systems. Stratified media and effective media modeling suggest that the protocol perturbed the thickness and not the corneal tissue water content (CTWC). To further explore possible etalon effects, an additional rabbit was euthanized and millimeter wave measurements were obtained during death induced edema. These observations represent the first time that the uncoupled sensing of CTWC and CCT have been achieved in vivo. PMID:26161292

  12. A novel 3D high-content assay identifies compounds that prevent fibroblast invasion into tissue surrogates.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Carsten; Otto, Saskia; Prechtl, Stefan; Parczyk, Karsten; Steigemann, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    Invasion processes underlie or accompany several pathological processes but only a limited number of high-throughput capable phenotypic models exist to test anti-invasive compounds in vitro. We here evaluated 3D co-cultures as a high-content phenotypic screening system for fibrotic invasive processes. 3D multicellular spheroids were used as living tissue surrogates in co-culture with fluorescently labeled lung fibroblasts to monitor invasion processes by automated microscopy. This setup was used to screen a compound library containing 480 known bioactive substances. Identified hits prevented fibroblast invasion and could be subdivided into two hit classes. First, Prostaglandins were shown to prevent fibroblast invasion, most likely mediated by the prostaglandin EP2 receptor and generation of cAMP. Additionally, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors prevented fibroblast invasion, possibly by inactivation of myosin II. Importantly, both Prostaglandins and ROCK inhibitors are potential treatment options shown to be effective in in vitro and in vivo models of fibrotic diseases. This validates the presented novel phenotypic screening approach for the evaluation of potential inhibitors and the identification of novel compounds with activity in diseases that are associated with fibroblast invasion. PMID:26475730

  13. Iron Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  14. Complexes of iron with phenolic compounds from soybean nodules and other legume tissues: prooxidant and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Moran, J F; Klucas, R V; Grayer, R J; Abian, J; Becana, M

    1997-01-01

    The low-molecular-mass fraction of the soybean nodule cytosol contains Fe capable of catalyzing free radical production through Fenton chemistry. A large portion of the pool of catalytic Fe, measured as bleomycin-detectable Fe, was characterized as complexes of Fe with phenolic compounds of three classes: phenolic acids, cinnamic acids, and flavonoids. Many of these compounds, along with other phenolics present in legume tissues, were used for a systematic structure-activity relationship study. All phenolics tested were able to chelate Fe, as judged from their inhibitory effect on site-specific deoxyribose degradation (minus EDTA assay). However, only those having catechol, pyrogallol, or 3-hydroxy-4-carbonyl groupings were potent chelators and reductants of Fe3+ at pH 5.5. The same phenolics promoted oxidative damage to DNA (bleomycin assay) and to deoxyribose (plus EDTA assay), but inhibited linolenic acid peroxidation by chelating and reducing Fe3+ and by neutralizing lipid radicals. Also, phenolics having a pyrogallol nucleus attenuated the free radical-mediated inactivation of glutamine synthetase, which was used as a model system, by chelating Fe2+. It is reasoned that under the microaerobic (10-20 nM O2) and acidic (pH 5.5-6.4) conditions prevailing in nodules, phenolics are likely to act primarily as antioxidants, decreasing oxidative damage to biomolecules. PMID:9119255

  15. Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

  16. Effects of glycine on plasma and liver tissue changes of TNF-?, ET-1 and nitric oxide contents in rats with obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, He-Qing; Liu, Ying-Bin; Li, Hai-Jun; Peng, Shu-You; Wu, Yu-Lian; Xu, Bin; Wang, Jian-Wei; Li, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Xin-Bao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of glycine on plasma and liver tissue changes of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) contents in rats with obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Ninety healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 275 ± 25 g were randomly divided into sham-operated, bile duct-ligated, and bile duct-ligated plus glycine-treated groups, the latter was performed with 5% glycine solution substituting for tap water drunk ad libium for 5 d before and 6 d after operation. Blood and liver tissue were sampled at the time of sacrifice on the 8th day post operation. Plasma total bilirubin, endotoxin, levels, as well as TNF-?, ET-1 and NO contents in liver tissue were determined. RESULTS: Plasma endotoxin and total bilirubin levels were significantly higher in both bile duct-ligated and bile duct-ligated plus glycine-treated rats than in sham-operated animals (P = 0.000613, 0.00921 and 0.00737, 0.00841 respectively), whereas they did not display any statistically significant difference between the former groups (P = 0.417 and 0.374 respectively). Likewise, TNF-?, ET-1 and NO contents in both plasma and liver tissue were significantly increased in both bile duct-ligated and bile duct-ligated plus glycine-treated rats compared with sham-operated animals (P = 0.00813, 0.00793, 0.00671, 0.00804, 0.00872, and 0.00947 in plasma and 0.00531, 0.00785, 0.00912, 0.00981 and 0.00635 in liver tissue respectively). However, these inflammatory mediators in both plasma and liver tissue were significantly reduced in bile duct-ligated rats fed on 5% glycine solution compared with that without (P = 0.00953, 0.00891, 0.0795, 0.00867, 0.0697 and 0.00907 in plasma and liver tissue respectively). CONCLUSION: Reduction of TNF-?, ET-1 and NO contents in plasma and liver tissue of rats fed on glycine may be helpful to alleviate pathological lesions in obstructive jaundice. PMID:14562417

  17. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves. PMID:25624215

  18. Ferritin: the protein nanocage and iron biomineral in health and in disease.

    PubMed

    Theil, Elizabeth C

    2013-11-01

    At the center of iron and oxidant metabolism is the ferritin superfamily: protein cages with Fe(2+) ion channels and two catalytic Fe/O redox centers that initiate the formation of caged Fe2O3·H2O. Ferritin nanominerals, initiated within the protein cage, grow inside the cage cavity (5 or 8 nm in diameter). Ferritins contribute to normal iron flow, maintenance of iron concentrates for iron cofactor syntheses, sequestration of iron from invading pathogens, oxidant protection, oxidative stress recovery, and, in diseases where iron accumulates excessively, iron chelation strategies. In eukaryotic ferritins, biomineral order/crystallinity is influenced by nucleation channels between active sites and the mineral growth cavity. Animal ferritin cages contain, uniquely, mixtures of catalytically active (H) and inactive (L) polypeptide subunits with varied rates of Fe(2+)/O2 catalysis and mineral crystallinity. The relatively low mineral order in liver ferritin, for example, coincides with a high percentage of L subunits and, thus, a low percentage of catalytic sites and nucleation channels. Low mineral order facilitates rapid iron turnover and the physiological role of liver ferritin as a general iron source for other tissues. Here, current concepts of ferritin structure/function/genetic regulation are discussed and related to possible therapeutic targets such as mini-ferritin/Dps protein active sites (selective pathogen inhibition in infection), nanocage pores (iron chelation in therapeutic hypertransfusion), mRNA noncoding, IRE riboregulator (normalizing the ferritin iron content after therapeutic hypertransfusion), and protein nanovessels to deliver medicinal or sensor cargo. PMID:24102308

  19. The Metal Content of Bulge Field Stars from FLAMES-GIRAFFE Spectra. I. Stellar parameters and Iron Abundances

    E-print Network

    M. Zoccali; V. Hill; A. Lecureur; B. Barbuy; A. Renzini; D. Minniti; A. Gomez; S. Ortolani

    2008-05-08

    We determine the iron distribution function (IDF) for bulge field stars, in three different fields along the Galactic minor axis and at latitudes b=-4 deg, b=-6 deg, and b=-12 deg. A fourth field including NGC6553 is also included in the discussion. About 800 bulge field K giants were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph of FLAMES@VLT at spectral resolution R~20,000. Several of them were observed again with UVES at R~45,000 to insure the accuracy of the measurements. The LTE abundance analysis yielded stellar parameters and iron abundances that allowed us to construct an IDF for the bulge that, for the first time, is based on high-resolution spectroscopy for each individual star. The IDF derived here is centered on solar metallicity, and extends from [Fe/H]~ -1.5 to [Fe/H]~ +0.5. The distribution is asymmetric, with a sharper cutoff on the high-metallicity side, and it is narrower than previously measured. A variation in the mean metallicity along the bulge minor axis is clearly between b=-4 deg and b=-6 deg ([Fe/H] decreasing by ~ 0.6 dex per kpc). The field at b=-12 deg is consistent with the presence of a gradient, but its quantification is complicated by the higher disk/bulge fraction in this field. Our findings support a scenario in which both infall and outflow were important during the bulge formation, and then suggest the presence of a radial gradient, which poses some challenges to the scenario in which the bulge would result solely from the vertical heating of the bar.

  20. Meat quality, fatty acid composition of tissue and gastrointestinal content, and antioxidant status of lamb fed seed of a halophyte (Suaeda glauca).

    PubMed

    Sun, H X; Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Wang, M L; Sun, J Y; Zhou, D W

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs were randomly assigned to four treatments: control diet (CT) consisting of 300g concentrates with ad libitum Leymus chinensis hay; C with 150g (T150), 300g (T300) and 450g (T450) Suaeda glauca seed, respectively. Meat quality, fatty acid composition of meat and lipid tissue and antioxidant status of lamb were evaluated. Inclusion of S. glauca seeds significantly increased selenium (Se) concentrations of muscle. The proportions of C18:1 trans-11 in muscle, C18:2 n-6, PUFA, n-6 series fatty acids, and the ratios of P:S in rumen contents, as well as the ratios of n-6:n-3 in adipose tissue, rumen and duodenum content have been significantly (P<0.05) improved with supplementation of S. glauca seeds to lamb diets. No significant effect was found on antioxidant status. The results suggest that S. glauca seed supplementation in lamb diets may change fatty acid composition in tissues and content of digestive tract. PMID:25282041

  1. Effect of Melting Iron-Based Alloy Temperature on Carbon Content Observed in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaomei; Chang, Penghui; Chen, Gehua; Lin, Jingjun; Liu, Ruixiang; Yang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    Our recent work has determined the carbon content in a melting ferroalloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The emission spectrum of carbon that we obtained in the laboratory is suitable for carbon content determination in a melting ferroalloy but we cannot get the expected results when this method is applied in industrial conditions: there is always an unacceptable error of around 4% between the actual value and the measured value. By comparing the measurement condition in the industrial condition with that in the laboratory, the results show that the temperature of the molten ferroalloy samples to be measured is constant under laboratory conditions while it decreases gradually under industrial conditions. However, temperature has a considerable impact on the measurement of carbon content, and this is the reason why there is always an error between the actual value and the measured value. In this paper we compare the errors of carbon content determination at different temperatures to find the optimum reference temperature range which can fit the requirements better in industrial conditions and, hence, make the measurement more accurate. The results of the comparative analyses show that the measured value of the carbon content in molten state (1620 K) is consistent with the nominal value of the solid standard sample (error within 0.7%). In fact, it is the most accurate measurement in the solid state. Based on this, we can effectively improve the accuracy of measurements in laboratory and can provide a reference standard of temperature for the measurement in industrial conditions. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51374040), and supported by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy Equipment Development and Application, China (No. 2014YQ120351)

  2. Nitrogen content of Letharia vulpina tissue from forests of the Sierra Nevada, California: geographic patterns and relationships to ammonia estimates and climate.

    PubMed

    Jovan, Sarah; Carlberg, Tom

    2007-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is a growing concern in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, which lie downwind of the highly populated and agricultural Central Valley. Nitrogen content of Letharia vulpina tissue was analyzed from 38 sites using total Kjeldahl analysis to provide a preliminary assessment of N deposition patterns. Collections were co-located with plots where epiphytic macrolichen communities are used for estimating ammonia (NH(3)) deposition. Tissue N ranged from 0.6% to 2.11% with the highest values occurring in the southwestern Sierra Nevada (range: 1.38 to 2.11). Tissue N at 17 plots was elevated, as defined by a threshold concentration of 1.03%. Stepwise regression was used to determine the best predictors of tissue N from among a variety of environmental variables. The best model consisted only of longitude (r(2) = 0.64), which was reflected in the geographic distribution of tissue values: the southwestern Sierra Nevada, the high Sierras near the Tahoe Basin, and the Modoc Plateau, are three apparent N hotspots arranged along the tilted north-south axis of the study area. Withholding longitude and latitude, the best regression model suggested that NH(3) estimates and annual number of wetdays interactively affect N accumulation (r(2) = 0.61; % N approximately NH(3) + wetdays + (NH(3) x wetdays)). We did not expect perfect correspondence between tissue values and NH(3) estimates since other N pollutants also accumulate in the lichen thallus. Additionally, other factors potentially affecting N content, such as growth rate and leaching, were not given full account. PMID:17057974

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  4. Differences in fluorescence profiles from breast cancer tissues due to changes in relative tryptophan content via energy transfer: tryptophan content correlates with histologic grade and tumor size but not with lymph node metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between histologic grade, an increasingly important measure of prognosis for patients with breast cancer, and tryptophan levels from tissues of 15 breast carcinoma patients was investigated. Changes in the relative content of key native organic biomolecule tryptophan were seen from the fluorescence spectra of cancerous and paired normal tissues with excitation wavelengths of 280 and 300 nm. Due to a large spectral overlap and matching excitation-emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan-donor to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides-acceptor was noted. We used the ratios of fluorescence intensities at their spectral emission peaks, or spectral fingerprint peaks, at 340, 440, and 460 nm. Higher ratios correlated strongly with high histologic grade, while lower-grade tumors had low ratios. Large tumor size also correlated with high ratios, while the number of lymph node metastases, a major factor in staging, was not correlated with tryptophan levels. High histologic grade correlates strongly with increased content of tryptophan in breast cancer tissues and suggests that measurement of tryptophan content may be useful as a part of the evaluation of these patients.

  5. ProPSA and Diagnostic Biopsy Tissue DNA Content Combination Improves Accuracy to Predict Need for Prostate Cancer Treatment Among Men Enrolled in an Active Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Isharwal, Sumit; Makarov, Danil V.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Landis, Patricia; Marlow, Cameron; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Veltri, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess a novel application of the Prostate Health Index (phi) and biopsy tissue DNA content in benign-adjacent and cancer areas to predict which patients would eventually require treatment of prostate cancer in the Proactive Surveillance cohort. METHODS We identified 71 men who had had serum and biopsy tissue from their diagnosis banked and available for the present study. Of the 71 patients, 39 had developed unfavorable biopsy findings and 32 had maintained favorable biopsy status during surveillance. The serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and [?2]proPSA were measured using the Beckman Coulter immunoassay. The DNA content measurements of Feulgen-stained biopsy sections were performed using the AutoCyte imaging system. RESULTS The ratio of phi was significantly greater (37.23 ± 15.76 vs 30.60 ± 12.28; P = .03) in men who ultimately had unfavorable biopsy findings. The serum phi ratio (P = .003), [?2]proPSA/%fPSA (P = .004), biopsy tissue DNA content (ie, benign-adjacent excess of optical density, P = .019; and cancer area standard deviation of optical density, P = .002) were significant predictors of unfavorable biopsy conversion on Cox regression analysis. However, phi and [?2]proPSA/%fPSA showed a highly significant correlation (rho = 0.927, P < .0001) and no difference in accuracy (c-index, 0.6247 vs 0.6158; P = .704) for unfavorable biopsy conversion prediction. Furthermore, phi and [?2]proPSA/%fPSA remained significant (P = .047 and P = .036, respectively) in the multivariate models and, combined with the biopsy tissue DNA content, showed improvement in the predictive accuracy (c-index, 0.6908 and 0.6884, respectively) for unfavorable biopsy conversion. CONCLUSIONS The Prostate Health Index to proPSA/%fPSA, combined with biopsy tissue DNA content, improved the accuracy to about 70% to predict unfavorable biopsy conversion at the annual surveillance biopsy examination among men enrolled in an Active Surveillance program. PMID:21216447

  6. Evaluation of the content and bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium from groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content and the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg) in commonly consumed food products, such as cereal groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts purchased from the local market. The contents of Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg in foods were assayed after dry ashing of samples, while the bioaccessibility of these minerals after enzymatic in vitro digestion, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A relatively high content of Fe was found in cashew nuts and green lentils, while cashew nuts and buckwheat groats had the highest concentration of Zn. It was found that the highest amount of macro-elements was generally in nuts, in particular: brazil nuts (Ca and Mg), cashews (Mg) and hazelnuts (Ca and Mg). Concerning the mineral bioaccessibility, the highest values for Fe were obtained in cashew nuts and green lentils (2.8 and 1.7 mg/100 g), for Zn in green lentils (2.1 mg/100 g), for Ca in brazil nuts and shelled pea (32.6 and 29.1 mg/100 g), while for Mg in shelled peas and green lentils (43.4 and 33.9 mg/100 g). Generally, the best sources of bioaccessible minerals seem to be leguminous grains and nuts. PMID:24587537

  7. Effect of arsenic content and quenching temperature on solidification microstructure and arsenic distribution in iron-arsenic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Wen-bin; Song, Bo; Huang, Chuan-gen; Song, Ming-ming; Song, Gao-yang

    2015-07-01

    The solidification microstructure, grain boundary segregation of soluble arsenic, and characteristics of arsenic-rich phases were systematically investigated in Fe-As alloys with different arsenic contents and quenching temperatures. The results show that the solidification microstructures of Fe-0.5wt%As alloys consist of irregular ferrite, while the solidification microstructures of Fe-4wt%As and Fe-10wt%As alloys present the typical dendritic morphology, which becomes finer with increasing arsenic content and quenching temperature. In Fe-0.5wt%As alloys quenched from 1600 and 1200°C, the grain boundary segregation of arsenic is detected by transmission electron microscopy. In Fe-4wt%As and Fe-10wt%As alloys quenched from 1600 and 1420°C, a fully divorced eutectic morphology is observed, and the eutectic Fe2As phase distributes discontinuously in the interdendritic regions. In contrast, the eutectic morphology of Fe-10wt%As alloy quenched from 1200°C is fibrous and forms a continuous network structure. Furthermore, the area fraction of the eutectic Fe2As phase in Fe-4wt%As and Fe-10wt%As alloys increases with increasing arsenic content and decreasing quenching temperature.

  8. Effects of EGCG content in green tea extract on pharmacokinetics, oxidative status and expression of inflammatory and apoptotic genes in the rat ocular tissues.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kai On; Chan, Kwok Ping; Yang, Ya Ping; Qin, Yong Jie; Li, Wai Ying; Chan, Sun On; Wang, Chi Chiu; Pang, Chi Pui

    2015-11-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) exerts antioxidative activities in ocular tissues of rats, but high levels of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can induce oxidative stress. In this study, pharmacokinetics, diurnal variation of oxidative status, antioxidation and transcription factors changes in ocular tissues of rats were investigated. Rats were fed intragastrically with GTE and catechin mixtures containing different amounts of EGCG. Plasma and various ocular tissues were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis, oxidation marker testings and gene expression assays. Effects of EGCG on ocular oxidation status were assessed by 8-isoprostane level and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. Oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis regulations in retina were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epicatechin, epigallocatechin and EGCG were dominant in various ocular tissues except vitreous humor, where gallocatechin was predominant. Diurnal variation of oxidative status was found in some compartments. GTE caused oxidative stress increase in the plasma, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, cornea and retina but decrease in the lens and choroid-sclera. Catechins mixture containing half dose of EGCG lowered 8-isoprostane in the retina and lens. GTE treatment induced superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase-3 expressions but suppressed catalase in the retina. Our results reveal pro-oxidation of GTE with high EGCG content to the ocular tissues. Optimal EGCG level is needed for protection. PMID:26362107

  9. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity in rice [Oryza sativa L.] germplasm based on agro-morphology traits and zinc-iron content for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhas Chandra; Sharma, B D

    2014-04-01

    Genetic resources of landraces (84 cultivars) were collected from various agro-ecological regions of West Bengal and adjoining areas and characterized based on qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological descriptors along with zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content. The DUS protocol was employed to study 16 agro-morphological passport data such as: vegetative data (anthocyanin pigmentation, plant habit), reproductive data (flag leaf attitude, stigma colour, panicle attitude), including eight grain quality traits: grain length, grain width, 1000 grains weight, kernel length, kernel breadth etc. Highest seed weight was found in cultivar Khechri (32.04 g/1000 seeds), collected from Sundarban and least seed weight was 9.6 g/1000seeds in Katharibhog. Maturity duration was found very short (<100 days) in Jumla Marshi (97 days) collected from world's coldest rice growing area, Jumla, Nepal. Penultimate leaves breadth was observed broad (>2 cm) in one cultivar Jungli (2.3 cm). Seeds per panicle were 180 in Chinisakkar (medium range), 177 in Dudheswar, and 151 in Ladua. Flag leaf was found in erect condition in late observation in Dudheswar, Enda and Ghiosh. Seventeen cultivars were grouped in the aromatic rice category out of total 84 local landraces. Twenty-one cultivars were with awn, whose length ranges from 1.6 mm (Anandi) to 22.5 mm (Tulaipanji). Kernel colour varies from red, yellowish, brownish, creamy white to white. Kernel length varies from 4 mm to 8 mm and breadth 1.90 mm to 3 mm. Kernel length/breadth ration varied from 1.6 to 3.9. Highest ratio of L/B was found in Pusa Basmati 1(3.9) and lowest in Dudhey (1.6). Elongation ration was highest in Kalokure (2.07) and lowest in Phoolpakri (0.62). Nutritional values of mineral contents of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were estimated in all cultivars by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometic method. Iron concentration varies from 0.25 ?g/g to 34.8 ?g/g and zinc from 0.85 ?g/g to 195.3 ?g/g in the landraces. Highest iron containing rice was Swetonunia with 34.8 ?g/g and highest amount of Zn was found in Nepali Kalam which was 195.3 ?g/g. Anaerobic germination (AG) was observed in 18 cultivars among 84 land races (viz. Jungli, Kumrogore, Dudheshwar, Rambhog and Tulsi etc.), the trait is highly desired by the rice breeder for the introgression of this gene (QTL) to the HYV for direct seeding in the field for saving labour cost and reduced maturity time. Dendrogram showed genetic diversity among 84 landraces by grouping them into five major clusters. All the descriptors evaluated in this study have showed that there is enough genetic diversity among landraces and this information can be helpful to the breeders to choose the right parent for crop improvement. PMID:24757325

  11. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, B.; Thiele, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well.

  12. A comparison study of different excitation wavelengths to determine the relative content of key biomolecules in breast cancer and breast normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence profiles from breast cancer and breast normal tissue samples with excitation wavelengths at 280 nm and 340 nm were obtained using the conventional LS-50 Perkin-Elmer spectrometer. Fluorescence ratios from these tissue samples, demonstrated by emission peaks at 340 nm, 440 nm and 460 nm and likely representing tryptophan and NADH, show increased relative content of tryptophan in malignant samples. Double ratio (DR) techniques were used to measure the severity of disease. The single excitation double ratio (Single-DR) method utilizes the emission intensity peaks from the spectrum acquired using a single excitation of 280 nm; while the dual excitation double ratio (dual-DR) method utilizes the emission intensity peaks from the spectra acquired using an excitation of 280 nm and 340 nm. Single-DR and dual-DR from 13 patients with breast carcinoma were compared in terms of their efficiency to distinguish high from low/intermediate tumors. Similar results were found with both methods. Results suggest that dual excitation wavelengths may be as effective as single excitation wavelength in calculating the relative content of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue, as well as for the assessment of the malignant potential of these tumors.

  13. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

  14. Regulation of cellular iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    Iron is an essential but potentially hazardous biometal. Mammalian cells require sufficient amounts of iron to satisfy metabolic needs or to accomplish specialized functions. Iron is delivered to tissues by circulating transferrin, a transporter that captures iron released into the plasma mainly from intestinal enterocytes or reticuloendothelial macrophages. The binding of iron-laden transferrin to the cell-surface transferrin receptor 1 results in endocytosis and uptake of the metal cargo. Internalized iron is transported to mitochondria for the synthesis of haem or iron–sulfur clusters, which are integral parts of several metalloproteins, and excess iron is stored and detoxified in cytosolic ferritin. Iron metabolism is controlled at different levels and by diverse mechanisms. The present review summarizes basic concepts of iron transport, use and storage and focuses on the IRE (iron-responsive element)/IRP (iron-regulatory protein) system, a well known post-transcriptional regulatory circuit that not only maintains iron homoeostasis in various cell types, but also contributes to systemic iron balance. PMID:21348856

  15. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  16. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING WATER CONTENT IN OYSTER TISSUE By THOMAS C. CARVER, JR., Pishery Biologist (Research) I

    E-print Network

    the valves X 1000. To dry the meat, Engle (1958) used 72 hours ex- posure at 90° C. in a convection-type oven. FISHERY BULLETIN: VOLUME 65, NO.3 tubes is to provide an atmosphere free of moisture. A 10 g. sample of homogenized oyster tissue is covered with toluene and heated to 100° C. for 45 minutes. The water vapor

  17. The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  18. Alterations in lignin content and phenylpropanoids pathway in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) tissues affected by brittle leaf disease.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Mohammed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Hammami, Ines; Namsi, Ahmed; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2013-10-01

    Brittle leaf disease or Maladie de la Feuille Cassante (MFC) is a lethal disorder of date palm that has assumed epidemic proportions in the oases of Tunisia and Algeria. No pathogen could ever be associated with the disease, while leaflets of affected palms have been previously shown to be deficient in manganese. The work reported here aims to understand the biochemical basis of the date palm response to this disorder. Since the typical disease symptom is the leaf fragility, we have investigated lignin content in leaves and roots. Strong decrease in total lignin content was observed in affected leaves, while lignin content increased in affected roots. Histochemical analyses showed hyperlignification thicker suberin layer in roots cortical cells. The phenylpropanoids pathway was also disrupted in leaves and roots, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression was affected by the disease which severely affects the cell wall integrity. PMID:23987806

  19. Use of skin and blubber tissues of small cetaceans to assess the trace element content of internal organs.

    PubMed

    Aubail, A; Méndez-Fernandez, P; Bustamante, P; Churlaud, C; Ferreira, M; Vingada, J V; Caurant, F

    2013-11-15

    In order to evaluate the use of biopsy samples as non-destructive tool for assessing trace element concentrations in small cetaceans, the concentrations of 14 trace elements were determined in skin, blubber, liver and kidneys of four species of small cetaceans (i.e. common dolphin Delphinus delphis, harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and striped dolphin Stenella coeruleolba), stranded and/or by-caught along the NE Atlantic Ocean coast between 2001 and 2008. Only Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni and Zn were above the detection limit of the instruments and showed recoveries satisfactory enough to be interpreted. Among these trace elements, Hg was the only one showing a significant correlation between concentrations in and those in liver and kidneys. In consequence skin and blubber can only be used as non-invasive monitoring tissues to investigate Hg bioaccumulation in internal tissues for cetacean populations. PMID:24064373

  20. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young’s modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet. PMID:26177083

  1. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M.; Giera, Martin; el Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Lips, Mirjam A.; Pijl, Hanno; Willems van Dijk, Ko; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT. PMID:26378572

  2. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Giera, Martin; Bouazzaoui, Fatiha El; Lips, Mirjam A; Pijl, Hanno; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-09-01

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT. PMID:26378572

  3. Iron Deposition following Chronic Myocardial Infarction as a Substrate for Cardiac Electrical Anomalies: Initial Findings in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xunzhang; Yang, Hsin-Jung; Tang, Richard L. Q.; Thajudeen, Anees; Shehata, Michael; Amorn, Allen M.; Liu, Enzhao; Stewart, Brian; Bennett, Nathan; Harlev, Doron; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.; Jackman, Warren M.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Dharmakumar, Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Iron deposition has been shown to occur following myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated whether such focal iron deposition within chronic MI lead to electrical anomalies. Methods Two groups of dogs (ex-vivo (n?=?12) and in-vivo (n?=?10)) were studied at 16 weeks post MI. Hearts of animals from ex-vivo group were explanted and sectioned into infarcted and non-infarcted segments. Impedance spectroscopy was used to derive electrical permittivity () and conductivity (). Mass spectrometry was used to classify and characterize tissue sections with (IRON+) and without (IRON-) iron. Animals from in-vivo group underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for estimation of scar volume (late-gadolinium enhancement, LGE) and iron deposition (T2*) relative to left-ventricular volume. 24-hour electrocardiogram recordings were obtained and used to examine Heart Rate (HR), QT interval (QT), QT corrected for HR (QTc) and QTc dispersion (QTcd). In a fraction of these animals (n?=?5), ultra-high resolution electroanatomical mapping (EAM) was performed, co-registered with LGE and T2* CMR and were used to characterize the spatial locations of isolated late potentials (ILPs). Results Compared to IRON- sections, IRON+ sections had higher, but no difference in. A linear relationship was found between iron content and (p<0.001), but not (p?=?0.34). Among two groups of animals (Iron (<1.5%) and Iron (>1.5%)) with similar scar volumes (7.28%±1.02% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 8.35%±2.98% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.51) but markedly different iron volumes (1.12%±0.64% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 2.47%±0.64% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.02), QT and QTc were elevated and QTcd was decreased in the group with the higher iron volume during the day, night and 24-hour period (p<0.05). EAMs co-registered with CMR images showed a greater tendency for ILPs to emerge from scar regions with iron versus without iron. Conclusion The electrical behavior of infarcted hearts with iron appears to be different from those without iron. Iron within infarcted zones may evolve as an arrhythmogenic substrate in the post MI period. PMID:24066038

  4. Radial dependence of lineal energy distribution of 290-MeV/u carbon and 500-MeV/u iron ion beams using a wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Shuichi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Takada, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Using a wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter for a 0.72-?m site in tissue, we measured the radial dependence of the lineal energy distribution, yf(y), of 290-MeV/u carbon ions and 500-MeV/u iron ion beams. The measured yf(y) distributions and the dose-mean of y, [Formula: see text], were compared with calculations performed with the track structure simulation code TRACION and the microdosimetric function of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The values of the measured [Formula: see text] were consistent with calculated results within an error of 2%, but differences in the shape of yf(y) were observed for iron ion irradiation. This result indicates that further improvement of the calculation model for yf(y) distribution in PHITS is needed for the analytical function that describes energy deposition by delta rays, particularly for primary ions having linear energy transfer in excess of a few hundred keV ?m(-1). PMID:25210053

  5. The effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage content of edible and inedible components in Koluda White geese.

    PubMed

    Murawska, Daria

    2013-05-01

    The parts of carcasses of slaughtered animals that are not intended for human consumption are referred to as inedible components. The total percentage of edible to inedible components in the carcasses of different poultry species is an important economic consideration. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age on the growth rate of tissues and organs and the percentage change in edible to inedible components in geese. A flock of 240 Polish Koluda White geese was raised to 12 wk of age. The percentage content of edible components increased (P < 0.001) and the percentage content of inedible parts decreased (P < 0.001) as the birds grew older. Among edible components, the most considerable changes were noted in the growth rates of muscle tissue (10.5% increase; P < 0.001) and giblets (5.1% decrease; P < 0.001). The percentage share of muscle tissue increased to 10 wk of age. Lean meat weight increased from 175 g in wk 2 to 1,482 g in wk 12. The increase in lean meat weight varied considerably between body parts. The proportion of breast muscles in total meat weight increased substantially (by 26%), whereas the proportion of leg muscles decreased (by 34%). An increase in the weight of skin with subcutaneous fat was observed until the end of the rearing period, but the percentage content of this component remained at a similar level throughout the experiment (19.1 to 19.6%). The decrease in the percentage content of inedible components was mostly due to a decrease in the share of slaughter offal (by approximately 6.5%) because the proportion of bones remained at a stable level (approximately 11.9 to 11.5%). The weight of abdominal fat, which can be classified as edible or inedible, increased significantly with age, from 15.1 g in wk 2 to 205.1 g in wk 12, accounting for 1.6% and 4.0% total BW, respectively. PMID:23571352

  6. The Diagnostic Value of Pulsed Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging in Asymptomatic Beta- Thalassemia Major Children and Young Adults; Relation to Chemical Biomarkers of Left Ventricular Function and Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Seham M; Fathy, Waleed M; El-Aziz, Walaa FAbd; Helal, Rasha T

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among ?-halassaemia major (TM) patients. Once heart failure becomes overt, it is difficult to reverse. Objectives To investigate non-overt cardiac dysfunctions in TM patients using pulsed wave Tissue Doppler Imaging (TD I) and its relation to iron overload and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Methods Thorough clinical, conventional echo and pulsed wave TDI parameters were compared between asymptomatic 25 ?-TM patients and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels were assayed by ELISA. Results TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E) wave and non significant other conventional echo parameters. In the patient group, pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic dysfunctions, in the form of significant higher isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), and lower ejection time (E T), with diastolic dysfunction in the form of higher isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), and lower mitral annulus early diastolic velocity E? (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65, P= 0.003) compared to the controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls. Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had a significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions. Patients with E/E? ? 8 had significant higher serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels compared to those with ratio < 8 without a difference in Hb levels. Conclusion Pulsed wave TDI is an important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron-loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP. PMID:26401240

  7. Effect of external phosphate addition on solid-phase iron distribution and iron accumulation in Mangrove Kandelia obovata (S. L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Jingna; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Hansell, Dennis; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Wenyun; Yan, Chongling

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphate (PO4 (3-)) addition on iron (Fe) cycling in mangrove ecosystem. Kandelia obovata (S. L.), one of the dominant mangrove species in the southeast of China, was cultivated in rhizoboxes under three different levels of P concentrations. Results showed the solid-phase Fe distribution and Fe(II)/Fe(III) values in both the root zone (rhizosphere) and bulk soil (non-rhizosphere) were comparable among all P levels (p?>?0.05); P addition significantly decreased the pore water Fe content both in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere zone (p?iron plaque formation and iron accumulation in K. obovata (S. L.) tissues (p?content. It was suggested that P is implicated in the Fe cycling in mangrove plants; more reactive iron, higher abundance of root Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), and together with higher amount of K. obovata (S. L.) root organic acids exudation result in a rapid Fe cycling in rhizosphere, which contribute to comparable solid-phase iron distribution among different P levels. PMID:25943505

  8. Transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin assayed by serum ferritin kinetics in patients with normal iron stores and iron overload.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hisao

    2015-11-01

    Ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron, total iron stores and transformation rate were determined by serum ferritin kinetics. The transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin is motivated by the potential difference between them. The transformer determines transformation rate according to the potential difference in iron mobilization and deposition. The correlations between transformation rate and iron stores were studied in 11 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 1 patent with treated iron deficiency anemia (TIDA), 9 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and 4 patients with transfusion-dependent anemia (TD). The power regression curve of approximation showed an inverse correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron in part and total iron stores in HH. Such an inverse correlation between transformation rate and iron stores implies that the larger the amount of iron stores, the smaller the transformation of iron stores. On the other hand, a minimal inverse correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron and no correlation between transformation rate and hemosiderin iron or total iron stores in CHC indicate the derangement of storage iron metabolism in the cells with CHC. Radio-iron fixation on the iron storing tissue in iron overload was larger than that in normal subjects by ferrokinetics. This is consistent with the inverse correlation between transformation rate and total iron stores in HH. The characteristics of iron turnover between ferritin and hemosiderin were disclosed from the correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron or total iron stores. PMID:26663936

  9. Transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin assayed by serum ferritin kinetics in patients with normal iron stores and iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron, total iron stores and transformation rate were determined by serum ferritin kinetics. The transformation rate between ferritin and hemosiderin is motivated by the potential difference between them. The transformer determines transformation rate according to the potential difference in iron mobilization and deposition. The correlations between transformation rate and iron stores were studied in 11 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 1 patent with treated iron deficiency anemia (TIDA), 9 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and 4 patients with transfusion-dependent anemia (TD). The power regression curve of approximation showed an inverse correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron in part and total iron stores in HH. Such an inverse correlation between transformation rate and iron stores implies that the larger the amount of iron stores, the smaller the transformation of iron stores. On the other hand, a minimal inverse correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron and no correlation between transformation rate and hemosiderin iron or total iron stores in CHC indicate the derangement of storage iron metabolism in the cells with CHC. Radio-iron fixation on the iron storing tissue in iron overload was larger than that in normal subjects by ferrokinetics. This is consistent with the inverse correlation between transformation rate and total iron stores in HH. The characteristics of iron turnover between ferritin and hemosiderin were disclosed from the correlation between transformation rate and ferritin iron, hemosiderin iron or total iron stores. PMID:26663936

  10. Iron homeostasis and eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

  11. Differential effects of basolateral and apical iron supply on iron transport in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Eady, J J; Wormstone, Y M; Heaton, S J; Hilhorst, B; Elliott, R M

    2015-05-01

    Iron homeostasis in the human body is maintained primarily through regulation of iron absorption in the duodenum. The liver peptide hepcidin plays a central role in this regulation. Additionally, expression and functional control of certain components of the cellular iron transport machinery can be influenced directly by the iron status of enterocytes. The significance of this modulation, relative to the effects of hepcidin, and the comparative effects of iron obtained directly from the diet and/or via the bloodstream are not clear. The studies described here were performed using Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model of intestinal epithelium, to compare the effects of iron supplied in physiologically relevant forms to either the apical or basolateral surfaces of the cells. Both sources of iron provoked increased cellular ferritin content, indicating iron uptake from both sides of the cells. Supply of basolateral transferrin-bound iron did not affect subsequent iron transport across the apical surface, but reduced iron transport across the basolateral membrane. In contrast, the apical iron supply led to subsequent reduction in iron transport across the apical cell membrane without altering iron export across the basolateral membrane. The apical and basolateral iron supplies also elicited distinct effects on the expression and subcellular distribution of iron transporters. These data suggest that, in addition to the effects of cellular iron status on the expression of iron transporter genes, different modes and direction of iron supply to enterocytes can elicit distinct functional effects on iron transport. PMID:25896409

  12. Estimating iron and aluminum content of acid mine discharge from a north-central Pennsylvania coal field by use of acidity titration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ott, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Determination of acidity provides a value that denotes the quantitative capacity of the sample water to neutralize a strong base to a particular pH. However, much additional information can be obtained from this determination if a titration curve is constructed from recorded data of titrant increments and their corresponding pH values. The curve can be used to identify buffer capabilities, the acidity with respect to any pH value within the curve limit, and, in the case of acid mine drainage from north-central Pennsylvania, the identification and estimation of the concentration of dissolved ferrous iron, ferric iron, and aluminum. Through use of titration curves, a relationship was observed for the acid mine drainage between: (1) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) to pH 4.0 and the concentration of dissolved ferric iron; and (2) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) from pH 4.0 to 5.0 and the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The presence of dissolved ferrous iron can be detected by the buffering effect exhibited in the area between pH 5.5 to 7.5. The concentration of ferrous iron is estimated by difference between the concentrations of ferric iron in an oxidized and unoxidized sample. Interferences in any of the titrations from manganese, magnesium, and aluminate, appear to be negligible within the pH range of interest.

  13. Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M.

    1996-12-01

    The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Expression profile of small RNAs in Acacia mangium secondary xylem tissue with contrasting lignin content - potential regulatory sequences in monolignol biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lignin, after cellulose, is the second most abundant biopolymer accounting for approximately 15-35% of the dry weight of wood. As an important component during wood formation, lignin is indispensable for plant structure and defense. However, it is an undesirable component in the pulp and paper industry. Removal of lignin from cellulose is costly and environmentally hazardous process. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to understand the role of enzymes and genes in controlling the amount and composition of lignin to be deposited in the cell wall. However, studies on the impact of downregulation and overexpression of monolignol biosynthesis genes in model species on lignin content, plant fitness and viability have been inconsistent. Recently, non-coding RNAs have been discovered to play an important role in regulating the entire monolignol biosynthesis pathway. As small RNAs have critical functions in various biological process during wood formation, small RNA profiling is an important tool for the identification of complete set of differentially expressed small RNAs between low lignin and high lignin secondary xylem. Results In line with this, we have generated two small RNAs libraries from samples with contrasting lignin content using Illumina GAII sequencer. About 10 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am48 with high lignin content (41%) and a corresponding 14 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am54 with low lignin content (21%). Our results suggested that A. mangium small RNAs are composed of a set of 12 highly conserved miRNAs families found in plant miRNAs database, 82 novel miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved small RNAs with low expression levels. The predicted target genes of those differentially expressed conserved and non-conserved miRNAs include transcription factors associated with regulation of the lignin biosynthetic pathway genes. Some of these small RNAs play an important role in epigenetic silencing. Differential expression of the small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content suggests that a cascade of miRNAs play an interconnected role in regulating the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Acacia species. Conclusions Our study critically demonstrated the roles of small RNAs during secondary wall formation. Comparison of the expression pattern of small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content strongly indicated that small RNAs play a key regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA targets on the basis of the length of their 5’ and 3’ UTRs and their cellular roles. The results obtained can be used to better understand the roles of small RNAs during lignin biosynthesis and for the development of gene constructs for silencing of specific genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis with minimal effect on plant fitness and viability. For the first time, small RNAs were proven to play an important regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis in A. mangium. PMID:22369296

  15. New method for determining total calcium content in tissue applied to skeletal muscle with and without calsequestrin

    PubMed Central

    Lamboley, Cédric R.H.; Kake Guena, Sandrine A.; Touré, Fatou; Hébert, Camille; Yaddaden, Louiza; Nadeau, Stephanie; Bouchard, Patrice; Wei-LaPierre, Lan; Lainé, Jean; Rousseau, Eric C.; Frenette, Jérôme; Protasi, Feliciano; Dirksen, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new method for determining the concentration of total Ca in whole skeletal muscle samples ([CaT]WM in units of mmoles/kg wet weight) using the Ca-dependent UV absorbance spectra of the Ca chelator BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid). Muscle tissue was homogenized in a solution containing 0.15 mM BAPTA and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (to permeabilize membranes and denature proteins) and then centrifuged. The solution volume was adjusted so that BAPTA captured essentially all of the Ca. [CaT]WM was obtained with Beer’s law from the absorbance change produced by adding 1 mM EGTA to capture Ca from BAPTA. Results from mouse, rat, and frog muscles were reasonably consistent with results obtained using other methods for estimating total [Ca] in whole muscles and in single muscle fibers. Results with external Ca removed before determining [CaT]WM indicate that most of the Ca was intracellular, indicative of a lack of bound Ca in the extracellular space. In both fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles from mice, [CaT]WM increased approximately linearly with decreasing muscle weight, increasing approximately twofold with a twofold decrease in muscle weight. This suggests that the Ca concentration of smaller muscles might be increased relative to that in larger muscles, thereby increasing the specific force to compensate for the smaller mass. Knocking out the high capacity Ca-binding protein calsequestrin (CSQ) did not significantly reduce [CaT]WM in mouse EDL or soleus muscle. However, in EDL muscles lacking CSQ, muscle weights were significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) muscles and the values of [CaT]WM were, on average, about half the expected WT values, taking into account the above [CaT]WM versus muscle weight relationship. Because greater reductions in [CaT]WM would be predicted in both muscle types, we hypothesize that there is a substantial increase in Ca bound to other sites in the CSQ knockout muscles. PMID:25624449

  16. Effects of flavonoid on calcium content in femoral tissue culture and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Hamamoto, Reiko; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Ishiyama, Kaori

    2007-09-01

    The effect of various flavonoids, which are present in food and plants, on bone calcium content and osteoclastogenesis were investigated to compare action of flavonoid on bone formation and bone resorption in vitro. Rat femoral-diaphyseal (cortical bone) and -metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were cultured for 48 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (high glucose) supplemented with antibiotics and bovine serum albumin. Amoung quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, curcumin, hesperidin, or astaxanthin in the range of 10(-7)-10(-5)M, culture with quercetin (10(-6) or 10(-5)M) caused a significant increase in diaphyseal calcium content. Such an effect was not seen in other compounds. Mouse bone marrow cells were cultured for 7 days in the presence of parathyroid hormone (PTH; 10(-7)M), a bone-resorbing factor, in vitro. Culture with PTH caused a significant increase in osteoclast-like cell formation. This increase was significantly inhibited in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, or curcumin in the range of 10(-8)-10(-6)M. Such an effect was not seen in the case of hesperidin or astaxanthin. In addition, culture with PTH (10(-7)M) caused a significant decrease in diaphyseal calcium content. This decrease was completely prevented in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferal, or isorhamnetin of 10(-6)M. This study demonstrates that various flavonoids have a potent inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption rather than bone formation in vitro. Among various flavonoids, quercetin had a stimulatory effect on bone formation and an inhibitory effect on bone resorption in vitro. PMID:17541507

  17. Iron overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  18. The quantitative assessment of body iron.

    PubMed

    Cook, James D; Flowers, Carol H; Skikne, Barry S

    2003-05-01

    Current initiatives to reduce the high prevalence of nutritional iron deficiency have highlighted the need for reliable epidemiologic methods to assess iron status. The present report describes a method for estimating body iron based on the ratio of the serum transferrin receptor to serum ferritin. Analysis showed a single normal distribution of body iron stores in US men aged 20 to 65 years (mean +/- 1 SD, 9.82 +/- 2.82 mg/kg). A single normal distribution was also observed in pregnant Jamaican women (mean +/- 1 SD, 0.09 +/- 4.48 mg/kg). Distribution analysis in US women aged 20 to 45 years indicated 2 populations; 93% of women had body iron stores averaging 5.5 +/- 3.35 mg/kg (mean +/- 1 SD), whereas the remaining 7% of women had a mean tissue iron deficit of 3.87 +/- 3.23 mg/kg. Calculations of body iron in trials of iron supplementation in Jamaica and iron fortification in Vietnam demonstrated that the method can be used to calculate absorption of the added iron. Quantitative estimates of body iron greatly enhance the evaluation of iron status and the sensitivity of iron intervention trials in populations in which inflammation is uncommon or has been excluded by laboratory screening. The method is useful clinically for monitoring iron status in those who are highly susceptible to iron deficiency. PMID:12521995

  19. Effect of phytase treatment on iron bioavailability in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dephytinisation, using an exogenous phytase under optimal conditions (pH 5.5, 37 °C), and subsequent removal of the soaking solution after processing, on the bioavailability of iron from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour was studied. Soaking of the faba bean flour led to a considerable reduction in the content of iron (39%), whereas a lower reduction in iron content (10%), was obtained after additional treatment with phytase, than in the soaked faba bean flour. The digestive utilisation of iron from the raw and soaked faba bean flours by growing rats was negligible, but increased significantly as a result of phytase treatment. The low iron absorption obtained for the former two treatments, during an experimental period of 10 days, was not reflected in any of the haematological indices (red blood count, haemoglobin, haematocrit) or tissues (femur, heart, kidney) studied, with the exception of the sternum. The latter appears to be a useful indicator of iron bioavailability. PMID:25005940

  20. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J.; Lis, G. J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E.; Czubek, U.; Bolecha?a, F.; Borca, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 ?m sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe3+ is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe3+ form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  1. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, ferritin in normal human spleen and ferritin in spleen from patient with primary myelofibrosis: preliminary results of comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Oshtrakh, M I; Alenkina, I V; Vinogradov, A V; Konstantinova, T S; Kuzmann, E; Semionkin, V A

    2013-04-01

    Comparative study of human liver ferritin and spleen tissues from healthy human and patient with primary myelofibrosis was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 295 and 90 K and with a low velocity resolution at 20 K. The results obtained demonstrated that the iron content in patient's spleen in the form of iron storage proteins was about ten times larger than that in normal tissue. However, in the case of patient with primary myelofibrosis the magnetic anisotropy energy barrier differed from that in normal case and, probably, the iron core size was supposed to be slightly larger than that in both normal spleen tissue and normal human liver ferritin in contrast to well-known data for iron overload in patients with thalassemia accompanied by the iron-core size increase. Therefore, the iron overload in the case of patient with primary myelofibrosis may be related to increase in the ferritin content mainly. It was also found that Mössbauer hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's spleen and normal human liver ferritin demonstrated some small differences related, probably, to some small structural variations in the ferritin iron cores of patient's spleen. PMID:23460118

  2. Nifedipine prevents iron accumulation and reverses iron-overload-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra of rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, ZeGang; Zhou, Yu; Xie, JunXia

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms of iron accumulation in substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's diseases remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of nifedipine on iron-overload-induced iron accumulation and neurodegeneration in SN of rats. By high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, and iron content array, we first quantified iron content and the number of dopamine neurons in SN of experimental rats treated with iron dextran. We further assessed effects of treatment with nifedipine. Our results showed that nifedipine treatment prevents iron dextran-induced dopamine depletion in the striatum. Consistently, we found that nifedipine restores the number of TH-positive neurons reduced by iron dextran overload and prevents increase of iron content in the SN. These results suggested that nifedipine may suppress iron toxicity in dopamine neurons and prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:22259026

  3. Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Delu; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD. PMID:23825457

  4. SU-E-T-558: An Exploratory RF Pulse Sequence Technique Used to Induce Differential Heating in Tissues Containing Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for a Possible Hyperthermic Adjuvant Effect to Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S; Ionascu, D; Wilson, G; Thapa, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In pre-clinical trials of cancer thermotherapy, hyperthermia can be induced by exposing localized super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) to external alternating magnetic fields generated by a solenoid electrical circuit (Zhao et al., Theranostics 2012). Alternatively, an RF pulse technique implemented in a regular MRI system is explored as a possible hyperthermia induction technique . Methods: A new thermal RF pulse sequence was developed using the Philips pulse programming tool for the 3T Ingenia MRI system to provide a sinusoidal magnetic field alternating at the frequency of 1.43 kHz (multiples of sine waves of 0.7 ms period) before each excitation RF pulse for imaging. The duration of each thermal RF pulse routine was approximately 3 min, and the thermal pulse was applied multiple times to a phantom that contains different concentrations (high, medium and low) of SPION samples. After applying the thermal pulse each time, the temperature change was estimated by measuring the phase changes in the T1-weighted inversion-prepared multi-shot turbo field echo (TFE) sequence (TR=5.5 ms, TE=2.7 ms, inversion time=200 ms). Results: The phase values and relative differences among them changed as the number of applied thermal RF pulses increased. After the 5th application of the thermal RF pulse, the relative phase differences increased significantly, suggesting the thermal activation of the SPION. The increase of the phase difference was approximately linear with the SPION concentration. Conclusion: A sinusoidal RF pulse from the MRI system may be utilized to selectively thermally activate tissues containing super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Nitrosative Stress and Apoptosis by Intravenous Ferumoxytol, Iron Isomaltoside 1000, Iron Dextran, Iron Sucrose, and Ferric Carboxymaltose in a Nonclinical Model.

    PubMed

    Toblli, J E; Cao, G; Giani, J F; Dominici, F P; Angerosa, M

    2015-07-01

    Iron is involved in the formation as well as in the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, iron can induce as well as inhibit both oxidative and nitrosative stress. It also has a key role in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated apoptosis. We assessed the differences in tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys of rats treated weekly with intravenous ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, iron dextran, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose (40?mg iron/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Nitrotyrosine was quantified in tissue homogenates by Western blotting and the distribution of nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 was assessed in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose administration did not result in detectable levels of nitrotyrosine or significant levels of caspase 3?vs. control in any of the tissue studied. Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were significantly (p<0.01) increased in all assessed organs of animals treated with iron dextran and iron isomaltoside 1000, as well as in the liver and kidneys of ferumoxytol-treated animals compared to isotonic saline solution (control). Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were shown to correlate positively with the amount of Prussian blue-detectable iron(III) deposits in iron dextran- and iron isomaltoside 1000-treated rats but not in ferumoxytol-treated rats, suggesting that iron dextran, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferumoxytol induce nitrosative (and oxidative) stress as well as apoptosis via different mechanism(s). PMID:25050519

  6. MRI Estimates of Brain Iron Concentration in Normal Aging Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Berkin; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying tissue iron concentration in vivo is instrumental for understanding the role of iron in physiology and in neurological diseases associated with abnormal iron distribution. Herein, we use recently-developed Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) methodology to estimate the tissue magnetic susceptibility based on MRI signal phase. To investigate the effect of different regularization choices, we implement and compare ?1 and ?2 norm regularized QSM algorithms. These regularized approaches solve for the underlying magnetic susceptibility distribution, a sensitive measure of the tissue iron concentration, that gives rise to the observed signal phase. Regularized QSM methodology also involves a pre-processing step that removes, by dipole fitting, unwanted background phase effects due to bulk susceptibility variations between air and tissue and requires data acquisition only at a single field strength. For validation, performances of the two QSM methods were measured against published estimates of regional brain iron from postmortem and in vivo data. The in vivo comparison was based on data previously acquired using Field-Dependent Relaxation Rate Increase (FDRI), an estimate of MRI relaxivity enhancement due to increased main magnetic field strength, requiring data acquired at two different field strengths. The QSM analysis was based on susceptibility-weighted images acquired at 1.5T, whereas FDRI analysis used Multi-Shot Echo-Planar Spin Echo images collected at 1.5T and 3.0T. Both datasets were collected in the same healthy young and elderly adults. The in vivo estimates of regional iron concentration comported well with published postmortem measurements; both QSM approaches yielded the same rank ordering of iron concentration by brain structure, with the lowest in white matter and the highest in globus pallidus. Further validation was provided by comparison of the in vivo measurements, ?1-regularized QSM versus FDRI and ?2-regularized QSM versus FDRI, which again yielded perfect rank ordering of iron by brain structure. The final means of validation was to assess how well each in vivo method detected known age-related differences in regional iron concentrations measured in the same young and elderly healthy adults. Both QSM methods and FDRI were consistent in identifying higher iron concentrations in striatal and brain stem ROIs (i.e., caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra) in the older than in the young group. The two QSM methods appeared more sensitive in detecting age differences in brain stem structures as they revealed differences of much higher statistical significance between the young and elderly groups than did FDRI. However, QSM values are influenced by factors such as the myelin content, whereas FDRI is a more specific indicator of iron content. Hence, FDRI demonstrated higher specificity to iron yet yielded noisier data despite longer scan times and lower spatial resolution than QSM. The robustness, practicality, and demonstrated ability of predicting the change in iron deposition in adult aging suggest that regularized QSM algorithms using single-field-strength data are possible alternatives to tissue iron estimation requiring two field strengths. PMID:21925274

  7. TCDD, dietary iron and hepatic iron distribution in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bayati, Z.A.F.; Stohs, S.J.; Al-Turk, W.A.

    1987-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a prototype for a large group of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and is the most potent of these compounds. TCDD is an environmental pollutant with exceptional toxicity for certain mammalian and avian species. The liver is one of the principal target organs affected by TCDD in the rat and other laboratory species. TCDD induces many functional, biochemical and pathological changes, including altered lipid metabolism in the liver. Ferrous iron plays an important role in the initiation of lipid peroxidation. A proposed mechanism for the production of liver injury in chronic iron overload is that organelle damage leading to cell death occurs as a result of membrane lipid peroxidation initiated and promoted by intracellular iron. The presence of iron in subcellular fractions in vitro may catalyze lipid peroxidation and produce membrane damage. There is evidence for the occurrence of hepatic lipid peroxidation after TCDD administration. The purpose of this study was to determine if TCDD induced lipid peroxidation was associated with an increase in the iron content of liver and its subcellular fractions. The effect of TCDD administration on the iron content of whole homogenate, microsomes, mitochondria, and cytosol of livers of female rats fed defined diets containing deficient, normal and excessive levels of iron for 17, 24 and 31 days was investigated.

  8. Environmental impacts of iron ore tailings—The case of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.

    1981-03-01

    Disposal of iron ore tailings along the shore of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong has altered the adjacent environment. Due to the ever-expanding population, the vast development of various industries, and the lack of sanitary control, the existing pollution problem of Tolo Harbour is serious. The iron ore tailings consist of a moderate amount of various heavy metals, e.g., copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and a lower level of macronutrients. A few living organisms have been found colonizing this manmade habitat. Higher metal contents were also found in the tissue of Paphia sp. (clam); Scopimera intermedia (crab); Chaetomorpha brychagona (green alga); Enteromorpha crinita (green alga); and Neyraudia reynaudiana (grass). The area can be reclaimed by surface amelioration using inert materials, soils, or organic substrates, and by direct seeding, using nontolerant and tolerant plant materials. Reclamation of the tailings would improve the amenity of the adjacent environment and also mitigate pollution escaping to the sea.

  9. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Treatment may include taking iron supplements and eating iron-rich foods . Iron supplements (most often ferrous sulfate) are needed ... the body's iron stores in the bone marrow. Iron-rich foods include: Chicken and turkey Dried lentils, peas, and ...

  10. Effects of developmental iron deficiency and post-weaning iron repletion on the levels of iron transporter proteins in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sugyoung; Shin, Pill-kyung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Iron deficiency in early life is associated with developmental problems, which may persist until later in life. The question of whether iron repletion after developmental iron deficiency could restore iron homeostasis is not well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the changes of iron transporters after iron depletion during the gestational-neonatal period and iron repletion during the post-weaning period. MATERIALS/METHODS Pregnant rats were provided iron-deficient (< 6 ppm Fe) or control (36 ppm Fe) diets from gestational day 2. At weaning, pups from iron-deficient dams were fed either iron-deficient (ID group) or control (IDR group) diets for 4 week. Pups from control dams were continued to be fed with the control diet throughout the study period (CON). RESULTS Compared to the CON, ID rats had significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrits in the blood and significantly lower tissue iron in the liver and spleen. Hepatic hepcidin and BMP6 mRNA levels were also strongly down-regulated in the ID group. Developmental iron deficiency significantly increased iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin (FPN) in the duodenum, but decreased DMT1 in the liver. Dietary iron repletion restored the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit to a normal range, but the tissue iron levels and hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels were significantly lower than those in the CON group. Both FPN and DMT1 protein levels in the liver and in the duodenum were not different between the IDR and the CON. By contrast, DMT1 in the spleen was significantly lower in the IDR, compared to the CON. The splenic FPN was also decreased in the IDR more than in the CON, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that iron transporter proteins in the duodenum, liver and spleen are differentially regulated during developmental iron deficiency. Also, post-weaning iron repletion efficiently restores iron transporters in the duodenum and the liver but not in the spleen, which suggests that early-life iron deficiency may cause long term abnormalities in iron recycling from the spleen. PMID:26634050

  11. The combined effects of ionizing radiation and weightlessness on calcium and phosphorus content in the mineral fraction of the calcified tissues in the rat skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Komissarova, N. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Novikov, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    Phosphorus and calcium content in the ash from skeletal bones (ribs, scapula, vertebra, and crus) of 30 rats exposed to ionizing radiation (800 rads) on the flight of the Kosmos 690 biosatellite was studied. A 10 percent decrease in ash content coefficient and 29 percent decrease in phosphorus content was found immediately after the flight, and a 9 percent decrease in phosphorus content persisted after 26 days of readaptation to terrestrial conditions.

  12. Iron chelators and iron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brittenham, Gary M

    2003-06-01

    Iron chelation may offer new approaches to the treatment and prevention of alcoholic liver disease. With chronic excess, either iron or alcohol alone may individually injure the liver and other organs. In combination, each exaggerates the adverse effects of the other. In alcoholic liver disease, both iron and alcohol contribute to the production of hepatic fibrosis through their effects on damaged hepatocytes, hepatic macrophages, hepatic stellate cells, and the extracellular matrix. The pivotal role of iron in these processes suggests that chelating iron may offer a new approach to arresting or ameliorating liver injury. For the past four decades, deferoxamine B mesylate has been the only iron-chelating agent generally available for clinical use. Clinical experience with deferoxamine has demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of iron chelation for the prevention and treatment of iron overload. Determined efforts to develop alternative agents have at last resulted in the development of a variety of candidate iron chelators that are now in or near clinical trial, including (a) the hexadentate phenolic aminocarboxylate HBED [N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid], (b) the tridentate desferrithiocin derivative 4'-OH-dadmDFT [4'-hydroxy-(S)-desazadesmethyl-desferrithiocin; (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid], (c) the tridentate triazole ICL670A [CGP72 670A; 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid], and (d) the bidentate hydroxypyridin-4-one deferiprone [L1, CP20; 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one]. These agents may provide new pharmacological means of averting or ameliorating liver damage in alcoholic liver disease by binding, inactivating, and eliminating the reactive forms of iron that contribute to oxidative injury of cellular components, are involved in signal transduction, or both. PMID:12957300

  13. Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Joachimiak, Marcin; Wu, Liyou; Dehal, Paramvir; Jacobsen, Janet; Yang, Zamin Koo; Gao, Haichun; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

  14. Storage iron exchange in the rat as affected by deferoxamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.K.; Huebers, H.; Pippard, M.J.; Finch, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    The initial tissue localization and redistribution of radioactive iron injected intravenously into the rat as ferritin, chondroitin sulfate, and nonviable red cells was determined. Ferritin iron, initially localized in the hepatocyte, showed minimal redistribution over 24 hours in the normal animal. This may be compared with the active release of iron from the reticuloendothelial cell after the intravenous injection of nonviable red cells and chondroitin sulfate iron. All forms of iron were actively mobilized in iron-deficient animals. The effect of chelation of iron by deferoxamine (DFO) on the redistribution pattern over 4 to 6 hours was determined in iron-deficient, normal, iron-loaded, and phenylhydrazine-treated rats to evaluate the effect of iron stores and erythropoiesis. Use of DFO resulted in extensive chelation of radioactive iron within the hepatocyte and greatly reduced the amount of hepatocyte iron available for erythropoiesis. Very little chelation of reticuloendothelial cell-processed iron occurred, and there was little decrease in its utilization for red cell production. Total urinary chelate iron was independent of erythropoiesis but varied in parallel with the iron load of the animal. These studies suggest that DFO does not act on the reticuloendothelial cell but does have at least two sites of action, both of which relate to total storage iron. One involves hepatocyte stores with excretion into the intestinal tract. The other, possibly located at the hepatocyte membrane, results in urinary iron excretion.

  15. Mechanistic and regulatory aspects of intestinal iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Sukru; Anderson, Gregory J; Collins, James F

    2014-08-15

    Iron is an essential trace mineral that plays a number of important physiological roles in humans, including oxygen transport, energy metabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Iron absorption by the proximal small bowel is a critical checkpoint in the maintenance of whole-body iron levels since, unlike most other essential nutrients, no regulated excretory systems exist for iron in humans. Maintaining proper iron levels is critical to avoid the adverse physiological consequences of either low or high tissue iron concentrations, as commonly occurs in iron-deficiency anemia and hereditary hemochromatosis, respectively. Exquisite regulatory mechanisms have thus evolved to modulate how much iron is acquired from the diet. Systemic sensing of iron levels is accomplished by a network of molecules that regulate transcription of the HAMP gene in hepatocytes, thus modulating levels of the serum-borne, iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin decreases intestinal iron absorption by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin 1 on the basolateral surface of duodenal enterocytes, causing its internalization and degradation. Mucosal regulation of iron transport also occurs during low-iron states, via transcriptional (by hypoxia-inducible factor 2?) and posttranscriptional (by the iron-sensing iron-regulatory protein/iron-responsive element system) mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrated that these regulatory loops function in tandem to control expression or activity of key modulators of iron homeostasis. In health, body iron levels are maintained at appropriate levels; however, in several inherited disorders and in other pathophysiological states, iron sensing is perturbed and intestinal iron absorption is dysregulated. The iron-related phenotypes of these diseases exemplify the necessity of precisely regulating iron absorption to meet body demands. PMID:24994858

  16. Regulation of iron homeostasis by the p53-ISCU pathway.

    PubMed

    Funauchi, Yuki; Tanikawa, Chizu; Yi Lo, Paulisally Hau; Mori, Jinichi; Daigo, Yataro; Takano, Atsushi; Miyagi, Yohei; Okawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of iron in tissues increases the risk of cancer, but iron regulatory mechanisms in cancer tissues are largely unknown. Here, we report that p53 regulates iron metabolism through the transcriptional regulation of ISCU (iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme), which encodes a scaffold protein that plays a critical role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. p53 activation induced ISCU expression through binding to an intronic p53-binding site. Knockdown of ISCU enhanced the binding of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), a cytosolic Fe-S protein, to an iron-responsive element in the 5' UTR of ferritin heavy polypeptide 1 (FTH1) mRNA and subsequently reduced the translation of FTH1, a major iron storage protein. In addition, in response to DNA damage, p53 induced FTH1 and suppressed transferrin receptor, which regulates iron entry into cells. HCT116 p53(+/+) cells were resistant to iron accumulation, but HCT116 p53(-/-) cells accumulated intracellular iron after DNA damage. Moreover, excess dietary iron caused significant elevation of serum iron levels in p53(-/-) mice. ISCU expression was decreased in the majority of human liver cancer tissues, and its reduced expression was significantly associated with p53 mutation. Our finding revealed a novel role of the p53-ISCU pathway in the maintenance of iron homeostasis in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:26560363

  17. Regulation of iron homeostasis by the p53-ISCU pathway

    PubMed Central

    Funauchi, Yuki; Tanikawa, Chizu; Yi Lo, Paulisally Hau; Mori, Jinichi; Daigo, Yataro; Takano, Atsushi; Miyagi, Yohei; Okawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of iron in tissues increases the risk of cancer, but iron regulatory mechanisms in cancer tissues are largely unknown. Here, we report that p53 regulates iron metabolism through the transcriptional regulation of ISCU (iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme), which encodes a scaffold protein that plays a critical role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. p53 activation induced ISCU expression through binding to an intronic p53-binding site. Knockdown of ISCU enhanced the binding of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), a cytosolic Fe-S protein, to an iron-responsive element in the 5? UTR of ferritin heavy polypeptide 1 (FTH1) mRNA and subsequently reduced the translation of FTH1, a major iron storage protein. In addition, in response to DNA damage, p53 induced FTH1 and suppressed transferrin receptor, which regulates iron entry into cells. HCT116 p53+/+ cells were resistant to iron accumulation, but HCT116 p53?/? cells accumulated intracellular iron after DNA damage. Moreover, excess dietary iron caused significant elevation of serum iron levels in p53?/? mice. ISCU expression was decreased in the majority of human liver cancer tissues, and its reduced expression was significantly associated with p53 mutation. Our finding revealed a novel role of the p53-ISCU pathway in the maintenance of iron homeostasis in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:26560363

  18. Physiologia Plantarum 131: 7279. 2007 Copyright Physiologia Plantarum 2007, ISSN 0031-9317 Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    -shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and reduction of cytosolic aconitase activity in Citrus fruit vesicles in citrate levels. Introduction Aconitase (EC 4.2.1.3) catalyses the reversible conversion of citric acid homeostasis, altering their expression. Thus, the enzyme provides a regulatory link between organic acid

  19. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  20. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Simcox, Judith A.; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  1. Iron control in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Fredette, G.

    1983-11-01

    The Appalachian Basin presents one of the most challenging production and stimulation problems because of the iron content of its hydrocarbon producing formations. A variety of iron compounds in the producing formations present problems that have to be considered to effectively stimulate these formations. A research program was initiated in the later part of 1980 to determine methods of more effectively controlling the iron problems in the Appalachian Basin. Results of this study provide data for comparing the effectiveness of various iron control systems that are used in acid stimulation or breakdown techniques that minimize the release of acid insoluble solids and stabilizes them to decrease the detrimental effect caused by fines migration. Also developed in this study was an iron control system that helps the compatibility of the treating fluid with ferrous iron in the formation water. Flow test data and field results indicate the effectiveness of these iron control systems and treating techniques.

  2. Iron control in zinc pressure leach processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buban, K. R.; Collins, M. J.; Masters, I. M.

    1999-12-01

    The occurrence of zinc in sulfide ore deposits is generally accompanied by various iron minerals. Hence, even the most efficient concentrators generally produce a zinc concentrate with significant iron content. The efficient recovery of zinc metal from zinc concentrates requires the rejection of iron residue in a form that minimizes the zinc entrainment. Careful control of the iron precipitation step is important, so that the iron residue produced is amenable to efficient liquid-solid separation in order to obtain high zinc recoveries. In hydrometallurgical zinc processes, the coprecipitation of minor impurities along with iron precipitation is also important in producing zinc-sulfate solution from which high-purity zinc cathode can be electrowon. The integration of Dynatec’s zinc pressure leach process with existing roast-leach-electrowin plants employing various methods of iron rejection is briefly described in this article, along with the application of two-stage pressure leaching in stand-alone processes.

  3. Human brain atlas for automated region of interest selection in quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to determine iron content in deep gray matter structures

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Issel Anne L.; Faria, Andreia V.; Li, Xu; Hsu, Johnny T.C.; Airan, Raag D.; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the single-subject Eve atlas from Johns Hopkins University, which currently contains diffusion tensor and T1-weighted anatomical maps, by including contrast based on quantitative susceptibility mapping. The new atlas combines a “deep gray matter parcellation map” (DGMPM) derived from a single-subject quantitative susceptibility map with the previously established “white matter parcellation map” (WMPM) from the same subject’s T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging data into an MNI coordinate map named the “Everything Parcellation Map in Eve Space,” also known as the “EvePM.” It allows automated segmentation of gray matter and white matter structures. Quantitative susceptibility maps from five healthy male volunteers (30 to 33 years of age) were coregistered to the Eve Atlas with AIR and Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), and the transformation matrices were applied to the EvePM to produce automated parcellation in subject space. Parcellation accuracy was measured with a kappa analysis for the left and right structures of six deep gray matter regions. For multi-orientation QSM images, the Kappa statistic was 0.85 between automated and manual segmentation, with the inter-rater reproducibility Kappa being 0.89 for the human raters, suggesting “almost perfect” agreement between all segmentation methods. Segmentation seemed slightly more difficult for human raters on single-orientation QSM images, with the Kappa statistic being 0.88 between automated and manual segmentation, and 0.85 and 0.86 between human raters. Overall, this atlas provides a time-efficient tool for automated coregistration and segmentation of quantitative susceptibility data to analyze many regions of interest. These data were used to establish a baseline for normal magnetic susceptibility measurements for over 60 brain structures of 30- to 33-year-old males. Correlating the average susceptibility with age-based iron concentrations in gray matter structures measured by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) allowed interpolation of the average iron concentration of several deep gray matter regions delineated in the EvePM. PMID:23769915

  4. Human brain atlas for automated region of interest selection in quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to determine iron content in deep gray matter structures.

    PubMed

    Lim, Issel Anne L; Faria, Andreia V; Li, Xu; Hsu, Johnny T C; Airan, Raag D; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the single-subject Eve atlas from Johns Hopkins University, which currently contains diffusion tensor and T1-weighted anatomical maps, by including contrast based on quantitative susceptibility mapping. The new atlas combines a "deep gray matter parcellation map" (DGMPM) derived from a single-subject quantitative susceptibility map with the previously established "white matter parcellation map" (WMPM) from the same subject's T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging data into an MNI coordinate map named the "Everything Parcellation Map in Eve Space," also known as the "EvePM." It allows automated segmentation of gray matter and white matter structures. Quantitative susceptibility maps from five healthy male volunteers (30 to 33 years of age) were coregistered to the Eve Atlas with AIR and Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), and the transformation matrices were applied to the EvePM to produce automated parcellation in subject space. Parcellation accuracy was measured with a kappa analysis for the left and right structures of six deep gray matter regions. For multi-orientation QSM images, the Kappa statistic was 0.85 between automated and manual segmentation, with the inter-rater reproducibility Kappa being 0.89 for the human raters, suggesting "almost perfect" agreement between all segmentation methods. Segmentation seemed slightly more difficult for human raters on single-orientation QSM images, with the Kappa statistic being 0.88 between automated and manual segmentation, and 0.85 and 0.86 between human raters. Overall, this atlas provides a time-efficient tool for automated coregistration and segmentation of quantitative susceptibility data to analyze many regions of interest. These data were used to establish a baseline for normal magnetic susceptibility measurements for over 60 brain structures of 30- to 33-year-old males. Correlating the average susceptibility with age-based iron concentrations in gray matter structures measured by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) allowed interpolation of the average iron concentration of several deep gray matter regions delineated in the EvePM. PMID:23769915

  5. TonB-Dependent Heme Iron Acquisition in the Tsetse Fly Symbiont Sodalis glossinidius

    PubMed Central

    Hrusa, Gili; Farmer, William; Weiss, Brian L.; Applebaum, Taylor; Roma, Jose Santinni; Szeto, Lauren; Aksoy, Serap

    2015-01-01

    Sodalis glossinidius is an intra- and extracellular symbiont of the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.), which feeds exclusively on vertebrate blood. S. glossinidius resides in a wide variety of tsetse tissues and may encounter environments that differ dramatically in iron content. The Sodalis chromosome encodes a putative TonB-dependent outer membrane heme transporter (HemR) and a putative periplasmic/inner membrane ABC heme permease system (HemTUV). Because these gene products mediate iron acquisition processes by other enteric bacteria, we characterized their regulation and physiological role in the Sodalis/tsetse system. Our results show that the hemR and tonB genes are expressed by S. glossinidius in the tsetse fly. Furthermore, transcription of hemR in Sodalis is repressed in a high-iron environment by the iron-responsive transcriptional regulator Fur. Expression of the S. glossinidius hemR and hemTUV genes in an Escherichia coli strain unable to use heme as an iron source stimulated growth in the presence of heme or hemoglobin as the sole iron source. This stimulation was dependent on the presence of either the E. coli or Sodalis tonB gene. Sodalis tonB and hemR mutant strains were defective in their ability to colonize the gut of tsetse flies that lacked endogenous symbionts, while wild-type S. glossinidius proliferated in this same environment. Finally, we show that the Sodalis HemR protein is localized to the bacterial membrane and appears to bind hemin. Collectively, this study provides strong evidence that TonB-dependent, HemR-mediated iron acquisition is important for the maintenance of symbiont homeostasis in the tsetse fly, and it provides evidence for the expression of bacterial high-affinity iron acquisition genes in insect symbionts. PMID:25681181

  6. IRON INCREASES EXPRESSION OF IRON-EXPORT PROTEIN MTP1 IN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation of reactive iron in acute and chronic lung disease suggests that iron-driven free radical formation could contribute to tissue injury. Safe transport and sequestration of this metal is likely to be of importance in lung defense. We provide evidence for the expression...

  7. IRON DISSOCIATES FROM THE NAFEEDTA COMPLEX PRIOR TO OR DURING INTESTINAL ABSORPTION IN RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium Iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA) has superior iron bioavailability especially in foods containing iron absorption inhibitors. However, mechanisms involved in the absorption and subsequent partitioning of iron complexed with EDTA are poorly understood. Our objectives were to compare retention and tissue...

  8. Air oxidation of hydrazine. 1. Reaction kinetics on natural kaolinites, halloysites, and model substituent layers with varying iron and titanium oxide and O- center contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L.; Mariner, R.; Rice, A.

    1991-01-01

    Air oxidation of hydrazine was studied by using a group of kaolinites, halloysites, and substituent oxides as models for the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The rate was found to be linear with oxygen. The stoichiometry showed that oxygen was the primary oxidant and that dinitrogen was the only important nitrogen-containing product. The rates on kaolinites were strongly inhibited by water. Those on three-dimensional silica and gibbsite appeared not to be. That on a supposedly layered silica formed from a natural kaolinite by acid leaching showed transitional behavior--slowed relative to that expected from a second-order reaction relative to that on the gibbsite and silica but faster than those on the kaolinites. The most striking result of the reaction was the marked increase in the rate of reaction of a constant amount of hydrazine as the amount of clay was increased. The increase was apparent (in spite of the water inhibition at high conversions) over a 2 order of magnitude variation of the clay weight. The weight dependence was taken to indicate that the role of the clay is very important, that the number of reactive centers is very small, or that they may be deactivated over the course of the reaction. In contrast to the strong dependence on overall amount of clay, the variation of amounts of putative oxidizing centers, such as structural Fe(III), admixed TiO2 or Fe2O3, or O- centers, did not result in alteration of the rate commensurate with the degree of variation of the entity in question. Surface iron does play some role, however, as samples that were pretreated with a reducing agent were less active as catalysts than the parent material. These results were taken to indicate either that the various centers interact to such a degree that they cannot be considered independently or that the reaction might proceed by way of surface complexation, rather than single electron transfers.

  9. Iron Chelation Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iron overload. What actually happens to cause iron overload? With each red blood cell transfusion, your body ... is deposited. What are the symptoms of iron overload? Early on, iron overload can cause no symptoms, ...

  10. Enhanced and selective delivery of enzyme therapy to 9L-glioma tumor via magnetic targeting of PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Wenxi

    2014-01-01

    The stability of enzyme-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in plasma is of great importance for in vivo delivery of the conjugated enzyme. In this study, ?-glucosidase was conjugated on aminated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the glutaraldehyde method (?-Glu-MNP), and further PEGylated via N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-?-Glu-MNPs) were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter distribution, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The results showed that the multidomain structure and magnetization properties of these nanoparticles were conserved well throughout the synthesis steps, with an expected diameter increase and zeta potential shifts. The Michaelis constant was calculated to evaluate the activity of conjugated ?-glucosidase on the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, indicating 73.0% and 65.4% of enzyme activity remaining for ?-Glu-MNP and PEG-?-Glu-MNP, respectively. Both magnetophoretic mobility analysis and pharmacokinetics showed improved in vitro/in vivo stability of PEG-?-Glu-MNP compared with ?-Glu-MNP. In vivo magnetic targeting of PEG-?-Glu-MNP was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and electron spin resonance analysis in a mouse model of subcutaneous 9L-glioma. Satisfactory accumulation of PEG-?-Glu-MNP in tumor tissue was successfully achieved, with an iron content of 627±45 nmol Fe/g tissue and ?-glucosidase activity of 32.2±8.0 mU/g tissue. PMID:24959078

  11. Enhanced and selective delivery of enzyme therapy to 9L-glioma tumor via magnetic targeting of PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Wenxi

    2014-01-01

    The stability of enzyme-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in plasma is of great importance for in vivo delivery of the conjugated enzyme. In this study, ?-glucosidase was conjugated on aminated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the glutaraldehyde method (?-Glu-MNP), and further PEGylated via N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-?-Glu-MNPs) were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter distribution, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The results showed that the multidomain structure and magnetization properties of these nanoparticles were conserved well throughout the synthesis steps, with an expected diameter increase and zeta potential shifts. The Michaelis constant was calculated to evaluate the activity of conjugated ?-glucosidase on the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, indicating 73.0% and 65.4% of enzyme activity remaining for ?-Glu-MNP and PEG-?-Glu-MNP, respectively. Both magnetophoretic mobility analysis and pharmacokinetics showed improved in vitro/in vivo stability of PEG-?-Glu-MNP compared with ?-Glu-MNP. In vivo magnetic targeting of PEG-?-Glu-MNP was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and electron spin resonance analysis in a mouse model of subcutaneous 9L-glioma. Satisfactory accumulation of PEG-?-Glu-MNP in tumor tissue was successfully achieved, with an iron content of 627±45 nmol Fe/g tissue and ?-glucosidase activity of 32.2±8.0 mU/g tissue. PMID:24959078

  12. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  13. Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets with low omega (u)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios have been shown to decrease aortic cholesterol accumulation and have been suggested to promote weight loss. The involvement of the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT...

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin), and chronic renal disease. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin), and chronic renal disease. (b)...

  18. Changes in iron, zinc and chelating agents during traditional African processing of maize: Effect of iron contamination on bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Polycarpe Kayodé, A P; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Gnimadi, Muriel; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2011-06-15

    The effect of the different unit operations of processing traditionally used to produce four maize foods commonly consumed in Africa on the nutritional composition of the products was investigated, using Benin as a study context. The impact of the processes on lipid, fibre, phytate, iron and zinc contents varied with the process. The lowest IP6/Fe and IP6/Zn molar ratios, the indices used to assess Fe and Zn bioavailability were obtained in mawè, a fermented dough. Analysis of maize products highlighted a significant increase in iron content after milling, as a result of contamination by the equipment used. Evaluation of iron bioaccessibility by in vitro enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis revealed that the iron contamination, followed by lactic acid fermentation, led to a considerable increase in bioaccessible iron content. Extrinsic iron supplied to food products by the milling equipment could play a role in iron intake in developing countries. PMID:25213959

  19. Iron-rich fragments in the Yamansu iron deposit, Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints on metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Ding, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Li, Li-Xing; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic rock-hosted iron deposits are among the important iron ores in China. However, the nature of primary magma and petrogenesis associated with these iron ores remains controversial. Here, we report iron-rich fragments (IRF) from the Yamansu iron deposit in Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China, which occurs in association with volcanic breccia, submarine volcanic breccia and ignimbrite. The IRF is composed of five types including oligoclase-iron oxide type (OIO), oligoclase-albite-iron oxide type (OAIO), albite-iron oxide type (AIO), albite-K-feldspar-iron oxide type (AKIO) and K-feldspar-iron oxide type (KIO). These fragments display typical volcanic fabric features, such as porphyritic texture, hyalopilitic texture of the groundmass and vesicles filled by minerals to form amygdales. The feldspar phenocrysts of IRF are dominantly albite. The groundmass of IRF consists of magnetite and feldspar. The magnetite is distributed in between the feldspar laths, and together display hyalopilitic texture which could be observed only in volcanic rocks. The vesicles are filled with magnetite, feldspar, chlorite and calcite from the margin to the interior. The IRF has high Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Na and K contents and low Mg content. The average total Fe is 26 wt.%. The magnetite is mostly titanium-vanadium magnetite, with the TiO2 content ranging up to 4.86 wt.% and V2O3 content up to 3.20 wt.%. The IRF probably came from iron-rich melts and represent the products of the Fenner magma evolution. The basaltic magma evolved into the Fe-Na-rich residual melts by crystallization under low oxygen fugacity condition in a closed magma chamber after intruding into the shallow crust. The Fe-Na-rich residual melts were emplaced in hypabyssal environments or erupted generating the orebodies or providing the material source for the generation of the high-grade iron ores which were subsequently enriched by the late-stage hydrothermal fluids.

  20. Extracellular Iron Biomineralization by Photoautotrophic Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria ? †

    PubMed Central

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Obst, Martin; Kappler, Andreas; Hegler, Florian; Schädler, Sebastian; Bouchez, Camille; Guyot, François; Morin, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxidation at neutral pH by the phototrophic anaerobic iron-oxidizing bacterium Rhodobacter sp. strain SW2 leads to the formation of iron-rich minerals. These minerals consist mainly of nano-goethite (?-FeOOH), which precipitates exclusively outside cells, mostly on polymer fibers emerging from the cells. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses performed at the C K-edge suggest that these fibers are composed of a mixture of lipids and polysaccharides or of lipopolysaccharides. The iron and the organic carbon contents of these fibers are linearly correlated at the 25-nm scale, which in addition to their texture suggests that these fibers act as a template for mineral precipitation, followed by limited crystal growth. Moreover, we evidence a gradient of the iron oxidation state along the mineralized fibers at the submicrometer scale. Fe minerals on these fibers contain a higher proportion of Fe(III) at cell contact, and the proportion of Fe(II) increases at a distance from the cells. All together, these results demonstrate the primordial role of organic polymers in iron biomineralization and provide first evidence for the existence of a redox gradient around these nonencrusting, Fe-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:19592528

  1. Iron requirements of infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group because their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of ID anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's-milk intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status, and immigrant status. The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight. There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of ID. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy European infants and toddlers of normal birth weight. Formula-fed infants up to 6 months of age should receive iron-fortified infant formula, with an iron content of 4 to 8 mg/L (0.6-1.2 mg(-1) · kg(-1) · day(-1)). Marginally low-birth-weight infants (2000-2500 g) should receive iron supplements of 1-2 mg(-1) · kg(-1) · day(-1). Follow-on formulas should be iron-fortified; however, there is not enough evidence to determine the optimal iron concentration in follow-on formula. From the age of 6 months, all infants and toddlers should receive iron-rich (complementary) foods, including meat products and/or iron-fortified foods. Unmodified cow's milk should not be fed as the main milk drink to infants before the age of 12 months and intake should be limited to <500 mL/day in toddlers. It is important to ensure that this dietary advice reaches high-risk groups such as socioeconomically disadvantaged families and immigrant families. PMID:24135983

  2. Blood circulating microparticle species in relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A case–control, cross sectional study with conventional MRI and advanced iron content imaging outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J.S.; Chervenak, R.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Tsunoda, I.; Ramanathan, M.; Martinez, N.E.; Omura, S.; Sato, F.; Chaitanya, G.V.; Minagar, A.; McGee, J.; Jennings, M.H.; Monceaux, C.; Becker, F.; Cvek, U.; Trutschl, M.; Zivadinov, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to represent an excessive and inappropriate immune response to several central nervous system (CNS) autoantigens, increasing evidence also suggests that MS may also be a neurovascular inflammatory disease, characterized by endothelial activation and shedding of cell membrane microdomains known as ‘microparticles’ into the circulation. Objective To investigate the relationships between these endothelial biomarkers and MS. Methods We examined the relative abundance of CD31+/PECAM-1, CD51+CD61+ (?V–?3) and CD54+ (ICAM-1) bearing microparticles in sera of healthy individuals, patients with relapsing–remitting MS, and secondary-progressive MS. We also investigated the correlation among circulating levels of different microparticle species in MS with conventional MRI (T2- and T1-lesion volumes and brain atrophy), as well as novel MR modalities [assessment of iron content on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)-filtered phase]. Results Differences in circulating microparticle levels were found among MS groups, and several microparticle species (CD31+/CD51+/CD61+/CD54+) were found to correlate with conventional MRI and SWI features of MS. Conclusion These results indicate that circulating microparticles’ profiles in MS may support mechanistic roles for microvascular stress and injury which is an underlying contributor not only to MS initiation and progression, but also to pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:26073484

  3. Identification of rice cultivars with low brown rice mixed cadmium and lead contents and their interactions with the micronutrients iron, zinc, nickel and manganese.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wang, Xun; Qi, Xiaoli; Huang, Lu; Ye, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    Paddy fields in mining areas are usually co-contaminated by a cocktail of mixed toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb in Pb/Zn mines). However, previous studies on rice cultivars screened for effective metal exclusion have mostly focused on individual metals, and have been conducted under pot-trial or hydroponic solution conditions. This study identified rice cultivars with both low Cd and Pb accumulation under Cd- and Pb-contaminated field conditions, and the interactions of the toxic elements Cd and Pb with the micronutrient elements Fe, Zn, Mn and Ni were also studied. Among 32 rice cultivars tested, there were significant differences in Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg) and Pb (0.25-3.15 mg/kg) levels in their brown rice, and similar results were also found for the micronutrient elements. Significant decreases in concentrations of Fe and Mn were detected with increasing Cd concentrations and a significant elevation in Fe, Mn and Ni with increasing Pb concentrations. A similar result was also shown by Cd and Ni. Three cultivars were identified with a combination of low brown rice Cd and Pb, high micronutrient and grain yield (Wufengyou 2168, Tianyou 196 and Guinongzhan). Present results suggest that it is possible to breed rice cultivars with low mixed toxic element (Cd, Pb) and high micronutrient contents along with high grain yields, thus ensuring food safety and quality. PMID:23520849

  4. Toxic (Pb, Cd, Hg) and essential (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) metal content of liver tissue of some domestic and bush animals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adei, Evans; Forson-Adaboh, Kwadwo

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic metals in liver, a rich natural source of essential elements, can present health risks to regular consumers of liver. A total of 35 fresh liver samples of cow, sheep, goat, pig, grass-cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), chicken and antelope (Antilocapra americana) were obtained from three different markets in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and an automatic mercury analyzer. Levels of iron in the grass-cutter and pig of 500.5-645.4 mg kg(-1) were the highest in the animal livers examined. Mn concentrations were highest in grass-cutter and rat liver, ranging 16.5-30.2 mg kg(-1). The safe Cu and Zn permissible limits of 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) were exceeded in 70 and 75% of the liver samples, respectively. Generally, for each animal group studied, at least 50% of the sample livers exceeded the Cd permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). The levels of Pb, which ranged 1.3-13.8 mg kg(-1), exceeded the proposed European Commission (EC) limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). Care must be taken by regular consumers of the iron-rich animal livers of grass-cutter, pig and rat because they also had the highest levels of Pb (in grass-cutter and pig) and Cd (in grass-cutter, rat and pig). The liver samples analyzed for Hg had values far below the permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:24784805

  5. Using Heavy Metal Content and Lipid Peroxidation Indicators in the Tissues of the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus for Pollution Assessment After Marine Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Belcheva, Nina; Istomina, Alexandra; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda; Lishavskaya, Tatiana; Chelomin, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of environmental remediation on the heavy metal concentration and lipid peroxidation activity in the digestive gland and gills of the marine mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Changes in heavy metal concentrations and lipid peroxidation biomarkers in the tissues of mussels collected at a contaminated site were compared with those obtained from a reference site. Prior to remediation the concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Zn and the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin in mussels collected from the contaminated site were significantly increased compared with those obtained from the reference site. Three years after remediation, these parameters did not significantly exceed the reference site parameters, except Pb, whose concentration, though markedly decreased, yet was much higher than in tissues of mussels from the reference site. PMID:26271612

  6. Risk excess of soft-tissue sarcoma and thyroid cancer in a community exposed to airborne organochlorinated compound mixtures with a high hexachlorobenzene content.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, J O; Sunyer, J; Moreno, V; Amaral, O C; Sala, M; Rosell, A; Anto, J M; Albaiges, J

    1994-01-15

    Unusually high levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were detected in the air and in sera of volunteers of a village located in the vicinity of an organochlorinated-compounds factory (Flix, Catalonia, Spain). A significant increase for specific causes of death was obtained only for neoplasms of unknown origin. However, an excess of incident cases was observed for thyroid neoplasms, soft-tissue sarcoma and brain neoplasms in men. These descriptive findings are in agreement with previously reported associations between soft-tissue sarcoma and human exposure to organochlorinated compounds, as well as with animal experiments relating HCB and thyroid cancer, and add new information on the possible relation between organochlorinated compounds, and particularly HCB, and cancer. PMID:8314301

  7. Moderate doses of conjugated linoleic acid isomers mix contribute to lowering body fat content maintaining insulin sensitivity and a noninflammatory pattern in adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2010-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates body composition, especially by reducing adipose tissue. However, despite the increasing knowledge about CLA's beneficial effects on obesity management, the mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, in some human studies fat loss is accompanied by impairment in insulin sensitivity, especially when using the trans-10,cis-12 isomer. The aim of this work was to study the effects of moderate doses of CLA on body fat deposition, cytokine profile and inflammatory markers in mice. Mice were orally treated with a mixture of CLA isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 (50:50), for 35 days with doses of CLA1 (0.15 g CLA/kg body weight) and CLA2 (0.5 g CLA/kg body weight). CLA had discrete effects on body weight but caused a clear reduction in fat mass (retroperitoneal and mesenteric as the most sensitive depots), although no other tissue weights were affected. Glucose and insulin were not altered by CLA treatment, and maintenance of glucose homeostasis was observed even under insulin overload. The study of gene expression (Emr1, MCP-1, IL-6, TNFalpha, PPARgamma2 and iNOS) either in adipocytes and/or in the stromal vascular fraction indicated that CLA does not lead to the infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue or to the induction of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The use of a mixture of both isomers, as well as moderate doses of CLA, is able to induce a reduction of fat gain without an impairment of adipose tissue function while preserving insulin sensitivity. PMID:19195867

  8. Iron isotopes constrain biologic and abiologic processes in banded iron formation genesis

    E-print Network

    Roden, Eric E.

    , (2) complete reduction by bacterial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR), and (3) interaction contents of magnetite- and siderite-facies BIFs suggests that bacterial sulfate reduction was minor iron cycle (e.g., Trendall, 2002; Klein, 2005). The large inventory of Fe3+ -bearing oxides (magnetite

  9. Quality of Life, Physical and Mental Status and Contentment of Patients with Localized Soft Tissue or Bone Sarcoma: A Questionnaire Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sachsenmaier, Saskia M.; Ipach, Ingmar; Kluba, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Extremity soft tissue and bone sarcomas represent a rare group of bone and connective tissue cancers. In literature, there is little information about psycho-emotional status and impact on quality of life after the diagnosis and treatment of this kind of tumors. The aim of this survey was to define the profile of the patients at risk and their need for psychooncological care. Our self-created questionnaire consists of 71 items related to the individual emotional, mental and physical situation after the diagnosis of soft tissue and bone sarcoma. Sixty-six patients, surgically treated at our department, were included. Only 37.5% of the patients considered themselves to be completely emotional stable. Psychooncological treatment was accepted mostly by female patients, by patients with higher education level and by married patients. Emotional stability and confidence in future were associated with a strong familiar background, with numerous consultations of psychooncological service and also to gender and physical condition. Current quality of life was strongly correlated to physical condition. Thanks to our questionnaire, we disclosed few risk factors for negative emotional outcome after therapy, such as higher age, social isolation, female gender and poor physical status. PMID:26330994

  10. OPT3 Is a Phloem-Specific Iron Transporter That Is Essential for Systemic Iron Signaling and Redistribution of Iron and Cadmium in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Gayomba, Sheena R.; Jung, Ha-il; Vimalakumari, Nanditha K.; Piñeros, Miguel; Craft, Eric; Rutzke, Michael A.; Danku, John; Lahner, Brett; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Knowledge of the signaling mechanisms that communicate iron demand from shoots to roots to regulate iron uptake as well as the transport systems mediating iron partitioning into edible plant tissues is critical for the development of crop biofortification strategies. Here, we report that OPT3, previously classified as an oligopeptide transporter, is a plasma membrane transporter capable of transporting transition ions in vitro. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana show that OPT3 loads iron into the phloem, facilitates iron recirculation from the xylem to the phloem, and regulates both shoot-to-root iron signaling and iron redistribution from mature to developing tissues. We also uncovered an aspect of crosstalk between iron homeostasis and cadmium partitioning that is mediated by OPT3. Together, these discoveries provide promising avenues for targeted strategies directed at increasing iron while decreasing cadmium density in the edible portions of crops and improving agricultural productivity in iron deficient soils. PMID:24867923

  11. Brain iron deposits and lifespan cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Del C Valdés Hernández, Maria; Ritchie, Stuart; Glatz, Andreas; Allerhand, Mike; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Gow, Alan J; Royle, Natalie A; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have reported associations between brain iron deposits and cognitive status, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases in older individuals, but the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We explored the associations between regional brain iron deposits and different factors of cognitive ability (fluid intelligence, speed and memory) in a large sample (n?=?662) of individuals with a mean age of 73 years. Brain iron deposits in the corpus striatum were extracted automatically. Iron deposits in other parts of the brain (i.e., white matter, thalamus, brainstem and cortex), brain tissue volume and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed separately and semi-automatically. Overall, 72.8 % of the sample had iron deposits. The total volume of iron deposits had a small but significant negative association with all three cognitive ability factors in later life (mean r?=?-0.165), but no relation to intelligence in childhood (r?=?0.043, p?=?0.282). Regression models showed that these iron deposit associations were still present after control for a variety of vascular health factors, and were separable from the association of WMH with cognitive ability. Iron deposits were also associated with cognition across the lifespan, indicating that they are relevant for cognitive ability only at older ages. Iron deposits might be an indicator of small vessel disease that affects the neuronal networks underlying higher cognitive functioning. PMID:26378028

  12. Iron in Parkinson disease, blood diseases, malaria and ferritin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauminger, E. R.; Nowik, I.

    1998-12-01

    The concentration of iron in Substantia nigra, the part of the brain which is involved in Parkinson disease, has been found by Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) to be ~ 160 ?g/g wet tissue and ~ 670 ?g/g dry weight, both in control and Parkinson samples. All the iron observed by MS in these samples is ferritin-like iron. In several blood diseases, large amounts of ferritin-like iron have been observed in red blood cells. Desferral removed iron from serum, but not from red blood cells. The iron compound in the malarial pigment of human blood infected by P. falciparum was found to be hemin-like, whereas the pigment iron in rats infected by P. berghei was different from any known iron porphyrin.

  13. An analysis on quality, colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. F.) Merr. Pui Fai cultivar, grown in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chutichudet, P; Chutichudet, Benjawan; Kaewsit, S

    2008-05-15

    This laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Agricultural Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during June to October 2007. The experiment aimed to search for the most appropriate harvesting age of fruits of Santol orchard plants with respect to colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Each replication consisted of 10 fruits, thus a total of 160 fruits were used. The Santol fruits were harvested at different ages, i.e., 100, 115, 130 and 145 days after full bloom of flowers and these harvested ages were used as treatments, i.e., 100 for T1 (Control), 115 for T2, 130 for T3 and 145 for T4. The results showed that the most appropriate harvesting date for high quality Santol fruits was found with T4, i.e., 145 days after full bloom of flowers where Santol fruits of T4 gave the highest mean values of fruit length, diameter, fresh weight fruit(-1) of 10.71 cm, 9.31 cm and 399.76 g, respectively. Yellowness of skin colour of fruits was evenly distributed. Total soluble solid content of pericarp, flesh tissue and seeds were highest for T4 with mean values of 13.93, 15.05 and 18.260 brix, respectively. Flesh texture density highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers. Titratable acidity content in fruits was highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers whereas a reverse was found with pH of fruit juices. PMID:18817267

  14. In silico analysis and expression profiling of miRNAs targeting genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway and their relationship with steviol glycosides content in different tissues of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Saifi, Monica; Nasrullah, Nazima; Ahmad, Malik Mobeen; Ali, Athar; Khan, Jawaid A; Abdin, M Z

    2015-09-01

    miRNAs are emerging as potential regulators of the gene expression. Their proven promising role in regulating biosynthetic pathways related gene networks may hold the key to understand the genetic regulation of these pathways which may assist in selection and manipulation to get high performing plant genotypes with better secondary metabolites yields and increased biomass. miRNAs associated with genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway, however, have not been identified so far. In this study miRNAs targeting genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway were identified for the first time whose precursors were potentially generated from ESTs and nucleotide sequences of Stevia rebaudiana. Thereafter, stem-loop coupled real time PCR based expressions of these miRNAs in different tissues of Stevia rebaudiana were investigated and their relationship pattern was analysed with the expression levels of their target mRNAs as well as steviol glycoside contents. All the miRNAs investigated showed differential expressions in all the three tissues studied, viz. leaves, flowers and stems. Out of the eleven miRNAs validated, the expression levels of nine miRNAs (miR319a, miR319b, miR319c, miR319d, miR319e, miR319f, miR319h, miRstv_7, miRstv_9) were found to be inversely related, while expression levels of the two, i.e. miR319g and miRstv_11 on the contrary, showed direct relation with the expression levels of their target mRNAs and steviol glycoside contents in the leaves, flowers and stems. This study provides a platform for better understanding of the steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway and these miRNAs can further be employed to manipulate the biosynthesis of these metabolites to enhance their contents and yield in S. rebaudiana. PMID:26042546

  15. Relaxivity-iron calibration in hepatic iron overload: Probing underlying biophysical mechanisms using a Monte Carlo model

    PubMed Central

    Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Wood, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron overload is a serious condition for patients with ?-thalassemia, transfusion-dependent sickle cell anemia and inherited disorders of iron metabolism. MRI is becoming increasingly important in non-invasive quantification of tissue iron, overcoming the drawbacks of traditional techniques (liver biopsy). R2*(1/T2*) rises linearly with iron while R2(1/T2) has a curvilinear relationship in human liver. Although recent work has demonstrated clinically-valid estimates of human liver iron, the calibration varies with MRI sequence, field strength, iron chelation therapy and organ imaged, forcing recalibration in patients. To understand and correct these limitations, a thorough understanding of the underlying biophysics is of critical importance. Toward this end, a Monte Carlo based approach, using human liver as a ‘model’ tissue system, was employed to determine the contribution of particle size and distribution on MRI signal relaxation. Relaxivities were determined for hepatic iron concentrations (HIC) ranging from 0.5–40 mg iron/ g dry tissue weight. Model predictions captured the linear and curvilinear relationship of R2* and R2 with HIC respectively and were within in vivo confidence bounds; contact or chemical exchange mechanisms were not necessary. A validated and optimized model will aid understanding and quantification of iron-mediated relaxivity in tissues where biopsy is not feasible (heart, spleen). PMID:21337413

  16. Regulation of systemic iron homeostasis: how the body responds to changes in iron demand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory J; Darshan, Deepak; Wilkins, Sarah J; Frazer, David M

    2007-06-01

    The iron that is required to meet the metabolic needs of cells and tissues is derived from the plasma. Plasma iron in turn reflects the release of iron from various body cells, principally the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system, and the absorption of dietary iron by the proximal small intestine. This iron donation is highly regulated and the liver-derived peptide hepcidin has emerged as the key modulator of cellular iron export. Following its synthesis and secretion from the liver, circulating hepcidin reduces iron export into the plasma by binding to the iron efflux protein ferroportin1 on the surface of enterocytes, macrophages and other cell types and causing its internalization. The level of hepatic hepcidin expression is influenced by HFE, transferrin receptor 2 and hemojuvelin, and the signal transduction pathway(s) linking these proteins to hepcidin are only beginning to be revealed. Hemojuvelin has recently been shown to signal through the bone morphogenetic protein pathway, ultimately activating receptor SMAD/SMAD4 complexes to alter hepcidin transcription. Circulating differic transferrin has emerged as a possible upstream regulator of the liver-based hepcidin regulatory pathway. In addition to being regulated by body iron requirements, hepcidin expression can be modulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6. The continuing analysis of inherited disorders of iron metabolism combined with biochemical analysis of signal transduction pathways is essential to fully define this important regulatory system. PMID:17273818

  17. Iron is essential for life, being involved in cellular respiration in animals and photosynthesis in plants, as well as

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    Iron is essential for life, being involved in cellular respiration in animals and photosynthesis in plants, as well as being an integral cofactor of ribonucleotide reductase. However, in excess iron). Consequently, organisms have to regulate iron uptake to prevent the detrimental effects of tissue iron loading

  18. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  19. Comparison of Protamine 1 to Protamine 2 mRNA Ratio and YBX2 gene mRNA Content in Testicular Tissue of Fertile and Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza; Hashjin, Amir Samimi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant protamine (PRM) ratios have been observed in infertile men, the mechanisms that implicit the uncoupling of PRM1 and PRM2 expression remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, in this observational study we have compared the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio and mRNA contents of two regulatory factors of these genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sampling was performed by a multi-step method from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal men. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- QPCR) was used to analyze the PRM1, PRM2, Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2) and JmjC-containing histone demethylase 2a (JHDM2A) genes in testicular biopsies of the studied samples. Results The PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio differed significantly among studied groups, namely 0.21 ± 0.13 in azoospermic samples and -0.8 ± 0.22 in fertile samples. The amount of PRM2 mRNA, significantly reduced in azoospermic patients. Azoospermic men exhibited significant under expression of YBX2 gene compared to controls (P<0.001). mRNA content of this gene showed a positive correlation with PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.6, P=0.007). JHDM2A gene expression ratio did not show any significant difference between the studied groups (P=0.3). We also observed no correlation between JHDM2A mRNA content and the PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.2, P=0.3). Conclusion We found significant correlation between the aberrant PRM ratio (PRM2 under expression) and lower YBX2 mRNA content in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men compared to controls, which suggested that downregulation of the YBX2 gene might be involved in PRM2 under expression. These molecules could be useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:26644857

  20. Human Iron?Sulfur Cluster Assembly, Cellular Iron Homeostasis, and Disease†

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Iron?sulfur (Fe?S) proteins contain prosthetic groups consisting of two or more iron atoms bridged by sulfur ligands, which facilitate multiple functions, including redox activity, enzymatic function, and maintenance of structural integrity. More than 20 proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of iron?sulfur clusters in eukaryotes. Defective Fe?S cluster synthesis not only affects activities of many iron?sulfur enzymes, such as aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase, but also alters the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis, causing both mitochondrial iron overload and cytosolic iron deficiency. In this work, we review human Fe?S cluster biogenesis and human diseases that are caused by defective Fe?S cluster biogenesis. Fe?S cluster biogenesis takes place essentially in every tissue of humans, and products of human disease genes, including frataxin, GLRX5, ISCU, and ABCB7, have important roles in the process. However, the human diseases, Friedreich ataxia, glutaredoxin 5-deficient sideroblastic anemia, ISCU myopathy, and ABCB7 sideroblastic anemia/ataxia syndrome, affect specific tissues, while sparing others. Here we discuss the phenotypes caused by mutations in these different disease genes, and we compare the underlying pathophysiology and discuss the possible explanations for tissue-specific pathology in these diseases caused by defective Fe?S cluster biogenesis. PMID:20481466

  1. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; da Silva, Sebastião William; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; de Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90-120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron-iron oxide were 145 emu g-1 and 131 emu g-1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  2. Hepatic iron overload: Quantitative MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gomori, J.M.; Horev, G.; Tamary, H.; Zandback, J.; Kornreich, L.; Zaizov, R.; Freud, E.; Krief, O.; Ben-Meir, J.; Rotem, H.

    1991-05-01

    Iron deposits demonstrate characteristically shortened T2 relaxation times. Several previously published studies reported poor correlation between the in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements made by means of midfield magnetic resonance (MR) units and the hepatic iron content of iron-overloaded patients. In this study, the authors assessed the use of in vivo 1/T2 measurements obtained by means of MR imaging at 0.5 T using short echo times (13.4 and 30 msec) and single-echo-sequences as well as computed tomographic (CT) attenuation as a measure of liver iron concentration in 10 severely iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia major. The iron concentrations in surgical wedge biopsy samples of the liver, which varied between 3 and 9 mg/g of wet weight (normal, less than or equal to 0.5 mg/g), correlated well (r = .93, P less than or equal to .0001) with the preoperative in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements. The CT attenuation did not correlate with liver iron concentration. Quantitative MR imaging is a readily available noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic iron concentration in iron-overloaded patients, reducing the need for needle biopsies of the liver.

  3. Iron and Prochlorococcus/

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne Williford

    2009-01-01

    Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

  4. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an Everyday Diet Ever wonder why so many cereals and infant formulas are fortified with iron? Iron ... 4-6 months of age, when iron-fortified cereal is usually introduced (although breastfeeding moms should continue ...

  6. Saugus Iron Works Forge

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Saugus Iron Works forge, which used a large hammer to compress the iron. Forging strenghened the iron, which, right out of the blast furnace, was brittle. The Saugus River, which powered the forge, can be seen in the background....

  7. The Interface Between Iron Metabolism and Gene-Based Iron Contrast for MRI

    PubMed Central

    Goldhawk, Donna E.; Gelman, Neil; Sengupta, Anindita; Prato, Frank S.

    2015-01-01

    Using a gene-based approach to track cellular and molecular activity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has many advantages. The strong correlation between transverse relaxation rates and total cellular iron content provides a basis for developing sensitive and quantitative detection of MRI reporter gene expression. In addition to biophysical concepts, general features of mammalian iron regulation add valuable context for interpreting molecular MRI predicated on gene-based iron labeling. With particular reference to the potential of magnetotactic bacterial gene expression as a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for mammalian cell tracking, studies in different cell culture models highlight the influence of intrinsic iron regulation on the MRI signal. The interplay between dynamic regulation of mammalian iron metabolism and expression systems designed to sequester iron biominerals for MRI is presented from the perspective of their potential influence on MR image interpretation. PMID:26483608

  8. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue ...

  9. Tissue Photolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with chrome metallization) on which there is a thin layer of photoresist. The laser transfers the digital mask onto the photoresist by direct writing, with typical best resolution of 2 micrometers. The plate is then developed to remove the exposed photoresist, which leaves the exposed areas susceptible to chemical chrome etch. The etch removes the unprotected chrome. The rest of the photoresist is then removed, by either ultraviolet organic solvent or over-development. The remaining chrome pattern is quickly oxidized by atmospheric exposure (typically within 30 seconds). The ready chrome mask is now applied to the tissue slide and aligned manually, or using automatic software and pre-designed alignment marks. The slide plate sandwich is then exposed to UV to destroy the DNA of the unwanted cells. The slide and plate are separated and the slide is processed in a standard way to prepare for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and potential identification of cancer sequences.

  10. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  11. Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Membrane Vesicles in Iron Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

  12. Relaxation-compensated CEST-MRI at 7?T for mapping of creatine content and pH - preliminary application in human muscle tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rerich, Eugenia; Zaiss, Moritz; Korzowski, Andreas; Ladd, Mark E; Bachert, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The small biomolecule creatine is involved in energy metabolism. Mapping of the total creatine (mostly PCr and Cr) in vivo has been done with chemical shift imaging. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) allows an alternative detection of creatine via water MRI. Living tissue exhibits CEST effects from different small metabolites, including creatine, with four exchanging protons of its guanidinium group resonating about 2?ppm from the water peak and hence contributing to the amine proton CEST peak. The intermediate exchange rate (??1000 Hz) of the guanidinium protons requires high RF saturation amplitude B1 . However, strong B1 fields also label semi-solid magnetization transfer (MT) effects originating from immobile protons with broad linewidths (~kHz) in the tissue. Recently, it was shown that endogenous CEST contrasts are strongly affected by the MT background as well as by T1 relaxation of the water protons. We show that this influence can be corrected in the acquired CEST data by an inverse metric that yields the apparent exchange-dependent relaxation (AREX). AREX has some useful linearity features that enable preparation of both concentration, and - by using the AREX-ratio of two RF irradiation amplitudes B1 - purely exchange-rate-weighted CEST contrasts. These two methods could be verified in phantom experiments with different concentration and pH values, but also varying water relaxation properties. Finally, results from a preliminary application to in vivo CEST imaging data of the human calf muscle before and after exercise are presented. The creatine concentration increases during exercise as expected and as confirmed by (31) P NMR spectroscopic imaging. However, the estimated concentrations obtained by our method were higher than the literature values: cCr,rest¯=24.5±3.74mM to cCr,ex¯=38.32±13.05mM. The CEST-based pH method shows a pH decrease during exercise, whereas a slight increase was observed by (31) P NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26374674

  13. Effect of transferrin saturation on internal iron exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamaschi, G.; Eng, M.J.; Huebers, H.A.; Finch, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Radioiron was introduced into the intestinal lumen to evaluate absorption, injected as nonviable red cells to evaluate reticuloendothelial (RE) processing of iron, and injected as hemoglobin to evaluate hepatocyte iron processing. Redistribution of iron through the plasma was evaluated in control animals and animals whose transferrin was saturated by iron infusion. Radioiron introduced into the lumen of the gut as ferrous sulfate and as transferrin-bound iron was absorbed about half as well in iron-infused animals, and absorbed iron was localized in the liver. The similar absorption of transferrin-bound iron suggested that absorption of ferrous iron occurred via the mucosal cell and did not enter by diffusion. The decrease in absorption was associated with an increase in mucosal iron and ferritin content produced by the iron infusion. An inverse relationship (r = -0.895) was shown between mucosal ferritin iron and absorption. When iron was injected as nonviable red cells, it was deposited predominantly in reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. Return of this radioiron to the plasma was only 6% of that in control animals. While there was some movement of iron from spleen to liver, this could be accounted for by intravascular hemolysis. Injected hemoglobin tagged with radioiron was for the most part taken up and held by the liver. Some 13% initially localized in the marrow in iron-infused animals was shown to be storage iron unavailable for hemoglobin synthesis. These studies demonstrate the hepatic trapping of absorbed iron and the inability of either RE cell or hepatocyte to release iron in the transferrin-saturated animal.

  14. Pleiotropic actions of iron balance in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Fang, Xuexian; Wang, Fudi

    2015-03-01

    As an essential element, iron plays a central role in many physiological processes, including redox balance, inflammation, energy metabolism, and environment sensing. Perturbations in iron homeostasis are associated with several conditions, including hyperglycemia and diabetes, both of which have been studied in patients and animal models. To clarify the pleiotropic role of iron homeostasis in diabetes development, the early studies on diseases with iron-overload, studies on clinical iron depletion therapies, associations between iron-related genetic polymorphisms and diabetes, and etiological mechanisms underlying iron perturbations-impaired insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were carefully reviewed and discussed. Hereditary hemochromatosis, transfusion-dependent thalassemia, and excess heme iron intake can increase the risk of developing diabetes. Genetically modified mice and mice fed a high-iron diet present with discrepant phenotypes due to differences in tissue iron distribution. Moreover, several genetic polymorphisms related to iron homeostasis have been associated with the risk of developing diabetes. Tightly controlled iron metabolism is essential for insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, and iron overload in pancreatic islets alters reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) stability and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, thereby impairing the function and viability of ?-cells. Decreased levels of adiponectin, macrophage-mediated inflammation, and ROS-mediated liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation can contribute to iron overload-induced insulin resistance, whereas iron deficiency could also participate in obesity-related inflammation, hypoxia, and insulin resistance. Because iron homeostasis is closely correlated with many metabolic processes, future studies are needed in order to elucidate the finely tuned network among iron homeostasis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and hypoxia. PMID:25520048

  15. Prediction of fatty acids content in pig adipose tissue by near infrared spectroscopy: at-line versus in-situ analysis.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Rojas, E; Garrido-Varo, A; De Pedro-Sanz, E; Guerrero-Ginel, J E; Pérez-Marín, D

    2013-11-01

    A handheld micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based spectrometer working in the near infrared region (NIR) (1600-2400nm) was evaluated for in-situ and non-destructive prediction of main fatty acids in Iberian pig (IP) carcasses. 110 IP carcasses were measured. Performance of the instrument was compared with at-line high-resolution NIRS monochromators working in two analysis modes: melted fat samples (transflectance cups) and intact adipose tissues (interactance fiber optic). Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) values obtained on the MEMS-NIRS device were: 0.68% (stearic), 1.30% (oleic), 0.55% (linoleic) and 1% (palmitic), explaining a variability of 83%, 84%, 81% and 78%, respectively. As expected, this represented a loss of predictive capability in comparison to at-line models, even with the same spectral characteristics as on the handheld device. However, the estimated total errors were at the same level for gas chromatography and NIRS analysis. This indicates that the MEMS-NIRS in-situ analysis of each individual carcass provides a cost-effective and real-time quality control system with suitable accuracy. PMID:23793086

  16. Dinosaurian Soft Tissues Interpreted as Bacterial Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Thomas G.; Gaugler, Gary; Sawlowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope survey was initiated to determine if the previously reported findings of “dinosaurian soft tissues” could be identified in situ within the bones. The results obtained allowed a reinterpretation of the formation and preservation of several types of these “tissues” and their content. Mineralized and non-mineralized coatings were found extensively in the porous trabecular bone of a variety of dinosaur and mammal species across time. They represent bacterial biofilms common throughout nature. Biofilms form endocasts and once dissolved out of the bone, mimic real blood vessels and osteocytes. Bridged trails observed in biofilms indicate that a previously viscous film was populated with swimming bacteria. Carbon dating of the film points to its relatively modern origin. A comparison of infrared spectra of modern biofilms with modern collagen and fossil bone coatings suggests that modern biofilms share a closer molecular make-up than modern collagen to the coatings from fossil bones. Blood cell size iron-oxygen spheres found in the vessels were identified as an oxidized form of formerly pyritic framboids. Our observations appeal to a more conservative explanation for the structures found preserved in fossil bone. PMID:18665236

  17. Iron homeostasis and fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear plants overexpressing a pea ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Djennane, Samia; Cesbron, Colette; Sourice, Sophie; Cournol, Raphael; Dupuis, Fabrice; Eychenne, Magali; Loridon, Karine; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some rosaceous plants including apple and pear. One of the pathogenicity factors affecting fire blight development is the production of a siderophore, desferrioxamine, which overcomes the limiting conditions in plant tissues and also protects bacteria against active oxygen species. In this paper we examine the effect of an iron chelator protein encoded by the pea ferritin gene on the fire blight susceptibility of pear (Pyrus communis). Transgenic pear clones expressing this gene controlled either by the constitutive promoter CaMV 35S or by the inducible promoter sgd24 promoter were produced. The transgenic clones produced were analysed by Q-RT-PCR to determine the level of expression of the pea transgene. A pathogen-inducible pattern of expression of the pea transgene was observed in sgd24-promoter transformants. Adaptation to iron deficiency in vitro was tested in some transgenic clones and different iron metabolism parameters were measured. No strong effect on iron and chlorophyll content, root reductase activity and fire blight susceptibility was detected in the transgenic lines tested. No transformants showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight in greenhouse conditions when inoculated with E. amylovora. PMID:21421420

  18. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

  19. Combining multivariate analysis and human risk indices for assessing heavy metal contents in muscle tissues of commercially fish from Southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Idris, Abubakr M; Said, Tarek O; Omran, Ahmed A; Fawy, Khaled F

    2015-11-01

    Jizan fishers are the major fish source for more than 1.5 million populations in the southern region in Saudi Arabia. Despite the overgrowing of various man-made activities in Jizan City, no recent study on environmental monitoring was reported. In the current study, heavy metals were quantified in muscle tissues of 12 fish species, as the most edible, from Jizan fisheries. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for quantification after microwave wet digestion. Acceptable recovery values (83.46-97.48 %) for spiked fish samples with standard solutions were obtained. The following wide ranges of heavy metal concentrations (?g/g, wet weight) in studied fish species were recorded: V (0.004-0.561), Cr (0.013-0.477), Mn (0.073-0.128), As (0.002-0.935), Se (0.083-3.058), Sn (2.835-5.540), and Pb (0.150-0.386). Comparing with international permissible limits, lower levels were recorded in the current study. For total metal accumulation, the relationship between species was examined by cluster analysis, which showed that Epinephelinae was the farthest species from others. The principal component analysis shows one component indicating normal distribution of heavy metals in fish species. Different metal pollution indices (1.35-0.30), which shows the distribution of the total heavy metal concentrations in each species, were recorded. The hazard indices for muscle consumption were less than 1.0 for all studied metals at both ingestion rates except Sn which showed a marginal value of 28.9. PMID:26122578

  20. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Marta Izabela; Kurylowicz, Alina; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Lisik, Wojciech; Jonas, Maurycy; Wierzbicki, Zbigniew; Chmura, Andrzej; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT) or visceral (VAT) adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL): 1?, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2) controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively), while for IL-1? this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047). What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively). Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1? levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003). In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26516848

  1. Quantification of the Iodine Content of Perigastric Adipose Tissue by Dual-Energy CT: A Novel Method for Preoperative Diagnosis of T4-Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Gaofeng; Li, Yang; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of quantifying iodine concentration (IC) in perigastric adipose tissue, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), for the detection of T4a-stage gastric cancer. Fifty-four patients with gastric cancer were enrolled at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January and June 2013. Patients were imaged preoperatively with conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and DECT, and the IC in perigastric fat adjacent to the tumor calculated from arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) images. The patients subsequently received surgical treatment (gastrectomy), and histologic analysis of resected specimens was used as a ‘gold standard’ reference for cancer staging. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to assess the utility of DECT for identifying T4a-stage gastric cancer, with optimal IC thresholds determined from the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Postoperative histology revealed that 32 patients had serosal invasion (group A), and 22 did not (group B). The accuracy of conventional CT for distinguishing stage T4 from non-T4 stages was 68.5% (37/54). IC was significantly higher in group A than in group B (AP: 0.60±0.34 vs. 0.09±0.19 mg/mL, p<0.001; PVP: 0.83±0.41 vs. 0.27±0.21 mg/mL, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and AUC for detecting serosal invasion were 77.1%, 79.2% and 0.89 at an IC threshold of 0.25 mg/mL for AP images; and 80.0%, 79.2% and 0.90 at an IC threshold of 0.45 mg/mL for PVP images. These results indicated that Iodine quantification in perigastric fat using DECT is an accurate method for detecting serosal invasion by gastric cancer. PMID:26372042

  2. Metal contents of liver parenchyma after percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma before and after trientine hydrochloride therapy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ebara, Masaaki; Okabe, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Fukuo; Yukawa, Masae

    2004-06-01

    We administered trientine hydrochloride, a drug used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, to patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radical treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation, and examined its effect on the reduction of liver-tissue copper content. We enrolled 24 patients with 3 or fewer primary lesions of Child class A or B hepatocellular carcinoma with diameters of 3 cm or less who had undergone radical treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation. Trientine hydrochloride was orally administered in a single daily dose of 250 mg to 12 patients before a meal (at fasting, group 1) or at a total daily dosage of 750 mg, divided into 3 doses, to 12 patients (group 2). This study was a randomized between-groups comparative study of 12 weeks' duration. We used the particle-induced x-ray-emission method to determine liver-tissue mineral content. Urine copper and serum mineral levels were also measured, and transaminase levels were examined. Liver-tissue copper content decreased significantly, to 160.1 microg/g dry weight, after treatment, compared with the pretreatment level of 306.8 microg/g dry weight (P <.05). We detected no significant difference in iron or zinc content before and after treatment. The copper content was significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (P <.05). The urine copper level was significantly increased after 1 week of treatment but decreased thereafter. Serum copper levels were significantly reduced after treatment (P <.01). We detected no significant difference in transaminase level before and after treatment. Iron-deficiency anemia in 1 patient after 12 weeks' treatment was the only adverse reaction, and it was improved by the administration of an iron product. We noted no other overt adverse reactions. In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, trientine hydrochloride therapy may significantly reduce copper content in liver tissue. PMID:15192648

  3. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

    1987-05-01

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

  4. AtMYB12 expression in tomato leads to large scale differential modulation in transcriptome and flavonoid content in leaf and fruit tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Misra, Prashant; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Yadav, Reena; Goel, Ridhi; Bhambhani, Sweta; Sanyal, Indraneel; Trivedi, Ritu; Kumar Trivedi, Prabodh

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, which play important role during various stresses for their survival. These metabolites are also considered as health-protective components in functional foods. Flavonols, one of the important groups of flavonoids, apart from performing several roles in plants have been recognized as potent phytoceuticals for human health. Tomato fruits are deficient in this group of flavonoids and have been an important target for enhancing the accumulation of flavonols through genetic manipulations. In the present study, AtMYB12 transcription factor of the Arabidopsis has been expressed under constitutive promoter in tomato. Transgenic tomato lines exhibited enhanced accumulation of flavonols and chlorogenic acid (CGA) in leaf and fruit accompanied with elevated expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis. In addition, global gene expression analysis in leaf and fruit suggested that AtMYB12 modulates number of molecular processes including aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling and stress responses. Besides this, a differential modulation of the genes in fruits and leaves is reported in this study. Taken together, results demonstrate that modulation of primary carbon metabolism and other pathways by AtMYB12 in tomato may lead to sufficient substrate supply for enhanced content of phenolics in general and flavonols in particular. PMID:26206248

  5. Mercury and selenium in tissues and stomach contents of the migratory sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, from the Eastern Pacific: Concentration, biomagnification, and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bergés-Tiznado, Magdalena E; Fernando Márquez-Farías, J; Torres-Rojas, Yassir; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2015-12-15

    Mercury and selenium were assessed in the sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, from the Eastern Pacific. Sixty-seven individuals were sampled, muscle, liver, kidney, gonads and the prey found in the stomach contents were isolated during fishing 2011-2013 tournaments. Hg exhibited the following pattern (?gg(-1) wet weight): liver (0.57±0.07)>muscle (0.56±0.04)>kidney (0.44±0.08)>gonad (0.14±0.01). The maximum concentration of Se was found in kidneys (14.1±1.9?gg(-1)), and the minimum in muscles (0.67±0.03?gg(-1)). High Se:Hg ratios were found for muscle (4.1±0.3), kidney (132.4±12.1), liver (54.0±4.4) and gonads (88.2±7.9); Hg:Se molar ratios were several orders of magnitude lower (muscle<0.4 and liver, kidney and gonad<0.03). Sailfish feed mainly on fishes and cephalopods with low Hg levels (<0.13?gg(-1)), these results indicate biomagnification of Hg and Se. The muscle of I. platypterus should be consumed (according the provisional tolerable weekly intake) by people cautiously so as not to exceed the recommended intake of 215g per week. PMID:26490411

  6. AtMYB12 expression in tomato leads to large scale differential modulation in transcriptome and flavonoid content in leaf and fruit tissues.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Misra, Prashant; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Yadav, Reena; Goel, Ridhi; Bhambhani, Sweta; Sanyal, Indraneel; Trivedi, Ritu; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, which play important role during various stresses for their survival. These metabolites are also considered as health-protective components in functional foods. Flavonols, one of the important groups of flavonoids, apart from performing several roles in plants have been recognized as potent phytoceuticals for human health. Tomato fruits are deficient in this group of flavonoids and have been an important target for enhancing the accumulation of flavonols through genetic manipulations. In the present study, AtMYB12 transcription factor of the Arabidopsis has been expressed under constitutive promoter in tomato. Transgenic tomato lines exhibited enhanced accumulation of flavonols and chlorogenic acid (CGA) in leaf and fruit accompanied with elevated expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis. In addition, global gene expression analysis in leaf and fruit suggested that AtMYB12 modulates number of molecular processes including aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling and stress responses. Besides this, a differential modulation of the genes in fruits and leaves is reported in this study. Taken together, results demonstrate that modulation of primary carbon metabolism and other pathways by AtMYB12 in tomato may lead to sufficient substrate supply for enhanced content of phenolics in general and flavonols in particular. PMID:26206248

  7. Plant mechanisms of siderophore-iron utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms of siderophore iron-utilization by plants were examined to determine whether plants have direct mechanisms for acquiring iron from microbially-produced hydroxamate siderophores or simply take up inorganic iron in equilibrium with the chelate (shuttle mechanism). Experiments were designed to determine whether the monocot plant species, oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) could acquire iron from ferrichrome under hydroponic conditions in which iron uptake was most likely to occur by direct use of the chelating agent. Ten-day-old iron-deficient seedlings, grown in aerated Hoagland's nutrient solution (minus iron) buffered at pH 7.4 with CaCO/sub 3/, were placed in fresh nutrient solution containing 10/sup -7.4/M radioactive /sup 55/FeCl/sub 3/ (23.7 mCi/mg) with the synthetic chelate, EDDHA (10..pi../sup 5/M), ferrichrome (10/sup -5/M), or with no chelate. After 6 days, shoot content of /sup 55/Fe in shoots of plants provided with ferrichrome was 100-fold greater than that in shoots of plants provided with EDDHA. Therefore iron uptake by oat under these conditions not only indicates direct use of ferrichrome, but also suggest that oat may be better able to acquire iron from siderophores than from synthetic chelates. One possible mechanism for direct use of chelating agents, may involve siderophore binding sites on the plasmalemma of root cortical cells where iron is split from the chelate by enzymatic reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. To demonstrate hypothesized siderophore binding sites on oat roots, experiments examined possible competition for presumed siderophore binding sites by an inert analog of ferrichrome constructed by irreversible chelation with chromium.

  8. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  9. Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from iron, and dithionite-extractable iron contents. Compositions and absorption properties were comparable to published values for similar particles. Dithionite-extractable iron was strongly correlated with absorption

  10. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    PubMed

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lan?ok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; ?aplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Bo?a, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 ?m in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization. PMID:26292972

  11. Quantification of Iron Oxides and Hydroxides in Desert Aeolian Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, S.; Rajot, J.; Alfaro, S.; Gaudichet, A.

    2002-12-01

    Long range transport of desert dust over oceans constitute a source of iron for the surface water. Assessing the iron cycle and its biogeochemical implications in oceanic areas requires determination and quantification of the iron status in aeolian particles. Indeed, in such aerosols, the iron is either trapped in the silicate structure or present under the form of oxides and hydroxides (free iron). We propose a method to apportion iron between free and entrapped forms in mineral aerosols. It consists in the adaptation of a well known method used for soil characterization to the treatment of aerosol samples, which represent less than 1 mg of material collected by air filtration on polycarbonate filters. The iron oxides and hydroxides are extracted selectively using the combined action of reductive and complexant agents in a buffered solution. The iron content is measured before and after this chemical extraction using X ray fluorescence spectrometry. We attempt to give some values for three main desert source areas using aerosol samples collected near Niamey (Niger) either during Harmattan events or during local erosion events, and samples collected downwind of the Gobi desert in China. Results emphasize firstly that iron trapped in the structure of silicate minerals represents an important part of total iron content. This suggests that, regarding dissolution processes in sea water, total elemental iron content of aeolian dust can not be used directly to calculate the flux of iron available. Secondly, our results show that the free iron content vary according to the origin of dusts. Niger samples have contents in free iron of 4.4 % (SD = 0.8) for local erosion and 2.8 % (SD = 1.0) for Harmattan. Chinese samples contain 3.7 % (SD = 0.5) of free iron. These differences could be linked to the parent soil mineralogical composition that varies with geographical location, but for some of our samples it also could be linked to a size fractionation process occurring first during the aerosol production in source area then during the transport of particles at a regional scale. Regarding this, indications drawn from measurements of size resolved free iron content will be discussed.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? anemia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; deficiency ; gene ; hemoglobin ; hereditary ; hypochromic ; inherited ; iron ; metabolism ; molecule ; oxygen ; ...

  13. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  14. Iron-binding properties of sugar cane yeast peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Lucia; Ponezi, Alexandre N; Milani, Raquel F; Nunes da Silva, Vera S; Sonia de Souza, A; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability. PMID:24001827

  15. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Gustaf; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Nishida, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  16. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. )

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  17. Liver-gut axis in the regulation of iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Darshan, Deepak; Anderson, Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    The human body requires about 1-2 mg of iron per day for its normal functioning, and dietary iron is the only source for this essential metal. Since humans do not possess a mechanism for the active excretion of iron, the amount of iron in the body is determined by the amount absorbed across the proximal small intestine and, consequently, intestinal iron absorption is a highly regulated process. In recent years, the liver has emerged as a central regulator of both iron absorption and iron release from other tissues. It achieves this by secreting a peptide hormone called hepcidin that acts on the small intestinal epithelium and other cells to limit iron delivery to the plasma. Hepcidin itself is regulated in response to various systemic stimuli including variations in body iron stores, the rate of erythropoiesis, inflammation and hypoxia, the same stimuli that have been known for many years to modulate iron absorption. This review will summarize recent findings on the role played by the liver and hepcidin in the regulation of body iron absorption. PMID:17729395

  18. Liver-gut axis in the regulation of iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Darshan, Deepak; Anderson, Gregory-J

    2007-09-21

    The human body requires about 1-2 mg of iron per day for its normal functioning, and dietary iron is the only source for this essential metal. Since humans do not possess a mechanism for the active excretion of iron, the amount of iron in the body is determined by the amount absorbed across the proximal small intestine and, consequently, intestinal iron absorption is a highly regulated process. In recent years, the liver has emerged as a central regulator of both iron absorption and iron release from other tissues. It achieves this by secreting a peptide hormone called hepcidin that acts on the small intestinal epithelium and other cells to limit iron delivery to the plasma. Hepcidin itself is regulated in response to various systemic stimuli including variations in body iron stores, the rate of erythropoiesis, inflammation and hypoxia, the same stimuli that have been known for many years to modulate iron absorption. This review will summarize recent findings on the role played by the liver and hepcidin in the regulation of body iron absorption. PMID:17729395

  19. [Effect of Root Iron Plaque on Norfloxacin Uptake by Rice].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Bao, Yan-yu

    2015-06-01

    In anaerobic condition, release of oxygen by roots to rhyzosphere caused the formation of red plaque of iron oxides or hydroxides on the root surface of rice. The effect of iron plaque on norfloxacin uptake was investigated with solution culture in greenhouse, and the results are showed in the following. The content of iron plaque increased with the increase of Fe2+ concentration in medium. After the addition of norfloxacin in nutrient solution, the content of iron plaques on the root surface decreased to different degree, and the reduction of iron plaques was increasing with the increase of norfloxacin mass concentration. Significant relationships were found between the iron plaques and norfloxacin on the root surface, and the correlation coefficients were 0.959 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 10 mg x L(-1)) and 0.987 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 50 mg x L(-1)), respectively, however, the norfloxacin contents in roots and shoots had no significant correlation with the iron plaques. After addition of different mass concentrations of norfloxacin, the quality distribution percentages of norfloxacin on the root surface and in roots and shoots were 87.7%-97.6%, 0.8%-4.8%, 1.5%-7.5%, respectively, the norfloxacin content on the root surface was far greater than those in roots and shoots. It was therefore concluded that iron plaque on roots was a norfloxacin reservoir for rice plant but had no significant effect on the transfer of norfloxacin to roots and shoots of the rice plant. PMID:26387334

  20. Mapping chemical gradients within and along a fibrous structural tissue, mussel byssal threads.

    PubMed

    Sun, ChengJun; Waite, J Herbert

    2005-11-25

    The byssal thread of a mussel is an extraorganismic connective tissue that exhibits a striking end-to-end gradient in mechanical properties and thus provides a unique opportunity for studying how gradients are made. Mfp-1 (Mytilus foot protein-1) is a conspicuous component of the protective outer cuticle of byssal threads given its high 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) content at 10-15 mol %. Amino acid analysis of mfp-1 extracted from successive foot sections of Mytilus galloprovincialis reveals a post-translationally mediated gradient with highest Dopa levels present in mfp-1 from the accessory gland near the tip of the foot decreasing gradually toward the base. The Dopa content of successive segments of byssal threads decreases from the distal to the proximal end and thus reflects the trend of mfp-1 in the foot. Inductively coupled plasma analysis indicates that certain metal ions including iron follow the trend in Dopa along the thread. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry showed that iron, when present, was concentrated in the cuticle of the threads but sparse in the core. The axial iron gradient appears most closely correlated with the Dopa gradient. The direct incubation of mussels and byssal threads in Fe(3+) supplemented seawater showed that byssal threads are unable to sequester iron from the seawater. Instead, particulate/soluble iron is actively taken up by mussels during filter feeding and incorporated into byssal threads during their secretion. Our results suggest that mussels may exploit the interplay between Dopa and metals to tailor the different parts of threads for specific mechanical properties. PMID:16166079

  1. Limited role for iron regulation in Coxiella burnetii pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Heather L; Pul, Nicolein; Seshadri, Rekha; Wilson, Mary J; Tersteeg, Claudia; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E; Andoh, Masako; Bäumler, Andreas J; Samuel, James E

    2008-05-01

    In gram-negative bacteria, iron acquisition proteins are commonly regulated by Fur (ferric uptake regulator), which binds iron-regulated promoters (the Fur box). We hypothesized that Coxiella burnetii requires iron and employs an iron-regulatory system and used various approaches to define a Fur regulon. Cloned C. burnetii fur complemented an Escherichia coli fur deletion mutant. A ferrous iron transporter gene (CBU1766), a putative iron binding protein-encoding gene (CBU0970), and a cation efflux pump gene (CBU1362) were identified by genome annotation and using a Fur titration assay. Bioinformatically predicted Fur box-containing promoters were tested for transcriptional control by iron. Five genes demonstrated at least a twofold induction with minimal iron. Putatively regulated genes were evaluated in a two-plasmid regulator/promoter heterologous expression system. These data suggested a very limited Fur-regulated system in C. burnetii. In an in vitro tissue culture model, a significant increase in bacterial growth was observed with infected cells treated with deferoxamine in comparison to growth under iron-replete conditions. In an iron-overloaded animal model in vivo, the level of bacterial growth detected in the iron-injected animals was significantly decreased in comparison to growth in control animals. In a low-iron-diet animal model, a significant increase in splenomegaly was observed, but no significant change in bacterial growth was identified. The small number of predicted iron acquisition systems, few Fur-regulated genes, and enhanced replication under a decreased iron level predict a requirement of a low level of iron for survival, perhaps to avoid creation of additional reactive oxygen radicals. PMID:18316381

  2. Cardiac ferroportin regulates cellular iron homeostasis and is important for cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Lakhal-Littleton, Samira; Wolna, Magda; Carr, Carolyn A.; Miller, Jack J. J.; Christian, Helen C.; Ball, Vicky; Santos, Ana; Diaz, Rebeca; Biggs, Daniel; Stillion, Richard; Holdship, Philip; Clarke, Kieran; Davies, Benjamin; Robbins, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential to the cell. Both iron deficiency and overload impinge negatively on cardiac health. Thus, effective iron homeostasis is important for cardiac function. Ferroportin (FPN), the only known mammalian iron-exporting protein, plays an essential role in iron homeostasis at the systemic level. It increases systemic iron availability by releasing iron from the cells of the duodenum, spleen, and liver, the sites of iron absorption, recycling, and storage respectively. However, FPN is also found in tissues with no known role in systemic iron handling, such as the heart, where its function remains unknown. To explore this function, we generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Fpn. We show that these animals have severely impaired cardiac function, with a median survival of 22 wk, despite otherwise unaltered systemic iron status. We then compared their phenotype with that of ubiquitous hepcidin knockouts, a recognized model of the iron-loading disease hemochromatosis. The phenotype of the hepcidin knockouts was far milder, with normal survival up to 12 mo, despite far greater iron loading in the hearts. Histological examination demonstrated that, although cardiac iron accumulates within the cardiomyocytes of Fpn knockouts, it accumulates predominantly in other cell types in the hepcidin knockouts. We conclude, first, that cardiomyocyte FPN is essential for intracellular iron homeostasis and, second, that the site of deposition of iron within the heart determines the severity with which it affects cardiac function. Both findings have significant implications for the assessment and treatment of cardiac complications of iron dysregulation. PMID:25713362

  3. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, Jan G.; Teutsch, Nadya; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-12-01

    Stable iron isotope ratios in three soils (two Podzols and one Cambisol) were measured by MC-ICPMS to investigate iron isotope fractionation during pedogenic iron transformation and translocation processes under oxic conditions. Podzolization is a soil forming process in which iron oxides are dissolved and iron is translocated and enriched in the subsoil under the influence of organic ligands. The Cambisol was studied for comparison, representing a soil formed by chemical weathering without significant translocation of iron. A three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate operationally-defined iron mineral pools (i.e., poorly-crystalline iron oxides, crystalline iron oxides, silicate-bound iron) from the soil samples. Iron isotope ratios of total soil digests were compared with those of the separated iron mineral pools. Mass balance calculations demonstrated excellent agreement between results of sequential extractions and total soil digestions. Systematic variations in the iron isotope signature were found in the Podzol profiles. An enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.6‰ in ? 57Fe was found in total soil digests of the illuvial Bh horizons which can be explained by preferential translocation of light iron isotopes. The separated iron mineral pools revealed a wide range of ? 57Fe values spanning more than 3‰ in the Podzol profiles. Strong enrichments of heavy iron isotopes in silicate-bound iron constituting the residue of weathering processes, indicated the preferential transformation of light iron isotopes during weathering. Iron isotope fractionation during podzolization is probably linked to the ligand-controlled iron translocation processes. Comparison of iron isotope data from eluvial and illuvial horizons of the Podzol profiles revealed that some iron must have been leached out of the profile. However, uncertainties in the initial iron content and iron isotopic composition of the parent materials prevented thorough mass balance calculations of iron fluxes within the profiles. In contrast to the Podzol profiles, the Cambisol profile displayed uniform ? 57Fe values across soil depth and showed only a small enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.4‰ in the poorly-crystalline iron oxide pool extracted by 0.5 M HCl. This work demonstrates that significant iron isotope fractionations can occur during pedogenesis in oxic environments under the influence of organic ligands. Our findings provide new insights into fractionation mechanisms of iron isotopes and will help in the development of stable iron isotopes as tracers for biogeochemical iron cycling in nature.

  4. Fixing frataxin: ‘ironing out’ the metabolic defect in Friedreich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Anzovino, A; Lane, D J R; Huang, M L-H; Richardson, D R

    2014-01-01

    The metabolically active and redox-active mitochondrion appears to play a major role in the cellular metabolism of the transition metal, iron. Frataxin, a mitochondrial matrix protein, has been identified as playing a key role in the iron metabolism of this organelle due to its iron-binding properties and is known to be essential for iron–sulphur cluster formation. However, the precise function of frataxin remains elusive. The decrease in frataxin expression, as seen in the inherited disorder Friedreich's ataxia, markedly alters cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism in both the mitochondrion and the cell. The resulting dysregulation of iron trafficking damages affects tissues leading to neuro-and cardiodegeneration. This disease underscores the importance of iron homeostasis in the redox-active environment of the mitochondrion and the molecular players involved. Unravelling the mechanisms of altered iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia will help elucidate a biochemical function for frataxin. Consequently, this will enable the development of more effective and rationally designed treatments. This review will focus on the emerging function of frataxin in relation to the observed alterations in mitochondrial iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia. Tissue-specific alterations due to frataxin loss will also be discussed, as well as current and emerging therapeutic strategies. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24138602

  5. Combined histological and hematological assessment of iron-induced organ damage in a gerbil model of iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man; Liu, Rong-Rong; Wang, Cong-Jun; Kang, Wei; Yang, Gao-Hui; Zhong, Wu-Ning; Lai, Yong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies with gerbil models have suggested that excessive iron exposure causes cardiomyopathy and hepatic injury, but pathological analysis was not comprehensive, preventing a detailed understanding of how the metal induces this damage. Methods and results: Gerbils received single intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (200 mg/kg) or saline and were then analyzed comprehensively for hematological and histological signs of organ damage. These tests included hematology parameters and determination of liver iron concentration, malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activity; examination of heart and liver tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Prussian-blue and Masson stain; and electron microscopy analysis of heart and liver ultrastructure. Iron-overloaded animals showed significantly different hematology parameters and significantly higher liver iron concentrations than saline-injected animals, as well as significantly higher malondialdehyde levels and significantly lower glutathione peroxidase activity. Histology analyses showed cellular damage, iron deposits, and both myocardial and liver fibrosis, while electron microscopy of heart and liver sections showed abundant iron deposition lysosomes, and disordered and swollen mitochondria. All these pathological changes increased with exposure time. Conclusions: This comprehensive assessment of iron overload in a gerbil model suggests that excessive iron deposition induces extensive cellular damage, particularly fibrosis in heart and liver. This damage may be the direct result of iron-mediated lipid peroxide damage and of iron deposition that cause compression of myocardial and liver cells, as well as vascular occlusion. PMID:25901205

  6. Rapid methods of determining cooling rates of iron and stony iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.M.; Goldstein, J.I.

    1967-01-01

    Two rapid and simple methods have been developed for determining the approximate cooling rates of iron and stony-iron meteorites in which kamacite formed by diffusion-controlled growth along planar fronts. The first method requires only measurements of the mean kamacite bandwidth and the bulk nickel content. The second method requires the determination of the nickel composition near the taenite-kamacite interface with an electron microprobe.

  7. Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J.

    The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al + DFP (Group III) and Al + DFO + DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al + DFP to Al + DFO + DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO + DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology.

  8. Tissue Microdissection.

    PubMed

    Rabien, Anja; Kristiansen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    The new opportunities of modern assays of molecular biology can only be exploited fully if the results can be accurately correlated to the tissue phenotype under investigation. This is a general problem of non-in situ techniques, whereas results from in situ techniques are often difficult to quantify. The use of bulk tissue, which is not precisely characterized in terms of histology, has long been the basis for molecular analysis. It has, however, become apparent, that this simple approach is not sufficient for a detailed analysis of molecular alterations, which might be restricted to a specific tissue phenotype (e.g., tumor or normal tissue, stromal or epithelial cells). Microdissection is a method to provide minute amounts of histologically characterized tissues for molecular analysis with non-in situ techniques and has become an indispensable research tool. If tissue diversity is moderate and negligible, manual microdissection can be an easy and cost-efficient method of choice. In contrast, the advantage of laser microdissection is a very exact selection down to the level of a single cell, but often with a considerable time exposure to get enough material for the following analyses. The latter issue and the method of tissue preparation needed for laser microdissection are the main problems to solve if RNA, highly sensitive to degradation, shall be analyzed. This chapter focuses on optimized procedures for manual microdissection and laser microdissection to analyze RNA of malignant and nonmalignant prostate tissue. PMID:26667453

  9. Tissue Processing

    Cancer.gov

    Tissue samples, also called biospecimens, are tissue and fluid samples taken from the human body that can be used for research. Biospecimens from cancer patients are critical to cancer research because they contain an extraordinary amount of biological information, written in the language of cells. Genes and proteins in biospecimens can identify the biological characteristics of cancer cells.

  10. Tissue Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Dancau, Ana-Maria; Simon, Ronald; Mirlacher, Martina; Sauter, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Modern next-generation sequencing and microarray technologies allow for the simultaneous analysis of all human genes on the DNA, RNA, miRNA, and methylation RNA level. Studies using such techniques have lead to the identification of hundreds of genes with a potential role in cancer or other diseases. The validation of all of these candidate genes requires in situ analysis of high numbers of clinical tissues samples. The tissue microarray technology greatly facilitates such analysis. In this method minute tissue samples (typically 0.6 mm in diameter) from up to 1000 different tissues can be analyzed on one microscope glass slide. All in situ methods suitable for histological studies can be applied to TMAs without major changes of protocols, including immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or RNA in situ hybridization. Because all tissues are analyzed simultaneously with the same batch of reagents, TMA studies provide an unprecedented degree of standardization, speed, and cost efficiency. PMID:26667454

  11. Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, H.; McCoy, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids.Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar to that continuing on Earth - although on much smaller length- and timescales - with melting of the metal and silicates, differentiation into core, mantle, and crust, and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth and other terrestrial planets. This fact has been recognized since the work of Chladni (1794), who argued that stony-iron meteorites must have originated in outer space and fallen during fireballs and that they provide our closest analogue to the material that comprises our own planet's core. This chapter deals with our current knowledge of these meteorites. How did they form? What can they tell us about the early evolution of the solar system and its solid bodies? How closely do they resemble the materials from planetary interiors? What do we know and don't we know?Iron and stony-iron meteorites constitute ˜6% of meteorite falls (Grady, 2000). Despite their scarcity among falls, iron meteorites are our only samples of ˜75 of the ˜135 asteroids from which meteorites originate ( Keil et al., 1994; Scott, 1979; Meibom and Clark, 1999; see also Chapter 1.05), suggesting that both differentiated asteroids and the geologic processes that produced them were common.Despite the highly evolved nature of iron and stony-iron meteorites, their chemistry provides important constraints on the processes operating in the solar nebula. Although most of them probably formed through similar mechanisms, their characteristics are diverse in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and structure. Significant differences in bulk chemistry between iron meteorites from different cores as well as variations in chemistry between meteorites from the same core provide evidence of the complex chemical evolution of these evolved meteorites. Intergroup variations for volatile siderophile elements (e.g., gallium and germanium) extend more than three orders of magnitude, hinting that iron meteorite parent bodies formed under diverse conditions. These differences reflect both the nebular source material and geological processing in the parent bodies.Can we be sure that the iron meteorites are indeed fragments of cores? Since no differentiated asteroid has yet been visited by a spacecraft, we rely on circumstantial evidence. Some M-type asteroids have spectral characteristics expected from exposed metallic cores (Tholen, 1989), while others exhibit basaltic surfaces, a hallmark of global differentiation. Although olivine-rich mantles should dominate the volume of differentiated asteroids, there is an enigmatic lack of olivine-rich asteroids (and meteorites) that could represent mantle material ( Burbine et al., 1996). Until we visit an asteroid with parts of a core-mantle boundary exposed, our best evidence supporting a core origin is detailed studies of iron meteorites.Iron-nickel alloys are expected in the cores of differentiated asteroids, but what other evidence supports the notion that iron meteorites sample the metallic cores of differentiated asteroids? What suggests that these asteroids were sufficiently heated to trigger core formation, and that iron meteorites sample cores rather than isolated pods of once molten metal? First and foremost, trace-element compositional trends in most groups of iron meteorites are consistent with fractional crystallization of a metallic melt (Scott, 1972), thus constraining peak temperatures. The temperatures required to f

  12. Iron Fractionation During Microbial Reduction of Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icopini, G. A.; Brantley, S. L.; Ruebush, S.; Tien, M.; Bullen, T. D.

    2002-12-01

    The isotopic fractionation of iron during the biological reduction of iron by microbes has received much attention due to the possible use of iron isotopes as an indicator of biological activity in ancient and extraterrestrial environments. However the mechanisms of dissimilatory iron reduction have not been fully characterized. We are investigating the mechanisms by which Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 reduces ferric iron in the form of goethite, as well as, the resulting iron isotopic fractionation. In the experiments a PIPES buffered minimal media was used in an effort to eliminate or control the formation of secondary ferrous-iron solids. S. putrefaciens is thought to also produce an electron shuttle, which carries electrons from the cell to the iron solid. In one set of experiments, S. putrefaciens was cultured in minimal media containing goethite both with and without anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS, an artificial electron shuttle). Preliminary data indicates that the fractionation of iron in solution in the AQDS amended cultures is -1.57 per mil lighter than the starting goethite. This fractionation corresponds well with previously reported fractionations in similar systems. However, other researchers have shown that, in these systems, much of the reduced Fe(II) sorbs to the goethite. An acid extraction is often used to remove this sorbed Fe(II) and determine the total amount of reduced iron. This extraction was used to extract sorbed Fe(II) for isotopic analysis. Although the extraction itself may cause a fractionation effect, less than 1% of the total iron in the extraction can be attributed to this effect. Therefore, the observed fractionation should be primarily a function of the microbially reduced iron and not an artifact of the extraction. The isotope fractionation in the extraction, which includes both soluble and sorbed Fe(II), is -2.42 per mil relative to the starting goethite. We are currently combining parts of the cell involved in iron reduction (cell wall components) with an electron shuttle and goethite to accomplish in vitro Fe reduction. We will compare the in vitro iron isotope fractionations that occur without live cells to those with live cultures in an effort to elucidate iron reducing mechanisms and pathways.

  13. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng, Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  14. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-23

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  15. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  16. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other medications; or any of the ingredients in iron dextran injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list ...

  17. Iron in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    The best sources of iron include: Dried beans Dried fruits Eggs (especially egg yolks) Iron-fortified cereals Liver Lean red meat (especially beef) Oysters Poultry, dark red meat Salmon Tuna Whole ...

  18. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  19. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the iron needed by the body to produce red blood cells. It is used to treat or prevent iron- ... that occurs when the body has too few red blood cells because of pregnancy, poor diet, excess bleeding, or ...

  20. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Staro?, Robert; Van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Lipi?ski, Pawe?; Gajowiak, Anna; Lenartowicz, Ma?gorzata; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Gajewska, Ma?gorzata; Pieszka, Marek; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Starzy?ski, Rafa? R.

    2015-01-01

    Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS) are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status. PMID:26323096

  1. Synthesis and magnetic characterizations of uniform iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, FuYi; Li, XiaoYi; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, ZiKang

    2014-06-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles with a cubic shape were prepared by the decomposition of homemade iron oleate in 1-octadecene with the presence of oleic acid. The particle shape and size uniformity are sensitive to the quantity of oleic acid. XRD, HRTEM and SAED results indicated that the main phase content of as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles is Fe3O4 with an inverse spinel structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles display a ferromagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 295 K. At low temperatures the magnetic anisotropy of the aligned nanoparticles caused the appearance of a hysteresis loop.

  2. Metallurgy Beyond Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    Metallurgy is one of the oldest sciences. Its history can be traced back to 6000 BCE with the discovery of Gold, and each new discovery - Copper, Silver, Lead, Tin, Iron and Mercury - marked the beginning of a new era of civilization. Currently there are 86 known metals, but until the end of the 17th century, only 12 of these were known. Steel (Fe-C alloy) was discovered in the 11th century BCE; however, it took until 1709 CE before we mastered the smelting of pig-iron by using coke instead of charcoal and started the industrial revolution. The metallurgy of nowadays is mainly about discovering better materials with superior properties to fulfil the increasing demand of the global market. Promising are the Glassy Metals or Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) - discovered at first in the late 50s at the California Institute of Technology - which are several times stronger than the best industrial steels and 10-times springier. The unusual structure that lacks crystalline grains makes BMGs so promising. They have a liquid-like structure that means they melt at lower temperatures, can be moulded nearly as easily as plastics, and can be shaped into features just 10 nm across. The best BMG formers are based on Zr, Pd, Pt, Ca, Au and, recently discovered, also Fe. They have typically three to five components with large atomic size mismatch and a composition close to a deep eutectic. Packing in such liquids is very dense, with a low content of free volume, resulting in viscosities that are several orders of magnitude higher than in pure metal melts.

  3. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano-Fe2O3 could not only increase seed germination and seedling growth, but also ultimately improve physiological function and resistance to environmental stresses of watermelon. PMID:23882795

  4. Taking iron supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taking a vitamin C supplement or drinking orange juice with your iron pill. This can help the iron absorb into your body. Drinking 8 ounces of fluid with an iron pill is also okay. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you are ...

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Nephrotoxicity and Management by Macrophages of Intravenous Pharmaceutical Iron Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Connor, James R.; Zhang, Xuesheng; Nixon, Anne M.; Webb, Becky; Perno, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a significant clinical need for effective treatment of iron deficiency. A number of compounds that can be administered intravenously have been developed. This study examines how the compounds are handled by macrophages and their relative potential to provoke oxidative stress. Methods Human kidney (HK-2) cells, rat peritoneal macrophages and renal cortical homogenates were exposed to pharmaceutical iron preparations. Analyses were performed for indices of oxidative stress and cell integrity. In addition, in macrophages, iron uptake and release and cytokine secretion was monitored. Results HK-2 cell viability was decreased by iron isomaltoside and ferumoxytol and all compounds induced lipid peroxidation. In the renal cortical homogenates, lipid peroxidation occurred at lowest concentrations with ferric carboxymaltose, iron dextran, iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. In the macrophages, iron sucrose caused loss of cell viability. Iron uptake was highest for ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside and lowest for iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. Iron was released as secretion of ferritin or as ferrous iron via ferroportin. The latter was blocked by hepcidin. Exposure to ferric carboxymaltose and iron dextran resulted in release of tumor necrosis factor ?. Conclusions Exposure to iron compounds increased cell stress but was tissue and dose dependent. There was a clear difference in the handling of iron from the different compounds by macrophages that suggests in vivo responses may differ. PMID:25973894

  6. Co-Administration of Silymarin and Deferoxamine against Kidney, Liver and Heart Iron Deposition in Male Iron Overload Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Navidi-Shishaone, Mitra; Mohhebi, Soheila; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Roozbehani, Shahla; Talebi, Ardeshir; Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Shirdavani, Sohiela; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Moaeidi, Behjat Alsaadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue iron deposition may disturb functions of the organs. In many diseases like thalassemia, the patients suffer from iron deposition in kidney and heart tissues. Deferoxamine (DF) is a synthetic iron chelator and silymarin (SM) is an antioxidant and also a candidate for iron chelating. This study was designed to investigate the effect of DF and SM combination against kidney and heart iron deposition in an iron overload rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups. The iron overloading was performed by iron dextran 100 mg/kg/day every other day during 2 weeks and in the 3rd week, iron dextran was discontinued and the animals were treated daily with combination of SM (200 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and DF (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) (group 1), SM (group 2), DF (group 3) and saline (group 4). Group 5 received saline during the experiment. Finally, blood samples were obtained and kidney, heart and liver were immediately removed and prepared for histopathological procedures. Results: The results indicated no significant difference in kidney function and endothelial function biomarkers between the groups. However, combination of SM and DF did not attenuate the iron deposition in the kidney, liver and heart. DF alone, rather than DF and SM combination, significantly reduced the serum level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). Co-administration of SM and DF significantly increased the serum level of ferritin (P < 0.05). Conclusions: DF and SM may be potentially considered as iron chelators. However, combination of these two agents did not provide a protective effect against kidney, liver and heart iron deposition. PMID:24555000

  7. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer), a new intravenous iron preparation and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Markus R; Andreasen, Hans B; Fütterer, Sören; Nawroth, Thomas; Schünemann, Volker; Kolb, Ute; Hofmeister, Wolfgang; Muñoz, Manuel; Bock, Klaus; Meldal, Morten; Langguth, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency anemia with polynuclear iron formulations is an established therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease but also in other disease areas like gastroenterology, cardiology, oncology, pre/post operatively and obstetrics' and gynecology. Parenteral iron formulations represent colloidal systems in the lower nanometer size range which have traditionally been shown to consist of an iron core surrounded by a carbohydrate shell. In this publication, we for the first time describe the novel matrix structure of iron isomaltoside 1000 which differs from the traditional picture of an iron core surrounded by a carbohydrate. Despite some structural similarities between the different iron formulations, the products differ significantly in their physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, free and labile iron content, and release of iron in serum. This study compares the physiochemical properties of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) with the currently available intravenous iron preparations and relates them to their biopharmaceutical properties and their approved clinical applications. The investigated products encompass low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer), sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit), iron sucrose (Venofer), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject/Injectafer), and ferumoxytol (Feraheme) which are compared to iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer). It is shown that significant and clinically relevant differences exist between sodium ferric gluconate and iron sucrose as labile iron formulations and iron dextran, iron carboxymaltose, ferumoxytol, and iron isomaltoside 1000 as stable polynuclear formulations. The differences exist in terms of their immunogenic potential, safety, and convenience of use, the latter being expressed by the opportunity for high single-dose administration and short infusion times. Monofer is a new parenteral iron product with a very low immunogenic potential and a very low content of labile and free iron. This enables Monofer, as the only IV iron formulation, to be administered as a rapid high dose infusion in doses exceeding 1000 mg without the application of a test dose. This offers considerable dose flexibility, including the possibility of providing full iron repletion in a single infusion (one-dose iron repletion). PMID:21439379

  8. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  9. Review on iron and its importance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that deficiency or over exposure to various elements has noticeable effects on human health. The effect of an element is determined by several characteristics, including absorption, metabolism, and degree of interaction with physiological processes. Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms as it participates in a wide variety of metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and electron transport. However, as iron can form free radicals, its concentration in body tissues must be tightly regulated because in excessive amounts, it can lead to tissue damage. Disorders of iron metabolism are among the most common diseases of humans and encompass a broad spectrum of diseases with diverse clinical manifestations, ranging from anemia to iron overload, and possibly to neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the latest progress in studies of iron metabolism and bioavailability, and our current understanding of human iron requirement and consequences and causes of iron deficiency. Finally, we discuss strategies for prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:24778671

  10. Kinetics of iron removal by phlebotomy in patients with iron overload after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Krahl, Rainer; Jaekel, Nadja; Niederwieser, Dietger; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Excess body iron could persist for years after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with possible deleterious sequels. An iron depletive therapy with phlebotomy seems rational. Kinetics of iron removal by phlebotomy without erythropoietin support in non-thalassemic adult patients with iron overload after HCT and the impact of pre- and post-HCT hemochromatosis (HFE) genotype on iron mobilization were investigated. Patients and methods: Phlebotomy was initiated in 61 recipients of allografts due to hematologic malignancies (median age 48 years) after a median of 18 months. The prephlebotomy median serum ferritin (SF) was 1697ng/ml and the median number of blood transfusions 28 units. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (AP), and bilirubin were elevated in 55.7%, 64% and 11.5% patients respectively. HFE-genotype was elucidated by polymerase chain reaction using hybridization probes and melting curve analysis. Results: Phlebotomy was well-tolerated irrespective of age or conditioning. A negative iron balance in 80% of patients (median SF 1086 ng/ml) and a rise in hemoglobin were observed (p<0.0001). Higher transfusional burden and SF were associated with a greater iron mobilization per session (p=0.02). In 58% of patients, a plateau after an initial steady decline in SF was followed by a second decline under further phlebotomy. The improvement in ALT (p=0.002), AST (p=0.03), AP (p=0.01), and bilirubin (p<0.0001) did not correlate with the decline in SF. Mutant HFE-gene variants were detected in 14/55 (25%) pre-HCT and 22/55 (40%) patients post-HCT. Overall, dissimilar pre- and posttransplantational HFE-genotypes were detected in 20/55 (40%) patients. Posttransplantational mutant HFE variants correlated with a slower decline in SF (p=0.007). Conclusions: Phlebotomy is a convenient therapy of iron overload in survivors of HCT. A negative iron balance and a rise in hemoglobin were observed in the majority of patients. Liver dysfunction improved irrespective of SF reduction suggesting a probable rapid decline of the deleterious labile plasma iron. In recipients of grafts with mutant HFE variants a “mixed chimerism” of HFE in body tissues might be created with a change in the set point for iron regulation. The transient plateau in SF after an initial decline might reflect iron mobilization from various tissues. PMID:23226624

  11. Feasibility study of iron mineral separation from red mud by high gradient superconducting magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiran; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Baoqiang; Luan, Zhaokun

    2011-02-01

    The disposal of bayer red mud tailings now seriously threats the environment safety. Reduction and recycling of red mud is now an urgent work in aluminum industry. High gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS) system was applied to separate the extreme fine RM particles (<100 ?m) into high iron content part and low iron content part. Two sorts of RM were fed in the HGSMS. The iron oxide contents in concentrates were about 65% and 45% when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. Meanwhile, the residues contained 52.0% or 14.1% iron oxide in residues after eight separation stages when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. The mass recovery of iron concentrates was about 10% after once separation process regardless of RM 1# or RM 2# was fed. Extreme fine particles (<10 ?m) could be captured in the HGSMS. Intergrowth of Fe and other elements is disadvantages for iron mineral separation from RM by HGSMS. Some improvement should be studied to enhance the efficiency of iron separation. It is possible for HGSMS to separate RM into high iron content part and low iron content part, the former part could be used in iron-making furnace and the later part could be recycling to sintering process for alumina production or used as construction material.

  12. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron- and zinc-deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Bodiga, Sreedhar; Krishnapillai, Madhavan Nair

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats, and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance. METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2 wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein. Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity, oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone; these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions. This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression, but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage. CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron supplementation. PMID:17963296

  13. Recent Advances in Iron Metabolism: Relevance for Health, Exercise, and Performance.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Paolo; Gammella, Elena; Rybinska, Ilona; Cairo, Gaetano; Recalcati, Stefania

    2015-08-01

    Iron is necessary for physiological processes essential for athletic performance, such as oxygen transport, energy production, and cell division. However, an excess of "free" iron is toxic because it produces reactive hydroxyl radicals that damage biological molecules, thus leading to cell and tissue injury. Therefore, iron homeostasis is strictly regulated; and in recent years, there have been important advancements in our knowledge of the underlying processes. Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and exerts its function by controlling the presence of the iron exporter ferroportin on the cell membrane. Hepcidin binding induces ferroportin degradation, thus leading to cellular iron retention and decreased levels of circulating iron. As iron is required for hemoglobin synthesis, the tight link between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism is particularly relevant to sports physiology. The iron needed for hemoglobin synthesis is ensured by inhibiting hepcidin to increase ferroportin activity and iron availability and hence to make certain that efficient blood oxygen transport occurs for aerobic exercise. However, hepcidin expression is also affected by exercise-associated conditions, such as iron deficiency, anemia or hypoxia, and, particularly, inflammation, which can play a role in the pathogenesis of sports anemia. Here, we review recent advances showing the relevance of iron for physical exercise and athletic performance. Low body iron levels can cause anemia and thus limit the delivery of oxygen to exercising muscle, but tissue iron deficiency may also affect performance by, for example, hampering muscle oxidative metabolism. Accordingly, a hemoglobin-independent effect of iron on exercise capacity has been demonstrated in animal models and humans. Here, we review recent advances showing the relevance of iron for physical exercise and athletic performance. PMID:25494391

  14. [Homocarnosine metabolism in brain tissue].

    PubMed

    Promyslov, M Sh; Mirzoian, R A

    1976-01-01

    In glial tumors of human brain the content of homocarnosine has been found to be lower than in brain tissue. In experimental animals cranial injury induces an increase of homocarnosine in brain tissue. Stimulation of the nervous system of traumatized animals by phenamin brings the metabolism of homocarnosine back to normal. The results of these studies make us suppose that homocarnosine is a substance involved in brain activity. PMID:1032224

  15. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  16. Metabolic pathway and distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Schlachter, Eva K; Widmer, Hans Ruedi; Bregy, Amadé; Lönnfors-Weitzel, Tarja; Vajtai, Istvan; Corazza, Nadia; Bernau, Vianney JP; Weitzel, Thilo; Mordasini, Pasquale; Slotboom, Johannes; Herrmann, Gudrun; Bogni, Serge; Hofmann, Heinrich; Frenz, Martin; Reinert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Experimental tissue fusion benefits from the selective heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) under high frequency irradiation. However, the metabolic pathways of SPIONs for tissue fusion remain unknown. Hence, the goal of this in vivo study was to analyze the distribution of SPIONs in different organs by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis after a SPION-containing patch implantation. Methods: SPION-containing patches were implanted in rats. Three animal groups were studied histologically over six months. Degradation assessment of the SPION-albumin patch was performed in vivo using MRI for iron content localization and biodistribution. Results: No SPION degradation or accumulation into the reticuloendothelial system was detected by MRI, MRI relaxometry, or histology, outside the area of the implantation patch. Concentrations from 0.01 ?g/mL to 25 ?g/mL were found to be hyperintense in T1-like gradient echo sequences. The best differentiation of concentrations was found in T2 relaxometry, susceptibility-sensitive gradient echo sequences, and in high repetition time T2 images. Qualitative and semiquantitative visualization of small concentrations and accumulation of SPIONs by MRI are feasible. In histological liver samples, Kupffer cells were significantly correlated with postimplantation time, but no differences were observed between sham-treated and induction/no induction groups. Transmission electron microscopy showed local uptake of SPIONs in macrophages and cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Apoptosis staining using caspase showed no increased toxicity compared with sham-treated tissue. Implanted SPION patches were relatively inert with slow, progressive local degradation over the six-month period. No distant structural alterations in the studied tissue could be observed. Conclusion: Systemic bioavailability may play a role in specific SPION implant toxicity and therefore the local degradation process is a further aspect to be assessed in future studies. PMID:21980242

  17. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  18. Copper Stress Affects Iron Homeostasis by Destabilizing Iron-Sulfur Cluster Formation in Bacillus subtilis?

    PubMed Central

    Chillappagari, Shashi; Seubert, Andreas; Trip, Hein; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Miethke, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Copper and iron are essential elements for cellular growth. Although bacteria have to overcome limitations of these metals by affine and selective uptake, excessive amounts of both metals are toxic for the cells. Here we investigated the influences of copper stress on iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis, and we present evidence that copper excess leads to imbalances of intracellular iron metabolism by disturbing assembly of iron-sulfur cofactors. Connections between copper and iron homeostasis were initially observed in microarray studies showing upregulation of Fur-dependent genes under conditions of copper excess. This effect was found to be relieved in a csoR mutant showing constitutive copper efflux. In contrast, stronger Fur-dependent gene induction was found in a copper efflux-deficient copA mutant. A significant induction of the PerR regulon was not observed under copper stress, indicating that oxidative stress did not play a major role under these conditions. Intracellular iron and copper quantification revealed that the total iron content was stable during different states of copper excess or efflux and hence that global iron limitation did not account for copper-dependent Fur derepression. Strikingly, the microarray data for copper stress revealed a broad effect on the expression of genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis (suf genes) and associated pathways such as cysteine biosynthesis and genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Since these effects suggested an interaction of copper and iron-sulfur cluster maturation, a mutant with a conditional mutation of sufU, encoding the essential iron-sulfur scaffold protein in B. subtilis, was assayed for copper sensitivity, and its growth was found to be highly susceptible to copper stress. Further, different intracellular levels of SufU were found to influence the strength of Fur-dependent gene expression. By investigating the influence of copper on cluster-loaded SufU in vitro, Cu(I) was found to destabilize the scaffolded cluster at submicromolar concentrations. Thus, by interfering with iron-sulfur cluster formation, copper stress leads to enhanced expression of cluster scaffold and target proteins as well as iron and sulfur acquisition pathways, suggesting a possible feedback strategy to reestablish cluster biogenesis. PMID:20233928

  19. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth. PMID:22845493

  20. The Multicopper Ferroxidase Hephaestin Enhances Intestinal Iron Absorption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fuqua, Brie K.; Lu, Yan; Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M.; Wilkins, Sarah J.; Wolkow, Natalie; Bell, Austin G.; Hsu, JoAnn; Yu, Catherine C.; Chen, Huijun; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    Hephaestin is a vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase important for the transfer of dietary iron from intestinal cells to the blood. Hephaestin is mutated in the sex-linked anemia mouse, resulting in iron deficiency. However, sex-linked anemia mice still retain some hephaestin ferroxidase activity. They survive, breed, and their anemia improves with age. To gain a better understanding of the role of hephaestin in iron homeostasis, we used the Cre-lox system to generate knockout mouse models with whole body or intestine-specific (Villin promoter) ablation of hephaestin. Both types of mice were viable, indicating that hephaestin is not essential and that other mechanisms, multicopper ferroxidase-dependent or not, must compensate for hephaestin deficiency. The knockout strains, however, both developed a microcytic, hypochromic anemia, suggesting severe iron deficiency and confirming that hephaestin plays an important role in body iron acquisition. Consistent with this, the knockout mice accumulated iron in duodenal enterocytes and had reduced intestinal iron absorption. In addition, the similarities of the phenotypes of the whole body and intestine-specific hephaestin knockout mice clarify the important role of hephaestin specifically in intestinal enterocytes in maintaining whole body iron homeostasis. These mouse models will serve as valuable tools to study the role of hephaestin and associated proteins in iron transport in the small intestine and other tissues. PMID:24896847

  1. The multicopper ferroxidase hephaestin enhances intestinal iron absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Fuqua, Brie K; Lu, Yan; Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M; Wilkins, Sarah J; Wolkow, Natalie; Bell, Austin G; Hsu, JoAnn; Yu, Catherine C; Chen, Huijun; Dunaief, Joshua L; Anderson, Gregory J; Vulpe, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Hephaestin is a vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase important for the transfer of dietary iron from intestinal cells to the blood. Hephaestin is mutated in the sex-linked anemia mouse, resulting in iron deficiency. However, sex-linked anemia mice still retain some hephaestin ferroxidase activity. They survive, breed, and their anemia improves with age. To gain a better understanding of the role of hephaestin in iron homeostasis, we used the Cre-lox system to generate knockout mouse models with whole body or intestine-specific (Villin promoter) ablation of hephaestin. Both types of mice were viable, indicating that hephaestin is not essential and that other mechanisms, multicopper ferroxidase-dependent or not, must compensate for hephaestin deficiency. The knockout strains, however, both developed a microcytic, hypochromic anemia, suggesting severe iron deficiency and confirming that hephaestin plays an important role in body iron acquisition. Consistent with this, the knockout mice accumulated iron in duodenal enterocytes and had reduced intestinal iron absorption. In addition, the similarities of the phenotypes of the whole body and intestine-specific hephaestin knockout mice clarify the important role of hephaestin specifically in intestinal enterocytes in maintaining whole body iron homeostasis. These mouse models will serve as valuable tools to study the role of hephaestin and associated proteins in iron transport in the small intestine and other tissues. PMID:24896847

  2. Plasma radioiron kinetics in man: explanation for the effect of plasma iron concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Skarberg, K; Eng, M; Huebers, H; Marsaglia, G; Finch, C

    1978-01-01

    The plasma iron turnover was measured in 19 normal subjects. A correlation was found between plasma iron concentration and plasma iron turnover. In addition to the turnover of 55Fe at normal plasma iron concentration (predominantly monoferric transferrin), a second turnover in which the labeled plasma was saturated with iron (to produce predominantly diferric transferrin) was studied with 50Fe. It was demonstrated that diferric transferrin had a greater rate of iron turnover but that the distribution between erythroid and non-erythroid tissues was unchanged. It was concluded that plasma iron turnover is dependent on the monoferric/diferric transferrin ratio in the plasma but that the internal distribution of iron is unaffected. PMID:274740

  3. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia should be administered with a target to restore/replenish the iron stores and the hemoglobin level in a suitable way. However, in patients with IBD flares and inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice. Neither oral nor intravenous therapy seems to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD, and intravenous iron therapy can be administered even in active disease stages and concomitantly with biologics. In conclusion, because many physicians are in doubt as to how to manage anemia and iron deficiency in IBD, there is a clear need for the implementation of evidence-based recommendations on this matter. Based on the data presented, oral iron therapy should be preferred for patients with quiescent disease stages and trivial iron deficiency anemia unless such patients are intolerant or have an inadequate response, whereas intravenous iron supplementation may be of advantage in patients with aggravated anemia or flares of IBD because inflammation hampers intestinal absorption of iron. PMID:26061331

  4. PCB-77 disturbs iron homeostasis through regulating hepcidin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shuping; Lin, Ronghai; Li, Long; Zhang, Daoqiang; Li, Xinghong; Liu, Sijin

    2013-12-10

    PCBs are a family of persistent environmental toxicants with a wide spectrum of toxic features, such as immunotoxicity, hepatoxicity, endocrine disruption effects, and oncogenic effects. To date, little has been done to investigate the potential influence of PCB exposure on iron metabolism. Deregulated iron would lead to either iron deficiency or iron excess, coupled with various diseases such as anemia or hemochromatosis. Iron metabolism is strictly governed by the hepcidin-ferroportin axis, and hepcidin is the key regulator that is secreted by hepatocytes. Here, we found that PCB-77 could go through plasma membrane and accumulate in hepatocytes. PCB-77 was demonstrated to suppress hepcidin expression in HepG2 and L-02 hepatocytes. Moreover, hepatic hepcidin was observed to be inhibited in mice upon administration of PCB-77. Due to reduced hepcidin concentration, serum iron content was increased, with a significant reduction of splenic iron content. Together, we deciphered the molecular mechanism responsible for PCB-conducted disturbance on iron homeostasis, i.e. through misregulating hepatic hepcidin expression. PMID:24055725

  5. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-06-01

    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  6. Iron and transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramovski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Blood bankers have focused their energy to secure blood transfusion, and only recently have studies been published on the effect of blood donation on iron metabolism. In many facilities, hemoglobin measurement is only performed just before or even during blood donation, but the determination of iron stores is largely ignored. The 2013 paradox of transfusion medicine is due to the fact that blood donation may be harmful and leads to iron deficiency with or without anemia, but for other individuals, it may be a healthy measure preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to discuss iron metabolism in the perspective of blood donation, notably regarding their possible genetic profiles that eventually will discriminate "good" iron absorbers from "bad" iron responders. PMID:24148756

  7. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload. PMID:26456104

  8. The influence of the iron content on the reductive decomposition of A{sub 3?x}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} garnets (A = Mg, Mn; 0.47 ? x ? 2.85)

    SciTech Connect

    Aparicio, Claudia Filip, Jan Mashlan, Miroslav Zboril, Radek

    2014-10-27

    Thermally-induced reductive decomposition of natural iron-bearing garnets of the almandine-pyrope and almandine-spessartine series were studied at temperatures up to 1200 °C (heating rate of 10 °C/min) under atmosphere of forming gas (10% of H{sub 2} in N{sub 2}). Crystallochemical formula of the studied garnet was calculated as {sup VIII}(A{sub 3?x}Fe{sub x}{sup 2+}){sup VI}(Al,Fe{sup 3+}){sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12}, where the amount of Fe{sup 3+} in the octahedral sites is negligible with the exception of pyrope, A = Mg, Mn, and 0.47 ? x ? 2.85. The observed decomposition temperature, determined from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, is greater than 1000 °C in all cases and showed almost linear dependence on the iron content in the dodecahedral sites of the studied garnets, with the exception of garnet with a near-pyrope composition (Prp{sub 80}Alm{sub 20}). The initial garnet samples and decomposition products were characterized in details by means of X-ray powder diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We found that all studied garnets have common decomposition products such as metallic iron (in general, rounded particles below 4 ?m) and Fe-spinel; the other identified decomposition products depend on starting chemical composition of the garnet: Fe-cordierite, olivine (fayalite or tephroite), cristobalite, pyroxene (enstatite or pigeonite), and anorthite. Anorthite and pigeonite were only present in garnets with Ca in the dodecahedral site. All the identified phases were usually well crystallized.

  9. Formation of biomineral iron oxides compounds in a Fe hyperaccumulator plant: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

    PubMed

    Fuente, V; Rufo, L; Juárez, B H; Menéndez, N; García-Hernández, M; Salas-Colera, E; Espinosa, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed work of composition and location of naturally formed iron biominerals in plant cells tissues grown in iron rich environments as Imperata cylindrica. This perennial grass grows on the Tinto River banks (Iberian Pyritic Belt) in an extreme acidic ecosystem (pH?2.3) with high concentration of dissolved iron, sulphate and heavy metals. Iron biominerals were found at the cellular level in tissues of root, stem and leaf both in collected and laboratory-cultivated plants. Iron accumulated in this plant as a mix of iron compounds (mainly as jarosite, ferrihydrite, hematite and spinel phases) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetometry (SQUID), electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX; TEM-EDX; HRSTEM). A low fraction of phosphorous was detected in this iron hyperaccumulator plant. Root and rhizomes tissues present a high proportion of ferromagnetic iron oxide compounds. Iron oxides-rich zones are localized in electron dense intra and inter-cellular aggregates that appear as dark deposits covering the inner membrane and organelles of the cell. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation, transport, distribution of iron in Imperata cylindrica. PMID:26592710

  10. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Erythropoiesis and Iron Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hong; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoiesis in animals is a synchronized process of erythroid cell differentiation that depends on successful acquisition of iron. Heme synthesis depends on iron through its dependence on iron sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis. Here, we review the relationship between Fe-S biogenesis and heme synthesis in erythropoiesis, with emphasis on the proteins, GLRX5, ABCB7, ISCA, and C1orf69. These Fe-S biosynthesis proteins are highly expressed in erythroid tissues, and deficiency of each of these proteins has been shown to cause anemia in zebrafish model. GLRX5 is involved in the production and ABCB7 in the export of an unknown factor that may function as a gauge of mitochondrial iron status, which may indirectly modulate activity of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs). ALAS2, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in heme synthesis, is translationally controlled by IRPs. GLRX5 may also provide Fe-S cofactor for ferrochelatase, the last enzyme in heme synthesis. ISCA and C1orf69 are thought to assemble Fe-S clusters for mitochondrial aconitase and for lipoate synthase, the enzyme producing lipoate for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC and aconitase are involved in the production of succinyl-CoA, a substrate for heme biosynthesis. Thus, many steps of heme synthesis depend on Fe-S cluster assembly. PMID:20862391

  12. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Guadrón-Llanos, Alma M.; Madueña-Molina, Jesús; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed. PMID:26120582

  13. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD. PMID:25994136

  14. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  15. Physiology of iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. 'Ironomics' certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  16. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  17. Plea for Iron Astrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mostefaoui, T. A.; Benmerad, B.; Kerkar, M.

    2010-10-31

    Iron is a key element and compound in living bodies. It is the most abundant refractory element and has the most stable nucleus in the Universe. Also, elemental Iron has a relevant abundance in the interstellar medium and dense clouds, it can be in gas phase or included in dust particles. During this talk, I shall explain why this special interest in Iron and shall give a brief explanation about its origin and the interstellar nucleosynthesis. After this I'll detail the rich chemistry that Iron can be involved in the interstellar medium, dense clouds with several species.

  18. After more than a century, iron sponge still soaks up hydrogen sulfide problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anerousis, J.P. )

    1994-09-01

    The oldest and simplest method for removing H[sub 2]S and other sulfur compounds, such as mercaptans, from gaseous streams is the iron sponge process. The basic technique consists of passing a sour gas stream (one containing H[sub 2]S or mercaptans, or both) across a bed of hydrated iron oxide. The chemical reaction produces iron sulfide and a small amount of by-product water. Although not a common practice, the spent material may be regenerated by exposing it to oxygen, which converts the mixed iron sulfides to their original iron oxide form. The iron sponge technique originated in Europe more than 100 years ago, and the earliest operators used a naturally occurring form of hydrated iron oxide known as bog iron or bog ore. As refinements were made in the process, it was found that more efficient sulfur removal could be attained by uniformly distributing the iron oxide hydrate across a substrate, and that active iron oxide could be prepared synthetically. Continual improvements in the synthetic iron sponge's composition focused on such issues as the crystalline forms of the hydrated iron oxide, size distribution of the active iron oxide particulates, overall chemical composition, size and nature of the typical wood substrate, moisture content, and degree of buffering. Modern iron sponge products are prepared with careful attention to each of these issues. The synthetic materials are characterized by high quality and uniform composition, and their overall characteristics optimize performance in typical gas-sweetening applications.

  19. Serum vitamin c and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, R; Nair, Preeti P; Singh, Manika; Singh, Manishi; Singh, MP; Jain, Arpit

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were estimated. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in OSMF individuals. Serum Iron content can be a predictor for the progression of this condition. OSMF is basically a disorder of collagen metabolism where Vitamin C gets utilized in conversion of proline into hydroxyproline, this hydroxylation reaction requires ferrous Iron and Vitamin C. Many studies regarding micronutrients and other antioxidants levels have been emphasized, but very few studies are done on the Serum levels of Vitamin C and its correlation with Iron in OSMF patients. Methods: Thirty five OSMF patients and 50 deleterious habit free healthy individuals (controls) were selected. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each individual. Vitamin C level in serum was estimated by 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine method and Iron estimated by Tripyridyl method. Results: The level of Serum Vitamin-C and Iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls which were statistically significant. Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, it seems possible that the chemical, thermal and/or mechanical factors associated with the use of areca nut may act in conjunction with the Vitamin C and Iron deficiency leading to the development of OSMF. Therapeutic substitution of vitamin C and Iron may be recommended in the management of OSMF PMID:25565730

  20. Scar Tissue.

    PubMed

    McLean, Haydn J

    2015-12-01

    Scar tissue is associated with physical wounds and their mending, but it is also descriptive in portraying the emotional scarring that occurs following adversity, resulting in potential psychological morbidity. Provided the adversity is not severe, such challenges to adaptability may provoke Andrew Solomon's process of forging meaning and building identity. Perceiving an emotional constitution as analogous to the immune system provides a metaphor for appreciating the benefits of emotional challenges, which may provoke greater emotional resilience or posttraumatic growth. PMID:26631526

  1. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  2. Cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation capability of human mesenchymal stem cells after iron labeling with iron sucrose.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Thorfve, Anna; Brantsing, Camilla; Junevik, Katarina; Baranto, Adad; Barreto Henriksson, Helena

    2014-11-01

    For evaluation of cell therapy strategies using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), it is important to be able to trace transplanted cells and their distribution in tissues, for example, cartilage, over time. The aim of the study was to determine effects on cell viability, traceability, and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs after iron labeling with iron sucrose. hMSCs were collected (seven donors, 13-57 years) from patients undergoing spinal surgery. Two subsets of experiments were performed. (1) Iron labeling of hMSCs: 1 mg/mL of Venofer(®) (iron sucrose) was added (16 h) to cultures. hMSCs were examined for uptake of iron sucrose (Prussian blue staining) and cell viability (flow cytometry). (2) Iron-labeled hMSCs (passage 4) (n=4, pellet mass), 200,000 cells/tube, were cultured (DMEM-HG) with 10 ng/mL TGF? and compared with controls (from each donor). The pellets were harvested at days 7, 14, and 28. Real-time PCR, IHC, and histology were used to evaluate SOX9, ACAN, C6S, and COL2A1 expression. Mean number of cells containing iron deposits was 98.1% and mean cell viability was 92.7% (no significant difference compared with unlabeled control cells). Pellets containing iron-labeled cells expressed COL2A1 on protein level (all time points), in similar levels as controls, and glycosaminoglycan accumulation was observed in iron-labeled pellets (day 14 or day 28). Results were supported by the expression of chondrogenic genes SOX9, ACAN, and COL2A1. The results in vitro indicate that iron sucrose can be used as a cell tracer for evaluation of cellular distribution in vivo after transplantation of MSCs and thus contribute with important knowledge when exploring new treatment strategies for degenerated cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25036548

  3. Pre-treatment of rats with ad-hepcidin prevents iron-induced oxidative stress in the brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong Ming; Luo, Qian Qian; Sheng, Yuan; Yung, Wing-Ho; Xu, Yan Xin; Ke, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Our recent investigation showed that hepcidin can reduce iron in the brain of iron-overloaded rat by down-regulating iron-transport proteins. It has also been demonstrated that iron is a major generator of reactive oxygen species. We therefore hypothesized that hepcidin could prevent iron accumulation and thus reduce iron-mediated oxidative stress in iron-overloaded rats. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of pre-treatment of rats with recombinant-hepcidin-adenovirus (ad-hepcidin) on the contents of iron, dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane in the brain. Hepcidin expression was detected by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Iron contents were measured using Perl's staining as well as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an ELISA kit, respectively. We found that hepcidin contents in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra of rats treated with ad-hepcidin are 3.50, 2.98, 2.93 and 4.07 fold of those of the control rats respectively. Also, we demonstrated that the increased iron as well as dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane levels in all four brain regions, induced by injection of iron dextran, could be effectively prevented by pre-treatment of the rats with ad-hepcidin. We concluded that pre-treatment with ad-hepcidin could increase hepcidin expression and prevent the increase in iron and reduce reactive oxygen species in the brain of iron-overloaded rats. PMID:26582371

  4. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  5. Hypersensitivity from intravenous iron products.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J; Auerbach, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In the last several years, intravenous therapy with iron products has been more widely used. Although it has been a standard procedure in dialysis-associated anemia since the early 1990s, its use is expanding to a host of conditions associated with iron deficiency, especially young women with heavy uterine bleeding and pregnancy. Free iron is associated with unacceptable high toxicity inducing severe, hemodynamically significant symptoms. Subsequently, formulations that contain the iron as an iron carbohydrate nanoparticle have been designed. With newer formulations, including low-molecular-weight iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside, and ferric carboxymaltose, serious adverse events are rare. PMID:25017687

  6. Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

    1972-01-01

    The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

  7. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism for, the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxides and silicate phase surfaces. The reflectance spectrum of the clay-iron preparations in the visible range is generally similar to the reflectance curves of bright regions on Mars. This strengthens the evidence for the predominance of nanophase iron oxides/oxyhydroxides in Mars soil. The mode of formation of these nanophase iron oxides on Mars is still unknown. It is puzzling that despite the long period of time since aqueous weathering took place on Mars, they have not developed from their transitory stage to well-crystallized end-members. The possibility is suggested that these phases represent a continuously on-going, extremely slow weathering process.

  8. Microbes: mini iron factories.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-12-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes. Microbes have also been considered to play an important role in the history of evolution of sedimentary rocks on Earth from the formation of banded iron formations during the Archean to modern biotic bog iron and ochre deposits. Here, we discuss the role that microbes have been playing in precipitation of iron and the role and importance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of geology and biology in solving some of the major geological mysteries. PMID:25320452

  9. The impact of iron limitation on the physiology of the Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros simplex.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Katherina; Trimborn, Scarlett; Rost, Björn; Ralph, Peter J; Hassler, Christel S

    2014-01-01

    Iron availability strongly governs the growth of Southern Ocean phytoplankton. To investigate how iron limitation affects photosynthesis as well as the uptake of carbon and iron in the Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros simplex, a combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and radiotracer incubations in the presence and absence of chemical inhibitors was conducted. Iron limitation in C. simplex led to a decline in growth rates, photochemical efficiency and structural changes in photosystem II (PSII), including a reorganisation of photosynthetic units in PSII and an increase in size of the functional absorption cross section of PSII. Iron-limited cells further exhibited a reduced plastoquinone pool and decreased photosynthetic electron transport rate, while non-photochemical quenching and relative xanthophyll pigment content were strongly increased, suggesting a photoprotective response. Additionally, iron limitation resulted in a strong decline in carbon fixation and thus the particulate organic carbon quotas. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that, independent of the iron supply, carbon fixation was dependent on internal, but not on extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity. Orthovanadate more strongly inhibited iron uptake in iron-limited cells, indicating that P-type ATPase transporters are involved in iron uptake. The stronger reduction in iron uptake by ascorbate in iron-limited cells suggests that the re-oxidation of iron is required before it can be taken up and further supports the presence of a high-affinity iron transport pathway. The measured changes to photosystem architecture and shifts in carbon and iron uptake strategies in C. simplex as a result of iron limitation provide evidence for a complex interaction of these processes to balance the iron requirements for photosynthesis and carbon demand for sustained growth in iron-limited waters. PMID:24719494

  10. The iron stable isotope fingerprint of the human diet.

    PubMed

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Noordmann, Janine; Guelke-Stelling, Monika

    2013-12-11

    The stable isotopes of iron disclose the metabolic pathways of iron within the human food chain. We have measured with precise multicollector ICP-MS the iron concentrations and stable isotope composition of 60 food products that are representative of the average German diet. We find that vegetables fall within the range typical of strategy I plants (-0.1 to -1.4‰ in ?(56)Fe), crop products and processed crop foods into the range typical of strategy II plants (-0.6 to +0.4‰), and animal products into the (54)Fe-enriched range known for animal tissue and blood (-1.1 to -2.7‰). Weighting these isotope compositions by the average iron dietary sources, we find a representative composition of European vegetarian diet of -0.45‰, whereas that of omnivores is -0.82‰. For human blood, known to be enriched in light iron isotopes, we find fractionation factors for iron absorption of -2.0 and -2.3‰ for vegetarians (female and male, respectively) and -1.3 and -1.5‰ for omnivores (female and male, respectively). Knowing these fractionation factors is a prerequisite for using stable iron isotope ratios in blood as monitors of intestinal iron uptake regulation. PMID:24188194

  11. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin), and chronic renal disease. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin), and chronic renal disease. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture.

    PubMed

    Radzki, W; Gutierrez Mañero, F J; Algar, E; Lucas García, J A; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos Solano, B

    2013-09-01

    Iron is one of the essential elements for a proper plant development. Providing plants with an accessible form of iron is crucial when it is scant or unavailable in soils. Chemical chelates are the only current alternative and are highly stable in soils, therefore, posing a threat to drinking water. The aim of this investigation was to quantify siderophores produced by two bacterial strains and to determine if these bacterial siderophores would palliate chlorotic symptoms of iron-starved tomato plants. For this purpose, siderophore production in MM9 medium by two selected bacterial strains was quantified, and the best was used for biological assay. Bacterial culture media free of bacteria (S) and with bacterial cells (BS), both supplemented with Fe were delivered to 12-week-old plants grown under iron starvation in hydroponic conditions; controls with full Hoagland solution, iron-free Hoagland solution and water were also conducted. Treatments were applied twice along the experiment, with a week in between. At harvest, plant yield, chlorophyll content and nutritional status in leaves were measured. Both the bacterial siderophore treatments significantly increased plant yield, chlorophyll and iron content over the positive controls with full Hoagland solution, indicating that siderophores are effective in providing Fe to the plant, either with or without the presence of bacteria. In summary, siderophores from strain Chryseobacterium C138 are effective in supplying Fe to iron-starved tomato plants by the roots, either with or without the presence of bacteria. Based on the amount of siderophores produced, an effective and economically feasible organic Fe chelator could be developed. PMID:23812968

  14. Mammalian iron transporters: families SLC11 and SLC40.

    PubMed

    Montalbetti, Nicolas; Simonin, Alexandre; Kovacs, Gergely; Hediger, Matthias A

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the mammalian SLC11 and SLC40 families and their roles in iron homeostasis. The SLC11 family is composed of two members, SLC11A1 and SLC11A2. SLC11A1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment of macrophages and in the tertiary granules of neutrophils, playing a key role in innate resistance against infection by intracellular microbes. SLC11A2 is a key player in iron metabolism and is ubiquitously expressed, most notably in the proximal duodenum, immature erythroid cells, brain, placenta and kidney. Intestinal iron absorption is mediated by SLC11A2 at the apical membrane of enterocytes, followed by basolateral exit via SLC40A1. To meet the daily requirement for iron, approximately 80% of the iron comes from the breakdown of hemoglobin following macrophage phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes (iron recycling). Both SLC11A1 and SLC11A2 play an important role in macrophage iron recycling. SLC11A2 also transports iron into the cytosol across the membrane of endocytotic vesicles of the transferrin receptor-cycle. SLC40A1 is the sole member of the SLC40 family and is involved in the only cellular iron efflux mechanism described. SLC40A1 is highly expressed in several tissues and cells that play a critical role in body iron homeostasis. The signaling pathways that regulate SLC11A2 and SLC40A1 expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels are discussed. The roles of SLC11A2 and/or SLC40A1 in iron-associated disorders such as hemochromatosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and breast cancer are also summarized. PMID:23506870

  15. High-temperature fabricable nickel-iron aluminides

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-02-02

    Nickel-iron aluminides are described that are based on Ni.sub.3 Al, and have significant iron content, to which additions of hafnium, boron, carbon and cerium are made resulting in Ni.sub.3 Al base alloys that can be fabricated at higher temperatures than similar alloys previously developed. Further addition of molybdenum improves oxidation and cracking resistance. These alloys possess the advantages of ductility, hot fabricability, strength, and oxidation resistance.

  16. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W. (Brookline, MA); Kochevar, Irene E. (Charlestown, MA)

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  17. Tracking Iron in Multiple Sclerosis: A Combined Imaging and Histopathological Study at 7 Tesla

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Francesca; Hametner, Simon; Yao, Bing; van Gelderen, Peter; Merkle, Hellmut; Cantor, Fredric K.; Lassmann, Hans; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous authors have shown that the transverse relaxivity R[subscript 2][superscript *] and frequency shifts that characterize gradient echo signal decay in magnetic resonance imaging are closely associated with the distribution of iron and myelin in the brain's white matter. In multiple sclerosis, iron accumulation in brain tissue may reflect a…

  18. Dietary fortificant iron intake is negatively associated with quality of life in patients with mildly active inflammatory bowel disease

    E-print Network

    Powell, Jonathan J.; Cook, William B.; Hutchinson, Carol; Tolkien, Zoe; Chatfield, Mark; Pereira, Dora I. A.; Lomer, Miranda C. E.

    2013-01-15

    . Fortificant iron was calculated as follows: (i) for food products which contain almost no other iron sources apart from ‘added’ iron, e.g. Fortisip drink, the iron content declared by the manufacturer was taken as fortificant iron; (ii) for food products which... and kidney pie Chicken Iced cakes, fancy Choux bDanish pastry Doughnuts Custard tart Coconut caon the serum iron curves obtained following the admin- istration of a single 200 mg ferrous sulphate capsule (equivalent to 65 mg elemental Fe). Methods and results...

  19. Quantifying Integrated Proteomic Responses to Iron Stress in the Globally Important Marine Diazotroph Trichodesmium

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Joseph T.; Polyviou, Despo; Skipp, Paul; Chrismas, Nathan A. M.; Hitchcock, Andrew; Geider, Richard; Moore, C. Mark; Bibby, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Trichodesmium is a biogeochemically important marine cyanobacterium, responsible for a significant proportion of the annual ‘new’ nitrogen introduced into the global ocean. These non-heterocystous filamentous diazotrophs employ a potentially unique strategy of near-concurrent nitrogen fixation and oxygenic photosynthesis, potentially burdening Trichodesmium with a particularly high iron requirement due to the iron-binding proteins involved in these processes. Iron availability may therefore have a significant influence on the biogeography of Trichodesmium. Previous investigations of molecular responses to iron stress in this keystone marine microbe have largely been targeted. Here a holistic approach was taken using a label-free quantitative proteomics technique (MSE) to reveal a sophisticated multi-faceted proteomic response of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 to iron stress. Increased abundances of proteins known to be involved in acclimation to iron stress and proteins known or predicted to be involved in iron uptake were observed, alongside decreases in the abundances of iron-binding proteins involved in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. Preferential loss of proteins with a high iron content contributed to overall reductions of 55–60% in estimated proteomic iron requirements. Changes in the abundances of iron-binding proteins also suggested the potential importance of alternate photosynthetic pathways as Trichodesmium reallocates the limiting resource under iron stress. Trichodesmium therefore displays a significant and integrated proteomic response to iron availability that likely contributes to the ecological success of this species in the ocean. PMID:26562022

  20. Modeling of iron oxide deposition by reactive ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Puech, Laurent; Dubarry, Christophe; Ravel, Guillaume; Vito, Eric de

    2010-03-15

    An analytic model of deposition is applied on reactive ion beam sputtering to optimize the properties of iron oxide thin films. This model will be able to predict deposition rate and phase contents. Among its hypotheses, we assume oxygen adsorption at the surface of the target to explain variations of deposition rate for oxygen flow. This hypothesis is validated by chemical analyses on iron targets. An ellipsoidal distribution of probability is introduced to model sputtered matter distribution from iron target and to calculate sputtering yield. Comparison between experimental and calculated deposition rates validates previously assumed hypotheses.

  1. Iron Accumulation Is Not Homogenous among Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Liu, Manju; Kani, Camellia; Dalaie, Pejman; Obenaus, Andre; Simmons, Daniel; Gatto, Nicole M.; Zarifi, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Background. Iron is considered to lead to neurodegeneration and has been hypothesized as a possible cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a powerful tool to measure phase related iron content of brain. Methods. Twelve de novo patients with PD were recruited from the Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Loma Linda University. Twelve age- and sex-matched non-PD subjects were recruited from neurology clinic as controls. Using SWI, the phase related iron content was estimated from different brain regions of interest (ROIs). Results. There was a trend between increasing age and iron accumulation in the globus pallidus and putamen in all subjects. Iron accumulation was not significant in different ROIs in PD patients compared to controls after adjustment for age. Our data revealed heterogeneity of phase values in different brain ROIs among all subjects with an exaggerated trend at SN in PD patients. Conclusions. Our data suggest a nonhomogeneous pattern of iron accumulation in different brain regions among PD patients. Further studies are needed to explore whether this may correlate to the progression of PD. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the heterogeneity of iron accumulation in the brain, among patients with PD. PMID:25945281

  2. Effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency anemia in rats with squid ink melanin-Fe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Xie, Zhong-Guo; Ye, Xing-Qian; Deng, Shang-Gui; Hu, Ya-Qin; Guo, Xin; Chen, Shi-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the one of the most common nutritional problems and is encountered all over the world. This study analysed the effects of squid ink melanin-Fe (SM-Fe) on IDA in rats. Forty weanling SD male rats were used and thirty-two rats were fed an iron-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Then SM-Fe (dosages of iron is 6 mg kg(-1) BW) was given to the IDA rats once a day for 3 weeks by intragastric administration, with FeCl3 and FeSO4 (dosages of iron is 6 mg kg(-1) BW) as positive controls. While the IDA model group and the control group were administrated distilled deionized water each day for 3 weeks. The content of haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum ferritin (SF), transferrin receptor (sTfR), erythropoietin (EPO), and iron content in the liver and spleen were measured. The results showed that the content of Hb, SI, SF, EPO, iron content in the liver and spleen were significantly increased in the iron supplement groups (SM-Fe, FeCl3 and FeSO4) compared with the model group (P < 0.05), while TIBC and sTfR were significantly decreased in the iron supplement groups compared with the model group (P < 0.05). In comparison with the FeCl3 and FeSO4 groups, a higher bioavailability of iron and fewer side effects were observed in the SM-Fe group. The present study indicated that SM-Fe is an effective source of iron supplement for IDA rats and might be exploited as a new iron fortifier. PMID:24292561

  3. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  4. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  5. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  6. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  7. Iron administration prevents BDNF decrease and depressive-like behavior following chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Mehrpouya, Sara; Nahavandi, Arezo; Khojasteh, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Ahmadi, Mohammad; Barati, Mahmood

    2015-01-30

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play important roles in responses to stresses and affect iron metabolism. Iron is essential for survival of hippocampus neurons and plays a role in depression. Noting the close causal effect relation between stress and depression, in this experimental study we investigated the influence of iron on stress-induced depression. Rats were exposed to chronic mild stress and were treated with three different iron doses (9, 12, and 20mg/kg) three times a week for four weeks with an iron chelator in the first and third week. Serum interleukin-6 (enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay), hippocampus iron content (atomic absorption spectrometry), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction), CA1 pyramidal cell count (Nissl method) and a behavioral test (forced swimming test) were evaluated. In both the stressed and stressed plus iron groups, hippocampus cell counts were lower than in the control group (non-stressed). The use of deferiprone in the stressed groups markedly prevented neuronal loss. In stressed rats, the iron content of the hippocampus was higher than in the control group (P<0.001). Moreover, in the stressed group with moderate iron administration (12 mg/kg), there was a significant elevation of BDNF expression (P<0.05) and decreased immobility behavior time (P<0.05). These results indicate that high doses of iron in stressful situations augment neuronal degeneration and loss, possibly by iron accumulation. Deferiprone as an iron chelator could reverse this effect. During chronic mild stress, cerebrospinal fluid possibly reduces the iron content and may result in reduction of monoamines being involved in mood regulation. Iron administration in a moderate dose can increase these neurotransmitters and BDNF expression. PMID:25451115

  8. Iron age in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coale, Kenneth H.; Worsfold, Paul; de Baar, Hein

    This last decade of the millennium could rightly be called the iron age in oceanography. The last quarter of this century has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of trace metal distributions in the world's oceans, and iron has changed more about how we think about ocean production and carbon cycling than any other element. The revolution has come about through the application of clean water sampling devices, stringent anticontamination methods, and the development of new analytical techniques. As detection limits have been reduced, the concentrations, distributions, and behavior of trace metals were revealed, like the curtain lifting on a geochemical drama. Iron plays a leading role.

  9. Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

  10. Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace....

  11. Limonite at Saugus Iron Works

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A specimen of limonite, used in the iron smelting process. Limonite is a well-known iron ore that has been mined for iron for many thousands of years. At the Saugus Iron Works, the limonite was found in nearby bogs....

  12. Effects of iron deficiency on heme biosynthesis in Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, P G; Nadler, K D

    1982-01-01

    The effects of iron deficiency on heme biosynthesis in Rhizobium japonicum were examined. Iron-deficient cells had a decreased maximum cell yield and a decreased cytochrome content and excreted protoporphyrin into the growth medium. The activities of the first two enzymes of heme biosynthesis, delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (EC 2.3.1.37) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (EC 4.2.1.24), were diminished in iron-deficient cells, but were returned to normal levels upon addition of iron to the cultures. The addition of iron salts, iron chelators, hemin, or protoporphyrin to cell-free extracts did not affect the activity of these enzymes. The addition of levulinic acid to iron-deficient cultures blocked protoporphyrin excretion and also resulted in high delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activities. These results suggest the possibility that rhizobial heme biosynthesis in the legume root nodule may be affected by the release of iron from the host plant to the bacteroids. PMID:6277847

  13. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    PubMed

    Hale, Laura P; Kant, Erin Potts; Greer, Paula K; Foster, W Michael

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans. PMID:23029172

  14. Tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Katari, Ravi S; Peloso, Andrea; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Ultimately much work remains to be done in the companion fields of biomaterials and stem cells. Nonetheless, the monumental progress in TE that has been reported in the studies summarized here demonstrates that regenerative approaches to problems in general surgery need to be explored in more depth. Furthermore, the surgical disciplines of reconstruction and transplantation need to recognize their research counterparts in TE, given its potential to actualize freedom from immunosuppression, one of the most elusive goals in modern surgery. The engineering and proliferation of autologous cells, tissues, and organs ex vivo before surgical operation can significantly reduce the obstacles current practitioners are intimately familiar with: donor site morbidity and immunologic rejection. Therefore, in addition to the truly exciting research and development prospects and implications for the commercial sector, patients with end-stage diseases and debilitating injury stand to gain the most from clinically adapted TE therapies. PMID:25293612

  15. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Soft tissue sarcoma is cancer that forms in the soft tissue of the body. Soft tissue connects, supports, or surrounds other body parts. In adults, soft tissue sarcoma is rare. There are many different types of ...

  16. Iron Overload and Apoptosis of HL-1 Cardiomyocytes: Effects of Calcium Channel Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-pian; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Chan, Shing; Chan, Godfrey Chi-fung; Cheung, Yiu-fai

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron overload cardiomyopathy that prevails in some forms of hemosiderosis is caused by excessive deposition of iron into the heart tissue and ensuing damage caused by a raise in labile cell iron. The underlying mechanisms of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes in iron overload condition are still under investigation. Both L-type calcium channels (LTCC) and T-type calcium channels (TTCC) have been proposed to be the main portals of non-transferrinic iron into heart cells, but controversies remain. Here, we investigated the roles of LTCC and TTCC as mediators of cardiac iron overload and cellular damage by using specific Calcium channel blockers as potential suppressors of labile Fe(II) and Fe(III) ingress in cultured cardiomyocytes and ensuing apoptosis. Methods Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake was assessed by exposing HL-1 cardiomyocytes to iron sources and quantitative real-time fluorescence imaging of cytosolic labile iron with the fluorescent iron sensor calcein while iron-induced apoptosis was quantitatively measured by flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V. The role of calcium channels as routes of iron uptake was assessed by cell pretreatment with specific blockers of LTCC and TTCC. Results Iron entered HL-1 cardiomyocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced cardiac apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 dependent pathways. Blockade of LTCC but not of TTCC demonstrably inhibited the uptake of ferric but not of ferrous iron. However, neither channel blocker conferred cardiomyocytes with protection from iron-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Our study implicates LTCC as major mediators of Fe(III) uptake into cardiomyocytes exposed to ferric salts but not necessarily as contributors to ensuing apoptosis. Thus, to the extent that apoptosis can be considered a biological indicator of damage, the etiopathology of cardiosiderotic damage that accompanies some forms of hemosiderosis would seem to be unrelated to LTCC or TTCC, but rather to other routes of iron ingress present in heart cells. PMID:25390893

  17. Soybean Ferritin Forms an Iron-Containing Oligomer in Tofu Even after Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro

    2015-10-14

    Ferritin, a multimeric iron storage protein distributed in almost all living kingdoms, has been highlighted recently as a nutritional iron source in plant-derived foodstuffs, because ferritin iron is suggested to have high bioavailability. In soybean seeds, ferritin contributes largely to the net iron contents. Here, the oligomeric states and iron contents of soybean ferritin during food processing (especially tofu gel formation) were analyzed. Ferritin was purified from tofu gel as an iron-containing oligomer (approximately 1000 Fe atoms per oligomer), which was composed of two types of subunits similar to the native soybean seed ferritin. Circular dichroism spectra also showed no differences in ?-helical structure between native soybean ferritin and tofu ferritin. The present data demonstrate that ferritin was stable during the heat treatment (boiling procedure) in food processing, although partial denaturation was observed at temperatures higher than 80 °C. PMID:26390371

  18. Formation and characterization of iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen as a potential iron supplement.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianjun; Chen, Fei; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Xue, Wenjiao

    2013-10-01

    Iron incorporated into food can induce precipitation and unwanted interaction with other components in food. Iron-binding proteins represent a possibility to avoid these problems and other side effects, as the iron is protected. However, there are several technical problems associated with protein-iron complex formation. In this paper, the iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared under physiological conditions through phosphorylated modification. One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. Spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and equilibrium dialysis techniques were employed to investigate the characteristics of the Fe-G6P-HLC. The binding sites (nb) and apparent association constant (Kapp) between iron and phosphorylated HLC were measured at nb=23.7 and log Kapp=4.57, respectively. The amount of iron (Fe(2+) sulfate) binding to phosphorylated HLC was found to be a function of pH and phosphate content. In addition, the solubility and thermal stability of HLC were not significantly affected. The results should facilitate the utilization of HLC as a bioactive iron supplement in the food and medical industry and provide an important theoretical evidence for the application of HLC chelates. PMID:23910354

  19. Analysis of the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Project for Trends in Iron Uptake by Surface Ocean Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Toulza, Eve; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Blain, Stéphane; Piganeau, Gwenael

    2012-01-01

    Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities' growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between coastal and open ocean sites regarding Fe2+ versus Fe3+ uptake gene prevalence. We also show that non-specific siderophore uptake increases in low iron open ocean environments, suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron uptake mechanisms in most marine microorganisms, our approach provides insights into how the iron metabolic pathways of microbial communities may vary with seawater iron concentrations. PMID:22363520

  20. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  1. Experimental liver cirrhosis induced by alcohol and iron.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, H; Horne, W; Kamimura, S; Niemelä, O; Parkkila, S; Ylä-Herttuala, S; Brittenham, G M

    1995-01-01

    To determine if alcoholic liver fibrogenesis is exacerbated by dietary iron supplementation, carbonyl iron (0.25% wt/vol) was intragastrically infused with or without ethanol to rats for 16 wk. Carbonyl iron had no effect on blood alcohol concentration, hepatic biochemical measurements, or liver histology in control animals. In both ethanol-fed and control rats, the supplementation produced a two- to threefold increase in the mean hepatic non-heme iron concentration but it remained within or near the range found in normal human subjects. As previously shown, the concentrations of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), liver 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), and serum aminotransferases (ALT, AST) were significantly elevated by ethanol infusion alone. The addition of iron supplementation to ethanol resulted in a further twofold increment in mean MDA, 4HNE, ALT, and AST. On histological examination, focal fibrosis was found < 30% of the rats fed ethanol alone. In animals given both ethanol and iron, fibrosis was present in all, with a diffuse central-central bridging pattern in 60%, and two animals (17%) developed micronodular cirrhosis. The iron-potentiated alcoholic liver fibrogenesis was closely associated with intense and diffuse immunostaining for MDA and 4HNE adduct epitopes in the livers. Furthermore, in these animals, accentuated increases in procollagen alpha 1(I) and TGF beta 1 mRNA levels were found in both liver tissues and freshly isolated hepatic stellate cells, perisinusoidal cells believed to be a major source of extracellular matrices in liver fibrosis. The dietary iron supplementation to intragastric ethanol infusion exacerbates hepatocyte damage, promotes liver fibrogenesis, and produces evident cirrhosis in some animals. These results provide evidence for a critical role of iron and iron-catalyzed oxidant stress in progression of alcoholic liver disease. Images PMID:7615836

  2. Lead in tissues of mallard ducks dosed with two types of lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sacrificed one month after ingesting one number 4 all-lead shot or one number 4 lead-iron shot. Livers, kidneys, blood, wingbones, and eggs were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption. Necropsy of sacrificed ducks failed to reveal any of the tissue lesions usually associated with lead poisoning in waterfowl. Lead levels in ducks given all-lead shot averaged about twice those in ducks given lead-iron shot, reflecting the amount of lead in the two types of shot. Lead in the blood of ducks dosed with all-lead shot averaged 0.64 ppm, and 0.28 ppm in ducks given lead-iron shot. Lead residues in livers and kidneys of females given all-lead shot were significantly higher than in males. In both dosed groups, lead levels in wingbones of females were about 10 times those in males, and were significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid after dosage. Lead levels in contents and shells of eggs laid by hens dosed with all-lead shot were about twice those in eggs laid by hens dosed with lead-iron shot. Eggshells were found to best reflect levels of lead in the blood. Our results indicate that mallards maintained on a balanced diet and dosed with one lead shot may not accumulate extremely high lead levels in the liver and kidney. However, extremely high lead deposition may result in the bone of laying hens after ingesting sublethal amounts of lead shot as a result of mobilization of calcium from the bone during eggshell formation.

  3. Ash iron mobilization in volcanic eruption plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that volcanic ash fertilizes the Fe-limited areas of the surface ocean through releasing soluble iron. As ash iron is mostly insoluble upon the eruption, it is hypothesized that heterogeneous in-plume and in-cloud processing of the ash promote the iron solubilization. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. In this study, a 1-D numerical model is developed to simulate the physicochemical interactions of gas-ash-aerosol in volcanic eruption plumes focusing on the iron mobilization processes at temperatures between 600 and 0 °C. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at ~150 and ~50 °C on the ash surface, respectively. This liquid phase then efficiently scavenges the surrounding gases (>95% of HCl, 3-20% of SO2 and 12-62% of HF) forming an extremely acidic coating at the ash surface. The low pH conditions of the aqueous film promote acid-mediated dissolution of the Fe-bearing phases present in the ash material. We estimate that 0.1 to 33% of the total iron available at the ash surface is dissolved in the aqueous phase before the freezing point is reached. The efficiency of dissolution is controlled by the halogen content of the erupted gas as well as the mineralogy of the iron at ash surface: elevated halogen concentrations and presence of Fe2+-carrying phases lead to the highest dissolution efficiency. Findings of this study are in agreement with the data obtained through leaching experiments.

  4. Iron promotes protein insolubility and aging in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Ida M.; Schilling, Birgit; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Andersen, Julie K.; Swoboda, Peter; Killilea, David W.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Many late-onset proteotoxic diseases are accompanied by a disruption in homeostasis of metals (metallostasis) including iron, copper and zinc. Although aging is the most prominent risk factor for these disorders, the impact of aging on metallostasis and its role in proteotoxic disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether a loss of metallostasis influences normal aging. We have investigated the role of metallostasis in longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that calcium, copper, iron, and manganese levels increase as a function of age, while potassium and phosphorus levels tend to decrease. Increased dietary iron significantly accelerated the age-related accumulation of insoluble protein, a molecular pathology of aging. Proteomic analysis revealed widespread effects of dietary iron in multiple organelles and tissues. Pharmacological interventions to block accumulation of specific metals attenuated many models of proteotoxicity and extended normal lifespan. Collectively, these results suggest that a loss of metallostasis with aging contributes to age-related protein aggregation. PMID:25554795

  5. The role of iron and zinc in chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukavci, Mustafa; Gurol, Ali; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Budak, Gokhan; Karacan, Mehmet

    2005-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing side effect in children with cancer. Iron and zinc are the well known trace elements which are associated with hair shedding. In this study, we investigated the hair content of iron and zinc in children with cancer consists of two groups: group A, newly diagnosed patients; group B, the patients received a course of chemotherapy. We compared the results between each others and healthy controls. Hair content of iron and zinc was not different between the patient groups. Iron concentrations of patient samples, either at diagnosis or after chemotherapy, were significantly lower than healthy controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the zinc values. In conclusion, hair content of iron and zinc do not have a role in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron, and carbonyl iron. (1)...

  7. Aging-related Changes in the Iron Status of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    DeRuisseau, Keith C.; Park, Young-Min; DeRuisseau, Lara R.; Cowley, Patrick M.; Fazen, Christopher H.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The rise in non-heme iron (NHI) concentration observed in skeletal muscle of aging rodents is thought to contribute to the development of sarcopenia. The source of the NHI has not been identified, nor have the physiological ramifications of elevated iron status in aged muscle been directly examined. Therefore, we assessed plantaris NHI and heme iron (HI) levels in addition to expression of proteins involved in iron uptake (transferrin receptor-1; TfR1), storage (ferritin), export (ferroportin; FPN), and regulation (iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP1) and -2 (IRP2)) of male F344xBN F1 rats (n=10/group) of various ages (8, 18, 28, 32, and 36 months) to further understand iron regulation in aging muscle. In a separate experiment, iron chelator (pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone; PIH) or vehicle was administered to male F344xBN F1 rats (n=8/group) beginning at 30 months of age to assess the impact on plantaris muscle mass and function at ~36 months of age. Principle findings revealed the increased NHI concentration in old age was consistent with concentrating effects of muscle atrophy and reduction in HI levels, with no change in the total iron content of the muscle. The greatest increase in muscle iron content occurred during the period of animal growth and was associated with downregulation of TfR1 and IRP2 expression. Ferritin upregulation did not occur until senescence and the protein remained undetectable during the period of muscle iron content elevation. Lastly, administration of PIH did not significantly (p>0.05) impact NHI or measures of muscle atrophy or contractile function. In summary, this study confirms that the elevated NHI concentration in old age is largely due to the loss in muscle mass. The increased muscle iron content during aging does not appear to associate with cytosolic ferritin storage, but the functional consequences of elevated iron status in old age remains to be determined. PMID:23994517

  8. Iron, inflammation and invasion of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER-FODOR, EVA; MIKLASOVA, NATALIA; BERINDAN-NEAGOE, IOANA; SAHA, BHASKAR

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with the metastasis of tumor cells evolving from a benign tumor to disseminating cancer. Such a metastatic progression is fostered by the angiogenesis propelled by various mediators interacting at the site of tumor growth. Angiogenesis causes two major changes that are assisted by altered glycosylation and neo-antigen presentation by the cancer cells. The angiogenesis-promoted pathological changes include enhanced inflammation and degradation of tissue matrices releasing tumor cells from the site of its origin. The degraded tumor cells release the neo-antigens resulting from altered glycosylation. Presentation of neo-antigens to T cells escalates metastasis and inflammation. Inflammasome activation and inflammation in several infections are regulated by iron. Based on the discrete reports, we propose a link between iron, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor growth. Knowing the link better may help us formulate a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26609256

  9. Nitrosative stress and apoptosis in non-anemic healthy rats induced by intravenous iron sucrose similars versus iron sucrose originator.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Iron can both induce and inhibit nitrosative stress. Intracellular iron levels play an important role in nitric oxide (NO(•)) signaling mechanisms. Depending on various factors, such as the cell's redox state and transition metal levels, NO(•) generation may lead to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage as well as both anti- and pro-apoptotic effects. Administration of intravenous iron sucrose originator (IS(ORIG)) has been shown not to cause significant tyrosine nitration or significantly increased caspase 3 levels in non-anemic rats. In this study, the potential of several marketed iron sucrose similars (ISSs) to induce tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in non-anemic rats was assessed. Although the physico-chemical properties of most of the analyzed ISSs complied with the United States Pharmacopeia for iron sucrose injection, all ISSs resulted in higher levels of tyrosine nitration and increased the expression of caspase 3 versus IS(ORIG). Moreover, significant differences were detected in tissue iron distribution between IS(ORIG)- and ISS-treated animals. In general, ISORIG resulted in higher levels of ferritin deposits versus ISSs whereas ISSs showed higher Prussian blue-stainable iron(III) deposits than IS(ORIG). This result suggests that some iron from ISSs bypassed the tightly regulated pathway through resident macrophages of the liver, spleen and bone marrow thus, ending up in the cellular compartment that favors oxidative and or nitrosative stress as well as apoptosis. The results also confirm that polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide carbohydrates, such as iron sucrose, cannot be fully characterized by physico-chemical methods alone. PMID:25609135

  10. Quantitating Iron in Serum Ferritin by Use of ICP-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Gillman, Patricia L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory method has been devised to enable measurement of the concentration of iron bound in ferritin from small samples of blood (serum). Derived partly from a prior method that depends on large samples of blood, this method involves the use of an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Ferritin is a complex of iron with the protein apoferritin. Heretofore, measurements of the concentration of serum ferritin (as distinguished from direct measurements of the concentration of iron in serum ferritin) have been used to assess iron stores in humans. Low levels of serum ferritin could indicate the first stage of iron depletion. High levels of serum ferritin could indicate high levels of iron (for example, in connection with hereditary hemochromatosis an iron-overload illness that is characterized by progressive organ damage and can be fatal). However, the picture is complicated: A high level of serum ferritin could also indicate stress and/or inflammation instead of (or in addition to) iron overload, and low serum iron concentration could indicate inflammation rather than iron deficiency. Only when concentrations of both serum iron and serum ferritin increase and decrease together can the patient s iron status be assessed accurately. Hence, in enabling accurate measurement of the iron content of serum ferritin, the present method can improve the diagnosis of the patient s iron status. The prior method of measuring the concentration of iron involves the use of an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace. The present method incorporates a modified version of the sample- preparation process of the prior method. First, ferritin is isolated; more specifically, it is immobilized by immunoprecipitation with rabbit antihuman polyclonal antibody bound to agarose beads. The ferritin is then separated from other iron-containing proteins and free iron by a series of centrifugation and wash steps. Next, the ferritin is digested with nitric acid to extract its iron content. Finally, a micronebulizer is used to inject the sample of the product of the digestion into the ICPMS for analysis of its iron content. The sensitivity of the ICP-MS is high enough to enable it to characterize samples smaller than those required in the prior method (samples can be 0.15 to 0.60 mL).

  11. Dietary iron-loaded rat liver haemosiderin and ferritin: in situ measurement of iron core nanoparticle size and cluster structure using anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovell, Eliza; Buckley, Craig E.; Chua-anusorn, Wanida; Cookson, David; Kirby, Nigel; Saunders, Martin; St. Pierre, Timothy G.

    2009-03-01

    The morphology, particle size distribution and cluster structure of the hydrated iron(III) oxyhydroxide particles associated with haemosiderin and ferritin in dietary iron-loaded rat liver tissue have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering (ASAXS). Rat liver tissue was removed from a series of female Porton rats which had been fed an iron-rich diet until sacrifice at various ages from 2-24 months. Hepatic iron concentrations ranged from 1 to 65 mg Fe g-1 dry tissue. TEM studies showed both dispersed and clustered iron-containing nanoparticles. The dispersed particles were found to have mean sizes (±standard deviation) of 54 ± 8 Å for the iron-loaded animals and 55 ± 7 Å for the controls. Superposition of particles in TEM images prevented direct measurement of nanoparticulate size in the clusters. The ASAXS data were modelled to provide a quantitative estimate of both the size and spacing of iron oxyhydroxide particles in the bulk samples. The modelling yielded close-packed particles with sizes of 60 to 78 Å which when corrected for anomalous scattering suggests sizes from 54 to 70 Å. Particle size distributions are of particular importance since they determine the surface iron to core iron ratios, which in turn are expected to be related to the molar toxicity of iron deposits in cells.

  12. Noninvasive analysis of skin iron and zinc levels in beta-thalassemia major and intermedia

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetsky, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Dagan, I.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence analysis, was used for noninvasive determination of iron and zinc in two distinct skin areas, representing predominantly dermal and epidermal tissues, in 56 patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia. The mean iron levels in the skin of patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia were elevated by greater than 200% and greater than 50%, respectively, compared with control values. The zinc levels of both skin areas examined were within the normal range. The data indicate that the rate and number of blood transfusions, which correlated well with serum ferritin levels (r . 0.8), are not the only factors that determine the amount of iron deposition in the skin (r less than 0.6). Other sources of iron intake contribute to the total iron load in the tissues, particularly in patients who are not given multiple transfusions. The noninvasive quantitation of skin levels may reflect the extent of iron deposition in major parenchymal organs. Repeated DXS examinations of the skin could monitor the clearance of iron from the tissues of patients with iron overload in the course of therapy with chelating agents.

  13. Epithelial septate junction assembly relies on melanotransferrin iron binding and endocytosis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tiklová, Katarína; Senti, Kirsten-André; Wang, Shenqiu; Gräslund, Astrid; Samakovlis, Christos

    2010-11-01

    Iron is an essential element in many biological processes. In vertebrates, serum transferrin is the major supplier of iron to tissues, but the function of additional transferrin-like proteins remains poorly understood. Melanotransferrin (MTf) is a phylogenetically conserved, iron-binding epithelial protein. Elevated MTf levels have been implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. Here, we present a functional analysis of MTf in Drosophila melanogaster. Similarly to its human homologue, Drosophila MTf is a lipid-modified, iron-binding protein attached to epithelial cell membranes, and is a component of the septate junctions that form the paracellular permeability barrier in epithelial tissues. We demonstrate that septate junction assembly during epithelial maturation relies on endocytosis and apicolateral recycling of iron-bound MTf. Mouse MTf complements the defects of Drosophila MTf mutants. Drosophila provides the first genetic model for the functional dissection of MTf in epithelial junction assembly and morphogenesis. PMID:20935638

  14. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  15. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  16. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  17. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  18. Iron and carbon isotope evidence for microbial iron respiration throughout the Archean

    E-print Network

    Iron and carbon isotope evidence for microbial iron respiration throughout the Archean Paul R: iron-formation Hamersley Isua iron carbonates iron respiration Banded Iron-Formations (BIFs that reaction between carbon and iron through microbial iron respiration [2Fe2O3nH2O+CH2O+7H+ 4Fe2+ + HCO3

  19. Iron bioavailability of maize hemoglobin in a Caco-2 cell culture model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an important staple crop in many parts of the world but has low iron bioavailability, in part due to its high phytate content. Hemoglobin is a form of iron that is highly bioavailable and its bioavailability is not inhibited by phytate. We hypothesize that maize hemoglobin is a highly bioav...

  20. Probing Iron Accumulation in Sacchromyces cerevisiae Using Integrative Biophysical and Biochemical Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Miao, Ren

    2012-02-14

    of the cellular iron probably precipitates in mitochondria as Fe(III) nanoparticles. The results provide novel insights into iron trafficking and possible signal communications between organelles within cells. v DEDICATION I dedicate this work to my.................................................................................................................. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................... vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................. vii LIST OF FIGURES...

  1. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  2. Tissue Engineering Chamber Promotes Adipose Tissue Regeneration in Adipose Tissue Engineering Models Through Induced Aseptic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhangsong; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Zhan, Weiqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shengchang

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) makes it possible to generate significant amounts of mature, vascularized, stable, and transferable adipose tissue. However, little is known about the role of the chamber in tissue engineering. Therefore, to investigate the role of inflammatory response and the change in mechanotransduction started by TEC after implantation, we placed a unique TEC model on the surface of the groin fat pads in rats to study the expression of cytokines and tissue development in the TEC. The number of infiltrating cells was counted, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels in the chamber at multiple time points postimplantation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue samples were collected at various time points and labeled for specific cell populations. The result showed that new adipose tissue formed in the chamber at day 60. Also, the expression of MCP-1 and VEGF in the chamber decreased slightly from an early stage as well as the number of the infiltrating cells. A large number of CD34+/perilipin? perivascular cells could be detected at day 30. Also, the CD34+/perilipin+ adipose precursor cell numbers increased sharply by day 45 and then decreased by day 60. CD34?/perilipin+ mature adipocytes were hard to detect in the chamber content at day 30, but their number increased and then peaked at day 60. Ki67-positive cells could be found near blood vessels and their number decreased sharply over time. Masson's trichrome showed that collagen was the dominant component of the chamber content at early stage and was replaced by newly formed small adipocytes over time. Our findings suggested that the TEC implantation could promote the proliferation of adipose precursor cells derived from local adipose tissue, increase angiogenesis, and finally lead to spontaneous adipogenesis by inducing aseptic inflammation and changing local mechanotransduction. PMID:24559078

  3. Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

    PubMed

    Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

    2013-12-01

    Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (?-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (?-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach especially for structural analysis of nanoscopic or low crystalline materials. PMID:23998966

  4. The relevance of iron in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sian-Hülsmann, Jeswinder; Mandel, Silvia; Youdim, Moussa B H; Riederer, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Alterations of iron levels in the brain has been observed and documented in a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). The elevated nigral iron levels observed in PD may reflect a dysfunction of brain iron homeostasis. Under normal physiological conditions excess iron can be sequestrated in ferritin and neuromelanin. Alternatively, the excess iron may represent a component of brain iron deposition associated with ageing. The aetiology of idiopathic PD largely remains an enigma. However, intensive investigations have provided a host of putative mechanisms that might contribute to the pathogenesis underlying the characteristic degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). The mechanisms proposed include oxidative (and nitrative) stress, inflammation, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered proteolysis and finally apoptotic induced cell death. Iron-mediated cellular destruction is mediated primarily via reactive oxygen or/and nitrogen species induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, these pathogenic mechanisms appear to be closely interlinked to the cascade of events leading to cellular death. There are conflicting reports about the stage during disease progression at which nigral iron change occurs in PD. Some have found that there are no changes in iron content SN in asymptomatic incidental Lewy body disease, suggesting it may represent a secondary event in the cascade of neuronal degeneration. In contrast, others have found an elevation of iron in SN in pre-clinical stages. These discrepancies may be attributed to the occurrence of different sub-groups of the disease. This concurs with the notion that PD represents a group of related diseases with a number of potential pathogenic pathways. PMID:21138437

  5. A study of resistive switching effects on a thin FeO{sub x} transition layer produced at the oxide/iron interface of TiN/SiO{sub 2}/Fe-contented electrode structures

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Liwei; Chang Chunyen; Chang Yaofeng; Chen Weiren; Wang Shinyuan; Chiang Peiwei; Chang Tingchang

    2010-02-01

    Large (>10{sup 2}) and stable resistance switching characteristics were demonstrated in TiN/SiO{sub 2}/Fe structure due to the presence of a thin FeO{sub x} transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/Fe interface, produced spontaneously during the plasma-enhanced tetraethyl orthosilicate oxide deposition process. Addition of Pt into Fe electrode, i.e., a TiN/SiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 0.73}Pt{sub 0.27} structure, was observed to improve the data dispersion of switching parameters, associating with the decrease in Fe content inside the FeO{sub x} layer. Additionally, current-voltage fitting data shows that current transport mechanism is governed by Ohm's law in low voltage region and Pool-Frenkel behavior in high voltage region, consisting with FeO{sub x} phase transition characteristics.

  6. Iron sucrose accelerates early atherogenesis by increasing superoxide production and upregulating adhesion molecules in CKD.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-11-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte-endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-?B signaling. We then measured mononuclear-endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear-endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-?B/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear-endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD. PMID:24722448

  7. Iron Sucrose Accelerates Early Atherogenesis by Increasing Superoxide Production and Upregulating Adhesion Molecules in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte–endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-?B signaling. We then measured mononuclear–endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE?/?) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE?/? mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear–endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-?B/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear–endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD. PMID:24722448

  8. Ion Probe Measurements of C in the Metal Phases of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Huss, G. R.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2012-09-01

    The C content and C distrubution between phases in 17 irons were measured with the ion microprobe. These data provide information about the effect of C on the formation of the Widmanstatten pattern, cloudy zone, and carbides during cooling.

  9. Tracking iron in multiple sclerosis: a combined imaging and histopathological study at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Hametner, Simon; Yao, Bing; van Gelderen, Peter; Merkle, Hellmut; Cantor, Fredric K.; Lassmann, Hans; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous authors have shown that the transverse relaxivity R2* and frequency shifts that characterize gradient echo signal decay in magnetic resonance imaging are closely associated with the distribution of iron and myelin in the brain's white matter. In multiple sclerosis, iron accumulation in brain tissue may reflect a multiplicity of pathological processes. Hence, iron may have the unique potential to serve as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging tracer of disease pathology. To investigate the ability of iron in tracking multiple sclerosis-induced pathology by magnetic resonance imaging, we performed qualitative histopathological analysis of white matter lesions and normal-appearing white matter regions with variable appearance on gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla. The samples used for this study derive from two patients with multiple sclerosis and one non-multiple sclerosis donor. Magnetic resonance images were acquired using a whole body 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner equipped with a 24-channel receive-only array designed for tissue imaging. A 3D multi-gradient echo sequence was obtained and quantitative R2* and phase maps were reconstructed. Immunohistochemical stainings for myelin and oligodendrocytes, microglia and macrophages, ferritin and ferritin light polypeptide were performed on 3- to 5-µm thick paraffin sections. Iron was detected with Perl's staining and 3,3?-diaminobenzidine-tetrahydrochloride enhanced Turnbull blue staining. In multiple sclerosis tissue, iron presence invariably matched with an increase in R2*. Conversely, R2* increase was not always associated with the presence of iron on histochemical staining. We interpret this finding as the effect of embedding, sectioning and staining procedures. These processes likely affected the histopathological analysis results but not the magnetic resonance imaging that was obtained before tissue manipulations. Several cellular sources of iron were identified. These sources included oligodendrocytes in normal-appearing white matter and activated macrophages/microglia at the edges of white matter lesions. Additionally, in white matter lesions, iron precipitation in aggregates typical of microbleeds was shown by the Perl's staining. Our combined imaging and pathological study shows that multi-gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive technique for the identification of iron in the brain tissue of patients with multiple sclerosis. However, magnetic resonance imaging-identified iron does not necessarily reflect pathology and may also be seen in apparently normal tissue. Iron identification by multi-gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging in diseased tissues can shed light on the pathological processes when coupled with topographical information and patient disease history. PMID:22171355

  10. Cardioprotective activity of iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fei; Wang, Hao; Feng, Yidong; Li, Yunman; Hua, Xiaoqing; Pang, Xingyun; Zhang, Song; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are chemically inert materials and have been mainly used for imaging applications and drug deliveries. However, the possibility whether they can be used as therapeutic drugs themselves has not yet been explored. We reported here that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) can protect hearts from ischemic damage at the animal, tissue and cell level. The cardioprotective activity of Fe2O3 NPs requires the integrity of nanoparticles and is not dependent upon their surface charges and molecules that were integrated into nanoparticles. Also, Fe2O3 NPs showed no significant toxicity towards normal cardiomyocytes, indicative of their potential to treat cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25716309

  11. Iron Is a Sensitive Biomarker for Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Veela; Pei, Wei; Yang, Grant; Li, Suyang; Swamy, Eashwar; Boster, Aaron; Schmalbrock, Petra; Pitt, David

    2013-01-01

    MRI phase imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and in autopsy tissue have demonstrated the presence of iron depositions in white matter lesions. The accumulation of iron in some but not all lesions suggests a specific, potentially disease-relevant process, however; its pathophysiological significance remains unknown. Here, we explore the role of lesional iron in multiple sclerosis using multiple approaches: immunohistochemical examination of autoptic MS tissue, an in vitro model of iron-uptake in human cultured macrophages and ultra-highfield phase imaging of highly active and of secondary progressive MS patients. Using Perls' stain and immunohistochemistry, iron was detected in MS tissue sections predominantly in non-phagocytosing macrophages/microglia at the edge of established, demyelinated lesions. Moreover, iron-containing macrophages but not myelin-laden macrophages expressed markers of proinflammatory (M1) polarization. Similarly, in human macrophage cultures, iron was preferentially taken up by non-phagocytosing, M1-polarized macrophages and induced M1 (super) polarization. Iron uptake was minimal in myelin-laden macrophages and active myelin phagocytosis led to depletion of intracellular iron. Finally, we demonstrated in MS patients using GRE phase imaging with ultra-highfield MRI that phase hypointense lesions were significantly more prevalent in patients with active relapsing than with secondary progressive MS. Taken together, our data provide a basis to interpret iron-sensitive GRE phase imaging in MS patients: iron is present in non-phagocytosing, M1-polarized microglia/macrophages at the rim of chronic active white matter demyelinating lesions. Phase imaging may therefore visualize specific, chronic proinflammatory activity in established MS lesions and thus provide important clinical information on disease status and treatment efficacy in MS patients. PMID:23516409

  12. Mammalian iron metabolism and its control by iron regulatory proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cole P.; Shen, Lacy; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. PMID:22610083

  13. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOEpatents

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  14. Polymers' surface interactions with molten iron: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, M. Hussein N.; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2014-10-01

    Environmental concerns are the chief drive for more innovative recycling techniques for end-of-life polymeric products. One attractive option is taking advantage of C and H content of polymeric waste in steelmaking industry. In this work, we examined the interaction of two high production polymers i.e. polyurethane and polysulfide with molten iron using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that both polymers can be used as carburizers for molten iron. Additionally, we found that light weight H2 and CHx molecules were released as by-products of the polymer-molten iron interaction. The outcomes of this study will have applications in the carburization of molten iron during ladle metallurgy and waste plastic injection in electric arc furnace.

  15. Role of clay minerals in the transportation of iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, D.

    1958-01-01

    The clay minerals have iron associated with them in several ways: 1. (1) as an essential constituent 2. (2) as a minor constituent within the crystal lattice where it is in isomorphous substitution and 3. (3) as iron oxide on the surface of the mineral platelets. Nontronite, "hydromica," some chlorites, vermiculite, glauconite and chamosite contain iron as an essential constituent. Kaolinite and halloysite have no site within the lattice for iron, but in certain environments iron oxide (goethite or hematite) is intimately associated as a coating on the micelles. Analyses of clay minerals show that the content of Fe2O3 varies: 29 per cent (nontronite), 7??3 per cent (griffithite), 4.5 per cent ("hydromica"), 5.5 per cent (chlorite), 4 per cent (vermiculite) and 18 per cent (glauconite). The FeO content is: 40 per cent (chamosite), 7.8 per cent (griffithite), 1-2 per cent ("hydromica"), 3 per cent (glauconite) and 2 per cent (chlorite). The iron associated with the clay minerals remains stable in the environment in which the minerals occur, but if either pH or Eh or both are changed the iron may be affected. Change of environment will cause: 1. (1) removal of iron by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+; 2. (2) ion-exchange reactions; 3. (3) instability of the crystal lattice. Experiments using bacterial activity to produce reducing conditions with kaolinite and halloysite coated with iron oxides and with nontronite in which ferric iron is in the octahedral position within the lattice showed that ferric oxide is removed at Eh +0??215 in fresh water and at Eh +0.098 in sea water. Hematite, goethite, and indefinite iron oxides were removed at different rates. Red ferric oxides were changed to black indefinite noncrystalline ferrous sulphide at Eh -0.020 but reverted to ferric oxide under oxidizing conditions. Nontronite turned bright green under reducing conditions and some of the ferrous iron remained within the lattice on a return to oxidizing conditions. Bacterial activity seems to be necessary for maintaining reducing conditions in the environments studied. ?? 1958.

  16. Olivine + halides: a recipe for iron mobilization in volcanic ash?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M. K.; Langmann, B.

    2013-12-01

    During the last decade, scientific evidences strongly suggest that volcanic ash iron has fertilization impact upon the surface ocean. Still, it is not well constrained how the insoluble iron in ash (i.e., as a component in minerals and also glass) could be mobilized during volcanic eruptions and atmospheric transport. Here we investigate the volcanic plume controls on ash iron solubility. We develope a conceptual box model to simulate the high, mid and low temperature chemical, physical and thermodynamic processes in eruption plumes to better constrain the iron mobilization in volcanic ash. We take into account the interaction of different species in a solid-liquid-gas system representing various volcanic settings (convergent plate, divergent plate and hot spot). Results show that the hot core of a volcanic plume (T>600°C) does not produce soluble iron directly but significantly controls the Fe mineralogy and oxidation state at the ash surface. The final iron mineralogy at the ash surface (i.e. the ash's oxidation front with 1-100 nm thickness) is likely to be independent of temperature and oxygen fugacity and is closely correlated to the ratio of H2 and H2S content of the magmatic gas to the amount of entrained oxygen. As the plume continues rising and cooling, sulfuric acid condenses at about 150°C followed by water condensation at about 50°C which also dissociates sulfuric acid and produces H+ ions in the liquid phase. The aqueous phase scavenges the surrounding gas species (e.g. SO2, HCl, HF) and concurrently dissolves the ash surface constituents. Since HCl is about 4 orders of magnitudes more soluble than SO2, its dissolution mainly controls the pH of the liquid. Hence, high HCl concentrations in the gas phase results in lower pH in the aqueous phase (pH<0.5) and consequently an increase in the ash dissolution rate. Moreover reduced iron carrying minerals (e.g. fayalite) show a much higher dissolution rate in comparison with oxidized species (e.g. hematite). Thus, the presence of the reduced iron species in the mineral assemblage seems to be more favorable for the soluble iron production. We conclude that bio-available iron production is weakly correlated with the tectonic setting and is instead controlled by the halide content of the eruption plume and the oxidation state of the iron at the ash mineral assemblage (e.g. presence of olivine). This hypothesis could satisfactorily explain the extraordinary iron release from the ash of Hekla eruption in 2000 and also the fertilization impact caused by the ash erupted from Kasatochi in 2008.

  17. Iron isotopes in a soil chronosequence: evidence of fractionation due to biological lifting of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M. S.; Bullen, T. D.; White, A. F.; Fitzpatrick, J.

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of iron distribution with landform exposure time was studied in a marine terrace chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The abundance of soil Fe increases with terrace age on the five terraces studied (65 to 226 Ka). Mass change calculations for Fe, indicate that not only is iron concentrated near the surface but, it is also depleted at depths >1.5m. The surficial Fe concentration cannot be fully accounted for by weathering and compaction of the soil profile or by the addition of iron content through eolian deposition to the soils. The terrace regoliths were generally unsaturated and aerobic, thus lateral movement of large amounts of dissolved reduced iron is unlikely. We propose that plant roots and symbiotic fungi (mycorrhizae) have transported iron from deep within the regolith to the shallow soil through the process of biolifting. Iron is a plant micronutrient; and unlike other mineral nutrients, it is relatively insoluble in aerobic soil solutions. Once Fe is released from decaying organic matter, the Fe-oxides are incorporated into the shallow soil. The Fe content of the current grassland vegetation was measured and yearly biomass Fe uptake calculated. The yearly cycling of plant-utilized Fe in above ground biomass multiplied by the age of the terrace is roughly equivalent to the shallow iron content of these soils. It has been shown that plants which use the strategy I Fe uptake process fractionate light Fe (Guelke and Von Blankenburg, ES&T, p1896; 2007). To test the biolifting hypothesis, Fe isotope ratios were determined for bulk soil samples from several soil depths of terraces 1 through 3 and terrace 5. The shallow soils generally have increasingly lighter ?56/54Fe with terrace age. The ? 56/54Fe values at 10cm soil depth are: 0.546, 0.628 0.381 and 0.182. The deep soil samples (>3 m) have a relatively constant isotopic composition ranging from 0.595 to 0.678 ? 56/54Fe. The deep sample ratios are between the values of the known source rocks for these sediments. However, grass plants utilize the strategy II process of Fe uptake which does not isotopically fractionate Fe. The Fe isotope composition of these soils is indicative of a forest or chaparral ecosystem existing on the terraces previous to the present grassland.

  18. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Kim, Yohan; Owens, Gabe; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues.

  19. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Kim, Yohan; Owens, Gabe; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-20

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues. PMID:24351722

  20. Magnetization transfer ratio does not correlate to myelin content in the brain in the MOG-EAE mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fjær, Sveinung; Bø, Lars; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method which may detect demyelination not detected by conventional MRI in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A decrease in MTR value has previously been shown to correlate to myelin loss in the mouse cuprizone model for demyelination. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of MTR for demyelination in the myelin oligodendrocyte (MOG) 1-125 induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. A total of 24 female c57Bl/6 mice were randomized to a control group (N?=?6) or EAE (N?=?18). MTR images were obtained at a preclinical 7 Tesla Bruker MR-scanner before EAE induction (baseline), 17-19 days (midpoint) and 31-32 days (endpoint) after EAE induction. Mean MTR values were calculated in five regions of the brain and compared to weight, EAE severity score and myelin content assessed by immunostaining for proteolipid protein and luxol fast blue, lymphocyte and monocyte infiltration and iron deposition. Contrary to what was expected, MTR values in the EAE mice were higher than in the control mice at the midpoint and endpoint. No significant difference in myelin content was found according to histo- or immunohistochemistry. Changes in MTR values did not correlate to myelin content, iron content, lymphocyte or monocyte infiltration, weight or EAE severity scores. This suggest that MTR measures of brain tissue can give significant differences between control mice and EAE mice not caused by demyelination, inflammation or iron deposition, and may not be useful surrogate markers for demyelination in the MOG1-125 mouse model. PMID:25744931

  1. PHOTON SCIENCE SEMINAR Diamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and X----rays:rays:rays:rays

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    PHOTON SCIENCE SEMINAR Diamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron unique experimental challenges. Devices such as diamond-anvil pressure vessels and infrared lasers can

  2. Anemia caused by low iron - children

    MedlinePLUS

    Anemia - iron deficiency - children ... able to absorb iron well, even though the child is eating enough iron Slow blood loss over ... bleeding in the digestive tract Iron deficiency in children can also be related to lead poisoning .

  3. Copper and nickel partitioning in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Delaney, J. S.; Smith, J. V.; Prinz, M.

    1987-10-01

    Trace element analyses using proton induced X-ray emission and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence have been made on metal and troilite from nine iron meteorites representing five geochemical groups. Nickel and copper distribution coefficients D (troilite/metal) vary by factors of 600 and 20, respectively, correlate positively with kamacite bandwidth and correlate negatively with bulk nickel content. Meteorites with bulk Ni of less than 10 percent have Cu-enriched troilite while those with Ni greater than 10 percent have Cu-depleted troilite. Since magmatic evolution and partial melting will produce Cu-enriched troilite only, the observation of Cu-depleted troilite in Ni-rich meteorites is evidence for subsolidus reequilibration, a process which reduces D(Cu) by transfer of Cu to exsolving metal. Elemental redistribution may have played an important role in establishing the present chemical trends in iron meteorites.

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF IRON TREATMENT (DESULPHURIZATION) AREA. MOLTEN IRON PROCEEDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF IRON TREATMENT (DESULPHURIZATION) AREA. MOLTEN IRON PROCEEDS FROM CUPOLA TO IRON TREATMENT AREAS BEFORE BEING TRANSFERRED TO PIPE CASTING MACHINES. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Ductile iron data base: correlations between microstructure and fracture toughness: Background document for draft ASTM ductile iron specification

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, P.; Lombrozo, P.

    1987-02-01

    A computer data base was generated to relate ductile iron fracture toughness with microstructural parameters, chemistry, and mechanical properties. Such relationships are considered necessary before a ductile iron material specification can be generated for spent nuclear fuel containers. Although scatter exists in the available data and more data are desirable, tentative conclusions can be drawn. In particular, ductile iron with high ferrite content (>80%) and spherical graphite nodules shows relatively high fracture toughness values suggesting its suitability for use in spent nuclear fuel casks. A material specification based upon nodule count (or the inversely related nodule spacing) may ensure a minimum fracture toughness in ductile iron. Increasing nodule spacing (decreasing count) increases the fracture toughness. Other relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure/chemistry are evaluated.

  6. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: a field study using stable isotopes in women

    PubMed Central

    García, Olga P.; Martínez, Mara; Romano, Diana; Camacho, Mariela; de Moura, Fabiana F.; Abrams, Steve A.; Khanna, Harjeet K.; Dale, James L.; Rosado, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Design Thirty women (34.9±6.6 years) from rural Mexico were randomly assigned to one of two groups each consuming: 1) 480 g/day of raw banana for 6 days, or 2) 500 g/day of cooked banana for 4 days. Iron absorption was measured after extrinsically labeling with 2 mg of 58Fe and a reference dose of 6 mg 57Fe; analysis was done using ICP-MS. Results Iron content in cooked bananas was significantly higher than raw bananas (0.53 mg/100 g bananas vs. 0.33 mg/100 mg bananas, respectively) (p<0.001). Percent iron absorption was significantly higher in raw bananas (49.3±21.3%) compared with cooked banana (33.9±16.2%) (p=0.035). Total amount of iron absorbed from raw and cooked bananas was similar (0.77±0.33 mg vs. 0.86±0.41 mg, respectively). Conclusion Total amount of absorbed iron is similar between cooked and raw bananas. The banana matrix does not affect iron absorption and is therefore a potential effective target for genetic modification for iron biofortification. PMID:25660254

  7. Iron Meteorite on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has found an iron meteorite on Mars, the first meteorite of any type ever identified on another planet. The pitted, basketball-size object is mostly made of iron and nickel. Readings from spectrometers on the rover determined that composition. Opportunity used its panoramic camera to take the images used in this approximately true-color composite on the rover's 339th martian day, or sol (Jan. 6, 2005). This composite combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer (red), 530-nanometer (green), and 480-nanometer (blue) filters.

  8. Iron overload causes oxidative stress and impaired insulin signaling in AML-12 hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Donald J.; Rhieu, Byung Han; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron overload is associated with increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Aims To identify potential role(s) of iron in NAFLD, we measured its effects on pathways of oxidative stress and insulin signaling in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes. Methods Rapid iron overload was induced with 50 ?M ferric ammonium citrate and 8-hydroxyquinoline. Insulin response was measured by western blot of phospho-protein kinase B. Lipid content was determined by staining with oil red O. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry using 5-( -6)-chloromethyl-2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Oxidative stress was measured by western blots for phospho-jnk and phospho-p38. Results Iron increased ROS (p<0.001) and oxidative stress (p<0.001), and decreased insulin signaling by 33% (p<0.001). Treatment with stearic or oleic acids (200 ?M) increased cellular lipid content and differentially modulated effects of iron. Stearic acid potentiated iron-induced ROS levels by 2-fold (p<0.05) and further decreased insulin response 59% (p<0.05) vs. iron alone. In contrast, cells treated with oleic acid were protected against iron-mediated injury; ROS levels were decreased by half (p<0.01) vs. iron alone while insulin response was restored to control (untreated) levels. The anti-oxidant curcumin reduced effects of iron on insulin signaling, ROS, and oxidative stress (p<0.01). Curcumin was similarly effective in cells treated with both stearic acid and iron. Conclusions An in-vitro model of NAFLD progression is described in which iron-induced oxidative stress inhibits insulin signaling. Pathophysiological effects of iron were increased by saturated fat and decreased by curcumin. PMID:23558563

  9. Feature Article Voltammetric Identification of Pedogenic Iron Oxides in Paleosol

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Feature Article Voltammetric Identification of Pedogenic Iron Oxides in Paleosol and Loess Toma to detect low concentrations of goethite and hematite in paleosol and loess samples. The total content of Fe diffraction analysis. Keywords: Goethite, Hematite, Paleosol, Loess, Voltammetry of microparticles 1

  10. Effect of Dietary Iron Loading on Recognition Memory in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Murui; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-01-01

    While nutritional and neurobehavioral problems are associated with both iron deficiency during growth and overload in the elderly, the effect of iron loading in growing ages on neurobehavioral performance has not been fully explored. To characterize the role of dietary iron loading in memory function in the young, weanling rats were fed iron-loading diet (10,000 mg iron/kg diet) or iron-adequate control diet (50 mg/kg) for one month, during which a battery of behavioral tests were conducted. Iron-loaded rats displayed elevated non-heme iron levels in serum and liver, indicating a condition of systemic iron overload. In the brain, non-heme iron was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats compared with controls, whereas there was no difference in iron content in other brain regions between the two diet groups. While iron loading did not alter motor coordination or anxiety-like behavior, iron-loaded rats exhibited a better recognition memory, as represented by an increased novel object recognition index (22% increase from the reference value) than control rats (12% increase; P=0.047). Western blot analysis showed an up-regulation of dopamine receptor 1 in the prefrontal cortex from iron-loaded rats (142% increase; P=0.002). Furthermore, levels of glutamate receptors (both NMDA and AMPA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats (62% increase in NR1; 70% increase in Glu1A; 115% increase in nAChR). Dietary iron loading also increased the expression of NMDA receptors and nAChR in the hippocampus. These results support the idea that iron is essential for learning and memory and further reveal that iron supplementation during developmental and rapidly growing periods of life improves memory performance. Our investigation also demonstrates that both cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission pathways are regulated by dietary iron and provides a molecular basis for the role of iron loading in improved memory. PMID:25746420

  11. Enzymes of respiratory iron oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II.

    1991-01-01

    This report focuses on the progress made in three areas of research concerned with enzymes involved in respiratory iron oxidation. The three areas are as follows: development of an improved procedure for the routine large scale culture of iron oxidizing chemolithotrophs based on the in-situ electrolysis of the soluble iron in the growth medium; to perform iron oxidation kinetic studies on whole cells using the oxygen electrode; and to identify, separate, purify, and characterize the individual cellular components.

  12. Table of Contents

    Cancer.gov

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  13. Physico-chemical properties of the new generation IV iron preparations ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric carboxymaltose.

    PubMed

    Neiser, Susann; Rentsch, Daniel; Dippon, Urs; Kappler, Andreas; Weidler, Peter G; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Wilhelm, Maria; Braitsch, Michaela; Funk, Felix; Philipp, Erik; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    The advantage of the new generation IV iron preparations ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), ferumoxytol (FMX), and iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) is that they can be administered in relatively high doses in a short period of time. We investigated the physico-chemical properties of these preparations and compared them with those of the older preparations iron sucrose (IS), sodium ferric gluconate (SFG), and low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID). Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy indicated akaganeite structures (?-FeOOH) for the cores of FCM, IIM and IS, and a maghemite (?-Fe2O3) structure for that of FMX. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the structure of the carbohydrate of FMX as a reduced, carboxymethylated, low molecular weight dextran, and that of IIM as a reduced Dextran 1000. Polarography yielded significantly different fingerprints of the investigated compounds. Reductive degradation kinetics of FMX was faster than that of FCM and IIM, which is in contrast to the high stability of FMX towards acid degradation. The labile iron content, i.e. the amount of iron that is only weakly bound in the polynuclear iron core, was assessed by a qualitative test that confirmed decreasing labile iron contents in the order SFG ? IS > LMWID ? FMX ? IIM ? FCM. The presented data are a step forward in the characterization of these non-biological complex drugs, which is a prerequisite to understand their cellular uptake mechanisms and the relationship between the structure and physiological safety as well as efficacy of these complexes. PMID:25801756

  14. Characterization of the Achromobactin Iron Acquisition Operon in Sodalis glossinidius

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caitlin L.; Weiss, Brian L.; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-01-01

    Sodalis glossinidius is a facultative, extra- and intracellular symbiont found in most tissues of the tsetse fly (Glossinia sp.). Sodalis has a putative achromobactin siderophore iron acquisition system on the pSG1 plasmid. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that the achromobactin operon is transcribed as a single polycistronic molecule and is expressed when Sodalis is within the tsetse fly. Expression of the achromobactin operon was repressed under iron-replete conditions; in a mutant that lacks the iron-responsive transcriptional repressor protein Fur, expression was aberrantly derepressed under these iron-replete conditions, indicating that the Fur protein repressed achromobactin gene expression when iron was plentiful. A putative Fur binding site within the Sodalis achromobactin promoter bound Fur in Escherichia coli Fur titration assays. Wild-type Sodalis produced detectable siderophore in vitro, but a mutation in the putative achromobactin biosynthesis gene acsD eliminated detectable siderophore production in Sodalis. Reduced growth of the siderophore synthesis mutant was reconstituted by addition of exogenous achromobactin, suggesting the strain retains a functional siderophore transport system; however, reduced growth of a Sodalis ferric-siderophore outer membrane receptor mutant with a mutation in acr was not reconstituted by exogenous siderophore due to its defective transporter. The Sodalis siderophore synthesis mutant showed reduced growth in tsetse that lacked endogenous symbionts (aposymbiotic) when the flies were inoculated with Sodalis intrathoracically, but not when inoculated per os. Our findings suggest that Sodalis siderophores play a role in iron acquisition in certain tsetse fly tissues and provide evidence for the regulation of iron acquisition mechanisms in insect symbionts. PMID:23435882

  15. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. Some, like cellulitis, are ... of an infection. Injuries can cause connective tissue disorders, such as scars. Others, such as Ehlers-Danlos ...

  16. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very ... of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to Streptococcus ...

  17. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron,...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron,...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron,...

  1. IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran

    E-print Network

    Yeom, Heon Young

    IRON FILE SYSTEMS by Vijayan Prabhakaran B.E. Computer Sciences (Regional Engineering College;v Abstract IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran Disk drives are widely used as a primary medium that measures their Internal RObustNess (IRON), which includes both failure detection and recovery techniques

  2. IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran

    E-print Network

    Swift, Michael

    IRON FILE SYSTEMS by Vijayan Prabhakaran B.E. Computer Sciences (Regional Engineering College #12; v Abstract IRON FILE SYSTEMS Vijayan Prabhakaran Disk drives are widely used as a primary medium that measures their Internal RObustNess (IRON), which includes both failure detection and recovery techniques

  3. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. PMID:25419131

  4. Acute iron overload leads to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis abnormalities in female rats.