Sample records for tissue iron content

  1. The content of manganese and iron in hip joint tissue.

    PubMed

    Brodziak-Dopiera?a, Barbara; Kwapuli?ski, Jerzy; Sobczyk, Krzysztof; Wiechu?a, Danuta

    2013-07-01

    Manganese and iron are elements that constitute components of bone tissue. The aim of this study was to determine presence of manganese and iron in hip joint tissue and interdependencies between these elements. The objects of the research were hip joint elements from people residing in cities on the territory of the Upper Silesian Industrial District. The number of people in the study group was 91 samples, including 66 samples from women and 25 from a man. The examined tissues were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures. The content of manganese and iron was determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) method. The lowest content of manganese and iron was found in the cortical bone, and the largest, in the case of manganese, in the articular cartilage, whereas in the case of iron in a fragment of the cancellous bone from the intertrochanteric area. The content of iron in selected elements of the hip joint decreased with age. Higher content of manganese in hip joint tissue of women compared to men was confirmed. What is more, higher content of iron in hip joint tissue of men was confirmed as well. PMID:23415599

  2. Noninvasive assessment of skin iron content in hemodialysis patients. An index of parenchymal tissue iron content

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlaender, M.M.; Kaufman, B.; Rubinger, D.; Moreb, J.; Popovtzer, M.M.; Goredetsky, R.

    1988-07-01

    Iron overload has been described in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid, noninvasive method for determination of skin iron by the technique of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS). Thirty-five patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment entered the study and were compared with 25 normal controls. Since pathological skin iron deposition occurs mainly at the dermal-epidermal junction in the basal cells of the epidermis, measurements were made in the thenar eminence representing mainly epidermal tissue (FeE), and in the forearm representative mainly of dermis (FeD). The mean +/- SD FeE iron concentrations were equivalent to 14.5 +/- 8.8 and 18.2 +/- 10.2 parts per million wet weight tissue (ppm) and both were significantly higher than in normal controls in which they averaged 9.2 +/- 2.5 ppm (P less than 0.005) and 10.2 +/- 3.2 ppm (P less than 0.001), respectively. There was significant positive correlation between individual skin iron determinations with the total number of blood transfusions received, the rate of blood transfusion, and with serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow hemosiderin was examined in six patients and showed a similar trend. Despite correlation only with indirect indices of tissue iron, our findings suggest that DXS may serve as a reliable quick method for noninvasive estimation of nonreticuloendothelial tissue iron deposition in hemodialysis patients suspected of having transfusional iron overload. The method may be valuable in monitoring the effects of chelation therapy.

  3. Alterations of iron distribution in Arabidopsis tissues infected by Dickeya dadantii.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Aude; Patrit, Oriane; Berger, Adeline; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-06-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for plant soft rot disease in a wide range of hosts, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Iron distribution in infected A.?thaliana was investigated at the cellular scale using the Perls'-diaminobenzidine-H2 O2 (PDH) method. Iron visualization during infection reveals a loss of iron from cellular compartments and plant cell walls. During symptom progression, two distinct zones are clearly visible: a macerated zone displaying weak iron content and a healthy zone displaying strong iron content. Immunolabelling of cell wall methylated pectin shows that pectin degradation is correlated with iron release from cell walls, indicating a strong relationship between cell wall integrity and iron in plant tissues. Using a D.?dadantii lipopolysaccharide antibody, we show that bacteria are restricted to the infected tissue, and that they accumulate iron in?planta. In conclusion, weak iron content is strictly correlated with bacterial cell localization in the infected tissues, indicating a crucial role of this element during the interaction. This is the first report of iron localization at the cellular level during a plant-microbe interaction and shows that PDH is a method of choice in this type of investigation. PMID:25266463

  4. Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

  5. [Cytophotometric determination of non-heme iron content in hepatocytes. I. Effect of cell separation techniques on iron content].

    PubMed

    Okon, E E; Kovaleva, Z V

    1998-01-01

    To study conditions of the preservation of non-heme iron (3+) in hepatocytes, experiments were performed on rats fed with the diet supplemented with 2% carbonyl iron. The cells were isolated by a collagenase method (an enzymatic method) or by a treatment of the tissue with the phosphate buffer (a nonenzymatic method). When using the enzymatic method, the main steps of obtaining preparations-smears were analysed: perfusion of the organ, subsequent washing out of the cells from collagenase, mounting of the smear on the object glass. When using the non-enzymatic method, such steps were an incubation of the tissue pieces in the isolation solution and mounting of the smears. It has been found that the enzymatic isolation method results in practically no losses of iron from the cells if the perfusion lasts for 20 min. A slight loss (10-12%) of the Perls'-stained iron can occur during the initial 30 min of the washing out of the cells from collagenase. This step is not accompanied by any morphological changes of the cells; their viability, according to the trypan test, is 70-87%. The iron release from the cells rises with decrease in the viability of hepatocytes. It has been shown that the greatest losses of iron can occur at the mounting step when the cells are submitted to a substantial mechanical effect. When the nonenzymatic method is applied, the incubation of the cells in the phosphate buffer for up to 2 hr causes no marked morphological changes revealed in the light microscope; however, the cell viability is very low (about 1%). The preservation of iron in the cells is lower when using the nonenzymatic than the enzymatic method. Thus, for cytophotometric determinations of the iron content in hepatocytes, the collagenase method of isolation of cells is recommended. PMID:9778733

  6. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron increased the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in lung tissues at high altitudes. • Trolox alleviated the iron-induced histological and biochemical changes to the lungs.

  7. Steroid content in endometrial tissue.

    PubMed

    Suri, N K

    1997-04-01

    In the human endometrium, the role of C19 steroids is at present unclear. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) were developed which had sufficient specificity and accuracy to measure testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydroxytestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), oestradiol, progesterone and androstenedione in endometrial samples. Amounts of androstenedione were greater (range 1.2-20.8 ng/mg tissue) than other steroids. Samples were obtained from patients presenting conditions such as subfertility, postmenopausal bleeding, dysfunctional uterine bleeding and abdominal pain. Patients used as normals were admitted for sterilisation. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.80) was found between the levels of testosterone and 5 alpha-reductase system. No relationship was observed in tissue steroid concentration and age of the patients. Steroid concentrations were found to be high in tissue obtained from patients with endometrial carcinomas whereas progesterone concentration being low in subfertiles. PMID:9299827

  8. Measurement of hair iron concentration as a marker of body iron content

    PubMed Central

    SAHIN, CEM; PALA, CIGDEM; KAYNAR, LEYLAGUL; TORUN, YASEMIN ALTUNER; CETIN, AYSUN; KURNAZ, FATIH; SIVGIN, SERDAR; SAHIN, FATIH SERDAR

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the possible association between blood parameters and hair iron concentration in patient groups showing a difference in body iron content. The study population comprised subjects with iron deficiency anaemia and transfusion-related anaemia with different body iron contents and a healthy control group. All the cases included in the study were examined with respect to hair iron concentration, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and erythrocyte markers in the total blood count with ferritin values. Differences in hair iron concentration were evaluated between the groups. Correlation analysis was applied to define the association between the laboratory values used as markers of body iron content and hair iron concentration. A statistically significant difference was determined in hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations between the group with transfusion-related anaemia, the iron deficiency anaemia group and the healthy control group (P<0.001). In addition, a positive correlation was determined between hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations and serum iron, ferritin level, transferrin saturation, mean erythrocyte volume and mean erythrocyte haemoglobin values and a negative correlation with TIBC. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a statistically significant difference in the hair iron concentrations of the patient groups with different body iron content and these values were correlated to the laboratory markers of body iron content. PMID:26137241

  9. Increased iron (III) and total iron content in post mortem substantia nigra of parkinsonian brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sofic; P. Riederer; H. Heinsen; H. Beckmann; G. P. Reynolds; G. Hebenstreit; M. B. H. Youdim

    1988-01-01

    Summary Significant differences in the content of iron (III) and total iron were found in post mortem substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease. There was an increase of 176% in the levels of total iron and 255% of iron (III) in the substantia nigra of the parkinsonian patients compared to age matched controls. In the cortex (Brodmann area 21), hippocampus, putamen,

  10. Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

  11. Inconsistent values for iron content complicate recommending clams as an iron source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer F. Lai; Joannie Dobbs; Michael A. Dunn; Socorro Tauyan; C. Alan Titchenal

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, food tables for iron sources often list clams among the top food sources for this nutrient. Canned and pouched processed clam products (chopped, minced, and whole form) were collected from five major supermarkets in Honolulu, Hawaii. Iron content was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES). Analyzed iron content ranged from 0.86 to 59.46mg\\/100g of drained

  12. Prediction of iron oxide contents using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, José, Jr.; Arantes Camargo, Livia

    2015-04-01

    Determining soil iron oxides using conventional analysis is relatively unfeasible when large areas are mapped, with the aim of characterizing spatial variability. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is rapid, less expensive, non-destructive and sometimes more accurate than conventional analysis. Furthermore, this technique allows the simultaneous characterization of many soil attributes with agronomic and environmental relevance. This study aims to assess the DRS capability to predict iron oxides content -hematite and goethite - , characterizing their spatial variability in soils of Brazil. Soil samples collected from an 800-hectare area were scanned in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Moreover, chemometric calibration was obtained through partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Then, spatial distribution maps of the attributes were constructed using predicted values from calibrated models through geostatistical methods. The studied area presented soils with varied contents of iron oxides as examples for the Oxisols and Entisols. In the spectra of each soil is observed that the reflectance decreases with the content of iron oxides present in the soil. In soils with a high content of iron oxides can be observed more pronounced concavities between 380 and 1100 nm which are characteristic of the presence of these oxides. In soils with higher reflectance it were observed concavity characteristics due to the presence of kaolinite, in agreement with the low iron contents of those soils. The best accuracy of prediction models [residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 1.7] was obtained for goethite within the visible region (380-800 nm), and for hematite (RPD = 2.0) within the visible near infrared (380-2300 nm). The maps of goethite and hematite predicted showed the spatial distribution pattern similar to the maps of clay and iron extracted by dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, being consistent with the iron oxide contents of soils present in the study area. These results confirm the value of DRS in the mapping of iron oxides in large areas at detailed scale.

  13. Determining Iron Content in Foods by Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Paul E.

    1995-07-01

    The mass of iron, in milligrams, present in a 5 gram sample of vegetable, nut, or tap water is determined by the reddishbrown color of the hexathiocyanatoferrate(III) ion. The iron in the ash of the incinerated food sample is dissolved with 2 M HCl, filtered, and mixed with KSCN. Using a spectrophotometer, the absorbance of the resulting reddishbrown solution is compared to previously prepared standards.

  14. Iron toxicity mediated by oxidative stress enhances tissue damage in an animal model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Ana Flávia S; Silva, Maisa; Dornas, Waleska C; Costa, Daniela C; Silva, Marcelo E; Dos Santos, Rinaldo C; de Lima, Wanderson G; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2014-04-01

    Although iron is a first-line pro-oxidant that modulates clinical manifestations of various systemic diseases, including diabetes, the individual tissue damage generated by active oxidant insults has not been demonstrated in current animal models of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in the severity of the tissues injury when iron supplementation is administered in a model of type 1 diabetes. Streptozotocin (Stz)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic Fischer rats were maintained with or without a treatment consisting of iron dextran ip at 0.1 mL day(-1) doses administered for 4 days at intervals of 5 days. After 3 weeks, an extensive increase (p < 0.001) in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils of the diabetic animals on iron overload was observed. Histological analysis revealed that this treatment also resulted in higher (p < 0.05) tissue iron deposits, a higher (p < 0.001) number of inflammatory cells in the pancreas, and apparent cardiac fibrosis, as shown by an increase (p < 0.05) in type III collagen levels, which result in dysfunctional myocardial. Carbonyl protein modification, a marker of oxidative stress, was consistently higher (p < 0.01) in the tissues of the iron-treated rats with diabetes. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between ROS production and iron pancreas stores (r = 0.42, p < 0.04), iron heart stores (r = 0.54, p < 0.04), and change of the carbonyl protein content in pancreas (r = 0.49, p < 0.009), and heart (r = 0.48, p < 0.02). A negative correlation was still found between ROS production and total glutathione content in pancreas (r = -0.50, p < 0.03) and heart (r = -0.45, p < 0.04). In conclusion, our results suggest that amplified toxicity in pancreatic and cardiac tissues in rats with diabetes on iron overload might be attributed to increased oxidative stress. PMID:24549594

  15. Mechanical properties dependency of the pearlite content of ductile irons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Gonzaga; P. Martínez Land; A. Perez; P. Villanueva

    Purpose: In this work, it is pretended to make a comparison of different pearlite contents in pieces with similar shape and dimensions and to analyze the variation of mechanical properties as pearlite content increases. The three pieces used had form of stair made of ductile cast iron. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The present study was based on an adequate balance of alloying elements.

  16. Calcium, iron and oxalate content of some condiments and spices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Ramasastri

    1983-01-01

    The condiments and spices consumed in India were analysed for their calcium, phosphorus and iron contents and for the content of total and water-soluble oxalates. A number of spices were found to be quite rich in calcium and also in oxalates. In many of the spices the oxalates were mainly in the insoluble form although a few spices were found

  17. The effects of exercise and dietary fat on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc on selected tissues in rats 

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Thuy Huong

    1989-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND DIETARY FAT ON CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, IRON, AND ZINC ON SELECTED TISSUES IN RATS A Thesis by THUY HUONG NGUYEN Approved as to style... and content by: Karen S. ubena (Chair of Committee) L. yne Greene (Member) Barbara C. O' Brien (Member) Gary C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT The Effects of Exercise and Dietary Fat on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc...

  18. The effects of exercise and dietary fat on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc on selected tissues in rats

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Thuy Huong

    1989-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND DIETARY FAT ON CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, IRON, AND ZINC ON SELECTED TISSUES IN RATS A Thesis by THUY HUONG NGUYEN Approved as to style... and content by: Karen S. ubena (Chair of Committee) L. yne Greene (Member) Barbara C. O' Brien (Member) Gary C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT The Effects of Exercise and Dietary Fat on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc...

  19. Aluminium, iron and copper in human brain tissues donated to the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Esiri, Margaret; Forster, Gill; Ince, Paul G; Exley, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium, iron and copper are all implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. However, there are very few large cohort studies of the content of these metals in aged human brains. We have used microwave digestion and TH GFAAS to measure aluminium, iron and copper in the temporal, frontal, occipital and parietal lobes of 60 brains donated to the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Every precaution was taken to reduce contamination of samples and acid digests to a minimum. Actual contamination was estimated by preparing a large number of (170+) method blanks which were interspersed within the full set of 700+ tissue digests. Subtraction of method blank values (MBV) from tissue digest values resulted in metal contents in all tissues in the range, MBV to 33 ?g g(-1) dry wt. for aluminium, 112 to 8305 ?g g(-1) dry wt. for iron and MBV to 384 ?g g(-1) dry wt. for copper. While the median aluminium content for all tissues was 1.02 ?g g(-1) dry wt. it was informative that 41 brains out of 60 included at least one tissue with an aluminium content which could be considered as potentially pathological (> 3.50 ?g g(-1) dry wt.). The median content for iron was 286.16 ?g g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue iron contents were generally high which possibly reflected increased brain iron in ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. The median content for copper was 17.41 ?g g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue copper contents were lower than expected for aged brains but they were commensurate with aged brains showing signs of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we have shown, in particular, the value of carrying out significant numbers of method blanks to identify unknown sources of contamination. When these values are subtracted from tissue digest values the absolute metal contents could be considered as conservative and yet they may still reflect aspects of ageing and neurodegenerative disease in individual brains. PMID:22045115

  20. Supplementation of milk with iron bound to lactoferrin using weanling mice: L. Effects on hematology and tissue iron.

    PubMed

    Fransson, G B; Keen, C L; Lönnerdal, B

    1983-11-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein present in high concentrations in human milk. The efficacy of supplementing iron bound to lactoferrin to iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young mice was evaluated in comparison with supplementation of iron as iron chloride. Mice fed a nonsupplemented milk diet (approximately 1 mg Fe/L) for 4 weeks had a microcytic, hypochromic anemia and low tissue iron concentrations. Iron supplementation of the diet with lactoferrin-iron, or iron chloride at a level of 5 mg Fe/L prevented the anemia and resulted in tissue iron levels similar to levels found for mice fed a stock commercial diet. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters analyzed between the groups of mice receiving the two iron supplements following a diet deficient in iron. Apolactoferrin when supplemented to the diet had no negative effect on the iron status of the mice. These results show that lactoferrin may be a useful vehicle for supplementation of iron. PMID:6644450

  1. Desferrithiocin analogue iron chelators: iron clearing efficiency, tissue distribution, and renal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Raymond J; Wiegand, Jan; Bharti, Neelam; McManis, James S; Singh, Shailendra

    2011-04-01

    The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4'-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure-activity relationship studies have established that the length and the position of the polyether backbone controlled: (1) the ligand's iron clearing efficiency (ICE), (2) chelator tissue distribution, (3) biliary ferrokinetics, and (4) tissue iron reduction. The current investigation compares the ICE and tissue distribution of a series of (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acids (Table 1, 3-5) and the (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acids (Table 1, 8-10). The three most effective polyether analogues, in terms of performance ratio (PR), defined as mean ICE(primate)/ICE(rodent), are 3 (PR 1.1), 8, (PR 1.5), and 9, now in human trials, (PR 2.2). At the onset of the clinical trial on 9, no data were available for ligand 3 or 8. This is unfortunate, as 3 has many advantages over 9, e.g., the ICE of 3 in rats is 2.5-fold greater than that of 9 and analogue 3 achieves very high levels in the liver, pancreas, and heart, the organs most affected by iron overload. Finally, the impact of 3 on the urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), an early diagnostic biomarker for monitoring acute kidney toxicity, has been carried out in rats; no evidence of nephrotoxicity was found. Overall, the results suggest that 3 would be a far superior clinical candidate to 9. PMID:21103911

  2. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazir Ahmad; Wendy Harsas; Robert S. Marolt; Maria Morton; John K. Pollack

    1988-01-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the

  3. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  4. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mikhaylova; M. Davidson; H. Toastmann; J. E. T. Channell; Y. Guyodo; C. Batich; J. Dobson

    2005-01-01

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 mm. This technique represents a breakthrough in the

  5. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mikhaylova; M. Davidson; H. Toastmann; J. E. T. Channell; Y. Guyodo; C. Batich; J. Dobson

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 μm. This technique represents a breakthrough in the

  6. Iron concentrations in intestinal cancer tissue and in colon and rectum polyps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Kucharzewski; Janusz Braziewicz; Urszula Majewska; Stanislaw Gó?d?

    2003-01-01

    A prospective randomized trial was used to determine iron concentrations in intestinal cancer tissue and colorectum polyps.\\u000a We investigated the possible difference between the concentrations of iron, ferritin, albumin, and hemoglobin in the serum\\u000a of patients with colorectal cancer and polyps. We also determined the relationship between the iron and ferritin levels in\\u000a cancer tissue, the localization of neoplasms, and

  7. Iron biomineralization of brain tissue and neurodegenerative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    The brain is an organ with a high concentration of iron in specific areas, particularly in the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the red nucleus. In certain pathological states, such as iron overload disease and neurodegenerative disorders, a disturbed iron metabolism can lead to increased accumulation of iron not only in these areas, but also in the brain regions

  8. Body retention and tissue distribution of59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the brain. In many countries, food is fortified with iron to fight iron deficiency (Baker and De MaeyerBody retention and tissue distribution of59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow. Summary. The effect of iron-fortified cow's milk on body 59Fe and 54Mn retention and selective tissue

  9. Investigation of silica-iron-phosphate glasses for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Knowles, J C

    2006-10-01

    Phosphate-based glasses have previously been examined for tissue engineering applications, however they degrade rapidly in solution reducing its pH to below 5. This study presents a series of phosphate-based glass compositions that degrade at a lower rate, allowing the pH to remain close to neutral in cell culture medium. The compositions investigated were P50Ca30Na(15-x)Fe5Si(x) where x = 0, 1, 3 and 5 mol%. The dissolution and effect on pH in distilled water and cell culture medium, and ion release in distilled water were investigated over 7 days and MG63 cell attachment to glass fibres was observed after 24 hrs. Dissolution was much slower in cell culture medium (3% mass loss) compared to distilled water (50% mass loss), due to the large quantity of ions and pH buffer present. After 7 days, in cell culture medium the pH remained between 7 and 8.5, however the pH in distilled water fell to between 4 and 3, with the final pH being lower the greater the SiO2 content. Increasing the SiO2 content of the glass resulted in an increase in dissolution rate whilst the pH was maintained at 7 in cell culture medium. The attachment and spreading of MG63 cells was observed on all compositions. These glass compositions may therefore be suitable for tissue engineering applications. PMID:16977391

  10. [Evaluation of iron contents in foods of the basic diet].

    PubMed

    Elpo, E R; de Freitas, R J; Gomes, E C

    1998-03-01

    The components of the basic food diet available at the food markets in Curitiba were evaluated according to their contents of iron. The method used for this analysis was atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for samples of wheat flour were (mg/kg): 9.40 to 17.60; bread 7.04 to 12.80; coffee 45.76 to 49.21; potato 3.56 to 5.65; tomato 6.94 to 15.10; banana 7.59 to 15.20; rice 5.49 to 11.06; bean 59.84 to 78.75; meat 9.48 to 34.29; pasteurized milk 0.33 to 1.20; soy-bean oil 0.47 to 0.76; refined sugar 1.02 to 1.53 and margarine 1.50 to 2.06. There is no specific legislation in Brazil defining an upper limit of tolerance of iron in the food, except for soy-bean oil and margarine with a maximum of 1.50 mg/kg. The levels of iron analysed here were within the scale of variation reported by several authors from other countries. PMID:9754409

  11. Protective effects of baicalin and quercetin on an iron-overloaded mouse: comparison of liver, kidney and heart tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Zhonghong Gao; Jiaqin Liu; Zhihong Xu

    2011-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of iron in the body can lead to organ injury. Some flavonoids which possess high affinity to iron can be used as iron chelators for curing iron overload diseases such as haemochromatosis. In this article, the effects of baicalin and quercetin on different mouse tissues (liver, kidney and heart) afflicted with iron overload-induced injury were studied. It was

  12. Estimating tissue iron burden: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wood, John C

    2015-07-01

    Iron overload is becoming an increasing problem as haemoglobinopathy patients gain greater access to good medical care and as therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes improve. Therapeutic options for iron chelation therapy have increased and many patients now receive combination therapies. However, optimal utilization of iron chelation therapy requires knowledge not only of the total body iron burden but the relative iron distribution among the different organs. The physiological basis for extrahepatic iron deposition is presented in order to help identify patients at highest risk for cardiac and endocrine complications. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art for monitoring global iron overload status as well as its compartmentalization. Plasma markers, computerized tomography, liver biopsy, magnetic susceptibility devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are all discussed but MRI has come to dominate clinical practice. The potential impact of recent pancreatic and pituitary MRI studies on clinical practice are discussed as well as other works-in-progress. Clinical protocols are derived from experience in haemoglobinopathies but may provide useful guiding principles for other iron overload disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25765344

  13. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  14. Polymorphisms in calpastatin and mu-calpain genes are associated with beef iron content.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Duan, Q; Schneider, M J; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Reecy, J M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers in the calpastatin and mu-calpain loci with iron in beef cattle muscle. The population consisted of 259 cross-bred steers from Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford and Angus sires. Total iron and heme iron concentrations were measured. Markers in the calpastatin (referred to as CAST) and mu-calpain (referred to as CAPN4751) genes were used to assess their association with iron levels. The mean and standard error for iron and heme iron content in the population was 35.6 ± 1.3 ?g and 27.1 ± 1.4 ?g respectively. Significant associations (P < 0.01) of markers were observed for both iron and heme iron content. For CAST, animals with the CC genotype had higher levels of iron and heme iron in longissimus dorsi muscle. For CAPN4751, individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of iron and heme iron than did animals with the CC and CT genotypes. Genotypes known to be associated with tougher meat were associated with higher levels of iron concentration. PMID:24303986

  15. New rat models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload.

    PubMed

    Vu'o'ng Lê, Bá; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Villegier, Anne-Sophie; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    The majority of murine models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload were carried out in adult subjects. This cannot reflect the high risk of iron overload in children who have an increased need for iron. In this study, we developed four experimental iron overload models in young rats using iron sucrose and evaluated different markers of iron overload, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation as its consequences. Iron overload was observed in all iron-treated rats, as evidenced by significant increases in serum iron indices, expression of liver hepcidin gene and total tissue iron content compared with control rats. We also showed that total tissue iron content was mainly associated with the dose of iron whereas serum iron indices depended essentially on the duration of iron administration. However, no differences in tissue inflammatory and antioxidant parameters from controls were observed. Furthermore, only rats exposed to daily iron injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight for one week revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in iron-treated rats compared with their controls. The present results suggest a correlation between iron overload levels and the dose of iron, as well as the duration and frequency of iron injection and confirm that iron sucrose may not play a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress. This study provides important information about iron sucrose-induced iron overload in rats and may be useful for iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia as well as for the prevention and diagnosis of iron sucrose-induced iron overload in pediatric patients. PMID:21685238

  16. Ameliorating role of rutin on oxidative stress induced by iron overload in hepatic tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Aziza, Samy Ali Hussein; Azab, Mohammed El-Said; El-Shall, Soheir Kamal

    2014-08-01

    Iron is an essential element that participates in several metabolic activities of cells; however, excess iron is a major cause of iron-induced oxidative stress and several human diseases. Natural flavonoids, as rutin, are well-known antioxidants and could be efficient protective agents. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective influence of rutin supplementation to improve rat antioxidant systems against IOL-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided to three equal groups. The first group, the control, the second group, iron overload group, the third group was used as iron overload+rutin group. Rats received six doses of ferric hydroxide polymaltose (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one dose every two days, by intraperitoneal injections (IP) and administrated rutin (50 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) as one daily oral dose until the sacrificed day. Blood samples for serum separation and liver tissue specimens were collected three times, after three, four and five weeks from the onset of the experiment. Serum iron profiles total iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), transferrin (Tf) and Transferrin Saturation% (TS%)}, ferritin, albumin, total Protein, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were determined. Moreover, total iron in the liver, L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA), glutathione (GSH), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Total Nucleic Acid (TNA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were also determined. The obtained results revealed that, iron overload (IOL) resulted in significant increase in serum iron, TIBC, Tf, TS% and ferritin levels and AST and ALT activities and also increased liver iron, L-MDA and NO levels. Meanwhile, it decreased serum UIBC, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, albumin, total protein and liver GSH, TNA levels and Gpx, CAT and SOD activities when compared with the control group. Rutin administration to iron-overloaded rats resulted in significant decrease in serum total iron, TIBC, Tf, TS%, ferritin levels and AST and ALT activities and liver total iron, L-MDA and NO levels with significant increases in serum UIBC, albumin, total protein and total cholesterol levels and in liver GSH, CAT and SOD activities compared with the IOL group. This study provides in vivo evidence that rutin administration can improve the antioxidant defense systems against IOL-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats. This protective effect in liver of iron-loaded rats may be due to both antioxidant and metal chelation activities. PMID:26031015

  17. Desferrithiocin analogue iron chelators: iron clearing efficiency, tissue distribution, and renal toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Bergeron; Jan Wiegand; Neelam Bharti; James S. McManis; Shailendra Singh

    2011-01-01

    The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged\\u000a metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4?-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure–activity relationship studies\\u000a have established that

  18. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

  19. Iron content and its relations to the sulphur and titanium contents of epiphytic and terricolous lichens and pine bark in Finland.

    PubMed

    Takala, K; Olkkonen, H; Salminen, R

    1994-01-01

    The iron content was studied in the epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, in the terricolous lichens Cladina sp. and Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd., and in pine bark collected from 31 sites in Finland. There appeared to be differences between lichen species, epiphytes having generally higher concentrations. The iron content of H. physodes was highly significantly correlated (p<0.001) with its sulphur content, reflecting the relations of these elements in precipitation. The highly significant correlations between the iron and titanium contents indicated differences of the phorophytes. The iron/sulphur ratio of H. physodes on pine was 1.3 and on birch 1.4 and iron/titanium ratios were 10.4 and 11.3 respectively. The iron content of Cladina sp. showed highly significant parallel correlations (p<0.001) with its sulphur and titanium contents. The iron/titanium ratio decreased from 9.6 to 8.2 when the iron content increased by 95%, the sulphur content being equal. The iron/titanium ratio of Cladina sp. was nearly identical to that of P. furfuracea. The relation between iron and sulphur, and the fraction of soluble and insoluble iron in precipitation versus lichens and pine bark were considered. Special attention was paid in the discussion to differences in substrate: pine and birch bark for H. physodes, and soil for Cladina sp. PMID:15091708

  20. Hepcidin and hemoglobin content parameters in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis patients with anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. van Santen; E. C. van Dongen-Lases; F. de Vegt; C. M. Laarakkers; P. L. van Riel; A. E. van Ede; D. W. Swinkels

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of the novel iron indices hepcidin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content (Ret-Hgb), and erythrocyte (red blood cell) hemoglobin content (RBC-Hgb) for detection of iron deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with anemia and active inflammation and to compare these indices with conventional parameters of iron deficiency. METHODS: Blood samples from 106 outpatients with RA were analyzed in

  1. Magnetic poly(?-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrates for advanced bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gloria, A.; Russo, T.; D'Amora, U.; Zeppetelli, S.; D'Alessandro, T.; Sandri, M.; Bañobre-López, M.; Piñeiro-Redondo, Y.; Uhlarz, M.; Tampieri, A.; Rivas, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Dediu, V. A.; Ambrosio, L.; De Santis, R.

    2013-01-01

    In biomedicine, magnetic nanoparticles provide some attractive possibilities because they possess peculiar physical properties that permit their use in a wide range of applications. The concept of magnetic guidance basically spans from drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment of tumours, to tissue engineering, such as magneto-mechanical stimulation/activation of cell constructs and mechanosensitive ion channels, magnetic cell-seeding procedures, and controlled cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite substrates for bone tissue engineering by embedding iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles in a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix. X-ray diffraction analyses enabled the demonstration that the phase composition and crystallinity of the magnetic FeHA were not affected by the process used to develop the nanocomposite substrates. The mechanical characterization performed through small punch tests has evidenced that inclusion of 10 per cent by weight of FeHA would represent an effective reinforcement. The inclusion of nanoparticles also improves the hydrophilicity of the substrates as evidenced by the lower values of water contact angle in comparison with those of neat PCL. The results from magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic character of the nanocomposite substrates, indicated by a very low coercive field, a saturation magnetization strictly proportional to the FeHA content and a strong history dependence in temperature sweeps. Regarding the biological performances, confocal laser scanning microscopy and AlamarBlue assay have provided qualitative and quantitative information on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and viability/proliferation, respectively, whereas the obtained ALP/DNA values have shown the ability of the nanocomposite substrates to support osteogenic differentiation. PMID:23303218

  2. Iron, radiation, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

    1990-01-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

  3. [The heavy metal content in the soft tissues and shells of specimens of 3 varieties of the Azov and Black Sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, I M; Glushankova, M A

    1993-01-01

    In representatives of 15 micropopulations of the Black Sea mussels related to three varieties of Mytilus galloprovincialis var. dilatata, var. acrocyrta, var. frecviens the content of iron, zinc, lead, copper and cadmium in the soft tissues and shells has been determined with the use of atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that of importance is the content of industrial wastes in the habitat of the micropopulation examined rather than its attribution to some or other variety. In representatives of all the varieties the accumulation of metals in soft tissues was higher than that is shells. By their concentration in tissues the metals examined can be aligned in the following row in decreasing order: iron, zinc, lead, copper and cadmium. PMID:8266565

  4. Iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine as affected by the iron oxide and carbonate contents of model substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Díaz; M. C. del Campillo; M. Cantos; J. Torrent

    2009-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the specific influence of calcium carbonate and iron (Fe) oxides in soil on Fe deficiency symptoms\\u000a in plants has so far been made difficult by the covariance between their contents in many soils populations. In order to overcome\\u000a this problem, we designed a completely randomized block experiment in which grapevine (cv. 161–49C) was pot-grown in substrates\\u000a consisting

  5. The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Schneider, Giulia; Salomé, Murielle; Schneider, Manuela; Calligaro, Carla; Kiskinova, Maya; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Asbestos toxicity is ascribed to its particular physico-chemical characteristics, and one of them is the presence of and ability to adsorb iron, which may cause an alteration of iron homeostasis in the tissue. This observational study reports a combination of advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and micro-spectroscopic methods that provide correlative morphological and chemical information for shedding light on iron mobilization features during asbestos permanence in lung tissue. The results show that the processes responsible for the unusual distribution of iron at different stages of interaction with the fibres also involve calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It has been confirmed that the dominant iron form present in asbestos bodies is ferritin, while the concurrent presence of haematite suggests alteration of iron chemistry during asbestos body permanence. PMID:23350030

  6. Electron Beam Welding Characteristics of Cast Iron and Bonding of Mild Steel to Cast Iron by using Iron-base Alloy of High Nickel Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatate, Minoru; Shiota, Toshio; Nagasaki, Yoichi; Abe, Nobuyuki; Amano, Masaharu; Tanaka, Toshio

    Bonding characteristics of mild steel to cast iron using electron beam welding (EBW) process are investigated from the viewpoint of microstructure and mechanical properties. When the electron beam is radiated to a cast iron, remelting of the surface and corresponding rapid cooling take place, and it results in formation of brittle fine-cementite structure whose hardness is over 700 Hv. As Ni is an alloying element that may prevent formation of cementite, we compare two kinds of welding methods with Ni addition. One method is EBW process, radiating the electron beam to a thin plate made of spheroidal graphite cast iron with a high Ni content after the plate inserts between cast iron and steel, and other one is a metal active gas (MAG) welding process using a Fe-Ni wire. Bonding tensile strength by EBW process is higher than that by MAG welding process. In case of welding of cast iron and other metallic material, EBW process is found to be more advantageous than MAG welding process.

  7. Temporal variability in, and impact of food availability on vanadium and iron concentrations in Ciona intestinalis tissues (Tunicata, Ascidiacea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Stacey; W. R. Driedzic

    2010-01-01

    Ascidians accumulate high levels of iron and\\/or vanadium in their tissues, the function of which is unknown. There is little directed study of the ecophysiological variation in the trait. We examined the variation in vanadium and iron levels in the hemocytes, body wall and tunic of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis over several seasons, including the spring bloom period. There were

  8. Impact of modifying tea–biscuit composition on phytate levels and iron content and availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vitali; I. Vedrina Dragojevi?; B. Šebe?i?; L. Vuji?

    2007-01-01

    The effect of modifying the standard recipe of wheat flour based tea–biscuit on phytate levels, iron content and in vitro availability was investigated. Standard recipe was enriched by addition of dietary fibers and integral raw materials. The average phytic acid content of investigated biscuits ranged from 0.138 to 1.084g\\/100g dry matter of biscuit, depending on biscuit composition. Phytic acid levels

  9. Electrochemical ferrate generation for waste water treatment using cast irons with high silicon contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Lescuras-Darrou; F. Lapicque; G. Valentin

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical preparation of ferrate in 15 M NaOH media, with a view to treatment of waste waters. Grey cast irons with high silicon contents were shown to allow current yields in the range 20–40% depending on the applied current density, up to 34 mA cm-2. Ferrate solutions with contents up to 0.08 M could be

  10. Influence of vegetative cycle of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) on copper, iron, zinc and manganese content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Amaro-Lopez; G. Zurera-Cosano; R. Moreno-Rojas; R. M. Garcia-Gimeno

    1995-01-01

    The essential elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) were analyzed in fresh asparagus to determine the effects of the vegetative cycle of the plant on the micronutrient content. Asparagus samples were classified in two groups by diameter (14 mm). Asparagus from a sample group with the same diameter were divided into two portions (apical and basal)

  11. Hepatic failure with neonatal tissue siderosis of hemochromatotic type in an infant presenting with meconium ileus. Case report and differential diagnosis of the perinatal iron storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Sergi, C; Himbert, U; Weinhardt, F; Heilmann, W; Meyer, P; Beedgen, B; Zilow, E; Hofmann, W J; Linderkamp, O; Otto, H F

    2001-01-01

    We report on a female preterm infant with hepatic failure and neonatal tissue siderosis of hemochromatotic type diagnosed by using both histochemistry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The infant presented with meconium ileus, signs of rapidly progressive hepatic failure, and hyperferritinemia (7132 ng/ml). Despite surgery and intensive care the infant died 32 days after birth. Postmortem examination showed a wrinkled liver with extensive collapse of the hepatic architecture and regenerating nodules as well as hepatic and extrahepatic iron accumulation of hemochromatotic type, sparing the reticuloendothelial system. Atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed an increase in the iron content of various organs: liver, heart, pancreas, oral salivary gland, kidney, and adrenal gland. The increase in the iron content of various organs was determined by comparing the analysis of the propositus with those of 5 gestationally age-related preterm infants who had died in the intensive care unit: 2 died of meconium aspiration syndrome, the other 3 of hyaline membrane disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and immaturity, respectively. We also compared the analysis of 15 fetuses having a a condition predisposing to iron accumulation (trisomy 21, trisomy 18, cytomegalovirus, amnion infection syndrome, Rhesus- and ABO-incompatibility, congenital hemolysis, anti-phospholipid syndrome, congenital heart disease). Delta F508, the most frequent mutation seen in cystic fibrosis patients, was excluded by gene sequencing. Different noxae causing iron accumulation in the neonatal period have led to the statement that neonatal hemochromatosis may collect different etiologies, such as metabolic disorders, infections, chromosomal aberrations, and immunological disorders. In this study, we report the singular evidence of neonatal iron accumulation of hemochromatotic type in an infant presenting with meconium ileus and propose a classification of the neonatal disorders associated with iron accumulation. PMID:11700892

  12. Nitrite Induces the Extravasation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Hypoxic Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Nilesh; Stokes, Ashley M; Van Gambrell, James; Quarles, Christopher Chad

    2014-01-01

    Nitrite undergoes reconversion to nitric oxide (NO) under conditions characteristic of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia and low pH. This selective conversion of nitrite into NO in tumor tissue has led to the possibility of using nitrite to enhance drug delivery and radiation response. In this work we propose to serially characterize the vascular response of brain tumor bearing rats to nitrite using contrast-enhanced R2* mapping. Imaging is performed using a multi-echo gradient echo sequence at baseline, post iron-oxide nanoparticle injection, and post-nitrite injection, while the animal is breathing air. The results indicate that nitrite sufficiently increases vascular permeability in C6 gliomas such that the iron oxide nanoparticles accumulate within the tumor tissue. When animals breathed 100% oxygen, the contrast agent remained within the vasculature indicating that the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide occurs in the presence of hypoxia within the tumor. The hypoxia-dependent, nitrite-induced extravasation of iron-oxide nanoparticles observed herein has implications for the enhancement of conventional and nanotherapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24470164

  13. Nitrite induces the extravasation of iron oxide nanoparticles in hypoxic tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Nilesh; Stokes, Ashley M; Gambrell, James Van; Quarles, Christopher Chad

    2014-04-01

    Nitrite undergoes reconversion to nitric oxide under conditions characteristic of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia and low pH. This selective conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide in tumor tissue has led to the possibility of using nitrite to enhance drug delivery and the radiation response. In this work, we propose to serially characterize the vascular response of brain tumor-bearing rats to nitrite using contrast-enhanced R2 * mapping. Imaging is performed using a multi-echo gradient echo sequence at baseline, post iron oxide nanoparticle injection and post-nitrite injection, whilst the animal is breathing air. The results indicate that nitrite sufficiently increases the vascular permeability in C6 gliomas, such that the iron oxide nanoparticles accumulate within the tumor tissue. When animals breathed 100% oxygen, the contrast agent remained within the vasculature, indicating that the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide occurs in the presence of hypoxia within the tumor. The hypoxia-dependent, nitrite-induced extravasation of iron oxide nanoparticles observed herein has implications for the enhancement of conventional and nanotherapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24470164

  14. Effects of Iron Chelators, Iron Salts, and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on the Proliferation and the Iron Content of Oligodendroglial OLN-93 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Hohnholt; Mark Geppert; Ralf Dringen

    2010-01-01

    The oligodendroglial cell line OLN-93 was used as model system to investigate the consequences of iron deprivation or iron\\u000a excess on cell proliferation. Presence of ferric or ferrous iron chelators inhibited the proliferation of OLN-93 cells in\\u000a a time and concentration dependent manner, while the application of a molar excess of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) prevented\\u000a the inhibition of proliferation

  15. Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys with Various Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The Al-Cu 206 cast alloys with varying alloy compositions ( i.e., different levels of Fe, Mn, and Si) were investigated to evaluate the effect of the iron-rich intermetallics on the tensile properties. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with increasing iron content, but its overall loss is less than 10 pct over the range of 0.15 to 0.5 pct Fe at 0.3 pct Mn and 0.3 pct Si. At similar iron contents, the tensile properties of the alloys with dominant Chinese script iron-rich intermetallics are generally higher than those with the dominant platelet phase. In the solution and artificial overaging condition (T7), the tensile strength of the 206 cast alloys with more than 0.15 pct Fe is satisfactory, but the elongation does not sufficiently meet the minimum requirement of ductility (>7 pct) for critical automotive applications. However, it was found that both the required ductility and tensile strength can be reached at high Fe levels of 0.3 to 0.5 pct for the alloys with well-controlled alloy chemistry and microstructure in the solution and natural aging condition (T4), reinforcing the motivation for developing recyclable high-iron Al-Cu 206 cast alloys.

  16. Tumour Cell Labelling by Magnetic Nanoparticles with Determination of Intracellular Iron Content and Spatial Distribution of the Intracellular Iron

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Magnetically labelled cells are used for in vivo cell tracking by MRI, used for the clinical translation of cell-base therapies. Studies involving magnetic labelled cells may include separation of labelled cells, targeted delivery and controlled release of drugs, contrast enhanced MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for the in situ ablation of tumours. Dextran-coated super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) ferumoxides are used clinically as an MR contrast agents primarily for hepatic imaging. The material is also widely used for in vitro cell labelling, as are other SPIO-based particles. Our results on the uptake by human cancer cell lines of ferumoxides indicate that electroporation in the presence of protamine sulphate (PS) results in rapid high uptake of SPIO nanoparticles (SPIONs) by parenchymal tumour cells without significant impairment of cell viability. Quantitative determination of cellular iron uptake performed by colorimetric assay is in agreement with data from the literature. These results on intracellular iron content together with the intracellular distribution of SPIONs by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) following in vitro uptake by parenchymal tumour cells confirm the potential of this technique for clinical tumour cell detection and destruction. PMID:23624604

  17. Mapping and prediction of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.

  18. Hydrogel Tissue Construct-Based High-Content Compound Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VY Lam; Tetsuro Wakatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Current pharmaceutical compound screening systems rely on cell-based assays to identify therapeutic candidates and potential toxicities. However, cells grown on 2D substrata or in suspension do not exhibit the mechanical or physiological properties of cells in vivo. To address this limitation, the authors developed an in vitro, high-throughput, 3D hydrogel tissue construct (HTC)—based assay system to quantify cell and tissue

  19. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  20. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles by biocompatible polymers for tissue imaging and targeting.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Park, In-Kyu; Cho, Chong-Su

    2013-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are excellent MR contrast agents when coated with biocompatible polymers such as hydrophilic synthetic polymers, proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, which improve their stability and biocompatibility and reduce their aggregation. Various biocompatible materials, coated or conjugated with targeting moieties such as galactose, mannose, folic acid, antibodies and RGD, have been applied to SPION surfaces to provide tissue specificity to hepatocytes, macrophages, and tumor regions in order to reduce non-specific uptake and improve biocompatibility. This review discusses the recent progress in the development of biocompatible and hydrophilic polymers for improving stability of SPIONs and describes the carbohydrates based biocompatible materials that are providing SPIONs with cell/tissue specificity as ligands. PMID:23528431

  1. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P; Goodwin, Mark B; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C

    2014-01-22

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-?FeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem 'tissue fixation' by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB - O2 > -O2 > +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

  2. Selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese content of seven meat cuts from Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M C; Ramos, A; Saadoun, A; Brito, G

    2010-03-01

    Tenderloin (T), eye of rump (E), striploin (S), eye round (ER), tri-tip (TT), rib-eye roll (RR) and three rib plate-flank on (RP) meat cuts were evaluated. Selenium contents ranged between 0.42 and 1.20 mg/kg wet tissue (wt) in Hereford (H) breed and between 0.49 and 1.3 mg/kg wt in Braford (B) breed. In H and B breeds, T, TT and RP, and TT and RP were the richest cuts in selenium, respectively. Copper contents ranged between 0.25 and 1.04 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.19 and 1.09 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RP had significantly more Cu than ER, TT, and RR. In B breed, ER and RR show a significant lower Cu level in comparison to the other meat cuts. Zinc contents ranged between 23 and 72.7 mg/kg wt in H, and between 23 and 63.9 mg/kg wt in B. RP is the richest cut in Zn compared to the other cuts in the two breeds. Iron contents ranged between 16.4 and 48.2 mg/kg wt in H, and between 14.2 and 47.9 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RR shows a lower content compared to the other cuts, except RP and S. In B breed, RR had the lowest level of Fe compared to the other cuts, except RP and T. Manganese contents ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.04 and 0.48 mg/kg wt in B. In H no differences were detected between cuts. In B breed, ER cut shows the highest level of Mn. PMID:20374819

  3. Striatal iron content predicts its shrinkage and changes in verbal working memory after two years in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Haacke, E Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2015-04-29

    The accumulation of non-heme iron in the brain has been proposed as a harbinger of neural and cognitive decline in aging and neurodegenerative disease, but support for this proposal has been drawn from cross-sectional studies, which do not provide valid estimates of change. Here, we present longitudinal evidence of subcortical iron accumulation in healthy human adults (age 19-77 at baseline). We used R2* relaxometry to estimate regional iron content twice within a 2 year period, measured volumes of the striatum and the hippocampus by manual segmentation, and assessed cognitive performance by working memory tasks. Two-year change and individual differences in the change of regional volumes, regional iron content, and working memory were examined by latent change score models while taking into account the age at baseline and metabolic risk indicators. Over the examined period, volume reduction occurred in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, but iron content increased only in the striatum, where it explained shrinkage. Higher iron content in the caudate nucleus at baseline predicted lesser improvement in working memory after repeat testing. Although advanced age and elevated metabolic syndrome risk were associated with greater iron content in the putamen at baseline, neither age nor metabolic risk influenced change in any variable. Thus, longitudinal evidence supports the notion that accumulation of subcortical iron is a risk factor for neural and cognitive decline in normal aging. PMID:25926451

  4. Processing, characterisation and biocompatibility of iron-phosphate glass fibres for tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ahmed; C. A. Collins; M. P. Lewis; I. Olsen; J. C. Knowles

    2004-01-01

    Iron-phosphate glass fibres based on the CaO–Na2O–Fe2O3–P2O5 system have been processed and characterised via thermal, XRPD, dissolution rates, diameter and biocompatibility studies. The compositions investigated were fixed at 50mol% P2O5, and the CaO content was varied between 30, 35 and 40mol%. The Fe2O3 was added in low amounts from 1–5mol%, substituting it for the Na2O mol%.The number of Tc (crystallisation

  5. Adaptation of the lipase-colipase system to dietary lipid content in pig pancreatic tissue

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptation of the lipase-colipase system to dietary lipid content in pig pancreatic tissue J. e. mainly of the lipase-colipase system, in pig pancreatic tissue in response to a change in dietary. 100 of peanut oil and the other a diet containing 25 p. 100 of peanut oil. Lipase and colipase

  6. Near-infrared excited state dynamics of melanins: the effects of iron content, photo-damage, chemical oxidation, and aggregate size.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Mary Jane; Wilson, Jesse W; Robles, Francisco E; Dall, Christopher P; Glass, Keely; Simon, John D; Warren, Warren S

    2014-02-13

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin's pump-probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump-probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin's pump-probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump-probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported "activation" of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

  7. Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast pump–probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin’s pump–probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump–probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin’s pump–probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump–probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported “activation” of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

  8. Hydrogel tissue construct-based high-content compound screening.

    PubMed

    Lam, Vy; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Current pharmaceutical compound screening systems rely on cell-based assays to identify therapeutic candidates and potential toxicities. However, cells grown on 2D substrata or in suspension do not exhibit the mechanical or physiological properties of cells in vivo. To address this limitation, the authors developed an in vitro, high-throughput, 3D hydrogel tissue construct (HTC)-based assay system to quantify cell and tissue mechanical properties and multiple parameters of physiology. HTC mechanics was quantified using an automated device, and physiological status was assessed using spectroscopy-based indicators that were read on microplate readers. To demonstrate the application of this system, the authors screened 4 test compounds--rotenone (ROT), cytochalasin D (CD), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and Rho kinase inhibitor (H-1152)--for their ability to modulate HTC contractility without affecting actin integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), or viability. All 4 compounds dose-dependently reduced HTC contractility. However, ROT was toxic, DNP dissipated MMP, and CD reduced both intracellular F-actin and viability. H-1152 was found to be the best candidate compound since it reduced HTC contractility with minimal side effects. The authors propose that their HTC-based assay system can be used to screen for compounds that modulate HTC contractility and assess the underlying physiological mechanism(s) of compound activity and toxicity. PMID:21123829

  9. Determination of collagen content within picrosirius red stained paraffin-embedded tissue sections using fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Benjamin; Siebert, Hanna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Picrosirius red (PSR) staining is a commonly used histological technique to visualize collagen in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. PSR stained collagen appears red in light microscopy. However it is largely unknown that PSR stained collagen also shows a red fluorescence, whereas live cells have a distinct green autofluorescence. Both emission patterns can be detected using standard filter sets as found in conventional fluorescence microscopes. Here we used digital image addition and subtraction to determine the relative area of the pure collagen and live cell content in heart tissue in a semi-automated process using standard software. This procedure, which considers empty spaces (holes) within the section, can be easily adapted to quantify the collagen and live cell areas in healthy or fibrotic tissues as aorta, lung, kidney or liver by semi-automated planimetry exemplified herein for infarcted heart tissue obtained from the mouse myocardial infarction model. • Use of conventional PSR stained paraffin-embedded tissue sections for fluorescence analysis. • PSR and autofluorescence images are used to calculate area of collagen and area of live cells in the tissue; empty spaces (holes) in tissue are considered. • High throughput analysis of collagen and live cell content in tissue for statistical purposes.

  10. Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C

    2014-01-01

    The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected. PMID:25177957

  11. Tensile Properties, Collagen Content, and Crosslinks in Connective Tissues of the Immature Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The major connective tissues of the knee joint act in concert during locomotion to provide joint stability, smooth articulation, shock absorption, and distribution of mechanical stresses. These functions are largely conferred by the intrinsic material properties of the tissues, which are in turn determined by biochemical composition. A thorough understanding of the structure-function relationships of the connective tissues of the knee joint is needed to provide design parameters for efforts in tissue engineering. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of the tensile properties, collagen content, and pyridinoline crosslink abundance of condylar cartilage, patellar cartilage, medial and lateral menisci, cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments (analogous to anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments in humans, respectively), medial and lateral collateral ligaments, and patellar ligament from immature bovine calves. Tensile stiffness and strength were greatest in the menisci and patellar ligament, and lowest in the hyaline cartilages and cruciate ligaments; these tensile results reflected trends in collagen content. Pyridinoline crosslinks were found in every tissue despite the relative immaturity of the joints, and significant differences were observed among tissues. Notably, for the cruciate ligaments and patellar ligament, crosslink density appeared more important in determining tensile stiffness than collagen content. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine tensile properties, collagen content, and pyridinoline crosslink abundance in a direct head-to-head comparison among all of the major connective tissues of the knee. This is also the first study to report results for pyridinoline crosslink density that suggest its preferential role over collagen in determining tensile stiffness for certain tissues. PMID:22022553

  12. Disentangling in vivo the effects of iron content and atrophy on the ageing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, S.; Lutti, A.; Kherif, F.; Ruef, A.; Dukart, J.; Chowdhury, R.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Ashburner, J.; Helms, G.; Weiskopf, N.; Draganski, B.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies shows that healthy aging is associated with profound changes in cortical and subcortical brain structures. The reliable delineation of cortex and basal ganglia using automated computational anatomy methods based on T1-weighted images remains challenging, which results in controversies in the literature. In this study we use quantitative MRI (qMRI) to gain an insight into the microstructural mechanisms underlying tissue ageing and look for potential interactions between ageing and brain tissue properties to assess their impact on automated tissue classification. To this end we acquired maps of longitudinal relaxation rate R1, effective transverse relaxation rate R2* and magnetization transfer – MT, from healthy subjects (n = 96, aged 21–88 years) using a well-established multi-parameter mapping qMRI protocol. Within the framework of voxel-based quantification we find higher grey matter volume in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate and prefrontal cortex when tissue classification is based on MT maps compared with T1 maps. These discrepancies between grey matter volume estimates can be attributed to R2* - a surrogate marker of iron concentration, and further modulation by an interaction between R2* and age, both in cortical and subcortical areas. We interpret our findings as direct evidence for the impact of ageing-related brain tissue property changes on automated tissue classification of brain structures using SPM12. Computational anatomy studies of ageing and neurodegeneration should acknowledge these effects, particularly when inferring about underlying pathophysiology from regional cortex and basal ganglia volume changes. PMID:25264230

  13. Content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Polish and other European sugar factories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wojtczak; B. Król

    2002-01-01

    White sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small, significant amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The aim was to evaluate the content of iron, copper and zinc in samples of white sugar from Polish factories compared

  14. Magnetic Langmuir-Blodgett films of ferritin with different iron contents.

    PubMed

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Soriano-Portillo, Alejandra; Colacio, Enrique; Domínguez-Vera, José M; Galvez, Natividad; Madueño, Rafael; Martín-Romero, María T

    2006-08-01

    Magnetic Langmuir-Blodgett films of four ferritin derivatives with different iron contents containing 4220, 3062, 2200, and 1200 iron atoms, respectively, have been prepared by using the adsorption properties of a 6/1 mixed monolayer of methyl stearate (SME) and dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODA). The molecular organization of the mixed SME/DODA monolayer is strongly affected by the presence of the water-soluble protein in the subphase as shown by pi-A isotherms, BAM images, and imaging ellipsometry at the water-air interface. BAM images reveal the heterogeneity of this mixed monolayer at the air-water interface. We propose that the ferritin is located under the mixed matrix in those regions where the reflectivity is higher whereas the dark regions correspond to the matrix. Ellipsometric angle measurements performed in zones of different brightness of the mixed monolayer confirm such a heterogeneous distribution of the protein under the lipid matrix. Transfer of the monolayer onto different substrates allowed the preparation of multilayer LB films of ferritin. Both infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that ferritin molecules are incorporated within the LB films. AFM measurements show that the heterogeneous distribution of the ferritin at the water-air interface is maintained when it is transferred onto solid substrates. Magnetic measurements show that the superparamagnetic properties of these molecules are preserved. Thus, marked hysteresis loops of magnetization are obtained below 20 K with coercive fields that depend on the number of iron atoms of the ferritin derivative. PMID:16863250

  15. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease and restless leg syndrome. Taking iron with levothyroxine can reduce this medication’s effectiveness. Levothyroxine (Levothroid®, Levoxyl®, Synthroid®, Tirosint®, and Unithroid®) is used ...

  16. Normalized Homologous Temperature of Olivine: Implications for the Effect of Iron Content on Mantle Deforamtio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    The flow laws and fabric transition of olivine under different thermal-mechanical conditions are generally obtained from HP-HT experiments on San Carlos olivine (Fo90), which hampers our understanding of the effect of iron content on the mantle flow and deforamtion. Because the melting temperature is related with the strength of the bonds binding a crystalline material together, the normalized homologous temperature T/Tm(P), is defined by the ratio between the absolute temperature of olivine and its melting point Tm at certain pressure P. Using the forsterite-fayalite melting loop at room pressure, the generalized mean is adopted to predict the dependence of Tm on pressure and iron content of olivine up to 7.5 GPa. Using T/Tm(P), we can evaluate the integreted effect of temperature and pressure on the deformation mechanisms of olivine. A new olivine fabric diagram is set up as a function T/Tm(P) and water content. The result indicates that the A-type olivine fabric becomes dominant at T/Tm(P) > 0.72, while the B- and C-type olivine fabrics are favorable at T/Tm(P) < 0.7, no matter their water content. Partial melting will produce resudies with higher Fo number in olivine, and consequently, a more rigid mantle with higher Tm. The relatively smaller T/Tm(P) of olivine beneath cratons can explain the long-term stability of the continental roots. In addition, a 2D profile of olivine T/Tm(P) for the oceanic lithosphere shows good correlation between T/Tm(P) and the distribution of earthquakes. Therefore T/Tm(P) of olivine can be used as a parameter to model the rheology of the upper manlte, especailly when taking into account of the compostional change in different tectonic processes.

  17. Solubility of hydrogen in olivine: dependence on temperature and iron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Ginsberg, S. B.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    The solubility of hydrogen in Mg-Fe olivines as a function of temperature and iron concentration was investigated by hydrothermally annealing single crystals of synthetic forsterite and San Carlos olivine. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 1,273 and 1,573 K on samples with compositions between Fa0 and Fa16.9 under a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a gas-medium apparatus with oxygen fugacity, fO_2, buffered by the Ni:NiO solid-state reaction and silica activity, aSiO_2, buffered by the presence of enstatite. Hydroxyl concentrations were determined from infrared spectra obtained from polished thin sections in crack-free regions <=50 µm in diameter. Hydroxyl solubility increases systematically with increasing temperature and with increasing iron content. Combined with published results on the dependence of hydroxyl solubility on water fugacity and pressure, the present results can be summarized by the relation COH = Af1H_2O [-(? Eo + P? Vo] (? XFa ) with A=90+/-10 H/106Si/MPa, ?=97+/-4 kJ/mol, ? Eo=50+/-2 kJ/mol, and ? Vo =(10.0+/-0.1)×10-6 m3/mol. The subscript {} indicates that hydroxyl ions are incorporated primarily as defect pairs, probably of the type ( OH )O - V''Me - ( OH )3Ox ? ( 2H )x_Me. Under similar thermodynamic conditions, the water content in olivine in the martian mantle and in olivine from gabbros may be as much as 5 to 25 times larger than in the less iron-rich olivine dominant in Earth's mantle.

  18. Content of lipids in blood and tissues of animals during hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federov, I. V.; Rylnikov, Y. P.; Lobova, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on 97 rats and 50 rabbits were undertaken to study the influence of hypodynamia on the lipid content in the blood, liver, heart, and in the aorta. Reduction of muscular activity contributed to the increase of cholesterol and beta lipoprotein levels in the blood and to accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and the heart. The total lipid content in these tissues decreased. In the aorta the total lipid content increased, while lecithin and cephalin figures went down. The character of biochemical changes in hypodynamia resembles in many ways the lipid metabolism changes in atherosclerosis.

  19. Relationships between microsclerotia content and hyperspectral reflectance data in soybean tissue infected by Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative methods are needed to assess the severity of charcoal rot disease [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] in soybean [Glycine max (L.)] plant tissue. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between light reflectance properties and microsclerotia content of soybean stem...

  20. Hydration and tissue solid content of the lean body on prolonged exposure to altitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bharadwaj; M. V. Singh; S. B. Rawal; T. Zachariah; S. Kishnani; S. N. Pramanik; A. Gupta; R. M. Rai

    1989-01-01

    Using densitometric, hydrometric and anthropometric techniques, body fat, tissue solids, water and mineral content were quantitatively measured on two groups each of 26 young and healthy Indian soldiers of mixed ethnic composition. The experimental group was exposed to 3500 m altitude for 2 years and the experiments were carried out after 48 h and 3 weeks rehabilitation in Delhi (300

  1. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.), an invasive weed of winter crops in Brazil, was evaluated for glucosinolate content of its plant tissues and nematicidal activity of its dry leaf meal (LM), whole seed meal (WSM) and hexane defatted seed meal (DSM) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants...

  2. Siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) overload-dependent pulmonary toxicity is determined by the poorly soluble particle not the iron content.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen; Wiemann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    The two poorly soluble iron containing solid aerosols of siderite (FeCO?) and magnetite (Fe?O?) were compared in a 4-week inhalation study on rats at similar particle mass concentrations of approximately 30 or 100?mg/m³. The particle size distributions were essentially identical (MMAD ?1.4 ?m). The iron-based concentrations were 12 or 38 and 22 or 66?mg Fe/m³ for FeCO? and Fe?O?, respectively. Modeled and empirically determined iron lung burdens were compared with endpoints suggestive of pulmonary inflammation by determinations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oxidative stress in lung tissue during a postexposure period of 3 months. The objective of study was to identify the most germane exposure metrics, that are the concentration of elemental iron (mg Fe/m³), total particle mass (mg PM/m³) or particle volume (?l PM/m³) and their associations with the effects observed. From this analysis it was apparent that the intensity of pulmonary inflammation was clearly dependent on the concentration of particle-mass or -volume and not of iron. Despite its lower iron content, the exposure to FeCO? caused a more pronounced and sustained inflammation as compared to Fe?O?. Similarly, borderline evidence of increased oxidative stress and inflammation occurred especially following exposure to FeCO? at moderate lung overload levels. The in situ analysis of 8-oxoguanine in epithelial cells of alveolar and bronchiolar regions supports the conclusion that both FeCO? and Fe?O? particles are effectively endocytosed by macrophages as opposed to epithelial cells. Evidence of intracellular or nuclear sources of redox-active iron did not exist. In summary, this mechanistic study supports previous conclusions, namely that the repeated inhalation exposure of rats to highly respirable pigment-type iron oxides cause nonspecific pulmonary inflammation which shows a clear dependence on the particle volume-dependent lung overload rather than any increased dissolution and/or bioavailability of redox-active iron. PMID:22035119

  3. Greater lean tissue and skeletal muscle mass are associated with higher bone mineral content in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To compare the relationship of skeletal muscle mass with bone mineral content in an ethnically diverse group of 6 to 18 year old boys and girls. Methods 175 healthy children (103 boys; 72 girls) had assessments of body mass, height, and Tanner stage. Whole body bone mineral content, non-bone lean body mass (nbLBM), skeletal muscle mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Muscle mass was estimated from an equation using appendicular lean soft tissue measured by DXA, weight and height. Estimates of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue were also assessed by whole body multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Linear regression was used to determine whether skeletal muscle mass assessed by DXA or by MRI were better predictors of bone mineral content compared with nbLBM after adjusting for sex, age, race or ethnicity, and Tanner stage. Results Greater skeletal muscle mass was associated with greater bone mineral content (p < 0.001). The skeletal muscle mass assessed by MRI provided a better fitting regression model (determined by R2 statistic) compared with assessment by DXA for predicting bone mineral content. The proportion of skeletal muscle mass in nbLBM was significantly associated with greater bone mineral content adjusted for total nbLBM. Conclusions This study is among the first to describe and compare the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone using both MRI and DXA estimates. The results demonstrate that the use of MRI provides a modestly better fitting model for the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone compared with DXA. Skeletal muscle had an impact on bone mineral content independent of total non-bone lean body mass. In addition, Hispanics had greater bone mineral content compared to other race and ethnic groups after adjusting for sex, age, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle mass, and height. PMID:20459832

  4. Content of low density lipoprotein receptors in breast cancer tissue related to survival of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rudling, M J; Ståhle, L; Peterson, C O; Skoog, L

    1986-01-01

    The content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in tissue from primary breast cancers was determined and its prognostic information compared with that of variables of established prognostic importance. Frozen tumour specimens were selected, and tissue from 72 patients (32 of whom had died) were studied. The LDL receptor content showed an inverse correlation with the survival time. Analysis by a multivariate statistical method showed that the presence of axillary metastasis, content of receptors for oestrogen and LDL, diameter of the tumour, and DNA pattern were all of prognostic value with regard to patient survival. Improved methods of predicting survival time in patients with breast cancer may be of value in the choice of treatment for individual patients. PMID:3081176

  5. Modified oleic cottonseeds show altered content, composition and tissue-specific distribution of triacylglycerol molecular species.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted increases in monounsaturated (oleic acid) fatty acid content of refined cottonseed oil could support improved human nutrition and cardiovascular health. Genetic modifications of cottonseed fatty acid composition have been accomplished using several different molecular strategies. Modification of oleic acid content in cottonseed embryos using a dominant-negative protein approach, while successful in effecting change in the desired fatty acid composition, resulted in reduced oil content and seed viability. Here these changes in fatty acid composition were associated with changes in dominant molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and their spatial distributions within embryo tissues. A combination of mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics approaches, including MS imaging of seed cryo-sections, revealed that cotton embryos expressing a non-functional allele of a Brassica napus delta-12 desaturase showed altered accumulation of TAG species, especially within cotyledonary tissues. While lipid analysis of seed extracts could demonstrate detailed quantitative changes in TAG species in transgenics, the spatial contribution of metabolite compartmentation could only be visualized by MS imaging. Our results suggest tissue-specific differences in TAG biosynthetic pathways within cotton embryos, and indicate the importance of considering the location of metabolites in tissues in addition to their identification and quantification when developing a detailed view of cellular metabolism. PMID:23973433

  6. Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Harmankaya, Mustafa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-01-01

    The rate of heavy metal pollution in some minor fruit samples growing at roadsides in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The mineral contents of samples were found to be different depending on the several parts Citrus fruits. The highest minor and heavy metal levels for Citrus fruits were determined between 17.24 and 45.30 mg/kg boron, 2.08 and 15.05 mg/kg copper, 1.01 and 16.00 mg/kg iron and 2.35 and 9.87 mg/kg zinc. Boron content ranged from 16.54 mg/kg (Deveci pear inner pulp) to 89.89 mg/kg (Arjantin apple outer skin). The level of Fe ranged from 1.49 mg/kg (quince pulp) to 25.05 mg/kg (Ankara pear pulp). Cu content of fruits ranged between 2.52 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 25.93 mg/kg quince skin). Zn content was found between 0.46 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) and 14.34 mg/kg (quince skin). P contents ranged from 651 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) to 1269 mg/kg (quince skin). Na was found between 500 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 907 mg/kg (Arjantin apple skin). PMID:21409363

  7. Effects of iron supplementation on red blood cell hemoglobin content in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Schoorl, Margreet; Schoorl, Marianne; van der Gaag, Derek; Bartels, Piet C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Although a mild degree of anemia is common in the third trimester of pregnancy, it remains a challenge to establish whether a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is physiological or pathological. The World Health Organization suggested a Hb concentration of 110 g/L to discriminate anemia. Several European investigators recommended Hb cut-off values of between 101–110 g/L. The aim of this study was to establish short-term effects of iron supplementation on the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He) and red blood cells (RBC-He) in case of suspected iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-five subjects with suspected IDE during pregnancy (Hb ?110g/L, Ret-He <29.6 pg, zinc protoporphyrin >75 mol/mol hem) participated in the study. After iron supplementation, reticulocyte counts increased from 0.061±0.015×1012/L to 0.079±0.026×1012/L and Ret-He increased from 23.6±2.8 pg to 28.3±2.6 pg (P=<0.001). RBC-He increased from 26.9±1.9 pg to 27.4±1.8 pg (not significant, NS) and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio increased from 0.97±0.06 towards 1.07±0.05 (P=<0.001). Hb concentrations demonstrated an obvious increase from 105±6 g/L towards 115±5 g/L (P?0.001) after supplementation. An obvious increase in RBC distribution width was observed from 45.0±3.6 fL towards 52.3±7.0 fL (P?0.001). We recommend that Ret-He and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio be integrated into the protocols for anemia screening and for monitoring effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy. In particular, the parameters should be considered in subjects with Hb results in the controversial range of 101–108 g/L. PMID:23355942

  8. Processing, characterisation and biocompatibility of iron-phosphate glass fibres for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Collins, C A; Lewis, M P; Olsen, I; Knowles, J C

    2004-07-01

    Iron-phosphate glass fibres based on the CaO-Na2O-Fe2O3-P2O5 system have been processed and characterised via thermal, XRPD, dissolution rates, diameter and biocompatibility studies. The compositions investigated were fixed at 50mol% P2O5, and the CaO content was varied between 30, 35 and 40mol%. The Fe2O3 was added in low amounts from 1-5mol%, substituting it for the Na2O mol%. The number of Tc (crystallisation temperature) peaks detected from the thermal analysis traces only showed correlation with XRPD analysis, for five out of the 15 compositions investigated. It has been suggested that either the crystalline phases had very similar Tc temperatures or that the other phase(s) were present in very small quantities. There was a good match seen with number of Tm (melting temperature) peaks picked up from the DTA traces, with the number of phases identified from XRPD analysis. The main phases identified from XRPD were NaCa(PO3)3, CaP2O6 and NaFeP2O7. Using network connectivity (NC), predictions on Qn species present within the compositions investigated were made. The predicted species (metaphosphates) matched with phases identified from XRPD analysis. A decrease in dissolution rates for the bulk glass and glass fibres was seen with an increase in CaO mol%, along with an increase in Fe2O3 mol%. An increase in fibre dissolution rates was seen with a decrease in diameter size. The biocompatibility studies were conducted using a conditionally immortal muscle precursor cell line derived from the H-2Kb-tsA58 immortomouse. It was found that iron-phosphate glass fibres containing 4-5mol% Fe2O3 was sufficient for cell attachment and differentiation. It was seen that myotubes formed along the axis of the fibres (which was indicative of differentiation). The biocompatibility of these compositions was attributed to the enhanced chemical durability of the glass fibres. PMID:14980417

  9. Assessment of in-plant particulate matter and its toxic metals contents of sponge iron industry in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Bhanarkar, A D; Tamhane, S M; Dhopte, S M

    2010-12-01

    The present study attempted to assess toxic metal contents (Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Cobalt, Chromium, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Lead and Zinc) in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Particulate Matter less than ten micron (PM??) in three sponge iron industries in Goa (India), one of the famous tourist place on the World map. TSP and PM(10) average concentration in all three sponge iron industries were found to be in the range 401-485 ?g/m³ and 135-270 ?g/m³ respectively. Amongst all the metals, concentration of iron was the highest in TSP as well as in PM??. Statistical results indicate that proportion of specific metals were found higher in PM?? as compared to the ratio of PM??/TSP ratio. Value of correlation coefficient was found to be significant for Cr-Pb indicating coal burning was the major source contributor. PMID:21110186

  10. The role of nickel content and the magnetic remanence in iron-nickel alloys of lunar composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar samples are magnetic primarily due to the body centered cubic (BCC) iron and iron-nickel alloys they contain. Presented for the first time are results which demonstrate that the magnitude of the martensitic thermal remanence (MTRM) induced on quenching iron-nickel alloy in the geomagnetic field depends on the nickel content of the alloy. High magnetic stability is due to the increasing dislocation density and increasingly complex microstructures associated with increasing nickel content in the alloys. The results agree with the mechanical and structural properties of the alloys. The characteristic quench martensite microstructure observed on metallographic examination provides a recognition criterion for the MTRM mechanism. These results are important for lunar and meteoritic research intending to ascertain the paleofield responsible for the observed remanent magnetization.-

  11. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, PHENOL AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF 13 CITRUS SPECIES PEELS AND TISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOHAMMAD ALI EBRAHIMZADEHb

    Methanolic extracts of 13 commercially available citrus spp., peels and tissues growing in Iran were investigated for their antioxidant activity by DPPH method. IC50 for antioxidant activity ranged from 0.6-3.8 mg ml -1 . Total phenolic content of the citrus spp. samples (based on folin Ciocalteu method) varied from 66.5 to 396.8 mg gallic acid equivalent\\/g of extract and flavonoids

  12. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Ya; Yu, Xiqian; You, Ya; Yin, Yaxia; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore »during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. The Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  13. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference. PMID:18720822

  14. The Content and Size of Hyaluronan in Biological Fluids and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Mary K.; Lee, Hong-Gee; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a simple repeating disaccharide polymer, synthesized at the cell surface by integral membrane synthases. The repeating sequence is perfectly homogeneous, and is the same in all vertebrate tissues and fluids. The polymer molecular mass is more variable. Most commonly, hyaluronan is synthesized as a high-molecular mass polymer, with an average molecular mass of approximately 1000–8000?kDa. There are a number of studies showing increased hyaluronan content, but reduced average molecular mass with a broader range of sizes present, in tissues or fluids when inflammatory or tissue-remodeling processes occur. In parallel studies, exogenous hyaluronan fragments of low-molecular mass (generally, <200?kDa) have been shown to affect cell behavior through binding to receptor proteins such as CD44 and RHAMM (gene name HMMR), and to signal either directly or indirectly through toll-like receptors. These data suggest that receptor sensitivity to hyaluronan size provides a biosensor of the state of the microenvironment surrounding the cell. Sensitive methods for isolation and characterization of hyaluronan and its fragments have been developed and continue to improve. This review provides an overview of the methods and our current state of knowledge of hyaluronan content and size distribution in biological fluids and tissues. PMID:26082778

  15. Histamine content, diamine oxidase activity and histamine methyltransferase activity in human tissues: fact or fictions?

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, R; Sattler, J; Lorenz, W; Stahlknecht, C D; Barth, H; Crombach, M; Weber, D

    1984-04-01

    To understand the role of histamine in the aetiology and pathogenesis of human diseases reliable data are urgently needed for the histamine content and for the activities of histamine-forming and -inactivating enzymes in human tissues. In order to make a substantial progress toward this aim a tissue-sampling programme during surgical interventions was carefully conceived and conducted. From March 1982 until January 1983 106 tissue specimens were taken from 56 patients who underwent surgery. Only healthy tissues, not injured or oedematous, and without adherent structures were taken by only one surgeon who was interested in this research and experienced in tissue preparation procedures in biochemistry. The times of 'warm' ischaemia during the operative procedures were visually estimated, the times between resection of the organs or specimens and deep-freezing of the tissues were precisely recorded. Compared to previous work in the literature and especially to our own work using the same assays for determination higher histamine contents were found in this study in most of the tissues, in particular in the gastrointestinal tract. Also the diamine oxidase activities were considerably higher in many organs, e.g. 3-4 times higher in the gastrointestinal tract when compared with those in publications of our group who used always the same analytical test. However, the histamine methyltransferase activities in this study were not at variance to those determined in previous investigations. Many of them were reported in this communication for the first time. Since the methods for histamine determination and those for measuring enzymic activities were not different in this study and in previous communications of our group we are convinced that the optimized tissue-sampling and -preparation techniques were responsible for the higher values in this communication. But the problem of the 'warm' ischaemia period could not be solved by sample-taking procedures of this type during operations. There are good reasons to prefer biopsy specimens for the analysis of histamine storage and metabolism in human tissues in health and disease, but - unfortunately - they are not always available. PMID:6428188

  16. [Iron deficiency in domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Agergaard, N; Rotenberg, S; Boisen, S

    1984-01-01

    Iron is essential for the organism. In ionized forms (Fe++, Fe ), it constitutes an integrated part of a lot of different functional proteins (Figure 1). The most important functions are participation in oxygen transport in blood, oxygen storage in muscle tissues and oxidation of nutrients in the mitochondria. Iron is an essential part of cytochrome C and alpha-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase, and early stages of iron deficiency may, therefore, cause disturbances in tissue metabolism before development of anaemia. Thus, haemoglobin determinations is not very suitable for diagnosing early iron deficiency. The content of iron in roughages, apart from root crops (Table II), is usually sufficient to cover the requirement of domestic animals (Table III), which is met by about 50 mg per kg feed dry matter. Iron deficiency is very often caused by a reduced absorption in the intestinal tract because of components in the feed forming complexes with iron of very low solubility or inhibitors reducing the absorption processes. The immune status of the organism and its resistance against infections depends on the iron supply. Iron deficiency inhibits the myeloperoxidase activity and thus decreases the bacteriocide effect of the leucocytes. In spite of this, when exposed to infections the physiological mechanisms reduce the blood concentration of available iron. By this mode of action, invading pathogens, needing iron like the host animals, will be restrained. The low content of iron in milk (Table II) combined with a high content of iron binding lactoferrin, is ideal to protect newborn and milk fed young animals against intestinal infections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6431395

  17. Functional properties and connective tissue content of pediatric human detrusor muscle.

    PubMed

    Johal, Navroop; Wood, Dan N; Wagg, Adrian S; Cuckow, Peter; Fry, Christopher H

    2014-11-01

    The functional properties of human pediatric detrusor smooth muscle are poorly described, in contrast to those of adult tissue. Characterization is necessary for more informed management options of bladder dysfunction in children. We therefore compared the histological, contractile, intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses and biomechanical properties of detrusor biopsy samples from pediatric (3-48 mo) and adults (40-60 yr) patients who had functionally normal bladders and were undergoing open surgery. The smooth muscle fraction of biopsies was isolated to measure proportions of smooth muscle and connective tissue (van Gieson stain); in muscle strips, isometric tension to contractile agonists or electrical field stimulation and their passive biomechanical properties; in isolated myocytes, intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to agonists. Pediatric detrusor tissue compared with adult tissue showed several differences: a smaller smooth muscle-to-connective tissue ratio, similar contractures to carbachol or ?,?-methylene ATP when corrected for smooth muscle content, and similar intracellular Ca2+ transients to carbachol, ?,?-methylene ATP, raised K+ concentration or caffeine, but smaller nerve-mediated contractions and greater passive stiffness with slower stress relaxation. In particular, there were significant atropine-resistant nerve-mediated contractions in pediatric samples. Detrusor smooth muscle from functionally normal pediatric human bladders is less contractile than that from adult bladders and exhibits greater passive stiffness. Reduced bladder contractile function is not due to reduced smooth muscle contractility but to greater connective tissue deposition and to functional denervation. Significant atropine resistance in pediatric detrusor, unlike in adult tissue, demonstrates a different profile of functional neurotransmitter activation. These data have implications for the management of pediatric bladder function by therapeutic approaches. PMID:25209864

  18. Kinetics of carbon precipitation and re-solution in low Si-content silicon iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz, F.; Wakisaka, T.; Kronmüller, H.

    2005-11-01

    In low Si-charged silicon iron (Fe + 0.1%Si) the kinetics of carbon diffusion, precipitation and redissolution have been carefully studied by means of the magnetic after-effect (MAE) within the temperature range 200 K < Ta < 1100 K. The activation parameters of respective processes have been determined by means of least squares fitting the experimental data. In the presence of substitutionally alloyed Si, the C-Richter MAE gives rise to two Debye-type relaxation peaks - resulting from elementary steps of carbon diffusion combined with reorientation in the (i) unperturbed and (ii) Si-modified Fe matrix - situated near 265 K and 320 K, with activation enthalpies, Qi, of 0.84 eV and 1.08 eV. Two-stage carbon precipitation, obeying first order kinetics, occurs, intensively, near 390 K with the elementary C diffusion enthalpy of 0.84 eV and, rather weakly, near 540 K with an enthalpy of 1.18 eV. The resulting precipitates are discussed in terms of partly intra-grain deposited iron carbide phases (Fe3C) and, mainly, grain-boundary determined C trapping. Decomposition of these precipitates occurring, again, in two stages - situated near 740 K and 950 K, with activation enthalpies of 1.72 and 2.02 eV - leads to a restitution of the state of maximum interstitially dissolved C in the matrix. Of practical importance for silicon steel fabrication is the observation that, after complete C precipitation (Ta . 580 K), the material can be kept in a state of minimum dissolved carbon content - and hence of minimum ac-losses - by not allowing it to warm up above Ta 650 K.

  19. The influence of combined magnesium and vanadate administration on the level of some elements in selected rat organs: V-Mg interactions and the role of iron-essential protein (DMT-1) in the mechanism underlying altered tissues iron level.

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Go??biowska, Dorota; Nied?wiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of 12 week co-administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV) and magnesium sulfate (MS) on the levels of some elements in selected rats' organs and an attempt to elucidate a role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1) in the mechanism(s) of the SMV-induced disorders in some tissue Fe homeostasis were studied. SMV taken up separately or in combination with MS may pose a risk of the rise and shortage of the total hepatic and splenic Fe and Cu contents, respectively, cerebral Fe deficiency, splenic Ca deposition, and the hepatic, renal, and cerebral DMT-1 down-regulation. When administered alone, SMV may also cause the decrease in the total renal Fe and Cu contents. A visible protective effect of Mg against the renal and cerebral V accumulation and the decrease in the renal Fe and Cu contents during the SMV-MS co-administration together with our previous findings suggest a beneficial role of Mg at SMV exposure. Further, the SMV-induced fall in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), reported previously, and its correlations with the hepatic, splenic, and cerebral Fe levels allow us to suggest that diminished TIBC could be partly involved in the mechanism(s) responsible for the dramatic redistribution of Fe in those tissues. Finally, DMT-1, which potentially could participate in the hepatic non-transferrin Fe-bound uptake, does not play a significant role in this process indicating the need for studying other Fe transporters to more precisely elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying the hepatic Fe loading in our experimental conditions. PMID:24549458

  20. THE ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF VANADIUM, IRON, AND MANGANESE IN SOME SOLITARY ASCIDIANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. MICHIBATA; T. TERADA; N. ANADA; K. YAMAKAWA; T. NUMAKUNAI

    The vanadium, iron, and manganese contents of 15 species of solitary ascidians belonging to the suborders Phlebobranchia and Stolidobranchia were determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Vanadium was detectable in all species exam med. In general, the vanadium content in various tissues ofthe Phlebobranchia was considerably higher than the iron and manganese contents. The blood cells especially contained a large

  1. Higher iron pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) provides more absorbable iron that is limited by increased polyphenolic content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Our objective was to compare the capacity of iron (Fe) biofortified and standard pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It is common primarily in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, and ...

  2. Iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, zinc and arsenic groundwater contents of Agbor and Owa communities of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyem, Hector Henry; Oyem, Ifeanyi Mirian; Usese, Amii Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium, and chromium heavy metals and arsenic contents of groundwater in area and surrounding environment, of Ika land in the Delta state, Nigeria was studied. Groundwater without any treatment is the predominant source of drinking water by inhabitants of these communities. However, the quality of this water source is not immediately known, raising questions of its safety. Results of a regional composite of groundwater obtained, shows high iron (27%) and zinc (36%) contents in Boji-Boji Agbor area, manganese (31%) was highest in Boji-Boji Owa. Alihame recorded the lowest value of zinc (8%), while manganese was lowest in Agbor Obi area (12%). Arsenic, cadmium, and chromium were below detection limit in all the sample sites. Correlational matrix analysis revealed no significant relationships between metal types studied. Analyses of chronic daily dose intake (CDI), and hazard index were all very low. A hazard index of 0.01 was obtained. One-way ANOVA show significant statistical difference in the mean concentrations of the heavy metals for the different sample sites, which indicate that different sites contribute differently to the mean concentrations of the groundwater in the study area. Four conclusions are drawn from this study. Indications are that the heavy metals present in the Nigerian aquifer are very much below the maximum concentration levels and guideline values of national and WHO standards. Secondly, there is a heavier load of these metals in the city centre than in the suburbs; with Boji-Boji area Agbor/Owa urban areas accounting for 27 and 20 percent of load respectively. Thirdly, the below detection limit results for some of the metal ions and the very low concentrations of those detected are pointers to the absence of industrial activities and mining. Finally, the groundwater in the study area is considered to be generally safe with respect to the contaminants studied and results posted for the composite samples. Inhabitants are therefore under no illusion of immediate or remote health challenges with regards to the heavy metals analyzed. More individual sampling, however, is recommended. PMID:25853026

  3. BLOOD PRESSURE, CHOLESTEROL CONTENT OF SERUM AND TISSUES, AND ATHEROGENESIS IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Q. B.; Mosbach, E. H.; Bevans, M.; Daly, M. M.; Abell, L. L.; Martin, E.; Brun, L. M.; Halpern, E.; Kaplan, R.

    1958-01-01

    Rats on a stock diet with added cholesterol, cholic acid, and thiouracil developed increased concentrations of cholesterol, total lipide, and beta lipoprotein in the serum, and an increased content of cholesterol in the liver and carcass, despite the fact that the diet produced a cessation of endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Rats with high serum lipide concentrations developed intimal lesions similar to those of human atherosclerosis. The induction of hypertension by desoxycorticosterone and salt accelerated the development of hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipemia, increase in tissue cholesterol content, and atherosclerotic changes in the intima. Hypertension induced by renal artery constriction also intensified the hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipemia. On the other hand, rats receiving desoxycorticosterone acetate without salt or salt without desoxycorticosterone acetate did not show any intensification of hypercholesterolemia or hyperlipemia. The extent of the atherosclerotic lesions was correlated with the concentration of cholesterol in the serum. There was also a positive correlation between blood pressure and the degree of hypercholesterolemia. It remained uncertain whether the increase in atherosclerosis in the hypertensive animals was dependent on the increased lipide content of serum and tissues or on a local effect of the elevated blood pressure. PMID:13513919

  4. Effect of glucose content on thermally cross-linked fibrous gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Siimon, Kaido; Reemann, Paula; Põder, Annika; Pook, Martin; Kangur, Triin; Kingo, Külli; Jaks, Viljar; Mäeorg, Uno; Järvekülg, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Thermally cross-linked glucose-containing electrospun gelatin meshes were studied as possible cell substrate materials. FTIR analysis was used to study the effect of glucose on cross-linking reactions. It was found that the presence of glucose increases the extent of cross-linking of fibrous gelatin scaffolds, which in return determines scaffold properties and their usability in tissue engineering applications. Easy to handle fabric-like scaffolds were obtained from blends containing up to 15% glucose. Maximum extent of cross-linking was reached at nearly 20% glucose content. Cross-linking effectively resulted in decreased solubility and increased resistance to enzymatic degradation. Preliminary short-term cell culture experiments indicate that such thermally cross-linked gelatin-glucose scaffolds are suitable for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25063151

  5. Versatile and Biomass Synthesis of Iron-based Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Matrix with High Iron Content and Tunable Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dongmao [ORNL; Shi, Sheldon Q [ORNL; Jiang, Dongping [Mississippi State University (MSU); Che, Wen [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Arockiasamy, Antonyraj [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs{at}C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP{at}C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP{at}C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 C (FeNP{at}C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP{at}C prepared at 800 C (FeNP{at}C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP{at}C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5-15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs{at}C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

  6. Mineral contents of tissues and body fluids and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Mepba; C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

    Mineral contents and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta: African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata), African land snail (Achatina fulica), water snail (Pila ovata) and garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) were evaluated. Snail tissues and body fluids were harvested having cracked the tail-end of the shell. Triplicate samples of macerated snail tissues and body fluids

  7. Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds containing thrombin and growth factors conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Skaat, Hadas; Shahar, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Novel tissue-engineered magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by the interaction of thrombin-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with fibrinogen. In addition, stabilization of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was achieved by the covalent and physical conjugation of the growth factor to the magnetic nanoparticles. Adult nasal olfactory mucosa (NOM) cells were seeded in the transparent fibrin scaffolds in the absence or presence of the free or conjugated bFGF-iron oxide nanoparticles. The conjugated bFGF enhanced significantly the growth and differentiation of the NOM cells in the fibrin scaffolds, compared to the same or even five times higher concentration of the free bFGF. In the presence of the bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles, the cultured NOM cells proliferated and formed a three-dimensional interconnected network composed mainly of tapered bipolar cells. The magnetic properties of these matrices are due to the integration of the thrombin- and bFGF-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles within the scaffolds. The magnetic properties of these scaffolds may be used in future work for various applications, such as magnetic resonance visualization of the scaffolds after implantation and reloading the scaffolds via magnetic forces with bioactive agents, eg, growth factors bound to the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22419873

  8. Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Vandergoot, Christopher S; Bettoli, Phillip W; Hinterkopf, Joy P; Zajicek, James L

    2007-06-01

    We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. PMID:18201048

  9. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  10. Dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine content in tomato fruits and vegetative plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Lee, Kap-Rang; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-04-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) synthesize the glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine, possibly as a defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. We used a high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection at 208 nm for the analysis of these compounds in various tissues. An Inertsil ODS-2 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/20 mM KH2PO4 (24/76, v/v) afforded good separation of the two glycoalkaloids in mini-tomato extracts, fruit harvested at different stages of maturity, and calyxes, flowers, leaves, roots, and stems. The two peaks appeared at approximately 17 and approximately 21 min. Recoveries from tomato fruit extracts spiked with dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine were 87.7 +/- 6.8 and 89.8 +/- 3.4% (n = 5), respectively. The detection limit is estimated to be 0.39 microg for dehydrotomatine and 0.94 microg for alpha-tomatine. The dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine content of tomatoes varied from 42 to 1498 and 521 to 16 285 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively. The ratio of alpha-tomatine to dehydrotomatine ranged from 10.9 to 12.5 in tomatoes and from 2.3 to 7.8 in the other plant tissues. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of the glycoalkaloids is under separate genetic control in each plant part. Degradation of both glycoalkaloids occurred at approximately the same rate during maturation of the tomatoes on the vine. An Inertsil NH2 column, with acetonitrile/1 mM KH2PO4 (96/4, v/v) as the eluent, enabled the fractionation of commercial tomatidine into tomatidenol and tomatidine, the aglycons of dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine, respectively. The information should be useful for evaluating tomatoes and vegetative tissues for dehydrotomatine/alpha-tomatine content during fruit development and their respective roles in host-plant resistance and the diet. PMID:15053555

  11. Copper and Iron are Mobilized Following Myocardial Ischemia: Possible Predictive Criteria for Tissue Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mordechai Chevion; Yandong Jiang; Ronit Har-El; Eduard Berenshtein; Gideon Uretzky; Nachum Kitrossky

    1993-01-01

    Direct evidence for substantial mobilization of copper in the coronary flow immediately following prolonged, but not short, cardiac ischemia is presented. In the first coronary flow fraction (CFF) of reperfusion (0.15 ml), after 35 min of ischemia, the level of copper (as well as of iron) was 8- to 9-fold higher than the preischemic value. The levels in subsequent CFFs

  12. Comparative structural and chemical studies of ferritin cores with gradual removal of their iron contents.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Natividad; Fernández, Belén; Sánchez, Purificación; Cuesta, Rafael; Ceolín, Marcelo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Trasobares, Susana; López-Haro, Miguel; Calvino, Jose J; Stéphan, Odile; Domínguez-Vera, José M

    2008-06-25

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), and SQUID magnetic studies were performed in a batch of horse spleen ferritins from which iron had been gradually removed, yielding samples containing 2200, 1200, 500, and 200 iron atoms. Taken together, findings obtained demonstrate that the ferritin iron core consists of a polyphasic structure (ferrihydrite, magnetite, hematite) and that the proportion of phases is modified by iron removal. Thus, the relative amount of magnetite in ferritin containing 2200 to 200 iron atoms rose steadily from approximately 20% to approximately 70% whereas the percentage of ferrihydrite fell from approximately 60% to approximately 20%. These results indicate a ferrihydrite-magnetite core-shell structure. It was also found that the magnetite in the ferritin iron core is not a source of free toxic ferrous iron, as previously believed. Therefore, the presence of magnetite in the ferritin cores of patients with Alzheimer's disease is not a cause of their increased brain iron(II) concentration. PMID:18507465

  13. Iron chelating activity, phenol and flavonoid content of some medicinal plants from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh; Fereshteh Pourmorad; Ahmad Reza Bekhradnia

    Thalassemia major is characterized by anemia, iron overload, further potentiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage to major organs, especially the cardiovascular system. Antioxidant and other supportive therapies protect red blood cells (RBC) against antioxidant damage. Chelation therapy reduces iron-related complications and thereby improves quality of life and overall survival. The poor oral bioavailability, short plasma half-life and severe

  14. RELEVANT MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE IRON CONTENT OF PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in strategies to improve the nutritional quality of our food supply, especially with respect to essential micronutrient minerals, such as iron. Recent estimates indicate that one-third of the world's population is at risk for iron-deficiency induced anemia, a condition con...

  15. Measuring iron in the brain using quantitative susceptibility mapping and X-ray fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weili; Nichol, Helen; Liu, Saifeng; Cheng, Yu-Chung N.; Haacke, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Measuring iron content in the brain has important implications for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), derived from magnetic resonance images, has been used to measure total iron content in vivo and in post mortem brain. In this paper, we show how magnetic susceptibility from QSM correlates with total iron content measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The relationship between susceptibility and ferritin iron was estimated at 1.10 ± 0.08 ppb susceptibility per ?g iron/g wet tissue, similar to that of iron in fixed (frozen/thawed) cadaveric brain and previously published data from unfixed brains. We conclude that magnetic susceptibility can provide a direct and reliable quantitative measurement of iron content and that it can be used clinically at least in regions with high iron content. PMID:23591072

  16. A physiological pharmacokinetic model based on tissue lipid content for simulating inhalation pharmacokinetics of highly lipophilic volatile organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Emond, Claude; Krishnan, Kannan

    2006-01-01

    The highly lipophilic volatile organic chemicals (HLVOCs) are distributed almost uniquely in the neutral lipid fraction of tissues and blood. As suggested by their high n-octanol:water partition coefficient (>1000), their solubility in water fraction of tissues and blood is negligible. Hypothetically, then, the kinetics of HLVOCs can be simulated solely with the consideration of their solubility and distribution in neutral lipid-equivalent (NLE) fractions of the tissues and blood. The objectives of the present study were therefore (i) to develop a physiological pharmacokinetic model based on NLE content of tissues and blood, and (ii) to apply this model framework for simulating the inhalation pharmacokinetics of HLVOCs (i.e., d-limonene, alpha-pinene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene) in humans. The PBPK model developed in this study consisted of tissue compartments that represented only their NLE content. All biological parameters, except alveolar ventilation rate, were expressed on the basis of their NLE content. Tissue:blood partition coefficients were not used since the solubility of HLVOCs in tissue neutral lipids and blood neutral lipids is considered to be the same. The NLE-based physiological pharmacokinetic model was then used to simulate the uptake and disposition kinetics of alpha-pinene, d-limonene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene in humans. The NLE-based model developed in this study represents a novel tool for simulating the lipid concentrations and pharmacokinetics of HLVOCs without the use of tissue:blood partition coefficients. PMID:20021013

  17. Thiamin transport by rat small intestine "in vitro": influence of endogenous thiamin content of jejunal tissue.

    PubMed

    Patrini, C; Cusaro, G; Ferrari, G; Rindi, G

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between thiamin intestinal transport and phosphorylation in vitro was investigated using everted jejunal sacs from normal rats, rats affected with dietary thiamin deficiency at different degrees and relative pair-fed controls; recovered rats, i.e. severely thiamin-deficient animals, 6 hours after the intravenous injection of 1 mg of thiamin chloride/100 g body weight. The sacs were incubated at 37 degrees for 30 min with 0.2 microM 14C-labeled thiamin. During incubation, the endogenous phosphorylated thiamin undergoes a dephosphorylation, which is lowest in thiamin deficient rats. The jejunal sacs from all experimental groups take up and phosphorylate labeled thiamin: the rate is inversely proportional to the endogenous cellular content of phosphorylated thiamin. The net transport of labeled thiamin is enhanced in thiamin-deficient rats. The labeled thiamin net transport after incubation is linearly related to the labeled phosphorylated thiamin content of intestinal tissue. Thiamin repletion of severely thiamin-deficient rats restore the normal levels of endogenous free and phosphorylated thiamin in the intestinal within 6 hours. In addition after incubation, the labeled phosphorylated thiamin content reverts to the levels of the control, while thiamin net transport remains high. PMID:7293871

  18. Coherent and incoherent scatterings for measurement of mandibular bone density and stable iodine content of tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Mohinderpal; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, Balvir S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the feasibility of gamma ray scattering for measurements of mandibular bone density and stable iodine content of tissue. Scattered spectra from solutions of K2HPO4 in distilled water (a phantom simulating the mandibular bone) and KI in distilled water filled in a thin plastic vial (a phantom simulating the kinetics of thyroid iodine) are recorded for 59.54 and 145 keV incident gamma rays, respectively. A high-purity germanium detector is placed at various angular positions to record the scattered spectra originating from interactions of incident gamma rays with the phantom. The measured intensity ratio of coherent to incoherent scattered gamma rays, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of HPGe detector, absorption of gamma rays in air column present between phantom and detector, and self-absorption in the phantom, is found to be increasing linearly with increase in concentration of K2HPO4 and KI in distilled water within experimental estimated error of <6%. The regression lines, obtained from experimental data for intensity ratio, provide the bone density and stable iodine contents of thyroid. The present non-destructive technique has the potential for a measure of mandibular bone density and stable iodine contents of thyroid. PMID:20098568

  19. Effect of T. foenumgraecum on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vats, V; Yadav, S P; Grover, J K

    2003-04-01

    The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Trigonella foenumgraecum (FG). In the present study, FG (1g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of FG led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 14.4 and 46.64% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight was significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (P<0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of FG. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls versus controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by FG. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and FG partially corrected this alteration in PFK, HK and GK. PMID:12639747

  20. Enhanced extract preparation of native manganese and iron species from brain and liver tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Diederich; B. Michalke

    2011-01-01

    To date, no reference method for the extraction of labile Mn species from biological tissues is published which provides sufficient\\u000a extraction efficiency combined with monitoring speciation. Here, an extraction method is reported using cryogenic conditions\\u000a (+N) under inert gas atmosphere. Fresh brain and liver tissues were used, then stored either 1 day (+N) or 1 month in N2liq (+N 1 m) to evaluate

  1. The influence of bottom water oxygenation and reactive iron content on sulfur incorporation into bitumens from Jurassic marine shales

    SciTech Connect

    Raiswell, R.; Bottrell, S.H.; Al-Biatty, H.J.; Tan, M.MD. (Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-06-01

    Sulfur isotope studies of bitumens (dichloromethane- extractable) from jurassic marine shales indicate that most sulfur is derived, at least initially, from diagenetic sulfate reduction. Under euxinic or semi-euxinic conditions sulfur incorporation in the Jet Rock and Posidonienschiefer bitumens appears to post-date formation of most reactive syngenetic pyrite but occurs contemporaneously with the formation small concentrations of later pyrite, relatively depleted in [sup 32]S. The most reactive iron minerals were mainly pyritized before any significant incorporation of sulfur occurred, and subsequent solidification reactions only occurred in response to prolonged contact between dissolved sulfide and residual, poorly reactive iron minerals (forming in the later pyrite) and organic matter (incorporating sulfur into bitumen). In these circumstances, which are typical of most euxinic or semi-euxinic sediments, the abundance of reactive iron is not the main control on the incorporation of sulfur (0.8 wt percent in the Jet Rock, 1.5 wt percent in the Posidonienschiefer) into bitumen. Consistent with this, variable concentrations of bitumen S occur in the Alum Shales (2.48 and 0.86 wt percent) which have uniform reactive iron contents. In the Alum Shales, the weakly bioturbated and more oxygenated depositional environments appear to favor sulfur incorporation into bitumens, which may occur here via partially oxidized sulfur species. Bitumen compositions suggest that oxygen is eliminated as sulfur is incorporated, possibly due to the dehydration of polar compounds followed by nucleophilic addition of sulfur. 64 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Intratumoral DNA content heterogeneity in breast carcinomas demonstrated by core punch tissue sampling and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhouwei; Weaver, Donald L; Munjal, Kavita; Evans, Mark F

    2014-09-01

    Further to advancements in instrumentation and fluorescent dye technologies, there has been a resurgence of interest in the flow cytometric assay of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. Here we present a novel, simple and effective alternative to whole block sectioning that allows selective multisampling of tissues within a specimen block and the investigation of intratumoral heterogeneity. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma specimens were core-punched using 1.0?mm diameter needles and assayed by flow cytometry using a modified Hedley method. Intratumoral heterogeneity for DNA index and per cent S-phase fraction was detected in 10 of 23 (44%) and 11 of 23 (47%) specimens respectively. Macro-level genomic heterogeneity is common in breast cancer even within a single surgical specimen block. Studies investigating the relationship of DNA content heterogeneity to other markers of genomic instability such as mutations, deletions, insertions and translocations are warranted. PMID:24942799

  3. MRI Detection of Brown Adipose Tissue with Low Fat Content in Newborns with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Wu, Tai-Wei; Yin, Larry; Kim, Mimi S.; Chia, Jonathan M.; Perkins, Thomas G.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the observation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) with low fat content in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after they have undergone hypothermia therapy. Materials and Methods The local ethics committee approved the imaging study. Ten HIE neonates (3 males, 7 females, age range: 2-3 days) were studied on a 3T MRI system using a low-flip-angle (3 degrees) six-echo proton-density-weighted chemical-shift-encoded water-fat pulse sequence. Fat-signal fraction (FF) measurements of supraclavicular and interscapular (nape) BAT and adjacent subcutaneous white adipose tissues (WAT) were compared to those from five non-HIE neonates, two recruited for the present investigation and three from a previous study. Results In HIE neonates, the FF range for the supraclavicular, interscapular, and subcutaneous regions were 10.3-29.9%, 28.0-57.9%, and 62.6-88.0%, respectively. In non-HIE neonates, the values were 23.7-42.2% (p=0.01), 45.4-59.5% (p=0.06), and 67.8-86.3% (p=0.38), respectively. On an individual basis, supraclavicular BAT FF was consistently the lowest, interscapular BAT values were higher, and subcutaneous WAT values were the highest (p<0.01). Conclusion We speculate that hypothermia therapy in HIE neonates likely promotes BAT-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis, which subsequently leads to a depletion of the tissue's intracellular fat stores. We believe this is consequently reflected in lower FF values, particularly in the supraclavicular BAT depot, in contrast to non-HIE neonates. PMID:24239336

  4. Oxidative Damage to Lipids and DNA Concurrent with Decrease of Antioxidants in Rat Testes After Acute Iron Intoxication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Lucesoli; C. G. Fraga

    1995-01-01

    The effect of acute iron overload was studied in rat testes 20 h after a single administration of iron-dextran (500 mg\\/kg body wt, ip). Total testes iron content was 6.1-fold higher in iron-treated rats compared to controls. The endogenous level of lipid peroxidation was evaluated as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Testes iron concentration (0.12-2.67 ?mol\\/g of tissue) was positively correlated

  5. Evaluation of inelastic hadronic processes for 250 MeV proton interactions in tissue and iron using GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Ahmad, S

    2009-08-01

    When high-energy protons interact in beam delivery systems and are stopped in patients, a fraction of beam will undergo nuclear interactions that release secondary particles, in particular, neutrons of different energies. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo Code was used to simulate the interaction of 250 MeV proton beam in tissue and iron to calculate the energy and angular distributions of generated protons, neutrons and photons, and thus provide H* (10), the ambient dose equivalent. A modular physics list by utilising electromagnetic interactions and hadronic interactions was constructed. Three different GEANT4 models that include the low-energy parameterisation, binary cascade and pre-compound model with Bertini cascade for proton inelastic interactions were compared. The findings suggest that the models play critical roles in terms of secondary particle generation. Further benchmarks are necessary to select the best model predicting a realistic scenario. PMID:19689963

  6. THE UPTAKE OF IRON IN RABBIT SYNOVIAL TISSUE FOLLOWING INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTION OF IRON DEXTRAN: A Light and Electron Microscope Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ball; J. A. CHAPMAN; K. D. MUIRDEN

    1964-01-01

    Iron dcxtran (molecular weight 7,000) diffuses rapidly from the joint cavity through the synovium, along lymphatics and cxtraccllular tissuc spaces; articular cartilagc is imperme- able to iron dextran. Thcre is also rapid cellular uptake by synovial lining cells, particularly of the vacuolar type; cndoplasmic reticulum-containing lining cells rarely take up iron dextran. Cellular uptake is probably effccted by pscudopodial folds

  7. Degradable segmented polyurethane elastomers for bone tissue engineering: effect of polycaprolactone content.

    PubMed

    Kavlock, Katherine D; Whang, Kyumin; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2013-01-01

    Segmented polyurethanes (PURs), consisting of degradable poly(a-hydroxy ester) soft segments and aminoacid-derived chain extenders, are biocompatible elastomers with tunable mechanical and degradative properties suitable for a variety of tissue-engineering applications. In this study, a family of linear PURs synthesized from poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diol, 1,4-diisocyanobutane and tyramine with theoretical PCL contents of 65-80 wt% were processed into porous foam scaffolds and evaluated for their ability to support osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical testing of the foams indicated increasing polymer crystallinity and compressive modulus with increasing PCL content. Next, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were seeded into PUR scaffolds, as well as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds, and maintained under osteogenic conditions for 14 and 21 days. Analysis of cell number indicated a systematic decrease in cell density with increasing PUR stiffness at both 14 and 21 days in culture. However, at these same time points the relative mRNA expression for the bone-specific proteins osteocalcin and the growth factors bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression were similar among the PURs. Finally, prostaglandin E2 production, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteopontin mRNA expression were highly elevated on the most-crystalline PUR scaffold as compared to the PLGA and PUR scaffolds. These results suggest that both the modulus and crystallinity of the PUR scaffolds influence cell proliferation and the expression of osteoblastic proteins. PMID:22304961

  8. [Content of carotenoids and the state of tissue antioxidant enzymatic complex in bivalve mollusc Anadara inaequivalvis Br].

    PubMed

    Gostukhina, O L; Soldatov, A A; Golovina, I V; Borodina, A V

    2012-01-01

    The work studied the content of carotinoids, the state of antioxidant (AO) enzymatic complex, and intensity of lipid peroxidation in tissues (hepatopancreas, gill, foot) of the Black Sea bivalve mollusc Anadara inaequivalvis. Tissues with a high content of the pigment have been established to have had a low activity of the key AO enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and an elevated content of reduced glutathione R2--(0.81-0.97). The recorded intertissue activities reached 1.7-2.9 times (p < or = 0.05-0.01). At increased concentrations (more than 2.5 mg x 100 g(-1) tissue), carotinoids show insignificant prooxidant effect, which is reflected in a rise of glutathione peroxidase activity. The competitive interrelations between these molecular complexes for the same kinds of reactive ocygem species (O2-, OH*, and 1O2) are discussed. PMID:23401963

  9. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish. PMID:21371606

  10. Determination of the iron content of Cepheids from the shape of their light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klagyivik, P.; Szabados, L.; Szing, A.; Leccia, S.; Mowlavi, N.

    2013-09-01

    We present the study of the metallicity dependence of the Fourier amplitude ratios R21 and R31 for the light curves of short-period Galactic classical Cepheids in B, V, RC and IC bands. Based on the available photometric and spectroscopic data, we determined the relations between the atmospheric iron abundance, [Fe/H], and the Fourier parameters. Using these relations we calculated the photometric [Fe/H] values of all programme Cepheids with an average accuracy of ±0.15 dex. No spectroscopic iron abundance was known before for 14 of these stars. These empirical results provide an alternate method to determine the iron abundance of classical Cepheids too faint for spectroscopic observations. We also checked whether the metal-poor Cepheids of both Magellanic Clouds follow the same relationships, and a good agreement was found.

  11. Polymorphisms in the calpastatin and mu-calpain genes associated with beef iron content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes with iron stored in muscle fibers in a population of beef cattle. The population consisted of a total of 259 steers produced by inseminating Hereford, Angus, or MARC III cows (¼ Hereford, ¼ Angus, ¼ Red ...

  12. Genetic and physiological analysis of iron content and bioavailability in maize kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is a major cereal crop widely consumed in developing countries, which have a high prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency including anemia. The major cause of Fe deficiency in these countries is inadequate intake of bioavailable Fe, of which poverty is a major contributing factor. Therefore, biof...

  13. Effect of Sulfur and Iron on Enzymatic Activity and Chlorophyll Content of Mungbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Narayan Kumawat; Praveen Singh Rathore; Narayan Singh Nathawat; Mahesh Mahatma

    2006-01-01

    A field trial was conducted at Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, India, in the summers of 2002 and 2003 to determine the effect of sulfur (S) in improving iron (Fe) nutrition of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) grown on calcareous soils. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Four levels of sulfur (0, 20, 40, and 60

  14. Mutual interaction between iron homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is identified as an important medical problem. One of the pathologic conditions observed in obesity is systemic iron deficiency and hypoferremia. Along with a large number of studies indicating disturbed iron homeostasis in obesity, recent data indicate a cause-effect relationship between iron status and obesity-related pathologies. The primary objective of the article is to consider two aspects of the iron-obesity interplay: (1) the mechanisms leading to impaired iron balance, and (2) the pathways of iron participation in obesity-related pathogenesis. While considering disturbance of iron homeostasis in obesity, a number of potential mechanisms of hypoferremia are proposed. At the same time, the inflammation of obesity and obesity-related hepcidin and lipocalin 2 hyperproduction seem to be the most probable reasons of obesity-related hypoferremia. Oversecretion of these proteins leads to iron sequestration in reticuloendothelial system cells. The latter also leads to increased adipose tissue iron content, thus producing preconditions for adverse effects of local iron overload. Being a redox-active metal, iron is capable of inducing oxidative stress as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction. Iron-mediated mechanisms of toxicity may influence aspects of obesity pathogenesis possibly even leading to obesity aggravation. Thus, a mutual interaction between disturbance in iron homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis is proposed. All sides of this interaction should be considered to design new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of disturbed iron homeostasis in obesity. PMID:24916791

  15. Selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese content of seven meat cuts from Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture in Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Cabrera; A. Ramos; A. Saadoun; G. Brito

    2010-01-01

    Tenderloin (T), eye of rump (E), striploin (S), eye round (ER), tri-tip (TT), rib-eye roll (RR) and three rib plate-flank on (RP) meat cuts were evaluated. Selenium contents ranged between 0.42 and 1.20mg\\/kg wet tissue (wt) in Hereford (H) breed and between 0.49 and 1.3mg\\/kgwt in Braford (B) breed. In H and B breeds, T, TT and RP, and TT

  16. Differences in Expression, Content, and Activity of 11?-HSD1 in Adipose Tissue between Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A.; Iñiguez, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mericq, V.

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol production in adipose tissue is regulated by 11?-HSD1. Objective. To determine whether there are differences in gene expression, enzyme activity, and protein content of the 11?-HSD1 enzyme in VAT (visceral adipose tissue) and SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) from obese compared to nonobese adults. Methods. VAT and SAT samples were obtained from 32 obese subjects (BMI > 30?Kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery and 15 samples from controls submitted to elective surgery. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured. The expression of 11?-HSD1 was determined by RT-PCR, the enzyme activity by thin-layer chromatography, and the protein content by Western blot. Results. Obese patients had higher cholesterol, insulin, and HOMA-IR compared to nonobese. There were no differences in VAT or SAT expression of 11?-HSD1 between obese and nonobese patients. However, we found lower 11?-HSD1 activity and protein content in VAT, in obese women versus nonobese women (P < 0.05). BMI and 11?-HSD1 enzyme activity and protein content in VAT correlated inversely in women. Conclusions. Regulation of 11?-HSD1 activity in VAT from obese subjects appears to be gender specific, suggesting the existence of a possible protective mechanism modulating this enzyme activity leading to a decrease in the production of cortisol in this tissue. PMID:23304545

  17. Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madl, Amy Kathleen

    Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the centriacinus were used to assess immediate and persistent effects. The oxidant and inflammatory capacity of microdissected airways of exposed animals was used to assess the ability to withstand an additional oxidant insult. Comparing the effects observed in the acute versus subacute inhalation studies, the effects of SWCNTs appeared to follow a dose-response pattern, where the effects were further pronounced and, in some cases, more persistent under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. In addition, results showed different timing and extent of responses resulting from exposure to SWCNTs containing varied amounts of iron. Depending on the endpoint of interest, responses of SWCNTs sometimes followed that of CB while in other circumstances matched that of crocidolite. Notably, FeSWCNTs exposed animals were unable to respond to an additional oxidant challenge and cSWCNTs exposed animals had a delayed and persistent development of mucous cells in the distal airways. In conclusion, while some toxicity endpoints follow patterns comparable to CB or crocidolite, the respiratory effects of inhaled FeSWCNTs and cSWCNTs appear to be unique. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these changes are suggestive of precursor events to pathologic changes that might develop under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. Systematic toxicity testing and intentional physicochemical modifications will provide further insights as to the mechanisms by which SWCNTs cause these unique effects. It would be of hope that nanomaterials, such as SWCNTs, can be designed in way to maximize their societal benefits through various energy, medical, and technological applications but minimize their potential human health and environmental risks.

  18. Tensile Properties, Collagen Content, and Crosslinks in Connective Tissues of the Immature Knee Joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriram V. Eleswarapu; Donald J. Responte; Kyriacos A. Athanasiou; Alejandro Almarza

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe major connective tissues of the knee joint act in concert during locomotion to provide joint stability, smooth articulation, shock absorption, and distribution of mechanical stresses. These functions are largely conferred by the intrinsic material properties of the tissues, which are in turn determined by biochemical composition. A thorough understanding of the structure-function relationships of the connective tissues of the

  19. Deletion of HIF-2? in the enterocytes decreases the severity of tissue iron loading in hepcidin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Matak, Pavle; Delga, Stéphanie; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2012-01-12

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a highly prevalent genetic disorder characterized by excessive parenchymal iron accumulation leading to liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. HH is caused by mutations in the genes encoding upstream regulators of hepcidin or more rarely in the hepcidin gene itself. A deficit in hepcidin results in intestinal iron hyperabsorption; however, the local effectors mediating the up-regulation of iron absorption genes are unknown. We hypothesized that HIF-2 could mediate high iron absorption rates in HH. We generated Hepc(-/-) mice (a murine model of hemochromatosis) lacking HIF-2 in the intestine and showed that duodenal HIF-2 was essential for the up-regulation of genes involved in intestinal iron import and the consequent iron accumulation in the liver and pancreas. This study highlights a role of HIF-2 in the dysregulation of iron absorption and chronic iron accumulation, as observed in patients with hemochromatosis. PMID:22128145

  20. on adipose tissue development were studied. At weaning, tricaprylin ingestion decreased fat content of the carcasses from zo. j to 17.2z %. !!11 of thc adipose tissues were individually affected

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on adipose tissue development were studied. At weaning, tricaprylin ingestion decreased fat content of the carcasses from zo. j to 17.2z %. !!11 of thc adipose tissues were individually affected to about the same in the proportion of adipose tissues in the car- casses of lambs fed the conventional milk replacer (from 24.8 to 29

  1. Effect of lactose, copper and iron on manganese retention and tissue distribution in rats fed dextrose-casein diets.

    PubMed

    King, B D; Lassiter, J W; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P

    1980-03-01

    The effect of iron, lactose and copper on manganese retention was studied in rats fed two diets. Thirty-six male albino rats (75 to 100 g) were allotted to six groups of six rats each. Three groups received a purified manganese-free dextrose-casein diet, and three groups received the same purified diet with 17% lactose added at the expense of dextrose. One group fed each of the above diets received either a manganese-free mineral mixture, the mineral mixture with 5 ppm supplemental Cu or the same mineral mixture with Fe removed. After 7 days on the diets, each rat was given, by gavage, 10 muCi of 54Mn activity as 54MnCl2 in a sodium acetate buffer. On the third day after dosing, the rats were sacrificed and samples of liver, kidneys, semitendinosus muscle, spleen and tibia were taken for stable and radioactive manganese analysis. Lactose added to the purified diet depressed 54Mn retention in all tissues studied. Lactose addition also decreased specific activities of the livers and kidneys but tended to increase stable manganese values. Copper apparently had little direct effect on 54Mn retention but tended to reduce the effect of lactose on 54Mn retention. Omission of Fe greatly increased 54Mn retention values in all tissues studied with or without added lactose. Fe omission also significantly increased the specific activities and stable Mn values of livers and the specific activity of kidneys. The results indicate that low dietary Fe may be a contributing factor to the increased manganese retention observed in this study and a previous study. PMID:7364681

  2. Iron accumulation in tobacco plants expressing soyabean ferritin gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumiyuki Goto; Toshihiro Yoshihara; Hiroshi Saiki

    1998-01-01

    High iron-content transgenic tobacco plants have been produced by transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens of soyabean ferritin cDNA under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter. Immunoblot analysis of protein from transgenic tobacco plants suggested mature ferritin subunits are produced by cleavage of transit peptides. The expressed ferritin was observed in the tissues of leaves and stems. The maximal iron content

  3. Effects of near-infra-red laser irradiation on adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents of rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kataoka, Yosky; Cui, Yilong; Yamada, Hisao; Heya, Manabu; Awazu, Kunio

    2002-05-01

    Low-power, near-infra-red laser irradiation has been used to relieve patients from various kinds of pain, though the precise mechanisms of such biological actions of the laser have not yet been resolved. To investigate the cellular mechanisms by near-infra-red laser on the nervous system, we examined the effect of 830-nm laser irradiation on the energy metabolism of the rat brain. The diode laser was applied for 15 min with an irradiance of 4.8 W/cm(2). Tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the irradiated area in the cerebral cortex was 19% higher than that of the non-treated area, whereas the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) content showed no significant difference. Laser irradiation at another wavelength (652 nm) had no effect on either ATP or ADP contents. The temperature of the tissue was increased by 4.4-4.7 degrees C during the irradiation of both wavelengths. These results suggest that the increase in tissue ATP content did not result from the thermal effect, but from a specific effect of the laser operated at the 830-nm wavelength. PMID:11959421

  4. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF BOVINE MEAT. I. CONTENT OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN RELATION TO INDIVIDUAL MUSCLES, AGE AND SEX OF ANIMALS AND CARCASS QUALITY GRADE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Prost; E. Pel; A. W. Kotula

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The content of connective tissue was deter- mined in seven muscles of 80 bovine carcasses, in relation to age and sex of animals and post-slaughter carcass grade, by the hydroxy- proline and the histometric methods. Among the seven muscles, differences in connective tissue were large and significant. No consistent change in level of connective tissue was asso- ciated with

  5. Plasma and tissue thyroxine and triiodothyronine contents in sublethally stressed, aluminum-exposed brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Waring, C P; Brown, J A

    1997-04-01

    Immature female brown trout, Salmo trutta, were exposed to pH 5.0 soft water in the presence or absence of aluminum (Al) at 12.5 micrograms liter-1 and their plasma concentrations and tissue contents of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were compared with those of a control group of trout held in pH 7.0 soft water. After 120 hr, plasma cortisol, glucose, T4, and T3 concentrations were greater in the Al-exposed trout than in trout exposed to acid conditions alone, indicating that although the Al conditions were sublethal, a significant stress response was elicited. Significant increases in liver T4 content, liver 5'-monodeiodinase activity and liver T3 content indicated increased hepatic T4 to T3 conversion in the Al-exposed trout. The T4 contents of brain, gill filaments, white muscle, heart ventricle, caudal kidney, and ovary were not significantly altered by Al exposure. The T3 content of caudal kidney and ovary were significantly lower in Al-exposed trout than in control fish in neutral water but were unchanged in the brain, gill filaments, heart ventricle, and white muscle of these trout. The present data support previous observations of increased plasma T3 concentrations in sublethally Al-exposed brown trout and indicate that at least part of the increased plasma T3 concentration is due to an increased hepatic uptake of T4 and monodeiodination to T3. However, analysis of nonhepatic tissue T3 content gave no indication of increased T3 production by these tissues. PMID:9126472

  6. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  7. Effects of Dietary Nickel and Protein on Growth, Nitrogen Metabolism and Tissue Concentrations of Nickel, Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Copper in Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JERRY W. SPEARS; R. W. HARVEY

    Thirty male calves were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of dietary nickel and protein on performance, urease activity and tissue concentrations of nickel, iron, zinc, copper and manganese Protein levels evaluated were 10.0, 12.25 and 14.5%, and nickel was supplemented at a level of 0 or 5 mg\\/kg of diet. Nickel

  8. In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conturo, Thomas Edward

    Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The foldover in magnified images was eliminated by exciting limited regions with orthogonal pi/2 and pi pulses. Off-midline regions were imaged by tandemly offsetting the phase-encoding and excitation. Artifacts due to non-steady-state conditions were demonstrated. The approach to steady state was defined by operators and vectors, and any repeated series of RF pulses was proven to produce a steady-state. The vector difference between the magnetization and its steady state value is relatively constant during the approach. The repetition time relative to T_1 is the main determinant of approach rate, and off-resonant RF pulses incoherent with the magnetization produce a more rapid approach than on-resonant pulses.

  9. PLANT SOURCES OF DIETARY IRON: DIVERSITY IN TISSUE IRON CONCENTRATION. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON IRON NUTRITION AND INTERACTIONS IN PLANTS, JULY 3-7, 2006, MONTPELLIER, FRANCE. 2006. P. 56.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an essential mineral for all organisms, including humans and other animals. Iron must be obtained through dietary sources, and plant food products are an important provider of this micronutrient. Because all plants contain iron, humans consume this nutrient in all vegetable, grain, and fru...

  10. [Effect of cooking on content of nitrates, vitamin C, magnesium and iron in spinach].

    PubMed

    Astier-Dumas, M

    1975-01-01

    Cooking is known to lower the mineral and vitaminic content of foodstuffs. Recently, contaminant became to be a problem in foods, and it was proposed to use blanching or boiling to diminish contaminant residues in foods, specially vegetables. An example of this attitude is given by the use of blanching to lower nitrates levels in spinach specially prepared for baby foods. PMID:1211733

  11. A NAC Gene Regulating Senescence Improves Grain Protein, Zinc, and Iron Content in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing the nutritional value of food crops is a sensible strategy for improving human nutrition and health. We report here the positional cloning of Gpc-B1, a wheat QTL associated with increased grain protein, Zn and Fe contents. The ancestral wild wheat allele encodes a NAC transcription factor ...

  12. Multiple mechanisms account for lower plasma iron in young copper deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Pyatskowit, Joshua W.

    2009-01-01

    Copper deficiency lowers brain copper and iron during development. The reduced iron content could be due to hypoferremia. Experiments were conducted to evaluate plasma iron and “ferroxidase” hypotheses by determining copper and iron status of Holtzman albino rats following gestational/lactational copper deficiency. Copper deficient (Cu?) dams on treatment for 5 weeks, two of gestation and three of lactation, had markedly lower copper content of milk and mammary tissue, and lower milk iron. Newborn pups from Cu? dams had lower copper and iron concentrations. Compared to Cu+ pups, Cu? pups, analyzed between postnatal age (P) 0 and P26, were smaller, anemic, had lower plasma iron, cardiac hypertrophy, and near zero ceruloplasmin activity. Liver copper in Cu+ pups increased then decreased during development and major reductions were evident in Cu? pups. Liver iron in Cu+ pups decreased with age while nursing but increased after eating solid food. Liver iron was lower in Cu? pups at P0 and P13 and normal at P20 and P26. Small intestinal copper decreased with age in Cu+ pups and was lower in Cu? pups. Intestinal iron levels in Cu- pups were higher than Cu+ pups postweaning in some experiments. Reduction in plasma iron in Cu? pups is likely due to a decreased “ferroxidase” function leading to lower placental iron transport, a lower milk iron diet, and partial block in iron uptake from intestine but is not due to failure to mobilize hepatic iron, in contrast to older rats eating diet with adequate iron. PMID:18038202

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  14. Application of VNIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate soil organic carbon content, and content of different forms of iron and manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Drabek, Ondrej; Boruvka, Lubos

    2013-04-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a progressive method used for prediction of soil properties. Study was performed on the soils from the agricultural land from the south Moravia municipality of Brumovice. Studied area is characterized by a relatively flat upper part, a tributary valley in the middle and a colluvial fan at the bottom. Haplic Chernozem reminded at the flat upper part of the area. Regosols were formed at steep parts of the valley. Colluvial Chernozem and Colluvial soils were formed at the bottom parts of the valley and at the bottom part of the studied field. The goal of the study was to evaluate relationship between soil spectra curves and organic matter content, and different forms iron and manganese content (Mehlich III extract, ammonium oxalate extract and dithionite-citrate extract). Samples (87) were taken from the topsoil within regular grid covering studied area. The soil spectra curves (of air dry soil and sieved using 2 mm sieve) were measured in the laboratory using spectometer FieldSpec®3 (350 - 2 500 nm). The Fe and Mn contents in different extract were measured using ICP-OES (with an iCAP 6500 Radial ICP Emission spectrometer; Thermo Scientific, UK) under standard analytical conditions. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for modeling of the relationship between spectra and measured soil properties. Prediction ability was evaluated using the R2, root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD). The results showed the best prediction for Mn (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 29, NRMSD = 0.11), Fe in ammonium oxalate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 171, NRMSD = 0.12) and organic matter content (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 0.13, NRMSD = 0.09). The slightly worse prediction was obtained for Mn and Fe in citrate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 21, NRMSD = 0.10; R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 522, NRMSD = 0.23). Poor prediction was evaluated for Mn and Fe in Mehlich III extract (R2 = 0.43, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.17; R2 = 0.39, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.26). In general, the results confirmed that the measurement of soil spectral characteristics is a promising technology for a digital soil mapping and predicting studied soil properties. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319) and the Czech Science Foundation (grant No. GA526/09/1762).

  15. The influence of humic acid and clay content on the transport of polymer-coated iron nanoparticles through sand.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bahngmi; O'Carroll, Denis; Sleep, Brent

    2014-10-15

    The introduction of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) into the subsurface has recently received significant attention as a potentially effective method for remediation of source zones of chlorinated solvents present as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). One of the challenges in the deployment of nZVI is to achieve good subsurface nZVI mobility to permit delivery of the nZVI to the target treatment zone. Stabilization of nZVI with various polymers has shown promise for enhancing nZVI subsurface mobility, but the impact of subsurface conditions on nZVI mobility has not been fully explored. In this study, the effect of humic acid and kaolinite on the transport of polymer-stabilized nZVI (carboxylmethyl cellulose-surface modified nZVI, CMC90K-RNIP) in sand was investigated using column experiments. In addition, effects of electrolytes on the stability of CMC90K-RNIP in the presence of humic acid, and the stability of humic acid-coated reactive nanoscale iron particles (HA-RNIP) at various humic acid concentrations were investigated. Humic acid enhanced the mobility of bare RNIP, whereas the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was not significantly affected by humic acid injected as a background solution, except at the highest concentration of 500mg/L. At lower pore water velocity, the effect of humic acid on the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was greater than that at high water velocity. Adding kaolinite up to 2% by weight to the sand column reduced the retention of CMC90K-RNIP, but further increases in kaolinite content (to 5%) did not significantly affect nZVI retention. The impact of kaolinite on nZVI retention was more pronounced at lower pore water velocities. PMID:25079234

  16. Current and historical relationships between the tissue nitrogen content of a snowbed bryophyte and nitrogenous air pollution.

    PubMed

    Woolgrove, C E; Woodin, S J

    1996-01-01

    Snowbed vegetation is under threat from atmospheric pollution. Most of the late lying snowbeds in Britain are in the central highlands of Scotland, coinciding with an area of very high deposition of nitrogenous air pollutants. Snow is a very efficient scavenger of atmospheric pollution and, due to the dynamics of snowmelt, much of the pollution load of a snow pack is released at very high concentrations in episodes known as 'acid flushes'. This study demonstrates the existence of a positive relationship between duration of snow-lie and tissue nitrogen content of Kiaeria starkei, a bryophyte characteristic of late snowbeds. An increase in the tissue nitrogen content of this bryophyte over this century is also shown, reflecting increasing air pollution. Maximum tissue nitrogen concentration in K. starkei is up to 50% greater than that recorded in other upland bryophyte species, demonstrating the exceptional threat of pollution to snowbed bryophytes. This has implications for the critical loads approach to pollution emission controls, as it indicates that some mountain communities are receiving higher pollution loadings than previously realised and therefore current exceedence of critical loads is probably greater than recognised at present. PMID:15091420

  17. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20??g?g?1 body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  18. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20??g?g(-1) body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  19. Effects of the iron content and redox state on the structure of sodium borosilicate glasses: A Raman, Moessbauer and boron K-edge XANES spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Cochain, B. [CEA, DEN, SECM, LDMC, Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France); IPGP-CNRS, Universite Paris 7, Sorbonne Paris Cite Paris, (France); Geology Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, (Canada); Neuville, D.R.; Richet, P. [Univ Paris 07, IPGP CNRS, Paris, (France); Henderson, G.S. [Univ Toronto, Dept Geol, Toronto, ON, (Canada); McCammon, C.A. [Univ Bayreuth, Bayer Geoinst, Bayreuth, (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The structure of iron-bearing sodium borosilicate glasses with up to 10 mol% FeO has been investigated in the range 0.15 ? Fe{sup 3+}/SFe ? 0.95. According to Moessbauer spectroscopy, Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} are mainly in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination, respectively, although other coordination states exist for both cations. From XANES experiments, we conclude that increasing Fe content and varying redox states have only a minor effect on the relative proportions of BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units. In Raman spectra, a decrease of the proportion of BO{sub 4} species present in danburite-like units (Na{sub 2}O.B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2}) is found upon increasing iron content and oxidizing state. Whereas the insensitivity of the overall boron speciation to iron content and redox state points to weak interactions between boron and iron, the changes affecting BO{sub 4} species do indicate a more subtle interplay between Fe{sup 3+} and the other tetrahedrally coordinated cations (Si,B) because of the competition between tetrahedral Fe{sup 3+} and B{sup 3+} for charge compensation by Na{sup +}. (authors)

  20. Decreased content of integral membrane calcium-binding protein (IMCAL) in tissues of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kowarski, S.; Cowen, L.A.; Schachter, D.

    1986-02-01

    Prior studies report that plasma membranes of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (Okamoto-Aoki strain) bind less calcium than do the corresponding preparations from Wistar Kyoto controls. The possibility that the differences result from a decrease in the content of integral membrane calcium-binding protein (IMCAL) was explored by the application of immunoassays with polyclonal antisera and a mouse monoclonal antibody. IMCAL binds calcium with relatively high affinity, and its content in many rat tissues is regulated by vitamin D and the level of dietary calcium. Radioimmunoassays of tissue IMCAL demonstrate significant reductions in content in the erythrocyte ghost, intestinal mucosa, kidney, heart, testis, and liver of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as compared to the control strains. The decreases are observed both at 4-5 weeks of age, before the onset of severe hypertension and at 8-9 weeks in the presence of severe hypertension. Moreover, the magnitude of the decrease in erythrocyte IMCAL can account for much of the decrease in the calcium-binding capacity of erythrocyte membranes reported by others. The results are especially significant because an abnormality in the membrane binding of calcium and in the regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration could underlie the pathogenesis of the hypertension.

  1. Cholesterol content of longissmus and semimembranosus muscles and associated adipose tissues from beef, pork and lamb 

    E-print Network

    Dohmann, Sharon Sue

    1988-01-01

    and lamb. The values generated from this study agree with other researchers' findings. The beef muscle means ranged from 63. 3 mg cholesterol/100 g to 83. 6 mg/100 g for raw tissue, and cooked tissue ranged from 75. 4 mg/1 00 g to 102. 2 mg/100 g... 938c 70 934c 54 110. 2d 3. 5 'I 05. 8d 7. 4 106. 6d 2. 5 112. 6d 5. 0 113 2d 3 4 96. 6c 3 2 a Means are averages from five animals, one steak per animal (n=S). b Cholesterol is expressed as mg per 100 g raw or cooked tissue. c d e Means...

  2. Glutamyl cysteine dipeptide suppresses ferritin expression and alleviates liver injury in iron-overload rat model.

    PubMed

    Salama, Samir A; Al-Harbi, Mohammad S; Abdel-Bakky, Mohamed S; Omar, Hany A

    2015-08-01

    Despite its biological importance, iron is a pro-oxidant element and its accumulation results in tissue injury. Iron overload diseases such as thalassemia and hereditary hemochromatosis are commonly associated with liver tissue injury. Glutamyl cysteine (GC) is a dipeptide with antioxidant properties owing to its cysteine residue. The aim of the current work was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GC against iron overload-induced liver injury. Rats were distributed into five groups; normal control, GC control, iron-treated (150 mg/kg ip injection) and both iron and GC-treated (total iron: 150 mg/kg ip and GC: 50 mg or 100 mg/kg/day ip for 30 days). Our results showed that treatment with GC at the two-dose levels attenuated iron-induced liver tissue injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum activity of liver enzymes ALT and AST, amelioration of iron-induced histopathological alteration, suppression of iron-induced oxidative stress as demonstrated by significant reduction of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content beside elevation of total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione and the antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD in liver tissue. In addition, GC significantly reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? and activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3 in liver tissues. To our surprise, GC reduced liver iron content and ferritin expression, denoting the possible iron chelation competency. Collectively our results highlight evidence for the hepatoprotective effect of GC against iron overload-induced liver injury that is potentially mediated through suppression of oxidative tissue injury, attenuation of inflammatory response, amelioration of hepatocellular apoptosis and possibly through iron chelation. PMID:26093100

  3. Therapeutic effects of an oral chelator targeting skeletal tissue damage in experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Men, Ping; Kenner, Gerry H; Miller, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies revealed that age-associated iron accumulation plays an important causal role in osteopenic development after estrogen deficiency. It is believed that an increase in iron content is associated with an increased likelihood of oxidative damage at the point of iron accumulation. However, there is no direct evidence that the iron accumulated in skeletal tissue causes free radical oxidative damage and consequent bone loss. Iron depletion from skeletal tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) rats was carried out with the oral chelator [1-N-docosyl-triethylenetetraminepentaacetic acid (DoTTPA)]. Results suggest the causal role of iron in oxidative damage that may lead to bone loss in the rats. The results also show the therapeutic potential of the bone-targeted chelator to protect against bone loss associated with age-iron accumulation as well as iron overload diseases. PMID:18274995

  4. Postmortem tissue contents of {sup 241}Am in a person with a massive acute exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McInroy, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Toohey, R.E. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    {sup 241}Am was determined radiochemically in the tissues of USTUR Case 246, a 76-y-old man who died of cardiovascular disease 11 y after massive percutaneous exposure following a chemical explosion in a glove box. This worker was treated extensively with a chelation drug, DTPA, for over 4 y after exposure. The estimate {sup 241}Am deposition at the time of death was 540 kBq, of which 90% was in the skeleton, 5.1% in the liver, and 3.5% in muscle and fat. Among the soft tissues, the highest concentrations were observed in liver (22 Bq g{sup -1}), certain cartilaginous structures such as the larynx (15 Bq g{sup -1}) and the red marrow (9.7 Bq g{sup -1}), as compared with the mean soft tissue concentration of approximately 1 Bq g{sup -1}. Concentration in muscle was approximately that of the soft tissue average, while concentrations in the pancreas, a hilar lymph node and fat were less than the average. Concentrations in bone ash were inversely related to the ratio of ash weight to wet weight a surrogate for bone volume-to-surface ratio. the distribution of activity in this case is reasonable consistent with that observed in another human case, when allowance is made for chelation therapy, and also tends to support more recent models of {sup 241}Am metabolism. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Low ferric iron content of (Mg,Fe)O at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Catherine; Peyronneau, Jean; Poirier, Jean-Paul

    New results from high-pressure multi-anvil and diamond anvil cell experiments show that the Fe3+ content of (Mg,Fe)O is low at high pressures and temperatures, and relatively independent of oxygen fugacity. At 18 GPa and 1000°C, the maximum solubility of Fe3+ in Mg0.8Fe0.2O ranges from approximately 2% Fe3+/?Fe at the Fe-FeO buffer to 3-7% Fe3+/?Fe at the Re-ReO2 buffer. These low values are likely due to a high-pressure phase transition in the system Fe3O4-MgFe2O4, resulting in preferential partitioning of Fe3+ into the high-pressure phase. (Fe,Mg)Fe2O4 would be exsolved in (Mg,Fe)O depending on the oxygen fugacity, which could have significant effects on transport properties. Exsolved (Fe,Mg)Fe2O4 could also be useful as an oxygen barometer.

  6. Effect of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O 4) nanoparticles on the growth and photosynthetic pigment content of Picochlorum sp.

    PubMed

    Hazeem, Layla J; Waheed, Fatima Abdul; Rashdan, Suad; Bououdina, Mohamed; Brunet, Loïc; Slomianny, Christian; Boukherroub, Rabah; Elmeselmani, Wael A

    2015-08-01

    Magnetite iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are key materials applied in many different fields of modern technology. The potential environmental impact of these NPs is of great concern. In this study, initially the effect of Fe3O4 NPs size (20 and 40 nm) as well as bulk (>100 nm) at 200 mg L(-1) on Picochlorum sp. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) is investigated during the different growth phases. The most inhibitory NPs were then chosen to assess their effects at different concentrations. The 20 nm NPs at 200 mg L(-1) were found to significantly reduce the viable cell concentration and chlorophyll a content during the exponential growth phase compared to the other particle sizes. However, the 20 nm NPs at different concentrations were found to promote algal growth during the late growth stages (stationary and decline phases) compared to the control. Additionally, algae were found to accelerate the aggregation and sedimentation of nanoparticles into the medium and therefore can be considered as potential organisms for bioremediation of nano-pollution. PMID:25854208

  7. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    PubMed

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease. PMID:24511683

  8. Photoinduced effect of hypericin on collagen and tissues with high collagen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yova, Dido M.; Theodossiou, Theodossis; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    The photoinduced effects of hypericin, a polycyclic quinone, on collagen has been investigated. It was found that after laser irradiation at both 532 nm and 337 nm, the spectral form of triple helix structure collagen fluorescence, changed to a spectral profile bearing resemblance to that of its polypeptide single chain counterpart, gelatin, or heated collagen. The effect of Chlorin e6 on collagen was also investigated and proved to be dissimilar to that of hypericin and not indicative of profound structural alterations. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of 1064 nm- nanosecond laser radiation in collagen was studied. While it was very efficient for pure collagen, the signal intensity was found to diminish by at least an order of magnitude after hypericin photosensitization or heating. The above noted fluorescence spectra form alteration was also observed in a smaller scale in collagen rich chicken tissue (tendon). Non sensitized chicken tendon tissue exhibited very efficient SHG, unlike skin and artery samples.

  9. Short Chain Saturated Fatty Acids Decrease Circulating Cholesterol and Increase Tissue PUFA Content in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Legrand; Erwan Beauchamp; Daniel Catheline; Frédérique Pédrono; Vincent Rioux

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of various dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) profiles on plasma lipid parameters and tissue\\u000a fatty acid composition in rats. The experiment was designed to monitor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels, while examining\\u000a different amounts and types of SFA. Four isocaloric diets were prepared, containing 10–11 mol% of fatty acids (FA) as linoleic\\u000a acid (LNA) and 2.5 mol%

  10. Sensing Lanthanide Metal Content in Biological Tissues with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Dina V.; Gonzalez, Sandra I.; Li, Jessica F.; Pagel, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The development and validation of MRI contrast agents consisting of a lanthanide chelate often requires a determination of the concentration of the agent in ex vivo tissue. We have developed a protocol that uses 70% nitric acid to completely digest tissue samples that contain Gd(III), Dy(III), Tm(III), Eu(III), or Yb(III) ions, or the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide. NMR spectroscopy of coaxial tubes containing a digested sample and a separate control solution of nitric acid was used to rapidly and easily measure the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift caused by each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide. Each BMS shift was shown to be linearly correlated with the concentration of each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide in the 70% nitric acid solution and in digested rat kidney and liver tissues. These concentration measurements had outstanding precision, and also had good accuracy for concentrations ?10 mM for Tm(III) Eu(III), and Yb(III), and ?3 mM for Gd(III), gadodiamide, and Dy(III). Improved sample handling methods are needed to improve measurement accuracy for samples with lower concentrations. PMID:24152931

  11. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world's population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes) has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains) and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA) metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings (NTS). Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of yellow stripe like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II) complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content. PMID:23755054

  12. Relationships between structural characteristics of bovine intramuscular connective tissue assessed by image analysis and collagen and proteoglycan content.

    PubMed

    Dubost, Annabelle; Micol, Didier; Meunier, Bruno; Lethias, Claire; Listrat, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Three muscles (Longissimus thoracis, Semimembranosus, Biceps femoris) of 40 young bulls from 3 breeds were used to quantify structural characteristics of bovine connective tissue by image analysis, with both macroscopic and microscopic approaches. Collagen and proteoglycan content was also investigated. Perimysium occupied a greater area (8 vs 6%), and was wider (42 vs 2 ?m) and shorter per unit area (1.9 vs 30 mm mm(-2)) than endomysium. Perimysium and endomysium from Longissimus were thinner, less ramified than in Biceps. Longissimus showed less total collagen and cross-linking and more proteoglycans (P<0.0001) than Biceps muscle. Blond d'Aquitaine perimysium occupied less area, was more ramified and muscles contained less collagen, cross-linking and more proteoglycans than Angus (P<0.001). Limousin was intermediate. High proteoglycan content in muscle containing less total collagen suggested a complementarity between these molecules. They might influence mechanical properties of intramuscular connective tissue. This was especially true given that proteoglycans and total collagen were negatively and positively linked with structural parameters, respectively. PMID:23273440

  13. Tissue contents of endothelin vary according to thyroid hormone status in rat.

    PubMed

    Lam, H C; Wang, J P; Lee, J K; Ho, L T; Han, T M; Lu, C C; Chiang, H T; Cheng, D L

    1993-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21-residue peptide isolated from the conditioned medium of cultured porcine endothelial cells and is widely distributed throughout the body, with relatively high levels in the kidney and lung. In this study we examined the influence of thyroid hormone status on immunoreactive endothelin (ir-ET) levels in the plasma, lung, and kidney tissues of rats. Three weeks after surgical removal of the thyroid gland from male rats, the ir-ET levels in the lung and kidney were reduced by 39% and 42%, respectively. Similarly, ir-ET levels were decreased by 46% in the lung and 45% in the kidney of rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with 0.1% (wt/wt) n-propylthiouracil (PTU) in the drinking water for 30 days. Replacement with daily L-thyroxine (T4) injections (5 micrograms/100 g) prevented this decrease. However, thyrotoxicosis induced by daily L-T4 injections (10 micrograms/100 g) also caused a decrease of the lung ir-ET levels by 49%, but had no significant effect on the renal ir-ET levels. However, the plasma ir-ET levels were similar in each group. Fast protein liquid chromatography study verified the presence of ir-ET-1 in the plasma and tissue extracts. This study demonstrates that thyroid hormone status affects tissue levels of ir-ET differently and that a euthyroid status is required for the maintenance of physiologic concentrations of ir-ET in the lung of male rats. PMID:7509970

  14. Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Musa Özcan; Mustafa Harmankaya; Sait Gezgin

    The rate of heavy metal pollution in some minor fruit samples growing at roadsides in Turkey were determined by inductively\\u000a coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The mineral contents of samples were found to be different depending\\u000a on the several parts Citrus fruits. The highest minor and heavy metal levels for Citrus fruits were determined between 17.24 and 45.30 mg\\/kg boron, 2.08

  15. Dynamic changes in plasma tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and beta-thromboglobulin content in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ping; Wo, Da; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Wei, Wei; Mao, Hui-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the corresponding variations of plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activities, and beta-thromboglobulin (?-TG) content in patients during different stages of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke is a common disease among aging people and its occurrence is associated with abnormalities in the fibrinolytic system and platelet function. However, few reports focus on the dynamic changes in the plasma fibrinolytic system and ?-TG content in patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were divided into three groups: acute, convalescent and chronic. Plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities were determined by chromogenic substrate analysis and plasma ?-TG content was detected by radioimmunoassay. Patients in the acute stage of ischemic stroke had significantly increased levels of t-PA activity and ?-TG content, but PAI-1 activity was significantly decreased. Negative correlations were found between plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities and between plasma t-PA activity and ?-TG content in patients with acute ischemic stroke. There were significant differences in plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities in the aged control group, as well as in the acute, convalescent and chronic groups. It can be speculated that the increased activity of t-PA in patients during the acute stage was the result of compensatory function, and that the increase in plasma ?-TG level not only implies the presence of ischemic stroke but is likely a cause of ischemic stroke. During the later stages of ischemic stroke, greater attention is required in monitoring levels of PAI-1. PMID:26002716

  16. Mouse genetic background impacts both on iron and non-iron metals parameters and on their relationships.

    PubMed

    Cavey, Thibault; Ropert, Martine; de Tayrac, Marie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Island, Marie-Laure; Leroyer, Patricia; Bendavid, Claude; Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Iron is reported to interact with other metals. In addition, it has been shown that genetic background may impact iron metabolism. Our objective was to characterize, in mice of three genetic backgrounds, the links between iron and several non-iron metals. Thirty normal mice (C57BL/6, Balb/c and DBA/2; n = 10 for each group), fed with the same diet, were studied. Quantification of iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese, magnesium and rubidium was performed by ICP/MS in plasma, erythrocytes, liver and spleen. Transferrin saturation was determined. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. As previously reported, iron parameters were modulated by genetic background with significantly higher values for plasma iron parameters and liver iron concentration in DBA/2 and Balb/c strains. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was lower in DBA/2 mice. No iron parameter was correlated with hepcidin1 mRNA levels. Principal component analysis of the data obtained for non-iron metals indicated that metals parameters stratified the mice according to their genetic background. Plasma and tissue metals parameters that are dependent or independent of genetic background were identified. Moreover, relationships were found between plasma and tissue content of iron and some other metals parameters. Our data: (i) confirms the impact of the genetic background on iron parameters, (ii) shows that genetic background may also play a role in the metabolism of non-iron metals, (iii) identifies links between iron and other metals parameters which may have implications in the understanding and, potentially, the modulation of iron metabolism. PMID:26041486

  17. Developmental and Neurophysiologic Deficits in Iron Deficiency in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishi Madan; Usha Rusia; Meera Sikka; Satendra Sharma; Nilima Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Several studies in animals and humans have clearly demonstrated the effect of ID on development, cognition, behavior and neurophysiology.\\u000a The effect of ID have been shown: on brain metabolism, neurotransmitter function, and myelination. Changes in brain iron content\\u000a caused by early ID in animals are not reversible by iron therapy, inspite of correction of anemia and other tissue deficits\\u000a and

  18. Different exercise protocols improve metabolic syndrome markers, tissue triglycerides content and antioxidant status in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increase in the prevalence of obesity entails great expenditure for governments. Physical exercise is a powerful tool in the combat against obesity and obesity-associated diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of three different exercise protocols on metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in adult Wistar rats (120 days old). Methods Animals were randomly divided into four groups: the control (C) group was kept sedentary throughout the study; the aerobic group (A) swam1 h per day, 5 days per week, at 80% lactate threshold intensity; the strength group (S) performed strength training with four series of 10 jumps, 5 days per week; and the Concurrent group (AS) was trained using the aerobic protocol three days per week and the strength protocol two days per week. Results Groups A and S exhibited a reduction in body weight compared to group C. All exercised animals showed a reduction in triglyceride concentrations in fatty tissues and the liver. Exercised animals also exhibited a reduction in lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS) and an increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity. Animals in group A had increased levels of liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Conclusions We concluded that all physical activity protocols improved the antioxidant systems of the animals and decreased the storage of triglycerides in the investigated tissues. PMID:22182600

  19. Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grover, Jagdish Kumari; Vats, Vikrant; Yadav, Satyapal

    2002-12-01

    The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body-weight was significantly increased in diabetics (p < 0.0005) vs. normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (p < 0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of PM extract. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10-fold while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls vs. controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by PM. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35,50 and 60% of the controls and PM completely corrected this alteration in PFK and only partly in HK and GK. PMID:12482025

  20. Determination of suitable chemical extraction methods for the available iron content of brown forest soils in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiloglu, Aydin

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the available iron (Fe) content of brown forest soils of Edirne Province and the most suitable chemical extraction method. Eight chemical extraction methods (the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 MTEA, 0.05 M HCl + 0.012 M H2SO4, 1 M NH4OAc (pH: 4.8), 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M NH4OAc, 1 M MgCl2, 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M (NH4)2CO3, 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3, and 0.001 M EDDHA methods) and six biological indices (the dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, and relative Fe uptake) were compared. The biological indices were determined with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, the highest correlation coefficients (r) were determined to be between the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the biological indices and between the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method and the biological indices. The corresponding correlation coefficients (r) for the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the six biological indices were 0.621**, 0.823**, 0.810** 0.433**, 0.558**, and 0.640**, respectively. For the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method, these coefficients were equal to 0.618**, 0.520**, 0.679**, 0.521**, 0.492**, and 0.641**, respectively (** indicate the validity of the relationships at p < 0.01) These extraction methods, out of all the methods tested, were suggested for the determination of the available Fe content of the brown forest soils.

  1. Experimental Hyperglycemia Induces an Increase of Monocyte and T-Lymphocyte Content in Adipose Tissue of Healthy Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Krauzová, Eva; Mališová, Lucia; Ková?ová, Zuzana; Wedellová, Zuzana; Šiklová, Michaela; Štich, Vladimir; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Hyperglycemia represents one of possible mediators for activation of immune system and may contribute to worsening of inflammatory state associated with obesity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a short-term hyperglycemia (HG) on the phenotype and relative content of immune cells in circulation and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) in obese women without metabolic complications. Subjects/Methods Three hour HG clamp with infusion of octreotide and control investigations with infusion of octreotide or saline were performed in three groups of obese women (Group1: HG, Group 2: Octreotide, Group 3: Saline, n=10 per group). Before and at the end of the interventions, samples of SAAT and blood were obtained. The relative content of immune cells in blood and SAAT was determined by flow cytometry. Gene expression analysis of immunity-related markers in SAAT was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In blood, no changes in analysed immune cell population were observed in response to HG. In SAAT, HG induced an increase in the content of CD206 negative monocytes/macrophages (p<0.05) and T lymphocytes (both T helper and T cytotoxic lymphocytes, p<0.01). Further, HG promoted an increase of mRNA levels of immune response markers (CCL2, TLR4, TNF?) and lymphocyte markers (CD3g, CD4, CD8a, TBX21, GATA3, FoxP3) in SAAT (p<0.05 and 0.01). Under both control infusions, none of these changes were observed. Conclusions Acute HG significantly increased the content of monocytes and lymphocytes in SAAT of healthy obese women. This result suggests that the short-term HG can modulate an immune status of AT in obese subjects. PMID:25894202

  2. The optical/X-ray connection: intra-cluster medium iron content and galaxy optical luminosity in 20 galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laganá, T. F.; Dupke, R. A.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Durret, F.

    2009-03-01

    X-ray observations of galaxy clusters have shown that the intra-cluster gas has iron abundances of about one-third of the solar value. These observations also show that part (if not all) of the intra-cluster gas metals was produced within the member galaxies. We present a systematic analysis of 20 galaxy clusters to explore the connection between the iron mass and the total luminosity of early- and late-type galaxies, and of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). From our results, the intra-cluster medium (ICM) iron mass seems to correlate better with the luminosity of the BCGs than with that of the red and blue galaxy populations. As the BCGs cannot produce alone the observed amount of iron, we suggest that ram-pressure plus tidal stripping acts together to enhance, at the same time, the BCG luminosities and the iron mass in the ICM. Through the analysis of the iron yield, we have also estimated that SN Ia are responsible for more than 50 per cent of the total iron in the ICM. This result corroborates the fact that ram-pressure contributes to the gas removal from galaxies to the ICM, being very efficient for clusters in the temperature range 2 < kT (keV) < 10.

  3. Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenkina, I. V.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Klepova, Yu. V.; Dubiel, S. M.; Sadovnikov, N. V.; Semionkin, V. A.

    Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for comparative analysis of iron cores in a human liver ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models Imferon, Maltofer® and Ferrum Lek as well as in iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues allowed to reveal small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters related to differences in the iron core structure. Moreover, it was shown that the best fit of Mössbauer spectra of these samples required different number of components. The latter may indicate that the real iron core structure is more complex than that following from a simple core-shell model. The effect of different living conditions and age on the iron core in chicken liver was also considered.

  4. Effects of Iron on Growth, Pigment Content, Photosystem II Efficiency, and Siderophores Production of Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis wesenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Xing; Wen-min Huang; Dun-hai Li; Yong-ding Liu

    2007-01-01

    Changes in growth, photosynthetic pigments, and photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency as well as production of siderophores\\u000a of Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcystis wesenbergii were determined in this experiment. Results showed growths of M. aeruginosa and M. wesenbergii, measured by means of optical density at 665 nm, were severely inhibited under an iron-limited condition, whereas they thrived\\u000a under an iron-replete

  5. [CO2 emission from soil-crop system as influenced by crop growth and tissue N content].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-juan; Huang, Yao; Chen, Shu-tao; Yang, Zhao-fang; Zheng, Xun-hua

    2004-05-01

    To understand the CO2 emission from soil-crop system as influenced by crop growth and tissue N content, pot and field experiments were carried out during 2001-02 wheat and rice growing seasons. Black chambers were used to take gas samples within a closed soil-crop system. The CO2 emission rate was detected by a gas chromatograph. Seasonal change of the CO2 emission was observed from the soil-crop system. Respiration from the soil-rice system was higher than that from the soil-wheat system. Dark respiration of the crop shoot was positively correlated to the shoot biomass. The respiration coefficient Rd, defined as the amount of CO2-C respired by per unit biomass C within one day under a reference temperature of 25 degrees C, can be well quantitatively expressed by shoot N content for either wheat or rice crop. Relationship between the Rd and the N content can be described as a linear regression of Rd = 0.0124N - 0.0076 (R2=0.9879, p<0.001) for the wheat crop and as a quadratic equation of Rd = 0.0085N2 - 0.0049N (R2=0.9776, p<0.001) for the rice crop, respectively. The crop roots promoted the soil respiration greatly, which increased by 178% for the wheat and 338% for the rice in comparison with the respiration from root-free soil. A further calculation of the root respiration, including root autotrophic respiration and rhizosphere respiration, suggested that the contribution of crop rhizosphere respiration to the total soil respiration was greater in the upland soil than that in the irrigated paddy soil. PMID:15327243

  6. Effects of high but nontoxic dietary manganese and iron on their metabolism by calves

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.Y.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Neathery, M.W.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1984-07-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were fed one of four diets for 18 days in an experiment consisting of 0 and 1000 ppm supplemental manganese and 0 and 1000 ppm added iron as manganese carbonate and ferrous carbonate. The control diet contained 55 ppm manganese and 220 ppm iron. All calves were dosed orally 48 h prior to sacrifice with 500 ..mu..Ci of manganese-54. Small intestinal iron was less in calves fed a high manganese diet, a possible interaction of these two elements at the absorption site. Feeding a high manganese diet tended to decrease iron (total) concentrations in liver and pancreas. When the high manganese diet was supplemented with additional iron, antagonistic effects of manganese on iron were eliminated. Neither iron nor manganese concentrations in tissues were affected by an increase of dietary iron. Manganese-54 content of tissue was reduced by the high manganese diet but was not affected by dietary iron. Total manganese and iron in feces fairly closely reflected dietary intake of each element with no evidence of interaction. Calves fed the high iron diet excreted less manganese-54 in their feces over 2 days. Total iron in blood serum was not affected significantly by the dietary treatments. 22 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Effects of high but nontoxic dietary manganese and iron on their metabolism by calves.

    PubMed

    Ho, S Y; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P; Neathery, M W; Blackmon, D M

    1984-07-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were fed one of four diets for 18 days in an experiment consisting of 0 and 1000 ppm supplemental manganese and 0 and 1000 ppm added iron as manganese carbonate and ferrous carbonate. The control diet contained 55 ppm manganese and 220 ppm iron. All calves were dosed orally 48 h prior to sacrifice with 500 muCi of manganese-54. Small intestinal iron was less in calves fed a high manganese diet, a possible interaction of these two elements at the absorption site. Feeding a high manganese diet tended to decrease iron (total) concentrations in liver and pancreas. When the high manganese diet was supplemented with additional iron, antagonistic effects of manganese on iron were eliminated. Neither iron nor manganese concentrations in tissues were affected by an increase of dietary iron. Manganese-54 content of tissue was reduced by the high manganese diet but was not affected by dietary iron. Total manganese and iron in feces fairly closely reflected dietary intake of each element with no evidence of interaction. Calves fed the high iron diet excreted less manganese-54 in their feces over 2 days. Total iron in blood serum was not affected significantly by the dietary treatments. PMID:6747050

  8. Effects of high-pressure oxygen therapy on brain tissue water content and AQP4 expression in rabbits with cerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Jiong; Guo, Hua; Peng, Fang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of different atmosphere absolutes (ATA) of high-pressure oxygen (HPO) on brain tissue water content and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression in rabbits with cerebral hemorrhage. 180 New Zealand white rabbits were selected and randomly divided into normal group (n = 30), control group (n = 30) and cerebral hemorrhage group (n = 120), and cerebral hemorrhage group was divided into group A, B, C and D with 30 rabbits in each group. The groups received 1.0, 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 ATA of HPO treatments, respectively. Ten rabbits in each group were killed at first, third and fifth day to detect the brain tissue water content and change of AQP4 expression. In cerebral hemorrhage group, brain tissue water content and AQP4 expression after model establishment were first increased, then decreased and reached the maximum on third day (p < 0.05). Brain tissue water content and AQP4 expression in control group and cerebral hemorrhage group were significantly higher than normal group at different time points (p < 0.05). In contrast, brain tissue water content and AQP4 expression in group C were significantly lower than in group A, group B, group D and control group (p < 0.05). In control group, AQP4-positive cells significantly increased after model establishment, which reached maximum on third day, and positive cells in group C were significantly less than in group A, group B and group D. We also found that AQP4 expression were positively correlated with brain tissue water content (r = 0.719, p < 0.05) demonstrated by significantly increased AQP4 expression along with increased brain tissue water content. In conclusion, HPO can decrease AQP4 expression in brain tissue of rabbits with cerebral hemorrhage to suppress the progression of brain edema and promote repairing of injured tissue. 2.0 ATA HPO exerts best effects, which provides an experimental basis for ATA selection of HPO in treating cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:25064222

  9. Analysis of iron, zinc, selenium and cadmium in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Gray, Michael A.; MacIas, V.; Centeno, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a valuable and abundant resource of pathologic material for various biomedical studies. In the present study, we report the application of high-resolution inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) for quantification of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd in FFPE prostate tissue. These elements have a possible role in the development of prostate diseases: while Zn and Se are needed for a healthy prostate, Cd shows multiple toxic and carcinogenic effects. Excessive accumulation of Fe induces the production of highly reactive hydroxyl radical species, which may play a role in cancer etiopathogenesis. To assess whether the levels of these metals in the FFPE prostate tissue represent their original content, we compared their levels with those in the fresh tissue (on dry weight basis) in samples obtained from 15 patients. We found that in FFPE tissue, the recoveries of Se, Fe, Cd and Zn were progressively decreased, 97??11% (r=0.88), 82??22% (r=0.86), 59??23% (r=0.69) and 24??11% (r=0.38), respectively. Thus, the use of correction factors, determined as k=0.16 for Se, k=0.20 for Fe, k=0.27 for Cd and k=0.67 for Zn, is required to estimate the retrospective levels of these elements in the parental non-processed fresh (wet) prostate tissue. The technique used in this study enables the analysis of archival FFPE prostate tissue for the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd to study association between the levels of these metals and prostate disease. ?? 2008.

  10. HEPCIDIN AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2014-01-01

    Despite fluctuations in dietary iron intake and intermittent losses through bleeding, the plasma iron concentrations in humans remain stable at 10–30 ?M. While most of the iron entering blood plasma comes from recycling, appropriate amount of iron is absorbed from the diet to compensate for losses and maintain nontoxic amounts in stores. Plasma iron concentration and iron distribution are similarly regulated in laboratory rodents. The hepatic peptide hepcidin was identified as the systemic iron-regulatory hormone. In the efferent arc, hepcidin regulates intestinal iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution by inducing degradation of its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. Ferroportin exports iron into plasma from absorptive enterocytes, from macrophages that recycle the iron of senescent erythrocytes, and from hepatocytes that store iron. In the more complex and less well understood afferent arc, hepatic hepcidin synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by extracellular and intracellular iron concentrations through a molecular complex of bone morphogenetic protein receptors and their iron-specific ligands, modulators and iron sensors. Through as yet undefined pathways, hepcidin is also homeostatically regulated by the iron requirements of erythroid precursors for hemoglobin synthesis. In accordance with the role of hepcidin-mediated iron redistribution in host defense, hepcidin production is regulated by inflammation as well. Increased hepcidin concentrations in plasma are pathogenic in iron-restrictive anemias including anemias associated with inflammation, chronic kidney disease and some cancers. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis and ineffective erythropoiesis. Hepcidin, ferroportin and their regulators represent potential targets for the diagnosis and treatment of iron disorders and anemias. PMID:22306005

  11. A Hyperlipidic Diet Combined with Short-Term Ovariectomy Increases Adiposity and Hyperleptinemia and Decreases Cytokine Content in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Nelson Inacio Pinto; Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth Sousa; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6R?, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet. PMID:26170534

  12. Over-expression of the MxIRT1 gene increases iron and zinc content in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song; Han, Rui; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei-Bing; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce Fe-biofortified rice with MxIRT1 to solve the Fe-deficiency problem, plant expression vectors of pCAMBIA1302-MxIRT1:GFP and pCAMBIA1302-anti MxIRT1:GFP were constructed that led to successful production of transgenic rice. The transgenic plant phenotypes showed that the expression of endogenous OsIRT1 was suppressed by anti-MxIRT1 in antisense lines that acted as an opposing control, while sense lines had a higher tolerance under Zn- and Fe-deficient conditions. The iron and zinc concentration in T3 seeds increased by three times in sense lines when compared to the wild type. To understand the MxIRT1 cadmium uptake, the MxIRT1 cadmium absorption trait was compared with AtIRT1 and OsIRT1 in transgenic rice protoplasts, and it was found that MxIRT1 had the lowest Cd uptake capacity. MxIRT1 transgenic tobacco-cultured bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells and rice lines were subjected to different Fe conditions and the results from the non-invasive micro-test technique showed that iron was actively transported compared to cadmium as long as iron was readily available in the environment. This suggests that MxIRT1 is a good candidate gene for plant Fe and Zn biofortification. PMID:25099285

  13. Zinc and Dry Matter Content of Tissues and Feces of Zinc-Deficient and Normal Ruminants Fed Ethylenediaminetetraacetate and Cadmium1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Miller; G. W. Powell; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry

    1968-01-01

    In experiments involving 18 nmle Hol- stein calves and 17 male goats, zinc and dry matter content of various tissues were studied in zinc-deficient and normal ani- mals fed purified diets containing either: no additive, 300 ppm EDTA (as disodium EDTA), or 350 ppm cadmium (as CdCI:). All of the animals were given the same low zinc (4 ppm zinc)

  14. Effect of nitrogen, salt, and iron content in the growth medium and light intensity on lipid production by microalgae isolated from freshwater sources in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2011-02-01

    Four green microalgae (TRG, KB, SK, and PSU) identified as Botryococcus spp. by morphological criteria were isolated from lakes and freshwater ponds in southern Thailand. In nitrogen-rich medium the strains achieved a lipid content of 25.8%, 17.8%, 15.8% and 5.7%, respectively. A combination of nitrogen deficiency, moderately high light intensity (82.5 ?E m(-2) s(-1)) and high level of iron (0.74 mM) improved lipid accumulation in TRG, KB, SK, and PSU strains up to 35.9%, 30.2%, 28.4% and 14.7%, respectively. The lipid contents and plant oil-like fatty acid composition of the microalgae suggested their potential as biodiesel feedstock. PMID:20980142

  15. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties. PMID:25582178

  16. Influence of chelation and oxidation state on vanadium bioavailability, and their effects on tissue concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine H. Thompson; Yoko Tsukada; Zhaoming Xu; Mary Battell; John H. McNeill; Chris Orvig

    2002-01-01

    Today, vanadium compounds are frequently included in nutritional supplements and are also being developed for therapeutic\\u000a use in diabetes mellitus. Previously, tissue uptake of vanadium from bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV) was shown to be\\u000a increased compared to its uptake from vanadyl sulfate (VS). Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that complexation\\u000a increases vanadium uptake and that this effect is independent

  17. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  18. THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Bennett, David B.; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sayre, James W.; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Deng, Sophie X.; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system and millimeter-wave reflectometer were used to acquire images and point measurements, respectively, of five rabbit cornea in vivo. These imaging results are the first ever produced of in vivo cornea. A modified version of a standard protocol using a gentle stream of air and a Mylar window was employed to slightly dehydrate healthy cornea. The sensor data and companion central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were acquired every 10–15 min over the course of two hours using ultrasound pachymmetry.. Statistically significant positive correlations were established between CCT measurements and millimeter wave reflectivity. Local shifts in reflectivity contrast were observed in the THz imagery; however, the THz reflectivity did not display a significant correlation with thickness in the region probed by the 100 GHz and CCT measurements. This is explained in part by a thickness sensitivity at least 10× higher in the mm-wave than the THz systems. Stratified media and effective media modeling suggest that the protocol perturbed the thickness and not the corneal tissue water content (CTWC). To further explore possible etalon effects, an additional rabbit was euthanized and millimeter wave measurements were obtained during death induced edema. These observations represent the first time that the uncoupled sensing of CTWC and CCT have been achieved in vivo.

  19. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effects of iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins on the activity and contents of human placental copper/zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Hunaiti, A A; Saleh, M S

    1996-09-01

    One hundred seventy-nine pregnant women, ages 15-45 yr, were divided into three groups. Group A was orally given one spansule per day containing 150 mg dried ferrous sulfate, 61.8 mg zinc sulfate, and 500 micrograms folic acid, starting from the first 4 wk of pregnancy and ending at the day of delivery. Similarly, group B was given one tablet containing 625 mg calcium carbonate, 1000 mg vitamin C, 300 IU Vitamin D, 1350 mg citric acid, and 15 mg Vitamin B6. Group C was without any supplements and served as a control. Mothers who received iron/zinc supplements (group A) during pregnancy had significantly higher copper/zinc superoxide dismutase activity in their placentae than calcium/vitamin-supplemented mothers (group B) or unsupplemented mothers (group C). The enzyme activity increased with age of the mothers from 15 to 40 yr, then decreased after in both supplemented groups, whereas this increase and decrease occurred at early age in the unsupplemented group. Immunochemical quantitation of the enzyme contents showed no significant difference between the supplemented and unsupplemented groups, suggesting that the observed increase in the enzyme activity might arise from posttranslational processing of the enzyme. The placental manganese superoxide dismutase activity and contents, however, were similar in the supplemented groups, whereas they were slightly higher in the unsupplemented group; the overall superoxide dismutase-like activities in the placentae were the highest in iron-zinc supplemented group and the lowest in the unsupplemented group. PMID:8909696

  1. Electrolytic iron or ferrous sulfate increase body iron in women with moderate to low iron stores.

    PubMed

    Swain, James H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hunt, Janet R

    2007-03-01

    Commercial elemental iron powders (electrolytic and reduced iron), as well as heme iron supplements, were tested for efficacy in improving the iron status of women. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 51 women with moderate to low iron stores received daily for 12 wk: 1) placebo, 2) 5 mg iron as heme iron or 50 mg iron as 3) electrolytic iron, 4) reduced iron, or 5) FeSO(4). Treatments were provided in 2 capsules (heme carrier) and 3 wheat rolls (other iron sources). Differences in iron status, food nonheme iron absorption, and fecal properties were evaluated. Body iron, assessed from the serum transferrin receptor:ferritin ratio, increased significantly more in subjects administered FeSO(4) (127 +/- 29 mg; mean +/- SEM) and electrolytic (115 +/- 37 mg), but not the reduced (74 +/- 32 mg) or heme (65 +/- 26 mg) iron forms, compared with those given placebo (2 +/- 19 mg). Based on body iron determinations, retention of the added iron was estimated as 3.0, 2.7, 1.8, and 15.5%, in the 4 iron-treated groups, respectively. Iron treatments did not affect food iron absorption. The 50 mg/d iron treatments increased fecal iron and free radical-generating capacity in vitro, but did not affect fecal water cytotoxicity. In subjects administered FeSO(4), fecal water content was increased slightly but significantly more than in the placebo group. In conclusion, electrolytic iron was approximately 86% as efficacious as FeSO(4) for improving body iron, but the power of this study was insufficient to detect any efficacy of the reduced or heme iron within 12 wk. With modification, this methodology of testing higher levels of food fortification for several weeks in healthy women with low iron stores has the potential for economically assessing the efficiency of iron compounds to improve iron status. PMID:17311950

  2. Fact versus artifact: Avoiding erroneous estimates of sulfated glycosaminoglycan content using the dimethylmethylene blue colorimetric assay for tissue-engineered constructs

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, C.; Levenston, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    The 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay is widely used to quantify sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents of engineered tissues, culture media, tissue samples and bodily fluids, but is subject to interference from polyanions such as hyaluronic acid (HA), DNA and RNA. We examined whether specific combinations of dye pH and absorbance wavelength could minimize non-sGAG artifacts without compromising DMMB assay sensitivity. HA and DNA solutions generated substantial signal at pH 3 but not at pH 1.5. Reducing dye pH did not significantly alter sGAG measurements for normal cartilage and meniscus tissues, but eliminated anomalously high apparent sGAG contents for enzymatically isolated chondrocytes, adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-agarose constructs and ADSC pellets. In a cartilage tissue engineering case study, pH 3 dye indicated high apparent sGAG readings throughout culture in both basal and chondrogenic media, with a marked decline between day 14 and 21 for chondrogenic constructs. The pH 1.5 dye, however, indicated minimal sGAG accumulation in basal medium and stable sGAG content throughout culture in chondrogenic medium. As it is often difficult to know a priori whether all groups in a study will have sGAG contents high enough to overwhelm artifacts, we recommend modifying the standard DMMB assay to reduce the risk of spurious findings in tissue engineering and clinical research. Specifically, we recommend shifting to a pH 1.5 DMMB dye and basing quantification on the absorbance difference between 525 nm (? peak) and 595 nm (? peak) to compensate for the moderate loss of sensitivity associated with reducing the dye pH. PMID:25890595

  3. [Holotoxin content in the tissues of the holothurian Stichopus japonicus at different seasons of the year and their effect on oocyte maturation].

    PubMed

    Aminin, D L; Anisimov, M M

    1987-01-01

    Seasonal variations and distribution of holotoxins in tissues of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus have been studied. It was shown that holotoxin content in the ovaries is higher than that in other organs during the breeding season. In the course of a year, the amount of glycosides in other holothurian organs changed a little. It has been found out that high concentrations of glycosides inhibit oocyte maturation in the holothurian Stichopus japonicus. PMID:3673372

  4. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59??mols?TE?g?1?FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27?g GAE 100?g?1?FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  5. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in fruit tissues from accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero pepper) at different stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 ?mols TE g(-1) FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g(-1) FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  6. The influence of the analysis technique on estimating liver iron overload using magnetic resonance imaging T2* quantification.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Khalifa, Ayman M; Eldaly, Ahmed K

    2014-01-01

    Iron toxicity is the major cause of tissue damage in patients with iron overload. Iron deposits mainly in the liver, where its concentration closely correlates with whole body iron overload. Different techniques have been proposed for estimating iron content, with liver biopsy being the gold standard despite its invasiveness and influence by sampling error. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as an effective technique for evaluating iron overload by measuring T2(*) in the liver. However, various factors associated with the adopted analysis technique, mainly the exponential fitting model and signal averaging method, affect the resulting measurements. In this study, we evaluate the influences of these factors on T2(*) measurement in numerical phantom, calibrated phantoms, and nine patients with different degrees of iron overload. The results show different performances among the fitting models and signal averaging methods, which are affected by SNR, image quality and signal homogeneity inside the selected ROI for analysis. PMID:25571026

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  8. Iron in Cereal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    Is there really iron in breakfast cereal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the removal of iron from a box of high-iron content breakfast cereal. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills being covered, complex reasoning strategies that are used, and a compilation of national science standards about this activity. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies and instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. An explanation of the content of each activity and assessment suggestions are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  9. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS. PMID:25662508

  10. Metal contents in liver tissues of non-fledged goldeneye, Bucephala clangula, ducklings: a comparison between samples from acidic, circumneutral, and limed lakes in south Sweden.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, M O; Henrikson, L; Oscarson, H G

    1989-01-01

    The risk of increased exposure to metals for a vertebrate predator foraging on aquatic insects in acidified lakes was investigated through analyses of the content of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Ru, Se, and Zn in the liver tissue of 42 non-fledged Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula, ducklings from acidic, circumneutral, and limed lakes in South Sweden. No indications of significantly different concentrations in samples from acidic lakes in comparison with circumneutral lakes were detected for any metal, but among individual birds from acidic lakes there were high contents of Hg. Liming probably affects the exposure to some metals; lower contents of Hg were recorded from limed lakes in comparison with acidic lakes, while the reverse trend was recorded for Cd and Mn. PMID:2923494

  11. Molecular liaisons between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Although most circulating iron in blood plasma is destined for erythropoiesis, the mechanisms by which erythropoietic demand modulates the iron supply (“erythroid regulators”) remain largely unknown. Iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution are tightly controlled by the liver-produced hormone hepcidin. During the last decade, much progress has been made in elucidating hepcidin regulation by iron and inflammation. This review discusses the less understood mechanisms and mediators of hepcidin suppression in physiologically and pathologically stimulated erythropoiesis. PMID:24876565

  12. Evaluation of the content and bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium from groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content and the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg) in commonly consumed food products, such as cereal groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts purchased from the local market. The contents of Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg in foods were assayed after dry ashing of samples, while the bioaccessibility of these minerals after enzymatic in vitro digestion, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A relatively high content of Fe was found in cashew nuts and green lentils, while cashew nuts and buckwheat groats had the highest concentration of Zn. It was found that the highest amount of macro-elements was generally in nuts, in particular: brazil nuts (Ca and Mg), cashews (Mg) and hazelnuts (Ca and Mg). Concerning the mineral bioaccessibility, the highest values for Fe were obtained in cashew nuts and green lentils (2.8 and 1.7 mg/100 g), for Zn in green lentils (2.1 mg/100 g), for Ca in brazil nuts and shelled pea (32.6 and 29.1 mg/100 g), while for Mg in shelled peas and green lentils (43.4 and 33.9 mg/100 g). Generally, the best sources of bioaccessible minerals seem to be leguminous grains and nuts. PMID:24587537

  13. Hemochromatosis Protein (HFE) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 (TNFR2) Influence Tissue Iron Levels: Elements of a Common Gut Pathway?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul N. Meyer; Glenn S. Gerhard; Yukinori Yoshida; Mika Yoshida; Karen A. Chorney; John Beard; Elizabeth J. Kauffman; Günter Weiss; Michael J. Chorney

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACTQuantitative genetic analysis of hepatic and splenic iron levels in recombinant inbred mice yielded a quantitative trait locus that was found to coincide with the genomic locale encompassing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 gene (Tnfr2). When fed an iron-enriched diet, mice nullizygous with respect to Tnfr2, but not the Tnfr1 gene, showed a significant increase in splenic non-heme iron

  14. A comparison study of different excitation wavelengths to determine the relative content of key biomolecules in breast cancer and breast normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence profiles from breast cancer and breast normal tissue samples with excitation wavelengths at 280 nm and 340 nm were obtained using the conventional LS-50 Perkin-Elmer spectrometer. Fluorescence ratios from these tissue samples, demonstrated by emission peaks at 340 nm, 440 nm and 460 nm and likely representing tryptophan and NADH, show increased relative content of tryptophan in malignant samples. Double ratio (DR) techniques were used to measure the severity of disease. The single excitation double ratio (Single-DR) method utilizes the emission intensity peaks from the spectrum acquired using a single excitation of 280 nm; while the dual excitation double ratio (dual-DR) method utilizes the emission intensity peaks from the spectra acquired using an excitation of 280 nm and 340 nm. Single-DR and dual-DR from 13 patients with breast carcinoma were compared in terms of their efficiency to distinguish high from low/intermediate tumors. Similar results were found with both methods. Results suggest that dual excitation wavelengths may be as effective as single excitation wavelength in calculating the relative content of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue, as well as for the assessment of the malignant potential of these tumors.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in rice [Oryza sativa L.] germplasm based on agro-morphology traits and zinc-iron content for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhas Chandra; Sharma, B D

    2014-04-01

    Genetic resources of landraces (84 cultivars) were collected from various agro-ecological regions of West Bengal and adjoining areas and characterized based on qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological descriptors along with zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content. The DUS protocol was employed to study 16 agro-morphological passport data such as: vegetative data (anthocyanin pigmentation, plant habit), reproductive data (flag leaf attitude, stigma colour, panicle attitude), including eight grain quality traits: grain length, grain width, 1000 grains weight, kernel length, kernel breadth etc. Highest seed weight was found in cultivar Khechri (32.04 g/1000 seeds), collected from Sundarban and least seed weight was 9.6 g/1000seeds in Katharibhog. Maturity duration was found very short (<100 days) in Jumla Marshi (97 days) collected from world's coldest rice growing area, Jumla, Nepal. Penultimate leaves breadth was observed broad (>2 cm) in one cultivar Jungli (2.3 cm). Seeds per panicle were 180 in Chinisakkar (medium range), 177 in Dudheswar, and 151 in Ladua. Flag leaf was found in erect condition in late observation in Dudheswar, Enda and Ghiosh. Seventeen cultivars were grouped in the aromatic rice category out of total 84 local landraces. Twenty-one cultivars were with awn, whose length ranges from 1.6 mm (Anandi) to 22.5 mm (Tulaipanji). Kernel colour varies from red, yellowish, brownish, creamy white to white. Kernel length varies from 4 mm to 8 mm and breadth 1.90 mm to 3 mm. Kernel length/breadth ration varied from 1.6 to 3.9. Highest ratio of L/B was found in Pusa Basmati 1(3.9) and lowest in Dudhey (1.6). Elongation ration was highest in Kalokure (2.07) and lowest in Phoolpakri (0.62). Nutritional values of mineral contents of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were estimated in all cultivars by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometic method. Iron concentration varies from 0.25 ?g/g to 34.8 ?g/g and zinc from 0.85 ?g/g to 195.3 ?g/g in the landraces. Highest iron containing rice was Swetonunia with 34.8 ?g/g and highest amount of Zn was found in Nepali Kalam which was 195.3 ?g/g. Anaerobic germination (AG) was observed in 18 cultivars among 84 land races (viz. Jungli, Kumrogore, Dudheshwar, Rambhog and Tulsi etc.), the trait is highly desired by the rice breeder for the introgression of this gene (QTL) to the HYV for direct seeding in the field for saving labour cost and reduced maturity time. Dendrogram showed genetic diversity among 84 landraces by grouping them into five major clusters. All the descriptors evaluated in this study have showed that there is enough genetic diversity among landraces and this information can be helpful to the breeders to choose the right parent for crop improvement. PMID:24757325

  16. Iron loading and disease surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, E. D.

    1999-01-01

    Iron is an oxidant as well as a nutrient for invading microbial and neoplastic cells. Excessive iron in specific tissues and cells (iron loading) promotes development of infection, neoplasia, cardiomyopathy, arthropathy, and various endocrine and possibly neurodegenerative disorders. To contain and detoxify the metal, hosts have evolved an iron withholding defense system, but the system can be compromised by numerous factors. An array of behavioral, medical, and immunologic methods are in place or in development to strengthen iron withholding. Routine screening for iron loading could provide valuable information in epidemiologic, diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic studies of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:10341171

  17. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydro-cooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Xingbin; Long, Lynn E

    2014-10-01

    To improve storage/shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) added to hydro-cooling water on physiological and biochemical processes related to fruit and pedicel quality was investigated on two major cultivars. The fruit tissue Ca content increased up to 29-85% logarithmically for 'Sweetheart' and 39-188% linearly for 'Lapins' as CaCl2 rate increased from 0.2% to 2.0% at 0 °C for 5 min. The increase of fruit tissue Ca content was accompanied by reductions in respiration rate, ascorbic acid degradation, and membrane lipid peroxidation, which enhanced total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity, and resulted in increases in fruit firmness and pitting resistance and decreases in titratable acidity loss and decay of both cultivars. Pedicel browning was inhibited by CaCl2 at 0.2% and 0.5%, but increased by higher rates at 1.0% and 2.0%, possibly via modifying membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24799204

  18. Can summary nitrite+nitrate content serve as an indicator of NO synthesis intensity in body tissues?

    PubMed

    Titov, V Yu; Ivanova, A V; Petrov, V A; Serezhenkov, V A; Mikoyan, V D; Vanin, A F; Osipov, A N

    2012-10-01

    Studies with the use of a highly specific enzymatic sensor demonstrated that, contrary to the common opinion, normally nitrate is in fact not present in the most important physiological fluids. NO metabolites in the amniotic fluid and semen are mainly presented by NO donor compounds. Therefore, the intensity of NO synthesis can be evaluated by the total content of all its metabolites, but not by the widely used summary nitrite+nitrate content. PMID:23113298

  19. Arterial Oxygen Content Is Precisely Maintained by Graded Erythrocytotic Responses in Settings of High/Normal Serum Iron Levels, and Predicts Exercise Capacity: An Observational Study of Hypoxaemic Patients with Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Santhirapala, Vatshalan; Williams, Louisa C.; Tighe, Hannah C.; Jackson, James E.; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. Methodology 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96%) had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. Principal Findings There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5–99, median 95)% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001). Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001). A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8%) patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. Significance Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant oxygen content per unit blood volume. This can be maintained for SaO2 ?78.5%, and resets to the same arterial oxygen content after correction of hypoxaemia. Serum iron concentrations, not ferritin, seem to predict more successful polycythaemic responses. PMID:24637882

  20. Investigation of the effect of water content, thickness and optical properties on laser ablation of biological tissue 

    E-print Network

    Vaidyanathan, Varadarajan

    1991-01-01

    -detector and the voltage reading on the multimeter was noted down. A ratio of the set-point voltage so and the newly measured voltage s yielded the attenuation coefficient gaia as defined by Beer's law, pa=( In [so/s]/d ), where d is the tissue thickness. 18 LASE...

  1. Influence of sulfur-amino acid content variation in plant vs animal protein on serum and tissue lipids in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Potter; Constance V. Kies

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of methionine and cysteine supplementation of soy protein isolate and casein on serum and tissue lipid levels in rats. Sixty male, weanling, Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed two sources of protein (casein or soy protein isolate) and three variations of sulfur-amino acid supplementation (none, methionine, or cysteine). At this level of

  2. The fermentable fiber content of the diet alters the function and composition of canine gut associated lymphoid tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine J. Field; Michael I. McBurney; Stefan Massimino; Michael G. Hayek; Greg D. Sunvold

    1999-01-01

    The ingestion of plant fibers and their susceptibility to microbial fermentation in the large bowel modulate intestinal morphology but little is known about effects on the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of consuming diets containing different levels of fermentability fiber on immune function. Sixteen adult mongrel dogs (23±2kg) were

  3. Tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in minipigs after cutaneous synthesis, supplementation and deprivation of vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Morten; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-06-01

    Information regarding the endogenous storages of vitamin D3 after cutaneous vitamin D synthesis compared to oral vitamin D3 supplementation is sparse. Furthermore it is not known whether vitamin D3 can be stored for later use during periods of shortages of vitamin D3. To investigate the endogenous storages of vitamin D3 two studies were carried out in Göttingen minipigs. In study 1 one group of minipigs (n=2) was daily exposed to UV light corresponding to 10-20min of midday sun and another group (n=2) of pigs were fed up to 60?g vitamin D3/day corresponding to 3.7-4.4?g/kg body weight. Study 1 demonstrated that daily UV-exposure of minipigs stimulated the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 and resulted in increasing serum vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, but also carcasses containing vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3. The vitamin D3 content in adipose tissue from the UV-exposed minipigs was 150-260ng/g and the content was 90-150ng/g in the orally supplemented minipigs. In study 2, minipigs were UV-exposed daily for 49days. Subsequently, one group (n=2) was fed a vitamin D-free diet and another group (n=2) was dosed daily with 13C-labeled vitamin D3. The concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in serum and skin- and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were repeatedly monitored. Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were eliminated from the skin and the adipose tissue after UV-exposure was ceased. Supplementation of 13C-vitamin D3 did not seem to affect the decline in the endogenous vitamin D3 in the adipose tissue formed during UV-exposure. PMID:25725256

  4. Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2011-08-12

    Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes. PMID:21719700

  5. A study of some of the factors related to glycogen content and the resulting color of the lean tissue of beef 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Glenn Edward

    1952-01-01

    I 7 ', 0. 425 f ( 0 ' 049 t ; 0. 048 I I 0. 050 , 0. 048 0, 084 I I ( 0. 468 I I 5. 4 ' A-2 65 , 'A8 55', A4 TA HL" XI PERCENT GLYCOGEN, PH AND COLOR C NTAINED IN SAMPLES OF MUSCLE TISSUE TAKFN IMMEDIATFLY AFTER SLA", GHTER...: The incidence of abnormal ooloring in the caroasses of 308 4-H Club steers was 2. 8g black, 6. Q dark and 9. 4$ shady- cutting. The average sugar content of the dark-cutting, shady and light samples was 0. 03$, 0. 11$, and 0. 11$, rsspeotive- ly. The average p...

  6. Alterations in lignin content and phenylpropanoids pathway in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) tissues affected by brittle leaf disease.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Mohammed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Hammami, Ines; Namsi, Ahmed; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2013-10-01

    Brittle leaf disease or Maladie de la Feuille Cassante (MFC) is a lethal disorder of date palm that has assumed epidemic proportions in the oases of Tunisia and Algeria. No pathogen could ever be associated with the disease, while leaflets of affected palms have been previously shown to be deficient in manganese. The work reported here aims to understand the biochemical basis of the date palm response to this disorder. Since the typical disease symptom is the leaf fragility, we have investigated lignin content in leaves and roots. Strong decrease in total lignin content was observed in affected leaves, while lignin content increased in affected roots. Histochemical analyses showed hyperlignification thicker suberin layer in roots cortical cells. The phenylpropanoids pathway was also disrupted in leaves and roots, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression was affected by the disease which severely affects the cell wall integrity. PMID:23987806

  7. Influence of temperature and carbon content on the cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior of {alpha}-iron. Part 1: Cyclic deformation and stress behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C.; Mughrabi, H.; Lochner, D. [Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften] [Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften

    1998-03-02

    The cyclic deformation and stress-strain behavior of pure {alpha}-iron polycrystals has been investigated in tests with small to intermediate plastic strain ranges {Delta}{epsilon}{sub pl} in the temperature range from 220 to 573 K. An analysis of the maximum stress amplitudes yields a high effective stress component {sigma}{sup *} at low temperatures and a maximum of the hardening at the transition temperature of about 340 K. In cyclic deformation with small {Delta}{epsilon}{sub pl} inverse cyclic stress-strain behavior (i.e. increasing stress amplitude with decreasing {Delta}{epsilon}{sub pl}) is observed and can be explained by an increase of {sigma}{sup *} with decreasing {Delta}{epsilon}{sub pl} caused by a decrease of the fraction of plastically deforming grains. Different effects of small carbon contents up to 74 wt ppm on the cyclic deformation behavior and on the corresponding microstructures were noted and characterized in tests at intermediate {Delta}{epsilon}{sub pl} in dependence on temperature.

  8. Changes in tissue lipid and cholesterol content in the catfish Clarias batrachus (L. ) exposed to cadmium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, S.R.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Very little is known about the effect of Cd on the physiology of fishes. In the present study, changes in the lipid and cholesterol contents of the brain, liver and gonad of C. batrachus exposed to 50 ppm of Cd chloride for 135 days are reported.

  9. Connective tissue content and myocardial stiffness in pressure overload hypertrophy A combined study of morphologic, morphometric, biochemical, and mechanical parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-U. Thiedemann; Ch. Holubarsch; I. Medugorac; R. Jacob

    1983-01-01

    Summary We investigated samples of left ventricular myocardium from Goldblatt II (4 and 8 weeks after operation) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; 40 and 80 weeks old) by histological and morphometric methods. From the same hearts, the distensibility of the left ventricular papillary muscle was analyzed by means of resting tension curves, and the collagen content of the whole left

  10. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young’s modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet. PMID:26177083

  11. alpha-Linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bougnoux, P.; Koscielny, S.; Chajès, V.; Descamps, P.; Couet, C.; Calais, G.

    1994-01-01

    The association between the levels of various fatty acids in adipose breast tissue and the emergence of visceral metastases was prospectively studied in a cohort of 121 patients with an initially localised breast cancer. Adipose breast tissue was obtained at the time of initial surgery, and its fatty acid content analysed by capillary gas chromatography. A low level of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in adipose breast tissue was associated with positive axillary lymph node status and with the presence of vascular invasion, but not with tumour size or mitotic index. After an average 31 months of follow-up, 21 patients developed metastases. Large tumour size, high mitotic index, presence of vascular invasion and low level of 18:3n-3 were single factors significantly associated with an increased risk of metastasis. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify prognostic factors. Low 18:3n-3 level and large tumour size were the two factors predictive of metastases. These results suggest that host alpha-linolenic acid has a specific role in the metastatic process in vivo. Further understanding of the biology of this essential fatty acid of the n-3 series is needed in breast carcinoma. PMID:7914425

  12. Parathyroid hormone PTH(1–34) increases the volume, mineral content, and mechanical properties of regenerated mineralizing tissue after distraction osteogenesis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has attracted considerable interest as a bone anabolic agent. Recently, it has been suggested that PTH can also enhance bone repair after fracture and distraction osteogenesis. We analyzed bone density and strength of the newly regenerated mineralized tissue after intermittent treatment with PTH in rabbits, which undergo Haversian bone remodeling similar to that in humans. Methods 72 New Zealand White rabbits underwent tibial mid-diaphyseal osteotomy and the callus was distracted 1 mm/day for 10 days. The rabbits were divided into 3 groups, which received injections of PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 30 days, saline for 10 days and PTH 25 µg/kg/day for 20 days, or saline for 30 days. At the end of the study, the rabbits were killed and the bone density was evaluated with DEXA. The mechanical bone strength was determined by use of a 3-point bending test. Results In the 2 PTH-treated groups the regenerate callus ultimate load was 33% and 30% higher, absorbed energy was 100% and 65% higher, BMC was 61% and 60% higher, and callus tissue volume was 179% and 197% higher than for the control group. Interpretation We found that treatment with PTH during distraction osteogenesis resulted in substantially higher mineralized tissue volume, mineral content, and bending strength. This suggests that treatment with PTH may benefit new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis and could form a basis for clinical application of this therapy in humans. PMID:19995322

  13. The effect of iron in MRI and transverse relaxation of amyloid-beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Meadowcroft, Mark D; Peters, Douglas G; Dewal, Rahul P; Connor, James R; Yang, Qing X

    2015-03-01

    Dysregulation of neural iron is known to occur during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The visualization of amyloid-beta (A?) plaques with MRI has largely been credited to rapid proton relaxation in the vicinity of plaques as a result of focal iron deposition. The goal of this work was to determine the relationship between local relaxation and related focal iron content associated with A? plaques. Alzheimer's disease (n=5) and control tissue (n=3) sample slices from the entorhinal cortex were treated overnight with the iron chelator deferoxamine or saline, and microscopic gradient-echo MRI datasets were taken. Subsequent to imaging, the same slices were stained for A? and iron, and then compared with regard to parametric R2 * relaxation maps and gradient-echo-weighted MR images. A? plaques in both chelated and unchelated tissue generated MR hypo-intensities and showed relaxation rates significantly greater than the surrounding tissue. The transverse relaxation rate associated with amyloid plaques was determined not to be solely a result of iron load, as much of the relaxation associated with A? plaques remained following iron chelation. The data indicate a dual relaxation mechanism associated with A? plaques, such that iron and plaque composition synergistically produce transverse relaxation. PMID:25530083

  14. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

  15. Abnormal iron accumulation in the brain of neonatal hypotransferrinemic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Takeda; Keiko Takatsuka; James R Connor; Naoto Oku

    2001-01-01

    Transferrin is a plasma protein involved in iron delivery to tissues. To study iron transport into the brain under a transferrin deficiency, iron concentration and 59Fe uptake in the brain were measured in neonatal hypotransferrinemic (HP) mice at 7 days of age. Brain iron concentration of the HP mice, in which iron concentration was relatively high in the cerebral cortex

  16. Effect of iron and manganese contents on convection-free precipitation and sedimentation of primary ?-Al(FeMn)Si phase in liquid Al11.5Si0.4Mg alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Cao; N. Saunders; J. Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Fe and Mn contents on precipitation and sedimentation of primary a-Al(FeMn)Si phase in liquid Al-11.5Si-0.4Mg (wt%) alloy has been investigated at 600°C in convection-free conditions. Almost all primary a-Al(FeMn)Si particles and some oxide films seem to completely settle to the base of the melts. With the increase of original iron equivalent values (IEV) or Mn\\/Fe ratio at

  17. Immunological characterization of the teleost adipose tissue and its modulation in response to viral infection and fat-content in the diet.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Jaime; Castro, Rosario; González Granja, Aitor; Abós, Beatriz; González, Lucia; Jensen, Linda B; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The immune response of the adipose tissue (AT) has been neglected in most animal models until recently, when the observations made in human and mice linking obesity to chronic inflammation and diabetes highlighted an important immune component of this tissue. In the current study, we have immunologically characterized the AT for the first time in teleosts. We have analyzed the capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) AT to produce different immune mediators and we have identified the presence of local populations of B lymphocytes expressing IgM, IgD or IgT, CD8?+ cells and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). Because trout AT retained antigens from the peritoneal cavity, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on AT functionality. A wide range of secreted immune factors were modulated within the AT in response to VHSV. Furthermore, the viral infection provoked a significant decrease in the number of IgM+ cells which, along with an increased secretion of IgM in the tissue, suggested a differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts. The virus also increased the number of CD8?+ cells in the AT. Finally, when a fat-enriched diet was fed to the fish, a significant modulation of immune gene expression in the AT was also observed. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time in teleost that the AT functions as a relevant immune tissue; responsive to peritoneal viral infections and that this immune response can be modulated by the fat-content in the diet. PMID:25333488

  18. Immunological Characterization of the Teleost Adipose Tissue and Its Modulation in Response to Viral Infection and Fat-Content in the Diet

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Jaime; Castro, Rosario; González Granja, Aitor; Abós, Beatriz; González, Lucia; Jensen, Linda B.; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The immune response of the adipose tissue (AT) has been neglected in most animal models until recently, when the observations made in human and mice linking obesity to chronic inflammation and diabetes highlighted an important immune component of this tissue. In the current study, we have immunologically characterized the AT for the first time in teleosts. We have analyzed the capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) AT to produce different immune mediators and we have identified the presence of local populations of B lymphocytes expressing IgM, IgD or IgT, CD8?+ cells and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). Because trout AT retained antigens from the peritoneal cavity, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on AT functionality. A wide range of secreted immune factors were modulated within the AT in response to VHSV. Furthermore, the viral infection provoked a significant decrease in the number of IgM+ cells which, along with an increased secretion of IgM in the tissue, suggested a differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts. The virus also increased the number of CD8?+ cells in the AT. Finally, when a fat-enriched diet was fed to the fish, a significant modulation of immune gene expression in the AT was also observed. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time in teleost that the AT functions as a relevant immune tissue; responsive to peritoneal viral infections and that this immune response can be modulated by the fat-content in the diet. PMID:25333488

  19. Iron studies in hemophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Lottenberg, R.; Kitchens, C.S.; Roessler, G.S.; Noyes, W.D.

    1981-12-01

    Although iron deficiency is not recognized as a usual complication of hemophilia, we questioned whether intermittent occult loss of blood in urine or stool might predispose hemophiliacs to chronic iron deficiency. Seven men with factor VII and one with factor IX deficiency were studied. Blood studied, bone marrow aspirates, urine and stool samples, and ferrokinetics with total-body counting up to five months were examined. These data showed no excessive loss of blood during the study period; however, marrow iron stores were decidedly decreased, being absent in four subjects. We suggest that in some hemophiliacs, iron deposits in tissues such as synovial membranes may form a high proportion of the body's total iron stores.

  20. Impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells of samples on the quality of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PALIOGIANNIS, PANAGIOTIS; ATTENE, FEDERICO; COSSU, ANTONIO; DEFRAIA, EFISIO; PORCU, GIUSEPPE; CARTA, ANNAMARIA; SOTGIU, MARIA IGNAZIA; PAZZOLA, ANTONIO; CORDERO, LORENZO; CAPELLI, FRANCESCA; FADDA, GIOVANNI MARIA; ORTU, SALVATORE; SOTGIU, GIOVANNI; PALOMBA, GRAZIA; SINI, MARIA CRISTINA; PALMIERI, GIUSEPPE; COLOMBINO, MARIA

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status has become crucial in recent years in the molecular classification of patients with lung cancer. The impact of the type and quantity of malignant cells of the neoplastic specimen on the quality of mutation analysis remains to be elucidated, and only empirical and sporadic data are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells in the specimen on the quality of EGFR mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 515 patients with histologically-confirmed disease were included in the present study. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were used for the mutation analysis and the content of the neoplastic cells was evaluated using light microscopy. Genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. The coding sequences and splice junctions of exons 18, 19 and 21 in the EGFR gene were then screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. The mean age of the patients examined was 64.9 years and 357 (69.3%) were male. A total of 429 tissue samples (83.3%) were obtained by biopsy and the remaining samples were obtained by surgery. A total of 456 samples (88.5%) were observed from primary lung adenocarcinomas, while 59 (11.5%) were from metastatic lesions. EGFR mutations occurred in 59 cases (11.5%); exon 18 mutations were detected in one case (1.7%), whereas exon 19 and 21 mutations were detected in 30 (51%) and 28 (47.3%) cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were more frequent in females and patients that had never smoked. The distribution of the mutations among primary and metastatic tissues exhibited no significant differences in the proportions of EGFR mutations detected. However, a statistically significant difference in the number of mutations detected was found between samples with at least 50% of neoplastic cells (450 cases-57 mutations; 12.7%) and those with <50% of neoplastic cells (65 cases-2 mutations; 3.1%). PMID:25683726

  1. 3Hydroxy(4 H)-benzopyran-4-ones as potential iron chelating agents in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Ferrali; Donato Donati; Sabrina Bambagioni; Marco Fontani; Gianluca Giorgi; Antonello Pietrangelo

    2001-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that iron plays an important role in tissue damage both during chronic iron overload diseases (i.e., hemochromatosis) and when, in the absence of actual tissue iron overload, iron is delocalised from specific carriers or intracellular sites (inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, post-ischaemic reperfusion, etc.). In order to be used for therapeutical purposes in vivo, a reliable iron chelator should

  2. Radial dependence of lineal energy distribution of 290-MeV/u carbon and 500-MeV/u iron ion beams using a wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Shuichi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Takada, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Using a wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counter for a 0.72-?m site in tissue, we measured the radial dependence of the lineal energy distribution, yf(y), of 290-MeV/u carbon ions and 500-MeV/u iron ion beams. The measured yf(y) distributions and the dose-mean of y, [Formula: see text], were compared with calculations performed with the track structure simulation code TRACION and the microdosimetric function of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The values of the measured [Formula: see text] were consistent with calculated results within an error of 2%, but differences in the shape of yf(y) were observed for iron ion irradiation. This result indicates that further improvement of the calculation model for yf(y) distribution in PHITS is needed for the analytical function that describes energy deposition by delta rays, particularly for primary ions having linear energy transfer in excess of a few hundred keV ?m(-1). PMID:25210053

  3. Mice that are fed a high-fat diet display increased hepcidin expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; dos Santos, Aline Noronha; Miyashiro, Renan Akira; Gambero, Sheley; Rocha, Thalita; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery that hepcidin is expressed in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, attention has been increasingly focused on alterations in iron homeostasis that are associated with adiposity. We examined the production of hepcidin, the expression of hepcidin-related genes and the iron content of the adipose tissue in obesity using Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice were maintained on a control diet or HFD for 12 or 24 wk, and body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. The expression of several genes (hepcidin, TfR1, TfR2, DMT1, FT-heavy, ferroportin, IRP-1, IRP-2 and HIF-1) and the protein expression of hepcidin and IL-6 were quantified. The iron level was assessed using a Prussian blue reaction in paraffin-embedded tissue. After 24 wk on the HFD, we observed increases in the levels of hepcidin in the serum and the visceral adipose tissue. The IL-6 levels also increased in the visceral adipose tissue. Adipocytes isolated from the visceral adipose tissues of lean and obese mice expressed hepcidin at comparable levels; however, isolated macrophages from the stromal vascular fraction expressed higher hepcidin levels. Adipose tissues from obese mice displayed increased tfR2 expression and the presence of iron. Our results indicate that IL-6 and iron may affect the signaling pathways governing hepcidin expression. Thus, the mice fed HFD for 24 wk represent a suitable model for the study of obesity-linked hepcidin alterations. In addition, hepcidin may play local roles in controlling iron availability and interfering with inflammation in adipose tissue. PMID:24418880

  4. Ripened dairy products differentially affect hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue oxidative stress markers in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine; le Ruyet, Pascale; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-02-29

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of dairy products may contribute to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The fatty acid composition in milk fat, the duration of ripening, and the complexity of the food matrices are important factors that may interfere with the physiological impact. In this study, we treated genetic obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks with different dairy (cheese-based) products, differing by the duration of ripening (0, 15, or 35 days). We found that 35 days ripened product significantly improved glucose tolerance, an effect associated with a decreased adipose tissue lipid peroxide markers (TBARS and NAPDH-oxidase mRNA expression), without affecting body weight, food intake, and fat mass. Both fermented matrices significantly decreased the hepatic lipid content, without modifying plasma triglycerides or plasma total cholesterol. These data suggest that dairy products issued from longer ripening positively impact glucose tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue oxidative stress. Further investigations are warranted to decipher the interactions between milk products fermentation, lipids, and host metabolism. PMID:22300436

  5. Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

  6. Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1996-12-01

    The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. New method for determining total calcium content in tissue applied to skeletal muscle with and without calsequestrin.

    PubMed

    Lamboley, Cédric R H; Kake Guena, Sandrine A; Touré, Fatou; Hébert, Camille; Yaddaden, Louiza; Nadeau, Stephanie; Bouchard, Patrice; Wei-LaPierre, Lan; Lainé, Jean; Rousseau, Eric C; Frenette, Jérôme; Protasi, Feliciano; Dirksen, Robert T; Pape, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new method for determining the concentration of total Ca in whole skeletal muscle samples ([CaT]WM in units of mmoles/kg wet weight) using the Ca-dependent UV absorbance spectra of the Ca chelator BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). Muscle tissue was homogenized in a solution containing 0.15 mM BAPTA and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (to permeabilize membranes and denature proteins) and then centrifuged. The solution volume was adjusted so that BAPTA captured essentially all of the Ca. [CaT]WM was obtained with Beer's law from the absorbance change produced by adding 1 mM EGTA to capture Ca from BAPTA. Results from mouse, rat, and frog muscles were reasonably consistent with results obtained using other methods for estimating total [Ca] in whole muscles and in single muscle fibers. Results with external Ca removed before determining [CaT]WM indicate that most of the Ca was intracellular, indicative of a lack of bound Ca in the extracellular space. In both fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles from mice, [CaT]WM increased approximately linearly with decreasing muscle weight, increasing approximately twofold with a twofold decrease in muscle weight. This suggests that the Ca concentration of smaller muscles might be increased relative to that in larger muscles, thereby increasing the specific force to compensate for the smaller mass. Knocking out the high capacity Ca-binding protein calsequestrin (CSQ) did not significantly reduce [CaT]WM in mouse EDL or soleus muscle. However, in EDL muscles lacking CSQ, muscle weights were significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) muscles and the values of [CaT]WM were, on average, about half the expected WT values, taking into account the above [CaT]WM versus muscle weight relationship. Because greater reductions in [CaT]WM would be predicted in both muscle types, we hypothesize that there is a substantial increase in Ca bound to other sites in the CSQ knockout muscles. PMID:25624449

  8. Estimating iron and aluminum content of acid mine discharge from a north-central Pennsylvania coal field by use of acidity titration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ott, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Determination of acidity provides a value that denotes the quantitative capacity of the sample water to neutralize a strong base to a particular pH. However, much additional information can be obtained from this determination if a titration curve is constructed from recorded data of titrant increments and their corresponding pH values. The curve can be used to identify buffer capabilities, the acidity with respect to any pH value within the curve limit, and, in the case of acid mine drainage from north-central Pennsylvania, the identification and estimation of the concentration of dissolved ferrous iron, ferric iron, and aluminum. Through use of titration curves, a relationship was observed for the acid mine drainage between: (1) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) to pH 4.0 and the concentration of dissolved ferric iron; and (2) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) from pH 4.0 to 5.0 and the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The presence of dissolved ferrous iron can be detected by the buffering effect exhibited in the area between pH 5.5 to 7.5. The concentration of ferrous iron is estimated by difference between the concentrations of ferric iron in an oxidized and unoxidized sample. Interferences in any of the titrations from manganese, magnesium, and aluminate, appear to be negligible within the pH range of interest.

  9. Transfusional iron overload and chelation therapy with deferoxamine and deferiprone (L1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J Kontoghiorghes; Katerina Pattichi; Michael Hadjigavriel; Annita Kolnagou

    2000-01-01

    Iron is essential for all living organisms. Under normal conditions there is no regulatory and rapid iron excretion in humans and body iron levels are mainly regulated from the absorption of iron from the gut. Regular blood transfusions in thalassaemia and other chronic refractory anaemias can result in excessive iron deposition in tissues and organs. This excess iron is toxic,

  10. The Ins and Outs of Iron Homeostasis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adriana Donovan (Harvard Medical School, ChildrenÂ?s Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

    2006-04-01

    Iron is an essential element that is toxic when it accumulates in excess. Intricate regulatory mechanisms have evolved to maintain iron homeostasis within cells and between different tissues of complex organisms. This review discusses the proteins involved in iron transport and storage and their regulation in health and disease.

  11. Iron homeostasis and eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

  12. Using the accumulation of CBD-extractable iron and clay content to estimate soil age on stable surfaces and nearby slopes, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, David P.; Birkeland, Peter W.; McCarthy, James A.

    2012-11-01

    In many transport-limited environments, morphology, pedogenic iron and clay content provide a basis for estimating the exposure age of soils and associated landforms. We measured citrate-buffered dithionite (CBD)-extractable Fe (Fed) and clay concentration in fresh rock, saprolite, morainal and colluvial materials, and soil horizons from stable surfaces and hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range. Fresh igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain < 1% Fed and 1 to 5% clay. As bedrock and surficial deposits age, Fed and clay accumulate from weathering and dustfall. Late Holocene regolith at warm, dry sites contains small amounts of Fed and clay, but relatively moist soils developed on early Holocene cirque deposits contain as much as 1.5% Fed and 8% clay. Concentrations and total profile accumulation of Fed and clay increase with age in soils developed on stable surfaces of glacial deposits as old as ~ 130 kyr. On stable sites, Fed and clay accumulation from weathering and dust is ~ 0.02 g cm- 2 kyr- 1 and ~ 0.2 g cm- 2 kyr- 1, respectively. We used the Fed and clay inventory in soil profiles at dated, stable Front Range surfaces to calculate accumulation functions, which allowed us to estimate soil age at hillslope sites. Heterogeneous parent material, particularly on hillslopes, and climate-related effects add to variability in measured relations. Mobile regolith in Gordon Gulch, one of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) catchments, yields profile ages from about 0.5 to 5 × 104 yr, comparable to values measured using other techniques. Calculated profile ages are older on a north- vs. south-facing slope and increase from the drainage divide to the footslope. Ages calculated for stabilized colluvium and well-developed buried profiles at nearby hillslope sites (Lefthand, Ward and Rollinsville) suggest that these soils have stabilized over periods > 105 yr. In the absence of radiometric ages, the accumulation of Fed and clay in soils on stable sites and hillslopes provides a useful, local chronofunction for 103 to ~ 3 × 105 yr. Local footslope thickening of mobile regolith, buried soils, and areas of Fed- and clay-rich stabilized colluvium suggest that steady-state models of hillslope regolith must be modified to account for observed soil properties.

  13. Hepcidin Suppresses Brain Iron Accumulation by Downregulating Iron Transport Proteins in Iron-Overloaded Rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Luo, Qianqian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2015-08-01

    Iron accumulates progressively in the brain with age, and iron-induced oxidative stress has been considered as one of the initial causes for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on the role of hepcidin in peripheral organs and its expression in the brain, we hypothesized that this peptide has a role to reduce iron in the brain and hence has the potential to prevent or delay brain iron accumulation in iron-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of hepcidin expression adenovirus (ad-hepcidin) and hepcidin peptide on brain iron contents, iron transport across the brain-blood barrier, iron uptake and release, and also the expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) in cultured microvascular endothelial cells and neurons. We demonstrated that hepcidin significantly reduced brain iron in iron-overloaded rats and suppressed transport of transferrin-bound iron (Tf-Fe) from the periphery into the brain. Also, the peptide significantly inhibited expression of TfR1, DMT1, and Fpn1 as well as reduced Tf-Fe and non-transferrin-bound iron uptake and iron release in cultured microvascular endothelial cells and neurons, while downregulation of hepcidin with hepcidin siRNA retrovirus generated opposite results. We concluded that, under iron-overload, hepcidin functions to reduce iron in the brain by downregulating iron transport proteins. Upregulation of brain hepcidin by ad-hepcidin emerges as a new pharmacological treatment and prevention for iron-associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25115800

  14. Reduced UCP-1 Content in In Vitro Differentiated Beige/Brite Adipocytes Derived from Preadipocytes of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissues in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Andrew L.; Vorlander, Camilla; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Formosa, Melissa F.; Bertovic, David A.; Anderson, Mitchell J.; Duffy, Stephen J.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential therapeutic target to reverse obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary precursor cells isolated from human adult subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) can be induced to differentiate in-vitro into adipocytes that express key markers of brown or beige adipose, and whether the expression level of such markers differs between lean and obese young adult males. Methods Adipogenic precursor cells were isolated from lean and obese individuals from subcutaneous abdominal WAT biopsies. Cells were grown to confluence, differentiated for 2.5 weeks then harvested for measurement of gene expression and UCP1 protein. Results There was no difference between groups with respect to differentiation into adipocytes, as indicated by oil red-O staining, rates of lipolysis, and expression of adipogenic genes (FABP4, PPARG). WAT genes (HOXC9, RB1) were expressed equally in the two groups. Post differentiation, the beige adipose specific genes CITED1 and CD137 were significantly increased in both groups, but classic BAT markers ZIC1 and LHX8 decreased significantly. Cell lines from both groups also equally increased post-differentiation expression of the thermogenic-responsive gene PPARGC1A (PGC-1?). UCP1 gene expression was undetectable prior to differentiation, however after differentiation both gene expression and protein content were increased in both groups and were significantly greater in cultures from lean compared with obese individuals (p<0.05). Conclusion Human subcutaneous WAT cells can be induced to attain BAT characteristics, but this capacity is reduced in WAT cells from obese individuals. PMID:24642703

  15. Brain iron quantification by MRI in mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration under iron-chelating therapy

    PubMed Central

    Löbel, Ulrike; Schweser, Ferdinand; Nickel, Miriam; Deistung, Andreas; Grosse, Regine; Hagel, Christian; Fiehler, Jens; Schulz, Angela; Hartig, Monika; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Sedlacik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic trials for Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation have aimed at a reduction of cerebral iron content. A 13-year-old girl with mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration treated with an iron-chelating agent was monitored by R2 relaxometry, R2* relaxometry, and quantitative susceptibility mapping to estimate the brain iron content. The highly increased brain iron content slowly decreased in the substantia nigra but remained stable for globus pallidus. The estimated iron content was higher by R2* compared to R2 and quantitative susceptibility mapping, a finding not previously observed in the brain of healthy volunteers. A hypothesis explaining this discrepancy is offered. PMID:25574478

  16. Brain iron quantification by MRI in mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration under iron-chelating therapy.

    PubMed

    Löbel, Ulrike; Schweser, Ferdinand; Nickel, Miriam; Deistung, Andreas; Grosse, Regine; Hagel, Christian; Fiehler, Jens; Schulz, Angela; Hartig, Monika; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Sedlacik, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic trials for Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation have aimed at a reduction of cerebral iron content. A 13-year-old girl with mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration treated with an iron-chelating agent was monitored by R2 relaxometry, R2* relaxometry, and quantitative susceptibility mapping to estimate the brain iron content. The highly increased brain iron content slowly decreased in the substantia nigra but remained stable for globus pallidus. The estimated iron content was higher by R2* compared to R2 and quantitative susceptibility mapping, a finding not previously observed in the brain of healthy volunteers. A hypothesis explaining this discrepancy is offered. PMID:25574478

  17. Metabolic crossroads of iron and copper

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James F; Prohaska, Joseph R; Knutson, Mitchell D

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between the essential dietary metals, iron and copper, have been known for many years. This review highlights recent advances in iron-copper interactions with a focus on tissues and cell types important for regulating whole-body iron and copper homeostasis. Cells that mediate dietary assimilation (enterocytes) and storage and distribution (hepatocytes) of iron and copper are considered, along with the principal users (erythroid cells) and recyclers of red cell iron (reticuloendothelial macrophages). Interactions between iron and copper in the brain are also discussed. Many unanswered questions regarding the role of these metals and their interactions in health and disease emerge from this synopsis, highlighting extensive future research opportunities. PMID:20384844

  18. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ...

  19. Deferasirox and deferiprone remove cardiac iron in the iron-overloaded gerbil

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, JOHN C.; OTTO-DUESSEL, MAYA; GONZALEZ, IGNACIO; AGUILAR, MICHELLE I.; SHIMADA, HIRO; NICK, HANSPETER; NELSON, MARVIN; MOATS, REX

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Deferasirox effectively controls liver iron concentration; however, little is known regarding its ability to remove stored cardiac iron. Deferiprone seems to have increased cardiac efficacy compared with traditional deferoxamine therapy. Therefore, the relative efficacy of deferasirox and deferiprone were compared in removing cardiac iron from iron-loaded gerbils. Methods Twenty-nine 8- to 10-week-old female gerbils underwent 10 weekly iron dextran injections of 200 mg/kg/week. Prechelation iron levels were assessed in 5 animals, and the remainder received deferasirox 100 mg/kg/D po QD (n = 8), deferiprone 375 mg/kg/D po divided TID (n = 8), or sham chelation (n = 8), 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Results Deferasirox reduced cardiac iron content 20.5%. No changes occurred in cardiac weight, myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, or weight-to-dry weight ratio. Deferasirox treatment reduced liver iron content 51%. Deferiprone produced comparable reductions in cardiac iron content (18.6% reduction). Deferiprone-treated hearts had greater mass (16.5% increase) and increased myocyte hypertrophy. Deferiprone decreased liver iron content 24.9% but was associated with an increase in liver weight and water content. Conclusion Deferasirox and deferiprone were equally effective in removing stored cardiac iron in a gerbil animal model, but deferasirox removed more hepatic iron for a given cardiac iron burden. PMID:17145573

  20. Hepatic zinc, copper, and iron in the developing turkey embryo and newly hatched poult.

    PubMed

    Richards, M P; Weinland, B T

    1985-06-01

    The ontogeny of hepatic tissue growth and trace metal deposition was examined in the developing turkey embryo and newly hatched poult. Hepatic concentrations of zinc and iron in the embryo declined by about twofold between day 16 of incubation and hatching. Hepatic copper concentration increased approximately fourfold by day 23 of incubation and then declined rapidly through hatching. During the post-hatching period, hepatic zinc concentration increased twofold by day 10, whereas a small increase in hepatic iron concentration occurred just prior to hatching and continued through the third day post-hatching. A significant positive correlation existed between hepatic zinc and iron concentrations in the developing embryo. The concentrations of both these metals were inversely correlated with hepatic copper concentration during the same time. Total hepatic zinc and iron content increased throughout the entire time studied, whereas total copper content increased up to hatching and then declined during the first week post-hatching. The most rapid phase of hepatic metal accretion differed for each metal, with zinc being rapidly accumulated during the post-hatching period, copper during the last half of incubation and iron at about the time of hatching and the first few days post-hatching. Each of these metals demonstrated a specific relationship to hepatic tissue growth that changed between the embryonic and neonatal periods of development. PMID:24259162

  1. Temporal changes in free iron levels after brain ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilie Millerot-Serrurot; Nathalie Bertrand; Claude Mossiat; Philippe Faure; Anne Prigent-Tessier; Philippe Garnier; Yannick Bejot; Maurice Giroud; Alain Beley; Christine Marie

    2008-01-01

    Whereas iron chelators have been proposed as therapeutic agents in stroke, changes in free iron levels have never been explored after focal brain ischemia. Therefore, free and total iron levels in cortical tissue and free iron levels in plasma were measured before and after (1, 4 and 24h) photothrombotic occlusion of cortical vessels in rats. Brain ferritin expression and localization

  2. Critical Soil Zinc Deficiency Concentration and Tissue Iron: Zinc Ratio as a Diagnostic Tool for Prediction of Zinc Deficiency in Corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zare; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Norouzi; R. Schulin

    2009-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) fertilizer application is most economic if based on soil test and plant analysis information. The aim of this study was to determine the soil test [diethylenetrinitrilopentaacetate (DTPA) and ethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (EDTA) extractable] Zn-critical levels and tissue Fe\\/Zn ratio for corn (Zea mays L.). A greenhouse experiment with 12 soil series and two Zn fertilizer treatments (0 and 15

  3. The influence of the iron content on the reductive decomposition of A3-xFexAl2Si3O12 garnets (A = Mg, Mn; 0.47 ? x ? 2.85)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Claudia; Filip, Jan; Mashlan, Miroslav; Zboril, Radek

    2014-10-01

    Thermally-induced reductive decomposition of natural iron-bearing garnets of the almandine-pyrope and almandine-spessartine series were studied at temperatures up to 1200 °C (heating rate of 10 °C/min) under atmosphere of forming gas (10% of H2 in N2). Crystallochemical formula of the studied garnet was calculated as VIII( A3-xFex2+)VI( Al , Fe3+)2Si3O12, where the amount of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites is negligible with the exception of pyrope, A = Mg, Mn, and 0.47 ? x ? 2.85. The observed decomposition temperature, determined from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, is greater than 1000 °C in all cases and showed almost linear dependence on the iron content in the dodecahedral sites of the studied garnets, with the exception of garnet with a near-pyrope composition (Prp80Alm20). The initial garnet samples and decomposition products were characterized in details by means of X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We found that all studied garnets have common decomposition products such as metallic iron (in general, rounded particles below 4 ?m) and Fe-spinel; the other identified decomposition products depend on starting chemical composition of the garnet: Fe-cordierite, olivine (fayalite or tephroite), cristobalite, pyroxene (enstatite or pigeonite), and anorthite. Anorthite and pigeonite were only present in garnets with Ca in the dodecahedral site. All the identified phases were usually well crystallized.

  4. Physiologia Plantarum 131: 7279. 2007 Copyright Physiologia Plantarum 2007, ISSN 0031-9317 Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Physiologia Plantarum 131: 72­79. 2007 Copyright ª Physiologia Plantarum 2007, ISSN 0031-9317 Iron catalyses the conversion of citrate into isocitrate, requires Fe for its activity. The yeast and animal the binding of a fourth labile Fe (Rouault and Klausner 1996). In animal cells and yeast, the cytosolic

  5. Antioxidant, color and sensory properties of sorghum bran in pre-cooked ground beef patties varying in fat and iron content 

    E-print Network

    Shin, Dae Keun

    2009-05-15

    after 0, 1, 3 and 5 d of storage and analyzed for 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-heme iron, pH, instrumental color and trained flavor and texture descriptive attributes. The addition of BHA/BHT and rosemary extract to patties...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...serum and plasma. Iron (non-heme) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments,...

  7. Chronic exposure to high levels of dietary iron fortification increases lipid peroxidation in the mucosa of the rat large intestine.

    PubMed

    Lund, E K; Fairweather-Tait, S J; Wharf, S G; Johnson, I T

    2001-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that excess dietary iron may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, the majority of animal studies looking at possible mechanism have used unrealistically high concentrations of iron. The current study was designed to test whether chronic exposure to high levels of iron fortification affects the free radical generating capacity of the lumenal contents, mucosal lipid peroxidation and crypt cell proliferation. Rats were fed diets containing either 29 mg/kg or 102 mg/kg of elemental iron for 6 mo. The free radical generating capacity of lumenal contents was assessed using an in vitro assay. Crypt cell proliferation rate was measured in tissues taken from the cecum and colon, with the remaining tissue being used for the assessment of lipid peroxidation. Chronic feeding of iron did not increase crypt cell proliferation rate in either the colon or cecum, but it was associated with an increase in free radical generating capacity in the colon and increased lipid peroxidation, particularly in the cecum. These results may be relevant to epidemiological evidence showing that dietary iron is associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer in humans. PMID:11694620

  8. Iron and cell death in Parkinson's disease: a nuclear microscopic study into iron-rich granules in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of primate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, P. S. P.; Watt, F.; Ponraj, D.; Leong, S. K.; He, Y.; Lee, T. K. Y.

    1999-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative brain disease characterised by a loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain and accompanying biochemical changes such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, increased iron concentrations and decreased glutathione levels in the parkinsonian SN. Though the aetiology of the disease is still unknown, the observed biochemical changes point to the involvement of oxidative stress. In particular, iron is suspected to play a role by promoting free radical production, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. The increase in iron in the parkinsonian SN has been confirmed by several research groups, both in human post-mortem brains and in brain tissue from parkinsonian animal models. However, the question remains as to whether the observed increase in iron is a cause or a consequence of the SN cell death process. Our previous study using unilaterally 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys in a time sequence experiment has shown that the increase in bulk iron concentrations follow rather than precede dopaminergic cell death. However, changes in the localised iron concentrations, which may play a more direct role in SN cell death, may not be reflected at the bulk level. Indeed, we have observed iron-rich granules in parkinsonian SNs. From this time sequence study into the iron content of iron-rich granules in the SNs of an untreated control and unilaterally MPTP-lesioned parkinsonian models, we present the following observations: (1) Iron-rich granules are found in both control and parkinsonian SNs and are variable in size and iron content in any one model. (2) These iron-rich granules may be associated with neuromelanin granules found in the SN and are known to accumulate transition metal ions such as iron. (3) The early onset of bulk SN cell loss (35%) was accompanied by a significant elevation of iron in granules found in the MPTP-injected SN compared to the contra-lateral SN. This shows that localised iron increase may be an early event contributing to cell death. (4) The iron content in granules found in both the MPTP-injected and contra-lateral SNs is correlated with the degree of bulk SN cell loss (assessed by TH-immunohistochemistry) in individual models. This indicates a correlation between localised iron increase and cell loss, at least at the whole SN level. Our results are consistent with the observation that in Parkinson's disease (PD), neuronal cell death seems to be related to their neuromelanin content and support the proposal that iron-melanin interaction may play a role in oxidative neuronal cell death. Indeed, iron-saturated neuromelanin granules may act as centres of free radical production, contributing to localised cell death.

  9. Serum ceruloplasmin protein expression and activity increases in iron-deficient rats and is further enhanced by higher dietary copper intake

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Perungavur N.; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Lingli; Kim, Changae

    2011-01-01

    Increases in serum and liver copper content are noted during iron deficiency in mammals, suggesting that copper-dependent processes participate during iron deprivation. One point of intersection between the 2 metals is the liver-derived, multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) that is important for iron release from certain tissues. The current study sought to explore Cp expression and activity during physiologic states in which hepatic copper loading occurs (eg, iron deficiency). Weanling rats were fed control or low iron diets containing low, normal, or high copper for ? 5 weeks, and parameters of iron homeostasis were measured. Liver copper increased in control and iron-deficient rats fed extra copper. Hepatic Cp mRNA levels did not change; however, serum Cp protein was higher during iron deprivation and with higher copper consumption. In-gel and spectrophotometric ferroxidase and amine oxidase assays demonstrated that Cp activity was enhanced when hepatic copper loading occurred. Interestingly, liver copper levels strongly correlated with Cp protein expression and activity. These observations support the possibility that liver copper loading increases metallation of the Cp protein, leading to increased production of the holo enzyme. Moreover, this phenomenon may play an important role in the compensatory response to maintain iron homeostasis during iron deficiency. PMID:21768302

  10. Chitosan and composite microsphere-based scaffold for bone tissue engineering: evaluation of tricalcium phosphate content influence on physical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Martyna; Walenko, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Szumie?, Ma?gorzata; Brynk, Tomasz; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Ciach, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    In the hereby presented work the authors describe a technique of high-compression-resistant biodegradable bone scaffold preparation. The methodology is based on the agglomeration of chitosan (CH) and chitosan/?-tricalcium phosphate (CH/TCP) microspheres and represents a novel approach to 3D matrices design for bone tissue engineering application. The materials were prepared from high deacetylation degree chitosan. The authors describe the method for scaffold fabrication, essential properties of the materials manufactured and the influence of various TCP concentrations on material morphology, mechanical properties (for dry and hydrated materials) and preliminary study on the interaction between CH or CH/TCP scaffolds and within cultured MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. The properties of the obtained materials were significantly affected by the calcium phosphate content, which had a particular influence on the granule microstructure, size distribution and inner biomaterial pore size. The water uptake ability was found to be lower for the materials enriched with the inorganic phase and tended to decrease with the increasing calcium phosphate concentration. The evaluation of mechanical properties has revealed that scaffolds produced with the usage of granule-based technology display a potential to be used as a load-bearing material since the Young's modulus values were limited to the range of 200-500 MPa for dry materials and 15-20 MPa for the hydrated state of the scaffolds. The cell number, identified in three time points (48 h, 7 and 14 days) by Pico Green assay, was lower for the materials enriched with inorganic phase (75 % of control), however cell distribution, when compared to CH only biomaterial, was acknowledged as steadier on the surface of the material containing the highest calcium phosphate concentration. PMID:25737128

  11. Iron chelators and iron toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Brittenham

    2003-01-01

    Iron chelation may offer new approaches to the treatment and prevention of alcoholic liver disease. With chronic excess, either iron or alcohol alone may individually injure the liver and other organs. In combination, each exaggerates the adverse effects of the other. In alcoholic liver disease, both iron and alcohol contribute to the production of hepatic fibrosis through their effects on

  12. Lipoic acid and acetyl-carnitine reverse iron-induced oxidative stress in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lal, Ashutosh; Atamna, Wafa; Killilea, David W; Suh, Jung H; Ames, Bruce N

    2008-01-01

    Iron overload occurs frequently in thalassemia and other disorders that require regular blood transfusions. Excess iron is toxic owing to the generation of free radicals that lead to oxidation of biomolecules and tissue damage. In order to identify compounds that reduce oxidative injury from iron, we evaluated alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a multifunctional antioxidant, in iron-overloaded primary human fibroblasts (IMR-90). Oxidant stress was measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate that is converted to the fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) upon oxidation. Exposure to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) increased the iron-content of IMR-90 cells and caused a rise in oxidant appearance. The addition of LA improved the cellular redox status and attenuated the iron-mediated rise in oxidants in a dose-dependent manner. The R- and RS-enantiomers of LA demonstrated similar antioxidant activity. N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine (NtBHA) treated cells also exhibited a decrease in DCF fluorescence, but at a much higher concentration compared with LA. The combination acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) and LA exhibited superior antioxidant effect at all dose levels. We conclude that LA is highly effective in reversing oxidative stress arising from iron overload and that its antioxidant efficacy is further enhanced in combination with ALCAR. PMID:18284845

  13. Influence of iron-saturation of plasma transferrin in iron distribution in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Takeda; Keiko Takatsuka; Naoki Sotogaku; Naoto Oku

    2002-01-01

    Based on the evidence that iron distribution in the peripheral tissues is changed by iron-saturation of plasma transferrin, the influence of iron-saturation of plasma transferrin in iron delivery to the brain was examined. Mouse plasma was pre-incubated with ferric chloride in citrate buffer to saturate transferrin and then incubated with 59FeCl3. Peak retention time of 59Fe was transferred from the

  14. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria Del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J

    2007-11-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycle, approximately 87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, approximately 8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, approximately 7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas, of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, approximately 97% is from heme and <1% is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of (59)Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  15. Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Delu; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD. PMID:23825457

  16. Manipulation of cellular spheroid composition and the effects on vascular tissue fusion.

    PubMed

    Olsen, T R; Mattix, B; Casco, M; Herbst, A; Williams, C; Tarasidis, A; Simionescu, D; Visconti, R P; Alexis, F

    2015-02-01

    Cellular spheroids were investigated as tissue-engineered building blocks that can be fused to form functional tissue constructs. While spheroids can be assembled using passive contacts for the fusion of complex tissues, physical forces can be used to promote active contacts to improve tissue homogeneity and accelerate tissue fusion. Understanding the mechanisms affecting the fusion of spheroids is critical to fabricating tissues. Here, manipulation of the spheroid composition was used to accelerate the fusion process mediated by magnetic forces. The Janus structure of magnetic cellular spheroids spatially controls iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to form two distinct domains: cells and extracellular MNPs. Studies were performed to evaluate the influence of extracellular matrix (ECM) content and cell number on the fusion of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs). Results showed that the integration of iron oxide MNPs into spheroids increased the production of collagen over time when compared to spheroids without MNPs. The results also showed that ring tissues composed of JMCSs with high ECM concentrations and high cell numbers fused together, but exhibited less contraction when compared to their lower concentration counterparts. Results from spheroid fusion in capillary tubes showed that low ECM concentrations and high cell numbers experienced more fusion and cellular intermixing over time when compared to their higher counterparts. These findings indicate that cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play an important role in regulating fusion, and this understanding sets the rationale of spheroid composition to fabricate larger and more complex tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:25463485

  17. Nitrosative Stress and Apoptosis by Intravenous Ferumoxytol, Iron Isomaltoside 1000, Iron Dextran, Iron Sucrose, and Ferric Carboxymaltose in a Nonclinical Model.

    PubMed

    Toblli, J E; Cao, G; Giani, J F; Dominici, F P; Angerosa, M

    2014-07-22

    Iron is involved in the formation as well as in the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, iron can induce as well as inhibit both oxidative and nitrosative stress. It also has a key role in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated apoptosis. We assessed the differences in tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys of rats treated weekly with intravenous ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, iron dextran, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose (40?mg iron/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Nitrotyrosine was quantified in tissue homogenates by Western blotting and the distribution of nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 was assessed in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose administration did not result in detectable levels of nitrotyrosine or significant levels of caspase 3?vs. control in any of the tissue studied. Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were significantly (p<0.01) increased in all assessed organs of animals treated with iron dextran and iron isomaltoside 1000, as well as in the liver and kidneys of ferumoxytol-treated animals compared to isotonic saline solution (control). Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were shown to correlate positively with the amount of Prussian blue-detectable iron(III) deposits in iron dextran- and iron isomaltoside 1000-treated rats but not in ferumoxytol-treated rats, suggesting that iron dextran, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferumoxytol induce nitrosative (and oxidative) stress as well as apoptosis via different mechanism(s). PMID:25050519

  18. Acute Toxicity of Acrylonitrile: Effect of Diet on Tissue Nonprotein Sulfhydryl Content and Distribution of 1–14C-Acrylonitrile or Its Metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Jaeger; I. L. Cote; A. E. Rogers; E. H. Silver; S. Szabo

    1984-01-01

    The influence of diet on the acute toxicity (lethality) and distribution of glutathione as measured by tissue nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) concentration following acrylonitrile (ACN) treatment was studied. The tissue distribution of radiolabeled (14C) acrylonitrile or its radioactive metabolites was also determined. The diets tested were a standard laboratory rat chow; a casein-based, complete diet; and 2 diets high in saturated

  19. Antimicrobial properties of iron-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bezkorovainy, A

    1981-01-01

    The transferrins are iron-binding proteins with molecular weights of around 80,000, which interact with a maximum of two ferric atoms per each protein molecule. The best known transferrins are the serotransferrins from animal sera, lactoferrins from milk, and conalbumin from egg-white. The iron-deficient transferrins will inhibit the growth of certain bacteria and fungi by making iron unavailable for bacterial metabolism. Such activity is abolished if the transferrin is saturated with iron. Many organisms can produce small molecular-weight iron-binding compounds called siderophores that can successfully utilize the iron sequestered by the transferrins. Such organisms are very virulent. Overwhelming evidence is now available to indicate that the transferrins play an important role in mammalian host-defense mechanisms. Thus, iron injections into animals infected with virulent bacteria result in increased death rates, and parenteral iron administration to human infants predisposes them to fatal septicemia. On the other hand, in cases of systemic infection, the organism responds by lowering its total serum iron, so as to make the serotransferrin present less saturated with iron. This phenomenon is called nutritional immunity. The iron apparently moves into the storage tissues from the circulation, and furthermore, it is withheld from circulation by the reticuloendothelial system. Laboratory results in such cases indicate low total serum iron levels and high unsaturated iron-binding activity values, thus increasing the bacteriostatic effects of the serotransferrins. Increased lactoferrin levels are observed in the milks of mastitic cattle. PMID:6452038

  20. The magnetic properties of the iron-rich, iron-nickel-zinc alloys 

    E-print Network

    Gupton, Paul Stephen

    1961-01-01

    THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE IRON-RICH, IRON-NICKEL-ZINC ALLOYS A Thesis By Paul Stephen Gupton Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1961 Major Subject Nuclear Engineering THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE IRON-RICH, IRON-NICKEL-ZINC ALLOYS A Thesis By Paul Stephen Gupton Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Ittee) Head of Oepartment...

  1. Kinetics of dissolution and bio-availability of iron in amorphous siliceous iron oxides

    E-print Network

    Seaman, John C.

    1990-01-01

    KINETICS OF DISSOLUTION AND BIO-AVAILABILITY OF IRON IN AMORPHOUS SILICEOUS IRON OXIDES A Thesis By John C. Seaman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Soil Science KINETICS OF DISSOLUTION AND BIO-AVAILABILITY OF IRON IN AMORPHOUS SILICEOUS IRON OXIDES A Thesis By John C. Seaman Approved as to style and content by: Richard H. Loeppert (Chair of Committee...

  2. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Americans (News) Cyberbullying Less Stressful Than In-Person Bullying, Study Claims Additional Content Medical News Nonfreezing Tissue ... Day News Cyberbullying Less Stressful Than In-Person Bullying, Study Claims FRIDAY, June 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  3. Protein carbonyl content roughly reflects the unsaturation of lipids in muscle but not in other tissues of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive strain (SHRSP) rats fed different fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Okuyama, H; Nakamoto, H; Radák, Z; Goto, S

    1998-12-01

    We examined in vivo the effect of dietary fats and oils with different peroxidizability on protein carbonyl content, the presumed index of free radical-mediated protein oxidation. For 15.6 months, SHRSP (stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive strain) rats were fed a diet supplemented with lard, safflower oil, perilla oil or fish oil/soybean oil, the peroxidizability of which increases in this order. The peroxidizability of tissue lipids was positively correlated with the protein carbonyl content in skeletal muscle, but not in the brain, heart or liver. The protein carbonyl content in the lard group was higher in the brain and liver compared to the other dietary groups. These results contradict the concept that long-term feeding of easily autoxidizable fatty acids allows the accumulation of lipid peroxides to accelerate the development of the free radical diseases, and suggest that tissue protein carbonyl content is not a simple reflection of autoxidizability-related lipid peroxidation but is also influenced by other biochemical processes. PMID:9881637

  4. Encapsulation of iron in liposomes significantly improved the efficiency of iron supplementation in strenuously exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi; Liu, Shangyuan; Wang, Huijie; Gao, Guofen; Yu, Peng; Chang, Yanzhong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of iron liposome supplementation, a rat model of exercise-associated anemia was established by subjecting the animals to high-intensity running exercises for 4 weeks. Rats with confirmed anemia were strenuously exercised for another 2 weeks while receiving iron supplements by intragastric administration of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) liposomes or heme iron liposomes. Control groups were administered equivalent amounts of FAC, heme iron, or blank liposomes. Subsequently, complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, and liver iron levels were tested to determine the efficiency of iron liposomes in relieving anemia. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were also detected to determine potential side effects of iron supplementation. The CBC, as well as serum iron and liver iron contents, significantly increased and reached much higher levels in anemic rats treated with iron liposomes, compared with those of control groups. The increase of SOD and decrease of MDA levels were also observed after supplementation with iron liposomes. These results demonstrate that iron liposomes can efficiently relieve the iron deficiency in strenuously exercised rats and may potentially be used as a supplement for the treatment of exercise-associated iron deficiency anemia with minimal side effects. PMID:25296704

  5. Mitochondrial ferritin in the regulation of brain iron homeostasis and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guofen; Chang, Yan-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a novel iron-storage protein in mitochondria. Evidences have shown that FtMt is structurally and functionally similar to the cytosolic H-chain ferritin. It protects mitochondria from iron-induced oxidative damage presumably through sequestration of potentially harmful excess free iron. It also participates in the regulation of iron distribution between cytosol and mitochondrial contents. Unlike the ubiquitously expressed H-ferritin, FtMt is mainly expressed in testis and brain, which suggests its tissue-related roles. FtMt is involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, as its increased expression has been observed in Alzheimer’s disease, restless legs syndrome and Friedreich’s ataxia. Studies from our laboratory showed that in Alzheimer’s disease, FtMt overexpression attenuated the ?-amyloid induced neurotoxicity, which on the other hand increased significantly when FtMt expression was knocked down. It is also found that, by maintaining mitochondrial iron homeostasis, FtMt could prevent 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic cell damage in Parkinson’s disease. These recent findings on FtMt regarding its functions in regulation of brain iron homeostasis and its protective role in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases are summarized and reviewed. PMID:24596558

  6. Olfactory ferric and ferrous iron absorption in iron-deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruvin Kumara, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    The absorption of metals from the nasal cavity to the blood and the brain initiates an important route of occupational exposures leading to health risks. Divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) plays a significant role in the absorption of intranasally instilled manganese, but whether iron uptake would be mediated by the same pathway is unknown. In iron-deficient rats, blood 59Fe levels after intranasal administration of the radioisotope in the ferrous form were significantly higher than those observed for iron-sufficient control rats. Similar results were obtained when ferric iron was instilled intranasally, and blood levels of 59Fe were even greater in the iron-deficient rats compared with the amount of ferrous iron absorbed. Experiments with Belgrade (b/b) rats showed that DMT1 deficiency limited ferric iron uptake from the nasal cavity to the blood compared with +/b controls matched for iron deficiency. These results indicate that olfactory uptake of ferric iron by iron-deficient rats involves DMT1. Western blot experiments confirmed that DMT1 levels are significantly higher in iron-deficient rats compared with iron-sufficient controls in olfactory tissue. Thus the molecular mechanism of olfactory iron absorption is regulated by body iron status and involves DMT1. PMID:22492739

  7. Double stable isotope ultra performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric quantification of tissue content and activity of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, the crucial enzyme responsible for synthesis of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Qin, Nan; Peitzsch, Mirko; Menschikowski, Mario; Siegert, Gabriele; Pacak, Karel; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2013-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel method utilizing double stable isotope ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure tissue contents and activity of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme responsible for synthesis of the stress hormone, epinephrine. The method is based on measurement of deuterium-labeled epinephrine produced from the reaction of norepinephrine with deuterium-labeled S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor. In addition to enzyme activity, the method allows for determination of tissue contents of PNMT using human recombinant enzyme for calibration. The calibration curve for epinephrine was linear over the range of 0.1 to 5,000 pM, with 0.5 pM epinephrine representing the lower limit of quantification. The calibration curve relating PNMT to production of deuterium-labeled epinephrine was also linear from 0.01 to 100 ng PNMT. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were respectively 12.8 % (n = 10) and 10.9 to 13.6 % (n = 10). We established utility of the method by showing induction of the enzyme by dexamethasone in mouse pheochromocytoma cells and strong relationships to PNMT gene expression and tissue epinephrine levels in human pheochromocytomas. Development of this assay provides new possibilities for investigations focusing on regulation of PNMT, the crucial final enzyme responsible for synthesis of epinephrine, the primary fight-or-flight stress hormone. PMID:23224622

  8. Cellular Iron Distribution in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wang Yung; Pohl, Susanne; Gray, Joe; Robinson, Nigel J.; Harwood, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    Although successful iron acquisition by pathogens within a host is a prerequisite for the establishment of infection, surprisingly little is known about the intracellular distribution of iron within bacterial pathogens. We have used a combination of anaerobic native liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, principal-component analysis, and peptide mass fingerprinting to investigate the cytosolic iron distribution in the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. Our studies identified three of the major iron pools as being associated with the electron transfer protein ferredoxin, the miniferritin Dps2, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes SodA1 and SodA2. Although both SOD isozymes were predicted to utilize manganese cofactors, quantification of the metal ions associated with SodA1 and SodA2 in cell extracts established that SodA1 is associated with both manganese and iron, whereas SodA2 is bound exclusively to iron in vivo. These data were confirmed by in vitro assays using recombinant protein preparations, showing that SodA2 is active with an iron cofactor, while SodA1 is cambialistic, i.e., active with manganese or iron. Furthermore, we observe that B. anthracis cells exposed to superoxide stress increase their total iron content more than 2-fold over 60 min, while the manganese and zinc contents are unaffected. Notably, the acquired iron is not localized to the three identified cytosolic iron pools. PMID:22178968

  9. Influence of high dietary iron as ferrous carbonate and ferrous sulfate on iron metabolism in young calves.

    PubMed

    McGuire, S O; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P; Neathery, M W; Ho, S Y; Blackmon, D M

    1985-10-01

    Twelve intact male Holstein calves averaging 90 kg and 12 wk of age were fed one of three dietary treatments for 28 d. The diets were A) control, B) control plus 1000 ppm iron as ferrous carbonate, and C) control plus 1000 ppm iron as ferrous sulfate monohydrate. Calves were dosed orally on d 15 of the treatment period with 1 mCi of iron-59. Neither source of added iron had a significant effect on weight gains, feed consumption, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum total iron, serum total iron-binding capacity, unbound iron-binding capacity, serum copper, tissue copper, fecal dry matter, or a consistent effect on fecal pH. The ferrous carbonate had no significant effect on stable zinc or stable iron in any tissue studied. Calves fed ferrous sulfate had higher average stable iron in most tissues and significantly more in the small intestine. Tissue zinc was lower in spleen and pancreas of ferrous sulfate-fed calves. Both sources of added iron sharply reduced iron-59 in serum, whole blood, and body tissues. The reduction was substantially greater in calves fed the ferrous sulfate iron. Iron in ferrous sulfate had a higher biological availability than that in the ferrous carbonate; however, bioavailability of the ferrous carbonate iron appeared to be substantial and considerably more than that noted in previous studies in which a different source of ferrous carbonate was used. The maximum safe level of dietary iron is materially influenced by the source of iron with a higher tolerance indicated for ferrous carbonated than ferrous sulfate monohydrate. PMID:4067037

  10. Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2009-01-01

    It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

  11. Respective role of Fe and Mn oxide contents for arsenic sorption in iron and manganese binary oxide: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Fudong; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Ruiping

    2014-09-01

    In our previous studies, a synthesized Fe-Mn binary oxide was found to be very effective for both As(V) and As(III) removal in aqueous phase, because As(III) could be easily oxidized to As(V). As(III) oxidation and As(V) sorption by the Fe-Mn binary oxide may also play an important role in the natural cycling of As, because of its common occurrence in the environment. In the present study, the respective role of Fe and Mn contents present in the Fe-Mn binary oxide on As(III) removal was investigated via a direct in situ determination of arsenic speciation using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray absorption near edge structure results indicate that Mn atoms exist in a mixed valence state of +3 and +4 and further confirm that MnOx (1.5 < x < 2) content is mainly responsible for oxidizing As(III) to As(V) through a two-step pathway [reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(III) and subsequent Mn(III) to Mn(II)] and FeOOH content is dominant for adsorbing the formed As(V). No significant As(III) oxidation by pure FeOOH had been observed during its sorption, when the system was exposed to air. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure results reveal that the As surface complex on both the As(V)- and As(III)-treated sample surfaces is an inner-sphere bidentate binuclear corner-sharing complex with an As-M (M = Fe or Mn) interatomic distance of 3.22-3.24 Å. In addition, the MnOx and FeOOH contents exist only as a mixture, and no solid solution is formed. Because of its high effectiveness, low cost, and environmental friendliness, the Fe-Mn binary oxide would play a beneficial role as both an efficient oxidant of As(III) and a sorbent for As(V) in drinking water treatment and environmental remediation. PMID:25093452

  12. Storage iron exchange in the rat as affected by deferoxamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.K.; Huebers, H.; Pippard, M.J.; Finch, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    The initial tissue localization and redistribution of radioactive iron injected intravenously into the rat as ferritin, chondroitin sulfate, and nonviable red cells was determined. Ferritin iron, initially localized in the hepatocyte, showed minimal redistribution over 24 hours in the normal animal. This may be compared with the active release of iron from the reticuloendothelial cell after the intravenous injection of nonviable red cells and chondroitin sulfate iron. All forms of iron were actively mobilized in iron-deficient animals. The effect of chelation of iron by deferoxamine (DFO) on the redistribution pattern over 4 to 6 hours was determined in iron-deficient, normal, iron-loaded, and phenylhydrazine-treated rats to evaluate the effect of iron stores and erythropoiesis. Use of DFO resulted in extensive chelation of radioactive iron within the hepatocyte and greatly reduced the amount of hepatocyte iron available for erythropoiesis. Very little chelation of reticuloendothelial cell-processed iron occurred, and there was little decrease in its utilization for red cell production. Total urinary chelate iron was independent of erythropoiesis but varied in parallel with the iron load of the animal. These studies suggest that DFO does not act on the reticuloendothelial cell but does have at least two sites of action, both of which relate to total storage iron. One involves hepatocyte stores with excretion into the intestinal tract. The other, possibly located at the hepatocyte membrane, results in urinary iron excretion.

  13. Application of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide for Hepatic Tumor Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Tanimoto; Sachio Kuribayashi

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media are composed of iron oxide crystals coated with dextran or carboxydextran. These particles are sequestered by phagocytic Kupffer cells in normal reticuloendothelial system (RES), but are not retained in tumor tissue. Consequently, a significant differences in T2\\/T2* relaxation between normal RES tissue and tumors occurs, resulting in increased lesion

  14. Air oxidation of hydrazine. 1. Reaction kinetics on natural kaolinites, halloysites, and model substituent layers with varying iron and titanium oxide and O- center contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L.; Mariner, R.; Rice, A.

    1991-01-01

    Air oxidation of hydrazine was studied by using a group of kaolinites, halloysites, and substituent oxides as models for the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The rate was found to be linear with oxygen. The stoichiometry showed that oxygen was the primary oxidant and that dinitrogen was the only important nitrogen-containing product. The rates on kaolinites were strongly inhibited by water. Those on three-dimensional silica and gibbsite appeared not to be. That on a supposedly layered silica formed from a natural kaolinite by acid leaching showed transitional behavior--slowed relative to that expected from a second-order reaction relative to that on the gibbsite and silica but faster than those on the kaolinites. The most striking result of the reaction was the marked increase in the rate of reaction of a constant amount of hydrazine as the amount of clay was increased. The increase was apparent (in spite of the water inhibition at high conversions) over a 2 order of magnitude variation of the clay weight. The weight dependence was taken to indicate that the role of the clay is very important, that the number of reactive centers is very small, or that they may be deactivated over the course of the reaction. In contrast to the strong dependence on overall amount of clay, the variation of amounts of putative oxidizing centers, such as structural Fe(III), admixed TiO2 or Fe2O3, or O- centers, did not result in alteration of the rate commensurate with the degree of variation of the entity in question. Surface iron does play some role, however, as samples that were pretreated with a reducing agent were less active as catalysts than the parent material. These results were taken to indicate either that the various centers interact to such a degree that they cannot be considered independently or that the reaction might proceed by way of surface complexation, rather than single electron transfers.

  15. ImageMiner: a software system for comparative analysis of tissue microarrays using content-based image retrieval, high-performance computing, and grid technology

    PubMed Central

    Foran, David J; Yang, Lin; Hu, Jun; Goodell, Lauri A; Reiss, Michael; Wang, Fusheng; Kurc, Tahsin; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Saltz, Joel H

    2011-01-01

    Objective and design The design and implementation of ImageMiner, a software platform for performing comparative analysis of expression patterns in imaged microscopy specimens such as tissue microarrays (TMAs), is described. ImageMiner is a federated system of services that provides a reliable set of analytical and data management capabilities for investigative research applications in pathology. It provides a library of image processing methods, including automated registration, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification, all of which have been tailored, in these studies, to support TMA analysis. The system is designed to leverage high-performance computing machines so that investigators can rapidly analyze large ensembles of imaged TMA specimens. To support deployment in collaborative, multi-institutional projects, ImageMiner features grid-enabled, service-based components so that multiple instances of ImageMiner can be accessed remotely and federated. Results The experimental evaluation shows that: (1) ImageMiner is able to support reliable detection and feature extraction of tumor regions within imaged tissues; (2) images and analysis results managed in ImageMiner can be searched for and retrieved on the basis of image-based features, classification information, and any correlated clinical data, including any metadata that have been generated to describe the specified tissue and TMA; and (3) the system is able to reduce computation time of analyses by exploiting computing clusters, which facilitates analysis of larger sets of tissue samples. PMID:21606133

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  18. In vitro exposure of precision-cut lung slices to 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole lysylamide dihydrochloride (NSC 710305, Phortress) increases inflammatory cytokine content and tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Behrsing, Holger P; Furniss, Michael J; Davis, Myrtle; Tomaszewski, Joseph E; Parchment, Ralph E

    2013-02-01

    The anticancer drug (2-[4-amino-3-methylphenyl]-5-fluorobenzothiazole lysylamide dihydrochloride) (NSC 710305, Phortress) is a metabolically activated prodrug that causes DNA adduct formation and subsequent toxicity. Preclinically, it was found that hepatic, bone marrow, and pulmonary toxicity presented challenges to developing this drug. An ex vivo precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) model was used to search for concentration dependent effects of NSC 710305 (10, 25, 50, and 100 µM) on cytokine content, protein content, and immuno/histological endpoints. Preparation and culture of PCLS caused an initial spike in proinflammatory cytokine expression and therefore treatment with NSC 710305 was delayed until 48 h after initiating the slice cultures to avoid confounding the response to slicing with any drug response. PCLSs were evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h exposures to NSC 710305. Reversibility of toxicity due to the 72-h treatment was evaluated after a 24-h recovery period. NSC 710305 caused a concentration-dependent cytokine response, and only the toxicity caused by a 72-h exposure to 25 µM reversed during the 24-h recovery period. Immuno/histological examination and quantitation of tissue protein levels indicated that tissue destruction, ED-1 (activated macrophage) staining, and protein levels were associated with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the tissue. In conclusion, the concentration- and time-dependent inflammatory response of PCLS to NSC 710305 preceded relevant tissue damage by a few days. The no-observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 24, 48, and 72 h exposures was established as 10 µM NSC 710305. PMID:23143926

  19. Bacterial iron homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon C Andrews; Andrea K Robinson; Francisco Rodr??guez-Quiñones

    2003-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many

  20. [The effect of electrical and acoustic stimulation in early ontogeny on the characteristics of higher nervous activity and on the nucleic acid content of the tissues in chum salmon fry].

    PubMed

    Tikhomirov, A M; Vitvitskaia, L V

    1991-01-01

    Stimulation of salmon larvae by electric current led further to unstable character of reactions in the open field. Acoustic stimulation both by tonal and musical signals favourably influenced the behaviour in the open field and the ability to elaborate conditioned reflexes. Changes of the content of nucleic acids were not found in the brain tissue but were found in the muscles, where they correlated with the growth speed and motor activity of the experimental fishes. The obtained data show the possibility of elaboration of applied methods of the control of CNS development and behaviour of young fishes at fishing plants. PMID:1714672

  1. Related Formation of IIIE and IIIAB Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    The magmatic iron meteorites from group IIIE have compositions closely similar to those in IIIAB, the largest group of irons. The groups are fully resolved on some element-Au diagrams. The chief difference seems to be the higher C content of IIIE.

  2. Toxic (Pb, Cd, Hg) and essential (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) metal content of liver tissue of some domestic and bush animals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adei, Evans; Forson-Adaboh, Kwadwo

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic metals in liver, a rich natural source of essential elements, can present health risks to regular consumers of liver. A total of 35 fresh liver samples of cow, sheep, goat, pig, grass-cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), chicken and antelope (Antilocapra americana) were obtained from three different markets in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and an automatic mercury analyzer. Levels of iron in the grass-cutter and pig of 500.5-645.4 mg kg(-1) were the highest in the animal livers examined. Mn concentrations were highest in grass-cutter and rat liver, ranging 16.5-30.2 mg kg(-1). The safe Cu and Zn permissible limits of 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) were exceeded in 70 and 75% of the liver samples, respectively. Generally, for each animal group studied, at least 50% of the sample livers exceeded the Cd permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). The levels of Pb, which ranged 1.3-13.8 mg kg(-1), exceeded the proposed European Commission (EC) limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). Care must be taken by regular consumers of the iron-rich animal livers of grass-cutter, pig and rat because they also had the highest levels of Pb (in grass-cutter and pig) and Cd (in grass-cutter, rat and pig). The liver samples analyzed for Hg had values far below the permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:24784805

  3. ImageMiner: a software system for comparative analysis of tissue microarrays using content-based image retrieval, high-performance computing, and grid technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Foran; Lin Yang; Wenjin Chen; Jun Hu; Lauri A Goodell; Michael Reiss; Fusheng Wang; Tahsin Kurc; Tony Pan; Ashish Sharma; Joel H Saltz

    2011-01-01

    Objective and designThe design and implementation of ImageMiner, a software platform for performing comparative analysis of expression patterns in imaged microscopy specimens such as tissue microarrays (TMAs), is described. ImageMiner is a federated system of services that provides a reliable set of analytical and data management capabilities for investigative research applications in pathology. It provides a library of image processing

  4. Use of Chlorella vulgaris as a carotenoid source for rainbow trout: effect of dietary lipid content on pigmentation, digestibility and retention in the muscle tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Gouveia; Georges Choubert; Emídio Gomes; Paulo Rema; José Empis

    1998-01-01

    Apparent digestibility, deposition and retention of carotenoids in the muscle of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were investigated comparing the feeding of pigments from Chlorella vulgaris against commercially available pigments at two different total lipid contents (15% and 20% lipid). Algal biomass (ALG) was included in rainbow trout diets and muscle pigmentation was compared to that obtained in trout fed diets

  5. Impact of algal diets and emulsions on the fatty acid composition and content of selected tissues of adult broodstock of the Chilean scallop Argopecten pupuratus (Lamarck, 1819)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marrit Caers; Peter Coutteau; Patrick Sorgeloos; Gonzalo Gajardo

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition and content in different organs (digestive gland, adductor muscle and male and female gonad) of Argopecten purpuratus was evaluated during the process of gonad maturation under controlled laboratory conditions. A mixed algal diet of Isochrysis galbana (clone T-Iso), Pavlova lutheri, Chaetoceros gracilis and Tetraselmis suecica was either fed alone

  6. Enhanced and selective delivery of enzyme therapy to 9L-glioma tumor via magnetic targeting of PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Wenxi

    2014-01-01

    The stability of enzyme-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in plasma is of great importance for in vivo delivery of the conjugated enzyme. In this study, ?-glucosidase was conjugated on aminated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the glutaraldehyde method (?-Glu-MNP), and further PEGylated via N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-?-Glu-MNPs) were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter distribution, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The results showed that the multidomain structure and magnetization properties of these nanoparticles were conserved well throughout the synthesis steps, with an expected diameter increase and zeta potential shifts. The Michaelis constant was calculated to evaluate the activity of conjugated ?-glucosidase on the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, indicating 73.0% and 65.4% of enzyme activity remaining for ?-Glu-MNP and PEG-?-Glu-MNP, respectively. Both magnetophoretic mobility analysis and pharmacokinetics showed improved in vitro/in vivo stability of PEG-?-Glu-MNP compared with ?-Glu-MNP. In vivo magnetic targeting of PEG-?-Glu-MNP was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and electron spin resonance analysis in a mouse model of subcutaneous 9L-glioma. Satisfactory accumulation of PEG-?-Glu-MNP in tumor tissue was successfully achieved, with an iron content of 627±45 nmol Fe/g tissue and ?-glucosidase activity of 32.2±8.0 mU/g tissue. PMID:24959078

  7. Enhanced and selective delivery of enzyme therapy to 9L-glioma tumor via magnetic targeting of PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Wenxi

    2014-01-01

    The stability of enzyme-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in plasma is of great importance for in vivo delivery of the conjugated enzyme. In this study, ?-glucosidase was conjugated on aminated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the glutaraldehyde method (?-Glu-MNP), and further PEGylated via N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-?-Glu-MNPs) were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter distribution, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The results showed that the multidomain structure and magnetization properties of these nanoparticles were conserved well throughout the synthesis steps, with an expected diameter increase and zeta potential shifts. The Michaelis constant was calculated to evaluate the activity of conjugated ?-glucosidase on the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, indicating 73.0% and 65.4% of enzyme activity remaining for ?-Glu-MNP and PEG-?-Glu-MNP, respectively. Both magnetophoretic mobility analysis and pharmacokinetics showed improved in vitro/in vivo stability of PEG-?-Glu-MNP compared with ?-Glu-MNP. In vivo magnetic targeting of PEG-?-Glu-MNP was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and electron spin resonance analysis in a mouse model of subcutaneous 9L-glioma. Satisfactory accumulation of PEG-?-Glu-MNP in tumor tissue was successfully achieved, with an iron content of 627±45 nmol Fe/g tissue and ?-glucosidase activity of 32.2±8.0 mU/g tissue. PMID:24959078

  8. Evaluation of mRNA Contents of YBX2 and JHDM2A Genes on Testicular Tissues of Azoospermic Men with Different Classes of Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Reza; Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Samimi Hashjin, Amir; Rajaei, Farzad; Rashvand, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Animal model studies have shown that MSY2 and JHDM2A genes have an important role in spermatogenesis process and fertility of male mice. But the potential role of these genes in human spermatogenesis and fertility is not known yet. Therefore, we evaluated expression ratios of these genes in testis tissues of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, after RNA extraction and cDNA syn- thesis from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal testis tissues, the expression ratios of genes were evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Hematoxcylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used for histological classification of testis tissues. For statistical analysis, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was carried out. Results Our results showed a significant reduction in mRNA level of YBX2 in samples with impaired spermatogenesis (p<0.001) compared to samples with qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and normal spermatogenesis; however, in JHDM2A gene, despite sensible reduction in gene expression level in men with impaired spermatogenesis, no significant differences were shown (p>0.05). Furthermore in YBX2, a significant negative correlation was demonstrated between the efficiency score of spermatogenesis and the threshold cycle (CT) (r=-0.7, p<0.0001), whereas in JHDM2A, this negative correlation was not significant (r=-0.4, p=0.06). Conclusion Generally, these data indicated that YBX2 and JHDM2A genes may play an important role in male infertility, and suggested that these molecules can act as useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:25870841

  9. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  10. Calcium channels and iron uptake into the heart.

    PubMed

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Kumfu, Sirinart; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2011-07-26

    Iron overload can lead to iron deposits in many tissues, particularly in the heart. It has also been shown to be associated with elevated oxidative stress in tissues. Elevated cardiac iron deposits can lead to iron overload cardiomyopathy, a condition which provokes mortality due to heart failure in iron-overloaded patients. Currently, the mechanism of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes is still not clearly understood. Growing evidence suggests L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) as a possible pathway for ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) uptake into cardiomyocytes under iron overload conditions. Nevertheless, controversy still exists since some findings on pharmacological interventions and those using different cell types do not support LTCC's role as a portal for iron uptake in cardiac cells. Recently, T-type Ca(2+) channels (TTCC) have been shown to play an important role in the diseased heart. Although TTCC and iron uptake in cardiomyocytes has not been investigated greatly, a recent finding indicated that TTCC could be an important portal in thalassemic hearts. In this review, comprehensive findings collected from previous studies as well as a discussion of the controversy regarding iron uptake mechanisms into cardiomyocytes via calcium channels are presented with the hope that understanding the cellular iron uptake mechanism in cardiomyocytes will lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in iron-overloaded patients. PMID:21860702

  11. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin), and chronic renal disease. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin), and chronic renal disease. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin, and characterized by pigmentation of the skin), and chronic renal disease. (b)...

  14. What is new in iron overload?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Children with severe chronic hemolytic anemia or congenital erythroblastopenia are transfusion dependent. Long-term transfusion therapy prolongs life but results in a toxic accumulation of iron in the organs. The human body cannot actively eliminate excess iron. Therefore, the use of a chelating agent is required to promote excretion of iron. So far, iron chelation has been done by subcutaneous infusion of deferoxamine given over 10 h, 5–6 days per week. Compliance is poor and chelation often insufficient. Ferritin measurements and sometimes liver biopsies are used to evaluate the iron burden in the body. At the present time, new iron chelators that can be given orally are available. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of tissue iron is a noninvasive and highly reproducible method, which is able to quantitate organ iron burden. In conclusion, iron overload can be measured more accurately with noninvasive methods such as MRI. Deferasirox is a once-daily oral therapy for treating transfusional iron overload, which improves patient compliance and quality of life. PMID:17899187

  15. Temporary Dietary Iron Restriction Affects the Process of Thrombus Resolution in a Rat Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. Methods We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. Results The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. Conclusions These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT. PMID:25962140

  16. Thermodynamics of carbon in nickel, iron-nickel and iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Natesan; T. F. Kassner

    1973-01-01

    Iron-nickel alloys with 8 and 16 wt pct nickel and iron-chromium-nickel alloys with 8 pct nickel and chromium contents in\\u000a the range of 2 to 22 pct were equilibrated with iron and nickel in flowing CH4-H2 gas mixtures and in sealed capsules under partial vacuum at temperatures between 700 and 1060?C. Carbon activities in these\\u000a alloys were established from the

  17. Ferrous iron formation following the co-aggregation of ferric iron and the Alzheimer's disease peptide ?-amyloid (1–42)

    PubMed Central

    Everett, J.; Céspedes, E.; Shelford, L. R.; Exley, C.; Collingwood, J. F.; Dobson, J.; van der Laan, G.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Telling, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, a link between increased levels of iron and areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has been recognized, including AD lesions comprised of the peptide ?-amyloid (A?). Despite many observations of this association, the relationship between A? and iron is poorly understood. Using X-ray microspectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and spectrophotometric iron(II) quantification techniques, we examine the interaction between A?(1–42) and synthetic iron(III), reminiscent of ferric iron stores in the brain. We report A? to be capable of accumulating iron(III) within amyloid aggregates, with this process resulting in A?-mediated reduction of iron(III) to a redox-active iron(II) phase. Additionally, we show that the presence of aluminium increases the reductive capacity of A?, enabling the redox cycling of the iron. These results demonstrate the ability of A? to accumulate iron, offering an explanation for previously observed local increases in iron concentration associated with AD lesions. Furthermore, the ability of iron to form redox-active iron phases from ferric precursors provides an origin both for the redox-active iron previously witnessed in AD tissue, and the increased levels of oxidative stress characteristic of AD. These interactions between A? and iron deliver valuable insights into the process of AD progression, which may ultimately provide targets for disease therapies. PMID:24671940

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of ...

  19. Electronic properties of calcium borate glasses containing iron oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gawish; M. N. Saleh

    1976-01-01

    The electronic properties of calcium borate glasses containing iron oxide have been investigated. It was found that glasses with an Fe2O3 content less than 20 mole% were amorphous, while those above 20 mole% were devitrified. It was observed that increasing the iron molar content in the amorphous samples caused an increase in their dc conductivity, ac conductivity, dielectric constant, and

  20. Extracellular Iron Biomineralization by Photoautotrophic Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria ? †

    PubMed Central

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Obst, Martin; Kappler, Andreas; Hegler, Florian; Schädler, Sebastian; Bouchez, Camille; Guyot, François; Morin, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxidation at neutral pH by the phototrophic anaerobic iron-oxidizing bacterium Rhodobacter sp. strain SW2 leads to the formation of iron-rich minerals. These minerals consist mainly of nano-goethite (?-FeOOH), which precipitates exclusively outside cells, mostly on polymer fibers emerging from the cells. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses performed at the C K-edge suggest that these fibers are composed of a mixture of lipids and polysaccharides or of lipopolysaccharides. The iron and the organic carbon contents of these fibers are linearly correlated at the 25-nm scale, which in addition to their texture suggests that these fibers act as a template for mineral precipitation, followed by limited crystal growth. Moreover, we evidence a gradient of the iron oxidation state along the mineralized fibers at the submicrometer scale. Fe minerals on these fibers contain a higher proportion of Fe(III) at cell contact, and the proportion of Fe(II) increases at a distance from the cells. All together, these results demonstrate the primordial role of organic polymers in iron biomineralization and provide first evidence for the existence of a redox gradient around these nonencrusting, Fe-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:19592528

  1. Extracellular iron biomineralization by photoautotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Obst, Martin; Kappler, Andreas; Hegler, Florian; Schädler, Sebastian; Bouchez, Camille; Guyot, François; Morin, Guillaume

    2009-09-01

    Iron oxidation at neutral pH by the phototrophic anaerobic iron-oxidizing bacterium Rhodobacter sp. strain SW2 leads to the formation of iron-rich minerals. These minerals consist mainly of nano-goethite (alpha-FeOOH), which precipitates exclusively outside cells, mostly on polymer fibers emerging from the cells. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses performed at the C K-edge suggest that these fibers are composed of a mixture of lipids and polysaccharides or of lipopolysaccharides. The iron and the organic carbon contents of these fibers are linearly correlated at the 25-nm scale, which in addition to their texture suggests that these fibers act as a template for mineral precipitation, followed by limited crystal growth. Moreover, we evidence a gradient of the iron oxidation state along the mineralized fibers at the submicrometer scale. Fe minerals on these fibers contain a higher proportion of Fe(III) at cell contact, and the proportion of Fe(II) increases at a distance from the cells. All together, these results demonstrate the primordial role of organic polymers in iron biomineralization and provide first evidence for the existence of a redox gradient around these nonencrusting, Fe-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:19592528

  2. Neuroprotective effects of iron chelator Desferal on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of rats with iron-overload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Jiang; Zhuo Luan; Jun Wang; Junxia Xie

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the iron chelator Desferal prevents the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) induced by iron-overload in rats. Using fast cyclic voltammetry, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, Perls’ iron staining, and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, we measured the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and increased iron content in the SN

  3. Iron and atherosclerosis: nailing down a novel target with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Sharkey-Toppen, Travis P; Tewari, Arun K; Raman, Subha V

    2014-07-01

    Iron is an essential mineral in many proteins and enzymes in human physiology, with limited means of iron elimination to maintain iron balance. Iron accrual incurs various pathological mechanisms linked to cardiovascular disease. In atherosclerosis, iron catalyzes the creation of reactive oxygen free radicals that contribute to lipid modification, which is essential to atheroma formation. Inflammation further fuels iron-related pathologic processes associated with plaque progression. Given iron's role in atherosclerosis development, in vivo detection techniques sensitive iron are needed for translational studies targeting iron for earlier diagnosis and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging is uniquely able to quantify iron in human tissues noninvasively and without ionizing radiation, offering appealing for longitudinal and interventional studies. Particularly intriguing is iron's complementary biology vs. calcium, which is readily detectable by computed tomography. This review summarizes the role of iron in atherosclerosis with considerable implications for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24590608

  4. Chemical Classification of Iron Meteorites: XII. New Members of the Magmatic Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Wasson; Byeon-Gak Choi; Eric A. Jerde; Finn Ulff-Møller

    1998-01-01

    Data are reported for thirty iron meteorites that are members of the magmatic groups, for three main group pallasites, one anomalous mesosiderite, and for three ungrouped irons and an ungrouped pallasite that are similar to IIIAB irons in their Ni, Ga, and Ge contents. The set includes four observed falls (11% of iron falls) Ban Rong Du, Chisenga, Nyaung and

  5. Iron release from haemosiderin and production of iron-catalysed hydroxyl radicals in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, M; Kawabata, T; Awai, M

    1988-01-01

    Isolated haemosiderin contained iron and nitrogen in a weight ratio of 6.75, with phosphorus and no detectable haem. Considerably more iron was released from haemosiderin under acidic conditions than under neutral conditions in the presence of ascorbate, nitrilotriacetate or dithionite. Unlike the situation with ascorbate, chelators such as citrate, ADP or succinate induced the release of only some iron, with almost no pH-dependence. Dehydroascorbate (the oxidized form of ascorbate with no reducing capacity) behaved like citrate, ADP, succinate or desferal, rather than like ascorbate itself, in releasing iron. GSH had less effect on the release of iron than these chelators, but in the presence of a small amount of chelator the release of iron increased, especially under acidic conditions. Thus reduction, chelation and pH were all found to be important factors involved in the release of iron from haemosiderin. Investigation by e.p.r. of hydroxyl-radical production by the released iron showed high radical productivity at an acidic pH. However, at a physiological pH, almost no radical formation was detected, except in the presence of nitrilotriacetate. These findings suggested that, under physiological conditions, haemosiderin was not an effective iron donor and was almost not involved in radical production. Under acidic conditions, however, such as in inflammation, hypoxia and in a lysosomal milieu, it could possibly be an iron donor and is thought to be implicated in radical production and tissue damage in iron-overloaded conditions. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2833249

  6. Interaction of iron and folate during reproduction.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, D L

    1991-01-01

    Biochemical evidence collected from both clinical and non-institutionalized populations indicate that iron and folate deficiencies frequently occur simultaneously. Supplementation trials of iron-deficient patients with either iron or iron and folate has helped to illustrate that a complex interrelationship exists between these two nutrients. Controlled animal trials in which dietary iron and folate content has been systematically manipulated reveal that iron deficiency can cause altered folate utilization. The impact of iron deficiency on folate metabolism is most dramatic during the reproductive and neonatal stages of the life cycle. Rat pups and piglets nursed by dams fed iron-depleted diets exhibit signs of altered folate utilization. Depressed milk folate secretion is an early manifestation of iron deficiency in the rat dam and is a prime factor responsible for folate depletion in their nursing pups. Impaired milk folate secretion during iron deficiency is not due to a decrease in the amount of folate supplied to the mammary gland; rather, the defect causing this reduction is specific to the mammary gland. PMID:1784737

  7. Iron in arterial plaque: modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jerome L

    2009-07-01

    It has been proposed that iron depletion protects against cardiovascular disease. There is increasing evidence that one mechanism for this protection may involve a reduction in iron levels within atherosclerotic plaque. Large increases in iron concentration are seen in human atherosclerotic lesions in comparison to levels in healthy arterial tissue. In animal models, depletion of lesion iron levels in vivo by phlebotomy, systemic iron chelation treatment or dietary iron restriction reduces lesion size and/or increases plaque stability. A number of factors associated with increased arterial disease or increased cardiovascular events is also associated with increased plaque iron. In rats, infusion of angiotensin II increases ferritin levels and arterial thickness which are reversed by treatment with the iron chelator deferoxamine. In humans, a polymorphism for haptoglobin associated with increased cardiovascular disease is also characterized by increased lesional iron. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is an important component of the system for mobilization of iron from macrophages. Human HO1 promoter polymorphisms causing weaker upregulation of the enzyme are associated with increased cardiovascular disease and increased serum ferritin. Increased cardiovascular disease associated with inflammation may be in part caused by elevated hepcidin levels that promote retention of iron within plaque macrophages. Defective retention of iron within arterial macrophages in genetic hemochromatosis may explain why there is little evidence of increased atherosclerosis in this disorder despite systemic iron overload. The reviewed findings support the concept that arterial plaque iron is a modifiable risk factor for atherogenesis. PMID:18619522

  8. Prediction of fatty acids content in pig adipose tissue by near infrared spectroscopy: at-line versus in-situ analysis.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Rojas, E; Garrido-Varo, A; De Pedro-Sanz, E; Guerrero-Ginel, J E; Pérez-Marín, D

    2013-11-01

    A handheld micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based spectrometer working in the near infrared region (NIR) (1600-2400nm) was evaluated for in-situ and non-destructive prediction of main fatty acids in Iberian pig (IP) carcasses. 110 IP carcasses were measured. Performance of the instrument was compared with at-line high-resolution NIRS monochromators working in two analysis modes: melted fat samples (transflectance cups) and intact adipose tissues (interactance fiber optic). Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) values obtained on the MEMS-NIRS device were: 0.68% (stearic), 1.30% (oleic), 0.55% (linoleic) and 1% (palmitic), explaining a variability of 83%, 84%, 81% and 78%, respectively. As expected, this represented a loss of predictive capability in comparison to at-line models, even with the same spectral characteristics as on the handheld device. However, the estimated total errors were at the same level for gas chromatography and NIRS analysis. This indicates that the MEMS-NIRS in-situ analysis of each individual carcass provides a cost-effective and real-time quality control system with suitable accuracy. PMID:23793086

  9. Corrosion rate of iron and iron–chromium alloys in CO 2 medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Carvalho; C. J. B. Joia; O. R. Mattos

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper corrosion of iron (99.95%) and iron–chromium alloys (1–5% Cr) were investigated by mass loss and ac impedance. These low-chromium content alloys have been proposed as an intermediate corrosion-performance material between C-steel and stainless steels to be used in oil plants. It was observed that small contents of chromium in the alloy decrease the corrosion attack only

  10. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

    1987-05-01

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

  11. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  12. The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1983-03-28

    The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Gender and Iron Genes May Modify Associations Between Brain Iron and Memory in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-01-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON?) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON? status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=?0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON? group (r=?0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups. PMID:21389980

  14. Dietary flax oil reduces renal injury, oxidized LDL content, and tissue n-6/n-3 FA ratio in experimental polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ogborn, Malcolm R; Nitschmann, Evan; Bankovic-Calic, Neda; Weiler, Hope A; Aukema, Harold

    2002-11-01

    As whole flaxseed is beneficial in the treatment of experimental renal disease, we undertook a study to determine whether previously documented benefits of whole flaxseed could be reproduced with dietary low-lignan flax oil (FO), a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, in experimental polycystic kidney disease. Male offspring of Han:SPRD-cy heterozygous rats were fed a synthetic diet containing FO or corn oil (CO) for 8 wk from the time of weaning. Renal inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, cystic change, and oxidized-LDL were assessed morphometrically. Hepatic and renal lipid composition was assessed using GC. FO feeding produced hepatic and renal enrichment of n-3 PUFA and an increase in C18:>C18 PUFA ratios (18-carbon PUFA compared to longer-chain PUFA), with a reduction in proportion of hepatic long-chain PUFA. The FO-based diet was associated with lower mean cystic change by 29.7% (P = 0.018), fibrosis by 21.7% (P = 0.017), macrophage infiltration by 31.5% (P < 0.0001), epithelial proliferation by 18.7% (P = 0.0035), and ox-LDL detection by 31.4% (P < 0.0001) in Han:SPRD-cy heterozygotes. Serum creatinine was significantly lower in FO-fed diseased animals. A small hypocholesterolemic effect was noted in all animals fed FO. FO feeding moderates renal injury, modifies the profile of substrates available for elongation to eicosanoid precursors, and inhibits the elongation of C18 PUFA in this model. The consumption of FO-based products may prove a more practical way of obtaining health benefit than attempts to increase dietary content of unrefined seed. PMID:12558056

  15. Effect of free iron on collagen synthesis, cell proliferation and MMP-2 expression in rat hepatic stellate cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concetta Gardi; Beatrice Arezzini; Vittoria Fortino; Mario Comporti

    2002-01-01

    Various studies on hepatic fibrosis occurring in iron overload suggest that excess of tissue iron may be involved in the stimulation of collagen synthesis. Anyway, up to date, direct evidence on the role of iron in hepatic fibrosis is lacking. Moreover, it is not clear whether iron acts as direct initiator of fibrogenesis or as mediator of hepatocellular necrosis. In

  16. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  17. Use of carbonyl iron to induce iron loading in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Bootsma, N.; Macey, D.J.; Webb, J.; Talbot, V. (Murdoch Univ. (Australia))

    1990-02-01

    It is now recognized that in organisms such as marine mussels, the prior presence of one metal can be important in determining the ultimate toxicological response to a second challenge by a different metal species. Thus, for example, the presence of iron in the mussel Mytilus edulis profoundly affects the subsequent accumulation of zinc. To determine these synergistic (or indeed antagonistic) effects in an organism such as the mussel, it is important to be able to both load the animal rapidly, and ensure that the metal ends up in a form which is ultimately the same as that found in the animal in the natural environment. Unfortunately, considerable problems have arisen with the form in which iron has been loaded into mussels. Recently, carbonyl iron has been used to induce iron loading in rats. This form of iron is prepared by reacting elemental iron at high temperatures with carbon monoxide to form iron pentacarbonyl. This study was thus undertaken to determine whether carbonyl iron could be used for the rapid non-toxic iron loading of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Such loading could subsequently be used for the investigation of synergistic metal accumulation in mussels, a topic of considerable interest due to their use as marine pollution indicator organisms. Biochemical aspects of this tissue iron loading, including the isolation and characterization of the major metal-binding protein ferritin, have been reported previously.

  18. Metal contents of liver parenchyma after percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma before and after trientine hydrochloride therapy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ebara, Masaaki; Okabe, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Fukuo; Yukawa, Masae

    2004-06-01

    We administered trientine hydrochloride, a drug used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, to patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radical treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation, and examined its effect on the reduction of liver-tissue copper content. We enrolled 24 patients with 3 or fewer primary lesions of Child class A or B hepatocellular carcinoma with diameters of 3 cm or less who had undergone radical treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation. Trientine hydrochloride was orally administered in a single daily dose of 250 mg to 12 patients before a meal (at fasting, group 1) or at a total daily dosage of 750 mg, divided into 3 doses, to 12 patients (group 2). This study was a randomized between-groups comparative study of 12 weeks' duration. We used the particle-induced x-ray-emission method to determine liver-tissue mineral content. Urine copper and serum mineral levels were also measured, and transaminase levels were examined. Liver-tissue copper content decreased significantly, to 160.1 microg/g dry weight, after treatment, compared with the pretreatment level of 306.8 microg/g dry weight (P <.05). We detected no significant difference in iron or zinc content before and after treatment. The copper content was significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (P <.05). The urine copper level was significantly increased after 1 week of treatment but decreased thereafter. Serum copper levels were significantly reduced after treatment (P <.01). We detected no significant difference in transaminase level before and after treatment. Iron-deficiency anemia in 1 patient after 12 weeks' treatment was the only adverse reaction, and it was improved by the administration of an iron product. We noted no other overt adverse reactions. In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, trientine hydrochloride therapy may significantly reduce copper content in liver tissue. PMID:15192648

  19. Iron and Prochlorococcus/

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne Williford

    2009-01-01

    Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

  20. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. Red blood cells bring oxygen to the ... such as your spleen, remove old blood cells. Iron is a key part of red blood cells. ...

  1. Tissue Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Langer; Joseph P. Vacanti

    1993-01-01

    The loss or failure of an organ or tissue is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly problems in human health care. A new field, tissue engineering, applies the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissue. This article discusses the foundations and challenges of this interdisciplinary field and its attempts to provide

  2. Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Karima; Had-Aissouni, Laurence; Melon, Christophe; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Poucet, Bruno; Save, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phone technology over the last decade raises concerns about the impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on health. More recently, a link between EMF, iron overload in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has been suggested. Co-exposure to EMF and brain iron overload may have a greater impact on brain tissues and cognitive processes than each treatment by itself. To examine this hypothesis, Long-Evans rats submitted to 900 MHz exposure or combined 900 MHz EMF and iron overload treatments were tested in various spatial learning tasks (navigation task in the Morris water maze, working memory task in the radial-arm maze, and object exploration task involving spatial and non spatial processing). Biogenic monoamines and metabolites (dopamine, serotonin) and oxidative stress were measured. Rats exposed to EMF were impaired in the object exploration task but not in the navigation and working memory tasks. They also showed alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus. Rats that received combined treatment did not show greater behavioral and neurochemical deficits than EMF-exposed rats. None of the two treatments produced global oxidative stress. These results show that there is an impact of EMF on the brain and cognitive processes but this impact is revealed only in a task exploiting spontaneous exploratory activity. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between EMF and a high content of iron in the brain. PMID:24144546

  3. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  4. Tissue Mechanics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students reflect on their experiences making silly putty (the previous hands-on activity in the unit), especially why changing the borax concentration alters the mechanical properties of silly putty and how this pertains to tissue mechanics. Students learn why engineers must understand tissue mechanics in order to design devices that will be implanted or used inside bodies, to study pathologies of tissues and how this alters tissue function, and to design prosthetics. Finally, students learn about collagen, elastin and proteoglycans and their roles in giving body tissues their unique functions. This prepares them for the culminating design-build-test activity of the unit.

  5. Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Membrane Vesicles in Iron Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

  6. Desferrioxamine and vitamin E protect against iron and MPTP-induced neurodegeneration in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lan; D. H. Jiang

    1997-01-01

    Summary To elucidate the neuroprotective effects of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO) and the antioxidant vitamin E on excessive iron-induced free radical damage, a chronic iron-loaded mice model was established. The relationship between striatal iron content, oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio, hydroxyl radical (.OH) levels and dopamine concentrations were observed in DFO or vitamin E pretreated iron-loaded\\/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL\\/6 mice.

  7. Developmental profile of non-heme iron distribution in the rat brain during ontogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben Moos

    1995-01-01

    The entry of iron from blood into the developing rat brain was studied by means of non-heme iron-histochemistry. The content of non-heme iron in the endothelial cells was manifest already from E14, declined from P3 to P5, and was almost absent on P10–P15. The choroid plexus epithelial cells of either ventricle was non-heme iron-containing from E14. Non-heme iron-containing macrophages situated

  8. [Iron metabolism during pregnancy at high altitudes].

    PubMed

    Reynafarje Hurtado, C

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of iron metabolism was conducted in pregnant women for three Peruvian localities of different elevations: Lima (sea level), La Oroya (3.700 m) and Puno (3.900 m). As predicted, the survey showed hematocrits and hemoglobin concentration values 20 to 30% higher in the Andean women, but the serum iron concentration was unexpectedly lower in Lima than at the higher localities (49 vs. 85 to 90 ug/dl). These results may be explained by the larger iron content found in the water consumed as well as in the cooking pottery utilized at high altitude. PMID:8929087

  9. Iron chelation studies using desferrioxamine and the potential oral chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, in normal and iron loaded rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G J Kontoghiorghes; L Sheppard; A V Hoffbrand; J Charalambous; J Tikerpae; M J Pippard

    1987-01-01

    A novel iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, and desferrioxamine were compared for their ability to remove iron and for their site of action in iron release in rats. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of the chelators in rats with widespread tissue labelling by 59Fe derived from transferrin showed comparable 59Fe mobilisation by each chelator in normal and iron loaded rats. Specific labelling of a

  10. Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

    2014-05-21

    The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al+DFP (Group III) and Al+DFO+DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al+DFP to Al+DFO+DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO+DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology. PMID:24583473

  11. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    PubMed

    Italia, Khushnooma; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of ?-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination. PMID:24349400

  12. Hydroxyurea Could Be a Good Clinically Relevant Iron Chelator

    PubMed Central

    Italia, Khushnooma; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of ?-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl’s Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination. PMID:24349400

  13. Hepcidin regulates intrarenal iron handling at the distal nephron.

    PubMed

    Moulouel, Boualem; Houamel, Dounia; Delaby, Constance; Tchernitchko, Dimitri; Vaulont, Sophie; Letteron, Philippe; Thibaudeau, Olivier; Puy, Hervé; Gouya, Laurent; Beaumont, Carole; Karim, Zoubida

    2013-10-01

    Hepcidin, the key regulatory hormone of iron homeostasis, and iron carriers such as transferrin receptor1 (TFR1), divalent metal transporter1 (DMT1), and ferroportin (FPN) are expressed in kidney. Whether hepcidin plays an intrinsic role in the regulation of renal iron transport is unknown. Here, we analyzed the renal handling of iron in hemochromatosis Hepc(-/-) and Hjv(-/-) mouse models, as well as in phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-treated mice. We found a marked medullary iron deposition in the kidneys of Hepc(-/-) mice, and iron leak in the urine. The kidneys of Hepc(-/-) mice exhibited a concomitant decrease in TFR1 and increase in ferritin and FPN expression. Increased FPN abundance was restricted to the thick ascending limb (TAL). DMT1 protein remained unaffected despite a significant decrease of its mRNA level, suggesting that DMT1 protein is stabilized in the absence of hepcidin. Treatment of kidney sections from Hepc(-/-) mice with hepcidin decreased DMT1 protein, an effect confirmed in renal cell lines where hepcidin markedly decreased (55)Fe transport. In the kidneys of Hjv(-/-) mice exhibiting low hepcidin expression, the iron overload was similar to that in the kidneys of Hepc(-/-) mice. However, in PHZ mice, iron accumulation resulting from hemoglobin leak was detected in the proximal tubule. Thus, kidneys exhibit a tissue-specific handling of iron that depends on the extra iron source. Hepcidin may control the expression of iron transporters to prevent renal iron overload. PMID:23615502

  14. Hepcidin Regulates Cellular Iron Efflux by Binding to Ferroportin and Inducing Its Internalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeta Nemeth; Marie S. Tuttle; Julie Powelson; Michael B. Vaughn; Adriana Donovan; Diane McVey Ward; Tomas Ganz; Jerry Kaplan

    2004-01-01

    Hepcidin is a peptide hormone secreted by the liver in response to iron loading and inflammation. Decreased hepcidin leads to tissue iron overload, whereas hepcidin overproduction leads to hypoferremia and the anemia of inflammation. Ferroportin is an iron exporter present on the surface of absorptive enterocytes, macrophages, hepatocytes, and placental cells. Here we report that hepcidin bound to ferroportin in

  15. Differential regulation of human alveolar macrophage-derived interleukin-1 ? and tumor necrosis factor- ? by iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy R. O'brien-ladner; Barbara M. Blumer; Lewis J. Wesselius

    1998-01-01

    Human lungs accumulate iron with the aging process. In some circumstances associated with lung injury (eg, smoking), this acquisition of iron in lung tissue and alveolar macrophages (AMs) is escalated. We hypothesized that excess cellular iron interfered with the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) by AMs. To examine this hypothesis, we acquired AMs from smokers and

  16. Content and microdistribution of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weizhen; Han, Qiyong; Huo, Chengzheng; Liu, Xiukun

    1987-05-01

    Cerium concentrations in the matrix and graphite phases of common cast iron and high purity Fe-C-Si alloys have been determined quantitatively by electrolysis in an organic electrolyte at low temperature with subsequent radioassay. The morphology of graphite is related to the cerium dissolved in the matrix, rather than to the cerium content of the graphite. The distribution of cerium in the matrix and graphite phases of cast iron was determined by an improved coating-autoradiographic technique. Cerium is distributed in spheroidal graphite in various forms and amounts, but is uniform in flake graphite. The cerium content of “exploded” graphite is higher than that of flake or spheroidal graphite. Cerium is distributed within the matrix not according to the identity of the phases but by the sequence of solidification: it is concentrated in the area which solidifies last. The amount of sulfur in the original molten metal strongly influences the graphite morphology.

  17. Formation of IIAB iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Huber, Heinz; Malvin, Daniel J.

    2007-02-01

    Group IIAB is the third largest group of iron meteorites and the second largest group that formed by fractional crystallization; many of these irons formed from the P-rich portion of a magma consisting of two-immiscible liquids. We report neutron-activation data for 78 IIAB irons. These confirm earlier studies showing that the group has the largest known range in Ir concentrations (a factor of 4000) and that slopes are steeply negative on plots of Ir vs. Au or As (or Ni). High negative slopes imply relatively high distribution coefficients for Ir, Au, and As (but, with rare exceptions, remaining less than unity for the latter). IIAB appears to have had the highest S contents of any magmatic group of iron meteorites, consistent with its high contents of other volatile siderophiles, particularly Ga and Ge. Large fractions of trapped melt were present in the IIAB irons with the highest Au and As and lowest Ir contents. As a result, when these irons crystallized, the DAu and DAs values can, with moderate accuracy, be estimated to have been roughly 0.53 and 0.46, respectively. These low values imply that the initial nonmetal (S + P) content of the magma was much lower than 170 mg/g, as estimated in earlier studies; our estimate is 75 mg/g. Our results are consistent with an initial P/S ratio of 0.25, similar to the ratio estimated for other magmatic groups. There is little doubt that incompatible S-rich and P-rich metallic liquids were involved during the formation of group IIAB. After 20% crystallization of our assumed starting composition the two-liquid boundary is encountered (at 72 mg/g S and 18 mg/g P). Initially the volume of S-rich liquid is very small, but continued crystallization increased the volume of this phase and decreased its P/S ratio while increasing this ratio in the P-rich liquid. Most crystallization of the IIAB magma would have occurred in the lower, P-rich portion of the core. However, metal was still a liquidus phase at the top of the core and, because both the immiscible liquids would have convected, they may have approached equilibrium throughout the very limited crystallization of the magma recorded in group IIAB. All IIAB irons contain trapped melt, and this melt will have had very different compositions depending on whether the liquid is S-rich (at the outer solid/liquid interface) or P-rich (at the inner interface). The P/S ratio in the melt trapped in the Santa Luzia iron is about 0.6 g/g, consistent with our modeling of Ir-Au and Ir-As trends implying that Santa Luzia formed in the lower, P-rich portion of the core after about 48% crystallization of the magma. Because the liquids were in equilibrium, the point at which immiscibility first occurred is not recorded by a dramatic change in the trends on element-Au diagrams; the main compositional effect is recorded in the P/S ratio of the trapped melt. The high-Au (>0.8 ?g/g) irons for which large sections are available all contain skeletal schreibersite implying a relatively high (>0.3 g/g) P/S ratio; none of these irons could have crystallized from the S-rich upper layer of the core.

  18. Antibiotic activity of iron-sequestering polymers.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Qian, Jian; Eshelman, Kate; Rivera, Mario; Berkland, Cory

    2015-05-11

    Increasing antibiotic resistance has compelled the development of novel antibiotics and adjuvant therapies that enhance the efficacy of existing antibiotics. Iron plays a critical role in bacterial infections, yet the use of iron chelators as adjuvant therapy with antibiotics has yielded highly variable outcomes. Multivalent polymeric materials offer an alternative approach to bind and sequester iron via high avidity interactions. Here, a biomimetic iron-sequestering polymer (PAI-DHBA) was synthesized by modifying side chains of cross-linked polyallylamine (cPAI) with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA). PAI-DHBA polymer gels with various DHBA contents showed high iron affinity indices and high selectivity for iron. The polymers showed mild antibiotic properties when used to treat established bacterial cultures. Pretreating culture media with PAI-DHBA polymer, however, removed all detectable iron from media and effectively inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, bacterial growth was more susceptible to antibiotics combined with PAI-DHBA. Multivalent polymers that bind and sequester iron, such as PAI-DHBA, offer a promising early intervention or adjuvant to antibiotics. PMID:25872681

  19. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  20. Plant mechanisms of siderophore-iron utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms of siderophore iron-utilization by plants were examined to determine whether plants have direct mechanisms for acquiring iron from microbially-produced hydroxamate siderophores or simply take up inorganic iron in equilibrium with the chelate (shuttle mechanism). Experiments were designed to determine whether the monocot plant species, oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) could acquire iron from ferrichrome under hydroponic conditions in which iron uptake was most likely to occur by direct use of the chelating agent. Ten-day-old iron-deficient seedlings, grown in aerated Hoagland's nutrient solution (minus iron) buffered at pH 7.4 with CaCO/sub 3/, were placed in fresh nutrient solution containing 10/sup -7.4/M radioactive /sup 55/FeCl/sub 3/ (23.7 mCi/mg) with the synthetic chelate, EDDHA (10..pi../sup 5/M), ferrichrome (10/sup -5/M), or with no chelate. After 6 days, shoot content of /sup 55/Fe in shoots of plants provided with ferrichrome was 100-fold greater than that in shoots of plants provided with EDDHA. Therefore iron uptake by oat under these conditions not only indicates direct use of ferrichrome, but also suggest that oat may be better able to acquire iron from siderophores than from synthetic chelates. One possible mechanism for direct use of chelating agents, may involve siderophore binding sites on the plasmalemma of root cortical cells where iron is split from the chelate by enzymatic reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. To demonstrate hypothesized siderophore binding sites on oat roots, experiments examined possible competition for presumed siderophore binding sites by an inert analog of ferrichrome constructed by irreversible chelation with chromium.

  1. Iron and neurodegenerative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khristy J Thompson; Shai Shoham; James R Connor

    2001-01-01

    The brain shares with other organs the need for a constant and readily available supply of iron and has a similar array of proteins available to it for iron transport, storage, and regulation. However, unlike other organs, the brain places demands on iron availability that are regional, cellular, and age sensitive. Failure to meet these demands for iron with an

  2. Hepcidin, the iron watcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydie Viatte; Sophie Vaulont

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver, constitutes the master regulator of iron homeostasis in mammals allowing iron adaptation according to the body iron needs. In recent years there has been important breakthrough in our knowledge of hepcidin regulation that has also implications for understanding the physiopathology of human iron disorders. Different aspects of hepcidin regulation will be considered

  3. Dysregulation of hepatic iron with aging: implications for heat stress-induced oxidative liver injury.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Steven A; Brown, Kyle E; Buettner, Garry R; Kregel, Kevin C

    2008-04-01

    Environmental heat stress is associated with an age-related increase in hepatic oxidative damage and an exaggerated state of oxidative stress. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the regulation of hepatic iron after heat stress. A secondary aim was to determine a potential role for iron in heat stress-induced liver injury. Hyperthermia-induced alterations in hepatic iron were evaluated in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) Fischer 344 rats by exposing them to a two-heat stress protocol. Livers were harvested at several time points after the second heating and assayed for labile and nonheme iron. In the control condition, there was no difference in labile iron between age groups. Both labile iron and storage iron were not altered by hyperthermia in young rats, but both were increased immediately after heating in old rats. To evaluate a role for iron in liver injury, hepatic iron content was manipulated in young and old rats, and then both groups were exposed to heat stress. Iron administration to young rats significantly increased hepatic iron content and ferritin but did not affect markers of lipid peroxidation under control conditions or after heat stress. In old rats, iron chelation with deferoxamine prevented the increase in nonheme iron, labile iron, ferritin, and lipid peroxidation after heat stress. These results suggest that iron may play a role in hepatic injury after hyperthermia. Thus, dysregulation of iron may contribute to the gradual decline in cellular and physiological function that occurs with aging. PMID:18272664

  4. Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from Louisiana coastal waters

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Role of iron and organic carbon in mass-specific light absorption by particulate matter from iron, and dithionite-extractable iron contents. Compositions and absorption properties were comparable to published values for similar particles. Dithionite-extractable iron was strongly correlated with absorption

  5. Nuclear microscopy of atherosclerotic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, F.; Selley, M.; Thong, P. S. P.; Tang, S. M.

    1995-09-01

    Of the many proposed coronary disease risk factors, the link between heart disease and stored iron has been the subject of recent interest. Samples of proximal thoracic aorta were taken from rabbits fed with 1% cholesterol for 12 weeks, and also from control animals. Unstained freeze dried sections were scanned using the nuclear microscope at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and results indicate that there is an eightfold increase in iron (from 12 ppm to 90 ppm) within the atherosclerotic lesion compared with normal tissue. This result adds weight to the theory that iron may act as a factor in the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which induces the formation of foam cells, characteristic of early atherosclerotic lesions.

  6. A photo-oxidation procedure using UV radiation/H 2O 2 for decomposition of wine samples — Determination of iron and manganese content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Walter N. L.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Portugal, Lindomar A.; David, Jorge M.; Ferreira, Sérgio L. C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes the use of photo-oxidation with UV radiation/H 2O 2 as sample pretreatment for the determination of iron and manganese in wines by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The optimization involved the study of the following variables: pH and concentration of buffer solution, concentrated hydrogen peroxide volume and irradiation time. The evaluation of sample degradation was monitored by measuring the absorbance at the maximum wavelength of red wine (530 nm). Using the experimental conditions established during the optimization (irradiation time of 30 min, oxidant volume of 2.5 mL, pH 10, and a buffer concentration of 0.15 mol L - 1 ), this procedure allows the determination of iron and manganese with limits of detection of 30 and 22 ?g L - 1 , respectively, for a 5 mL volume of digested sample. The precision levels, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were 2.8% and 0.65% for iron and 2.7% and 0.54% for manganese for concentrations of 0.5 and 2.0 mg L - 1 , respectively. Addition/recovery tests for evaluation of the accuracy were in the ranges of 90%-111% and 95%-107% for iron and manganese, respectively. This digestion procedure has been applied for the determination of iron and manganese in six wine samples. The concentrations varied from 1.58 to 2.77 mg L - 1 for iron and from 1.30 to 1.91 mg L - 1 for manganese. The results were compared with those obtained by an acid digestion procedure and determination of the elements by FAAS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a paired t-test (at 95% confidence level).

  7. Iron Storage Disease in Softbilled Birds (Hemochromatosis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgann B. Johnston

    A second form of the disease, known as hemosiderosis, is a less malignant situation where the excess iron (called hermosiderin) accumulates ill the tissues and circulates freely in the blood without actually damaging any of the major organs. However, hemosiderosis can he a precursor to hemochromatosis, at least in mammals. Diagnostic procedures discussed below may be useful in identifying hemosiderosis

  8. Neonatal Iron Exposure Induces Neurobehavioural Dysfunctions in Adult Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fredriksson; N. Schröder; P. Eriksson; I. Izquierdo; T. Archer

    1999-01-01

    Excess iron in the brain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The neonatal period is critical for the establishment of normal iron content in the adult brain. In the present study, the long-term neurobehavioral effects of iron exposure during this period were assessed by treating NMRI mice orally with 0.0,

  9. Tissue Processing

    Cancer.gov

    Tissue samples, also called biospecimens, are tissue and fluid samples taken from the human body that can be used for research. Biospecimens from cancer patients are critical to cancer research because they contain an extraordinary amount of biological information, written in the language of cells. Genes and proteins in biospecimens can identify the biological characteristics of cancer cells.

  10. Iron uptake in quiescent and inflammation-activated astrocytes: a potentially neuroprotective control of iron burden.

    PubMed

    Pelizzoni, Ilaria; Zacchetti, Daniele; Campanella, Alessandro; Grohovaz, Fabio; Codazzi, Franca

    2013-08-01

    Astrocytes play a crucial role in proper iron handling within the central nervous system. This competence can be fundamental, particularly during neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative processes, where an increase in iron content can favor oxidative stress, thereby worsening disease progression. Under these pathological conditions, astrocytes undergo a process of activation that confers them either a beneficial or a detrimental role on neuronal survival. Our work investigates the mechanisms of iron entry in cultures of quiescent and activated hippocampal astrocytes. Our data confirm that the main source of iron is the non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and show the involvement of two different routes for its entry: the resident transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in quiescent astrocytes and the de novo expressed divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in activated astrocytes, which accounts for a potentiation of iron entry. Overall, our data suggest that at rest, but even more after activation, astrocytes have the potential to buffer the excess of iron, thereby protecting neurons from iron overload. These findings further extend our understanding of the protective role of astrocytes under the conditions of iron-mediated oxidative stress observed in several neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:23583428

  11. Prediction of iron deficiency in chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease anaemia.

    PubMed

    Baumann Kurer, S; Seifert, B; Michel, B; Ruegg, R; Fehr, J

    1995-12-01

    We prospectively studied 45 anaemic patients (37 women, 8 men) with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The combination of serum ferritin and CRP (as well as ESR) in its predictive capacity for bone marrow iron stores was examined. The relationship between other iron-related measurements (transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor, erythrocyte porphyrins and percentage of hypochromic/microcytic erythrocytes) and bone marrow iron stores was also investigated. Stainable bone marrow iron was taken as the most suitable standard to separate iron-deficient from iron-replete patients. 14 patients (31%) were lacking bone marrow iron. Regression analysis showed a good correlation between ferritin and bone marrow iron (adjusted R2 = 0.721, P < 0.0001). The combination of ferritin and CRP (ESR) did not improve the predictive power for bone marrow iron (adjusted R2 = 0.715) in this cohort of patients with low systemic inflammatory activity. With respect to the bone marrow iron content the best predictive cut-off value of ferritin was 30 micrograms/l (86% sensitivity, 90% specificity). The other iron-related parameters both individually and when combined were less powerful in predicting bone marrow iron than ferritin alone. Only zinc bound erythrocyte protoporphyrin in combination with ferritin slightly improved prediction (adjusted R2 = 0.731). A cut-off point of 11% hypochromic erythrocytes reached a high specificity (90%), but was less sensitive (77%). PMID:8547124

  12. In Situ Iron Oxide Emplacement for Groundwater Arsenic Remediation

    E-print Network

    Abia, Thomas Sunday

    2012-02-14

    onto the surface as ferric oxide. The iron oxide (FeOx) emplacement process was significantly affected by (1) the initial surface area and surface-bound iron content of the sand, (2) the pH and solubility of the coating reagents, (3) the stability...

  13. Dissolved iron supply limits early growth of estuarine mangroves.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Three mesocosm experiments were performed in an outdoor facility to quantify the responses of five mangrove species grown from seedling to sapling stage to increasing rates of dissolved iron supply. Stem extension and biomass of mangroves were measured in the first two experiments, and in the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were measured in relation to stem extension of two mangrove species. In all experiments, mangrove growth was enhanced by increasing iron supply, although some species showed iron toxicity at the higher supply rates. In the first two experiments, stem extension rates of Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Xylocarpus moluccensis best fit Gaussian curves with maximal growth at supply rates of 50-60 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1), whereas growth of Avicennia marina and Ceriops tagal increased to the highest rate (100 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1)) of iron supply. Changes in leaf chlorophyll concentrations and iron content of roots mirrored the growth responses. In the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were greater with R. apiculata and A. marina than in controls without plants; for both species, there was a positive relationship between stem extension and iron reduction. The rates of iron reduction and rates of iron supplied to the plants were well within the range of interstitial iron concentrations and rates of iron reduction found in the natural mangrove soils from which the seedlings were obtained. The responses of these species show that mangroves growing from seedling to sapling stage have a strong nutritional requirement for iron, and that there is a close relationship between plant roots and the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. These results suggest that mangrove growth may be limited in some natural forests by the rate at which iron is solubilized by iron-reducing bacteria. Such biogeochemical conditions have significant implications for successful recruitment, establishment, and early growth of mangroves. PMID:21141184

  14. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms “iron deficiency” and “iron deficiency anemia” are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake together with rapid growth, low birth weight and gastrointestinal losses related to excessive intake of cow’s milk. If insufficient intake can be excluded and there is insufficient response to oral iron treatment in patients with iron deficiency especially in older children, blood loss should be considered as the underlying cause. The main principles in management of iron deficiency anemia include investigation and elimination of the cause leading to iron deficiency, replacement of deficiency, improvement of nutrition and education of the patient and family. In this article, the practical approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and the experience of our center have been reviewed.

  15. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-03-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms "iron deficiency" and "iron deficiency anemia" are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake together with rapid growth, low birth weight and gastrointestinal losses related to excessive intake of cow's milk. If insufficient intake can be excluded and there is insufficient response to oral iron treatment in patients with iron deficiency especially in older children, blood loss should be considered as the underlying cause. The main principles in management of iron deficiency anemia include investigation and elimination of the cause leading to iron deficiency, replacement of deficiency, improvement of nutrition and education of the patient and family. In this article, the practical approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and the experience of our center have been reviewed. PMID:26078692

  16. Deferasirox (Exjade®) significantly improves cardiac T2* in heavily iron-overloaded patients with ?-thalassemia major

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Pathare; Ali Taher; Shahina Daar

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of tissue iron levels can be assessed using T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify and monitor\\u000a patients with iron overload. This study monitored cardiac siderosis using T2* MRI in a cohort of 19 heavily iron-overloaded\\u000a patients with ?-thalassemia major receiving iron chelation therapy with deferasirox over an 18-month period. Overall, deferasirox\\u000a therapy significantly improved mean ± standard

  17. Construction of a high-biomass, iron-enriched yeast strain and study on distribution of iron in the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yulan Yuan; Xuena Guo; Xiuping He; Borun Zhang; Shigui Liu

    2004-01-01

    A high-biomass, iron-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZYF-15 was constructed by interspecies protoplast fusion. Under optimal fermentation condition, the biomass and iron content of the strain reached 11 g l-1 and 25 mg Fe g-1 dry cells, respectively. About 96% of enriched iron is converted into organic iron, which is mainly in cell walls and vacuoles with some bound to DNA, RNA and protein.

  18. [Iron and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, B; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Farriaux, J P; Ghisolfi, J; Navarro, J; Rey, J; Ricour, C; Rieu, D; Vidailhet, M

    1995-12-01

    Infants, young children, and childbearing aged women are particularly exposed to iron deficiency. Pregnancy further increases iron requirements. Nevertheless the consequences of anemia and/or iron deficiency on pregnancy outcome, development of the foetus and postnatal iron status of the infant, remain to be determined. There is a 3-fold increase of premature deliveries in iron deficient anemic pregnant women whose anemia is discovered in early pregnancy: however this increased risk of premature delivery is not observed when iron deficiency anemia is discovered in late pregnancy. Iron supplementation during pregnancy improves the maternal hematological parameters but it is still unclear whether it also improves the maternal health and the pre and postnatal development of the child. Based on our actual knowledge, iron supplementation during pregnancy is to be recommended in risk groups only (ie mainly adolescents, low income women, women with multiple pregnancies), using ferrous iron at a dosage of 30 mg per day. PMID:8548003

  19. Microstructural and Magnetic Characterization of the NWA 6259 Iron Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarok, A.; Bordeaux, N.; Poirier, E.; Pinkerton, F. E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Reisener, R.; Lewis, L. H.; Goldstein, J. I.

    2013-09-01

    NWA 6259 is the second highest Ni content iron meteorite. The NWA 6259 meteorite consists of a matrix of FeNi tetrataenite, a potential permanent magnet. We describe here the microstructure and magnetic properties of this meteorite.

  20. Fixing frataxin: 'ironing out' the metabolic defect in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Anzovino, A; Lane, D J R; Huang, M L-H; Richardson, D R

    2014-04-01

    The metabolically active and redox-active mitochondrion appears to play a major role in the cellular metabolism of the transition metal, iron. Frataxin, a mitochondrial matrix protein, has been identified as playing a key role in the iron metabolism of this organelle due to its iron-binding properties and is known to be essential for iron-sulphur cluster formation. However, the precise function of frataxin remains elusive. The decrease in frataxin expression, as seen in the inherited disorder Friedreich's ataxia, markedly alters cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism in both the mitochondrion and the cell. The resulting dysregulation of iron trafficking damages affects tissues leading to neuro- and cardiodegeneration. This disease underscores the importance of iron homeostasis in the redox-active environment of the mitochondrion and the molecular players involved. Unravelling the mechanisms of altered iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia will help elucidate a biochemical function for frataxin. Consequently, this will enable the development of more effective and rationally designed treatments. This review will focus on the emerging function of frataxin in relation to the observed alterations in mitochondrial iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia. Tissue-specific alterations due to frataxin loss will also be discussed, as well as current and emerging therapeutic strategies. PMID:24138602

  1. Fixing frataxin: ‘ironing out’ the metabolic defect in Friedreich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Anzovino, A; Lane, D J R; Huang, M L-H; Richardson, D R

    2014-01-01

    The metabolically active and redox-active mitochondrion appears to play a major role in the cellular metabolism of the transition metal, iron. Frataxin, a mitochondrial matrix protein, has been identified as playing a key role in the iron metabolism of this organelle due to its iron-binding properties and is known to be essential for iron–sulphur cluster formation. However, the precise function of frataxin remains elusive. The decrease in frataxin expression, as seen in the inherited disorder Friedreich's ataxia, markedly alters cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism in both the mitochondrion and the cell. The resulting dysregulation of iron trafficking damages affects tissues leading to neuro-and cardiodegeneration. This disease underscores the importance of iron homeostasis in the redox-active environment of the mitochondrion and the molecular players involved. Unravelling the mechanisms of altered iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia will help elucidate a biochemical function for frataxin. Consequently, this will enable the development of more effective and rationally designed treatments. This review will focus on the emerging function of frataxin in relation to the observed alterations in mitochondrial iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia. Tissue-specific alterations due to frataxin loss will also be discussed, as well as current and emerging therapeutic strategies. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24138602

  2. Iron accumulation and enhanced growth in transgenic lettuce plants expressing the iron- binding protein ferritin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Goto; T. Yoshihara; H. Saiki

    2000-01-01

    We have produced transgenic lettuce plants accumulating the iron storage protein ferritin. The integration of the ferritin\\u000a gene and expression levels in leaves were examined by Southern- and Western-blot analysis, respectively. It was shown that\\u000a transgenic lettuce plants contained iron levels ranging from 1.2 to 1.7 times that of the control plants, however, the manganese\\u000a content in transgenic lettuce plants

  3. Rapid Spectrophotometric Technique for Quantifying Iron in Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Potential Translation to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dadashzadeh, Esmaeel R.; Hobson, Matthew; Bryant, L. Henry; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles provides the ability to track cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Quantifying intracellular iron concentration in SPIO labeled cells would allow for the comparison of agents and techniques used to magnetically label cells. Here we describe a rapid spectrophotometric technique (ST) to quantify iron content of SPIO labeled cells, circumventing the previous requirement of an overnight acid digestion. Following lysis with 10% SDS of magnetically labeled cells, quantification of SPIO doped or labeled cells was performed using commonly available spectrophotometric instrument(s) by comparing absorptions at 370 and 750 nm with correction for turbidity of cellular products to determine iron content of each sample. Standard curves demonstrated high linear correlation (R2 = 0.998) between absorbance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles and concentration in known SPIO doped cells. Comparisons of the ST to ICP-MS or NMR relaxometric (R2) determinations of intracellular iron contents in SPIO containing samples resulted in significant linear correlation between the techniques (R2 vs. ST, R2>0.992, p<0.0001, ST vs. ICP-MS, R2>0.995, p<0.0001) with the limit of detection of ST for iron = 0.66?g/ml. We have developed a rapid straightforward protocol that does not require overnight acid digestion for quantifying iron oxide content in magnetically labeled cells using readily available analytic instrumentation that should greatly expedite advances in comparing SPIO agents and protocols for labeling cells. PMID:23109392

  4. Effect of fiber on nonheme iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D; Noble, N L; Morck, T A; Lynch, S R; Petersburg, S J

    1983-12-01

    The effect of fiber on the absorption of food iron was examined by performing multiple radioiron absorption tests in normal male and female subjects. In an initial study, we added bran, pectin, or cellulose to muffins prepared with wheat flour. Because of the low values obtained in this study, another study was done in which apple juice containing 50 mg of ascorbic acid was added to the meal to increase iron absorption averaged 2.26% from plain muffins, 1.07% from bran muffins, 1.89% from pectin muffins, and 2.26% from cellulose muffins. Only the effect of bran was statistically significant. We next designed two complex meals that differed maximally in their content of naturally occurring fiber but that were matched with respect to macronutrient, mineral, iron, and ascorbic acid contents. Mean absorptions from the low- and high-fiber meals were significantly different, averaging 6.07% and 2.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate that inhibition of iron absorption is not a universal property of all fiber sources. Moreover, the relatively modest effect of maximally altering the natural fiber content of a meal suggests that fiber is not a major determinant of food iron availability in humans. PMID:6313466

  5. Cardiac ferroportin regulates cellular iron homeostasis and is important for cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Lakhal-Littleton, Samira; Wolna, Magda; Carr, Carolyn A; Miller, Jack J J; Christian, Helen C; Ball, Vicky; Santos, Ana; Diaz, Rebeca; Biggs, Daniel; Stillion, Richard; Holdship, Philip; Larner, Fiona; Tyler, Damian J; Clarke, Kieran; Davies, Benjamin; Robbins, Peter A

    2015-03-10

    Iron is essential to the cell. Both iron deficiency and overload impinge negatively on cardiac health. Thus, effective iron homeostasis is important for cardiac function. Ferroportin (FPN), the only known mammalian iron-exporting protein, plays an essential role in iron homeostasis at the systemic level. It increases systemic iron availability by releasing iron from the cells of the duodenum, spleen, and liver, the sites of iron absorption, recycling, and storage respectively. However, FPN is also found in tissues with no known role in systemic iron handling, such as the heart, where its function remains unknown. To explore this function, we generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Fpn. We show that these animals have severely impaired cardiac function, with a median survival of 22 wk, despite otherwise unaltered systemic iron status. We then compared their phenotype with that of ubiquitous hepcidin knockouts, a recognized model of the iron-loading disease hemochromatosis. The phenotype of the hepcidin knockouts was far milder, with normal survival up to 12 mo, despite far greater iron loading in the hearts. Histological examination demonstrated that, although cardiac iron accumulates within the cardiomyocytes of Fpn knockouts, it accumulates predominantly in other cell types in the hepcidin knockouts. We conclude, first, that cardiomyocyte FPN is essential for intracellular iron homeostasis and, second, that the site of deposition of iron within the heart determines the severity with which it affects cardiac function. Both findings have significant implications for the assessment and treatment of cardiac complications of iron dysregulation. PMID:25713362

  6. Temporal changes in free iron levels after brain ischemia Relevance to the timing of iron chelation therapy in stroke.

    PubMed

    Millerot-Serrurot, Emilie; Bertrand, Nathalie; Mossiat, Claude; Faure, Philippe; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Garnier, Philippe; Bejot, Yannick; Giroud, Maurice; Beley, Alain; Marie, Christine

    2008-06-01

    Whereas iron chelators have been proposed as therapeutic agents in stroke, changes in free iron levels have never been explored after focal brain ischemia. Therefore, free and total iron levels in cortical tissue and free iron levels in plasma were measured before and after (1, 4 and 24h) photothrombotic occlusion of cortical vessels in rats. Brain ferritin expression and localization were also investigated before and after (24, 72 and 192 h) occlusion. The results showed that free iron remained below detectable levels in plasma and that the lesion exhibited high levels of free and total iron. As compared to contralateral values, free iron levels in ischemic core and penumbra increased (+50%) at 1h and returned to control values at 4h post-occlusion. In contrast, the increase in total iron levels (+20-30%) was long-lasting, but confined to the ischemic core. A time-dependent increase in the expression of both chains of ferritin was detected in regions that previously exhibited free iron accumulation. Finally, ischemic damage was reduced by the liposoluble iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (20 mg/kg, i.p.) when injected 15 min or 1 h post-occlusion, yet not later (4 h). In conclusion, our results show that focal brain ischemia results in an early and transient elevation in free iron levels in the ischemic tissue and suggest that free iron excess does not originate in blood. They also highlight the importance of starting iron chelation therapy as soon as possible after stroke. PMID:18485533

  7. Baicalin suppresses iron accumulation after substantia nigra injury: relationship between iron concentration and transferrin expression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunyan; Chen, Xin; Xiong, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that baicalin prevented iron accumulation after substantia nigra injury, reduced divalent metal transporter 1 expression, and increased ferroportin 1 expression in the substantia nigra of rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease rats. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between iron accumulation and transferrin expression in C6 cells, to explore the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of baicalin on iron accumulation observed in Parkinson's disease rats. Iron content was detected using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron content decreased 41% after blocking divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin 1 proteins. After treatment with ferric ammonium citrate of differing concentrations (10, 50, 100, 400?g/mL) in C6 glioma cells, cell survival rate and ferroportin 1 expression were negatively correlated with ferric ammonium citrate concentration, but divalent metal transporter 1 expression positively correlated with ferric ammonium citrate concentration. Baicalin or deferoxamine reduced divalent metal transporter 1 expression, but increased ferroportin 1 expression in the 100?g/mL ferric ammonium citrate-loaded C6 cells. These results indicate that baicalin down-regulated iron concentration, which positively regulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression and negatively regulated ferroportin 1 expression, and decreased iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. PMID:25206866

  8. Rumen Tissue 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as well as thermoacoustic tomography (TAT), utilize electromagnetic radiation in its visible, near infrared, microwave, and radiofrequency forms, respectively, to induce acoustic waves in biological tissues...

  9. Tissue Debridement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Soudry; Alexander Lerner

    \\u000a The major factor determining the outcome in high-energy combat injuries to the limbs is the severity and extension of the\\u000a soft tissue damage. Primary radical debridement is a crucial phase in the management of patients after open high-energy injuries.\\u000a Inadequate tissue debridement remains the major cause of acute and chronic infection after severe trauma. Often, this important\\u000a first surgical procedure

  10. Ocean iron cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    Interest in the biogeochemical cycle of iron has grown rapidly over the last two decades, due to the potential role of this element in modulating global climate in the geological past and ocean productivity in the present day. This trace metal has a disproportionately large effect (1 × 105 C:Fe) on photosynthetic carbon fixation by phytoplankton. In around one third of the open ocean, so-called high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, the resident phytoplankton have low growth rates despite an abundance of plant nutrients. This is due to the low supply of iron. Iron is present in the ocean in three phases, dissolved, colloidal, and particulate (biogenic and lithogenic). However, iron chemistry is complex with interactions between chemistry and biology such as the production of iron-binding siderophores by oceanic bacteria. This results in the interplay of inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, and organic complexation. Sources of new iron include dust deposition, upwelling of iron-rich deep waters, and the resuspension and lateral transport of sediments. Sinks for iron are mainly biological as evidenced by the vertical nutrient-like profile for dissolved iron in the ocean. Iron is rapidly recycled by the upper ocean biota within a so-called "ferrous wheel." The fe ratio [(new iron)/(new + regenerated iron)] provides an index of the relative supply of iron to the biota by new versus recycled iron. Over the last 15 years, interest in the potential role of iron in shaping climate in the geological past resulted in some of the most ambitious experiments in oceanography: large-scale (i.e., 50-1000 km2) iron enrichment of HNLC waters. They have provided valuable insights into how iron supply influences the biogeochemical cycles of elements such as carbon, sulfur, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  11. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  12. Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

  13. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng, Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  14. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E. [Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Webb, Sam [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford Linear Accelerator Complex National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California (United States); Nichol, Helen [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd. Rm A302, Saskatoon, SK S7N5E5 (Canada)

    2010-07-23

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  15. Taking iron supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... streaks Cramps, sharp pains, or soreness in the stomach occur Liquid forms of iron may stain your teeth. Try mixing the iron with water or other liquids (such as fruit juice or tomato juice) and drinking the medicine with ...

  16. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  17. Metallurgy Beyond Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    Metallurgy is one of the oldest sciences. Its history can be traced back to 6000 BCE with the discovery of Gold, and each new discovery - Copper, Silver, Lead, Tin, Iron and Mercury - marked the beginning of a new era of civilization. Currently there are 86 known metals, but until the end of the 17th century, only 12 of these were known. Steel (Fe-C alloy) was discovered in the 11th century BCE; however, it took until 1709 CE before we mastered the smelting of pig-iron by using coke instead of charcoal and started the industrial revolution. The metallurgy of nowadays is mainly about discovering better materials with superior properties to fulfil the increasing demand of the global market. Promising are the Glassy Metals or Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) - discovered at first in the late 50s at the California Institute of Technology - which are several times stronger than the best industrial steels and 10-times springier. The unusual structure that lacks crystalline grains makes BMGs so promising. They have a liquid-like structure that means they melt at lower temperatures, can be moulded nearly as easily as plastics, and can be shaped into features just 10 nm across. The best BMG formers are based on Zr, Pd, Pt, Ca, Au and, recently discovered, also Fe. They have typically three to five components with large atomic size mismatch and a composition close to a deep eutectic. Packing in such liquids is very dense, with a low content of free volume, resulting in viscosities that are several orders of magnitude higher than in pure metal melts.

  18. Effects of sometribove on zinc metabolism and tissue mineral concentration in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Neathery, M W; Crowe, C T; Hartnell, G F; Veenhuizen, J J; Blackmon, D M; Azain, M J

    1991-12-01

    The metabolism of Zn and tissue mineral concentrations were studied after a single oral 65Zn dose in 10 6-wk-old Holstein calves injected subcutaneously daily with 0 (control) or 10 mg of sometribove (recombinant methionyl bST) for 6 wk. Zinc-65 absorption was not significantly affected by bST; its concentration in the semitendinosus muscle was reduced by 32% in the bST calves, but concentrations in liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, heart, small intestine, testicle, and rib were not different from controls. Manganese content was reduced by 27% in liver, 60% in kidney, 99% in spleen, 92% in testicles, and 33% in rib. Iron content of pancreas, spleen, and testicle and Zn content of rib were increased in the bST calves. The data indicate that Zn metabolism was not affected adversely by bST. Manganese content of several tissues was significantly reduced in the bST calves; however, no clinical signs of an Mn deficiency were evident. PMID:1787199

  19. Ironing out fatigue.

    PubMed

    von Drygalski, Annette; Adamson, John W

    2011-09-22

    Women who are not anemic but who suffer from fatigue may benefit from iron supplementation. In this issue of Blood, Krayenbühl et al provide strong evidence that women complaining of fatigue who were not anemic but who had reduced or absent iron stores were symptomatically improved after receiving parenteral iron. Given the numbers of women who are iron deficient, the findings could find broad application, but work needs to be done to refine the approach to this common problem. PMID:21940826

  20. Benefits and risks of deferiprone in iron overload in Thalassaemia and other conditions: comparison of epidemiological and therapeutic aspects with deferoxamine.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J; Neocleous, Katia; Kolnagou, Annita

    2003-01-01

    Deferiprone is the only orally active iron-chelating drug to be used therapeutically in conditions of transfusional iron overload. It is an orphan drug designed and developed primarily by academic initiatives for the treatment of iron overload in thalassaemia, which is endemic in the Mediterranean, Middle East and South East Asia and is considered an orphan disease in the European Union and North America. Deferiprone has been used in several other iron or other metal imbalance conditions and has prospects of wider clinical applications. Deferiprone has high affinity for iron and interacts with almost all the iron pools at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. Doses of 50-120 mg/kg/day appear to be effective in bringing patients to negative iron balance. It increases urinary iron excretion, which mainly depends on the iron load of patients and the dose of the drug. It decreases serum ferritin levels and reduces the liver and heart iron content in the majority of chronically transfused iron loaded patients at doses >80 mg/kg/day. It is metabolised to a glucuronide conjugate and cleared through the urine in the metabolised and a non-metabolised form, usually of a 3 deferiprone: 1 iron complex, which gives the characteristic red colour urine. Peak serum levels of deferiprone are observed within 1 hour of its oral administration and clearance from blood is within 6 hours. There is variation among patients in iron excretion, the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of deferiprone. Deferiprone has been used in more than 7500 patients aged from 2-85 years in >50 countries, in some cases daily for >14 years. All the adverse effects of deferiprone are considered reversible, controllable and manageable. These include agranulocytosis with frequency of about 0.6%, neutropenia 6%, musculoskeletal and joint pains 15%, gastrointestinal complains 6% and zinc deficiency 1%. Discontinuation of the drug is recommended for patients developing agranulocytosis. Deferiprone is of similar therapeutic index to subcutaneous deferoxamine but is more effective in iron removal from the heart, which is the target organ of iron toxicity and mortality in iron-loaded thalassaemia patients. Deferiprone is much less expensive to produce than deferoxamine. Combination therapy of deferoxamine and deferiprone has been used in patients not complying with subcutaneous deferoxamine or experiencing toxicity or not excreting sufficient amounts of iron with use of either drug alone. New oral iron-chelating drugs are being developed, but even if successful these are likely to be more expensive than deferiprone and are not likely to become available in the next 5-8 years. About 25% of treated thalassaemia patients in Europe and more than 50% in India are using deferiprone. For most thalassaemia patients worldwide who are not at present receiving any form of chelation therapy the choice is between deferiprone and fatal iron toxicity. PMID:12825969

  1. Iron chelation studies using desferrioxamine and the potential oral chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, in normal and iron loaded rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kontoghiorghes, G J; Sheppard, L; Hoffbrand, A V; Charalambous, J; Tikerpae, J; Pippard, M J

    1987-01-01

    A novel iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, and desferrioxamine were compared for their ability to remove iron and for their site of action in iron release in rats. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of the chelators in rats with widespread tissue labelling by 59Fe derived from transferrin showed comparable 59Fe mobilisation by each chelator in normal and iron loaded rats. Specific labelling of a chelatable "cold" iron pool in hepatocytes by 59Fe derived from ferritin showed this pool to be equally accessible to parenteral doses of both chelators and also to oral 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, which is an effective oral iron chelating agent that removes iron from parenchymal cells. This and other alpha-ketohydroxypyridines need further development as potential therapeutic agents in human iron overload. PMID:3584483

  2. Iron in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - iron ... the body. Treatment consists of a low-iron diet, no iron supplements, and phlebotomy (blood removal) on ... The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends the following: Infants and children Younger than 6 months: 0.27 milligrams ...

  3. Co-Administration of Silymarin and Deferoxamine against Kidney, Liver and Heart Iron Deposition in Male Iron Overload Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Navidi-Shishaone, Mitra; Mohhebi, Soheila; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Roozbehani, Shahla; Talebi, Ardeshir; Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Shirdavani, Sohiela; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Moaeidi, Behjat Alsaadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue iron deposition may disturb functions of the organs. In many diseases like thalassemia, the patients suffer from iron deposition in kidney and heart tissues. Deferoxamine (DF) is a synthetic iron chelator and silymarin (SM) is an antioxidant and also a candidate for iron chelating. This study was designed to investigate the effect of DF and SM combination against kidney and heart iron deposition in an iron overload rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups. The iron overloading was performed by iron dextran 100 mg/kg/day every other day during 2 weeks and in the 3rd week, iron dextran was discontinued and the animals were treated daily with combination of SM (200 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and DF (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) (group 1), SM (group 2), DF (group 3) and saline (group 4). Group 5 received saline during the experiment. Finally, blood samples were obtained and kidney, heart and liver were immediately removed and prepared for histopathological procedures. Results: The results indicated no significant difference in kidney function and endothelial function biomarkers between the groups. However, combination of SM and DF did not attenuate the iron deposition in the kidney, liver and heart. DF alone, rather than DF and SM combination, significantly reduced the serum level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). Co-administration of SM and DF significantly increased the serum level of ferritin (P < 0.05). Conclusions: DF and SM may be potentially considered as iron chelators. However, combination of these two agents did not provide a protective effect against kidney, liver and heart iron deposition. PMID:24555000

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Nephrotoxicity and Management by Macrophages of Intravenous Pharmaceutical Iron Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Connor, James R.; Zhang, Xuesheng; Nixon, Anne M.; Webb, Becky; Perno, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a significant clinical need for effective treatment of iron deficiency. A number of compounds that can be administered intravenously have been developed. This study examines how the compounds are handled by macrophages and their relative potential to provoke oxidative stress. Methods Human kidney (HK-2) cells, rat peritoneal macrophages and renal cortical homogenates were exposed to pharmaceutical iron preparations. Analyses were performed for indices of oxidative stress and cell integrity. In addition, in macrophages, iron uptake and release and cytokine secretion was monitored. Results HK-2 cell viability was decreased by iron isomaltoside and ferumoxytol and all compounds induced lipid peroxidation. In the renal cortical homogenates, lipid peroxidation occurred at lowest concentrations with ferric carboxymaltose, iron dextran, iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. In the macrophages, iron sucrose caused loss of cell viability. Iron uptake was highest for ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside and lowest for iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate. Iron was released as secretion of ferritin or as ferrous iron via ferroportin. The latter was blocked by hepcidin. Exposure to ferric carboxymaltose and iron dextran resulted in release of tumor necrosis factor ?. Conclusions Exposure to iron compounds increased cell stress but was tissue and dose dependent. There was a clear difference in the handling of iron from the different compounds by macrophages that suggests in vivo responses may differ. PMID:25973894

  5. Degradation of trichloronitromethane by iron water main corrosion products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Yub; Pearson, Carrie R; Hozalski, Raymond M; Arnold, William A

    2008-04-01

    Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may undergo reduction reactions at the corroded pipe wall in drinking water distribution systems consisting of cast or ductile iron pipe. Iron pipe corrosion products were obtained from several locations within two drinking water distribution systems. Crystalline-phase composition of freeze-dried corrosion solids was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, and ferrous and ferric iron contents were determined via multiple extraction methods. Batch experiments demonstrated that trichloronitromethane (TCNM), a non-regulated DBP, is rapidly reduced in the presence of pipe corrosion solids and that dissolved oxygen (DO) slows the reaction. The water-soluble iron content of the pipe solids is the best predictor of TCNM reaction rate constant. These results indicate that highly reactive DBPs that are able to compete with oxygen and residual disinfectant for ferrous iron may be attenuated via abiotic reduction in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:18207489

  6. Effect of green tea on iron status and oxidative stress in iron-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Ounjaijean, S; Thephinlap, C; Khansuwan, U; Phisalapong, C; Fucharoen, S; Porter, J B; Srichairatanakool, S

    2008-07-01

    Plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) is potentially toxic and contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), consequently leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Iron chelators and antioxidants are used for treatment of thalassemia patients. Green tea (GT) contains catechins derivatives that have many biological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iron-chelating and free-radical scavenging capacities of green tea extract in vivo. Rats were injected ip with ferric citrate together with orally administered GT extract (GTE) for 4 months. Blood was collected monthly for measurement of iron overload and oxidative stress indicators. Plasma iron (PI) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were quantified using bathophenanthroline method. Plasma NTBI was assayed with NTA chelation/HPLC. Plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) was determined by using the TBARS method. Erythrocyte oxidative stress was assessed using flow cytometry. Levels of PI, TIBC, NTBI and MDA, and erythrocyte ROS increased in the iron-loaded rats. Intervention with GT extract markedly decreased the PI and TIBC concentrations. It also lowered the transferrin saturation and effectively inhibited formation of NTBI. It also decreased the levels of erythrocyte ROS in week 4, 12 and 16. Therefore, green tea extract can decrease iron in plasma as well as eliminate lipid peroxidation in plasma, and destroy formation of erythrocyte ROS in the rats challenged with iron. The bifunctional effects could be beneficial in alleviating the iron and oxidative stress toxicity. In prospective, these GTE activities should be further examined in thalassemic animals or humans. PMID:18673149

  7. Review on iron and its importance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that deficiency or over exposure to various elements has noticeable effects on human health. The effect of an element is determined by several characteristics, including absorption, metabolism, and degree of interaction with physiological processes. Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms as it participates in a wide variety of metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and electron transport. However, as iron can form free radicals, its concentration in body tissues must be tightly regulated because in excessive amounts, it can lead to tissue damage. Disorders of iron metabolism are among the most common diseases of humans and encompass a broad spectrum of diseases with diverse clinical manifestations, ranging from anemia to iron overload, and possibly to neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the latest progress in studies of iron metabolism and bioavailability, and our current understanding of human iron requirement and consequences and causes of iron deficiency. Finally, we discuss strategies for prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:24778671

  8. Iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be reviewed, followed by a discussion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic recommendations for dogs and cats with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22942439

  9. Ironing out cancer.

    PubMed

    Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M

    2011-03-01

    New insights into the roles of proteins that regulate cellular iron in cancer growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis have recently emerged. Discoveries of the roles of ferroportin, hepcidin, lipocalin 2, and members of the six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate (STEAP) and iron regulatory protein (IRP) families in cancer have provided specificity and molecular definition to the role of iron homeostasis in cancer growth and metastasis. A number of studies directly support a role of these proteins in modifying bioavailable iron, whereas other studies suggest that at least some of their effects are independent of their role in iron biology. PMID:21363917

  10. Iron chelation inhibits the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Ming; Preston, Ioana R; Hill, Nicholas S; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2012-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Because iron is an important regulator of ROS biology, this study examined the effects of iron chelation on the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling. The administration of an iron chelator, deferoxamine, to rats prevented chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Various iron chelators inhibited the growth of cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Protein carbonylation, an important iron-dependent biological event, was promoted in association with pulmonary vascular remodeling and cell growth. A proteomic approach identified that Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (a negative regulator of RhoA) is carbonylated. In human plasma, the protein carbonyl content was significantly higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension than in healthy controls. These results suggest that iron plays an important role in the ROS-dependent mechanism underlying the development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22974762

  11. Menstrual blood loss and iron nutrition in Filipino women.

    PubMed

    Cheong, R L; Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T

    1991-12-01

    Menstrual blood loss was measured in 80 apparently healthy women aged 15-44 years. The study showed a median menstrual blood loss of 37.1 ml per period and the range was from 5.4-169.0 ml. With an average menstrual cycle of 29 days and a mean hemoglobin content of 12.8 g/dl the average iron loss was estimated to be about 0.55 mg/day. The simultaneous effects of menstrual iron loss and dietary iron intake on the iron status of menstruating women were examined using multiple regression analysis. The parameters used to measure iron status were serum iron, transferrin saturation index (TSI), hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Among these parameters, TSI was found to be the most sensitive indicator of changes in factors affecting iron balance moreover, it was found that with greater menstrual loss and decreasing iron intake, there was a marked fall in TSI. However, the decline of TSI did not reach a level at which deficiency of iron transport would have occurred. These results suggest that iron intake was enough to replenish the iron lost in menstruation. Results of statistical analysis showed that the upper limit of menstrual blood loss should be about 80 ml per period. Any loss above this level for continuously long period of time may lead to anemia. This condition is further aggravated by insufficient iron intake. The data from this study are useful in estimating the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for iron for menstruating Filipino women. They will also serve as a basis of management of patients in medical practice in terms of evaluating risk of and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:1820649

  12. Hepcidin, the iron watcher.

    PubMed

    Viatte, Lydie; Vaulont, Sophie

    2009-10-01

    Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver, constitutes the master regulator of iron homeostasis in mammals allowing iron adaptation according to the body iron needs. In recent years there has been important breakthrough in our knowledge of hepcidin regulation that has also implications for understanding the physiopathology of human iron disorders. Different aspects of hepcidin regulation will be considered in this review, including regulation by the iron status and the BMP6/HJV/SMAD pathway. Hepcidin dysregulation in iron disorders will be also discussed. Although much can already be accomplished for treating iron disorders using the knowledge that has currently been developed, additional issues will be challenging for the coming years. PMID:19555735

  13. Rumen Tissue 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    .m. lipid concentration. Subcutaneous adipose tissue concentrations of oleic (18:1n-9) was greater in Wagyu steers than in Angus steers (P = 0.05). All monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased between the U.S. and Japanese endpoint, whereas slip points...

  14. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  15. Redistribution of accumulated cell iron: a modality of chelation with therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Yang-Sung; Breuer, William; Munnich, Arnold; Cabantchik, Z Ioav

    2008-02-01

    Various pathologies are characterized by the accumulation of toxic iron in cell compartments. In anemia of chronic disease, iron is withheld by macrophages, leaving extracellular fluids iron-depleted. In Friedreich ataxia, iron levels rise in the mitochondria of excitable cells but decrease in the cytosol. We explored the possibility of using deferiprone, a membrane-permeant iron chelator in clinical use, to capture labile iron accumulated in specific organelles of cardiomyocytes and macrophages and convey it to other locations for physiologic reuse. Deferiprone's capacity for shuttling iron between cellular organelles was assessed with organelle-targeted fluorescent iron sensors in conjunction with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy imaging. Deferiprone facilitated transfer of iron from extracellular media into nuclei and mitochondria, from nuclei to mitochondria, from endosomes to nuclei, and from intracellular compartments to extracellular apotransferrin. Furthermore, it mobilized iron from iron-loaded cells and donated it to preerythroid cells for hemoglobin synthesis, both in the presence and in the absence of transferrin. These unique properties of deferiprone underlie mechanistically its capacity to alleviate iron accumulation in dentate nuclei of Friedreich ataxia patients and to donate tissue-chelated iron to plasma transferrin in thalassemia intermedia patients. Deferiprone's shuttling properties could be exploited clinically for treating diseases involving regional iron accumulation. PMID:17975016

  16. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth. PMID:22845493

  17. Iron Status in Mice Carrying a Targeted Disruption of Lactoferrin

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Pauline P.; Mendoza-Meneses, Marisela; Cunningham, Grainne A.; Conneely, Orla M.

    2003-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding glycoproteins present in milk, mucosal secretions, and the secondary granules of neutrophils. While several physiological functions have been proposed for lactoferrin, including the regulation of intestinal iron uptake, the exact function of this protein in vivo remains to be established. To directly assess the physiological functions of lactoferrin, we have generated lactoferrin knockout (LFKO?/?) mice by homologous gene targeting. LFKO?/? mice are viable and fertile, develop normally, and display no overt abnormalities. A comparison of the iron status of suckling offspring from LFKO?/? intercrosses and from wild-type (WT) intercrosses showed that lactoferrin is not essential for iron delivery during the postnatal period. Further, analysis of adult mice on a basal or a high-iron diet revealed no differences in transferrin saturation or tissue iron stores between WT and LFKO?/? mice on either diet, although the serum iron levels were slightly elevated in LFKO-/- mice on the basal diet. Consistent with the relatively normal iron status, in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that lactoferrin is not expressed in the postnatal or adult intestine. Collectively, these results support the conclusion that lactoferrin does not play a major role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. PMID:12482971

  18. Dielectric properties of insect tissues.

    PubMed

    Ondrácek, J; Brunnhofer, V

    1984-06-01

    In order to explain some effects of microwave irradiation on insects it is necessary to consider a mathematical model. The knowledge of dielectric properties of a typical insect tissue is crucial for such a model. A method based on shift of resonant frequency and of quality factor measurement in a resonator both before and after the insertion of samples was used. The method (measurements at a frequency of 2375 MHz) has been described in detail. A large number of measurements were performed on different kinds of typical insect tissues (cuticle, fat body, muscles, reproductive organs and eggs) for their dielectric properties. The values obtained compare well to those reported in the literature for some mammals. Differences seemed to depend on different water-to-fat content ratios. However, no simple dependence on the water content was found. Values obtained from insect tissue material have been discussed in detail. PMID:6479581

  19. Iron Pill–Induced Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Proksell, Siobhan; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Behari, Jaideep

    2013-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is a prevalent condition treated with iron supplementation. Iron pill–induced gastritis is an under-recognized, albeit serious potential complication of iron pill ingestion. This entity must be identified by healthcare providers who prescribe iron. We present a case of a 59-year-old male with iron deficiency anemia on ferrous sulfate tablets who underwent an upper endoscopy, during which a single superficial gastric ulceration in the body was noted. Biopsies revealed heavy iron deposition confirming the ulceration was a consequence of the iron tablets. Iron pill–induced gastritis causes corrosive mucosal injury similar to that caused by chemical burns.

  20. Iron-phosphorus relationships in Fe chlorisis of sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Morales-Vargas, Dennis A

    1979-01-01

    ) and moderate (Orelia). Iron, P, and Zn treatments were imposed to study their influence on the growth and composition of sorghum plant tissue. Two Fe sources (FeEDDHA and Iron-Sul, an acidified Fe by-product) were applied to both soils at 3 rates. Chelated... than the high P plants at each corresponding Fe level. Iron in roots and leaves tended to increase more consistently with increasing Fe at both P levels. Tiffin, Brown, and Holmes (50) presented evidence to show that P may compete with chelating...

  1. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Guadrón-Llanos, Alma M.; Madueña-Molina, Jesús; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed. PMID:26120582

  2. Iron sensors and signals in response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2014-07-01

    The transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition in plants is induced under iron deficiency, but our understanding of iron sensors and signals remains limited. Iron Deficiency-responsive Element-binding Factor 1 (IDEF1) and Hemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene- and Zinc-finger proteins (HRZs)/BRUTUS (BTS) have recently emerged as candidate iron sensors because of their functions as potent regulators of iron deficiency responses and their iron-binding properties. IDEF1 is a central transcriptional regulator of graminaceous genes involved in iron uptake and utilization, predominantly during the early stages of iron deficiency. HRZs/BTS are E3 ubiquitin ligases and negative regulators of iron deficiency responses in both graminaceous and non-graminaceous plants. Rice OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are also potent regulators of iron accumulation. Characterizing these putative iron sensors also provides clues to understanding the nature of iron signals, which may involve ionized iron itself, other metals, oxygen, redox status, heme and iron-sulfur clusters, in addition to metabolites affected by iron deficiency. Systemic iron responses may also be regulated by phloem-mobile iron and its chelators such as nicotianamine. Iron sensors and signals will be identified by demonstration of signal transmission by IDEF1, HRZs/BTS, or unknown factors. PMID:24908504

  3. Iron in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Galazka-Friedman; Andrzej Friedman; Erika R. Bauminger

    2009-01-01

    The results of our studies of iron in three brain structures, substantia nigra (SN), globus pallidus (GP), and hippocampus\\u000a (Hip), are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay) were applied.\\u000a Mössbauer studies show that most of the iron in the brain is ferritin-like. The concentration of iron is similar in SN and\\u000a GP, but less than half

  4. Iron in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Galazka-Friedman; Andrzej Friedman; Erika R. Bauminger

    The results of our studies of iron in three brain structures, substantia nigra (SN), globus pallidus (GP), and hippocampus\\u000a (Hip), are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay) were applied.\\u000a Mössbauer studies show that most of the iron in the brain is ferritin-like. The concentration of iron is similar in SN and\\u000a GP, but less than half

  5. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD. PMID:25994136

  6. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Physiology of iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. 'Ironomics' certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  8. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  9. Influence of iron-limited continuous culture on physiology and virulence of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    James, B W; Mauchline, W S; Fitzgeorge, R B; Dennis, P J; Keevil, C W

    1995-01-01

    A virulent strain of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, subgroup Pontiac, was grown in continuous culture at a constant growth rate under iron-replete and iron-limited conditions. Iron limitation was achieved by the removal of ferrous sulfate and hemin from the chemically defined medium. Residual contaminating iron, 0.45 microM, was sufficient to support iron-limited growth. Typical iron-replete cultures metabolized 3.3 microM iron. Serine provided the principal source of carbon and energy for both cultures, although iron-replete cultures also depleted a number of other amino acids. There was a 40% decrease in culture biomass under iron-restricted conditions. Iron limitation did not significantly affect carbohydrate metabolism, with the molar growth yield for carbon (Ycarbon) comparable for both cultures. However, under iron-limited conditions a sixfold increase in Yiron correlated with a significant decrease in the iron content of the biomass, as the culture utilized the available iron more efficiently. Highly pleomorphic iron-replete cultures became uniform cultures of short fine rods when adapted to iron-deficient conditions. In addition to the morphological and physiological changes, iron limitation had a critical effect on culture virulence. The virulence of this strain was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced when the culture was subjected to iron-limited conditions. This phenomenon was reversible, with a significant increase in culture virulence upon reversion to iron-replete conditions. When compared in an in vitro macrophage assay, the number of culturable avirulent iron-limited cells located intracellularly after infection was significantly lower than for the virulent replete and control cultures. These results further support the role of environmental parameters in regulating the virulence of L. pneumophila. PMID:7591051

  10. Iron chelating strategies in systemic metal overload, neurodegeneration and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Pyrkosz-Bulska, Monika; Szebesczyk, Agnieszka; Ostrowska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a trace element required for normal performance of cellular processes. Because both the deficiency and excess of this metal are dangerous, its absorption, distribution and accumulation must be tightly regulated. Disturbances of iron homeostasis and an increase in its level may lead to overload and neurodegenerative diseases. Phlebotomy was for a long time the only way of removing excess iron. But since there are many possible disadvantages of this method, chelation therapy seems to be a logical approach to remove toxic levels of iron. In clinical use, there are three drugs: desferrioxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox. FBS0701, a novel oral iron chelator, is under clinical trials with very promising results. Developing novel iron-binding chelators is an urgent matter, not only for systemic iron overload, but also for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Deferiprone is also used in clinical trials in Parkinson's disease. In neurodegenerative disorders the main goal is not only to remove iron from brain tissues, but also its redistribution in system. Few chelators are tested for their potential use in neurodegeneration, such as nonhalogeneted derivatives of clioquinol. Such compounds gave promising results in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs of possible use in neurodegeneration must meet certain criteria. Their development includes the improvement in blood brain barrier permeability, low toxicity and the ability to prevent lipid peroxidation. One of the compounds satisfying these requirements is VK28. In rat models it was able to protect neurons in very low doses without significantly changing the iron level in liver or serum. Also iron chelators able to regulate activity of monoamine oxidase were tested. Polyphenols and flavonoids are able to prevent lipid peroxidation and demonstrate neuroprotective activity. While cancer does not involve true iron overload, neoplastic cells have a higher iron requirement and are especially prone to its depletion. It was shown, that desferrioxamine and deferasirox are antiproliferative agents active in several types of cancer. Very potent compounds with possible use as anticancer drugs are thiosemicarbazones. They are able to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis. Because the relationship between the development of overload / neurodegenerative disorders, or cancer, and iron are very complex, comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis is a crucial factor in the development of new pharmacological strategies based on iron chelation. In view of various factors closely involved in pathogenesis of such diseases, designing multifunctional metal-chelators seems to be the most promising approach, but it requires a lot of effort. In this perspective, the review summarizes systemic iron homeostasis, and in brain and cancer cells, iron dysregulation in neurodegenerative disease and possible chelation strategies in the treatment of metal systemic overload, neurodegeneration and cancer. PMID:25005181

  11. Long-term intermittent shear deformation improves the quality of cartilaginous tissue formed in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Waldman; Caroline G. Spiteri; Marc D. Grynpas; Robert M. Pilliar; Rita A. Kandel

    2003-01-01

    The formation of cartilaginous tissue in vitro is a promising alternative to repair damaged articular cartilage. However, recent attempts to tissue-engineer articular cartilage that has similar properties to the native tissue have proven to be difficult. The in vitro-formed cartilaginous tissue typically has a similar proteoglycan content to native cartilage, but has a reduced collagen content and only a fraction

  12. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W. (Brookline, MA); Kochevar, Irene E. (Charlestown, MA)

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  13. Brain tissue properties differentiate between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Accolla, Ettore A; Dukart, Juergen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine; Chowdhury, Rumana; Hetzer, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan; Kühn, Andrea A; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding basic organizational principles of the human basal ganglia, accurate in vivo assessment of their anatomical properties is essential to improve early diagnosis in disorders with corticosubcortical pathology and optimize target planning in deep brain stimulation. Main goal of this study was the detailed topological characterization of limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to corresponding corticosubcortical circuits. To this aim, we used magnetic resonance imaging and investigated independently anatomical connectivity via white matter tracts next to brain tissue properties. On the basis of probabilistic diffusion tractography we identified STN subregions with predominantly motor, associative, and limbic connectivity. We then computed for each of the nonoverlapping STN subregions the covariance between local brain tissue properties and the rest of the brain using high-resolution maps of magnetization transfer (MT) saturation and longitudinal (R1) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*). The demonstrated spatial distribution pattern of covariance between brain tissue properties linked to myelin (R1 and MT) and iron (R2*) content clearly segregates between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits. We interpret the demonstrated covariance pattern as evidence for shared tissue properties within a functional circuit, which is closely linked to its function. Our findings open new possibilities for investigation of changes in the established covariance pattern aiming at accurate diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24777915

  14. [The role of lactoferrin in the iron metabolism. Part I. Effect of lactofferin on intake, transport and iron storage].

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Iron belongs to the most widely distributed elements and is essential for the metabolism of almost all organisms. It is required for enzymatic reactions, in particular of those involving electron transport. It also participates in the transport and storage of oxygen in tissues. Iron is present in hem-containing proteins (hemoproteins) such as: hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes,cytochrome oxidases, catalases and peroxidases. It is also a constituent of proteins which do not contain hem molecule: flavoproteins (succinate and NADH dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial aconitase. In addition, iron takes part in many metabolic processes, among others in synthesis and catabolism of some hormones, synthesis of high-energy compounds and collagen, detoxification processes and immune reactions. It also participates in formation of reactive oxygen species which may exhibit both beneficial and harmful effects. Iron occurs in aqueous solutions as ferric (Fe+++) and ferrous (Fe++) ion. Although Fe+++ is hardly soluble, the organisms evolved mechanisms allowing to acquire and utilize that element irrespectively of its valency. The iron metabolism encompasses: intake, transport, participation in metabolism and storage. The iron metabolism undergoes in a closed cycle; in the physiological state only small amount of this metal is absorbed in the alimentary duct and disposed from the organism. A number of proteins is involved in iron metabolism including: ferritin, transferrin,transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter (DMT1), cytochrome b, ferroportin, hephaestin, hepcidin and lactoferrin (LF). A beneficial effect of LF on iron acquisition in the gut is best documented.That process involves a receptor-mediated absorption of iron-bound LF through intestinal epithelial cells. The role of LF in transfer of iron from maternal milk may be of utmost importance. Many observations indicate also that LF participates in the process of iron storage,predominantly in the liver. Contradictory data exist, however, regarding the role of LF in iron transport to other cell types and organs. PMID:19002083

  15. Cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation capability of human mesenchymal stem cells after iron labeling with iron sucrose.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Thorfve, Anna; Brantsing, Camilla; Junevik, Katarina; Baranto, Adad; Barreto Henriksson, Helena

    2014-11-01

    For evaluation of cell therapy strategies using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), it is important to be able to trace transplanted cells and their distribution in tissues, for example, cartilage, over time. The aim of the study was to determine effects on cell viability, traceability, and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs after iron labeling with iron sucrose. hMSCs were collected (seven donors, 13-57 years) from patients undergoing spinal surgery. Two subsets of experiments were performed. (1) Iron labeling of hMSCs: 1 mg/mL of Venofer(®) (iron sucrose) was added (16 h) to cultures. hMSCs were examined for uptake of iron sucrose (Prussian blue staining) and cell viability (flow cytometry). (2) Iron-labeled hMSCs (passage 4) (n=4, pellet mass), 200,000 cells/tube, were cultured (DMEM-HG) with 10 ng/mL TGF? and compared with controls (from each donor). The pellets were harvested at days 7, 14, and 28. Real-time PCR, IHC, and histology were used to evaluate SOX9, ACAN, C6S, and COL2A1 expression. Mean number of cells containing iron deposits was 98.1% and mean cell viability was 92.7% (no significant difference compared with unlabeled control cells). Pellets containing iron-labeled cells expressed COL2A1 on protein level (all time points), in similar levels as controls, and glycosaminoglycan accumulation was observed in iron-labeled pellets (day 14 or day 28). Results were supported by the expression of chondrogenic genes SOX9, ACAN, and COL2A1. The results in vitro indicate that iron sucrose can be used as a cell tracer for evaluation of cellular distribution in vivo after transplantation of MSCs and thus contribute with important knowledge when exploring new treatment strategies for degenerated cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25036548

  16. Iron abundance and magnetic permeability of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.; Dyal, P.

    1974-01-01

    A larger set of simultaneous data from the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer and the Explorer 35 Ames magnetometer are used to construct a whole-moon hysteresis curve, from which a new value of global lunar permeability is determined to be mu = 1.012 + or - 0.006. The corresponding global induced dipole moment is 2.1 times ten to the eighteenth power gauss-cu cm for typical inducing fields of one ten-thousandth gauss in the lunar environment. From the permeability measurement, lunar free iron abundance is determined to be 2.5 + or - 2.0 wt %. Total iron abundance (sum of iron in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states) is calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior: a free iron/orthopyroxene lunar composition and a free iron/olivine composition. The overall lunar total iron abundance is determined to be 9.0 + or - 4.7 wt %. Other lunar models with a small iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer are discussed in light of the measured global permeability. Effects on permeability and iron content calculations due to a possible lunar ionosphere are also considered.

  17. The presence of an iron oxide layer at the enamel\\/steel interface in one-coat porcelain enamelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ritchie; H. A. Schaeffer; D. White

    1983-01-01

    The chemical measurement of the iron oxide present in the enamel was not in agreement with the iron oxide content calculated from diffusion profiles. This discrepancy could only be explained by assuming that a layer of iron oxide about 1 µm thick was present at the interface. An examination of the phenomena associated with this type of enamelling, the constant

  18. New insights into Fe localization in plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Divol, Fanchon; Alcon, Carine; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering cellular iron (Fe) homeostasis requires having access to both quantitative and qualitative information on the subcellular pools of Fe in tissues and their dynamics within the cells. We have taken advantage of the Perls/DAB Fe staining procedure to perform a systematic analysis of Fe distribution in roots, leaves and reproductive organs of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, using wild-type and mutant genotypes affected in iron transport and storage. Roots of soil-grown plants accumulate iron in the apoplast of the central cylinder, a pattern that is strongly intensified when the citrate effluxer FRD3 is not functional, thus stressing the importance of citrate in the apoplastic movement of Fe. In leaves, Fe level is low and only detected in and around vascular tissues. In contrast, Fe staining in leaves of iron-treated plants extends in the surrounding mesophyll cells where Fe deposits, likely corresponding to Fe-ferritin complexes, accumulate in the chloroplasts. The loss of ferritins in the fer1,3,4 triple mutant provoked a massive accumulation of Fe in the apoplastic space, suggesting that in the absence of iron buffering in the chloroplast, cells activate iron efflux and/or repress iron influx to limit the amount of iron in the cell. In flowers, Perls/DAB staining has revealed a major sink for Fe in the anthers. In particular, developing pollen grains accumulate detectable amounts of Fe in small-size intracellular bodies that aggregate around the vegetative nucleus at the binuclear stage and that were identified as amyloplasts. In conclusion, using the Perls/DAB procedure combined to selected mutant genotypes, this study has established a reliable atlas of Fe distribution in the main Arabidopsis organs, proving and refining long-assumed intracellular locations and uncovering new ones. This “iron map” of Arabidopsis will serve as a basis for future studies of possible actors of iron movement in plant tissues and cell compartments. PMID:24046774

  19. Fracture toughness studies of nodular iron using a J-integral approach

    E-print Network

    Mead, Hearl Edward

    1979-01-01

    in silicon content and nodule count except at low temperatures. An unsuccessful attempt was made to correlate the Kl lc values of nodular iron to the results of notched tensile tests. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The financial support of this work by the Iron... Electron Microscope Fractography RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fracture Toughness Fractography Silicon Content Pearlite Content Xl. 16 18 20 21 21 21 30 33 35 35 42 71 Nodule Count Notched Tensile Tests Comparative Results CONCLUSIONS RE FE...

  20. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20?g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1?±?5.8?years old) immediately before and 5 and 60?min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5?%), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine. PMID:22691230

  1. Characterizing human pancreatic cancer precursor using quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yup; Lloyd, William R.; Chandra, Malavika; Wilson, Robert H.; McKenna, Barbara; Simeone, Diane; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2013-01-01

    In a pilot study, multimodal optical spectroscopy coupled with quantitative tissue-optics models distinguished intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), a common precursor to pancreatic cancer, from normal tissues in freshly excised human pancreas. A photon-tissue interaction (PTI) model extracted parameters associated with cellular nuclear size and refractive index (from reflectance spectra) and extracellular collagen content (from fluorescence spectra). The results suggest that tissue optical spectroscopy has the potential to characterize pre-cancerous neoplasms in human pancreatic tissues. PMID:24409383

  2. Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

    1972-01-01

    The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

  3. The case for iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN H. MARTIN; R. MICHAEL GORDON; STEVE E. FITZWATER

    1991-01-01

    Excess major nutrients occur in offshore areas ranging from the tropical equatorial Pacific to the polar Antarctic. In spite of the great ecological differences in these environments, the authors believe they share a common trait: iron deficiency. Here they present the case of iron; they point out that all of these areas are far from Fe-rich terrestrial sources and that

  4. Iron efficiency in sorghum

    E-print Network

    Esty, James Craig

    1979-01-01

    use of iron by two soy- bean genotypes and their isolines. Agron. J. 59:459-462. 24. Chancy, Rufus L. , John C. Brown, and Lee O. Tiffin. 1972. Obligator'y reduction of ferric che'. ates in iron uptake by soybeans. Plant Physiol. , 50:208-213. 25...

  5. Frequent severe liver iron overload after stem cell transplantation and its possible association with invasive aspergillosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Altes; A F Remacha; P Sarda; F J Sancho; A Sureda; R Martino; J Briones; S Brunet; C Canals; J Sierra

    2004-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with free radical generation and tissue damage. Our main objective was to ascertain the frequency and severity of iron overload in a group of 59 patients who died after conventional-intensity autologous (n=24) or allogeneic (n=35) haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A second objective was to investigate associations between liver-iron concentration and causes of transplant-related mortality. The

  6. Metalloreductase Steap3 coordinates the regulation of iron homeostasis and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Tao, Yunlong; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Guo, Xin; An, Peng; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wu, Qian; Yu, Yu; Wang, Fudi

    2012-01-01

    Background Iron and its homeostasis are intimately related to inflammatory responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of Steap3 in regulating iron homeostasis in macrophages, and the effects of Steap3 depletion on host inflammatory responses. Design and Methods We analyzed bone marrow-derived macrophages and primary cultured hepatocytes from Steap3-/- mouse models to investigate the roles of Steap3 in coordinately regulating iron homeostasis and inflammatory responses. First, we examined iron distribution and iron status in cells deficient in Steap3, as well as the requirement for the Steap3 gene during inflammatory responses. Secondly, we analyzed the regulation of Steap3 expression by inflammatory stimuli and thus, the influence of these stimuli on iron distribution and homeostasis. Results We found that Steap3 mRNA was expressed at high levels in macrophages and hepatocytes. Steap3 deficiency led to impaired iron homeostasis, causing abnormal iron distribution and a decreased availability of cytosolic iron in macrophages. Among STEAP family members, Steap3 mRNA was uniquely down-regulated in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides. To determine whether Steap3 regulated iron homeostasis during inflammatory stress, we treated Steap3-/- mice with lipopolysaccharide, which produced greater iron accumulation in the vital tissues of these mice compared to in the tissues of wild-type controls. Furthermore, Steap3 depletion led to impaired induction of interferon-?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-5, and interferon induced protein-10 in macrophages via the TLR4-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions Steap3 is important in regulating both iron homeostasis and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages. Steap3 deficiency causes abnormal iron status and homeostasis, which leads to impaired TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages. Following inflammatory stimuli, Steap3 depletion causes dysregulated iron sequestration and distribution. Our results provide important insights into the function of Steap3 as a coordinate regulator of both iron homeostasis and innate immunity. PMID:22689674

  7. Effect of iron and combined iron and beryllium additions on the fracture toughness and microstructures of squeeze-cast Al7Si0.3Mg alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Murali; A. Trivedi; K. S. Shamanna; K. S. S. Murthy

    1996-01-01

    Squeeze casting is a near-net-shape process of casting under pressure that yields a fine-grain structure with higher density\\u000a and mechanical properties compared to conventional casting processes. Iron is the most commonly present impurity element in\\u000a Al-7Si-0.3Mg, the alloy investigated. An increase in iron content significantly decreases fracture toughness. However, trace\\u000a additions of beryllium completely neutralize the detrimental effect of iron.

  8. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism for, the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxides and silicate phase surfaces. The reflectance spectrum of the clay-iron preparations in the visible range is generally similar to the reflectance curves of bright regions on Mars. This strengthens the evidence for the predominance of nanophase iron oxides/oxyhydroxides in Mars soil. The mode of formation of these nanophase iron oxides on Mars is still unknown. It is puzzling that despite the long period of time since aqueous weathering took place on Mars, they have not developed from their transitory stage to well-crystallized end-members. The possibility is suggested that these phases represent a continuously on-going, extremely slow weathering process.

  9. Iron transport & homeostasis mechanisms: their role in health & disease.

    PubMed

    Nadadur, S S; Srirama, K; Mudipalli, Anuradha

    2008-10-01

    Iron is an essential trace metal required by all living organisms and is toxic in excess. Nature has evolved a delicately balanced network to monitor iron entry, transport it to sites of need, and serve as a unique storage and recycling system, in the absence of an excretory system, to remove excess iron. Due to the unique nature of iron metabolism, iron homeostasis is achieved by integrated specialized mechanisms that operate at the cellular and organism level. The use of positional cloning approaches by multiple researchers has led to the identification and characterization of various proteins and peptides that play a critical role in iron metabolism. These efforts have led to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the uptake of iron by the enterocytes, transportation across the membrane to circulation, and delivery to diverse tissues for use and storage and sensor system to co-ordinate and achieve homeostasis. Molecular understanding of these processes and the key regulatory molecules involved in maintaining homeostasis will provide novel insights into understanding human disorders associated with either iron deficiency or overload. PMID:19106445

  10. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  11. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  12. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  13. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  14. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  15. Growth and photosynthesis of pea plants under different iron supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veselina R. Nenova

    2009-01-01

    Soil conditions, leading to iron deficiency or toxicity, are widespread in nature. Our objective was to study the effect of\\u000a Fe supply, ranging from complete deficiency to excess, on growth and on some photosynthetic indices of pea plants. Both iron\\u000a deficiency and toxicity decreased shoot and root growth. Complete deficiency resulted in a lower shoot\\/root ratio and a higher\\u000a content

  16. Suppressive Effects of Iron on TGF-?1 Production by Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taro Horino; Hiroyuki Ito; Takuya Yamaguchi; Mutsuo Furihata; Kozo Hashimoto

    2005-01-01

    Background: TGF-?1, which is one of the profibrogenic cytokines, is considered essential for both the tubulointerstitial fibrosis found in chronic kidney diseases and the repair of tissue damage in acute renal injury. Iron plays an important part in inflammatory damage since it supplies cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals. The aim of the present study was to examine the direct effects of iron

  17. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggesting a role for iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhakrishna Baliga; Zhiwei Zhang; Mithra Baliga; Norishi Ueda; Sudhir V Shah

    1998-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo evidence suggesting a role for iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent that has nephrotoxicity as a major side effect. The underlying mechanism of this nephrotoxicity is still not well known. Iron has been implicated to play an important role in several models of tissue injury, presumably through the generation of

  18. Formation of zinc protoporphyrin in cultured hepatocytes: effects of ferrochelatase inhibition, iron chelation or lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M Jacobs; Peter R Sinclair; Jacqueline F Sinclair; Nadia Gorman; Heidi S Walton; Sheryl G Wood; Calen Nichols

    1998-01-01

    The formation of zinc protoporphyrin in response to lead or iron depletion has previously been investigated in erythroid systems. Because of its possible metabolic role in non-erythroid tissue, we investigated the formation of zinc protoporphyrin in cultured hepatocytes. The effects of lead and inhibitors of ferrochelatase, the iron insertion step of heme synthesis, on the conversion of 5-aminolevulinic acid to

  19. Cryosectioning tissues.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew H; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Rose, Jack; Zeller, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONCryosections are rapidly and relatively easily prepared prior to fixation, and they provide a good system for visualizing fine details of the cell. Although cryosections are physically less stable than paraffin- or resin-embedded sections, they are generally superior for the preservation of antigenicity and therefore the detection of antigens by microscopy. The preparation of cryosections does not involve the dehydration steps typical of other sectioning methods, and, furthermore, sectioning, labeling, and observation of specimens can usually be carried out in one day. In general, the sample is frozen quickly in either isopentane or liquid nitrogen. (Small samples such as cells and small tissues may be mixed in a slurry of an inert support medium such as optimal cutting temperature [OCT] compound before freezing). Rapid freezing reduces ice crystal formation and minimizes morphological damage. Frozen sections may be used for a variety of procedures, including immunochemistry, enzymatic detection, and in situ hybridization. A protocol for cryosectioning is presented here. PMID:21356883

  20. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  1. Effects of acute iron overload on Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Standal; K.-A. RØrvik; H. Lien; Ø. Andersen

    1997-01-01

    Distribution of radioiron to various tissues after intraperitoneal injections was examined in Atlantic salmon and rainbow\\u000a trout. Liver and spleen were found to be the major iron storage tissues. Injections of 1 or 5 mg iron as ferric ammonium citrate\\u000a led to a fall in hemoglobin levels in both species after 2 d. Hemoglobin levels returned to normal levels in

  2. Expression of ferritin protein and subunit mRNAs in normal and iron deficient rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Meyer Hansen; Henrik Nielsen; Nils Bernth; Torben Moos

    1999-01-01

    In non-neuronal tissue, ferritin subunit mRNAs are regulated by post-transcriptional mechanisms leading to decreased ferritin protein synthesis during iron deficiency. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that the cerebral ferritin concentration declines during iron deficiency, suggesting that expression of ferritin subunit mRNAs in the brain may be regulated by mechanisms similar to those of non-neuronal tissue. However, as ferritin expression has been

  3. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay for the analysis of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP) and its metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP) in plasma, urine, bile, intestinal contents, faeces and eight selected tissues from mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Teunissen; M. L. H. Vlaming; H. Rosing; J. H. M. Schellens; A. H. Schinkel; J. H. Beijnen

    2010-01-01

    The development and validation of a bioanalytical assay is described for the simultaneous analysis of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4-5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and its main metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP) in plasma, urine, faeces, bile, liver, kidney, testis, spleen, brain, as well as colon-, cecum- and small intestinal tissue and contents from mice. The effect of the matrix on the accuracy of the method was extensively investigated.

  4. The role of iron and chelators on infections in iron overload and non iron loaded conditions: prospects for the design of new antimicrobial therapies.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J; Kolnagou, Annita; Skiada, Anna; Petrikkos, George

    2010-06-01

    Iron overload is known to exacerbate many infectious diseases. Infectious complications are considered to be the second main cause of morbidity and mortality in iron loaded thalassemia patients. Effective chelation therapy leading to the normalization of the iron stores could reduce the incidence of related infections. Microbial pathogens could obtain growth-essential iron from healthy hosts. Conversely, iron withholding and/or removal is an important defense strategy for mammalian hosts, which is primarily accomplished by the iron chelating proteins transferrin and lactoferrin. Chelating drugs could prevent microbial growth and play an essential role in antimicrobial therapeutic strategies. Specific mechanisms and interactions apply in the transfer or withholding of iron between the chelating drugs deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (L1) and deferasirox (DFRA) with microbial pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. In some cases, chelators and in particular DFO, could act as a siderophore for the microbe and exacerbate infections such as yersiniasis and mucormycosis. Deferiprone appears to have the highest therapeutic index for long-term antimicrobial activity and the highest tissue penetration, including access to the brain. Selection of specific chelation therapy protocols could be considered in conditions where other antimicrobial therapies have failed or where resistance has developed to existing therapies. PMID:20524813

  5. Effect of iron overload and iron deficiency on atherosclerosis in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, A J; Shwaery, G T; Keaney, J F; Frei, B

    1997-11-01

    It has been suggested that iron plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, primarily by acting as a catalyst for the atherogenic modification of LDL. Although some epidemiological data suggest that high stored iron levels are an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and that iron has been detected in both early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions, the evidence is often contradictory and inconclusive. We used the New Zealand White rabbit to investigate the effects of iron overload (FeO) and iron deficiency (FeD) on atherosclerosis. Groups of 7 rabbits were either iron loaded by injections of iron dextran (FeO group), iron depleted by phlebotomy (FeD group), or given injections of saline (control group) for a total of 9 weeks. All rabbits were fed a chow diet containing 1% (wt/wt) cholesterol for the last 6 weeks of the study. Iron and antioxidant status and cholesterol levels were assayed in plasma before cholesterol feeding (week 3) and at the time that the rabbits were killed (week 9). In addition, the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was measured and pathological examination of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta performed at the end of the study. FeD significantly decreased the levels of blood hemoglobin, serum iron, and transferrin saturation compared with controls. Conversely, FeO significantly increased transferrin Fe saturation. FeO but not FeD decreased plasma cholesterol levels compared with control animals both before (P < .05) and after (P = .055) cholesterol feeding. Neither FeO nor FeD had a significant effect on the levels of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation products in plasma and aortic tissue or on the susceptibility of LDL to ex-vivo oxidation. FeO significantly decreased aortic arch lesion formation by 56% compared with controls (P < .05), whereas FeD had no significant effect. These results indicate that in this animal model, FeO decreases rather than increases atherosclerosis, likely because iron dextran exerts a hypocholesterolemic effect. Our data do not support the hypotheses that elevation of Fe stores increases or that a reduction of Fe stores by phlebotomy decreases the risk of coronary artery disease. PMID:9409237

  6. Dose-Dependent Increase of Oxidative Damage in the Testes of Rats Subjected to Acute Iron Overload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florencia Lucesoli; Marina Caligiuri; Maria F. Roberti; Juan C. Perazzo; Cesar G. Fraga

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the in vivo response of rat testes to acute iron overload. Male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were injected ip with iron dextran at doses of 250 (Fe250), 500 (Fe500), or 1000 mg\\/kg body wt (Fe1000) or with saline (C). Parameters of oxidative stress and iron toxicity were measured 20 h after injection. Total iron content was 3.5-,

  7. Stable isotope labels as a tool to determine the iron absorption by Peruvian school children from a breakfast meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Walczyk; Lena Davidsson; Nelly Zavaleta; Richard F. Hurrell

    1997-01-01

    Fractional iron absorption from a breakfast meal was determined in Peruvian children employing stable iron isotopes as labels.\\u000a Iron isotopic analysis was performed by the recently developed negative thermal ionization technique for high-precision iron\\u000a isotope ratio measurements using FeF4\\u000a – ions. By increasing the ascorbic acid content of the standard breakfast meal as served within the Peruvian school-breakfast\\u000a program from

  8. Clinically available iron chelators induce neuroprotection in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson’s disease after peripheral administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Dexter; Sarah A. Statton; Charlotte Whitmore; Wolfhardt Freinbichler; Peter Weinberger; Keith F. Tipton; Laura Della Corte; Roberta J. Ward; Robert R. Crichton

    2011-01-01

    The iron content of the substantia nigra pars compacta increases in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. Hence, its\\u000a removal by iron chelators may retard the progression of the disease. However, information on the ability of clinically available\\u000a iron chelators to cross the blood brain barrier and be neuroprotective is limited. In this present study three iron chelators,\\u000a which are

  9. Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Sulfate Increase Body Iron in Women with Moderate to Low

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Swain; LuAnn K. Johnson; Janet R. Hunt

    Commercial elemental iron powders (electrolytic and reduced iron), as well as heme iron supplements, were tested for efficacy in improving the iron status of women. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 51 women with moderate to low iron stores received daily for 12 wk: 1) placebo,2) 5 mg iron as heme iron or 50 mg iron as 3) electrolytic iron, 4)

  10. The iron chelator deferasirox protects mice from mucormycosis through iron starvation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebermariam, Teclegiorgis; Fu, Yue; Lin,, Lin; Husseiny, Mohamed I.; French, Samuel W.; Schwartz, Julie; Skory, Christopher D.; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad J.

    2007-01-01

    Mucormycosis causes mortality in at least 50% of cases despite current first-line therapies. Clinical and animal data indicate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to mucormycosis. Here we demonstrate that deferasirox, an iron chelator recently approved for use in humans by the US FDA, is a highly effective treatment for mucormycosis. Deferasirox effectively chelated iron from Rhizopus oryzae and demonstrated cidal activity in vitro against 28 of 29 clinical isolates of Mucorales at concentrations well below clinically achievable serum levels. When administered to diabetic ketoacidotic or neutropenic mice with mucormycosis, deferasirox significantly improved survival and decreased tissue fungal burden, with an efficacy similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B. Deferasirox treatment also enhanced the host inflammatory response to mucormycosis. Most importantly, deferasirox synergistically improved survival and reduced tissue fungal burden when combined with liposomal amphotericin B. These data support clinical investigation of adjunctive deferasirox therapy to improve the poor outcomes of mucormycosis with current therapy. As iron availability is integral to the pathogenesis of other infections (e.g., tuberculosis, malaria), broader investigation of deferasirox as an antiinfective treatment is warranted. PMID:17786247

  11. Regulation of quinolinic acid neosynthesis in mouse, rat and human brain by iron and iron chelators in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stachowski, Erin K; Schwarcz, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that excess iron may play an etiologically significant role in neurodegenerative disorders. This idea is supported, for example, by experimental studies in animals demonstrating significant neuroprotection by iron chelation. Here, we tested whether this effect might be related to a functional link between iron and the endogenous excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN), a presumed pathogen in several neurological disorders. In particular, the present in vitro study was designed to examine the effects of Fe(2+), a known co-factor of oxygenases, on the activity of QUIN's immediate biosynthetic enzyme, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase (3HAO), in the brain. In crude tissue homogenate, addition of Fe(2+) (2-40 ?M) stimulated 3HAO activity 4- to 6-fold in all three species tested (mouse, rat and human). The slope of the iron curve was steepest in rat brain where an increase from 6 to 14 ?M resulted in a more than fivefold higher enzyme activity. In all species, the Fe(2+)-induced increase in 3HAO activity was dose-dependently attenuated by the addition of ferritin, the main iron storage protein in the brain. The effect of iron was also readily prevented by N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl) ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED), a synthetic iron chelator with neuroprotective properties in vivo. All these effects were reproduced using neostriatal tissue obtained postmortem from normal individuals and patients with end-stage Huntington's disease. Our results suggest that QUIN levels and function in the mammalian brain might be tightly controlled by endogenous iron and proteins that regulate the bioavailability of iron. PMID:21833493

  12. Magnetic Targeting of Novel Heparinized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Evaluated in a 9L-glioma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Shin, Meong Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A novel PEGylated and heparinized magnetic iron oxide nano-platform (DNPH) was synthesized for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tumor targeting. Methods Starch-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (“D”) were crosslinked, aminated (DN) and then simultaneously PEGylated and heparinized with different feed ratios of PEG and heparin (DNPH1-4). DNPH products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The magentic targeting of DNPH3, with appropriate amounts of conjugated PEG and heparin, in a mouse 9L-glioma subcutaneous tumor model was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/electron spin resonance (ESR). Results DNPH3 showed long circulating properties in vivo (half-life > 8 h, more than 60-fold longer than that of parent D) and low reticuloendothelial system (RES) recognition in liver and spleen. Protamine, a model cationic protein, was efficiently loaded onto DNPH3 with a maxium loading content of 26.4 ?g/mg Fe. Magnetic capture of DNPH3 in tumor site with optimized conditions (I.D. of 12 mg/kg, targeting time of 45 min) was up to 29.42 ?g Fe/g tissue (12.26% I.D./g tissue). Conclusion DNPH3 showed the potential to be used as a platform for cationic proteins for simultaneous tumor targeting and imaging. PMID:24065589

  13. Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wallander, Michelle L.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.; Eisenstein, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Both deficiencies and excesses of iron represent major public health problems throughout the world. Understanding the cellular and organismal processes controlling iron homeostasis is critical for identifying iron-related diseases and in advancing the clinical treatments for such disorders of iron metabolism. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 are key regulators of vertebrate iron metabolism. These RNA binding proteins post-transcriptionally control the stability or translation of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron homeostasis thereby controlling the uptake, utilization, storage or export of iron. Recent evidence provides insight into how IRPs selectively control the translation or stability of target mRNAs, how IRP RNA binding activity is controlled by iron-dependent and iron-independent effectors, and the pathological consequences of dysregulation of the IRP system. PMID:16872694

  14. A study of resistive switching effects on a thin FeO{sub x} transition layer produced at the oxide/iron interface of TiN/SiO{sub 2}/Fe-contented electrode structures

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Liwei; Chang Chunyen; Chang Yaofeng; Chen Weiren; Wang Shinyuan; Chiang Peiwei [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang Tingchang [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China) and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-01

    Large (>10{sup 2}) and stable resistance switching characteristics were demonstrated in TiN/SiO{sub 2}/Fe structure due to the presence of a thin FeO{sub x} transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/Fe interface, produced spontaneously during the plasma-enhanced tetraethyl orthosilicate oxide deposition process. Addition of Pt into Fe electrode, i.e., a TiN/SiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 0.73}Pt{sub 0.27} structure, was observed to improve the data dispersion of switching parameters, associating with the decrease in Fe content inside the FeO{sub x} layer. Additionally, current-voltage fitting data shows that current transport mechanism is governed by Ohm's law in low voltage region and Pool-Frenkel behavior in high voltage region, consisting with FeO{sub x} phase transition characteristics.

  15. Duodenal mRNA expression of iron related genes in response to iron loading and iron deficiency in four strains of mice

    PubMed Central

    Dupic, F; Fruchon, S; Bensaid, M; Loreal, O; Brissot, P; Borot, N; Roth, M P; Coppin, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Although much progress has been made recently in characterising the proteins involved in duodenal iron trafficking, regulation of intestinal iron transport remains poorly understood. It is not known whether the level of mRNA expression of these recently described molecules is genetically regulated. This is of particular interest however as genetic factors are likely to determine differences in iron status among mouse strains and probably also contribute to the phenotypic variability seen with disruption of the haemochromatosis gene. Aims: To investigate this issue, we examined concomitant variations in duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin 1 (FPN1), hephaestin, stimulator of Fe transport (SFT), HFE, and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) transcripts in response to different dietary iron contents in the four mouse strains C57BL/6, DBA/2, CBA, and 129/Sv. Subjects: Six mice of each strain were fed normal levels of dietary iron, six were subjected to the same diet supplemented with 2% carbonyl iron, and six were fed an iron deficient diet. Methods: Quantification of mRNAs isolated from the duodenum was performed using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: There was a significant increase in mRNA expression of Dcytb, DMT1, FPN1, and TfR1 when mice were fed an iron deficient diet, and a significant decrease in mRNA expression of these molecules when mice were fed an iron supplemented diet. Strain to strain differences were observed not only in serum transferrin saturations, with C57BL/6 mice having the lowest values, but also in hepatic iron stores and in duodenal mRNA expression of Dcytb, DMT1, FPN1, hephaestin, HFE, and TfR1. Conclusions: The results favour some degree of genetic control of mRNA levels of these molecules. PMID:12377801

  16. Iron abundance and magnetic permeability of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.; Dyal, P.

    1974-01-01

    A set of simultaneous data from the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer and the Explorer 35 Ames magnetometer are used to construct a whole-moon hysteresis curve, from which a new value of global lunar permeability is determined to be mu = 1.012 + or - 0.006. The corresponding global induced dipole moment is 2.1 x 10 to the 18th power gauss-cucm for typical inducing fields of .1000 gauss in the lunar environment. From the permeability measurement, lunar free iron abundance is determined to be 2.5 + or - 2.0 wt. %. Total iron abundance is calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior: a free iron/orthopyroxene lunar composition and a free iron/olivine composition. The overall lunar total iron abundance is determined to be 9.0 + or - 4.7 wt. %. Other lunar models with a small iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer are discussed in light of the measured global permeability. Effects on permeability and iron content calculations due to a possible lunar ionosphere are also considered.

  17. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  18. Electronic effects on iron porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, M. De La; Lopez, M.A. [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We have inserted iron into a series of substituted iron tetraphenylporphyrins for the purposes of investigating electronic effects on properties of the iron porphyrins. The properties of interest are the CO stretching frequencies of the ferrous porphyrins, the rates of CO dissociation from the ferrous porphyrins, and the UV-visible spectra of the iron porphyrins. We will present our results to date.

  19. Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

  20. Molecular Structure of Iron Monoxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-04

    Iron monoxide is an odorless black powder. Technologies and uses of iron and iron oxide powders have progressed steadily. Synthetic iron oxide powders are used primarily for pigmentary and magnetic properties. These powders are inexpensive to make and are used to color concrete products, paints, plastics and other media.

  1. Good Sources of Nutrients: Iron

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28

    Iron is a mineral that functions primarily to carry oxygen in the body. This publication explains how people can get enough iron in their diets and how to prepare foods to retain iron. It also lists foods that are good sources of iron. (2 pp., 2...

  2. Effect of iron and zinc supplementation and its discontinuation on lipid profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Joanna; Madej, Dawid

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether combined iron/zinc supplementation is more beneficial than iron supplementation alone from the perspective of the lipid profile in rats. The study was conducted on 6-week male Wistar rats in 3 stages: (1) 4-week adaptation to the diets: C (AIN-93M) and D (mineral mix without iron); (2) 4-week supplementation: 10-times more iron or iron and zinc compared to C; (3) 2-week post-supplementation period (the same diets as in the first stage). The iron and zinc content in serum was measured using ASA. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined. After 4-week supplementation (stage II) and post-supplementation (stage III) periods combined iron/zinc supplementation decreased HDL-C and increased non-HDL-C concentrations in control rats, and in contrast to iron supplementation alone TG concentration decreased. After stage II combined iron/zinc supplementation did not result in increased non-HDL-C and TG concentrations in iron deficient rats in contrast to iron supplementation alone. After stage III both iron and simultaneous iron/zinc supplementation were the cause of TC increase which was the result of the increase of non-HDL-C but not HDL-C concentration in iron deficient rats. In conclusion, there were no beneficial effects of simultaneous iron and zinc supplementation on the lipid profile of rats fed control and iron deficient diets. Combined iron and zinc supplementation may contribute to lower HDL-C and higher non-HDL-C concentrations. PMID:24814163

  3. Tissue culture and evaluation of some active constituents of Ruta graveolens L. II: Effect of plant growth regulators, explant type and precursor on coumarin content of Ruta graveolens L. callus cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Shabana; T. S. El-Alfy; M. E. El-Tantawy; A. I. Ibrahim; G. F. Ibrahim

    The effect of plant growth regulators and explant type on the coumarin constituent and yield in Ruta graveolens L. callus cultures was studied. Identification of coumarins in different callus cultures by thin layer chromatography showed variation in number of coumarin spots and revealed the presence of bergapten, xanthotoxin, herniarin, isopimpinellin, isoimperatorin, umbelliferone, scopoletin, psoralen and marmesin. The coumarin contents were

  4. Energy absorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by microwave irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do Kyung Kim; M. Shahrooz Amin; Shihab Elborai; Se-Hee Lee; Yüksel Koseoglu; Markus Zahn; Mamoun Muhammed

    2005-01-01

    The main complexity in hyperthermia is generating and controlling the temperature distribution within tumor cells without damaging the normal tissue. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with a diameter of 11 nm were prepared by controlled coprecipitation and coated with oleic acid to prevent agglomeration and flocculation in the solvent. In situ monitoring of the temperature increment was performed to interpret

  5. In vivo biodistribution of iron oxide nanoparticles: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Jennifer A.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2011-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles present a promising alternative to conventional energy deposition-based tissue therapies. The success of such nanoparticles as a therapeutic for diseases like cancer, however, depends heavily on the particles' ability to localize to tumor tissue as well as provide minimal toxicity to surrounding tissues and key organs such as those involved in the reticuloendothelial system (RES). We present here the results of a long term clearance study where mice injected intravenously with 2 mg Fe of 100 nm dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were sacrificed at 14 and 580 days post injection. Histological analysis showed accumulation of the nanoparticles in some RES organs by the 14 day time point and clearance of the nanoparticles by the 580 day time point with no obvious toxicity to organs. An additional study reported herein employs 20 nm and 110 nm starch-coated iron oxide nanoparticles at 80 mg Fe/kg mouse in a size/biodistribution study with endpoints at 4, 24 and 72 hours. Preliminary results show nanoparticle accumulation in the liver and spleen with some elevated iron accumulation in tumoral tissues with differences between the 20 nm and the 110 nm nanoparticle depositions.

  6. The distribution of iron and iron binding proteins in spleen with reference to Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Britten, K J; Jones, D B; De Sousa, M; Wright, D H

    1986-08-01

    The distribution of iron and iron binding proteins (IBP) have been compared with control spleen tissue in an attempt to establish a pattern of staining restricted to Hodgkin's disease (HD). All but one of the HD spleens examined stained for ferritin, which was largely present in red pulp dendritic macrophages (DM). In spleens histologically involved with HD heavy deposits of ferritin were seen around tumour nodules. Staining for ferritin increased with involvement of the spleen in HD but DM still represented the bulk of positive cells. However, ferritin positive DM were frequently seen in control spleens, and often in large numbers. Staining of ferric iron by Perls technique was less prominent than ferritin but this observation was also true of the non-HD spleens studied. Patterns of staining with transferrin were equivalent in both groups of spleens with DM being the most frequently positive cell type. Polymorphous macrophages showing erythrophagocytosis were present in the red pulp sinuses of all groups of spleens and although these cells have been considered as precursors of the Reed-Sternberg cell their presence seemed related to total splenic ferritin regardless of the disease process. These cells marked as macrophages and their presence was not restricted to HD. The results show that there is no particular appearance of iron or IBP distribution which is restricted to HD spleens. However, staining for ferritin and iron increased in HD spleens with tumour involvement and could contribute to circulatory abnormalities in this disease. PMID:3741763

  7. Iron supplementation in renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Iron-deficiency frequently develops in patients with chronic kidney disease who are treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). It results in reduced effectiveness of anemia therapy; patients may fail to reach hemoglobin targets or may require excessively large doses of rHuEPO. It has been recognized widely that iron management, monitoring for iron deficiency, and effective iron supplementation forms a core component of anemia therapy. This review discusses the physiology of iron balance, derangements in iron balance in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in patients treated with rHuEPO. PMID:16949471

  8. Iron Overload and Apoptosis of HL-1 Cardiomyocytes: Effects of Calcium Channel Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-pian; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Chan, Shing; Chan, Godfrey Chi-fung; Cheung, Yiu-fai

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron overload cardiomyopathy that prevails in some forms of hemosiderosis is caused by excessive deposition of iron into the heart tissue and ensuing damage caused by a raise in labile cell iron. The underlying mechanisms of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes in iron overload condition are still under investigation. Both L-type calcium channels (LTCC) and T-type calcium channels (TTCC) have been proposed to be the main portals of non-transferrinic iron into heart cells, but controversies remain. Here, we investigated the roles of LTCC and TTCC as mediators of cardiac iron overload and cellular damage by using specific Calcium channel blockers as potential suppressors of labile Fe(II) and Fe(III) ingress in cultured cardiomyocytes and ensuing apoptosis. Methods Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake was assessed by exposing HL-1 cardiomyocytes to iron sources and quantitative real-time fluorescence imaging of cytosolic labile iron with the fluorescent iron sensor calcein while iron-induced apoptosis was quantitatively measured by flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V. The role of calcium channels as routes of iron uptake was assessed by cell pretreatment with specific blockers of LTCC and TTCC. Results Iron entered HL-1 cardiomyocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced cardiac apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 dependent pathways. Blockade of LTCC but not of TTCC demonstrably inhibited the uptake of ferric but not of ferrous iron. However, neither channel blocker conferred cardiomyocytes with protection from iron-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Our study implicates LTCC as major mediators of Fe(III) uptake into cardiomyocytes exposed to ferric salts but not necessarily as contributors to ensuing apoptosis. Thus, to the extent that apoptosis can be considered a biological indicator of damage, the etiopathology of cardiosiderotic damage that accompanies some forms of hemosiderosis would seem to be unrelated to LTCC or TTCC, but rather to other routes of iron ingress present in heart cells. PMID:25390893

  9. The IIG iron meteorites: Probable formation in the IIAB core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Choe, Won-Hie

    2009-08-01

    The addition of two meteorites to the iron meteorite grouplet originally known as the Bellsbank trio brings the population to five, the minimum number for group status. With Ga and Ge contents in the general "II" range, the new group has been designated IIG. The members of this group have low-Ni contents in the metal and large amounts of coarse schreibersite ((Fe,NI) 3P); their bulk P contents are 17-21 mg/g, the highest known in iron meteorites. Their S contents are exceptionally low, ranging from 0.2 to 2 mg/g. We report neutron-activation-analysis data for metal samples; the data generally show smooth trends on element-Au diagrams. The low Ir and high Au contents suggest formation during the late crystallization of a magma. Because on element-Au or element-Ni diagrams the IIG fields of the important taxonomic elements Ni, Ga, Ge and As are offset from those of the IIAB irons, past researchers have concluded that the IIG irons could not have formed from the same magma, and thus that the two groups originated on separate parent bodies. However, on most element-Au diagrams the IIG fields plot close to extensions of IIAB trends to higher Au concentrations. There is general agreement that immiscibility led to the formation of an upper S-rich and a lower P-rich magma in the IIAB core. We suggest that the IIG irons formed from the P-rich magma, and that schreibersite was a liquidus phase during the final stages of crystallization. The offsets in Ni and As (and possibly other elements) may result from solid-state elemental redistribution between metal and schreibersite during slow cooling. For example, it is well established that the equilibrium Ni content is >2× higher in late-formed relative to early-formed schreibersite. It is plausible that As substitutes nearly ideally for P in schreibersite at eutectic temperatures but becomes incompatible at low temperatures. [Wasson J. T., Huber, H. and Malvin, D. J. (2007) Formation of IIAB iron meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta71, 760-781] argued that, in the most evolved IIAB irons, the amount of trapped melt was high. The high P contents of IIG irons also require high contents of trapped melt but the local geometry seems to have allowed the S-rich immiscible melt to escape as it formed. The escaping melt may have selectively depleted elements such as Au and Ge.

  10. Liver iron depletion and toxicity of the iron chelator deferiprone (L1, CP20) in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Wong, A; Alder, V; Robertson, D; Papadimitriou, J; Maserei, J; Berdoukas, V; Kontoghiorghes, G; Taylor, E; Baker, E

    1997-10-01

    The use of the iron chelator deferiprone (L1, CP20, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one) for the treatment of diseases of iron overload and other disorders is problematic and requires further evaluation. In this study the efficacy, toxicity and mechanism of action of orally administered L1 were investigated in the guinea pig using the carbonyl iron model of iron overload. In an acute trial, depletion of liver non-heme iron in drug-treated guinea pigs (normal iron status) was maximal (approximately 50% of control) after a single oral dose of L1 of 200 mg kg-1, suggesting a limited chelatable pool in normal tissue. There was no apparent toxicity up to 600 mg kg-1. In each of two sub-acute trials, normal and iron-loaded animals were fed L1 (300 mg kg-1 day-1) or placebo for six days. Final mortalities were 12/20 (L1) and 0/20 (placebo). Symptoms included weakness, weight loss and eye discharge. Iron-loaded as well as normal guinea pigs were affected, indicating that at this drug level iron loading was not protective. In a chronic trial guinea pigs received L1 (50 mg kg-1 day-1) or placebo for six days per week over eight months. Liver non-heme iron was reduced in animals iron-loaded prior to the trial. The increase in a wave latency (electroretinogram), the foci of hepatic, myocardial and musculo-skeletal necrosis, and the decrease in white blood cells in the drug--treated/normal diet group even at the low dose of 50 mg kg-1 day-1 suggests that L1 may be unsuitable for the treatment of diseases which do not involve Fe overload. However, the low level of pathology in animals treated with iron prior to the trial suggests that even a small degree of iron overload (two-fold after eight months) is protective at this drug level. We conclude that the relationship between drug dose and iron status is critical in avoiding toxicity and must be monitored rigorously as cellular iron is depleted. PMID:9353871

  11. Formation and characterization of iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen as a potential iron supplement.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianjun; Chen, Fei; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Xue, Wenjiao

    2013-10-01

    Iron incorporated into food can induce precipitation and unwanted interaction with other components in food. Iron-binding proteins represent a possibility to avoid these problems and other side effects, as the iron is protected. However, there are several technical problems associated with protein-iron complex formation. In this paper, the iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared under physiological conditions through phosphorylated modification. One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. Spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and equilibrium dialysis techniques were employed to investigate the characteristics of the Fe-G6P-HLC. The binding sites (nb) and apparent association constant (Kapp) between iron and phosphorylated HLC were measured at nb=23.7 and log Kapp=4.57, respectively. The amount of iron (Fe(2+) sulfate) binding to phosphorylated HLC was found to be a function of pH and phosphate content. In addition, the solubility and thermal stability of HLC were not significantly affected. The results should facilitate the utilization of HLC as a bioactive iron supplement in the food and medical industry and provide an important theoretical evidence for the application of HLC chelates. PMID:23910354

  12. Iron supplementation in young iron-deficient females causes gastrointestinal redox imbalance: protective effect of a fermented nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bertuccelli, G; Marotta, F; Zerbinati, N; Cabeca, A; He, F; Jain, S; Lorenzetti, A; Yadav, H; Milazzo, M; Calabrese, F; Tomella, C; Catanzaro, R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the concomitant supplementation of certified fermented papaya preparation (FPP, ORI, Gifu, Japan) together with iron supplementation could beneficially affect lipid peroxidation either systemically and at a intraluminal gut level in women with low iron stores. Treatment compliance and iron absorption was assessed as well. Fifty-two non-pregnant, fertile, non-smokers, healthy women with iron deficiency were recruited. The women were given iron supplements (100 mg Fe/d as ferrous sulfate) to be taken daily for 12 weeks (group A). Group B patients were also supplemented with 6g/day of a FPP. A detailed life style questionnaire was administered to all subjects. Iron, ferritin, transferrin receptors (Tf R) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were measured. The RBCs lysate was used for the estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The total and free iron concentration as well as analysis of oxidative stress in the feces was measured. FPP-supplemented subjects showed a significantly lower degree of gastrointestinal discomfort (p less than 0.05) and abolished the iron supplementation-induced increase of MDA (p less than 0.001) and the depletion of SOD and GPx (p less than 0.01). Moreover, the nutraceutical co-administration brought about a significant reduction of gut oxidative damage and lower fecal content of either total and free iron (p less than 0.05 vs group A). Overall, group B showed a better TfR/ferritin ratio response (p less than 0.05 vs group A). While iron supplementation maintains its clinical relevance considering the prevalence of iron deficiency among females, a careful clinical evaluation and a protective nutraceutical co-administration, as our data suggest with FPP, should be considered. PMID:24750791

  13. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  14. Chelation therapy for iron overload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Barton

    2007-01-01

    Iron overload is characterized by excessive iron deposition and consequent injury and dysfunction of the heart, liver, anterior\\u000a pituitary, pancreas, and joints. Because physiologic mechanisms to excrete iron are very limited, patients with iron overload\\u000a and its complications need safe, effective therapy that is compatible with their coexisting medical conditions. The availability\\u000a of three licensed iron chelation drugs (one parenteral,

  15. Dietary and prophylactic iron supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kent; Eugene D. Weinberg; Patricia Stuart-Macadam

    1990-01-01

    Mild hypoferremia represents an aspect of the ability of the body to withhold iron from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa,\\u000a and from neoplastic cells. However, our iron-withholding defense system can be thwarted by practices that enhance iron overload\\u000a such as indiscriminate iron fortification of foods, medically prescribed iron supplements, alcohol ingestion, and cigarette\\u000a smoking. Elevated standards for normal levels of

  16. An Ancient Gauge for Iron

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tracey Rouault (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Molecular Medicine Program)

    2009-10-30

    The iron regulatory proteins IRP1 and IRP2 are critical to the import, export, and sequestration of iron for achievement of the cytosolic concentrations needed to support the synthesis of iron-binding proteins and for prevention of unfavorable iron-dependent oxidation events in mammalian cells. This perspective discusses reports by Vashisht et al. and Salahudeen et al. that human cells gauge cellular iron and concomitantly alter the activity of IRPs through a mechanism that depends on the protein FBXL5.

  17. Iron promotes protein insolubility and aging in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Ida M.; Schilling, Birgit; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Andersen, Julie K.; Swoboda, Peter; Killilea, David W.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Many late-onset proteotoxic diseases are accompanied by a disruption in homeostasis of metals (metallostasis) including iron, copper and zinc. Although aging is the most prominent risk factor for these disorders, the impact of aging on metallostasis and its role in proteotoxic disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether a loss of metallostasis influences normal aging. We have investigated the role of metallostasis in longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that calcium, copper, iron, and manganese levels increase as a function of age, while potassium and phosphorus levels tend to decrease. Increased dietary iron significantly accelerated the age-related accumulation of insoluble protein, a molecular pathology of aging. Proteomic analysis revealed widespread effects of dietary iron in multiple organelles and tissues. Pharmacological interventions to block accumulation of specific metals attenuated many models of proteotoxicity and extended normal lifespan. Collectively, these results suggest that a loss of metallostasis with aging contributes to age-related protein aggregation. PMID:25554795

  18. Biocompatibility studies on surgical-grade titanium-, cobalt-, and iron-base alloys.

    PubMed

    Lemons, J E; Niemann, K M; Weiss, A B

    1976-07-01

    An animal model system for the investigation of the influence of in vivo-produced metallic corrosion products upon tissues has been developed. Externally applied electrical stimulation produces the corrosion over a short period of time, and a poststimulation period is allowed for tissue stabilization. Tissue reaction adjacent to the metallic alloys shows fibrous tissue capsules and metallic corrosion product contamination. These preliminary studies show that this animal model and methodology may provide a technique for investigating long-term tissue biomaterial interactions and the influence of iron (316L), cobalt (Vitallium), and titanium (Tivanium) alloy corrosion products upon the susceptibility of tissues to various biocompatibility challenges. PMID:947918

  19. The influence of four iron oxide forms on the growth of grain sorghum seedlings

    E-print Network

    Rich, Pat Albert

    1959-01-01

    ?a ~ taken frow the sero to six-inch depth ia a field sear george West, Texas. The soil characteristics nest nearly watched those described for 6oliad sandy lean. Thc relatively high iiwe content pre- suued iron deficiency, and coarse texture were... deficiency of iron linitiag aornal chlorophyll production. The chewicals aced for the soil treataents were four differeat iron oxides, sanely, henatite, naguetite, synthetic nagnetlte, and synthetic naghewite. The sources of the hesatite aad wagaetite...

  20. Development of iron?rich rice and improvement of its absorption in humans by genetic engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lucca; J. Wünn; R. F. Hurrell; I. Potrykus

    2000-01-01

    Rice, the major food staple for most people in Southeast Asia, is characterised by a very low content of iron. Furthermore, its absorption in human is also very poor. Iron deficiency is still the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency world?wide and it has been estimated that about 1.3 billion of the world's 5.7 billion inhabitants suffer from nutritional iron deficiency anaemia.