Sample records for tissue iron content

  1. Tissue iron content in riboflavin and pyridoxine deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, J Y; Cho, Y O

    1990-06-01

    The effect of riboflavin and (or) pyridoxine deficiency and repletion on tissue iron content was studied in rats. The iron content in liver, spleen, and kidney and plasma iron concentration of riboflavin deficient (RD) rats was lower, but hematocrit was not. In pyridoxine deficient (PD) rats versus control rats, the iron content in liver was significantly higher but not in spleen and kidney. In PD rats hematocrit was lower but plasma iron concentration was not. Although combined riboflavin and pyridoxine deficient (CD) rats had lower iron content in liver and spleen compared with control rats, these values were intermediate between those of RD rats and PD rats. After RD and PD rats were repleted, the iron content in liver, spleen, and kidney returned to that of control rats, and the hematological indices were improved significantly. These results suggest that riboflavin and pyridoxine deficiency may impair the absorption and utilization of iron and may result in altered tissue iron content. PMID:15539220

  2. Obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage iron content and tissue iron distribution.

    PubMed

    Orr, Jeb S; Kennedy, Arion; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Webb, Corey D; Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M; Zhang, Yaofang; Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is accompanied by the infiltration and accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as a shift in ATM polarization. Several studies have implicated recruited M1 ATMs in the metabolic consequences of obesity; however, little is known regarding the role of alternatively activated resident M2 ATMs in AT homeostasis or how their function is altered in obesity. Herein, we report the discovery of a population of alternatively activated ATMs with elevated cellular iron content and an iron-recycling gene expression profile. These iron-rich ATMs are referred to as MFe(hi), and the remaining ATMs are referred to as MFe(lo). In lean mice, ~25% of the ATMs are MFe(hi); this percentage decreases in obesity owing to the recruitment of MFe(lo) macrophages. Similar to MFe(lo) cells, MFe(hi) ATMs undergo an inflammatory shift in obesity. In vivo, obesity reduces the iron content of MFe(hi) ATMs and the gene expression of iron importers as well as the iron exporter, ferroportin, suggesting an impaired ability to handle iron. In vitro, exposure of primary peritoneal macrophages to saturated fatty acids also alters iron metabolism gene expression. Finally, the impaired MFe(hi) iron handling coincides with adipocyte iron overload in obese mice. In conclusion, in obesity, iron distribution is altered both at the cellular and tissue levels, with AT playing a predominant role in this change. An increased availability of fatty acids during obesity may contribute to the observed changes in MFe(hi) ATM phenotype and their reduced capacity to handle iron. PMID:24130337

  3. Noninvasive assessment of skin iron content in hemodialysis patients. An index of parenchymal tissue iron content

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlaender, M.M.; Kaufman, B.; Rubinger, D.; Moreb, J.; Popovtzer, M.M.; Goredetsky, R.

    1988-07-01

    Iron overload has been described in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid, noninvasive method for determination of skin iron by the technique of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS). Thirty-five patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment entered the study and were compared with 25 normal controls. Since pathological skin iron deposition occurs mainly at the dermal-epidermal junction in the basal cells of the epidermis, measurements were made in the thenar eminence representing mainly epidermal tissue (FeE), and in the forearm representative mainly of dermis (FeD). The mean +/- SD FeE iron concentrations were equivalent to 14.5 +/- 8.8 and 18.2 +/- 10.2 parts per million wet weight tissue (ppm) and both were significantly higher than in normal controls in which they averaged 9.2 +/- 2.5 ppm (P less than 0.005) and 10.2 +/- 3.2 ppm (P less than 0.001), respectively. There was significant positive correlation between individual skin iron determinations with the total number of blood transfusions received, the rate of blood transfusion, and with serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow hemosiderin was examined in six patients and showed a similar trend. Despite correlation only with indirect indices of tissue iron, our findings suggest that DXS may serve as a reliable quick method for noninvasive estimation of nonreticuloendothelial tissue iron deposition in hemodialysis patients suspected of having transfusional iron overload. The method may be valuable in monitoring the effects of chelation therapy.

  4. Changes in tissue contents of zinc, copper and iron in rats and beagle dogs treated with polaprezinc.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, I; Shibata, K; Takei, M; Matsuda, K

    1996-08-01

    Zinc, copper and iron levels of tissues in rats or beagle dogs were measured after a 13- or 52-week toxicity study of polaprezinc, which contains a zinc element. The zinc content in almost all rat tissues remarkably increased with a conspicuous decrease of copper and various changes of iron at doses of 600 mg/kg/day or more. Zinc and copper levels increased and decreased respectively, at 300 mg/kg/day. At a dose of 150 mg/kg/day, there was a slight increase of zinc in some tissues at 52-weeks, but no copper decrease. The results obtained from beagle dogs differed somewhat from that in rats. Dogs treated with polaprezinc at 50 mg/kg/day or more accumulated zinc in some tissues. A copper decrement was seen only in the liver and heart from the group given 300 mg/kg/day, whereas copper levels in the kidney of all treated groups were higher than that in the control, suggesting that canine polaprezinc toxicity is due to direct zinc toxic effects. PMID:8887886

  5. Iron in spleen tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglierini, M.; Dekan, J.; Kopani, M.; Lancok, A.; Kohout, J.; Cieslar, M.

    2012-10-01

    This contribution aims in characterization of structural positions of iron in human and horse spleen. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was employed as a principal method of investigation in addition to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At room temperature, ferritin nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior due to their small dimensions. Corresponding Mössbauer spectra show doublet-like patterns. Experiments performed at low temperatures unveiled presence of magnetically split components and enabled to determine the blocking temperature. Dimensions of Fe-containing species were established from detailed analyses of TEM images.

  6. Iron biomineralization of brain tissue and neurodegenerative disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylova (Mikhailova), Albina

    The brain is an organ with a high concentration of iron in specific areas, particularly in the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the red nucleus. In certain pathological states, such as iron overload disease and neurodegenerative disorders, a disturbed iron metabolism can lead to increased accumulation of iron not only in these areas, but also in the brain regions that are typically low in iron content. Recent studies of the physical and magnetic properties of metalloproteins, and in particular the discovery of biogenic magnetite in human brain tissue, have raised new questions about the role of biogenic iron formations in living organisms. Further investigations revealed the presence of magnetite-like crystalline structures in human ferritin, and indicated that released ferritin iron might act as promoter of oxidative damage to tissue, therefore contributing to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. The purpose of this work was to examine the elemental composition and structure of iron deposits in normal brain tissue as well as tissue affected by neurodegenerative disorders. Employing the methods of X-ray microfocus fluorescence mapping, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (XAFS), and light and electron microscopic examinations allows one to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative data with respect to the cellular distribution and chemical state of iron at levels not detected previously. The described tissue preparation technique allows not only satisfactory XAS iron elemental imaging in situ but also multimodal examination with light and electron microscopes of the same samples. The developed protocol has assured consistent and reproducible results on relatively large sections of flat-embedded tissue. The resulting tissue samples were adequate for XAS examination as well as sufficiently well-preserved for future microscopy studies. The continued development of this technique should lead to major advances in mapping iron anomalies and the related chemical and structural information directly to cells and tissue structures in human brain tissue. At present this is done primarily by iron staining methods and any information on the relationship between iron distribution and cellular structures obtained this way is limited. Iron staining also offers no information on the specific compounds of iron that are present. This can be vitally important as the form of iron [including its oxidation state] in the human body can determine whether it plays a detrimental or beneficial role in neurophysiological processes.

  7. Bleomycin-detectable iron in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, J M; Cao, W; Chevion, M

    1991-01-01

    The normal brain contains regions with high concentrations of iron, part of which appears to be in a low molecular mass chelatable form. Iron complexes with a molecular mass of below 10,000, were measured in ultrafiltrates of homogenized gerbil brains using the bleomycin assay, and were found to average 20.5 +/- 3.5 microM (n = 8). As expected, no bleomycin detectable iron was found in the plasma of these animals. No obvious difference in the tissue levels of bleomycin-detectable iron was recorded following ischaemia and reperfusion. This is probably due to the already abundant presence of iron in the brain and the likely release of iron from protected sites due to structural damage inherent in the preparative procedures used. PMID:1712743

  8. Magnetic resonance assessment of iron overload by separate measurement of tissue ferritin and hemosiderin iron

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ed X.; Kim, Daniel; Tosti, Christina L.; Tang, Haiying; Jensen, Jens H.; Cheung, Jerry S.; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S.; Brown, Truman R.; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    With transfusional iron overload, almost all the excess iron is sequestered intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable, dispersed, soluble, ferritin iron, and as aggregated, insoluble hemosiderin iron for long-term storage. Established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of tissue iron (R2, R2*) are principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and change slowly, even with intensive iron chelation. Intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool that can change rapidly with iron chelation. We have developed a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to separately measure ferritin and hemosiderin iron, based on the non-monoexponential signal decay induced by aggregated iron in multiple-spin-echo sequences. We have initially validated the method in agarose phantoms and in human liver explants and shown the feasibility of its application in patients with thalassemia major. Measurement of tissue ferritin iron is a promising new means to rapidly evaluate the effectiveness of iron-chelating regimens. PMID:20712781

  9. Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

  10. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron increased the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in lung tissues at high altitudes. • Trolox alleviated the iron-induced histological and biochemical changes to the lungs.

  11. Increased iron (III) and total iron content in post mortem substantia nigra of parkinsonian brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sofic; P. Riederer; H. Heinsen; H. Beckmann; G. P. Reynolds; G. Hebenstreit; M. B. H. Youdim

    1988-01-01

    Summary Significant differences in the content of iron (III) and total iron were found in post mortem substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease. There was an increase of 176% in the levels of total iron and 255% of iron (III) in the substantia nigra of the parkinsonian patients compared to age matched controls. In the cortex (Brodmann area 21), hippocampus, putamen,

  12. Melanin content of hamster tissues, human tissues, and various melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.P.; Fairchild, R.G.; Slatkin, D.N.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Hannon, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    Melanin content (percentage by weight) was determined in both pigmented and nonpigmented tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma. Melanin content was also measured in various other melanoma models (B-16 in C57 mice, Harding-Passey in BALB/c mice, and KHDD in C3H mice) and in nine human melanomas, as well as in selected normal tissues. The purpose was to evaluate the possible efficacy of chlorpromazine, which is known to bind to melanin, as a vehicle for boron transport in neutron capture therapy. Successful therapy would depend upon selective uptake and absolute concentration of borated compounds in tumors; these parameters will in turn depend upon melanin concentration in melanomas and nonpigmented ''background'' tissues. Hamster whole eyes, hamster melanomas, and other well-pigmented animal melanomas were found to contain 0.3 to 0.8% melanin by weight, whereas human melanomas varied from 0.1 to 0.9% (average, 0.35%). Other tissues, with the exception of skin, were lower in content by a factor of greater than or equal to30. Melanin pigment was extracted from tissues, and the melanin content was determined spectrophotometrically. Measurements were found to be sensitive to the presence of other proteins. Previous procedures for isolating and quantifying melanin often neglected the importance of removing proteins and other interfering nonmelanic substances.

  13. Serum transferrin receptor: a quantitative measure of tissue iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Skikne, B S; Flowers, C H; Cook, J D

    1990-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of serum transferrin receptor measurements in the assessment of iron status. Repeated phlebotomies were performed in 14 normal volunteer subjects to obtain varying degrees of iron deficiency. Serial measurements of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, mean cell volume (MCV), free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), red cell mean index, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor were performed throughout the phlebotomy program. There was no change in receptor levels during the phase of storage iron depletion. When the serum ferritin level reached subnormal values there was an increase in serum receptor levels, which continued throughout the phlebotomy program. Functional iron deficiency was defined as a reduction in body iron beyond the point of depleted iron stores. The serum receptor level was a more sensitive and reliable guide to the degree of functional iron deficiency than either the FEP or MCV. Our studies indicate that the serum receptor measurement is of particular value in identifying mild iron deficiency of recent onset. The iron status of a population can be fully assessed by using serum ferritin as a measure of iron stores, serum receptor as a measure of mild tissue iron deficiency, and hemoglobin concentration as a measure of advanced iron deficiency. PMID:2331526

  14. Iron, Zinc and Copper in Selected Tissues of Rabbits under Increasing Exposure to Iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. MACIEJEWSKA-PASZEK; E. GROCHOWSKA-NIEDWOROK; M. WARDAS; M. SKIBA

    I. Maciejewska-Paszek, E. Grochowska-Niedworok, M. Wardas, M. Skiba:Iron, Zinc and Copper in Selected Tissues of Rabbits under Increasing Exposure to Iron. Acta Vet. Brno 2005, 74: 551-555. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the disturbance of zinc\\/copper balance in tissues as the possible accelerating factor of liver damage after short- and long-term exposure to high doses of iron

  15. Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

  16. The ubiquinone content of animal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Diplock, A. T.; Haslewood, G. A. D.

    1967-01-01

    1. A method was developed for the analysis of ubiquinone in animal tissues and the recovery of added ubiquinone tested in liver of the rat, Crocodylus porosus and Squalus acanthias. 2. The ubiquinone content of heart, liver and gut (or breast muscle in birds) was measured in 67 different animal species, selected to be representative of all the vertebrate classes. 3. The suggestion is advanced that the possession of appreciable amounts of endogenous tissue ubiquinone is usually characteristic of evolutionarily advanced vertebrates, and the biological and biochemical significance of the results is discussed. PMID:6058111

  17. Magnetic studies of iron-entities in human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?lawska-Waniewska, A.; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, E.; Nedelko, N.; Ga??zka-Friedman, J.; Friedman, A.

    2004-05-01

    Iron-entities in the human liver, brain and blood tissues have been investigated by means of EPR spectroscopy and magnetization measurements over the temperature range 4-300 K. The identification of the most typical forms of iron in the human body (i.e. isolated Fe-ions bonded in hemoglobin and transferrin as well as exchange coupled Fe-ions in nanosized ferritin cores) is presented.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of tissue iron overload.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Roland; Harmatz, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in non-invasive iron measurement, especially of the liver and heart, in patients with iron overload. Serum ferritin still remains an essential monitoring parameter in intervals between liver iron measurements; however, confounding factors such as inflammation, chelation treatment changes and the specific disease have to be taken into account. Liver iron measurements can now routinely be performed in clinical applications either by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the transverse magnetic relaxation rate R(2) or R(2)* (1/T(2)*) or by biomagnetic liver susceptometry. For iron measurements in the heart, the single-breathhold multi-echo MRI-R(2)* method has become a standard modality and is now applied in clinical settings beyond research studies. In other tissues like the pancreas, pituitary, and brain, different MRI methods are employed, but their clinical benefit has yet to be proven. PMID:20008201

  19. Macrophage Content in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Koska, Juraj; Francisco, Ann Marie; Scalise, Michael; Ferrante, Anthony W.; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— In severely obese individuals and patients with diabetes, accumulation and activation of macrophages in adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of obesity-associated complications, including insulin resistance. We sought to determine whether in a healthy population, adiposity, sex, age, or insulin action is associated with adipose tissue macrophage content (ATMc) and/or markers of macrophage activation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Subcutaneous ATMc from young adult Pima Indians with a wide range of adiposity (13–46% body fat, by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and insulin action (glucose disposal rate 1.6–9 mg/kg estimated metabolic body size/min, by glucose clamp) were measured. We also measured expression in adipose tissue of factors implicated in macrophage recruitment and activation to determine any association with ATMc and insulin action. RESULTS— ATMc, as assessed by immunohistochemistry (Mphi) and by macrophage-specific gene expression (CD68, CD11b, and CSF1R), were correlated with percent body fat, age, and female sex. Gene expression of CD68, CD11b, and CSF1R but not Mphi was correlated negatively with glucose disposal rate but not after adjustment for percent body fat, age, and sex. However, adipose tissue expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and CD11 antigen-like family member C (CD11c), markers produced by macrophages, were negatively correlated with adjusted glucose disposal rate (r = ?0.28, P = 0.05 and r = ?0.31, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS— ATMc is correlated with age and adiposity but not with insulin action independent of adiposity in healthy human subjects. However, PAI-1 and CD11c expression are independent predictors of insulin action, indicating a possible role for adipose tissue macrophage activation. PMID:19008342

  20. Prostaglandin content of tissue lining vascular prostheses

    SciTech Connect

    Greisler, H.P.; Kim, D.U.; Nussbaum, M.; Ellinger, J.; Schwarcz, T.H.

    1986-03-01

    This laboratory previously demonstrated arterial regeneration with a confluent endothelial-like flow surface 3-4 weeks after interposition of absorbable prostheses but not of dacron prostheses into the rabbit aorta. This study evaluates prostaglandin contents of inner capsular tissues within arterial prostheses. 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and TxB/sub 2/ were assayed (/sup 3/H-RIA) in supernatants of sonicated homogenates of tissues on the inner aspect of (a) absorbable polydioxanone (PDS), (b) absorbable polyglactin 910 (PG910), or (c) compound dacron-PG910 prostheses 3 or 6 months following implantation into rabbit aortas. Normal aortic controls from each rabbit were similarly treated. The 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ values for all groups were lower than normal controls (p < .05). The ratio 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha..//TxB/sub 2/ for PDS was nearly identical to normal aorta (1.69 +/- .54). This study shows that the quantity and ratio of eicosanoids in the inner capsular tissues is modified by the composition of the implanted arterial prosthesis.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles developed for hyperthermia is dominated by iron content

    PubMed Central

    Wabler, Michele; Zhu, Wenlian; Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Zhou, Haoming; Mihalic, Jana; Geyh, Alison; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Ivkov, Robert; Artemov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (~100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia. PMID:24773041

  2. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Jon R. (Edgewood, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shagam, Richard N. (Albuquerque, NM); Gooris, Luc (Rancho Santa Margarita, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  3. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  4. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  5. Protective effects of baicalin and quercetin on an iron-overloaded mouse: comparison of liver, kidney and heart tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Zhonghong Gao; Jiaqin Liu; Zhihong Xu

    2011-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of iron in the body can lead to organ injury. Some flavonoids which possess high affinity to iron can be used as iron chelators for curing iron overload diseases such as haemochromatosis. In this article, the effects of baicalin and quercetin on different mouse tissues (liver, kidney and heart) afflicted with iron overload-induced injury were studied. It was

  6. Effect of hemolytic and iron-deficiency anemia on intestinal absorption and tissue accumulation of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyong-Son; Iwata, Naoyuki; Tetsutikawahara, Noriko; Onosaka, Satomi; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2008-06-10

    Abnormal iron (Fe) metabolism induces iron-deficiency anemia (FeDA) and also affects body cadmium (Cd) accumulation. However, whether hemolytic anemia also affects Cd metabolism is not known. We compared the intestinal absorption and tissue accumulation of Cd after oral administration of Cd to mice with hemolytic anemia induced by treatment with phenylhydrazine (PHA mice) to that in mice with FeDA. Although the hematocrit decreased significantly in mice with either type of anemia, the Fe concentration decreased in the livers and kidneys of FeDA mice, but increased in those of PHA mice. After an oral administration with various amounts of Cd, hepatic and renal Cd concentrations significantly increased in both FeDA and PHA mice. An intraduodenal injection of Fe raised the hepatic Fe content in FeDA mice to the control level and raised the hepatic Fe content in PHA mice to 2.4 times that in control mice. Intestinal divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression increased significantly in mice with both types of anemia. These data indicate that, despite the accumulation of hepatic Fe associated with PHA, PHA also significantly increases hepatic and renal Cd accumulation according to an stimulation of intestinal DMT1 expression, as occurs in FeDA mice. This suggests that anemia may be a risk factor for Cd accumulation. PMID:18485624

  7. Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-ting; Li, Jia; Liu, Li; Hu, Nan; Jin, Shi; Liu, Can; Mei, Dan; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes is associated with elevated serum total cholesterol level and disrupted lipoprotein subfractions. The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the tissue cholesterol contents closely related to diabetic complications. Methods: Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. On d 35 after the injection, liver, heart, intestine, kidney, pancreas, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated from the rats. The content of total and free cholesterol in the tissues was determined using HPLC. The ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) protein and ApoE mRNA were measured using Western blot and QT-PCR analyses, respectively. Results: In diabetic rats, the level of free cholesterol was significantly decreased in the peripheral tissues, but significantly elevated in hippocampus, as compared with those in the control rats. Diabetic rats showed a trend of decreasing the total cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues, but significant change was only found in kidney and liver. In diabetic rats, the level of the ABCA1 protein was significantly increased in the peripheral tissues and cerebral cortex; the expression of ApoE mRNA was slightly decreased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, but the change had no statistical significance. Conclusion: Type 1 diabetes decreases the free cholesterol content in the peripheral tissues and increases the free cholesterol content in hippocampus. The decreased free cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues may be partly due to the increased expression of the ABCA1 protein. PMID:22705727

  8. Changes of calcium and iron contents in the blood serum of pregnant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsiuri Eradze; Tamar Vardosanidze; Eka Zaridze; Tea Bolkvadze

    In Georgia, on the grave social-economic background, rate of iron deficiency anemia is markedly increased in children and adults. Proceeding from the aforesaid, complex study of calcium and iron contents in the blood serum of pregnant has been considered as a topical. Owing to our investigations, indices of iron and calcium deficiency in pregnant, according to gestation period, has been

  9. A General Map of Iron Metabolism and Tissue-specific Subnetworks

    PubMed Central

    Hower, Valerie; Mendes, Pedro; Torti, Frank M.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Akman, Steven; Shulaev, Vladmir; Torti, Suzy V.

    2009-01-01

    Iron is required for survival of mammalian cells. Recently, understanding of iron metabolism and trafficking has increased dramatically, revealing a complex, interacting network largely unknown just a few years ago. This provides an excellent model for systems biology development and analysis. The first step in such an analysis is the construction of a structural network of iron metabolism, which we present here. This network was created using CellDesigner version 3.5.2 and includes reactions occurring in mammalian cells of numerous tissue types. The iron metabolic network contains 151 chemical species and 107 reactions and transport steps. Starting from this general model, we construct iron networks for specific tissues and cells that are fundamental to maintaining body iron homeostasis. We include subnetworks for cells of the intestine and liver, tissues important in iron uptake and storage, respectively; as well as the reticulocyte and macrophage, key cells in iron utilization and recycling. The addition of kinetic information to our structural network will permit the simulation of iron metabolism in different tissues as well as in health and disease. PMID:19381358

  10. The iron content and ferritin contribution in fresh, dried, and toasted nori, Pyropia yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro; Yamamoto, Ami; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Iron is one of the essential trace elements for humans. In this study, the iron contents in fresh, dried, and toasted nori (Pyropia yezoensis) were analyzed. The mean iron content of fresh, dried, and toasted nori were 19.0, 22.6, and 26.2 mg/100 g (dry weight), respectively. These values were superior to other food of plant origin. Furthermore, most of the iron in nori was maintained during processing, such as washing, drying, and toasting. Then, the form of iron in fresh, dried, and toasted nori was analyzed. As a result, an iron storage protein ferritin contributed to iron storage in raw and dried nori, although the precise rate of its contribution is yet to be determined, while ferritin protein cage was degraded in the toasted nori. It is the first report that verified the ferritin contribution to iron storage in such edible macroalgae with commercial importance. PMID:25315337

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of cementite content in steel and white cast iron using inductive Barkhausen noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Altpeter

    1996-01-01

    A nondestructive testing method for the determination of the cementite content in iron-carbon steel and white cast iron is presented. The method is based on micromagnetic measuring parameters derived from inductive Barkhausen noise measurements taken under room temperature and with temperatures above the Curie temperature. The influence of different cementite contents and cementite modifications on the micromagnetic measuring quantities for

  12. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  13. Polymorphisms in calpastatin and mu-calpain genes are associated with beef iron content.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Duan, Q; Schneider, M J; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Reecy, J M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers in the calpastatin and mu-calpain loci with iron in beef cattle muscle. The population consisted of 259 cross-bred steers from Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford and Angus sires. Total iron and heme iron concentrations were measured. Markers in the calpastatin (referred to as CAST) and mu-calpain (referred to as CAPN4751) genes were used to assess their association with iron levels. The mean and standard error for iron and heme iron content in the population was 35.6 ± 1.3 ?g and 27.1 ± 1.4 ?g respectively. Significant associations (P < 0.01) of markers were observed for both iron and heme iron content. For CAST, animals with the CC genotype had higher levels of iron and heme iron in longissimus dorsi muscle. For CAPN4751, individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of iron and heme iron than did animals with the CC and CT genotypes. Genotypes known to be associated with tougher meat were associated with higher levels of iron concentration. PMID:24303986

  14. Tissue fusion bursting pressure and the role of tissue water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezo, James; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Tissue fusion is a complex, poorly understood process which bonds collagenous tissues together using heat and pressure. The goal of this study is to elucidate the role of hydration in bond efficacy. Hydration of porcine splenic arteries (n=30) was varied by pre-fusion treatments: 24-48 hour immersion in isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic baths. Treated arteries were fused in several locations using Conmed's Altrus thermal fusion device and the bursting pressure was then measured for each fused segment. Artery sections were then weighed before and after lyophilization, to quantify water content. Histology (HE, EVG staining) enabled visualization of the bonding interface. Bursting pressure was significantly greater (p=4.17 E-ll) for the hypotonic group (607.6 +/- 83.2mmHg), while no significant difference existed between the isotonic (332.6 +/- 44.7mmHg) and hypertonic (348.7 +/- 44.0mmHg) treatment groups. Total water content varied (p=8.80 E-24) from low water content in the hypertonic samples (72.5% weight +/- 0.9), to high water content in the hypotonic samples (83.1% weight +/- 1.9), while the isotonic samples contained 78.8% weight +/- 1.1. Strength differences between the treated vessels imply that bound water driven from the tissue during fusion may reveal available collagen crosslinking sites to facilitate bond formation during the fusion process. Thus when the tissue contains greater bound water volumes, more crosslinking sites may become available during fusion, leading to a stronger bond. This study provides an important step towards understanding the chemistry underlying tissue fusion and the mechanics of tissue fusion as a function of bound water within the tissue.

  15. Increased iron content in rat myocardium after 5-fluorouracil chronic administration.

    PubMed

    Millart, H; Kantelip, J P; Platonoff, N; Descous, I; Trenque, T; Lamiable, D; Choisy, H

    1993-01-01

    The isovolumic perfused rat heart model according to Langendorff has been used in order to characterize the changes occurring in the heart following 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) administration. Preliminary published data pointed out that perfusion of isolated heart with 1 mg/l 5-FU failed to show any differences in contractility and oxygen consumption in comparison with the control group. However, when Wistar rats received 5-FU once a day (50 mg/kg, I.P.) for five consecutive days a consistent increase in oxygen consumption throughout the 80 min of perfusion associated with a decrease in the fractional extraction of oxygen and a lowered + dP/dt max were observed, without any drug added during the in vitro perfusion. Further investigation has been performed for a better understanding of the results observed after 5-FU pretreatment. Magnesium, potassium, calcium, copper and iron contents in the myocardium (at 0 min of perfusion) were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Iron levels were 20% higher in the 5-FU pretreated group than in the control group, whereas as no differences were observed for the other elemental concentrations. Both initial glycogen and ATP contents were respectively 42% and 29% higher in the pretreated than in the control group and alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase release was lower after 40 min of perfusion in the pretreated group. However, 5-FU pretreatment increased net tissue water gain after 80 min of perfusion. Increases in mean oxygen partial pressure in the myocardium and in oxygen consumption associated with increased iron level might be candidates responsible for 5-FU induced cardiotoxicity through an increased in oxygen derived free radicals. Sympathetic over-stimulation or calcium overload do not appear to be involved in 5-FU induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:8317911

  16. Development and optimization of tissue preparative methodology for DNA content analysis of soft tissue neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zalupski, M M; Ryan, J R; Ensley, J F; Maciorowski, Z; Pietraszkiewicz, H; Hussein, M E; Kukuruga, M; Sundareson, A S; Baker, L H

    1993-11-01

    Data regarding DNA content parameters in soft tissue sarcoma is limited. Development and optimization of tissue specific preparative techniques for DNA flow cytometry was undertaken prior to routine DNA content analysis of soft tissue neoplasms; 154 soft tissue tumors were studied. Dissociation dependent differences in cellular yields, viabilities, maintenance of DNA aneuploid populations, coefficients of variation, and DNA index supported the need for these developmental studies. Fifty-six of eighty-nine patients had DNA aneuploid soft tissue sarcomas. A relationship between DNA aneuploidy and grade was seen in this series with 38% with low grade, 59% with moderate grade, and 69% with high grade tumors demonstrating DNA aneuploid populations (P < 0.005). The mean S-phase fraction for DNA diploid and aneuploid sarcomas was 7.2% and 13.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). When classified by histologic grade of the primary tumor, a greater percentage of metastatic lesions were DNA aneuploid (4 of 7 grade 2 lesions, and 15 of 16 grade 3 lesions). Decreases in cellular yields and rate of DNA aneuploidy were observed in a subgroup of patients with localized high grade sarcoma treated preoperatively, as compared to patients treated with initial surgery. Prospective correlation of DNA content parameters to prognosis and response to cytotoxic therapy are now possible and are ongoing. PMID:8287735

  17. Cytosolic aconitase activity sustains adipogenic capacity of adipose tissue connecting iron metabolism and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, María; Ortega, Francisco; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Moreno-Navarrete, José María

    2015-04-01

    To gain insight into the regulation of intracellular iron homeostasis in adipose tissue, we investigated the role of iron regulatory protein 1/cytosolic aconitase 1 (ACO1). ACO1 gene expression and activity increased in parallel to expression of adipogenic genes during differentiation of both murine 3T3-L1 cells and human preadipocytes. Lentiviral knockdown (KD) of Aco1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes led to diminished cytosolic aconitase activity and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP(+)), soluble (Idh1) mRNA levels, decreased intracellular NADPH:NADP ratio, and impaired adipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Aco1 KD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased lipogenic, Idh1, Adipoq, and Glut4 gene expression. A bidirectional cross-talk was found between intracellular iron levels and ACO1 gene expression and protein activity. Although iron in excess, known to increase reactive oxygen species production, and iron depletion both resulted in decreased ACO1 mRNA levels and activity, Aco1 KD led to reduced gene expression of transferrin receptor (Tfrc) and transferrin, disrupting intracellular iron uptake. In agreement with these findings, in 2 human independent cohorts (n = 85 and n = 38), ACO1 gene expression was positively associated with adipogenic markers in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. ACO1 gene expression was also positively associated with the gene expression of TFRC while negatively linked to ferroportin (solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1) mRNA levels. Altogether, these results suggest that ACO1 activity is required for the normal adipogenic capacity of adipose tissue by connecting iron, energy metabolism, and adipogenesis.-Moreno, M., Ortega, F., Xifra, G., Ricart, W., Fernández-Real, J. M., Moreno-Navarrete, J. M. Cytosolic aconitase activity sustains adipogenic capacity of adipose tissue connecting iron metabolism and adipogenesis. PMID:25550467

  18. Clinical utility of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the diagnosis of iron deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E. Mast; Morey A. Blinder; Qing Lu; Sherri Flax; Dennis J. Dietzen

    2002-01-01

    Determination of the reticulocyte hemoglo- bin content (CHr) provides an early measure of functional iron deficiency because reticu- locytes are the earliest erythrocytes re- leased into blood and circulate for only 1 to 2 days. The CHr in 78 patients undergoing bone marrow examination was measured to assess its clinical utility for the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Twenty-eight patients were

  19. Genetic parameters for haemoglobin levels in pigs and iron content in pork.

    PubMed

    Hermesch, S; Jones, R M

    2012-12-01

    Genetic parameters were obtained for iron content in m. longissimus dorsi (2255 records) and haemoglobin levels recorded at 5 (4974 records) and 21 (2405 records) weeks of age in two sire lines from September 2009 until January 2011. The measure of iron in pork was the mean of two replicates. Genetic associations of haematological traits with meat quality traits (2255 records), as well as growth rate and backfat (close to 60 000 records), were estimated. Analyses were based on an animal model using residual maximum likelihood procedures. Iron content in pork was moderately heritable (0.34 ± 0.07) and genetic correlations with haemoglobin measures ranged from 0.39 ± 0.24 to 0.58 ± 0.13, indicating their potential use as selection criteria for increasing iron levels in pork. However, heritabilities for haemoglobin levels were low, ranging from 0.04 ± 0.2 to 0.18 ± 0.04. Procedures to measure haemoglobin on farm may require refinement. Redness of pork, quantified by a* value, had high genetic correlations with iron content (0.90 ± 0.04 to 0.94 ± 0.03) and moderate genetic correlations with haemoglobin levels (0.31 ± 0.22 to 0.55 ± 0.15). Iron content had significant genetic associations with L* measures (-0.61 ± 0.14 to -0.54 ± 0.23), b* value (0.60 ± 0.14 for dorsal b* measure, 0.50 ± 0.15 for average of dorsal and ventral b* measures) and pH at 45 min post mortem (-0.42 ± 0.14). These high genetic correlations between colour measurements and iron content in pork provide further avenues for selection strategies to improve iron content in pork. Current selection practices are not expected to affect iron content in pork, as no significant genetic correlations between performance and haematological traits were found. PMID:23031184

  20. Tissue distribution and clearance kinetics of non-transferrin-bound iron in the hypotransferrinemic mouse: a rodent model for hemochromatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Craven; J. Alexander; M. Eldridge; J. P. Kushner; S. Bernstein; J. Kaplan

    1987-01-01

    Genetically hypotransferrinemic mice accumulate iron in the liver and pancreas. A similar pattern of tissue iron accumulation occurs in humans with hereditary hemochromatosis. In both disorders, there is a decrease plasma concentration of apotransferrin. To test the hypothesis that nontransferrin-bound iron exists and is clear by the parenchymal tissues, the tissue distribution of ⁵⁹Fe was studied in animals lacking apotransferrin.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2* for tissue iron assessment in the heart

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, even in Europe and the US, iron induced cardiomyopathy was the most common cause of death for patients with thalassemia major (TM). In order to prevent deaths from this potentially reversible condition, accurate measurement of myocardial iron is needed to detect iron early and guide chelation therapy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T2* is the method of choice for the assessment of cardiac iron and in the UK, where it was first introduced clinically, 60% reductions in overall mortality for TM have been observed. The history of T2* development is described in this article. T2* image acquisition and post processing techniques are reviewed. Remaining challenges and emerging techniques to potentially improve characterization of tissue iron are also discussed. PMID:25392825

  2. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

  3. Desferrithiocin analogue iron chelators: iron clearing efficiency, tissue distribution, and renal toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Bergeron; Jan Wiegand; Neelam Bharti; James S. McManis; Shailendra Singh

    2011-01-01

    The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged\\u000a metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4?-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure–activity relationship studies\\u000a have established that

  4. Cerebellar pathology in Friedreich's ataxia: Atrophied dentate nuclei with normal iron content

    PubMed Central

    Solbach, K.; Kraff, O.; Minnerop, M.; Beck, A.; Schöls, L.; Gizewski, E.R.; Ladd, M.E.; Timmann, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Friedreich's ataxia (FA) the genetically decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin leads to disturbance of the mitochondrial iron metabolism. Within the cerebellum the dentate nuclei (DN) are primarily affected. Histopathological studies show atrophy and accumulation of mitochondrial iron in DN. Dentate iron content has been suggested as a biomarker to measure the effects of siderophores/antioxidant treatment of FA. We assessed the iron content and the volume of DN in FA patients and controls based on ultra-high-field MRI (7 Tesla) images. Methods Fourteen FA patients (mean age 38.1 yrs) and 14 age- and gender-matched controls participated. Multi-echo gradient echo and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequences were acquired on a 7 T whole-body scanner. For comparison SWI images were acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Volumes of the DN and cerebellum were assessed at 7 and 1.5 T, respectively. Parametric maps of T2 and T2* sequences were created and proton transverse relaxation rates were estimated as a measure of iron content. Results In FA, the DN and the cerebellum were significantly smaller compared to controls. However, proton transverse relaxation rates of the DN were not significantly different between both groups. Conclusions Applying in vivo MRI methods we could demonstrate significant atrophy of the DN in the presence of normal iron content. The findings suggest that relaxation rates are not reliable biomarkers in clinical trials evaluating the potential effect of FA therapy. PMID:25379420

  5. Iron levels change in larval Heliothis virescens tissues following baculovirus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and 59Fe radiotracers were used to investigate changes in levels of iron (Fe) in the tissues of Heliothis virescens following baculovirus infection. Fe concentrations were determined by ICP-MS in hemolymph collected from 4th instar larvae infect...

  6. Magnetic poly(?-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrates for advanced bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gloria, A.; Russo, T.; D'Amora, U.; Zeppetelli, S.; D'Alessandro, T.; Sandri, M.; Bañobre-López, M.; Piñeiro-Redondo, Y.; Uhlarz, M.; Tampieri, A.; Rivas, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Dediu, V. A.; Ambrosio, L.; De Santis, R.

    2013-01-01

    In biomedicine, magnetic nanoparticles provide some attractive possibilities because they possess peculiar physical properties that permit their use in a wide range of applications. The concept of magnetic guidance basically spans from drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment of tumours, to tissue engineering, such as magneto-mechanical stimulation/activation of cell constructs and mechanosensitive ion channels, magnetic cell-seeding procedures, and controlled cell proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop fully biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite substrates for bone tissue engineering by embedding iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles in a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix. X-ray diffraction analyses enabled the demonstration that the phase composition and crystallinity of the magnetic FeHA were not affected by the process used to develop the nanocomposite substrates. The mechanical characterization performed through small punch tests has evidenced that inclusion of 10 per cent by weight of FeHA would represent an effective reinforcement. The inclusion of nanoparticles also improves the hydrophilicity of the substrates as evidenced by the lower values of water contact angle in comparison with those of neat PCL. The results from magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic character of the nanocomposite substrates, indicated by a very low coercive field, a saturation magnetization strictly proportional to the FeHA content and a strong history dependence in temperature sweeps. Regarding the biological performances, confocal laser scanning microscopy and AlamarBlue assay have provided qualitative and quantitative information on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and viability/proliferation, respectively, whereas the obtained ALP/DNA values have shown the ability of the nanocomposite substrates to support osteogenic differentiation. PMID:23303218

  7. DNA content parameters of paraffin-embedded soft tissue sarcomas: optimization of retrieval technique and comparison to fresh tissue.

    PubMed

    Zalupski, M M; Maciorowski, Z; Ryan, J R; Ensley, J F; Hussein, M E; Sundareson, A S; Baker, L H

    1993-01-01

    DNA content analysis of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue permits determination of the influence of DNA content on the prognosis in cohorts of patients for whom the clinical outcome is known. Of key importance in such an analysis is the accuracy of DNA content determination. Variations in the quality of DNA histograms from FFPE tissues of different types prompted a comparative evaluation of the preparative methodology of FFPE soft tissue sarcomas for DNA flow cytometry. Following deparaffination and rehydration of fixed tissue, and prior to fluorochrome staining, tissue blocks of 15 DNA aneuploid soft tissue sarcomas were subjected to repeated experimental (time x concentration) enzyme exposures. The goal of these studies was to define the optimal tissue specific retrieval technique with the coefficient of variation, maintenance of DNA aneuploidy, and DNA index as endpoints. After optimizing the technique, the DNA content of 50 soft tissue neoplasms derived from FFPE specimens was compared to the corresponding fresh surgical tissue. The observed 14 percent error rate in the determination of DNA ploidy status suggest limited utility for FFPE tissue in prospective therapeutic trials of soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:8472609

  8. Hematological and iron content evolution in exclusively breastfed late-preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Renato Takeshi; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the evolution of hematological parameters and body iron content between exclusively breastfed late-preterm and term newborns during the first two months of life. METHODS: Cohort study. Weight, length, head circumference, body mass index, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum iron and ferritin were measured in 25 late-preterm and 21 term newborns (at birth and at one and two months of age) who were exclusively breastfed. Statistical analysis: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test; and Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Significance: p<0.05. RESULTS: The corrected gestational ages of the late-preterm infants were 39.98 weeks at one month of life and 44.53 weeks at two months. Anthropometric measures and the body mass index increased over time (p<0.001) and hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes and body iron content decreased (p<0.001). Late-preterm infants at term corrected gestational age had reduced hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte concentrations, and reduced total iron-binding capacity (p<0.001) and serum iron (p?=?0.0034) compared with values observed in term newborns at birth. Late-preterm newborns at a corrected gestational age of one month post-term had hemoglobin (p?=?0.0002), hematocrit (p?=?0.0008), iron (p<0.0001) and transferrin saturation (p<0.001) levels lower than those of term newborns at one month of age and a higher total iron-binding capacity (p?=?0.0018). Ferritin did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Exclusively breastfed late-preterm newborns presented greater reductions in hemoglobin/hematocrit and lower iron stores at a corrected gestational age of one month post-term than did term newborns, suggesting specific iron supplementation needs. PMID:25627989

  9. Iron-induced tissue damage and cancer: the role of reactive oxygen species-free radicals.

    PubMed

    Okada, S

    1996-05-01

    Oxygen is poisonous, but we cannot live without it. The high oxidizing potential of oxygen molecules (dioxygen) is a valuable source of energy for the organism and its reactivity is low; that is, spin forbidden. However, the dioxygen itself is a 'free radical' and, especially in the presence of transition metals, it is a major promoter of radical reactions in the cell. Humans survive only by virtue of their elaborate defense mechanisms against oxygen toxicity. Iron is the most abundant transition metal in the human body. Because iron shows wide variation in redox potential with different co-ordination ligands, it may be used as a redox intermediate in many biological mechanism. However, it is precisely this redox activeness that makes iron a key participant in free radical production. The current research on the relationship between iron and cancer is briefly reviewed. Research results are reported here which indicate that iron, when bound to certain ligands, can cause free-radical mediated tissue damage and become carcinogenic. The present study also suggests that iron may also have a significant role in spontaneous human cancer. PMID:8809878

  10. [Effect of technological processes and supplementation on the mineral content and iron availability in vitro in vegetable mixtures].

    PubMed

    Armada de Romano, M; Adamo, C

    1987-06-01

    Iron, calcium, zinc and phytic acid contents in vegetable blends from wheat, corn and soy were determined. Wheat and corn substitution with soy in compound products, gave an important amount of iron and calcium to the blends, while the initial content of phytic acid in wheat and corn was not significantly modified. Dehulling and enzymatic inactivation technological processes denoted a rather low influence on soy mineral content. In a similar way, the extrusion-cooking process did not affect appreciably the soluble iron content in blends. Soy incorporation greatly decreased in vitro iron availability in vegetable blends, while fortification with mineral blends slightly interfered, decreasing iron availability with regard to iron-fortified vegetable blends. PMID:3455188

  11. Electrochemical ferrate generation for waste water treatment using cast irons with high silicon contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Lescuras-Darrou; F. Lapicque; G. Valentin

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical preparation of ferrate in 15 M NaOH media, with a view to treatment of waste waters. Grey cast irons with high silicon contents were shown to allow current yields in the range 20–40% depending on the applied current density, up to 34 mA cm-2. Ferrate solutions with contents up to 0.08 M could be

  12. EFFECTS OF IRON CONTENT IN COAL COMBUSTION FLY ASHES ON SPECIATION OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effects of iron content in coal combustion fly ashes on speciation of mercury. (NOTE: The chemical form of mercury species in combustion flue gases is an important influence on the control of mercury emissions from coal combustion). The study focused on th...

  13. The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Schneider, Giulia; Salomé, Murielle; Schneider, Manuela; Calligaro, Carla; Kiskinova, Maya; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Asbestos toxicity is ascribed to its particular physico-chemical characteristics, and one of them is the presence of and ability to adsorb iron, which may cause an alteration of iron homeostasis in the tissue. This observational study reports a combination of advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and micro-spectroscopic methods that provide correlative morphological and chemical information for shedding light on iron mobilization features during asbestos permanence in lung tissue. The results show that the processes responsible for the unusual distribution of iron at different stages of interaction with the fibres also involve calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It has been confirmed that the dominant iron form present in asbestos bodies is ferritin, while the concurrent presence of haematite suggests alteration of iron chemistry during asbestos body permanence. PMID:23350030

  14. The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Schneider, Giulia; Salomé, Murielle; Schneider, Manuela; Calligaro, Carla; Kiskinova, Maya; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Asbestos toxicity is ascribed to its particular physico-chemical characteristics, and one of them is the presence of and ability to adsorb iron, which may cause an alteration of iron homeostasis in the tissue. This observational study reports a combination of advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and micro-spectroscopic methods that provide correlative morphological and chemical information for shedding light on iron mobilization features during asbestos permanence in lung tissue. The results show that the processes responsible for the unusual distribution of iron at different stages of interaction with the fibres also involve calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It has been confirmed that the dominant iron form present in asbestos bodies is ferritin, while the concurrent presence of haematite suggests alteration of iron chemistry during asbestos body permanence. PMID:23350030

  15. Iron Overload Favors the Elimination of Leishmania infantum from Mouse Tissues through Interaction with Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Gomes-Pereira, Sandra; Teixeira, Carlos Miguel; Rosa, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno; Tomás, Ana; Appelberg, Rui; Gomes, Maria Salomé

    2013-01-01

    Iron plays a central role in host-parasite interactions, since both intervenients need iron for survival and growth, but are sensitive to iron-mediated toxicity. The host's iron overload is often associated with susceptibility to infection. However, it has been previously reported that iron overload prevented the growth of Leishmania major, an agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in BALB/c mice. In order to further clarify the impact of iron modulation on the growth of Leishmania in vivo, we studied the effects of iron supplementation or deprivation on the growth of L. infantum, the causative agent of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis, in the mouse model. We found that dietary iron deficiency did not affect the protozoan growth, whereas iron overload decreased its replication in the liver and spleen of a susceptible mouse strain. The fact that the iron-induced inhibitory effect could not be seen in mice deficient in NADPH dependent oxidase or nitric oxide synthase 2 suggests that iron eliminates L. infantum in vivo through the interaction with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Iron overload did not significantly alter the mouse adaptive immune response against L. infantum. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of iron towards L. infantum was also observed, in a dose dependent manner, in axenic cultures of promastigotes and amastigotes. Importantly, high iron concentrations were needed to achieve such effects. In conclusion, externally added iron synergizes with the host's oxidative mechanisms of defense in eliminating L. infantum from mouse tissues. Additionally, the direct toxicity of iron against Leishmania suggests a potential use of this metal as a therapeutic tool or the further exploration of iron anti-parasitic mechanisms for the design of new drugs. PMID:23459556

  16. Serum Lipids and Tissue DNA Content in Egyptian Female Breast Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid Ahmed Abu-Bedair; Basiouny Ahmed El-Gamal; Nagi Ali Ibrahim; Abdelbaset Anwer El-Aaser

    Background: Several clinical studies suggest the prognostic significance of serum lipid levels and tissue DNA content in breast cancer. In the course of investigating the biological features of this disease among Egyptian female patients, we examined the serum lipid levels and tissue DNA content of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Methods: Levels of total lipid, total cholesterol, and triglycerides

  17. Tumour Cell Labelling by Magnetic Nanoparticles with Determination of Intracellular Iron Content and Spatial Distribution of the Intracellular Iron

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Magnetically labelled cells are used for in vivo cell tracking by MRI, used for the clinical translation of cell-base therapies. Studies involving magnetic labelled cells may include separation of labelled cells, targeted delivery and controlled release of drugs, contrast enhanced MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for the in situ ablation of tumours. Dextran-coated super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) ferumoxides are used clinically as an MR contrast agents primarily for hepatic imaging. The material is also widely used for in vitro cell labelling, as are other SPIO-based particles. Our results on the uptake by human cancer cell lines of ferumoxides indicate that electroporation in the presence of protamine sulphate (PS) results in rapid high uptake of SPIO nanoparticles (SPIONs) by parenchymal tumour cells without significant impairment of cell viability. Quantitative determination of cellular iron uptake performed by colorimetric assay is in agreement with data from the literature. These results on intracellular iron content together with the intracellular distribution of SPIONs by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) following in vitro uptake by parenchymal tumour cells confirm the potential of this technique for clinical tumour cell detection and destruction. PMID:23624604

  18. Mapping and prediction of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.

  19. Clinical Significance of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Karagülle, Mustafa; Gündüz, Eren; ?ahin Mutlu, Fezan; Olga Akay, Meltem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to compare it with other conventional iron parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 female patients with IDA (serum hemoglobin <120 g/L and serum ferritin <20 ng/ mL) and 18 female patients with iron deficiency (serum hemoglobin > 120 g/L and serum ferritin <20 ng/mL) were enrolled. Results: CHr was 24.95±3.92 pg in female patients with IDA and 29.93±2.96 pg in female patients with iron deficiency. CHr showed a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, and transferrin saturation and a significant negative correlation with transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. The cut-off value of CHr for detecting IDA was 29 pg. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that CHr is a useful parameter that can be confidently used in the diagnosis of IDA, and a CHr cut-off value of 29 pg predicts IDA. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385778

  20. Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats

    E-print Network

    Edgar, Susan Elaine

    1986-01-01

    MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SU S AN ELA I NE EDGAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Nutrition MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYS ICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SUSAN ELAINE EDGAR Approved as to style and content by: 'KAREN...

  1. Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

  2. Effects of ferrous sulphate and non-ionic iron-polymaltose complex on markers of oxidative tissue damage in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E RICHSEN

    SUMMARY Background: Iron deficiency is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Oral iron therapy may reinforce intestinal tissue injury by catalyzing produc- tion of reactive oxygen species. Aim: To compare the effects of ferrous sulphate and non- ionic iron-polymaltose complex on markers of oxidative tissue damage and clinical disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Forty-one patients

  3. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  4. Tissue distribution and clearance kinetics of non-transferrin-bound iron in the hypotransferrinemic mouse: a rodent model for hemochromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, C.M.; Alexander, J.; Eldridge, M.; Kushner, J.P.; Bernstein, S.; Kaplan, J.

    1987-05-01

    Genetically hypotransferrinemic mice accumulate iron in the liver and pancreas. A similar pattern of tissue iron accumulation occurs in humans with hereditary hemochromatosis. In both disorders, there is a decrease plasma concentration of apotransferrin. To test the hypothesis that nontransferrin-bound iron exists and is clear by the parenchymal tissues, the tissue distribution of /sup 59/Fe was studied in animals lacking apotransferrin. Two groups of animals were used: normal rats and mice whose transferrin had been saturated by an intravenous injection of nonradiolabeled iron, and mice with congential hypotransferrinemia. In control animals, injected /sup 59/Fe was found primarily in the bone marrow and spleen. In the transferrin iron-saturated animals, injected /sup 59/Fe accumulated in the liver and pancreas. Gastrointestinally absorbed iron in hypotransferrinemic or transferrin iron-saturated mice was deposited in the liver. This indicates that newly absorbed iron is released from mucosal cells not bound to transferrin. Clearance studies demonstrated that transferrin-bound /sup 59/Fe was removed from the circulation of rats with a half-time of 50 min. In transferrin iron-saturated animals, injected /sup 59/Fe was removed with a half-time of <30 s. Analysis of the distribution of /sup 59/Fe in serum samples by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of /sup 59/Fe not bound to transferrin. These results demonstrate the existence of and uptake system for non-transferrin-bound iron. These observations support the hypothesis that parenchymal iron overload is consequence of reduced concentrations of apotransferrin.

  5. Tracking Injectable Microspheres in Dynamic Tissues With Encapsulated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticlesa

    PubMed Central

    Franklin-Ford, Travelle; Shah, Nehal; Leiferman, Ellen; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Raval, Amish; Vanderby, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Trackable spheres of similar size to those typically used for sustained protein delivery are prepared by incorporating superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles into the core of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. The visibility of injections in static and temporally in dynamic tissue systems is demonstrated. This method improves upon other, less sensitive imaging modalities in their ability to track injectable delivery systems. The results obtained confirm the localization of microspheres to the injected target area and highlight the novelty of tracking delivery vehicles for other applications. PMID:23124987

  6. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles by biocompatible polymers for tissue imaging and targeting.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Park, In-Kyu; Cho, Chong-Su

    2013-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are excellent MR contrast agents when coated with biocompatible polymers such as hydrophilic synthetic polymers, proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, which improve their stability and biocompatibility and reduce their aggregation. Various biocompatible materials, coated or conjugated with targeting moieties such as galactose, mannose, folic acid, antibodies and RGD, have been applied to SPION surfaces to provide tissue specificity to hepatocytes, macrophages, and tumor regions in order to reduce non-specific uptake and improve biocompatibility. This review discusses the recent progress in the development of biocompatible and hydrophilic polymers for improving stability of SPIONs and describes the carbohydrates based biocompatible materials that are providing SPIONs with cell/tissue specificity as ligands. PMID:23528431

  7. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Mary H.; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-?FeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem ‘tissue fixation’ by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB ? O2 > ?O2 ? +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

  8. A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P; Goodwin, Mark B; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C

    2014-01-22

    The persistence of original soft tissues in Mesozoic fossil bone is not explained by current chemical degradation models. We identified iron particles (goethite-?FeO(OH)) associated with soft tissues recovered from two Mesozoic dinosaurs, using transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction and Fe micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Iron chelators increased fossil tissue immunoreactivity to multiple antibodies dramatically, suggesting a role for iron in both preserving and masking proteins in fossil tissues. Haemoglobin (HB) increased tissue stability more than 200-fold, from approximately 3 days to more than two years at room temperature (25°C) in an ostrich blood vessel model developed to test post-mortem 'tissue fixation' by cross-linking or peroxidation. HB-induced solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances preservation as follows: HB + O2 > HB - O2 > -O2 > +O2. The well-known O2/haeme interactions in the chemistry of life, such as respiration and bioenergetics, are complemented by O2/haeme interactions in the preservation of fossil soft tissues. PMID:24285202

  9. Analysis of neurotransmitter tissue content of Drosophila melanogaster in different life stages.

    PubMed

    Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-21

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  10. Near-infrared excited state dynamics of melanins: the effects of iron content, photo-damage, chemical oxidation, and aggregate size.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Mary Jane; Wilson, Jesse W; Robles, Francisco E; Dall, Christopher P; Glass, Keely; Simon, John D; Warren, Warren S

    2014-02-13

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin's pump-probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump-probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin's pump-probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump-probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported "activation" of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

  11. Near-Infrared Excited State Dynamics of Melanins: The Effects of Iron Content, Photo-Damage, Chemical Oxidation, and Aggregate Size

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast pump–probe measurements can discriminate the two forms of melanin found in biological tissue (eumelanin and pheomelanin), which may be useful for diagnosing and grading melanoma. However, recent work has shown that bound iron content changes eumelanin’s pump–probe response, making it more similar to that of pheomelanin. Here we record the pump–probe response of these melanins at a wider range of wavelengths than previous work and show that with shorter pump wavelengths the response crosses over from being dominated by ground-state bleaching to being dominated by excited-state absorption. The crossover wavelength is different for each type of melanin. In our analysis, we found that the mechanism by which iron modifies eumelanin’s pump–probe response cannot be attributed to Raman resonances or differences in melanin aggregation and is more likely caused by iron acting to broaden the unit spectra of individual chromophores in the heterogeneous melanin aggregate. We analyze the dependence on optical intensity, finding that iron-loaded eumelanin undergoes irreversible changes to the pump–probe response after intense laser exposure. Simultaneously acquired fluorescence data suggest that the previously reported “activation” of eumelanin fluorescence may be caused in part by the dissociation of metal ions or the selective degradation of iron-containing melanin. PMID:24446774

  12. Cholesterol content of longissmus and semimembranosus muscles and associated adipose tissues from beef, pork and lamb

    E-print Network

    Dohmann, Sharon Sue

    1988-01-01

    by cooking treatment of steaks and chopsa b. 24 4. Cholesterol content of raw and cooked muscle tissue as stratified by fat trim level of steaks and chopsa b. 27 5. Cholesterol content of raw and cooked muscle tissue as stratified by species of steaks... cuts lowers cholesterol in raw and cooked treatments. The amount of fat trim for pork and lamb in the retail market has not been established. In this project, all three species had the same trim level, and differences in cholesterol content among...

  13. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  14. Simultaneous Field and R2* Mapping to Quantify Liver Iron Content Using Autoregressive Moving Average Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brian A.; Loeffler, Ralf B.; Song, Ruitian; McCarville, Mary E.; Hankins, Jane S.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of a complex multi-gradient echo (mGRE) acquisition and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for simultaneous susceptibility and R2* measurements for the assessment of liver iron content (LIC) in patients with iron overload. Materials and Methods Fifty MR exams with magnitude and phase mGRE images are processed using the ARMA model which provides fat-separated field maps, R2* maps, and T1-W imaging. The LIC is calculated by measuring the susceptibility between the liver and the right transverse abdominal muscle from the field maps. The relationship between LIC derived from susceptibility measurements and LIC from R2* measurements is determined using linear least squares regression analysis. Results LIC measured from R2* is highly correlated to the LIC from the susceptibility method (mg/g dry = 8.99 ± 0.15 × (mg Fe/ml of wet liver) ?2.38 ± 0.29, R2=0.94). The field inhomogeneity in the liver is correlated with R2* (R2=0.85). Conclusion By using the ARMA model on complex mGRE images, both susceptibility and R2*-based LIC measurements can be made simultaneously. The susceptibility measurement can be used to help verify R2* measurements in the assessment of iron overload. PMID:22180325

  15. Disentangling in vivo the effects of iron content and atrophy on the ageing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, S.; Lutti, A.; Kherif, F.; Ruef, A.; Dukart, J.; Chowdhury, R.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Ashburner, J.; Helms, G.; Weiskopf, N.; Draganski, B.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies shows that healthy aging is associated with profound changes in cortical and subcortical brain structures. The reliable delineation of cortex and basal ganglia using automated computational anatomy methods based on T1-weighted images remains challenging, which results in controversies in the literature. In this study we use quantitative MRI (qMRI) to gain an insight into the microstructural mechanisms underlying tissue ageing and look for potential interactions between ageing and brain tissue properties to assess their impact on automated tissue classification. To this end we acquired maps of longitudinal relaxation rate R1, effective transverse relaxation rate R2* and magnetization transfer – MT, from healthy subjects (n = 96, aged 21–88 years) using a well-established multi-parameter mapping qMRI protocol. Within the framework of voxel-based quantification we find higher grey matter volume in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate and prefrontal cortex when tissue classification is based on MT maps compared with T1 maps. These discrepancies between grey matter volume estimates can be attributed to R2* - a surrogate marker of iron concentration, and further modulation by an interaction between R2* and age, both in cortical and subcortical areas. We interpret our findings as direct evidence for the impact of ageing-related brain tissue property changes on automated tissue classification of brain structures using SPM12. Computational anatomy studies of ageing and neurodegeneration should acknowledge these effects, particularly when inferring about underlying pathophysiology from regional cortex and basal ganglia volume changes. PMID:25264230

  16. Body retention and tissue distribution of59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Body retention and tissue distribution of59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk Nevenka GRUDEN Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health 41001 Zagreb, Yugoslavia distribution has been studied in newborn rats. Six-day old rats, divided into three groups were artificially

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Soft Tissue Infection with Iron Oxide Labeled Granulocytes in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wedekind, Dirk; Meier, Martin; Bleich, André; Glage, Silke; Hedrich, Hans-Juergen; Kutschka, Ingo; Haverich, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Object We sought to detect an acute soft tissue infection in rats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using granulocytes, previously labeled with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO). Materials and Methods Parasternal infection was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus suspension in rats. Granulocytes isolated from isogenic donor rats were labeled with SPIO. Infected rats were imaged by MRI before, 6 and 12 hours after intravenous injection of SPIO-labeled or unlabeled granulocytes. MR findings were correlated with histological analysis by Prussian blue staining and with re-isolated SPIO-labeled granulocytes from the infectious area by magnetic cell separation. Results Susceptibility effects were present in infected sites on post-contrast T2*-weighted MR images in all animals of the experimental group. Regions of decreased signal intensity (SI) in MRI were detected at 6 hours after granulocyte administration and were more pronounced at 12 hours. SPIO-labeled granulocytes were identified by Prussian blue staining in the infected tissue and could be successfully re-isolated from the infected area by magnetic cell separation. Conclusion The application of SPIO-labeled granulocytes in MRI offers new perspectives in diagnostic specificity and sensitifity to detect early infectious processes. PMID:23236524

  18. Effect of residual magnesium content on thermal fatigue cracking behavior of high-silicon spheroidal graphite cast iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Cheng; T. S. Lui; L. H. Chen

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the thermal fatigue cracking behavior of high-silicon spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron. Irons with\\u000a different residual magnesium contents ranging from 0.038 to 0.066 wt pct are obtained by controlling the amount of spheroidizer.\\u000a The repeated heating\\/cooling test is performed under cyclic heating in various temperatures ranging from 650 C to 800 C.\\u000a Experimental results indicate that the

  19. Content of lipids in blood and tissues of animals during hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federov, I. V.; Rylnikov, Y. P.; Lobova, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on 97 rats and 50 rabbits were undertaken to study the influence of hypodynamia on the lipid content in the blood, liver, heart, and in the aorta. Reduction of muscular activity contributed to the increase of cholesterol and beta lipoprotein levels in the blood and to accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and the heart. The total lipid content in these tissues decreased. In the aorta the total lipid content increased, while lecithin and cephalin figures went down. The character of biochemical changes in hypodynamia resembles in many ways the lipid metabolism changes in atherosclerosis.

  20. Relationships between microsclerotia content and hyperspectral reflectance data in soybean tissue infected by Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative methods are needed to assess the severity of charcoal rot disease [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] in soybean [Glycine max (L.)] plant tissue. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between light reflectance properties and microsclerotia content of soybean stem...

  1. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosângela D. L. Oliveira; Onkar D. Dhingra; André O. Lima; Gulab N. Jham; Mark A. Berhow; Ray K. Holloway; Steven F. Vaughn

    2011-01-01

    The wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.), an invasive weed of winter crops in Brazil, was evaluated for glucosinolate content of its plant tissues and nematicidal\\u000a activity of its dry leaf meal (LM), whole seed meal (WSM) and hexane defatted seed meal (DSM) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants. Sinigrin was the major glucosinolate in LM, WSM and DSM, occurring at

  2. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.), an invasive weed of winter crops in Brazil, was evaluated for glucosinolate content of its plant tissues and nematicidal activity of its dry leaf meal (LM), whole seed meal (WSM) and hexane defatted seed meal (DSM) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants...

  3. Asbestos content of lung tissue in asbestos associated diseases: a study of 110 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V L Roggli; P C Pratt; A R Brody

    1986-01-01

    Diseases associated with asbestos exposure include asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, carcinoma of the lung, and parietal pleural plaques. In this study the asbestos content of lung tissue was examined in groups of cases representing each of these diseases and in several cases with non-occupational idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asbestos bodies (AB), which are the hallmark of asbestos exposure, were present in the

  4. TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

  5. Effects of water and iron content on the rheological contrast between garnet and olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ikuo; Karato, Shun-Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The effects of water and iron content on the relative creep strengths of garnet and olivine were investigated by shear deformation experiments. Garnet and olivine samples were sandwiched together between alumina pistons in a simple shear geometry and were deformed at P = 1-2 GPa, T = 1473 K and strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -3 s -1 using a Griggs-type solid-medium apparatus. The stress- and strain-rate relation, as well as the deformation microstructures including lattice-preferred orientation and dynamic recrystallization, indicates that the deformation by dislocation creep. The creep tests show that the Fe-rich garnet (Alm 67Prp 29Grs 3) was slightly weaker than olivine (Fo90), whereas the Mg-rich garnet (Alm 19Prp 68Grs 12) was significantly stronger than olivine under dry conditions. The wet experiments show that the creep rate of the Mg-rich garnet is more sensitive to water than olivine; the water fugacity exponent on strain rate was estimated to be ˜2.4 for garnet and ˜1.2 for olivine, and the Mg-rich garnet becomes weaker than olivine in a water-rich environment. The experimental results show that the rheological contrast between garnet and olivine depends strongly on water content and to a lesser degree on Fe content. Consequently, the geodynamic behavior of geochemical reservoirs can be sensitive to their chemical environments in the upper mantle.

  6. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 ?g/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 ?g/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 ?g Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content in defatted tissue and oil from such tissues and thereby contribute towards our knowledge on aluminium and any role in breast cancer. PMID:23870171

  7. Effects of cooking methods on the iron and zinc contents in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to combat nutritional deficiencies in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Viana, Daniela S.; Freitas, Sidinea C.; Rocha, Maurisrael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Because iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in developing countries, determining the levels of iron and zinc in beans, the second most consumed staple food in Brazil, is essential, especially for the low-income people who experience a deficiency of these minerals in their diet. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking methods by measuring the iron and zinc contents in cowpea cultivars before and after soaking to determine the retention of these minerals. Methods The samples were cooked in both regular pans and pressure cookers with and without previous soaking. Mineral analyses were carried out by Spectrometry of Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Results The results showed high contents of iron and zinc in raw samples as well as in cooked ones, with the use of regular pan resulting in greater percentage of iron retention and the use of pressure cooker ensuring higher retention of zinc. Conclusions The best retention of iron was found in the BRS Aracê cultivar prepared in a regular pan with previous soaking. This cultivar may be indicated for cultivation and human consumption. The best retention of zinc was found for the BRS Tumucumaque cultivar prepared in a pressure cooker without previous soaking. PMID:24624050

  8. Influence of humic acid on iron required for the formation of hydroxyproline in discs of Beta vulgaris L. storage tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vaughan; B. G. Ord

    1983-01-01

    Summary When discs of beetroot storage tissue are washed (aged) in water for three days, there is at least a 100 per cent increase in the content of their cell-wall bound hydroxyproline. Humic acid, prepared from an agricultural soil, enhances this increase. The effects of humic acid on the increase in the hydroxyproline content of cell walls, as well as

  9. Assessment of in-plant particulate matter and its toxic metals contents of sponge iron industry in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Bhanarkar, A D; Tamhane, S M; Dhopte, S M

    2010-12-01

    The present study attempted to assess toxic metal contents (Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Cobalt, Chromium, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Lead and Zinc) in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Particulate Matter less than ten micron (PM??) in three sponge iron industries in Goa (India), one of the famous tourist place on the World map. TSP and PM(10) average concentration in all three sponge iron industries were found to be in the range 401-485 ?g/m³ and 135-270 ?g/m³ respectively. Amongst all the metals, concentration of iron was the highest in TSP as well as in PM??. Statistical results indicate that proportion of specific metals were found higher in PM?? as compared to the ratio of PM??/TSP ratio. Value of correlation coefficient was found to be significant for Cr-Pb indicating coal burning was the major source contributor. PMID:21110186

  10. Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-09-01

    Optical scattering coefficient from ex vivo unfixed normal and malignant ovarian tissue was quantitatively extracted by fitting optical coherence tomography (OCT) A-line signals to a single scattering model. 1097 average A-line measurements at a wavelength of 1310 nm were performed at 108 sites obtained from 18 ovaries. The average scattering coefficient obtained from the normal tissue group consisted of 833 measurements from 88 sites was 2.41 mm-1 (+/-0.59), while the average coefficient obtained from the malignant tissue group consisted of 264 measurements from 20 sites was 1.55 mm-1 (+/-0.46). The malignant ovarian tissue showed significant lower scattering than the normal group (p < 0.001). The amount of collagen within OCT imaging depth was analyzed from the tissue histological section stained with Sirius Red. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the normal tissue group was 48.4% (+/-12.3%), while the average CAF obtained from the malignant tissue group was 11.4% (+/-4.7%). A statistical significance of the collagen content was found between the two groups (p < 0.001). These results demonstrated that quantitative measurements of optical scattering coefficient from OCT images could be a potential powerful method for ovarian cancer detection.

  11. Preparation of mesoporous ferrisilicate with high content of framework iron by pH-modification method and its catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoshan; Xu, Junqing; Liu, Jianjun; Zuo, Shengli; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Ziyu

    2012-01-15

    The mesoporous ferrisilicates (MFS) with high iron content were synthesized by pH-modification method, and the iron content could be up to 10.5 wt.% (Si/Fe=8). The pH was kept less than 2 at pre-hydrothermal synthesis step and was adjusted to 11 during hydrothermal step. The samples were characterized by XRD, HRTEM, N(2)-sorption, XRF, FTIR, DRUV-vis, Fe K-edge EXAFS, EPR, and DSC. The results suggested that the MFS materials were ordered 2D hexagonal mesophase of MCM-41, and the iron atoms were tetrahedral coordinated in the silica framework. This material could efficiently catalyze the hydroxylation of phenol in water medium using H(2)O(2) as an oxidant, and the phenol conversion could be up to 52% under the optimal experimental conditions. PMID:22014421

  12. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the elemental contents of uterine tissue.

    PubMed

    Ynsa, M D; Ager, F J; Millán, J C; Gómez-Zubelbia, M A; Pinheiro, T

    2004-10-01

    For the past years, different therapies based on steroid hormone supplementation or modulators of estrogen receptors have been used after menopause to prevent or manage osteoporosis. Although these treatments seem to be beneficial, they have some negative effects in the uterus and breast. The objective of this study was to assess variations for the concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se in uterine tissue of Wistar rats. Ovariectomized rats were subjected to estrogen, progesterone, raloxifene, and tibolone supplementation and compared with nonovariectomized control animals. Elemental contents determined by the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique revealed major alterations in Fe, Ca, Mn, and Se in the uterus of ovariectomized rats relative to control animals. After ovariectomy, a significant increase in Ca and Fe and a significant decrease in Mn and Se contents were determined in the uterus. For the ovariectomized groups in which animals received raloxifene, tibolone, estrogen, and estrogen combined with progesterone supplementation, an overall recovery in Mn, Fe, and Se contents was verified. Elemental concentration in the progesterone-supplemented group did not significantly differ from ovariectomized animals receiving placebo. The alterations found for ovariectomized animals receiving placebo and progesterone suggest tissue impairment and trace element imbalance, contrasting with the remaining supplemented groups where an enhancement of tissue activity might justify similar concentration levels relative to controls, because most of the elemental contents altered after ovariectomy. PMID:15516701

  13. Morphometric analysis of nonsclerosed Glomeruli size and connective tissue content during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Stojanovi?, Vesna R; Jovanovi?, Ivan D; Ugrenovi?, Sladjana Z; Vasovi?, Ljiljana P; Živkovi?, Vladimir S; Joci?, Miodrag V; Kundali?, Braca K; Pavlovi?, Miljana N

    2012-01-01

    Number of sclerotic glomeruli increases during the aging process. Consequently, majority of remained nonsclerosed glomeruli become hypertrophic and some of them sclerotic, too. The aim of this study was to quantify the size and connective tissue content of nonsclerosed glomeruli and to evaluate the percentage of hypertrophic ones in examined human cases during the aging. Material was right kidney's tissue of 30 cadavers obtained during routine autopsies. Cadavers were without previously diagnosed kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, or any other systemic disease. Tissue specimens were routinely prepared for histological and morphometric analysis. Images of the histological slices were analyzed and captured under 400x magnification with digital camera. Further they were morphometrically and statistically analyzed with ImageJ and NCSS-PASS software. Multiple and linear regression of obtained morphometric parameters showed significant increase of glomerular connective tissue area and percentage. Cluster analysis showed the presence of two types of glomeruli. Second type was characterized with significantly larger size, connective tissue content, and significantly lower cellularity, in relation to the first type. Such glomeruli might be considered as hypertrophic. First type of glomeruli was predominant in younger cases, while second type of glomeruli was predominant in cases older than 55 years. PMID:22654637

  14. Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail. [Coturnix coturnix japonica

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Stone, C.L.; Fry, B.E. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. 13 references, 11 tables.

  15. Effects of iron and manganese on the growth of rice and on the contents of these elements in rice

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effects of iron and manganese on the growth of rice and on the contents of these elements in rice ppm Fe. . Manganese concentration in leaves and stems increased with increase in Mn levels and manganese in soils and plants has been conducted for many years. Many con- flicting results have been

  16. Effects of tissue water content on the propagation of laser light during low-level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soogeun; Shin, Sungho; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-05-01

    This work reports that the laser fluence rate inside porcine skin varied notably with the change of tissue water content under the same laser irradiation conditions. The laser fluence rate inside skin tissue samples with varying water content was measured using an optical fiber sensor, while the target was irradiated either by a low-level 635 or 830 nm laser (50 mW/cm2). It was demonstrated that the distribution of laser fluence rate inside the target is strongly affected by tissue water content and its profile is determined by the water content dependency of optical properties at the laser wavelength. PMID:25611979

  17. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on ?-tocopherol content in liver and adipose tissue of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Martin Simán; Ulf J. Eriksson

    1996-01-01

    Female rats were fed an antioxidant supplemented diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.5% and 1.0%) with or without vitamin E acetate (0.4%) for 4 weeks, after which the contents of BHT and a-tocopherol in the liver and abdominal adipose tissue were analysed. The body weight gain was similar in all groups independent of the diet after the first week of

  18. Tissue Content of Hydroxyestrogens in Relation to Survival of Breast Cancer Patients1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi A. M. Castagnetta; Orazia M. Granata; Adele Train; Barbara Ravazzolo; Maria Amoroso; Monica Miele; Vincenzo Bellavia; Biagio Agostara; Giuseppe Carruba

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The main goal of our study was to assess estrogen contents of breast tumor tissues, having different estrogen receptor status, in relation to long-term follow-up of patients. Experimental Design: Twenty-one breast cancer cases, all collected from January 1986 to January 1988 at the M. Ascoli Cancer Hospital Centre in Palermo, were included in the study and compared with 6

  19. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference. PMID:18720822

  20. Tissue content of mercury in rats given methylmercuric chloride orally: influence of intestinal flora

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, I.R.; Davies, M.J.; Evans, J.G.

    1980-05-01

    The effect of intestinal flora on the absorption and disposition of mercury in tissues was investigated using conventional rats, and rats treated with antibiotics to eliminate their gut flora. Antibiotic-treated rats given (/sup 203/Hg) -labeled methylmercuric chloride orally had significantly more mercury in their tissues, especially in kidney, brain, lung, blood, and skeletal muscle, and also excreted less mercury in the feces than conventional rats. Furthermore, in the kidneys of the antibiotic-treated rats, the proportion of mercury present as organic mercury was greater than in the kidneys of the conventional rats. The results support the hypothesis that the metabolism of methylmercuric chloride by the gut flora reduces the tissue content of mercury. When rats were administered 10 mg methylmercuric chloride/Kg.day for 6 days, four or five of those given antibiotics developed neurological symptoms of toxicity, whereas only one of five conventional rats given methylmercuric chloride was affected.

  1. A Mssbauer spectrometry study of iron in hepatic and splenic tissues. Preliminary results

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    the existence of superparamagnetic properties in the iron core and the coming out of a nuclear Zeeman effect by a Zeeman effect of the iron nucleus. On the other hand, in lyophylized samples of horse liver, even présente des propriétés superparamagnétiques et que l'effet Zeeman nucléaire, caractéristique d'un ordre

  2. Brown adipose tissue triglyceride content is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, independently of age and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiko, J; Holstila, M; Virtanen, K A; Orava, J; Saunavaara, V; Niemi, T; Laine, J; Taittonen, M; Borra, R J H; Nuutila, P; Parkkola, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15) O-H2 O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1) H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1) H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean?±?standard deviation (s.d.) 77?±?10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean?±?s.d. 87?±?5%; p?=?0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1) H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation. PMID:25586670

  3. Cold acclimation alters the connective tissue content of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy C; Turko, Andy J; Klaiman, Jordan M; Johnston, Elizabeth F; Gillis, Todd E

    2014-06-01

    Thermal acclimation can alter cardiac function and morphology in a number of fish species, but little is known about the regulation of these changes. The purpose of the present study was to determine how cold acclimation affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac morphology, collagen composition and connective tissue regulation. Heart volume, the thickness of the compact myocardium, collagen content and collagen fiber composition were compared between control (27°C) and cold-acclimated (20°C) zebrafish using serially sectioned hearts stained with Picrosirius Red. Collagen content and fiber composition of the pericardial membrane were also examined. Cold acclimation did not affect the volume of the contracted heart; however, there was a significant decrease in the thickness of the compact myocardium. There was also a decrease in the collagen content of the compact myocardium and in the amount of thick collagen fibers throughout the heart. Cold-acclimated zebrafish also increased expression of the gene transcript for matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 and collagen Type I ?1. We propose that the reduction in the thickness of the compact myocardium as well as the change in collagen content may help to maintain the compliance of the ventricle as temperatures decrease. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that the zebrafish heart undergoes significant remodeling in response to cold acclimation. PMID:24577447

  4. Viscoelastic properties of tissue conditioners--influence of ethyl alcohol content and type of plasticizer.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Murakami, S; Shigeto, N; Hamada, T

    1994-03-01

    The effect of both the ethyl alcohol content of liquids and the type of plasticizer on the viscoelastic properties after gelation of tissue conditioners was studied by means of a stress relaxation test. The results are summarized as follows. The liquids containing the larger percentages of ethyl alcohol produced the larger flow after gelation. Furthermore, the ethyl alcohol content had a significant influence on changes in viscoelastic properties with the passage of time. Flow properties were found to reduce rapidly with time of storage with an increase in the ethyl alcohol content. The use of benzyl benzoate produced the larger flow after gelation than dibutyl phthalate, which in turn produced the larger flow than butyl phthalyl butyl glycolate. The type of plasticizer, however, was found to have no influence on changes in viscoelastic properties with the passage of time. PMID:8182496

  5. THE ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF VANADIUM, IRON, AND MANGANESE IN SOME SOLITARY ASCIDIANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. MICHIBATA; T. TERADA; N. ANADA; K. YAMAKAWA; T. NUMAKUNAI

    The vanadium, iron, and manganese contents of 15 species of solitary ascidians belonging to the suborders Phlebobranchia and Stolidobranchia were determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Vanadium was detectable in all species exam med. In general, the vanadium content in various tissues ofthe Phlebobranchia was considerably higher than the iron and manganese contents. The blood cells especially contained a large

  6. Changes in the content and composition of pedogenic iron oxyhydroxides in a chronosequence of soils in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Leslie D.; Hendricks, David M.

    1985-03-01

    Studies of the pedogenic iron oxyhydroxides in suites of latest Holocene to middle Pleistocene soils formed on fluvial deposits of the transverse ranges, southern California, indicate that the content and composition of iron oxyhydroxide change in a systematic manner. Analysis of total secondary free iron oxides (dithionite extractable, Fe 2O 3d) and ferrihydrite (oxalate extractable, Fe 2O 3o) shows that (1) a single-logarithmic model ( Y = a + b log X) or double logarithmic model (log Y = a + b log X), where Y is the total mass of pedogenic Fe oxides (g/cm 2-soil column) and X is soil age, describes the rate of increase in Fe 2O 3d with time; (2) the Fe 2O 3d content correlates linearly with soil reddening and clay content; (3) the {Fe2O 3o }/{Fe2O 3d} ratio, which indicates the degree of Fe oxide crystallinity, is moderately high to very high (0.22-0.58) in middle Holocene to latest Pleistocene soils and progressively decreases to less than 0.10 in older soils; (4) the value of the {Fe2O 3o }/{Fe2O 3d} ratio also appears to be infuenced by climate; and (5) temporal changes in Fe oxide content and mineralogy are accompanied by related, systematic changes in clay mineralogy and organic matter content. These relationships are attributed to a soil environment that must initially favor ferrihydrite precipitation and/or organic matter-Fe complexation. Subsequent transformation to hematite causes increasingly intense reddening and a concomitant decrease in the {Fe2O 3o }/{Fe2O 3d} ratio. The results demonstrate that iron oxide analysis is useful for numerical age studies of noncalcic soils and shows potential as an indicator of paleoclimates.

  7. Versatile and Biomass Synthesis of Iron-based Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Matrix with High Iron Content and Tunable Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dongmao [ORNL; Shi, Sheldon Q [ORNL; Jiang, Dongping [Mississippi State University (MSU); Che, Wen [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Arockiasamy, Antonyraj [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs{at}C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP{at}C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP{at}C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 C (FeNP{at}C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP{at}C prepared at 800 C (FeNP{at}C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP{at}C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5-15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs{at}C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

  8. [Content and distribution of iodine, chlorine and bromine in normal and pathologically changed thyroid gland tissue].

    PubMed

    Malenchenko, A F; Demidchik, E P; Tadeush, V N

    1984-09-01

    The neutron-activation method was used to study the content and distribution of iodine, chlorine and bromine in 53 thyroid glands removed from patients during operation and 8 thyroid glands from persons who died in accidents. It has been shown that a statistically significant decrease in the iodine concentration occurs in struma maligna, Hashimoto's disease and a mixed form of endemic euthyroid goiter. The chlorine content did not change. The bromine concentration in all form of thyroid pathology was raised. The highest bromine content was found in "cold" forms--struma maligna, and it exceeded almost by 50 times the rates in the control group. Autoradiographic studies made it possible to establish some peculiarities in the distribution of radioactive and stable iodine in the thyroid tissue depending on its morphofunctional condition. Radioactive iodine gradients in the normal tissue did not exceed 7, in mixed (parenchymatous) forms of the goiter 42.5. The distribution of stable iodine is characterized by a high irregularity. The aplastic forms of struma maligna least of all accumulate and contain stable iodine, their structure being characterized by functional monotony. PMID:6548284

  9. Hexachlorobenzene content in human whole blood and adipose tissue: experiences in environmental specimen banking.

    PubMed

    Bertram, H P; Kemper, F H; Müller, C

    1986-01-01

    By making use of material held in the Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissue Muenster (University of Münster, FRG), up to 11 organochlorine pesticides were analysed in organs (whole blood and adipose tissue) of living people, using real-time monitoring, and in autopsy material (up to 35 organs). The hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contents in whole blood samples of two comparable 'normal' populations (age 20-30 years, n = 118 and 125) were: median 2.30 micrograms/l, range 0.05-13.5 micrograms/l in 1977 and median 3.55 micrograms/l, range 0.94-16.3 micrograms/l in 1982. Females showed a slightly higher range than males. A pesticide-exposed group of wine growers (n = 122) showed a range of 0.86-29.6 micrograms/l with a median of 7.34 micrograms/l. In autopsy material, age-dependent HCB concentrations were found in adipose tissue, increasing with age (total range 0.14-45.4 micrograms/g extractable lipids, n = 80). No age dependence was evident in other organs. In starving people there seems to be only a slight elimination, if any, of the stored organochlorinated compounds. Persistent pesticides remain in a smaller portion of lipids and simulate higher values. Investigations of long-term storage of liver, fatty tissue and whole blood in the Environmental Specimen Bank (-85 degrees C and -170 degrees C) showed sufficient stability of HCB and other xenobiotics. PMID:3596706

  10. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  11. Effect of T. foenumgraecum on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vats, V; Yadav, S P; Grover, J K

    2003-04-01

    The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Trigonella foenumgraecum (FG). In the present study, FG (1g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of FG led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 14.4 and 46.64% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight was significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (P<0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of FG. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls versus controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by FG. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and FG partially corrected this alteration in PFK, HK and GK. PMID:12639747

  12. Evaluation of Iron Content in Human Cerebral Cavernous Malformation using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huan; Liu, Tian; Wu, Ying; Thacker, Jon; Shenkar, Robert; Mikati, Abdul Ghani; Shi, Changbin; Dykstra, Conner; Wang, Yi; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Edelman, Robert R.; Awad, Issam A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and validate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for lesional iron quantification in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed in phantoms and 16 patients on a 3T scanner. QSM, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps were reconstructed from in vivo data acquired with a three-dimensional, multi-echo, and T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were correlated to SWI and R2* results. In addition, iron concentrations from surgically excised CCM lesion specimens were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and correlated with QSM measurements. Results The QSM images demonstrated excellent image quality for depicting CCM lesions in both sporadic and familial cases. Susceptibility measurements revealed a positive linear correlation with R2* values (R2 = 0.99 for total, R2 = 0.69 for mean; p < 0.01). QSM values of known iron-rich brain regions matched closely with previous studies and in interobserver consistency. A strong correlation was found between QSM and the concentration of iron phantoms (0.925, p < 0.01), as well as between QSM and mass spectroscopy estimation of iron deposition (0.999 for total iron, 0.86 for iron concentration; p < 0.01) in 18 fragments of 4 excised human CCM lesion specimens. Conclusions The ability of QSM to evaluate iron deposition in CCM lesions was illustrated via phantom, in vivo and ex vivo validation studies. QSM may be a potential biomarker for monitoring CCM disease activity and response to treatments. PMID:24619210

  13. Effect of deferoxamine and allopurinol on non-protein-bound iron concentrations in plasma and cortical brain tissue of newborn lambs following hypoxia-ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majidah Shadid; Giuseppe Buonocore; Floris Groenendaal; Ralph Moison; Marco Ferrali; Howard M Berger; Frank van Bel

    1998-01-01

    Reduction of non-protein-bound iron (NPBI) using iron chelators may attenuate hypoxia-ischemia-induced reperfusion injury of the brain. This study investigated whether administration of low-dose deferoxamine and allopurinol, both having NPBI-chelating properties, reduced hypoxia-ischemia-induced NPBI formation in plasma effluent from the brain and in cerebral cortical tissue. Twenty-one newborn lambs underwent severe hypoxia-ischemia. Upon reperfusion and reoxygenation the lambs received either a

  14. Carbon content in the Earth's inner core from the elasticity of iron carbide at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle-Neumann, G.; Mookherjee, M.

    2009-12-01

    Discrepancy between sound wave velocity of Fe-Ni alloys and seismological models indicate that Earth’s core is likely to contain lighter elements such as H, C, O, Si and S. Carbon is a plausible candidate because of its cosmic abundance and chemical affinity to iron at low pressures. Earlier it was thought that carbon, being volatile might have been lost during the accretionary stages of the planet. However, it is now known, that core formation likely took place from the deep magma ocean surrounded by solar-nebula type proto-atmosphere enriched in volatiles thus enabling incorporation of volatiles in to the molten core. Experimental studies conducted to study the phase diagram of Fe-C system revealed that volatility of carbon is only significant at pressures lower than 10-5 GPa. (Wood, 1993, EPSL, 117, 593) suggested that solid inner core might be composed of Fe3C. Recent experimental studies have extended the Fe-C phase diagram to considerably higher pressures (~70 GPa) and have found that Fe7C3 is the likely phase at the inner core conditions (Lord et al., 2009, EPSL, 284, 157). In this study we determine the elasticity of Fe7C3 using first principle methods. Results of compression for the ferromagnetic Fe7C3 is well represented by a third order Birch Murnaghan finite strain expression with K0~ 275 GPa, K?~2.5 and V0~ 182 Å3. Under compression magnetic moment gradually decreases and at ~69 GPa magnetic moment is instantaneously lost. Similar behavior has been reported for Fe3C at 60 GPa (Vocadlo et al., 2002, EPSL, 203, 567). The high-pressure non-magnetic phase has distinct elastic parameters with K0~ 228 GPa, K?~4.9 and V0~ 181 Å3. Calculated elastic constants also exhibit softening associated with the loss of magnetization. Similar anomalous behavior in thermoelastic parameter owing to loss of magnetization has been observed for Fe3C (Fiquet et al. 2009, PEPI, 172, 125) at 68 GPa. We will present full elastic tensor and sound wave velocity results for ferromagnetic and non-magnetic phase and infer about the carbon content of the inner core.

  15. New protein clustering of breast cancer tissue proteomics using actin content as a cellularity indicator.

    PubMed

    Pucci-Minafra, Ida; Cancemi, Patrizia; Albanese, Nadia Ninfa; Di Cara, Gianluca; Marabeti, Maria Rita; Marrazzo, Antonio; Minafra, Salvatore

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, we report the comparative proteome profiles of proteins solubilized from 37 breast cancer surgical tissues, normalized for the actin content. Blood-derived proteins were excluded from the analysis. Among the tumor-derived protein spots, a large proportion (39%) was found present in all patients. These included several glycolytic enzymes, detox and heat shock proteins, members of annexin and S100 protein families, cathepsin D, and two "rare" proteins, DDAH2 involved in the angiogenesis control, and the oncogene PARK7. Other proteins, such as psoriasin, galectin1, cofilin, peroredoxins, SH3L1, and others, showed sporadic presence and high expression level, which suggests their possible role for patient stratification. PMID:18284189

  16. Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Longo, W.E. (Department of Pathology, Durham Veterans Administration, NC (United States))

    1991-12-31

    Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.

  17. The Association between Breast Tissue Optical Content and Mammographic Density in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, Kristina M.; Knight, Julia A.; Walter, Jane; Lilge, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD), associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS) is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (? = -0.05, p = 0.0002) and DA (? = -0.05, p = 0.019); water content was significantly positively associated with PD (? = 0.06, p = 0.008). Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (? = -0.03, p = 0.057) but significantly inversely associated with DA (? = -0.10, p = 0.002). Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively) with PD (?lipid = -0.08, ?water = 0.14, both p<0.0001) and DA (?lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; ?water = 0.11, p = 0.001). The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water content in high density tissue. OS may be useful for assessing physiologic tissue differences related to breast cancer risk, particularly when mammography is not feasible or easily accessible. PMID:25590139

  18. Early detection of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction by pulsed tissue Doppler echocardiography in iron loaded Beta thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Agha, Hala Mounir; Beshlawy, Amal; Hamdy, Mona; Sobeih, Alae; Zahrae, Fatma El; Satar, Inas Abd El; AbdelMassih, Antoine; Said, Fadwa; Aziz, Ossama Abd El; Tagui, Mona El; Pennell, Dudley J

    2015-03-01

    Early heart iron overload in beta thalassemia major patients can be quantified through T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). To clarify the value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in early detection of myocardial dysfunction in iron loaded thalassemia patients diagnosed by CMR. Two groups were included in the study; Group I: 69 asymptomatic thalassemia patients (28 females, 41 males), mean age 18.1 ± 7.03 years (range 6-39 years); Group II (n = 41) healthy normal controls matched for age and sex. Serum ferritin and CMR were performed to assess the cardiac siderosis (T2* < 20 ms). Group I was subdivided into two subgroups; Group Ia (n = 26) T2* < 20 ms and Group Ib (n = 43) T2* > 20 ms. Conventional and Doppler echocardiography of LV, RV dimensions and functions and pulmonary artery pressure were evaluated. Right ventricular diastolic function assessed by tricuspid annular E'/A' was positively correlated with T2* value; lower tricuspid E'/A' ratios were correlated with lower T2* values (r = 0.366, P = 0.002). Tricuspid annular A' was significantly higher in group Ia compared to group Ib (16.7 ± 5.2 vs 12.1 ± 4.0 cm/s, P < 0.001). Tricuspid E'/A' < 1 was common in group Ia compared to group Ib (19/26 (73.0) vs 3/43 (6.97%), P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (tricuspid E'/A' < 1) was associated with serum ferritin and T2* level of the thalassemia patients. TDI is a promising tool for quantitative assessment of myocardial function and early detection of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in iron loaded beta thalassemia major patients. PMID:25293426

  19. [Content of carotenoids and the state of tissue antioxidant enzymatic complex in bivalve mollusc Anadara inaequivalvis Br].

    PubMed

    Gostukhina, O L; Soldatov, A A; Golovina, I V; Borodina, A V

    2012-01-01

    The work studied the content of carotinoids, the state of antioxidant (AO) enzymatic complex, and intensity of lipid peroxidation in tissues (hepatopancreas, gill, foot) of the Black Sea bivalve mollusc Anadara inaequivalvis. Tissues with a high content of the pigment have been established to have had a low activity of the key AO enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and an elevated content of reduced glutathione R2--(0.81-0.97). The recorded intertissue activities reached 1.7-2.9 times (p < or = 0.05-0.01). At increased concentrations (more than 2.5 mg x 100 g(-1) tissue), carotinoids show insignificant prooxidant effect, which is reflected in a rise of glutathione peroxidase activity. The competitive interrelations between these molecular complexes for the same kinds of reactive ocygem species (O2-, OH*, and 1O2) are discussed. PMID:23401963

  20. Increasing dietary lipid and iron content decreases manganese superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connye N. Kuratko

    1997-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an important mitochondrial antioxidant. Alteration in the regulation of MnSOD activity has been proposed to play a critical role in the development of many types of tumors. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common human malignancies and has been shown to be influenced by dietary factors. Two such dietary factors include lipid and iron.

  1. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish. PMID:21371606

  2. Zinc, iron, and peroxidation in liver tissue. Cumulative effects of alcohol consumption and virus-mediated damage--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Farinati, F; Cardin, R; de Maria, N; Lecis, P E; Della Libera, G; Burra, P; Marafin, C; Sturniolo, G C; Naccarato, R

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate further the mechanisms involved in alcohol-mediated liver damage and the correlation between alcohol and viruses in chronic liver lesions, we determined the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in 31 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CAH), 6 with alcohol-related chronic hepatitis (CALD), 6 with alcoholic cirrhosis (AC), 8 with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and 10 healthy controls (C). Liver GSH was significantly lower in CALD and AC patients (p < 0.005). TBARS levels were significantly higher in CAH, CALD, and PBC patients (p < 0.001, < 0.02, and < 0.001, respectively). In CAH patients, alcohol consumption correlated inversely with GSH and directly with TBARS (p < 0.05). Patients with both CAH and alcohol abuse had a further reduction in liver GSH levels (p < 0.005). Tissue levels of Fe were significantly increased in CALD and AC patients with respect to controls and CAH patients, whereas no significant difference was observed in Zn. These data confirm that patients with chronic ethanol exposure reveal a depletion in liver GSH content clearly correlated with an increase in lipid peroxidation and Fe liver storage. On the other hand, these findings appear to suggest no significant change in Zn levels in chronic hepatitis. PMID:7779547

  3. Effect of Zinc on the Content of Chemical Elements in the Lung Tissue during Obesity in the Experiment.

    PubMed

    Churin, B V; Trunova, V A; Sidorina, A V; Zvereva, V V; Astashov, V V

    2015-02-01

    We found no deviations from normalcy in the content of chemical elements (K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and Sr) in the lungs of rats with mild alimentary obesity, but revealed redistribution of correlations between the elements indicating impaired metabolism in this organ. Zinc supplementation had no effect on the body weight and content of chemical elements (including zinc) in the lung tissue in rats fed high fat diet, but led to significant changes in the correlations between the elements. Bromine, rubidium, and strontium are actively involved in interelement interactions in the lung tissue. These elements should be given more attention in considering biological processes including alimentary obesity. PMID:25711662

  4. Polarographic determination of total iron content using a Fe(2+/3+)-Methylthymol Blue-NO2- system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lizhu; Wang, Lirong; Lin, Li; Peng, Zhen; Lu, Guanghan

    2004-12-01

    In the buffer solution of NH3-NH4Cl (pH = 8.5, 0.04 mol l(-1)), iron-Methylthymol Blue (MTB) can produce a sensitive polarographic wave at -1.10 V (vs. SCE) in the NaNO2. The peak current is linear with the concentration of the iron in the range of 3 x 10(-8)-5 x 10(-6) mol l(-1), and the detection limit is 1 x 10(-8) mol l(-1). By studying the characteristics of the wave and the electrode reaction mechanism, we can prove that the catalytic wave is an adsorption wave and that the peak current comes from the reduction of Fe(II). The molar ratio of iron to ligand was found to be 1:1. Adsorption particles are neutral molecules, the saturated adsorption quantity of the complex on the mercury electrode is 1.92 x 10(-9) mol cm(-2), according with the Frumkin isothermal formula. In the experiments, the adsorption coefficient (beta) is 4.05 x 10(5); the adsorption factor (gamma) is 0.70: the electron transfer number (n) is 2; the free energy (deltaG(o)) is 31.99 kJ mol(-1); the transfer coefficient of the irreversible adsorption is 0.42-0.45; and the reaction velocity constant (Ks) is 1.35 s(-1). This method, whose result is satisfying, can be applied to the detection of trace total iron contents in medicinal products. PMID:15636511

  5. Mutual interaction between iron homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is identified as an important medical problem. One of the pathologic conditions observed in obesity is systemic iron deficiency and hypoferremia. Along with a large number of studies indicating disturbed iron homeostasis in obesity, recent data indicate a cause-effect relationship between iron status and obesity-related pathologies. The primary objective of the article is to consider two aspects of the iron-obesity interplay: (1) the mechanisms leading to impaired iron balance, and (2) the pathways of iron participation in obesity-related pathogenesis. While considering disturbance of iron homeostasis in obesity, a number of potential mechanisms of hypoferremia are proposed. At the same time, the inflammation of obesity and obesity-related hepcidin and lipocalin 2 hyperproduction seem to be the most probable reasons of obesity-related hypoferremia. Oversecretion of these proteins leads to iron sequestration in reticuloendothelial system cells. The latter also leads to increased adipose tissue iron content, thus producing preconditions for adverse effects of local iron overload. Being a redox-active metal, iron is capable of inducing oxidative stress as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction. Iron-mediated mechanisms of toxicity may influence aspects of obesity pathogenesis possibly even leading to obesity aggravation. Thus, a mutual interaction between disturbance in iron homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis is proposed. All sides of this interaction should be considered to design new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of disturbed iron homeostasis in obesity. PMID:24916791

  6. Effect of aluminium content on environmental embrittlement in binary iron-aluminum alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vyas; S. Viswanathan; V. K. Sikka

    1992-01-01

    Interest in iron-aluminum alloys has existed for the last sixty years, on account of their attractive properties including low density, excellent oxidation resistance, and conservation of strategic elements. This paper reports that recent investigations have focused on the ordered FeâAl-based alloys containing 15.9 wt % Al, and FeAl-based alloys containing about 22 wt % Al. However, the poor room-temperature ductility

  7. The problem of the Earth's CO2 content and the iron core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devore, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    The near absence of metallic iron and the presence of magnetite and FeS in the C-1 chondrites imply that metallic iron was a minor phase present during the accretion process that formed the C-1 chondrites. If the C-1 chondrites provided the bulk of the initial planetary growth materials, the carbon reduction model is favored. The above estimates suggest that some 1240 to 227 times as much CO2 may have been produced during the formation of the core than can be accounted for in the crust and mantle. This discrepancy taken to the extreme suggests either that: (1) the Earth has lost more than 99 percent of its initial CO2 during early differentiation (this is highly unlikely) or: (2) the Earth has acquired some 90 percent of its present mass by the accretion of debris from previously reduced and differentiated but subsequently disrupted planetary bodies whereby the associated CO2 would not be captured, or: (3) the C-1 chondrites represent only a trivial fraction of the initial accretion materials present in the nebular cloud or: (4) condensed iron and anhydrous silicate phases were preferentially accreted during the initial formation of the planetary bodies.

  8. Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madl, Amy Kathleen

    Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the centriacinus were used to assess immediate and persistent effects. The oxidant and inflammatory capacity of microdissected airways of exposed animals was used to assess the ability to withstand an additional oxidant insult. Comparing the effects observed in the acute versus subacute inhalation studies, the effects of SWCNTs appeared to follow a dose-response pattern, where the effects were further pronounced and, in some cases, more persistent under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. In addition, results showed different timing and extent of responses resulting from exposure to SWCNTs containing varied amounts of iron. Depending on the endpoint of interest, responses of SWCNTs sometimes followed that of CB while in other circumstances matched that of crocidolite. Notably, FeSWCNTs exposed animals were unable to respond to an additional oxidant challenge and cSWCNTs exposed animals had a delayed and persistent development of mucous cells in the distal airways. In conclusion, while some toxicity endpoints follow patterns comparable to CB or crocidolite, the respiratory effects of inhaled FeSWCNTs and cSWCNTs appear to be unique. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these changes are suggestive of precursor events to pathologic changes that might develop under more severe or prolonged exposure conditions. Systematic toxicity testing and intentional physicochemical modifications will provide further insights as to the mechanisms by which SWCNTs cause these unique effects. It would be of hope that nanomaterials, such as SWCNTs, can be designed in way to maximize their societal benefits through various energy, medical, and technological applications but minimize their potential human health and environmental risks.

  9. Use of skin and blubber tissues of small cetaceans to assess the trace element content of internal organs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Use of skin and blubber tissues of small cetaceans to assess the trace element content of internal cetaceans, the concentrations of 14 trace elements were determined in skin, blubber, liver and kidneys concentrations in and those in liver and kidneys. In consequence, skin and blubber can only be used as non

  10. Iron Content Differs between Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis and Subspecies holarctica Strains and Correlates to Their Susceptibility to H2O2-Induced Killing? †

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Helena; Honn, Marie; Salomonsson, Emelie; Kuoppa, Kerstin; Forsberg, Åke; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known and is classified as a category A select agent and a facultative intracellular bacterium. Why F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes a more severe form of tularemia than F. tularensis subsp. holarctica does is not known. In this study, we have identified prominent phenotypic differences between the subspecies, since we found that F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strains contained less iron than F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains. Moreover, strain SCHU S4 of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis was less susceptible than FSC200 and the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica to H2O2-induced killing. The activity of the H2O2-degrading enzyme catalase was similar between the strains, whereas the iron content affected their susceptibility to H2O2, since iron starvation rendered F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains more resistant to H2O2. Complementing LVS with fupA, which encodes an important virulence factor that regulates iron uptake, reduced its iron content and increased the resistance to H2O2-mediated killing. By real-time PCR, it was demonstrated that FSC200 and LVS expressed higher levels of gene transcripts related to iron uptake and storage than SCHU S4 did, and this likely explained their high iron content. Together, the results suggest that F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strains have restricted iron uptake and storage, which is beneficial for their resistance to H2O2-induced killing. This may be an important factor for the higher virulence of this subspecies of F. tularensis, as reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, are important bactericidal components during tularemia. PMID:21189323

  11. Iron and zinc content of selected foods in the diet of schoolchildren in Kumi district, east of Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake. Methods The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis. Results Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc. Conclusions The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination. PMID:21827701

  12. The genetic architecture of zinc and iron content in maize grains as revealed by QTL mapping and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tiantian; Zhou, Jinfeng; Chen, Jingtang; Zhu, Liying; Zhao, Yongfeng; Huang, Yaqun

    2013-09-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency in diets, has aroused worldwide attention. Biofortification of food crops has been considered as a promising approach for alleviating this deficiency. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to dissect the genetic mechanism of Zn and Fe content in maize grains using a total of 218 F2:3 families derived from a cross between inbred lines 178 and P53. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detect Meta-QTL (MQTL) across several independent QTL researches for traits related to Zn or Fe content. Five significant QTLs and 10 MQTLs were detected. Two informative genomic regions, bins 2.07 and 2.08, showed a great importance for Zn and Fe content QTLs. The correlation between Zn and Fe level in maize grains was proposed by MQTLs as 8 of the 10 involved both traits. The results of this study suggest that QTL mapping and meta-analysis is an effective approach to understand the genetic basis of Zn and Fe accumulation in maize grains. PMID:24273427

  13. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  14. X-Ray Methods to Estimate Breast Density Content in Breast Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraghechi, Borna

    This work focuses on analyzing x-ray methods to estimate the fat and fibroglandular contents in breast biopsies and in breasts. The knowledge of fat in the biopsies could aid in their wide-angle x-ray scatter analyses. A higher mammographic density (fibrous content) in breasts is an indicator of higher cancer risk. Simulations for 5 mm thick breast biopsies composed of fibrous, cancer, and fat and for 4.2 cm thick breast fat/fibrous phantoms were done. Data from experimental studies using plastic biopsies were analyzed. The 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick plastic samples consisted of layers of polycarbonate (lexan), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-lucite) and polyethylene (polyet). In terms of the total linear attenuation coefficients, lexan ? fibrous, lucite ? cancer and polyet ? fat. The detectors were of two types, photon counting (CdTe) and energy integrating (CCD). For biopsies, three photon counting methods were performed to estimate the fat (polyet) using simulation and experimental data, respectively. The two basis function method that assumed the biopsies were composed of two materials, fat and a 50:50 mixture of fibrous (lexan) and cancer (lucite) appears to be the most promising method. Discrepancies were observed between the results obtained via simulation and experiment. Potential causes are the spectrum and the attenuation coefficient values used for simulations. An energy integrating method was compared to the two basis function method using experimental and simulation data. A slight advantage was observed for photon counting whereas both detectors gave similar results for the 4.2 cm thick breast phantom simulations. The percentage of fibrous within a 9 cm diameter circular phantom of fibrous/fat tissue was estimated via a fan beam geometry simulation. Both methods yielded good results. Computed tomography (CT) images of the circular phantom were obtained using both detector types. The radon transforms were estimated via four energy integrating techniques and one photon counting technique. Contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and pixel values between different regions of interest were analyzed. The two basis function method and two of the energy integrating methods (calibration, beam hardening correction) gave the highest and more linear curves for contrast and SNR.

  15. Comparative In Vitro Study on Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MRI Tracking of Adipose Tissue-Derived Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Annika; Grüttner, Cordula; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Bader, Rainer; Pasold, Juliane; Frerich, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using measurement of the transverse relaxation time (R2*) is to be considered as a promising approach for cell tracking experiments to evaluate the fate of transplanted progenitor cells and develop successful cell therapies for tissue engineering. While the relationship between core composition of nanoparticles and their MRI properties is well studied, little is known about possible effects on progenitor cells. This in vitro study aims at comparing two magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle types, single vs. multi-core nanoparticles, regarding their physico-chemical characteristics, effects on cellular behavior of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) like differentiation and proliferation as well as their detection and quantification by means of MRI. Quantification of both nanoparticle types revealed a linear correlation between labeling concentration and R2* values. However, according to core composition, different levels of labeling concentrations were needed to achieve comparable R2* values. Cell viability was not altered for all labeling concentrations, whereas the proliferation rate increased with increasing labeling concentrations. Likewise, deposition of lipid droplets as well as matrix calcification revealed to be highly dose-dependent particularly regarding multi-core nanoparticle-labeled cells. Synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins and mRNA expression of collagen type II was also highly dependent on nanoparticle labeling. In general, the differentiation potential was decreased with increasing labeling concentrations. This in vitro study provides the proof of principle for further in vivo tracking experiments of progenitor cells using nanoparticles with different core compositions but also provides striking evidence that combined testing of biological and MRI properties is advisable as improved MRI properties of multi-core nanoparticles may result in altered cell functions. PMID:25244560

  16. Detection sensitivity of MRI using ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide nano-particles (USPIO) in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Oghabian, M A; Guiti, M; Haddad, P; Gharehaghaji, N; Saber, R; Alam, N R; Malekpour, M; Rafie, B

    2006-01-01

    Today, by injecting iron oxide based nanoparticles (USPIO) as MRI contrast agents, it is possible to study lymphatic system and some specific tumors and their metastasis. The type of surface coating, and coating characteristics of the nanoparticles are important factors for the biological properties of nanoparticles and their destination target. On the other hand, these properties contribute to different signal intensities. This may confine application of all types of USPIO based contrast agents in routine daily experiments. In this study, the ability of detecting these particles having various sizes and coating properties was evaluated for MRI applications. Signal intensity changes after administration of these particles into tissues have been studied and their detection sensitivity was evaluated using a liver phantom and animal model (rat). IO based nanoparticles of various sizes (8-30 nm) functionalized and coated with various surface polymers such as dextran and starch, amine and hydroxide groups, and bear IO particles were used to investigate the signal changes. The optimized pulse sequences for proper demonstration of lymph nodes using these contrast agents were found (T2* FSPGR protocol with fat suppressions). A detection sensitivity of 98% was achieved in most experiments during applying a proper MR protocol. However, the type of surface coating, and coating characteristics such as thickness were shown to be essential factors for MRI signal intensity in both T1 and T2 protocols. PMID:17945909

  17. Method development and subsequent survey analysis of biological tissues for platinum, lead, and manganese content.

    PubMed Central

    Yoakum, A M; Stewart, P L; Sterrett, J E

    1975-01-01

    An emission spectrochemical method is described for the determination of trace quantities of platinum, lead, and manganese in biological tissues. Total energy burns in an argon-oxygen atmosphere are employed. Sample preparation, conditions of analysis, and preparation of standards are discussed. The precision of the method is consistently better than +/- 15%, and comparative analyses indicate comparable accuracies. Data obtained for experimental rat tissues and for selected autopsy tissues are presented. PMID:1157798

  18. The glycolate and 2-phosphoglycolate content of tissues measured by ion chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Hinsdale, Mark; Holmes, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate and 2-phosphoglycolate (PG) are 2-carbon monocarboxylic acids with ill-defined metabolic roles. Their concentrati ons have not yet been described in tissues apart from body fluids and erythrocytes. We describe the use of ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IC-MS) to quantify levels of glycolate and PG in tissue. Sample preparation and analysis can be performed within an hour. Low concentrations of glycolate (12 – 48 nmoles/g) and PG (4 – 17 nmoles/g) were detected in all tissues. The availability of this IC-MS assay will facilitate investigations of the origin, function, and metabolism of glycolate and PG in tissues. PMID:22093610

  19. PLANT SOURCES OF DIETARY IRON: DIVERSITY IN TISSUE IRON CONCENTRATION. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON IRON NUTRITION AND INTERACTIONS IN PLANTS, JULY 3-7, 2006, MONTPELLIER, FRANCE. 2006. P. 56.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an essential mineral for all organisms, including humans and other animals. Iron must be obtained through dietary sources, and plant food products are an important provider of this micronutrient. Because all plants contain iron, humans consume this nutrient in all vegetable, grain, and fru...

  20. Application of VNIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate soil organic carbon content, and content of different forms of iron and manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Ales; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Drabek, Ondrej; Boruvka, Lubos

    2013-04-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a progressive method used for prediction of soil properties. Study was performed on the soils from the agricultural land from the south Moravia municipality of Brumovice. Studied area is characterized by a relatively flat upper part, a tributary valley in the middle and a colluvial fan at the bottom. Haplic Chernozem reminded at the flat upper part of the area. Regosols were formed at steep parts of the valley. Colluvial Chernozem and Colluvial soils were formed at the bottom parts of the valley and at the bottom part of the studied field. The goal of the study was to evaluate relationship between soil spectra curves and organic matter content, and different forms iron and manganese content (Mehlich III extract, ammonium oxalate extract and dithionite-citrate extract). Samples (87) were taken from the topsoil within regular grid covering studied area. The soil spectra curves (of air dry soil and sieved using 2 mm sieve) were measured in the laboratory using spectometer FieldSpec®3 (350 - 2 500 nm). The Fe and Mn contents in different extract were measured using ICP-OES (with an iCAP 6500 Radial ICP Emission spectrometer; Thermo Scientific, UK) under standard analytical conditions. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for modeling of the relationship between spectra and measured soil properties. Prediction ability was evaluated using the R2, root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD). The results showed the best prediction for Mn (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 29, NRMSD = 0.11), Fe in ammonium oxalate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 171, NRMSD = 0.12) and organic matter content (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 0.13, NRMSD = 0.09). The slightly worse prediction was obtained for Mn and Fe in citrate extract (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 21, NRMSD = 0.10; R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 522, NRMSD = 0.23). Poor prediction was evaluated for Mn and Fe in Mehlich III extract (R2 = 0.43, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.17; R2 = 0.39, RMSE = 13, NRMSD = 0.26). In general, the results confirmed that the measurement of soil spectral characteristics is a promising technology for a digital soil mapping and predicting studied soil properties. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant No. QJ1230319) and the Czech Science Foundation (grant No. GA526/09/1762).

  1. Cobalt and scandium partitioning versus iron content for crystalline phases in ultramafic nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassley, W.E.; Piper, D.Z.

    1978-01-01

    Fractionation of Co and Sc between garnets, olivines, and clino- and orthopyroxenes, separated from a suite of Salt Lake Crater ultramafic nodules that equilibrated at the same T and P, is strongly dependent on Fe contents. This observation suggests that petrogenetic equilibrium models of partial melting and crystal fractionation must take into account effects of magma composition, if they are to describe quantitatively geochemical evolutionary trends. ?? 1978.

  2. In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conturo, Thomas Edward

    Tissue blood flow, blood content, and water state have been characterized in-situ with new nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The sensitivities of standard techniques to the physiologic tissue parameters spin density (N_{rm r}) and relaxation times (T_1 and T_2 ) are mathematically defined. A new driven inversion method is developed so that tissue T_1 and T_2 changes produce cooperative intensity changes, yielding high contrast, high signal to noise, and sensitivity to a wider range of tissue parameters. The actual tissue parameters were imaged by automated collection of multiple-echo data having multiple T _1 dependence. Data are simultaneously fit by three-parameters to a closed-form expression, producing lower inter-parameter correlation and parameter noise than in separate T_1 or T_2 methods or pre-averaged methods. Accurate parameters are obtained at different field strengths. Parametric images of pathology demonstrate high sensitivity to tissue heterogeneity, and water content is determined in many tissues. Erythrocytes were paramagnetically labeled to study blood content and relaxation mechanisms. Liver and spleen relaxation were enhanced following 10% exchange of animal blood volumes. Rapid water exchange between intracellular and extracellular compartments was validated. Erythrocytes occupied 12.5% of renal cortex volume, and blood content was uniform in the liver, spleen and kidney. The magnitude and direction of flow velocity was then imaged. To eliminate directional artifacts, a bipolar gradient technique sensitized to flow in different directions was developed. Phase angle was reconstructed instead of intensity since the former has a 2pi -fold higher dynamic range. Images of flow through curves demonstrated secondary flow with a centrifugally-biased laminar profile and stationary velocity peaks along the curvature. Portal vein flow velocities were diminished or reversed in cirrhosis. Image artifacts have been characterized and removed. The foldover in magnified images was eliminated by exciting limited regions with orthogonal pi/2 and pi pulses. Off-midline regions were imaged by tandemly offsetting the phase-encoding and excitation. Artifacts due to non-steady-state conditions were demonstrated. The approach to steady state was defined by operators and vectors, and any repeated series of RF pulses was proven to produce a steady-state. The vector difference between the magnetization and its steady state value is relatively constant during the approach. The repetition time relative to T_1 is the main determinant of approach rate, and off-resonant RF pulses incoherent with the magnetization produce a more rapid approach than on-resonant pulses.

  3. The effect of iron glycine chelate on tissue mineral levels, fecal mineral concentration, and liver antioxidant enzyme activity in weanling pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Feng; W. Q. Ma; Z. R. Xu; J. X. He; Y. Z. Wang; J. X. Liu

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four weaning pigs were used to evaluate the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on tissue mineral levels, fecal mineral concentration and liver antioxidant enzyme activities of weanling pigs. Pigs were allotted to six treatments based on live weight and litter origin. Treatments consisted of: (1) control (no Fe supplementationl); (2) 30mg Fe\\/kg diet from Fe-Gly; (3) 60mg Fe\\/kg diet

  4. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit, E-mail: paramgrover@gmail.com

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

  5. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana NAR1, a cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly component, in gametophytic gene expression and oxidative stress responses in vegetative tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miyuki; Buzas, Diana Mihaela; Kato, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Kurata, Nori; Kinoshita, Tetsu

    2013-09-01

    Iron-sulfur proteins have iron-sulfur clusters as a prosthetic group and are responsible for various cellular processes, including general transcriptional regulation, photosynthesis and respiration. The cytosolic iron-sulfur assembly (CIA) pathway of yeast has been shown to be responsible for regulation of iron-sulfur cluster assembly in both the cytosol and the nucleus. However, little is known about the roles of this pathway in multicellular organisms. In a forward genetic screen, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with impaired expression of the endosperm-specific gene Flowering Wageningen (FWA). To characterize this mutant, we carried out detailed phenotypic and genetic analyses during reproductive and vegetative development. The mutation affects NAR1, which encodes a homolog of a yeast CIA pathway component. Comparison of embryo development in nar1-3 and other A. thaliana mutants affected in the CIA pathway showed that the embryos aborted at a similar stage, suggesting that this pathway potentially functions in early seed development. Transcriptome analysis of homozygous viable nar1-4 seedlings showed transcriptional repression of a subset of genes involved in 'iron ion transport' and 'response to nitrate'. nar1-4 also exhibited resistance to the herbicide paraquat. Our results indicate that A. thaliana NAR1 has various functions including transcriptional regulation in gametophytes and abiotic stress responses in vegetative tissues. PMID:23734982

  6. Effect of Fixatives and Tissue Processing on the Content and Integrity of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Sedmak, Daniel; Jewell, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Clinical and molecular medicines are undergoing a revolution based on the accelerated advances in biotechnology such as DNA microarrays and proteomics. Answers to fundamental questions such as how does the DNA sequence differ between individuals and what makes one individual more prone for a certain disease are eagerly being sought in this postgenomic era. Several government and nonprofit organizations provide the researchers access to human tissues for molecular studies. The tissues procured by the different organizations may differ with respect to fixation and processing parameters that may affect significantly the molecular profile of the tissues. It is imperative that a prospective investigator be aware of the potential contributing factors before designing a project. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the methods of human tissue acquisition, fixation, and preservation. In addition, the parameters of procurement and fixation that affect the quality of the tissues at the molecular level are discussed. PMID:12466110

  7. The influence of humic acid and clay content on the transport of polymer-coated iron nanoparticles through sand.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bahngmi; O'Carroll, Denis; Sleep, Brent

    2014-10-15

    The introduction of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) into the subsurface has recently received significant attention as a potentially effective method for remediation of source zones of chlorinated solvents present as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). One of the challenges in the deployment of nZVI is to achieve good subsurface nZVI mobility to permit delivery of the nZVI to the target treatment zone. Stabilization of nZVI with various polymers has shown promise for enhancing nZVI subsurface mobility, but the impact of subsurface conditions on nZVI mobility has not been fully explored. In this study, the effect of humic acid and kaolinite on the transport of polymer-stabilized nZVI (carboxylmethyl cellulose-surface modified nZVI, CMC90K-RNIP) in sand was investigated using column experiments. In addition, effects of electrolytes on the stability of CMC90K-RNIP in the presence of humic acid, and the stability of humic acid-coated reactive nanoscale iron particles (HA-RNIP) at various humic acid concentrations were investigated. Humic acid enhanced the mobility of bare RNIP, whereas the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was not significantly affected by humic acid injected as a background solution, except at the highest concentration of 500mg/L. At lower pore water velocity, the effect of humic acid on the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was greater than that at high water velocity. Adding kaolinite up to 2% by weight to the sand column reduced the retention of CMC90K-RNIP, but further increases in kaolinite content (to 5%) did not significantly affect nZVI retention. The impact of kaolinite on nZVI retention was more pronounced at lower pore water velocities. PMID:25079234

  8. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kie?czykowska, Ma?gorzata; Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska, Anna; Lewandowska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability. PMID:17652829

  9. Reducing Glycosphingolipid Content in Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice Restores Insulin Sensitivity, Adipogenesis and Reduces Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Marco; Aten, Jan; Bijl, Nora; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.; Seeman, Ingar; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, Karen; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Arbeeny, Cynthia; Groen, Albert K.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an explanation for the observed improved glucose homeostasis. Leptin-deficient obese (LepOb) mice were fed AMP-DNM and its effects on insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammation were monitored in fat tissue. We show that reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in adipose tissue of LepOb mice restores insulin signalling in isolated ex vivo insulin-stimulated adipocytes. We observed improved adipogenesis as the number of larger adipocytes was reduced and expression of genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 and adipsin increased. In addition, we found that adiponectin gene expression and protein were increased by AMP-DNM. As a consequence of this improved function of fat tissue we observed less inflammation, which was characterized by reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (crown-like structures) and reduced levels of the macrophage chemo attractants monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1/Ccl2) and osteopontin (OPN). In conclusion, pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids by inhibition of glucosylceramide biosynthesis improves adipocyte function and as a consequence reduces inflammation in adipose tissue of obese animals. PMID:19305508

  10. [Factors which modify the nutritional state of iron: tannin content of herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Hertrampf, E; Walter, T

    1994-12-01

    Tannins are natural compounds that abound in herbs, wood and fruits. Their numerous hydroxyl radicals confer them a strong avidity for metals such as Fe, Zn and Cu. This property makes them strong inhibitors for the gastrointestinal absorption of these metals. Our purpose was to determine the tannin content of herbal infusions commonly consumed in Chile and other Latino American countries. The determination was performed from dessicated herbs with the Folin-Denis technique. Yerba mate, tea and oregano had the highest tannin content (117, 100 and 84 mg of tannic acid/g dry herb respectively). An intermediate level (between 20 and 40 of tannic acid/g) was for coca, matico, boldo, palto, laurel, orange and binojo. The lowest level of tannin for paico, cedrón, apio and manzanilla (< 10 mg/g). We conclude that the consumption of herbal teas at or around meals may inhibit the absorption of metals such as Fe, Zn, or Cu by decreasing their bioavailability. PMID:8984970

  11. Reduced adipose tissue macrophage content is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in thiazolidinedione-treated diabetic humans.

    PubMed

    Koppaka, Sudha; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Carey, Michelle; Li, Weijie; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Lee, Do-Eun; Lee, Hanna; Chen, Julie; Carrasco, Emilce; Kishore, Preeti; Zhang, Kehao; Hawkins, Meredith

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration, and rodent studies suggest that inflammatory factors produced by ATMs contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, a relationship between ATM content and insulin resistance has not been clearly established in humans. Since thiazolidinediones attenuate adipose tissue inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity, we examined the temporal relationship of the effects of pioglitazone on these two parameters. The effect of 10 and 21 days of pioglitazone treatment on insulin sensitivity in 26 diabetic subjects was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Because chemoattractant factors, cytokines, and immune cells have been implicated in regulating the recruitment of ATMs, we studied their temporal relationship to changes in ATM content. Improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity was seen after 21 days of pioglitazone. We found early reductions in macrophage chemoattractant factors after only 10 days of pioglitazone, followed by a 69% reduction in ATM content at 21 days and reduced ATM activation at both time points. Although markers for dendritic cells and neutrophils were reduced at both time points, there were no significant changes in regulatory T cells. These results are consistent with an association between adipose macrophage content and systemic insulin resistance in humans. PMID:23349486

  12. Claudin-3 and occludin tissue content in the glands of colonic mucosa with and without a fecal stream.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real; de Campos, Fabio Guilherme Caserta Maryssael; de Carvalho, Viviel Rodrigo José; de Castro Ferreira, Caroline; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Pereira, José Aires

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of the proteins of the apical tight junctions (TJs) depends on a continuous supply of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in colonic epithelium. No studies have evaluated the tissue contents of the TJs proteins in colon segments devoid of a fecal stream. To evaluate the contents of claudin-3 and occludin in the glands of colonic mucosa devoid of a fecal stream. Forty-five rats underwent a diversion of the fecal stream via a left side colostomy and distal mucous fistula. Three groups of 15 animals each were sacrificed at 6, 12 or 18 weeks after surgery. The presence and severity of colitis were defined by histology and inflammation grading scales, respectively. The expression of claudin-3 and occludin were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and their contents were evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate the results at a significance level of 5 % (p < 0.05). The colonic epithelium without a fecal stream had a higher degree of inflammation. Colonic glands without a fecal stream showed a reduction in claudin-3 content independent of the time and reduction in occludin content after 12 weeks of intestinal exclusion. The content of claudin-3 and occludin were mainly reduced at the apical surfaces of the colon glands, whereas segments retaining the fecal stream were maintained. The content of claudin-3 was not reduced with time, although the levels of occludin were reduced after 6 weeks and did not vary thereafter. Deficiencies in SCFAs decreased the content of claudin-3 and occludin in colonic glands with the areas of worst inflammation, confirming the importance of an adequate supply of SCFAs in maintaining the integrity of TJ proteins. PMID:25649016

  13. The effects of chemical sympathectomy on dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline content in some peripheral tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Caramona, M. M.; Soares-da-Silva, P.

    1985-01-01

    Dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad) depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and pargyline plus 6-OHDA was investigated in the cat left ventricle, mesenteric and renal arteries, renal cortex, renal medulla and adrenal medulla. Catecholamine concentrations in plasma were also analyzed in these two experimental conditions. 6-OHDA alone or in combination with pargyline induced parallel decreases of NA and dopamine contents in the left ventricle. In the main trunk and proximal branches of the mesenteric artery and renal artery 6-OHDA selectively reduced NA without a parallel decrease in dopamine content. Previous treatment with pargyline abolished this selectivity. In the kidney of control animals, dopamine content was greater than could be attributed to its presence only in noradrenergic neurones. In the renal cortex 6-OHDA reduced significantly dopamine and NA contents, and in the renal medulla only NA levels were decreased by this drug. Pargyline plus 6-OHDA did not deplete the NA content either in the renal cortex or in the renal medulla, and only reduced significantly the dopamine content in the renal cortex. NA concentrations in plasma were increased by pargyline plus 6-OHDA whilst Ad remained unaffected. In the adrenal medulla only NA content was reduced either by 6-OHDA or pargyline plus 6-OHDA. The present findings suggest a NA-independent dopamine pool in both segments of the mesenteric artery and renal artery but not in the left ventricle. PMID:3931730

  14. Amplitude and frequency content analysis of optoacoustic signals in laser heated ex-vivo tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderoute, Annie

    Laser thermal therapy involves heating tissue using light to temperatures between 55 °C and 95 °C for several minutes resulting in coagulation and cell death. This treatment method has been under investigation for use as a minimally invasive method for eradicating solid tumors and cancer cells. Optoacoustic imaging involves exposing optically absorbing media to nanosecond pulsed laser light causing rapid localized heating and inducing acoustic waves to be detected by wideband transducers. It has been proposed as a real-time, noninvasive method for monitoring laser thermal therapy. This thesis investigates the use of optoacoustics to discriminate between native and coagulated ex-vivo tissues (porcine tenderloin muscle, bovine liver and bovine kidney). Tissues were heated using a 1000 mum core optical fibre coupled to an 810 nm diode laser to generate lesions. Samples were scanned at 1064 nm using a prototype reverse-mode optoacoustic system consisting of a pulsed laser coupled to a bifurcated fibre bundle, and an 8 element annular array wideband ultrasound transducer with a central frequency of ˜5 MHz. Thermal coagulation effects were analyzed using optoacoustic signal amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis. Significant differences (p<0.05) in optoacoustic signals, between native and coagulated porcine muscle, were observed with both amplitude-based and frequency-based analysis methods. Inconsistencies in the amplitude-based analysis were observed in the bovine liver and bovine kidney. Significant differences between native and coagulated bovine liver tissues were observed in two of the three frequency parameters of interest (slope and midband fit, p<0.05). No significant differences between native and coagulated bovine kidney tissues using frequency-based analysis. Amplitude-based analysis methods take advantage of the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of the tissues, while the frequency-based method extracts metrics related physical parameters of the absorbers (such as size, shape and concentration). By isolating the samples from temperature influence (by acquiring OA data of native and coagulated tissues at constant temperature) we have demonstrated that optoacoustics can be used to directly detect tissue damage in two of these three tissue types. The results of this work support the evidence that optoacoustic imaging could be a tool for real-time monitoring of laser thermal heating, but warrant further investigation.

  15. Content of Trans Fatty Acids in Human Cheek Epithelium: Comparison with Serum and Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ransi A.; Bahl, Vinay K.; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, V.; Roy, Ambuj; Golandaz, Smita; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy

    2013-01-01

    Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA), which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 (P < 0.02) and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (P < 0.019). This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake. PMID:24222900

  16. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    PubMed

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease. PMID:24511683

  17. Therapeutic effects of an oral chelator targeting skeletal tissue damage in experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Men, Ping; Kenner, Gerry H; Miller, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies revealed that age-associated iron accumulation plays an important causal role in osteopenic development after estrogen deficiency. It is believed that an increase in iron content is associated with an increased likelihood of oxidative damage at the point of iron accumulation. However, there is no direct evidence that the iron accumulated in skeletal tissue causes free radical oxidative damage and consequent bone loss. Iron depletion from skeletal tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) rats was carried out with the oral chelator [1-N-docosyl-triethylenetetraminepentaacetic acid (DoTTPA)]. Results suggest the causal role of iron in oxidative damage that may lead to bone loss in the rats. The results also show the therapeutic potential of the bone-targeted chelator to protect against bone loss associated with age-iron accumulation as well as iron overload diseases. PMID:18274995

  18. EFFECT OF SILICA AND VOLCANIC ASH ON THE CONTENT OF LUNG ALVEOLAR AND TISSUE PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silica or volcanic ash (VA) was administered to rats via intratracheal instillation and the changes in extracellular (i.e., lavage fluid) and tissue phospholipids, as well as various biochemical parameters, were monitored over a six month period. VA produced relatively minor (up ...

  19. Proteomic Analysis of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 and Implications for Estimates of the Cellular Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. A.; Bertrand, E. M.; Bulygin, V.; Moran, D.; Waterbury, J. B.

    2008-12-01

    The proteome of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 was analyzed by nanospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nLC-MS) with two major goals: to provide a first examination of the relative abundance of the most abundant proteins in this important microbe and to provide the necessary mass spectra for future quantification of biogeochemically significant proteins. Analyses of 37 nLC-MS runs of whole cell tryptic digestions and SDS-PAGE gel separated tryptic digestions resulted in a total of 636 proteins identified, 376 identified with two or more tryptic peptides. The identifications used the Sequest algorithm with stringent data filters on 54003 observed peptides, 3066 of which were unique, with a false positive rate of 2.2%. These measured proteins represent ~ 25.2% (14.8% with >= 2 peptides) of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, similar to or higher than the percentage found in other cyanobacterial proteome studies thus far. The relative abundance of the more abundant proteins in the proteome was examined using the exponentially modified protein abundance index from a single nLC-MS run that identified 372 proteins (14.7% of the ORFs) from 7743 observed peptides (1224 unique peptides). Estimates of the relative abundance showed the photosynthesis and respiration category contributing approximately 32% of the total detected protein, hypothetical proteins contributing about 16%, and translation about 12%. Of biogeochemical interest, multiple types of nitrogen assimilation systems were observed to be simultaneously expressed as proteins, only 5 of the 21 B12 biosynthesis proteins were identified likely due to low abundance, and the metalloproteins metallothionein and nickel superoxide dismutase were relatively abundant. In contrast to previous predictions of a high photosystem I: photosystem II ratio of approximately 3 in the cyanobacteria and a resultant high cellular iron content, the ratio of the average relative abundances of all detected proteins in each photosystem was only 1.2, and the median was only 0.72 based on the median. These results contradict the earlier predication of a biochemical basis for a high cellular iron in Synechococcus and may extend to the marine cyanobacteria in general.

  20. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world's population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes) has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains) and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA) metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings (NTS). Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of yellow stripe like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II) complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content. PMID:23755054

  1. Transient response method for characterization of active sites in HZSM-5 with low content of iron during N 2O decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker; Dmitri A Bulushev; Albert Renken

    2004-01-01

    The surface active Fe-sites in HZSM-5 with low content of iron (<1000ppm) activated by steaming and high temperature (up to 1323K) calcination in inert lead to the formation of surface oxygen (O)ad species from N2O and were characterized quantitatively by transient response method. Only a part of (O)ad deposited on zeolite by decomposing N2O was active in CO oxidation at

  2. Sensing Lanthanide Metal Content in Biological Tissues with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Dina V.; Gonzalez, Sandra I.; Li, Jessica F.; Pagel, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The development and validation of MRI contrast agents consisting of a lanthanide chelate often requires a determination of the concentration of the agent in ex vivo tissue. We have developed a protocol that uses 70% nitric acid to completely digest tissue samples that contain Gd(III), Dy(III), Tm(III), Eu(III), or Yb(III) ions, or the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide. NMR spectroscopy of coaxial tubes containing a digested sample and a separate control solution of nitric acid was used to rapidly and easily measure the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift caused by each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide. Each BMS shift was shown to be linearly correlated with the concentration of each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide in the 70% nitric acid solution and in digested rat kidney and liver tissues. These concentration measurements had outstanding precision, and also had good accuracy for concentrations ?10 mM for Tm(III) Eu(III), and Yb(III), and ?3 mM for Gd(III), gadodiamide, and Dy(III). Improved sample handling methods are needed to improve measurement accuracy for samples with lower concentrations. PMID:24152931

  3. The effect of feeding a low iron diet prior to and during gestation on fetal and maternal iron homeostasis in two strains of rat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy is a global problem, with short and long term consequences for maternal and child health. Animal models have demonstrated that the developing fetus is vulnerable to maternal iron restriction, impacting on postnatal metabolic and blood pressure regulation. Whilst long-term outcomes are similar across different models, the commonality in mechanistic events across models is unknown. This study examined the impact of iron deficiency on maternal and fetal iron homeostasis in two strains of rat. Methods Wistar (n=20) and Rowett Hooded Lister (RHL, n=19) rats were fed a control or low iron diet for 4 weeks prior to and during pregnancy. Tissues were collected at day 21 of gestation for analysis of iron content and mRNA/protein expression of regulatory proteins and transporters. Results A reduction in maternal liver iron content in response to the low iron diet was associated with upregulation of transferrin receptor expression and a reduction in hepcidin expression in the liver of both strains, which would be expected to promote increased iron absorption across the gut and increased turnover of iron in the liver. Placental expression of transferrin and DMT1+IRE were also upregulated, indicating adaptive responses to ensure availability of iron to the fetus. There were considerable differences in hepatic maternal and fetal iron content between strains. The higher quantity of iron present in livers from Wistar rats was not explained by differences in expression of intestinal iron transporters, and may instead reflect greater materno-fetal transfer in RHL rats as indicated by increased expression of placental iron transporters in this strain. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate substantial differences in iron homeostasis between two strains of rat during pregnancy, with variable impact of iron deficiency on the fetus. Whilst common developmental processes and pathways have been observed across different models of nutrient restriction during pregnancy, this study demonstrates differences in maternal adaptation which may impact on the trajectory of the programmed response. PMID:23635304

  4. Elevated tissue betaine contents in developing rats are due to dietary betaine, not to synthesis.

    PubMed

    Clow, Kathy A; Treberg, Jason R; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2008-09-01

    The time course of betaine accumulation and activities of enzymes involved in betaine metabolism were studied in developing rats. In study 1, pups weaned on a nonpurified diet had a transient increase in liver and kidney betaine content followed by a decline after approximately 42-56 d. In study 2, dams and, following weaning, pups were fed an AIN-93G (betaine-free) or an AIN-93G betaine-supplemented diet (0.3%) to determine the source of the transient increase in betaine levels previously observed. In study 2, only rats fed betaine had an increase in plasma betaine concentration. Similarly, liver and kidney betaine contents increased postweaning; however, betaine levels returned to that found in rats fed a betaine-free diet by 49 d of age. The dietary content of betaine fed to dams did not affect pup betaine. The activities of choline dehydrogenase, an enzyme of betaine synthesis, and betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), which is the only known betaine-consuming enzyme in mammals, were also measured in study 2. Liver BHMT activity decreased after weaning, whereas liver and kidney choline dehydrogenase activity increased with age, possibly reaching a plateau by 42 d of age. We conclude that the transient increase in betaine reflects high dietary betaine and not a change in endogenous betaine synthesis. PMID:18716163

  5. The effect of iron-ore particles on the metal content of the brown alga Padina gymnospora (Espírito Santo Bay, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Nassar, Cristina A G; Salgado, Leonardo T; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Amado Filho, Gilberto M

    2003-01-01

    The iron-ore particles discharged by a pellet processing plant (Espírito Santo Bay, Brazil) cover the seabed of Camburi Beach and consequently, the epibenthic community. In order to determine the importance of the contribution of the iron-ore deposits to the metal concentration in macroalgae of Espirito Santo Bay, four methods of cleaning particulate material adhered to the surface of thalli were tested prior to metal tissue analysis (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of Padina gymnospora. In addition, heavy metal concentrations were determined in individuals of P. gymnospora from a site (Frade Island) not affected by the iron-ore particles. The most efficient cleaning treatment, a combination of scraping and washing with an ethanol-seawater solution (NA+SC+ET) removed a number of particles on the surface of thalli 10 times higher than that observed in the control (C). Using this treatment, the total-metal concentrations were reduced by 78% for Fe and 50% for Al respect to the control. However, Fe, Al and Cu concentrations after treatment NA+SC+ET were significantly higher than those found at Frade Island. It is suggested that the iron-ore deposit might be a source for metal availability to macroalgae exposed to the dumped material at Espirito Santo Bay. PMID:12628209

  6. Relationships between silicon content and glutathione peroxidase activity in tissues of rats receiving lithium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kie?czykowska, Ma?gorzata; Musik, Irena; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2008-02-01

    Lithium salts are widely used in psychiatry, but their presence in organism can result in both beneficial and adverse effects. Silicon, the third most abundant trace element in humans as well as antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) play important roles in organism. The disturbance of their level can cause severe disorders. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of Li2CO3 administration in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks on Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle in rats. The concentrations of provided solutions were 0.7, 1.4, 2.6, 3.6, 7.1 and 10.7 mmol Li+ x dm-3. GPx activity was decreased versus control as a consequence of Li treatment, particularly in kidney and brain. This effect could be suggested to contribute to renal abnormalities which could occur during Li therapy. Si tissue level was significantly enhanced versus control in liver and femoral muscle in groups receiving high Li doses. In brain no well-marked changes were observed, whereas in kidney we observed the depletion in low-Li-groups, restoration of Si level in higher-Li-groups and unexpected decrease in the highest-Li-group. Positive correlations between Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of kidney (r = 0.677) and brain (r = 0.790) as well as negative correlation (r = -0.819) in femoral muscle were found. We consider that our results give some reason for suggesting that monitoring of silicon level in patients undergoing Li therapy could be recommended. However, more investigations should be performed, particularly regarding the relationships between Si and GPx in blood and urine Si excretion during lithium administration. PMID:17447120

  7. Changes in visceral adipose tissue mitochondrial content with type 2 diabetes and daily voluntary wheel running in OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Laye, Matthew J; Rector, R Scott; Warner, Shana O; Naples, Scott P; Perretta, Aspen L; Uptergrove, Grace M; Laughlin, M Harold; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2009-07-15

    Using the hyperphagic, obese, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, we sought to determine if progression to type 2 diabetes alters visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial content and if these changes are modified through prevention of type 2 diabetes with daily exercise. At 4 weeks of age, OLETF rats began voluntary wheel running (OLETF-EX) while additional OLETF rats (OLETF-SED) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO-SED) rats served as obese and lean sedentary controls, respectively, for 13, 20 and 40 weeks of age (n = 6-8 for each group at each age). OLETF-SED animals displayed insulin resistance at 13 and 20 weeks and type 2 diabetes by 40 weeks. OLETF-SED animals gained significantly (P < 0.001) more weight and omental fat mass compared with OLETF-EX and LETO-SED. Markers of WAT mitochondrial protein content (cytochrome c, COXIV-subunit I, and citrate synthase activity) significantly increased (P < 0.05) from 13 to 40 weeks in the LETO-SED, but were significantly attenuated in the OLETF-SED rats. Daily exercise normalized WAT cytochrome c and COXIV-subunit I protein content in the OLETF-EX to the healthy LETO-SED animals. In conclusion, increases in omental WAT mitochondrial content between 20 and 40 weeks of age in LETO control animals are attenuated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat. These alterations occurred in conjunction with the progression from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes and were prevented with daily exercise. Reduced ability to increase WAT mitochondrial content does not appear to be a primary cause of insulin resistance, but may play a key role in the worsening of the disease condition. PMID:19491243

  8. Changes in visceral adipose tissue mitochondrial content with type 2 diabetes and daily voluntary wheel running in OLETF rats

    PubMed Central

    Laye, Matthew J; Rector, R Scott; Warner, Shana O; Naples, Scott P; Perretta, Aspen L; Uptergrove, Grace M; Laughlin, M Harold; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2009-01-01

    Using the hyperphagic, obese, Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, we sought to determine if progression to type 2 diabetes alters visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial content and if these changes are modified through prevention of type 2 diabetes with daily exercise. At 4 weeks of age, OLETF rats began voluntary wheel running (OLETF-EX) while additional OLETF rats (OLETF-SED) and Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO-SED) rats served as obese and lean sedentary controls, respectively, for 13, 20 and 40 weeks of age (n= 6–8 for each group at each age). OLETF-SED animals displayed insulin resistance at 13 and 20 weeks and type 2 diabetes by 40 weeks. OLETF-SED animals gained significantly (P < 0.001) more weight and omental fat mass compared with OLETF-EX and LETO-SED. Markers of WAT mitochondrial protein content (cytochrome c, COXIV-subunit I, and citrate synthase activity) significantly increased (P < 0.05) from 13 to 40 weeks in the LETO-SED, but were significantly attenuated in the OLETF-SED rats. Daily exercise normalized WAT cytochrome c and COXIV-subunit I protein content in the OLETF-EX to the healthy LETO-SED animals. In conclusion, increases in omental WAT mitochondrial content between 20 and 40 weeks of age in LETO control animals are attenuated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat. These alterations occurred in conjunction with the progression from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes and were prevented with daily exercise. Reduced ability to increase WAT mitochondrial content does not appear to be a primary cause of insulin resistance, but may play a key role in the worsening of the disease condition. PMID:19491243

  9. Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grover, Jagdish Kumari; Vats, Vikrant; Yadav, Satyapal

    2002-12-01

    The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body-weight was significantly increased in diabetics (p < 0.0005) vs. normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (p < 0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of PM extract. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10-fold while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls vs. controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by PM. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35,50 and 60% of the controls and PM completely corrected this alteration in PFK and only partly in HK and GK. PMID:12482025

  10. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of Aesculus glabra and Aesculus parviflora Walt.

    PubMed

    Oszmia?ski, Jan; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Biernat, Agata

    2015-01-01

    In plants, flavonoids play an important role in biological processes. They are involved in UV-scavenging, fertility and disease resistance. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in Aesculus parviflora Walt. leaves and Aesculus glabra leaves partly suffering from attack by a leaf mining insect (C. ohridella). A total of 28 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in Aesculus parviflora and A. glabra leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polymeric procyanidins in leaves of Aesculus parviflora than in Aesculus glabra may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25635381

  11. Characterization of exogeous particale content: Of canine tissue urban vs. rural inhalation exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Jamell

    Exogenous zinc (Zn) is emerging as a serious contaminant in the environment. Yearly deposition of zinc particles line heavily traveled inner city roadways and less traveled rural roadways. Particle size for zinc ranges from approximately PM10 to PM 2.5 microm or less. These fine particles contain microscopic solids or liquids that can cause serious health problems. PM10 are considered to be "thoracic" sized particles, with the mass fraction of inhaled particles penetrating beyond the larynx. Whereas, PM2.5 are considered to be "respirable" sized particles, with the mass fraction of inhaled particles penetrating to the unciliated airways. Exogenous zinc can be used as a quantifiable marker to contrast the differences in exposures in canines originating from urban and rural environments. These exposures are analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and usage of a morphometric point counting method for a physical count and categorization of composition of inhaled retained particle content.

  12. Semenogelins in the human retina: Differences in distribution and content between AMD and normal donor tissues.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Vera L; Rayborn, Mary E; Shadrach, Karen G; Li, Yong; Lundwall, Ake; Malm, Johan; Hollyfield, Joe G

    2008-01-01

    The two cellular targets of interest in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the photoreceptors and the RPE. However, the mechanisms involved in AMD pathology are not yet fully understood. In the present report, we extend our previous studies on semenogelin proteins (Sgs) in normal human retina and compare these with the distribution in retinas from AMD donor eyes. Semenogelins I (SgI) and II (SgII) are the major structural protein components of semen coagulum, but have been recently found in non-genital tissues as well. Cryo and paraffin sections of human retina were processed for both immunofluorescence and DAB reaction with a specific antibody. The presence of SgI was analyzed in retina and RPE total lysates and SgI was detected by western blot in human retina and RPE. The intensity of immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the AMD eyes. SgI is expressed in the normal human retina and in the retina of AMD donor eyes, where localization was detected in the photoreceptors and in a few ganglion cells. We find the distribution of SgI in the AMD retinas substantially lower than observed in normal retina. SgI localization to photoreceptors and the RPE suggests a possible function related to the ability of these cells to sequester zinc. PMID:18036592

  13. Ultra High Content Image Analysis and Phenotype Profiling of 3D Cultured Micro-Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Di, Zi; Klop, Maarten J. D.; Rogkoti, Vasiliki-Maria; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E.; van de Water, Bob; Verbeek, Fons J.; Price, Leo S.; Meerman, John H. N.

    2014-01-01

    In many situations, 3D cell cultures mimic the natural organization of tissues more closely than 2D cultures. Conventional methods for phenotyping such 3D cultures use either single or multiple simple parameters based on morphology and fluorescence staining intensity. However, due to their simplicity many details are not taken into account which limits system-level study of phenotype characteristics. Here, we have developed a new image analysis platform to automatically profile 3D cell phenotypes with 598 parameters including morphology, topology, and texture parameters such as wavelet and image moments. As proof of concept, we analyzed mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 cells) in a 384-well plate format following exposure to a diverse set of compounds at different concentrations. The result showed concentration dependent phenotypic trajectories for different biologically active compounds that could be used to classify compounds based on their biological target. To demonstrate the wider applicability of our method, we analyzed the phenotypes of a collection of 44 human breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D and showed that our method correctly distinguished basal-A, basal-B, luminal and ERBB2+ cell lines in a supervised nearest neighbor classification method. PMID:25289886

  14. Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alenkina, I. V.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Klepova, Yu. V.; Dubiel, S. M.; Sadovnikov, N. V.; Semionkin, V. A.

    Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for comparative analysis of iron cores in a human liver ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models Imferon, Maltofer® and Ferrum Lek as well as in iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues allowed to reveal small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters related to differences in the iron core structure. Moreover, it was shown that the best fit of Mössbauer spectra of these samples required different number of components. The latter may indicate that the real iron core structure is more complex than that following from a simple core-shell model. The effect of different living conditions and age on the iron core in chicken liver was also considered.

  15. Friction and wear with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide in contact with iron base binary alloys in oil: Effects of alloying element and its content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a rider of 0.025-millimeter-radius, single-crystal silicon carbide in mineral oil. Results indicate that atomic size and content of alloying element play a dominant role in controlling the abrasive-wear and -friction properties of iron-base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction and groove height (wear volume) general alloy decrease, and the contact pressure increases in solute content. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic radius ratio with the decreasing rate of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of groove height (wear volume), and the increasing rate of contact pressure with increasing solute content C. Those rates increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases from unity.

  16. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Okorie E.; Bae, Jun Young; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Seunghyung; Park, Gun-Hyun; Mohseni, Mahmoud; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2014-01-01

    This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2) as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD) were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0), 21.0 (C21), 40.7 (C41), 83.5 (C83), 162 (C162), 1,387 (C1,387) and 2,743 (C2,743) mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05). Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet. PMID:25049927

  17. Brain Iron Detected by SWI High Pass Filtered Phase Calibrated with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Karla; Popescu, Bogdan F.Gh.; McCrea, Richard P.E.; Harder, Sheri L.; Robinson, Christopher A.; Haacke, Mark E.; Rajput, Ali H.; Rajput, Alex; Nichol, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the ability of susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and high pass filtered phase images to localize and quantify brain iron. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images of human cadaver brain hemispheres were collected using a gradient echo based SWI sequence at 1.5T. For X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping, each brain was cut to obtain slices that reasonably matched the MR images and iron was mapped at the iron K-edge at 50 or 100 ?m resolution. Iron was quantified using XRF calibration foils. Phase and iron XRF were averaged within anatomic regions of one slice, chosen for its range of iron concentrations and nearly perfect anatomic correspondence. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine if the chemical form of iron was different in regions with poorer correspondence between iron and phase. Results Iron XRF maps, SWI, and high pass filtered phase data in nine brain slices from five subjects were visually very similar, particularly in high iron regions. The chemical form of iron could not explain poor matches. The correlation between the concentration of iron and phase in the cadaver brain was estimated as cFe [?g/g tissue] = 850?? + 110. Conclusion The phase shift ?? was found to vary linearly with iron concentration with the best correspondence found in regions with high iron content. PMID:20512886

  18. Iron and Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Judith A.; McClain, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload is a risk factor for diabetes. The link between iron and diabetes was first recognized in pathologic conditions—hereditary hemochromatosis and thalassemia—but high levels of dietary iron also impart diabetes risk. Iron plays a direct and causal role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by ?-cell failure and insulin resistance. Iron is also a factor in the regulation of metabolism in most tissues involved in fuel homeostasis, with the adipocyte in particular serving an iron-sensing role. The underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are numerous and incompletely understood, but include oxidant stress and modulation of adipokines and intracellular signal transduction pathways. PMID:23473030

  19. Over-expression of the MxIRT1 gene increases iron and zinc content in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song; Han, Rui; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei-Bing; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce Fe-biofortified rice with MxIRT1 to solve the Fe-deficiency problem, plant expression vectors of pCAMBIA1302-MxIRT1:GFP and pCAMBIA1302-anti MxIRT1:GFP were constructed that led to successful production of transgenic rice. The transgenic plant phenotypes showed that the expression of endogenous OsIRT1 was suppressed by anti-MxIRT1 in antisense lines that acted as an opposing control, while sense lines had a higher tolerance under Zn- and Fe-deficient conditions. The iron and zinc concentration in T3 seeds increased by three times in sense lines when compared to the wild type. To understand the MxIRT1 cadmium uptake, the MxIRT1 cadmium absorption trait was compared with AtIRT1 and OsIRT1 in transgenic rice protoplasts, and it was found that MxIRT1 had the lowest Cd uptake capacity. MxIRT1 transgenic tobacco-cultured bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells and rice lines were subjected to different Fe conditions and the results from the non-invasive micro-test technique showed that iron was actively transported compared to cadmium as long as iron was readily available in the environment. This suggests that MxIRT1 is a good candidate gene for plant Fe and Zn biofortification. PMID:25099285

  20. Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

  1. Effects of Iron Wood (Parrotia persica C.A. Meyer) Leaf Litter on Forest Soil Nutrients Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aidin Parsakhoo; Hamid Jalilvand

    2 Abstract: Parrotia persica or Iron wood is a unique broad leaves species in Hyrcanian forest of IR-Iran. The produced leaf litter by this species is an intrinsic component of the ecological integrity of a forested ecosystem. In present study the soil of leaf litter beneath and control plots were sampled at the depth of 0-10 cm. Samples were analyzed

  2. Application of Excess Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers Leads to Lowering of Grain Iron Content in High Yielding Tropical Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binay Bhusan Panda; Srigopal Sharma; Pravat Kumar Mohapatra; Avijit Das

    2012-01-01

    Influences of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer doses were assessed on iron (Fe) accumulation in leaves and grains of three high yielding rice cultivars differing in grain Fe concentration. Effect of these treatments were also measured on grain yield, leaf area and plant biomass of the cultivars. Nitrogen, P and K applications improved plant biomass and grain

  3. Effects of nano-selenium on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cai, S J; Wu, C X; Gong, L M; Song, T; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-selenium (nano-Se) on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. A total of five hundred forty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The 5 treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se. The selenium content of the unsupplemented control diet was 0.09 mg/kg for the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and 0.08 mg/kg for the grower phase (22 to 42 d). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in performance, meat color, or immune organ index (thymus, bursa, and spleen) due to supplementation with nano-Se. On d 42, a significant quadratic effect of nano-Se was observed on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition, contents of IgM, glutathione, and malondialdehyde in serum, on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition in liver, and on glutathione peroxidase activity in muscle, with birds fed 0.30 mg/kg of nano-Se exhibiting the best effect and birds fed 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se showing the worst effect on these parameters. Liver and muscle selenium content increased linearly and quadratically as the dietary nano-Se level increased (P < 0.01), and reached the highest value when 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se was fed. Based on a consideration of all experiment indexes, 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg is suggested to be the optimum level of supplementation of nano-Se, and the maximum supplementation of nano-Se could not be more than 1.0 mg/kg in broilers. PMID:22991539

  4. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties. PMID:25582178

  5. Analysis of iron, zinc, selenium and cadmium in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Gray, Michael A.; MacIas, V.; Centeno, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens represent a valuable and abundant resource of pathologic material for various biomedical studies. In the present study, we report the application of high-resolution inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) for quantification of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd in FFPE prostate tissue. These elements have a possible role in the development of prostate diseases: while Zn and Se are needed for a healthy prostate, Cd shows multiple toxic and carcinogenic effects. Excessive accumulation of Fe induces the production of highly reactive hydroxyl radical species, which may play a role in cancer etiopathogenesis. To assess whether the levels of these metals in the FFPE prostate tissue represent their original content, we compared their levels with those in the fresh tissue (on dry weight basis) in samples obtained from 15 patients. We found that in FFPE tissue, the recoveries of Se, Fe, Cd and Zn were progressively decreased, 97??11% (r=0.88), 82??22% (r=0.86), 59??23% (r=0.69) and 24??11% (r=0.38), respectively. Thus, the use of correction factors, determined as k=0.16 for Se, k=0.20 for Fe, k=0.27 for Cd and k=0.67 for Zn, is required to estimate the retrospective levels of these elements in the parental non-processed fresh (wet) prostate tissue. The technique used in this study enables the analysis of archival FFPE prostate tissue for the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Se and Cd to study association between the levels of these metals and prostate disease. ?? 2008.

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Iron-dependent modifications of the flower transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormonal content in an Arabidopsis ferritin mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sudre, Damien; Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Briat, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is an important process for flower development and plant fertility. The role of plastids in these processes has been shown to be essential. To document the relationships between plastid iron homeostasis and flower biology further, a global study (transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormone analysis) was performed of Arabidopsis flowers from wild-type and triple atfer1-3-4 ferritin mutant plants grown under iron-sufficient or excess conditions. Some major modifications in specific functional categories were consistently observed at these three omic levels, although no significant overlaps of specific transcripts and proteins were detected. These modifications concerned redox reactions and oxidative stress, as well as amino acid and protein catabolism, this latter point being exemplified by an almost 10-fold increase in urea concentration of atfer1-3-4 flowers from plants grown under iron excess conditions. The mutant background caused alterations in Fe–haem redox proteins located in membranes and in hormone-responsive proteins. Specific effects of excess Fe in the mutant included further changes in these categories, supporting the idea that the mutant is facing a more intense Fe/redox stress than the wild type. The mutation and/or excess Fe had a strong impact at the membrane level, as denoted by the changes in the transporter and lipid metabolism categories. In spite of the large number of genes and proteins responsive to hormones found to be regulated in this study, changes in the hormonal balance were restricted to cytokinins, especially in the mutant plants grown under Fe excess conditions. PMID:23682113

  8. Metal contents in liver tissues of non-fledged Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula , ducklings: A comparison between samples from acidic, circumneutral, and limed lakes in South Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats O. G. Eriksson; Lennart Henrikson; Hans G. Oscarson

    1989-01-01

    The risk of increased exposure to metals for a vertebrate predator foraging on aquatic insects in acidified lakes was investigated through analyses of the content of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Ru, Se, and Zn in the liver tissue of 42 non-fledged Goldeneye,Bucephala clangula, ducklings from acidic, circumneutral, and limed lakes in South Sweden. No indications

  9. Chemical-Shift MRI Measurements of Variations in Murine Brown Adipose Tissue Fat Content Due to Housing Temperature Houchun Harry Hu1,2

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    -signal fraction metric to measure in vivo the differential fat content of BAT in mice housed at cold, room to Housing Temperature Houchun Harry Hu1,2 , Daniel Larry Smith, Jr. 3 , Yongbin Yang3 , Guihua Zhai4 adipose tissue (BAT) is a topic of strong interest in obesity research due to its role in non

  10. Influence of carbon on physics and chemistry of iron and experimental constraints on carbon content of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile elements such as sulfur, phosphorous, silicon, and oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen affect the melting behavior, elasticity, and chemistry of Earth materials and therefore play crucial roles in the differentiation and evolution of the planet. Limited understanding of the Earth's budget and pathways of volatiles arises from uncertainties in the nature and abundances of light elements in the core. Recent studies suggest that iron carbide may exist as a major component of the inner core, making the central sphere potentially the largest reservoir of carbon in Earth. Presented here are experimental results revealing pressure- and temperature-induced magnetic transitions in Fe3C and Fe7C3 and associated effects on their densities and sound velocities, the melting relation of the Fe-C binary system, and the partitioning and diffusion of carbon across the inner-core boundary (ICB) and core-mantle boundary (CMB). By comparing the iron-carbon system with other iron-light-element systems, the abundance and dynamics of carbon in the Earth's interior will be assessed.

  11. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  12. The response of a spherical tissue-equivalent proportional counter to iron particles from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersey, B. B.; Borak, T. B.; Guetersloh, S. B.; Zeitlin, C.; Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Murakami, T.; Iwata, Y.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The radiation environment on board the space shuttle and the International Space Station includes high-Z and high-energy (HZE) particles that are part of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) spectrum. Iron-56 particles are considered to be one of the most biologically important parts of the GCR spectrum. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are used as active dosimeters on manned space flights. These TEPCs are further used to determine the average quality factor for each space mission. A TEPC simulating a 1-microm-diameter sphere of tissue was exposed as part of a particle spectrometer to (56)Fe particles at energies from 200-1000 MeV/nucleon. The response of TEPCs in terms of mean lineal energy, y(F), and dose mean lineal energy, y(D), as well as the energy deposited at different impact parameters through the detector was determined for six different incident energies of (56)Fe particles in this energy range. Calculations determined that charged-particle equilibrium was achieved for each of the six experiments. Energy depositions at different impact parameters were calculated using a radial dose distribution model, and the results were compared to experimental data.

  13. Acquisition of iron bound to low molecular weight chelates by human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Olakanmi, O; Stokes, J B; Britigan, B E

    1994-09-15

    The iron content of tissue macrophages increases under conditions of elevated extracellular iron. Studies of macrophage iron acquisition have generally focused on iron uptake from transferrin via receptor-mediated endocytosis. However, in vivo macrophages are also exposed to extracellular low m.w. iron chelates, particularly under conditions of iron overload. Therefore, we examined the mechanism of iron acquisition from low m.w. chelates by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Iron acquisition was influenced by the nature of the iron chelate: Fe-ascorbate > Fe-citrate > Fe-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) = Fe-ADP > Fe-glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine > Fe-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid > Fe-EDTA = Fe-deferoxamine. With the exception of Fe-EDTA and Fe-deferoxamine, iron acquisition was greater than that with diferric transferrin. As assessed by using iron acquisition from NTA as a model, the process is temperature dependent, but pH independent (pH 5 to 8), and is influenced by the medium in which the cells are suspended. Acquisition is not affected by NaF, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, NaCN, or monocyte-derived macrophage exposure to trypsin, pronase, phenylarsine oxide, dihydrocytochalasin B, filipin, nystatin, or digitonin. The rate of iron acquisition from NTA is induced by iron pre-exposure as well as aluminum. In contrast, NTA chelates of other transition metals (Cd, Cu, Ga, Mn, and Zn) inhibited iron uptake by 20 to 80%. Unlike results obtained with Ga-NTA, Ga(NO3)3 increased iron uptake from NTA. Data obtained with neutrophils, and undifferentiated U937 and HL-60 cells were similar, which suggests that myeloid cells share this pathway for iron acquisition. Iron acquisition via this mechanism may allow macrophages and other leukocytes to clear local states of iron overload in vivo. PMID:8077675

  14. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    PubMed

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth. PMID:22313773

  15. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  16. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and metallothionein content in tissues of the sea bream Sparus aurata from three different fish farming systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Cretì; Francesca Trinchella; Rosaria Scudiero

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and potential bioaccumulation of dietary and waterborne cadmium and lead in tissues of sea bream (Sparus aurata), a major aquaculture species, was studied in relation to three different fish farming systems. Metallothionein levels in\\u000a fish tissues were also evaluated. Results demonstrate that metal concentrations in various tissues significantly vary among\\u000a fish culture systems. Different tissues show different capacity

  17. Effects of rutin supplementation on antioxidant status and iron, copper, and zinc contents in mouse liver and brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhonghong Gao; Huibi Xu; Kaixun Huang

    2002-01-01

    The effect of rutin on total antioxidant status as well as on trace elements such as iron, copper, and zinc in mouse liver\\u000a and brain were studied. Mice were administrated with 0.75 g\\/kg or 2.25 g\\/kg P. O. of rutin for 30 d consecutively. Following\\u000a the treatment, the activity of total antioxidant status, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, zinc,\\u000a copper,

  18. Increased Iron Sequestration in Alveolar Macrophages in Chronic Obtructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Philippot, Quentin; Deslée, Gaëtan; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Woods, Jason C.; Byers, Derek; Conradi, Susan; Dury, Sandra; Perotin, Jeanne Marie; Lebargy, François; Cassan, Christelle; Le Naour, Richard; Holtzman, Michael J.; Pierce, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2–3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1–3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor), storage (ferritin) and export (ferroportin) genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)). The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Futhermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively). In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative stress. PMID:24789352

  19. Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Quentin; Deslée, Gaëtan; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L; Woods, Jason C; Byers, Derek; Conradi, Susan; Dury, Sandra; Perotin, Jeanne Marie; Lebargy, François; Cassan, Christelle; Le Naour, Richard; Holtzman, Michael J; Pierce, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2-3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1-3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor), storage (ferritin) and export (ferroportin) genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)). The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Furthermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively). In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative stress. PMID:24789352

  20. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves. PMID:25624215

  1. Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

  2. Treatment of rats with a self-selected hyperlipidic diet, increases the lipid content of the main adipose tissue sites in a proportion similar to that of the lipids in the rest of organs and tissues.

    PubMed

    Romero, María Del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María Del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed. PMID:24603584

  3. The Metal Content of Bulge Field Stars from FLAMES-GIRAFFE Spectra. I. Stellar parameters and Iron Abundances

    E-print Network

    M. Zoccali; V. Hill; A. Lecureur; B. Barbuy; A. Renzini; D. Minniti; A. Gomez; S. Ortolani

    2008-05-08

    We determine the iron distribution function (IDF) for bulge field stars, in three different fields along the Galactic minor axis and at latitudes b=-4 deg, b=-6 deg, and b=-12 deg. A fourth field including NGC6553 is also included in the discussion. About 800 bulge field K giants were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph of FLAMES@VLT at spectral resolution R~20,000. Several of them were observed again with UVES at R~45,000 to insure the accuracy of the measurements. The LTE abundance analysis yielded stellar parameters and iron abundances that allowed us to construct an IDF for the bulge that, for the first time, is based on high-resolution spectroscopy for each individual star. The IDF derived here is centered on solar metallicity, and extends from [Fe/H]~ -1.5 to [Fe/H]~ +0.5. The distribution is asymmetric, with a sharper cutoff on the high-metallicity side, and it is narrower than previously measured. A variation in the mean metallicity along the bulge minor axis is clearly between b=-4 deg and b=-6 deg ([Fe/H] decreasing by ~ 0.6 dex per kpc). The field at b=-12 deg is consistent with the presence of a gradient, but its quantification is complicated by the higher disk/bulge fraction in this field. Our findings support a scenario in which both infall and outflow were important during the bulge formation, and then suggest the presence of a radial gradient, which poses some challenges to the scenario in which the bulge would result solely from the vertical heating of the bar.

  4. Iron economy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Glaesener, Anne G.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.

    2013-01-01

    While research on iron nutrition in plants has largely focused on iron-uptake pathways, photosynthetic microbes such as the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provide excellent experimental systems for understanding iron metabolism at the subcellular level. Several paradigms in iron homeostasis have been established in this alga, including photosystem remodeling in the chloroplast and preferential retention of some pathways and key iron-dependent proteins in response to suboptimal iron supply. This review presents our current understanding of iron homeostasis in Chlamydomonas, with specific attention on characterized responses to changes in iron supply, like iron-deficiency. An overview of frequently used methods for the investigation of iron-responsive gene expression, physiology and metabolism is also provided, including preparation of media, the effect of cell size, cell density and strain choice on quantitative measurements and methods for the determination of metal content and assessing the effect of iron supply on photosynthetic performance. PMID:24032036

  5. Complexes of iron with phenolic compounds from soybean nodules and other legume tissues: prooxidant and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Moran, J F; Klucas, R V; Grayer, R J; Abian, J; Becana, M

    1997-01-01

    The low-molecular-mass fraction of the soybean nodule cytosol contains Fe capable of catalyzing free radical production through Fenton chemistry. A large portion of the pool of catalytic Fe, measured as bleomycin-detectable Fe, was characterized as complexes of Fe with phenolic compounds of three classes: phenolic acids, cinnamic acids, and flavonoids. Many of these compounds, along with other phenolics present in legume tissues, were used for a systematic structure-activity relationship study. All phenolics tested were able to chelate Fe, as judged from their inhibitory effect on site-specific deoxyribose degradation (minus EDTA assay). However, only those having catechol, pyrogallol, or 3-hydroxy-4-carbonyl groupings were potent chelators and reductants of Fe3+ at pH 5.5. The same phenolics promoted oxidative damage to DNA (bleomycin assay) and to deoxyribose (plus EDTA assay), but inhibited linolenic acid peroxidation by chelating and reducing Fe3+ and by neutralizing lipid radicals. Also, phenolics having a pyrogallol nucleus attenuated the free radical-mediated inactivation of glutamine synthetase, which was used as a model system, by chelating Fe2+. It is reasoned that under the microaerobic (10-20 nM O2) and acidic (pH 5.5-6.4) conditions prevailing in nodules, phenolics are likely to act primarily as antioxidants, decreasing oxidative damage to biomolecules. PMID:9119255

  6. Distribution and accumulation of Cy5.5-labeled thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the tissues of ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Jin Joo; Lee, Hu-Jang; Jon, Sangyong; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won; Kim, Jong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Free Cy5.5 dye and Cy5.5-labeled thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) have been routinely used for in vivo optical imaging. However, there is little information about the distribution and accumulation of free Cy5.5 dye and Cy5.5-labeled TCL-SPION in the tissues of mice. Free Cy5.5 dye (0.1 mg/kg body weight) and Cy5.5-labeled TCL-SPION (15 mg/kg body weight) were intravenously injected into the tail vein of ICR mice. The biodistribution and accumulation of the TCL-SPION and Cy5.5 were observed by ex vivo optical imaging and fluorescence signal generation at various time points over 28 days. Cy5.5 dye fluorescence in various organs was rapidly eliminated from 0.5 to 24 h post-injection. Fluorescence intensity of Cy5.5 dye in the liver, lung, kidney, and stomach was fairly strong at the early time points within 1 day post-injection. Cy5.5-labeled TCL-SPION had the highest fluorescence density in the lung at 0.5 h post-injection and decreased rapidly over time. Fluorescence density in liver and spleen was maintained over 28 days. These results suggest that TCL-SPION can be useful as a carrier of therapeutic reagents to treat diseases by persisting for long periods of time in the body. PMID:24366671

  7. Iron in Cereal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    Is there really iron in breakfast cereal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the removal of iron from a box of high-iron content breakfast cereal. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills being covered, complex reasoning strategies that are used, and a compilation of national science standards about this activity. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies and instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. An explanation of the content of each activity and assessment suggestions are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  8. Differences in fluorescence profiles from breast cancer tissues due to changes in relative tryptophan content via energy transfer: tryptophan content correlates with histologic grade and tumor size but not with lymph node metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between histologic grade, an increasingly important measure of prognosis for patients with breast cancer, and tryptophan levels from tissues of 15 breast carcinoma patients was investigated. Changes in the relative content of key native organic biomolecule tryptophan were seen from the fluorescence spectra of cancerous and paired normal tissues with excitation wavelengths of 280 and 300 nm. Due to a large spectral overlap and matching excitation-emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan-donor to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides-acceptor was noted. We used the ratios of fluorescence intensities at their spectral emission peaks, or spectral fingerprint peaks, at 340, 440, and 460 nm. Higher ratios correlated strongly with high histologic grade, while lower-grade tumors had low ratios. Large tumor size also correlated with high ratios, while the number of lymph node metastases, a major factor in staging, was not correlated with tryptophan levels. High histologic grade correlates strongly with increased content of tryptophan in breast cancer tissues and suggests that measurement of tryptophan content may be useful as a part of the evaluation of these patients.

  9. Increased ?-linolenic acid intake increases tissue ?-linolenic acid content and apparent oxidation with little effect on tissue docosahexaenoic acid in the guinea pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Fu; Andrew J. Sinclair

    2000-01-01

    The essential fatty acids do not have identical roles in nutrition. Linoleic acid (LA) accumulates throughout the body of\\u000a most mammals, whereas ?-linolenic acid (ALA) is rarely found in tissue lipids to the same extent as LA. It has been argued\\u000a that this is the result of metabolism of ALA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or that ALA is rapidly ?-oxidized

  10. Mitochondrial iron accumulation with age and functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Arnold Y.; Xu, Jinze; Servais, Stephane; Hofer, Tim; Marzetti, Emanuele; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E.; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Chung, Hae Young; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Summary During the aging process, an accumulation of non-heme iron disrupts cellular homeostasis and contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction typical of various neuromuscular degenerative diseases. Few studies have investigated the effects of iron accumulation on mitochondrial integrity and function in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Thus, we isolated liver mitochondria (LM), as well as quadriceps-derived subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM), from male Fischer 344× Brown Norway rats at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Non-heme iron content in SSM, IFM and LM was significantly higher with age, reaching a maximum at 37 months of age. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) was more susceptible to the opening in aged mitochondria containing high levels of iron (i.e. SSM and LM) compared to IFM. Furthermore, mitochondrial RNA oxidation increased significantly with age in SSM and LM, but not in IFM. Levels of mitochondrial RNA oxidation in SSM and LM correlated positively with levels of mitochondrial iron, whereas a significant negative correlation was observed between the maximum Ca2+ amounts needed to induce mPTP opening and iron contents in SSM, IFM and LM. Overall, our data suggest that age-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial iron may increase mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, thereby enhancing the susceptibility to apoptosis. PMID:18843794

  11. Meat quality, fatty acid composition of tissue and gastrointestinal content, and antioxidant status of lamb fed seed of a halophyte (Suaeda glauca).

    PubMed

    Sun, H X; Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Wang, M L; Sun, J Y; Zhou, D W

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs were randomly assigned to four treatments: control diet (CT) consisting of 300g concentrates with ad libitum Leymus chinensis hay; C with 150g (T150), 300g (T300) and 450g (T450) Suaeda glauca seed, respectively. Meat quality, fatty acid composition of meat and lipid tissue and antioxidant status of lamb were evaluated. Inclusion of S. glauca seeds significantly increased selenium (Se) concentrations of muscle. The proportions of C18:1 trans-11 in muscle, C18:2 n-6, PUFA, n-6 series fatty acids, and the ratios of P:S in rumen contents, as well as the ratios of n-6:n-3 in adipose tissue, rumen and duodenum content have been significantly (P<0.05) improved with supplementation of S. glauca seeds to lamb diets. No significant effect was found on antioxidant status. The results suggest that S. glauca seed supplementation in lamb diets may change fatty acid composition in tissues and content of digestive tract. PMID:25282041

  12. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS. PMID:25662508

  13. Iron and Iron Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from these substances is usually not of concern. Vegetarian diets are low in heme iron, but careful meal ... heme iron sources in the diet (e.g., vegetarian diets) Low absorption Taking antacids beyond the recommended dose ...

  14. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59??mols?TE?g?1?FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27?g GAE 100?g?1?FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  16. Nitrogen content of Letharia vulpina tissue from forests of the Sierra Nevada, California: geographic patterns and relationships to ammonia estimates and climate.

    PubMed

    Jovan, Sarah; Carlberg, Tom

    2007-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is a growing concern in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, which lie downwind of the highly populated and agricultural Central Valley. Nitrogen content of Letharia vulpina tissue was analyzed from 38 sites using total Kjeldahl analysis to provide a preliminary assessment of N deposition patterns. Collections were co-located with plots where epiphytic macrolichen communities are used for estimating ammonia (NH(3)) deposition. Tissue N ranged from 0.6% to 2.11% with the highest values occurring in the southwestern Sierra Nevada (range: 1.38 to 2.11). Tissue N at 17 plots was elevated, as defined by a threshold concentration of 1.03%. Stepwise regression was used to determine the best predictors of tissue N from among a variety of environmental variables. The best model consisted only of longitude (r(2) = 0.64), which was reflected in the geographic distribution of tissue values: the southwestern Sierra Nevada, the high Sierras near the Tahoe Basin, and the Modoc Plateau, are three apparent N hotspots arranged along the tilted north-south axis of the study area. Withholding longitude and latitude, the best regression model suggested that NH(3) estimates and annual number of wetdays interactively affect N accumulation (r(2) = 0.61; % N approximately NH(3) + wetdays + (NH(3) x wetdays)). We did not expect perfect correspondence between tissue values and NH(3) estimates since other N pollutants also accumulate in the lichen thallus. Additionally, other factors potentially affecting N content, such as growth rate and leaching, were not given full account. PMID:17057974

  17. Ferritin: the protein nanocage and iron biomineral in health and in disease.

    PubMed

    Theil, Elizabeth C

    2013-11-01

    At the center of iron and oxidant metabolism is the ferritin superfamily: protein cages with Fe(2+) ion channels and two catalytic Fe/O redox centers that initiate the formation of caged Fe2O3·H2O. Ferritin nanominerals, initiated within the protein cage, grow inside the cage cavity (5 or 8 nm in diameter). Ferritins contribute to normal iron flow, maintenance of iron concentrates for iron cofactor syntheses, sequestration of iron from invading pathogens, oxidant protection, oxidative stress recovery, and, in diseases where iron accumulates excessively, iron chelation strategies. In eukaryotic ferritins, biomineral order/crystallinity is influenced by nucleation channels between active sites and the mineral growth cavity. Animal ferritin cages contain, uniquely, mixtures of catalytically active (H) and inactive (L) polypeptide subunits with varied rates of Fe(2+)/O2 catalysis and mineral crystallinity. The relatively low mineral order in liver ferritin, for example, coincides with a high percentage of L subunits and, thus, a low percentage of catalytic sites and nucleation channels. Low mineral order facilitates rapid iron turnover and the physiological role of liver ferritin as a general iron source for other tissues. Here, current concepts of ferritin structure/function/genetic regulation are discussed and related to possible therapeutic targets such as mini-ferritin/Dps protein active sites (selective pathogen inhibition in infection), nanocage pores (iron chelation in therapeutic hypertransfusion), mRNA noncoding, IRE riboregulator (normalizing the ferritin iron content after therapeutic hypertransfusion), and protein nanovessels to deliver medicinal or sensor cargo. PMID:24102308

  18. Ferritin: The Protein Nanocage and Iron Biomineral in Health and in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    At the center of iron and oxidant metabolism is the ferritin superfamily: protein cages with Fe2+ ion channels and catalytic di- Fe/O redox centers that initiate formation of caged Fe2O3 • H2O. Ferritin nanominerals, initiated within the protein cage, grow inside the cage cavity (5 or 8 nm in diameter). Ferritins contribute to normal iron flow, maintenance of iron concentrates for iron cofactor syntheses, sequestration of iron from invading pathogens, oxidant protection, oxidative stress recovery and, in diseases where iron accumulates excessively, to iron chelation strategies. In eukaryotic ferritins, biomineral order/crystallinity is influenced by nucleation channels between active sites and the mineral growth cavity. Animal ferritin cages contain, uniquely, mixtures of catalytically active (H) and inactive (L) polypeptide subunits with varied rates of Fe2+/O2 catalysis and mineral crystallinity. The relatively low mineral order in liver ferritin, for example, coincides with a high % of L subunits, and, thus, a low % of catalytic sites and nucleation channels. Low mineral order facilitates rapid iron turnover and the physiological role of liver ferritin as a general iron source for other tissues. Here, current concepts of ferritin structure/function/genetic regulation are discussed and related to possible therapeutic targets such as mini-ferritin/Dps protein active sites (selective pathogen inhibition in infection), the nanocage pores (iron chelation in therapeutic hypertransfusion), the mRNA noncoding, IRE-riboregulator (normalizing ferritin iron content after therapeutic hypertransfusion, and as protein nanovessels to deliver medicinal or sensor cargo. PMID:24102308

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in rice [Oryza sativa L.] germplasm based on agro-morphology traits and zinc-iron content for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhas Chandra; Sharma, B D

    2014-04-01

    Genetic resources of landraces (84 cultivars) were collected from various agro-ecological regions of West Bengal and adjoining areas and characterized based on qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological descriptors along with zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content. The DUS protocol was employed to study 16 agro-morphological passport data such as: vegetative data (anthocyanin pigmentation, plant habit), reproductive data (flag leaf attitude, stigma colour, panicle attitude), including eight grain quality traits: grain length, grain width, 1000 grains weight, kernel length, kernel breadth etc. Highest seed weight was found in cultivar Khechri (32.04 g/1000 seeds), collected from Sundarban and least seed weight was 9.6 g/1000seeds in Katharibhog. Maturity duration was found very short (<100 days) in Jumla Marshi (97 days) collected from world's coldest rice growing area, Jumla, Nepal. Penultimate leaves breadth was observed broad (>2 cm) in one cultivar Jungli (2.3 cm). Seeds per panicle were 180 in Chinisakkar (medium range), 177 in Dudheswar, and 151 in Ladua. Flag leaf was found in erect condition in late observation in Dudheswar, Enda and Ghiosh. Seventeen cultivars were grouped in the aromatic rice category out of total 84 local landraces. Twenty-one cultivars were with awn, whose length ranges from 1.6 mm (Anandi) to 22.5 mm (Tulaipanji). Kernel colour varies from red, yellowish, brownish, creamy white to white. Kernel length varies from 4 mm to 8 mm and breadth 1.90 mm to 3 mm. Kernel length/breadth ration varied from 1.6 to 3.9. Highest ratio of L/B was found in Pusa Basmati 1(3.9) and lowest in Dudhey (1.6). Elongation ration was highest in Kalokure (2.07) and lowest in Phoolpakri (0.62). Nutritional values of mineral contents of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were estimated in all cultivars by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometic method. Iron concentration varies from 0.25 ?g/g to 34.8 ?g/g and zinc from 0.85 ?g/g to 195.3 ?g/g in the landraces. Highest iron containing rice was Swetonunia with 34.8 ?g/g and highest amount of Zn was found in Nepali Kalam which was 195.3 ?g/g. Anaerobic germination (AG) was observed in 18 cultivars among 84 land races (viz. Jungli, Kumrogore, Dudheshwar, Rambhog and Tulsi etc.), the trait is highly desired by the rice breeder for the introgression of this gene (QTL) to the HYV for direct seeding in the field for saving labour cost and reduced maturity time. Dendrogram showed genetic diversity among 84 landraces by grouping them into five major clusters. All the descriptors evaluated in this study have showed that there is enough genetic diversity among landraces and this information can be helpful to the breeders to choose the right parent for crop improvement. PMID:24757325

  20. Effect of iron content and potassium substitution in A0.8Fe1.6Se2 (A=K, Rb, Tl) superconductors: A Raman scattering investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. M.; Liu, K.; He, J. B.; Wang, D. M.; Chen, G. F.; Normand, B.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2012-10-01

    We have performed Raman-scattering measurements on high-quality single crystals of the superconductors K0.8Fe1.6Se2 (Tc=32 K), Tl0.5K0.3Fe1.6Se2 (Tc=29 K), and Tl0.5Rb0.3Fe1.6Se2 (Tc=31 K) as well as of the insulating compound KFe1.5Se2. To interpret our results, we have made first-principles calculations for the phonon modes in the ordered iron-vacancy structure of K0.8Fe1.6Se2. The modes we observe can be assigned very well from our symmetry analysis and calculations, allowing us to compare Raman-active phonons in the AFeSe compounds. We find a clear frequency difference in most phonon modes between the superconducting and nonsuperconducting potassium crystals, indicating the fundamental influence of iron content. By contrast, substitution of K by Tl or Rb in A0.8Fe1.6Se2 causes no substantial frequency shift for any modes above 60 cm-1, demonstrating that the alkali-type metal has little effect on the microstructure of the FeSe layer. Several additional modes appear below 60 cm-1 in Tl- and Rb-substituted samples, which are vibrations of heavier Tl and Rb ions. Finally, our calculations reveal the presence of “chiral” phonon modes, whose origin lies in the chiral nature of the K0.8Fe1.6Se2 structure.

  1. Changes of collagen, elastin, and tryptophan contents in laser welded porcine aorta tissues studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Liu; W. B. Wang; V. Kartazaev; H. Savage; R. R. Alfano

    2010-01-01

    The emission spectra from welded and un-welded (normal) porcine aorta tissues were measured on both sides of intima and adventitia layers. A tunable Forsterite laser and a Cr4+: YAG laser with wavelengths of 1250nm, 1455nm and 1460nm were used to weld porcine aorta tissues. Three emission bands emitted from three key fluorophores were studied under different welding and excitation conditions.

  2. Effect of age and caloric restriction on bleomycin-chelatable and nonheme iron in different tissues of C57BL\\/6 mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajindar S. Sohal; Elizabeth Wennberg-Kirch; Kshama Jaiswal; Linda K. Kwong; Michael J. Forster

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the widely observed age-associated increase in the amounts of macromolecular oxidative damage is due to an elevation in the availability of redox-active iron, that is believed to catalyze the scission of H2O2 to generate the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Concentrations of bleomycin-chelatable iron and nonheme iron were measured in

  3. Increase in bleomycin-detectable iron in ischaemia/reperfusion injury to rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Baliga, R; Ueda, N; Shah, S V

    1993-05-01

    Iron has been shown to be important in ischaemic, immune and toxic forms of tissue injury in various organs. Although it is generally accepted that iron participates in the generation of powerful oxidant species (e.g. hydroxyl radicals) there has not been any direct evidence that iron capable of catalysing free-radical reactions is increased in tissues in these models of injury. In the present study we demonstrate that ischaemia/reperfusion injury to the kidney results in no significant change in total, nonhaem or ferritin iron levels, but there is a marked and specific increase in bleomycin-detectable iron (capable of catalysing free-radical reactions) in the kidney. The increase in bleomycin-detectable iron is observed only after reperfusion but not during the ischaemic period. In a separate study we demonstrate that despite a drastic reduction in the iron content in the kidney, as a result of feeding an iron-deficient diet, there is a similar and a marked increase in the bleomycin-detectable iron in kidneys accompanied by a lack of protection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:7683877

  4. Iron loading and disease surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, E. D.

    1999-01-01

    Iron is an oxidant as well as a nutrient for invading microbial and neoplastic cells. Excessive iron in specific tissues and cells (iron loading) promotes development of infection, neoplasia, cardiomyopathy, arthropathy, and various endocrine and possibly neurodegenerative disorders. To contain and detoxify the metal, hosts have evolved an iron withholding defense system, but the system can be compromised by numerous factors. An array of behavioral, medical, and immunologic methods are in place or in development to strengthen iron withholding. Routine screening for iron loading could provide valuable information in epidemiologic, diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic studies of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:10341171

  5. Arterial Oxygen Content Is Precisely Maintained by Graded Erythrocytotic Responses in Settings of High/Normal Serum Iron Levels, and Predicts Exercise Capacity: An Observational Study of Hypoxaemic Patients with Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Santhirapala, Vatshalan; Williams, Louisa C.; Tighe, Hannah C.; Jackson, James E.; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. Methodology 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96%) had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. Principal Findings There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5–99, median 95)% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001). Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001). A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8%) patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. Significance Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant oxygen content per unit blood volume. This can be maintained for SaO2 ?78.5%, and resets to the same arterial oxygen content after correction of hypoxaemia. Serum iron concentrations, not ferritin, seem to predict more successful polycythaemic responses. PMID:24637882

  6. Iron supplementation improves progressive fatigue resistance during dynamic knee extensor exercise in iron-depleted

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom D Brutsaert; Sonia Hernandez-Cordero; Juan Rivera; Tracey Viola; Gail Hughes; Jere D Haas

    Background: Tissue iron depletion may negatively affect endurance performance and muscle fatigability. Objective: We investigated tissue-level iron depletion and pro- gressive fatigue of the quadriceps during dynamic knee-extension exercise in young women. Design: Twenty iron-depleted (serum ferritin < 20 ? g\\/L), nonane- mic (hemoglobin > 110 g\\/L) women (x - ± SEM age: 29.1 ± 1.2 y) received iron (iron

  7. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydro-cooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Xingbin; Long, Lynn E

    2014-10-01

    To improve storage/shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) added to hydro-cooling water on physiological and biochemical processes related to fruit and pedicel quality was investigated on two major cultivars. The fruit tissue Ca content increased up to 29-85% logarithmically for 'Sweetheart' and 39-188% linearly for 'Lapins' as CaCl2 rate increased from 0.2% to 2.0% at 0 °C for 5 min. The increase of fruit tissue Ca content was accompanied by reductions in respiration rate, ascorbic acid degradation, and membrane lipid peroxidation, which enhanced total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity, and resulted in increases in fruit firmness and pitting resistance and decreases in titratable acidity loss and decay of both cultivars. Pedicel browning was inhibited by CaCl2 at 0.2% and 0.5%, but increased by higher rates at 1.0% and 2.0%, possibly via modifying membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24799204

  8. Prevalent Decrease of the EGF Content in the Periurethral Zone of BPH Tissue Induced by Treatment With Finasteride or Flutamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALVATORE MONTI; FRANCESCO SCIARRA; M. VITTORIA ADAMO; VINCENZO TOSCANO; M. CRISTINA TROTFA; CHIARA MARTINI; STEFANIA LANZARA; FRANCO D. SILVERIOt; W. Demark-Wahnefried; S. M. Lesko; M. R. Conaway; C. N. Robertson; R. V. Clark; B. Lobaugh; B. J. Mathias; T S. Strigo; D. E Paulson

    The aim of the present investigation is to verify wheth- er treatment with Finasteride or Flutamide influences the regional distribution of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and epi- dermal growth factor (EGF) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue. Thirty seven BPH patients were studied: 15 untreated, 9 treated with Flutamide (750 mg\\/day for 2 months), and 13 treated with Finasteride (5

  9. Similarity of Fibroglandular Breast Tissue Content Measured from Magnetic Resonance and Mammographic Images and by a Mathematical Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hyunsu; Brunder, Donald G.; Anderson, Karl E.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit; Lu, Lee-Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Women with high breast density (BD) have a 4- to 6-fold greater risk for breast cancer than women with low BD. We found that BD can be easily computed from a mathematical algorithm using routine mammographic imaging data or by a curve-fitting algorithm using fat and nonfat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. These BD measures in a strictly defined group of premenopausal women providing both mammographic and breast MRI images were predicted as well by the same set of strong predictor variables as were measures from a published laborious histogram segmentation method and a full field digital mammographic unit in multivariate regression models. We also found that the number of completed pregnancies, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, and progesterone were more strongly associated with amounts of glandular tissue than adipose tissue, while fat body mass, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin like growth factor-II appear to be more associated with the amount of breast adipose tissue. Our results show that methods of breast imaging and modalities for estimating the amount of glandular tissue have no effects on the strength of these predictors of BD. Thus, the more convenient mathematical algorithm and the safer MRI protocols may facilitate prospective measurements of BD. PMID:25132995

  10. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  11. Case studies: iron1234

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Iron biomarkers were developed to define the size of iron stores and the adequacy of the iron supply required to meet functional needs. Approximately 80% of the iron delivered to tissues through the circulating plasma pool will be incorporated into hemoglobin. Consequently, with the exception of serum ferritin, iron biomarkers are measures of iron sufficiency for erythrocyte production. They have proven to be very valuable in the determination of the cause of anemia in the clinical setting in which additional information about factors that affect the patient's health is available. However, all current biomarkers are affected by factors other than iron status, which limit their utility for the determination of the prevalence of iron deficiency in some populations, particularly in populations who live in developing countries. Furthermore, relations between iron status and functional outcomes such as neonatal and infant mortality; motor, cognitive, and emotional development in infants; and severe morbidity from malaria in young children are inadequately characterized. There is a need to identify and standardize biomarkers that have the highest predictive value for specific functional outcomes in each setting. The most appropriate biomarkers may vary with the setting and be influenced by age, sex, gestational stage of pregnancy, and environmental factors such as repeated or chronic infections. There is also an urgent need for improved technology to permit the use of specific biomarkers in field studies in resource-poor regions. Finally, more research is required to define the potential role of hepcidin and non–transferrin-bound iron assays. PMID:21733878

  12. Estimation of nitric oxide level in vivo by microdialysis with water-soluble iron-N-methyl-D-dithiocarbamate complexes as NO traps: a novel approach to nitric oxide spin trapping in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Timoshin, Alexander A; Drobotova, Diana Yu; Lakomkin, Vladimir L; Ruuge, Enno K; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2008-12-01

    It was found that microdialysis, i.e., passage of aqueous solutions of iron-N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate complexes through dialysis fibers implanted into heart, kidney and liver tissues of narcotized rats, was accompanied by effective binding of the complexes to nitric oxide from interstitial fluid. The walls of dialysis fibers used in this study were permeable for compounds with molecular weight not exceeding 5 kDa. The dialyzate samples collected every 20 min and containing diamagnetic nitrosyl Fe3+-MGD adducts were reduced to the paramagnetic state with sodium dithionite; their concentration was measured by the EPR method. The basic level of the adducts, which represented mononitrosyl iron complexes with MGD (MNIC-MGD), in the dialyzate samples of all tested organs were similar (1 microM). Treatment of animals with the water-soluble nitroglycerine analog Isoket or a low-molecular dinitrosyl iron thiosulfate complex as a NO donor increased the concentration of MNIC-MGD with going out into a plateau. The novel approach allows determination of nitric oxide levels in tissue interstitial fluid from concentration of MNIC-MGD formed during microdialysis. PMID:18664386

  13. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

  14. The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  15. Regulation of cellular iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    Iron is an essential but potentially hazardous biometal. Mammalian cells require sufficient amounts of iron to satisfy metabolic needs or to accomplish specialized functions. Iron is delivered to tissues by circulating transferrin, a transporter that captures iron released into the plasma mainly from intestinal enterocytes or reticuloendothelial macrophages. The binding of iron-laden transferrin to the cell-surface transferrin receptor 1 results in endocytosis and uptake of the metal cargo. Internalized iron is transported to mitochondria for the synthesis of haem or iron–sulfur clusters, which are integral parts of several metalloproteins, and excess iron is stored and detoxified in cytosolic ferritin. Iron metabolism is controlled at different levels and by diverse mechanisms. The present review summarizes basic concepts of iron transport, use and storage and focuses on the IRE (iron-responsive element)/IRP (iron-regulatory protein) system, a well known post-transcriptional regulatory circuit that not only maintains iron homoeostasis in various cell types, but also contributes to systemic iron balance. PMID:21348856

  16. The effect of iron in MRI and transverse relaxation of amyloid-beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Meadowcroft, Mark D; Peters, Douglas G; Dewal, Rahul P; Connor, James R; Yang, Qing X

    2015-03-01

    Dysregulation of neural iron is known to occur during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The visualization of amyloid-beta (A?) plaques with MRI has largely been credited to rapid proton relaxation in the vicinity of plaques as a result of focal iron deposition. The goal of this work was to determine the relationship between local relaxation and related focal iron content associated with A? plaques. Alzheimer's disease (n?=?5) and control tissue (n?=?3) sample slices from the entorhinal cortex were treated overnight with the iron chelator deferoxamine or saline, and microscopic gradient-echo MRI datasets were taken. Subsequent to imaging, the same slices were stained for A? and iron, and then compared with regard to parametric R2 * relaxation maps and gradient-echo-weighted MR images. A? plaques in both chelated and unchelated tissue generated MR hypo-intensities and showed relaxation rates significantly greater than the surrounding tissue. The transverse relaxation rate associated with amyloid plaques was determined not to be solely a result of iron load, as much of the relaxation associated with A? plaques remained following iron chelation. The data indicate a dual relaxation mechanism associated with A? plaques, such that iron and plaque composition synergistically produce transverse relaxation.Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25530083

  17. Iron deficiency: definition and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D; Skikne, B S

    1989-11-01

    There has been a continuous refinement over the past several decades of methods to detect iron deficiency and assess its magnitude. The optimal combination of measurements differs for clinical and epidemiological assessment. Clinically, the major problem is to distinguish true iron deficiency from other causes of iron-deficient erythropoiesis, such as the anaemia of chronic disease. Epidemiologically, techniques that provide quantified estimates of body iron are preferable. For both purposes, the serum ferritin is the focal point of the laboratory detection of iron deficiency. Serum ferritin measurements provide a reliable index of body iron stores in healthy individuals, a cost-effective method of screening for iron deficiency, and a useful alternative to bone marrow examinations in the evaluation of anaemic patients. Preliminary studies indicate that measurement of the serum transferrin receptor may be the most reliable way to assess deficits in tissue iron supply. PMID:2681511

  18. Iron studies in hemophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Lottenberg, R.; Kitchens, C.S.; Roessler, G.S.; Noyes, W.D.

    1981-12-01

    Although iron deficiency is not recognized as a usual complication of hemophilia, we questioned whether intermittent occult loss of blood in urine or stool might predispose hemophiliacs to chronic iron deficiency. Seven men with factor VII and one with factor IX deficiency were studied. Blood studied, bone marrow aspirates, urine and stool samples, and ferrokinetics with total-body counting up to five months were examined. These data showed no excessive loss of blood during the study period; however, marrow iron stores were decidedly decreased, being absent in four subjects. We suggest that in some hemophiliacs, iron deposits in tissues such as synovial membranes may form a high proportion of the body's total iron stores.

  19. The role of endocytic pathways in cellular uptake of plasma non-transferrin iron

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Yang-Sung; Ghoti, Hussam; Breuer, William; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Attar, Samah; Weiss, Guenter; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav

    2012-01-01

    Background In transfusional siderosis, the iron binding capacity of plasma transferrin is often surpassed, with concomitant generation of non-transferrin-bound iron. Although implicated in tissue siderosis, non-transferrin-bound iron modes of cell ingress remain undefined, largely because of its variable composition and association with macromolecules. Using fluorescent tracing of labile iron in endosomal vesicles and cytosol, we examined the hypothesis that non-transferrin-bound iron fractions detected in iron overloaded patients enter cells via bulk endocytosis. Design and Methods Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry served as analytical tools for tracing non-transferrin-bound iron entry into endosomes with the redox-reactive macromolecular probe Oxyburst-Green and into the cytosol with cell-laden calcein green and calcein blue. Non-transferrin-bound iron-containing media were from sera of polytransfused thalassemia major patients and model iron substances detected in thalassemia major sera; cell models were cultured macrophages, and cardiac myoblasts and myocytes. Results Exposure of cells to ferric citrate together with albumin, or to non-transferrin-bound iron-containing sera from thalassemia major patients caused an increase in labile iron content of endosomes and cytosol in macrophages and cardiac cells. This increase was more striking in macrophages, but in both cell types was largely reduced by co-exposure to non-transferrin-bound iron-containing media with non-penetrating iron chelators or apo-transferrin, or by treatment with inhibitors of endocytosis. Endosomal iron accumulation traced with calcein-green was proportional to input non-transferrin-bound iron levels (r2=0.61) and also preventable by pre-chelation. Conclusions Our studies indicate that macromolecule-associated non-transferrin-bound iron can initially gain access into various cells via endocytic pathways, followed by iron translocation to the cytosol. Endocytic uptake of plasma non-transferrin-bound iron is a possible mechanism that can contribute to iron loading of cell types engaged in bulk/adsorptive endocytosis, highlighting the importance of its prevention by iron chelation. PMID:22180428

  20. Immunological Characterization of the Teleost Adipose Tissue and Its Modulation in Response to Viral Infection and Fat-Content in the Diet

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Jaime; Castro, Rosario; González Granja, Aitor; Abós, Beatriz; González, Lucia; Jensen, Linda B.; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The immune response of the adipose tissue (AT) has been neglected in most animal models until recently, when the observations made in human and mice linking obesity to chronic inflammation and diabetes highlighted an important immune component of this tissue. In the current study, we have immunologically characterized the AT for the first time in teleosts. We have analyzed the capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) AT to produce different immune mediators and we have identified the presence of local populations of B lymphocytes expressing IgM, IgD or IgT, CD8?+ cells and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). Because trout AT retained antigens from the peritoneal cavity, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on AT functionality. A wide range of secreted immune factors were modulated within the AT in response to VHSV. Furthermore, the viral infection provoked a significant decrease in the number of IgM+ cells which, along with an increased secretion of IgM in the tissue, suggested a differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts. The virus also increased the number of CD8?+ cells in the AT. Finally, when a fat-enriched diet was fed to the fish, a significant modulation of immune gene expression in the AT was also observed. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time in teleost that the AT functions as a relevant immune tissue; responsive to peritoneal viral infections and that this immune response can be modulated by the fat-content in the diet. PMID:25333488

  1. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  2. Impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells of samples on the quality of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Attene, Federico; Cossu, Antonio; Defraia, Efisio; Porcu, Giuseppe; Carta, Annamaria; Sotgiu, Maria Ignazia; Pazzola, Antonio; Cordero, Lorenzo; Capelli, Francesca; Fadda, Giovanni Maria; Ortu, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Palomba, Grazia; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Colombino, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status has become crucial in recent years in the molecular classification of patients with lung cancer. The impact of the type and quantity of malignant cells of the neoplastic specimen on the quality of mutation analysis remains to be elucidated, and only empirical and sporadic data are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells in the specimen on the quality of EGFR mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 515 patients with histologically?confirmed disease were included in the present study. Formalin?fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were used for the mutation analysis and the content of the neoplastic cells was evaluated using light microscopy. Genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. The coding sequences and splice junctions of exons 18, 19 and 21 in the EGFR gene were then screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. The mean age of the patients examined was 64.9 years and 357 (69.3%) were male. A total of 429 tissue samples (83.3%) were obtained by biopsy and the remaining samples were obtained by surgery. A total of 456 samples (88.5%) were observed from primary lung adenocarcinomas, while 59 (11.5%) were from metastatic lesions. EGFR mutations occurred in 59 cases (11.5%); exon 18 mutations were detected in one case (1.7%), whereas exon 19 and 21 mutations were detected in 30 (51%) and 28 (47.3%) cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were more frequent in females and patients that had never smoked. The distribution of the mutations among primary and metastatic tissues exhibited no significant differences in the proportions of EGFR mutations detected. However, a statistically significant difference in the number of mutations detected was found between samples with at least 50% of neoplastic cells (450 cases?57 mutations; 12.7%) and those with <50% of neoplastic cells (65 cases?2 mutations; 3.1%). PMID:25683726

  3. Effects of fluosol-DA on brain edema, energy metabolites, and tissue oxygen content in acute cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Memezawa, H; Katayama, Y; Shimizu, J; Suzuki, S; Kashiwagi, F; Kamiya, T; Terashi, A

    1990-01-01

    Perfluorochemicals were developed as a blood substitute and were reported to have an advantage in oxygen transport compared with blood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects of a perfluorochemical, FDA, on brain edema and metabolites in acute cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced in SHR by BLCO followed by recirculation. The FDA administration resulted in (a) the significant inhibition of brain edema as shown by brain water content in the treated group, and (b) significant amelioration of metabolic impairments as shown by lesser degree of ATP and pyruvate decrease and lactate accumulation. The TpO2 was compared between FDA-infused and nontreated group during ischemia. The FDA-infused group had significantly higher TpO2 than nontreated group. These results indicate that the improvement of brain edema and metabolite levels were due to alleviation of ischemic hypoxia by FDA under the same ischemic insult. PMID:2118712

  4. Iron Deposition following Chronic Myocardial Infarction as a Substrate for Cardiac Electrical Anomalies: Initial Findings in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xunzhang; Yang, Hsin-Jung; Tang, Richard L. Q.; Thajudeen, Anees; Shehata, Michael; Amorn, Allen M.; Liu, Enzhao; Stewart, Brian; Bennett, Nathan; Harlev, Doron; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.; Jackman, Warren M.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Dharmakumar, Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Iron deposition has been shown to occur following myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated whether such focal iron deposition within chronic MI lead to electrical anomalies. Methods Two groups of dogs (ex-vivo (n?=?12) and in-vivo (n?=?10)) were studied at 16 weeks post MI. Hearts of animals from ex-vivo group were explanted and sectioned into infarcted and non-infarcted segments. Impedance spectroscopy was used to derive electrical permittivity () and conductivity (). Mass spectrometry was used to classify and characterize tissue sections with (IRON+) and without (IRON-) iron. Animals from in-vivo group underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for estimation of scar volume (late-gadolinium enhancement, LGE) and iron deposition (T2*) relative to left-ventricular volume. 24-hour electrocardiogram recordings were obtained and used to examine Heart Rate (HR), QT interval (QT), QT corrected for HR (QTc) and QTc dispersion (QTcd). In a fraction of these animals (n?=?5), ultra-high resolution electroanatomical mapping (EAM) was performed, co-registered with LGE and T2* CMR and were used to characterize the spatial locations of isolated late potentials (ILPs). Results Compared to IRON- sections, IRON+ sections had higher, but no difference in. A linear relationship was found between iron content and (p<0.001), but not (p?=?0.34). Among two groups of animals (Iron (<1.5%) and Iron (>1.5%)) with similar scar volumes (7.28%±1.02% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 8.35%±2.98% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.51) but markedly different iron volumes (1.12%±0.64% (Iron (<1.5%)) vs 2.47%±0.64% (Iron (>1.5%)), p?=?0.02), QT and QTc were elevated and QTcd was decreased in the group with the higher iron volume during the day, night and 24-hour period (p<0.05). EAMs co-registered with CMR images showed a greater tendency for ILPs to emerge from scar regions with iron versus without iron. Conclusion The electrical behavior of infarcted hearts with iron appears to be different from those without iron. Iron within infarcted zones may evolve as an arrhythmogenic substrate in the post MI period. PMID:24066038

  5. Estimating iron and aluminum content of acid mine discharge from a north-central Pennsylvania coal field by use of acidity titration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ott, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Determination of acidity provides a value that denotes the quantitative capacity of the sample water to neutralize a strong base to a particular pH. However, much additional information can be obtained from this determination if a titration curve is constructed from recorded data of titrant increments and their corresponding pH values. The curve can be used to identify buffer capabilities, the acidity with respect to any pH value within the curve limit, and, in the case of acid mine drainage from north-central Pennsylvania, the identification and estimation of the concentration of dissolved ferrous iron, ferric iron, and aluminum. Through use of titration curves, a relationship was observed for the acid mine drainage between: (1) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) to pH 4.0 and the concentration of dissolved ferric iron; and (2) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) from pH 4.0 to 5.0 and the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The presence of dissolved ferrous iron can be detected by the buffering effect exhibited in the area between pH 5.5 to 7.5. The concentration of ferrous iron is estimated by difference between the concentrations of ferric iron in an oxidized and unoxidized sample. Interferences in any of the titrations from manganese, magnesium, and aluminate, appear to be negligible within the pH range of interest.

  6. Estimates of dry and wet deposition using tissue N contents and 15N natural abundance in epilithic mosses in atmospheric NHy-dominated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2011-02-01

    Measurement of dry N deposition by physical methods is time-consuming because it is usually difficult to measure directly. In this study, an alternative approach has successfully been proposed by coupling isotopic ratios with tissue N contents of epilithic mosses. The method is to use moss N contents to quantitatively estimate total N (TN) deposition and then to use 15N natural abundance in mosses to discriminate dry and wet deposition in atmospheric NHy-dominated areas (NHy/TN > 0.75). On the basis of the isotopic balance between atmospheric NHy and moss tissue N and the correlation between atmospheric NHy concentrations and their isotopes, both wet and dry N deposition can be estimated. By the approach, we have estimated rainwater ammonium concentrations and contribution percentage of wet deposition to total N deposition (fwet) in some areas of southern China. The results indicated that rainwater ammonium concentrations increased relative to those reported previously in most cities, owing to stronger anthropogenic activity. The fwet values estimated in most sites were found to be slightly higher than those reported, because faster transformation rates due to higher SO2 emission later in acid rain areas of southern China favored deposition in the form of wet deposition instead of dry deposition. The largest uncertainty of the approach comes from the influence of NOx in the atmosphere, and thus it cannot be used in areas where NOx deposition is high. The presented isotopic approach represents a new application of moss biomonitoring for estimating atmospheric N deposition in NHy-dominated areas.

  7. Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1996-12-01

    The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

  9. Aspects of iron nutrition in macroalgae Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) under iron stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Wen; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Yun

    2002-06-01

    Fe, Chlorophyll (Chl) and total nitrogen (TN) content in tissues were measured in Fe-deficient cultures of Ulva. pertusa over a period of 60 days. Photosynthetic carbon fixation rates were studied at the start of and 30 days after Fe-deficiency culture, when the effects of Fe-deficiency on the ultrastructure were also analyzed. The iron content in tissue decreased exponentially during Fe-deficiency (from 726.7 to 31.6 ?g/gdw) and simultaneously Chl and TN content declined to 4.35% and 59.9% of their original levels respectively. Maximum carbon fixation rate (50 250 ?mol/m2 s) under Fe-deficiency decreased significantly compared with the control (p<0.01) and was 13.6 to 0.365 ?g C/cm2 h. Photosynthesis in Fe-deficient cells became light-saturated at lower irradiance than that in control. Ultrastructural observations of Fe-deficient cells showed reductions in chloroplast number, some degeneration of lamellar organization, an increase in vacuolar area, a decrease in mitochondrial matrix density, and variation in accumulation body number and morphology. During Fe-deficiency, the algae growth rate continued to decline and after 6 weeks of iron deficiency, no further growth was detectable. These suggested that the lower growth rate of Ulva. pertusa under Fe-deficiency could be due mainly to nitrogen utilization and inhibition of photosynthesis.

  10. Iron regulatory proteins and their role in controlling iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Lukas C

    2015-02-11

    Cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by post-transcriptional feedback mechanisms, which control the expression of proteins involved in iron uptake, release and storage. Two cytoplasmic proteins with mRNA-binding properties, iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) play a central role in this regulation. Foremost, IRPs regulate ferritin H and ferritin L translation and thus iron storage, as well as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) mRNA stability, thereby adjusting receptor expression and iron uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-loaded transferrin. In addition splice variants of iron transporters for import and export at the plasma-membrane, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin are regulated by IRPs. These mechanisms have probably evolved to maintain the cytoplasmic labile iron pool (LIP) at an appropriate level. In certain tissues, the regulation exerted by IRPs influences iron homeostasis and utilization of the entire organism. In intestine, the control of ferritin expression limits intestinal iron absorption and, thus, whole body iron levels. In bone marrow, erythroid heme biosynthesis is coordinated with iron availability through IRP-mediated translational control of erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase mRNA. Moreover, the translational control of HIF2? mRNA in kidney by IRP1 coordinates erythropoietin synthesis with iron and oxygen supply. Besides IRPs, body iron absorption is negatively regulated by hepcidin. This peptide hormone, synthesized and secreted by the liver in response to high serum iron, downregulates ferroportin at the protein level and thereby limits iron absorption from the diet. Hepcidin will not be discussed in further detail here. PMID:25306858

  11. Expression profile of small RNAs in Acacia mangium secondary xylem tissue with contrasting lignin content - potential regulatory sequences in monolignol biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lignin, after cellulose, is the second most abundant biopolymer accounting for approximately 15-35% of the dry weight of wood. As an important component during wood formation, lignin is indispensable for plant structure and defense. However, it is an undesirable component in the pulp and paper industry. Removal of lignin from cellulose is costly and environmentally hazardous process. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to understand the role of enzymes and genes in controlling the amount and composition of lignin to be deposited in the cell wall. However, studies on the impact of downregulation and overexpression of monolignol biosynthesis genes in model species on lignin content, plant fitness and viability have been inconsistent. Recently, non-coding RNAs have been discovered to play an important role in regulating the entire monolignol biosynthesis pathway. As small RNAs have critical functions in various biological process during wood formation, small RNA profiling is an important tool for the identification of complete set of differentially expressed small RNAs between low lignin and high lignin secondary xylem. Results In line with this, we have generated two small RNAs libraries from samples with contrasting lignin content using Illumina GAII sequencer. About 10 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am48 with high lignin content (41%) and a corresponding 14 million sequence reads were obtained in secondary xylem of Am54 with low lignin content (21%). Our results suggested that A. mangium small RNAs are composed of a set of 12 highly conserved miRNAs families found in plant miRNAs database, 82 novel miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved small RNAs with low expression levels. The predicted target genes of those differentially expressed conserved and non-conserved miRNAs include transcription factors associated with regulation of the lignin biosynthetic pathway genes. Some of these small RNAs play an important role in epigenetic silencing. Differential expression of the small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content suggests that a cascade of miRNAs play an interconnected role in regulating the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Acacia species. Conclusions Our study critically demonstrated the roles of small RNAs during secondary wall formation. Comparison of the expression pattern of small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content strongly indicated that small RNAs play a key regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA targets on the basis of the length of their 5’ and 3’ UTRs and their cellular roles. The results obtained can be used to better understand the roles of small RNAs during lignin biosynthesis and for the development of gene constructs for silencing of specific genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis with minimal effect on plant fitness and viability. For the first time, small RNAs were proven to play an important regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis in A. mangium. PMID:22369296

  12. Transfusional iron overload and chelation therapy with deferoxamine and deferiprone (L1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J Kontoghiorghes; Katerina Pattichi; Michael Hadjigavriel; Annita Kolnagou

    2000-01-01

    Iron is essential for all living organisms. Under normal conditions there is no regulatory and rapid iron excretion in humans and body iron levels are mainly regulated from the absorption of iron from the gut. Regular blood transfusions in thalassaemia and other chronic refractory anaemias can result in excessive iron deposition in tissues and organs. This excess iron is toxic,

  13. Iron and blood donation.

    PubMed

    Skikne, B; Lynch, S; Borek, D; Cook, J

    1984-02-01

    Regular blood donors undergo a progressive decline in iron reserves, while some develop frank iron-deficient erythropoiesis. The prevalence of iron depletion is significantly higher in menstruating women and increases progressively as the rate of donation increases. While conventional screening programmes based on the haemoglobin are adequate to prevent the development of progressive iron deficiency anaemia, they provide no indication of the development of tissue iron depletion. Recent studies indicate an impairment in a number of physiological processes associated with iron depletion but the liabilities of mild iron deficiency have not been fully defined. While it would be desirable to avoid iron depletion in regular blood donors only a minority of the eligible population have been willing to provide the blood resources of the USA in the past, and many individuals who can maintain high rates of donation without developing iron deficiency anaemia would be eliminated. However, there is little doubt that continued efforts should be made to encourage a broader base of volunteer donors. Improved public awareness of the need for blood has made it possible to obtain 88 per cent of the total supply from donors who gave blood three or less times during the year, and only 13.4 per cent of men and 11 per cent of women made three of more donations (Table 6). Further, women under 46 years of age constitute only 1 per cent of all donors who give four or more times during the year. Until clear-cut evidence is obtained of the deleterious effects of a lack of iron, the low prevalence of depleted iron reserves in men and non-menstruating women donors seems acceptable. However, current blood banking practices place a disproportionate iron demand on menstruating women. Because of the additional burden of pregnancy in this donor group, efforts to reduce the prevalence of a lack of iron in the child-bearing female should be encouraged. The simplest approach would be to limit the rate of blood donation to a maximum of three per year. This also is a subgroup among whom the application of more specific screening procedures for iron deficiency can clearly be justified. Iron supplementation programmes are also an attractive approach in these people who are likely to be highly motivated. Neither of these approaches have been adequately evaluated at the present time. PMID:6373083

  14. Iron homeostasis and eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

  15. The Ins and Outs of Iron Homeostasis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adriana Donovan (Harvard Medical School, ChildrenÂ?s Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute)

    2006-04-01

    Iron is an essential element that is toxic when it accumulates in excess. Intricate regulatory mechanisms have evolved to maintain iron homeostasis within cells and between different tissues of complex organisms. This review discusses the proteins involved in iron transport and storage and their regulation in health and disease.

  16. [Changes in labelling patterns after feeding Bryophyllum tubiflorum with (14)CO 2 at different moments during the light/dark period : II. Relations between malate content of the tissue and the labelling patterns after (14)CO 2 light fixation].

    PubMed

    Kluge, M

    1971-03-01

    The distribution of radioactivity between the products of (14)CO2 light fixation in phyllodia of Bryophyllum tubiflorum could be influenced experimentally by manipulating the malic acid content of the cells. Accelerating the deacidification of the tissue during the light period by application of higher light intensities accelerated the increase of malate labelling and the decrease of the sucrose labelling after (14)CO2 light fixation under our standard conditions (10 min preillumination, 15 min (14)CO2 light fixation, 8000 lux).In other experiments different malate contents of the tissues were induced by treating the phyllodia with different temperatures during the night period. In the morning, phyllodia with low malate content transferred most of the label into malate, and phyllodia with high malate content incorporated most of the (14)C radioactivity into sugars. However, this was true only after preillumination of 1 hour. When the phyllodia fixed (14)CO2 without preillumination, no differences in the labelling patterns between acidified and non-acidified phyllodia could be observed.In experiments using leaf tissue slices of Bryophyllum daigremontianum we could again observe that malate was labelled more heavily in the deacidified tissue than in the acidified controls, with less radioactivity being transferred into phosphate esters and sugars. The rates of (14)CO2 light fixation were identical in tissue slices with high and low malate content. However, the rates of CO2 dark fixation in the acidified samples were clearly lower than those in the deacidified ones. The low rate of CO2 dark fixation in acidified samples could not be inhibited by an inhibitor of PEP-carboxylase as the high CO2 dark fixation rate of the deacidified tissue could be inhibited.The results are discussed in relation to the feed back inhibition of PEP-carboxylase in vivo by malate. Compartmentation also seemed to be involved in controlling the flow of carbon during CO2 light fixation in succulent tissue. PMID:24493305

  17. Evidence for cytochrome P-450 as a source of catalytic iron in myoglobinuric acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Baliga, R; Zhang, Z; Baliga, M; Shah, S V

    1996-02-01

    Iron has been implicated to play an important role in several models of tissue injury, including myoglobinuric acute renal failure. In this model, myoglobin released from the injured muscle is generally accepted as a source of iron. In the present study we measured the bleomycin-detectable iron (iron capable of catalyzing free radical reactions) in the kidneys and examined the role of cytochrome P-450 as a source of catalytic iron in glycerol-induced model of myoglobinuric acute renal failure. Rats were injected with 50% glycerol (8 ml/kg) i.m. after overnight water deprivation and sacrificed 24 hours later. There was a marked and a specific increase in the bleomycin-detectable iron content accompanied by a marked decrease in the cytochrome P-450 content in the kidneys of glycerol treated rats. We then examined the effects of two different cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, cimetidine (with ranitidine as a control) and piperonyl butoxide. Cimetidine, but not ranitidine, significantly prevented the increase of bleomycin-detectable iron in the kidneys of glycerol-treated rats. The loss of cytochrome P-450 content was substantially blocked by both inhibitors, cimetidine and piperonyl butoxide, but not by ranitidine. Both the inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 provided functional (as measured by BUN and creatinine) and histological protection against glycerol-induced acute renal failure. Our data thus demonstrate a marked increase in bleomycin-detectable iron in the kidneys of glycerol-treated rats. Our data also indicate that inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 provide protection against glycerol-induced acute renal failure and that cytochrome P-450 may be a significant source of this iron in this model of acute renal failure. PMID:8821818

  18. Does hepatomegaly alter iron-dependent oxidative effects in human plasma?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Galleano; Abraham Lemberg; Susana Puntarulo

    2003-01-01

    A four-fold increase in the iron content of normal subjects was detected in plasma after 5 hours of iron administration. Iron supplementation had a surprisingly erratic effect on four patients with hepatomegaly secondary to heart insufficiency, since the increase in the iron content in the plasma after iron-dextran administration was either within the control range or significantly lower, independently of

  19. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined. PMID:25443291

  20. Brain iron quantification by MRI in mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration under iron-chelating therapy

    PubMed Central

    Löbel, Ulrike; Schweser, Ferdinand; Nickel, Miriam; Deistung, Andreas; Grosse, Regine; Hagel, Christian; Fiehler, Jens; Schulz, Angela; Hartig, Monika; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Sedlacik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic trials for Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation have aimed at a reduction of cerebral iron content. A 13-year-old girl with mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration treated with an iron-chelating agent was monitored by R2 relaxometry, R2* relaxometry, and quantitative susceptibility mapping to estimate the brain iron content. The highly increased brain iron content slowly decreased in the substantia nigra but remained stable for globus pallidus. The estimated iron content was higher by R2* compared to R2 and quantitative susceptibility mapping, a finding not previously observed in the brain of healthy volunteers. A hypothesis explaining this discrepancy is offered. PMID:25574478

  1. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ...

  2. Iron status in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Wawer, Anna A.; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload. PMID:24275120

  3. The influence of the iron content on the reductive decomposition of A3-xFexAl2Si3O12 garnets (A = Mg, Mn; 0.47 ? x ? 2.85)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Claudia; Filip, Jan; Mashlan, Miroslav; Zboril, Radek

    2014-10-01

    Thermally-induced reductive decomposition of natural iron-bearing garnets of the almandine-pyrope and almandine-spessartine series were studied at temperatures up to 1200 °C (heating rate of 10 °C/min) under atmosphere of forming gas (10% of H2 in N2). Crystallochemical formula of the studied garnet was calculated as VIII( A3-xFex2+)VI( Al , Fe3+)2Si3O12, where the amount of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites is negligible with the exception of pyrope, A = Mg, Mn, and 0.47 ? x ? 2.85. The observed decomposition temperature, determined from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, is greater than 1000 °C in all cases and showed almost linear dependence on the iron content in the dodecahedral sites of the studied garnets, with the exception of garnet with a near-pyrope composition (Prp80Alm20). The initial garnet samples and decomposition products were characterized in details by means of X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We found that all studied garnets have common decomposition products such as metallic iron (in general, rounded particles below 4 ?m) and Fe-spinel; the other identified decomposition products depend on starting chemical composition of the garnet: Fe-cordierite, olivine (fayalite or tephroite), cristobalite, pyroxene (enstatite or pigeonite), and anorthite. Anorthite and pigeonite were only present in garnets with Ca in the dodecahedral site. All the identified phases were usually well crystallized.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggesting a role for iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Baliga, R; Zhang, Z; Baliga, M; Ueda, N; Shah, S V

    1998-02-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent that has nephrotoxicity as a major side effect. The underlying mechanism of this nephrotoxicity is still not well known. Iron has been implicated to play an important role in several models of tissue injury, presumably through the generation of hydroxyl radicals via the Haber-Weiss reaction or other highly toxic free radicals. In the present study we examined the catalytic iron content and the effect of iron chelators in an in vitro model of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells (renal tubular epithelial cells) and in an in vivo model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to cisplatin resulted in a significant increase in bleomycin-detectable iron (iron capable of catalyzing free radical reactions) released into the medium. Concurrent incubation of LLC-PK1 cells with iron chelators including deferoxamine and 1,10-phenanthroline significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Bleomycin-detectable iron content was also markedly increased in the kidney of rats treated with cisplatin. Similarly, administration of deferoxamine in rats provided marked functional (as measured by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) and histological protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. In a separate study, we examined the role of hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Incubation of LLC-PK1 cells with cisplatin caused an increase in hydroxyl radical formation. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide, mannitol and benzoic acid, significantly reduced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and, treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide or dimethylthiourea provided significant protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Taken together, our data strongly support a critical role for iron in mediating tissue injury via hydroxyl radical (or a similar oxidant) in this model of nephrotoxicity. PMID:9461098

  5. Iron overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  6. Iron and cell death in Parkinson's disease: a nuclear microscopic study into iron-rich granules in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of primate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, P. S. P.; Watt, F.; Ponraj, D.; Leong, S. K.; He, Y.; Lee, T. K. Y.

    1999-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative brain disease characterised by a loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain and accompanying biochemical changes such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, increased iron concentrations and decreased glutathione levels in the parkinsonian SN. Though the aetiology of the disease is still unknown, the observed biochemical changes point to the involvement of oxidative stress. In particular, iron is suspected to play a role by promoting free radical production, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. The increase in iron in the parkinsonian SN has been confirmed by several research groups, both in human post-mortem brains and in brain tissue from parkinsonian animal models. However, the question remains as to whether the observed increase in iron is a cause or a consequence of the SN cell death process. Our previous study using unilaterally 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys in a time sequence experiment has shown that the increase in bulk iron concentrations follow rather than precede dopaminergic cell death. However, changes in the localised iron concentrations, which may play a more direct role in SN cell death, may not be reflected at the bulk level. Indeed, we have observed iron-rich granules in parkinsonian SNs. From this time sequence study into the iron content of iron-rich granules in the SNs of an untreated control and unilaterally MPTP-lesioned parkinsonian models, we present the following observations: (1) Iron-rich granules are found in both control and parkinsonian SNs and are variable in size and iron content in any one model. (2) These iron-rich granules may be associated with neuromelanin granules found in the SN and are known to accumulate transition metal ions such as iron. (3) The early onset of bulk SN cell loss (35%) was accompanied by a significant elevation of iron in granules found in the MPTP-injected SN compared to the contra-lateral SN. This shows that localised iron increase may be an early event contributing to cell death. (4) The iron content in granules found in both the MPTP-injected and contra-lateral SNs is correlated with the degree of bulk SN cell loss (assessed by TH-immunohistochemistry) in individual models. This indicates a correlation between localised iron increase and cell loss, at least at the whole SN level. Our results are consistent with the observation that in Parkinson's disease (PD), neuronal cell death seems to be related to their neuromelanin content and support the proposal that iron-melanin interaction may play a role in oxidative neuronal cell death. Indeed, iron-saturated neuromelanin granules may act as centres of free radical production, contributing to localised cell death.

  7. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  8. Eat Iron?!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NSF GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    To gain an understanding of mixtures and the concept of separation of mixtures, students use strong magnets to find the element of iron in iron-fortified breakfast cereal flakes. Through this activity, they see how the iron component of this heterogeneous mixture (cereal) retains its properties and can thus be separated by physical means.

  9. Relationship of Maternal Dietary Zinc during Gestation and Lactation to Development and Zinc, Iron and Copper Content of the Postnatal Rat '-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARION R. KETCHESON; GEORGE P. BARRON; DENNIS H. COX

    High levels (0.2 and 0.5% ) of zinc were fed to adult female rats be ginning at zero-day age of the fetus and continued to day 14 of lactation to study the development and iron, copper, and zinc status of zero- and 14-day-old postnatal rats. The results were compared with rats fed a basal diet containing 9 ppm zinc. Growth

  10. The quantitative assessment of body iron.

    PubMed

    Cook, James D; Flowers, Carol H; Skikne, Barry S

    2003-05-01

    Current initiatives to reduce the high prevalence of nutritional iron deficiency have highlighted the need for reliable epidemiologic methods to assess iron status. The present report describes a method for estimating body iron based on the ratio of the serum transferrin receptor to serum ferritin. Analysis showed a single normal distribution of body iron stores in US men aged 20 to 65 years (mean +/- 1 SD, 9.82 +/- 2.82 mg/kg). A single normal distribution was also observed in pregnant Jamaican women (mean +/- 1 SD, 0.09 +/- 4.48 mg/kg). Distribution analysis in US women aged 20 to 45 years indicated 2 populations; 93% of women had body iron stores averaging 5.5 +/- 3.35 mg/kg (mean +/- 1 SD), whereas the remaining 7% of women had a mean tissue iron deficit of 3.87 +/- 3.23 mg/kg. Calculations of body iron in trials of iron supplementation in Jamaica and iron fortification in Vietnam demonstrated that the method can be used to calculate absorption of the added iron. Quantitative estimates of body iron greatly enhance the evaluation of iron status and the sensitivity of iron intervention trials in populations in which inflammation is uncommon or has been excluded by laboratory screening. The method is useful clinically for monitoring iron status in those who are highly susceptible to iron deficiency. PMID:12521995

  11. Effect of phytase treatment on iron bioavailability in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dephytinisation, using an exogenous phytase under optimal conditions (pH 5.5, 37 °C), and subsequent removal of the soaking solution after processing, on the bioavailability of iron from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour was studied. Soaking of the faba bean flour led to a considerable reduction in the content of iron (39%), whereas a lower reduction in iron content (10%), was obtained after additional treatment with phytase, than in the soaked faba bean flour. The digestive utilisation of iron from the raw and soaked faba bean flours by growing rats was negligible, but increased significantly as a result of phytase treatment. The low iron absorption obtained for the former two treatments, during an experimental period of 10 days, was not reflected in any of the haematological indices (red blood count, haemoglobin, haematocrit) or tissues (femur, heart, kidney) studied, with the exception of the sternum. The latter appears to be a useful indicator of iron bioavailability. PMID:25005940

  12. Chitosan and composite microsphere-based scaffold for bone tissue engineering: evaluation of tricalcium phosphate content influence on physical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Martyna; Walenko, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Szumie?, Ma?gorzata; Brynk, Tomasz; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Ciach, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    In the hereby presented work the authors describe a technique of high-compression-resistant biodegradable bone scaffold preparation. The methodology is based on the agglomeration of chitosan (CH) and chitosan/?-tricalcium phosphate (CH/TCP) microspheres and represents a novel approach to 3D matrices design for bone tissue engineering application. The materials were prepared from high deacetylation degree chitosan. The authors describe the method for scaffold fabrication, essential properties of the materials manufactured and the influence of various TCP concentrations on material morphology, mechanical properties (for dry and hydrated materials) and preliminary study on the interaction between CH or CH/TCP scaffolds and within cultured MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. The properties of the obtained materials were significantly affected by the calcium phosphate content, which had a particular influence on the granule microstructure, size distribution and inner biomaterial pore size. The water uptake ability was found to be lower for the materials enriched with the inorganic phase and tended to decrease with the increasing calcium phosphate concentration. The evaluation of mechanical properties has revealed that scaffolds produced with the usage of granule-based technology display a potential to be used as a load-bearing material since the Young's modulus values were limited to the range of 200-500 MPa for dry materials and 15-20 MPa for the hydrated state of the scaffolds. The cell number, identified in three time points (48 h, 7 and 14 days) by Pico Green assay, was lower for the materials enriched with inorganic phase (75 % of control), however cell distribution, when compared to CH only biomaterial, was acknowledged as steadier on the surface of the material containing the highest calcium phosphate concentration. PMID:25737128

  13. Tissue-resident macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Luke C.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Allen, Judith E.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing, to central roles in tissue immune-surveillance, response to infection and the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies highlight marked heterogeneity in the origins of tissue macrophages that arise from hematopoietic versus self-renewing embryo-derived populations. We discuss the tissue–niche-specific factors that dictate cell phenotype, the definition of which will allow novel strategies to promote the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that dictate tissue macrophage heterogeneity should explain why simplified paradigms of macrophage activation do not explain the extent of heterogeneity seen in vivo. PMID:24048120

  14. Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Delu; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD. PMID:23825457

  15. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERN OF SOIL pH AND Eh AND THEIR IMPACT ON SOLUTE IRON CONTENT IN A WETLAND (TRANSDANUBIA, HUNGARY)

    E-print Network

    Szalai Zoltán

    Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils. The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil and vegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation) and the pH, Eh of soils and solute iron in a headwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia, three patches and two species), horsetail (Equisetum arvense), common nettle (Urtica dioica). The spatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography, climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR). Root respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions) and higher pH values were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effects through plants on wetlands.

  16. The combined effects of ionizing radiation and weightlessness on calcium and phosphorus content in the mineral fraction of the calcified tissues in the rat skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Komissarova, N. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Novikov, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    Phosphorus and calcium content in the ash from skeletal bones (ribs, scapula, vertebra, and crus) of 30 rats exposed to ionizing radiation (800 rads) on the flight of the Kosmos 690 biosatellite was studied. A 10 percent decrease in ash content coefficient and 29 percent decrease in phosphorus content was found immediately after the flight, and a 9 percent decrease in phosphorus content persisted after 26 days of readaptation to terrestrial conditions.

  17. Unique Host Iron Utilization Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori Revealed with Iron-Deficient Chemically Defined Media?

    PubMed Central

    Senkovich, Olga; Ceaser, Shantelle; McGee, David J.; Testerman, Traci L.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori chronically infects the gastric mucosa, where it can be found free in mucus, attached to cells, and intracellularly. H. pylori requires iron for growth, but the sources of iron used in vivo are unclear. In previous studies, the inability to culture H. pylori without serum made it difficult to determine which host iron sources might be used by H. pylori. Using iron-deficient, chemically defined medium, we determined that H. pylori can bind and extract iron from hemoglobin, transferrin, and lactoferrin. H. pylori can use both bovine and human versions of both lactoferrin and transferrin, contrary to previous reports. Unlike other pathogens, H. pylori preferentially binds the iron-free forms of transferrin and lactoferrin, which limits its ability to extract iron from normal serum, which is not iron saturated. This novel strategy may have evolved to permit limited growth in host tissue during persistent colonization while excessive injury or iron depletion is prevented. PMID:20176792

  18. Nitrosative Stress and Apoptosis by Intravenous Ferumoxytol, Iron Isomaltoside 1000, Iron Dextran, Iron Sucrose, and Ferric Carboxymaltose in a Nonclinical Model.

    PubMed

    Toblli, J E; Cao, G; Giani, J F; Dominici, F P; Angerosa, M

    2014-07-22

    Iron is involved in the formation as well as in the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, iron can induce as well as inhibit both oxidative and nitrosative stress. It also has a key role in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated apoptosis. We assessed the differences in tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys of rats treated weekly with intravenous ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, iron dextran, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose (40?mg iron/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Nitrotyrosine was quantified in tissue homogenates by Western blotting and the distribution of nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 was assessed in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose administration did not result in detectable levels of nitrotyrosine or significant levels of caspase 3?vs. control in any of the tissue studied. Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were significantly (p<0.01) increased in all assessed organs of animals treated with iron dextran and iron isomaltoside 1000, as well as in the liver and kidneys of ferumoxytol-treated animals compared to isotonic saline solution (control). Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were shown to correlate positively with the amount of Prussian blue-detectable iron(III) deposits in iron dextran- and iron isomaltoside 1000-treated rats but not in ferumoxytol-treated rats, suggesting that iron dextran, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferumoxytol induce nitrosative (and oxidative) stress as well as apoptosis via different mechanism(s). PMID:25050519

  19. Hypochlorous acid-induced heme degradation from lactoperoxidase as a novel mechanism of free iron release and tissue injury in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Maitra, Dhiman; Saed, Ghassan M; Diamond, Michael P; Moura, Arlindo A; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2011-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is the major consumer of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the airways through its ability to oxidize thiocyanate (SCN(-)) to produce hypothiocyanous acid, an antimicrobial agent. In nasal inflammatory diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, both LPO and myeloperoxidase (MPO), another mammalian peroxidase secreted by neutrophils, are known to co-localize. The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of LPO and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the final product of MPO. Our rapid kinetic measurements revealed that HOCl binds rapidly and reversibly to LPO-Fe(III) to form the LPO-Fe(III)-OCl complex, which in turn decayed irreversibly to LPO Compound II through the formation of Compound I. The decay rate constant of Compound II decreased with increasing HOCl concentration with an inflection point at 100 µM HOCl, after which the decay rate increased. This point of inflection is the critical concentration of HOCl beyond which HOCl switches its role, from mediating destabilization of LPO Compound II to LPO heme destruction. Lactoperoxidase heme destruction was associated with protein aggregation, free iron release, and formation of a number of fluorescent heme degradation products. Similar results were obtained when LPO-Fe(II)-O(2), Compound III, was exposed to HOCl. Heme destruction can be partially or completely prevented in the presence of SCN(-). On the basis of the present results we concluded that a complex bi-directional relationship exists between LPO activity and HOCl levels at sites of inflammation; LPO serve as a catalytic sink for HOCl, while HOCl serves to modulate LPO catalytic activity, bioavailability, and function. PMID:22132121

  20. Hypochlorous Acid-Induced Heme Degradation from Lactoperoxidase as a Novel Mechanism of Free Iron Release and Tissue Injury in Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saed, Ghassan M.; Diamond, Michael P.; Moura, Arlindo A.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2011-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is the major consumer of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the airways through its ability to oxidize thiocyanate (SCN?) to produce hypothiocyanous acid, an antimicrobial agent. In nasal inflammatory diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, both LPO and myeloperoxidase (MPO), another mammalian peroxidase secreted by neutrophils, are known to co-localize. The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of LPO and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the final product of MPO. Our rapid kinetic measurements revealed that HOCl binds rapidly and reversibly to LPO-Fe(III) to form the LPO-Fe(III)-OCl complex, which in turn decayed irreversibly to LPO Compound II through the formation of Compound I. The decay rate constant of Compound II decreased with increasing HOCl concentration with an inflection point at 100 µM HOCl, after which the decay rate increased. This point of inflection is the critical concentration of HOCl beyond which HOCl switches its role, from mediating destabilization of LPO Compound II to LPO heme destruction. Lactoperoxidase heme destruction was associated with protein aggregation, free iron release, and formation of a number of fluorescent heme degradation products. Similar results were obtained when LPO-Fe(II)-O2, Compound III, was exposed to HOCl. Heme destruction can be partially or completely prevented in the presence of SCN?. On the basis of the present results we concluded that a complex bi-directional relationship exists between LPO activity and HOCl levels at sites of inflammation; LPO serve as a catalytic sink for HOCl, while HOCl serves to modulate LPO catalytic activity, bioavailability, and function. PMID:22132121

  1. Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels build up with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s Ataxia, and panthothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age- matched controls. Over the past ten years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter 1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, AMD, and conditions causing intraocular hemorrhage. While iron deficiency must be prevented, the therapeutic potential of limiting iron induced ocular oxidative damage is high. Systemic, local, or topical iron chelation with an expanding repertoire of drugs has clinical potential. PMID:17921041

  2. The effect of bioactive glass content on synthesis and bioactivity of composite poly (lactic- co-glycolic acid)\\/bioactive glass substrate for tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yao; Shula Radin; Phoebe S. Leboy; Paul Ducheyne

    2005-01-01

    Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to bone tissue grafting. One material that has received attention in this regard is the polymer poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). It has the advantage of controllable bioresorption and ease of processing. Another material of interest is bioactive glass (BG), which shows the ability to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. In this study,

  3. / http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/recent / 28 August 2014 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1254803 Tissue-resident memory CD8+

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    ) that permanently reside in nonlymphoid tissues in mice and humans (2­11). Analysis of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 transcriptional profiles from the entire skin tissue at the same early time point following in situ triggering of Trm. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles in skin ex- posed to control (OVA257-264) peptide

  4. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mRNA abundance in human adipose tissue: relationship to cell size and membrane cholesterol content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Radeau; Paulina Lau; Malcolm Robb; Gerard Ailhaud; Ruth McPherson

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has a well-defined role in plasma neutral lipid transport. CETP synthesized by human adipose tissue may contribute to the plasma CETP pool. CETP mRNA abundance increases in subcutaneous adipose tissue in response to cholesterol feed- ing and we have hypothesized that CETP gene expression is regulated by a specific pool of cellular sterol. In the

  5. Physiologia Plantarum 131: 7279. 2007 Copyright Physiologia Plantarum 2007, ISSN 0031-9317 Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    -shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and reduction of cytosolic aconitase activity in Citrus fruit vesicles homeostasis, altering their expression. Thus, the enzyme provides a regulatory link between organic acid metabolism and Fe cellular status. Roots and leaves of Fe-deficient plants show induction in organic acids

  6. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  7. Alveolar macrophages accumulate iron and ferritin after in vivo exposure to iron or tungsten dusts.

    PubMed

    Wesselius, L J; Smirnov, I M; Nelson, M E; O'Brien-Ladner, A R; Flowers, C H; Skikne, B S

    1996-04-01

    Extracellular iron present in alveolar structures may contribute to oxidative lung injury induced by toxic mineral dusts by enhancing dust-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) can sequester iron within ferritin and limit generation of hydroxyl radicals. In the current study we sought to assess whether AMs accumulate iron and ferritin after in vivo exposure to a dust with high iron content, to iron oxide, or to an inflammatory dust, calcium tungstate. We performed lung lavage 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days after intratracheal instillation of mineral dust in saline solution or instillation of saline solution alone and quantitated cell recovery and AM content of iron and ferritin. Instillation of iron oxide increased neutrophil recovery only on a day 1 when compared with results in controls, whereas calcium tungstate increased neutrophil recovery through day 14. AMs recovered after instillation of iron oxide contained increased amounts of iron and ferritin, beginning on day 1 and progressing through day 56 after treatment (7.57 +/- 0.38 microgram iron per 10(6) AMs vs 1.54 +/- 0.28 microgram iron per 10(6) AMs for controls, p < 0.001; and 5908 +/- 768 ng ferritin per 10(6) AMs vs 395 +/- 20 ng ferritin per 10(6) AMs, p < 0.001). AMs recovered after calcium tungstate instillation also contained increased amounts of iron and ferritin beginning 14 days after treatment, with greatest content 42 days after treatment (4.85 +/- 0.68 microgram iron per 10(6) AMs, p < 0.001, and 2274 +/- 736 ng ferritin per 10(6) AMs, p < 0.001). Tumor necrosis factor, which can enhance iron accumulation by macrophages, was spontaneously released by AMs recovered from tungsten-treated rats. These studies indicate that AMs accumulate iron and ferritin in response to both iron loading of the lungs with iron oxide exposure and lung inflammation induced by calcium tungstate exposure. PMID:8656043

  8. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  9. Complex permittivity and permeability of carbonyl iron powders at microwave frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Wang; M. N. Afsat; R. Grignon

    2003-01-01

    The microwave dielectric and magnetic properties of carbonyl iron powders were investigated using the waveguide technique. The experimental results of the complex permittivity and permeability of these carbonyl iron powders are presented. The complex permeability of these carbonyl iron powders are quite similar due to their high content of iron while the complex permittivity of the carbonyl iron powders are

  10. Serum transferrin receptor as an index of iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D; Dassenko, S; Skikne, B S

    1990-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that serum transferrin receptor levels are a quantitative index of tissue receptor mass. To determine whether the latter plays a role in the regulation of iron absorption, we examined the relationship between serum receptor, serum ferritin and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Using radioisotopic techniques we measured absorption of inorganic iron in 174 subjects and dietary nonhaem iron in 60 subjects. With both forms of iron, the correlation with absorption was far lower for serum receptor than for serum ferritin and was no longer significant when subjects with depleted iron stores were excluded. These results indicate that in normal subjects the iron store is the main physiological determinant of iron absorption and that in the absence of iron deficiency, tissue receptor mass, reflected by serum transferrin receptor levels, has no discernible influence. PMID:2207011

  11. Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Yong; Peng, Hui-Fang; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2014-11-01

    The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (I?B), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and I?B at 3h, ferritin at 24h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis and in its innate immune defense mechanism. PMID:25269138

  12. Interrelationships between maternal DHA in erythrocytes, milk and adipose tissue. Is 1 wt% DHA the optimal human milk content? Data from four Tanzanian tribes differing in lifetime stable intakes of fish.

    PubMed

    Luxwolda, Martine F; Kuipers, Remko S; Koops, Jan-Hein; Muller, Stefan; de Graaf, Deti; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2014-03-14

    Little is known about the interrelationships between maternal and infant erythrocyte-DHA, milk-DHA and maternal adipose tissue (AT)-DHA contents. We studied these relationships in four tribes in Tanzania (Maasai, Pare, Sengerema and Ukerewe) differing in their lifetime intakes of fish. Cross-sectional samples were collected at delivery and after 3 d and 3 months of exclusive breast-feeding. We found that intra-uterine biomagnification is a sign of low maternal DHA status, that genuine biomagnification occurs during lactation, that lactating mothers with low DHA status cannot augment their infants' DHA status, and that lactating mothers lose DHA independent of their DHA status. A maternal erythrocyte-DHA content of 8 wt% was found to correspond with a mature milk-DHA content of 1·0 wt% and with subcutaneous and abdominal (omentum) AT-DHA contents of about 0·39 and 0·52 wt%, respectively. Consequently, 1 wt% DHA might be a target for Western human milk and infant formula that has milk arachidonic acid, EPA and linoleic acid contents of 0·55, 0·22 and 9·32 wt%, respectively. With increasing DHA status, the erythrocyte-DHA content reaches a plateau of about 9 wt%, and it plateaus more readily than milk-DHA and AT-DHA contents. Compared with the average Tanzanian-Ukerewe woman, the average US woman has four times lower AT-DHA content (0·4 v. 0·1 wt%) and five times lower mature milk-DHA output (301 v. 60 mg/d), which contrasts with her estimated 1·8-2·6 times lower mobilisable AT-DHA content (19 v. 35-50 g). PMID:24175990

  13. Manipulation of cellular spheroid composition and the effects on vascular tissue fusion.

    PubMed

    Olsen, T R; Mattix, B; Casco, M; Herbst, A; Williams, C; Tarasidis, A; Simionescu, D; Visconti, R P; Alexis, F

    2015-02-01

    Cellular spheroids were investigated as tissue-engineered building blocks that can be fused to form functional tissue constructs. While spheroids can be assembled using passive contacts for the fusion of complex tissues, physical forces can be used to promote active contacts to improve tissue homogeneity and accelerate tissue fusion. Understanding the mechanisms affecting the fusion of spheroids is critical to fabricating tissues. Here, manipulation of the spheroid composition was used to accelerate the fusion process mediated by magnetic forces. The Janus structure of magnetic cellular spheroids spatially controls iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to form two distinct domains: cells and extracellular MNPs. Studies were performed to evaluate the influence of extracellular matrix (ECM) content and cell number on the fusion of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs). Results showed that the integration of iron oxide MNPs into spheroids increased the production of collagen over time when compared to spheroids without MNPs. The results also showed that ring tissues composed of JMCSs with high ECM concentrations and high cell numbers fused together, but exhibited less contraction when compared to their lower concentration counterparts. Results from spheroid fusion in capillary tubes showed that low ECM concentrations and high cell numbers experienced more fusion and cellular intermixing over time when compared to their higher counterparts. These findings indicate that cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play an important role in regulating fusion, and this understanding sets the rationale of spheroid composition to fabricate larger and more complex tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:25463485

  14. Human brain atlas for automated region of interest selection in quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to determine iron content in deep gray matter structures.

    PubMed

    Lim, Issel Anne L; Faria, Andreia V; Li, Xu; Hsu, Johnny T C; Airan, Raag D; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the single-subject Eve atlas from Johns Hopkins University, which currently contains diffusion tensor and T1-weighted anatomical maps, by including contrast based on quantitative susceptibility mapping. The new atlas combines a "deep gray matter parcellation map" (DGMPM) derived from a single-subject quantitative susceptibility map with the previously established "white matter parcellation map" (WMPM) from the same subject's T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging data into an MNI coordinate map named the "Everything Parcellation Map in Eve Space," also known as the "EvePM." It allows automated segmentation of gray matter and white matter structures. Quantitative susceptibility maps from five healthy male volunteers (30 to 33 years of age) were coregistered to the Eve Atlas with AIR and Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), and the transformation matrices were applied to the EvePM to produce automated parcellation in subject space. Parcellation accuracy was measured with a kappa analysis for the left and right structures of six deep gray matter regions. For multi-orientation QSM images, the Kappa statistic was 0.85 between automated and manual segmentation, with the inter-rater reproducibility Kappa being 0.89 for the human raters, suggesting "almost perfect" agreement between all segmentation methods. Segmentation seemed slightly more difficult for human raters on single-orientation QSM images, with the Kappa statistic being 0.88 between automated and manual segmentation, and 0.85 and 0.86 between human raters. Overall, this atlas provides a time-efficient tool for automated coregistration and segmentation of quantitative susceptibility data to analyze many regions of interest. These data were used to establish a baseline for normal magnetic susceptibility measurements for over 60 brain structures of 30- to 33-year-old males. Correlating the average susceptibility with age-based iron concentrations in gray matter structures measured by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) allowed interpolation of the average iron concentration of several deep gray matter regions delineated in the EvePM. PMID:23769915

  15. Olfactory ferric and ferrous iron absorption in iron-deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruvin Kumara, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    The absorption of metals from the nasal cavity to the blood and the brain initiates an important route of occupational exposures leading to health risks. Divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) plays a significant role in the absorption of intranasally instilled manganese, but whether iron uptake would be mediated by the same pathway is unknown. In iron-deficient rats, blood 59Fe levels after intranasal administration of the radioisotope in the ferrous form were significantly higher than those observed for iron-sufficient control rats. Similar results were obtained when ferric iron was instilled intranasally, and blood levels of 59Fe were even greater in the iron-deficient rats compared with the amount of ferrous iron absorbed. Experiments with Belgrade (b/b) rats showed that DMT1 deficiency limited ferric iron uptake from the nasal cavity to the blood compared with +/b controls matched for iron deficiency. These results indicate that olfactory uptake of ferric iron by iron-deficient rats involves DMT1. Western blot experiments confirmed that DMT1 levels are significantly higher in iron-deficient rats compared with iron-sufficient controls in olfactory tissue. Thus the molecular mechanism of olfactory iron absorption is regulated by body iron status and involves DMT1. PMID:22492739

  16. Cellular Iron Distribution in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wang Yung; Pohl, Susanne; Gray, Joe; Robinson, Nigel J.; Harwood, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    Although successful iron acquisition by pathogens within a host is a prerequisite for the establishment of infection, surprisingly little is known about the intracellular distribution of iron within bacterial pathogens. We have used a combination of anaerobic native liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, principal-component analysis, and peptide mass fingerprinting to investigate the cytosolic iron distribution in the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. Our studies identified three of the major iron pools as being associated with the electron transfer protein ferredoxin, the miniferritin Dps2, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes SodA1 and SodA2. Although both SOD isozymes were predicted to utilize manganese cofactors, quantification of the metal ions associated with SodA1 and SodA2 in cell extracts established that SodA1 is associated with both manganese and iron, whereas SodA2 is bound exclusively to iron in vivo. These data were confirmed by in vitro assays using recombinant protein preparations, showing that SodA2 is active with an iron cofactor, while SodA1 is cambialistic, i.e., active with manganese or iron. Furthermore, we observe that B. anthracis cells exposed to superoxide stress increase their total iron content more than 2-fold over 60 min, while the manganese and zinc contents are unaffected. Notably, the acquired iron is not localized to the three identified cytosolic iron pools. PMID:22178968

  17. [Current recommendations for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, R M; Huch, R; Krafft, A

    2007-04-01

    Iron deficiency is a frequent complication in chronically ill patients and in pregnant women. Iron status can now be characterised precisely and relatively easily by determining serum ferritin, transferritin saturation and if necessary hypochromic erythrocytes and the haemoglobin content of erythrocytes (CHr). Oral iron replacement is usually restricted by limited absorption and low tolerability. Intravenous iron therapy is possible in such cases and can be combined with rHuEPO (e.g. EPREX/ epoetin alfa) in severe cases. Iron saccharate (VENOFER) is commercially available in Switzerland and this permits high dose iron replacement without any danger of anaphylaxis or acute iron toxicity. PMID:17514929

  18. Relationship between muscle antioxidant status, forms of iron, polyunsaturated fatty acids and functionality (retail colour) of meat in lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Butler, Kym L; McDonagh, Matthew B; Jacobs, Joe L; Hopkins, David L

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between muscle vitamin E, forms of iron, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the redness of meat (retail display) at days 3 to 4 post slaughter from lambs offered 2 different diets was examined. Meat redness was positively related to vitamin E and heme iron and negatively related to total n-3, total n-6 and total PUFA content. However, after adjusting for the effects of vitamin E and heme iron content, there was no indication of any residual relationship between redness at days 3-4 of retail display and total n-3, total n-6 or total PUFA. This indicates that the relationship between PUFA and redness in meat is mediated through the effects of heme iron and vitamin E in the muscle. It appears that the level of highly oxidisable PUFAs in muscle tissues do not play a major role in maintenance of redness at days 3-4 of retail display, but the level of vitamin E and heme iron content are important. PMID:21849235

  19. Respective role of Fe and Mn oxide contents for arsenic sorption in iron and manganese binary oxide: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Fudong; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Ruiping

    2014-09-01

    In our previous studies, a synthesized Fe-Mn binary oxide was found to be very effective for both As(V) and As(III) removal in aqueous phase, because As(III) could be easily oxidized to As(V). As(III) oxidation and As(V) sorption by the Fe-Mn binary oxide may also play an important role in the natural cycling of As, because of its common occurrence in the environment. In the present study, the respective role of Fe and Mn contents present in the Fe-Mn binary oxide on As(III) removal was investigated via a direct in situ determination of arsenic speciation using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray absorption near edge structure results indicate that Mn atoms exist in a mixed valence state of +3 and +4 and further confirm that MnOx (1.5 < x < 2) content is mainly responsible for oxidizing As(III) to As(V) through a two-step pathway [reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(III) and subsequent Mn(III) to Mn(II)] and FeOOH content is dominant for adsorbing the formed As(V). No significant As(III) oxidation by pure FeOOH had been observed during its sorption, when the system was exposed to air. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure results reveal that the As surface complex on both the As(V)- and As(III)-treated sample surfaces is an inner-sphere bidentate binuclear corner-sharing complex with an As-M (M = Fe or Mn) interatomic distance of 3.22-3.24 Å. In addition, the MnOx and FeOOH contents exist only as a mixture, and no solid solution is formed. Because of its high effectiveness, low cost, and environmental friendliness, the Fe-Mn binary oxide would play a beneficial role as both an efficient oxidant of As(III) and a sorbent for As(V) in drinking water treatment and environmental remediation. PMID:25093452

  20. Air oxidation of hydrazine. 1. Reaction kinetics on natural kaolinites, halloysites, and model substituent layers with varying iron and titanium oxide and O- center contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L.; Mariner, R.; Rice, A.

    1991-01-01

    Air oxidation of hydrazine was studied by using a group of kaolinites, halloysites, and substituent oxides as models for the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The rate was found to be linear with oxygen. The stoichiometry showed that oxygen was the primary oxidant and that dinitrogen was the only important nitrogen-containing product. The rates on kaolinites were strongly inhibited by water. Those on three-dimensional silica and gibbsite appeared not to be. That on a supposedly layered silica formed from a natural kaolinite by acid leaching showed transitional behavior--slowed relative to that expected from a second-order reaction relative to that on the gibbsite and silica but faster than those on the kaolinites. The most striking result of the reaction was the marked increase in the rate of reaction of a constant amount of hydrazine as the amount of clay was increased. The increase was apparent (in spite of the water inhibition at high conversions) over a 2 order of magnitude variation of the clay weight. The weight dependence was taken to indicate that the role of the clay is very important, that the number of reactive centers is very small, or that they may be deactivated over the course of the reaction. In contrast to the strong dependence on overall amount of clay, the variation of amounts of putative oxidizing centers, such as structural Fe(III), admixed TiO2 or Fe2O3, or O- centers, did not result in alteration of the rate commensurate with the degree of variation of the entity in question. Surface iron does play some role, however, as samples that were pretreated with a reducing agent were less active as catalysts than the parent material. These results were taken to indicate either that the various centers interact to such a degree that they cannot be considered independently or that the reaction might proceed by way of surface complexation, rather than single electron transfers.

  1. Iron Overload - A Growing Nutritional Disorder from Dietary Excess

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amberlee Ficociello

    overload is alarming and the implications of iron overload in a number of equine diseases are growing. Iron is an essential element in most biological systems, the most well known being hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron is the basis of the heme component of the red blood cell that binds oxygen and allows it to be carried to the tissues. (Jackson,

  2. Iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of iron-induced kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Martines, A M F; Masereeuw, R; Tjalsma, H; Hoenderop, J G; Wetzels, J F M; Swinkels, D W

    2013-07-01

    In the past 8 years, there has been renewed interest in the role of iron in both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with kidney diseases, renal tubules are exposed to a high concentration of iron owing to increased glomerular filtration of iron and iron-containing proteins, including haemoglobin, transferrin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Levels of intracellular catalytic iron may increase when glomerular and renal tubular cells are injured. Reducing the excessive luminal or intracellular levels of iron in the kidney could be a promising approach to treat AKI and CKD. Understanding the role of iron in kidney injury and as a therapeutic target requires insight into the mechanisms of iron metabolism in the kidney, the role of endogenous proteins involved in iron chelation and transport, including hepcidin, NGAL, the NGAL receptor and divalent metal transporter 1, and iron-induced toxic effects. This Review summarizes emerging knowledge, which suggests that complex mechanisms of iron metabolism exist in the kidney, modulated directly or indirectly by cellular iron content, inflammation, ischaemia and oxidative stress. The potential exists for prevention and treatment of iron-induced kidney injury by customized iron removal or relocation, aided by detailed insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms. PMID:23670084

  3. Storage iron exchange in the rat as affected by deferoxamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.K.; Huebers, H.; Pippard, M.J.; Finch, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    The initial tissue localization and redistribution of radioactive iron injected intravenously into the rat as ferritin, chondroitin sulfate, and nonviable red cells was determined. Ferritin iron, initially localized in the hepatocyte, showed minimal redistribution over 24 hours in the normal animal. This may be compared with the active release of iron from the reticuloendothelial cell after the intravenous injection of nonviable red cells and chondroitin sulfate iron. All forms of iron were actively mobilized in iron-deficient animals. The effect of chelation of iron by deferoxamine (DFO) on the redistribution pattern over 4 to 6 hours was determined in iron-deficient, normal, iron-loaded, and phenylhydrazine-treated rats to evaluate the effect of iron stores and erythropoiesis. Use of DFO resulted in extensive chelation of radioactive iron within the hepatocyte and greatly reduced the amount of hepatocyte iron available for erythropoiesis. Very little chelation of reticuloendothelial cell-processed iron occurred, and there was little decrease in its utilization for red cell production. Total urinary chelate iron was independent of erythropoiesis but varied in parallel with the iron load of the animal. These studies suggest that DFO does not act on the reticuloendothelial cell but does have at least two sites of action, both of which relate to total storage iron. One involves hepatocyte stores with excretion into the intestinal tract. The other, possibly located at the hepatocyte membrane, results in urinary iron excretion.

  4. Iron Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Kowdley, K. (2012). Review Article: The Iron Overload Syndromes. Medscape Reference from Aliment Pharmacol Ther . V35 (8):876-893. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/ ...

  5. Bacterial iron homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon C Andrews; Andrea K Robinson; Francisco Rodr??guez-Quiñones

    2003-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many

  6. Iron deficiency: the global perspective.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D; Skikne, B S; Baynes, R D

    1994-01-01

    The prevelance of IDA in industrialized countries has declined in recent decades, but there has been little change in the worldwide prevalence. IDA is currently estimated to affect more than 500 million people. Recent studies have indicated that anemia per se, the most common manifestation of iron deficiency, is less important from a public health standpoint than liabilities associated with tissue iron deficiency. The most important of the latter are an impairment in psychomotor development and cognitive function in infants and preschoolers, a deficit in work performance in adults, and an increase in the frequency of low birth weight, prematurity, and perinatal mortality in pregnancy. There have been several recent advances in combatting nutritional iron deficiency. One of the major problems has been in distinguishing iron deficiency from other causes of anemia seen epidemiologically such as malaria, HIV infection, chronic inflammation, hemoglobinopathies, and protein energy malnutrition. When combined with serum ferritin and hemoglobin determinations, the serum transferrin receptor assay is a valuable addition in epidemiologic surveys because it provides a quantitative measure of functional iron deficiency and it distinguishes true IDA from the anemia of chronic disease. The most difficult challenge is to develop effective methods of supplying iron to large segments of a population. Supplementation with iron tablets is suitable for only brief periods of need such as during pregnancy. The poor compliance with existing supplementation programs is believed to be due mainly to the gastrointestinal side effects of oral iron which can be eliminated by the use of a gastric delivery system. The most effective long-term strategy is to increase the intake of bioavailable iron in the diet. The customary approach has been to fortify a food staple such as wheat, rice, sugar, or salt, and thereby increase the iron intake of the entire population. However, because of concerns about the risk of cancer and heart disease in individuals with high iron stores, there is an increasing reluctance to supply iron to individuals who do not require it. A more effective strategy is to fortify food vehicles that are targeted to segments of the population at greatest risk of iron deficiency such as infants and school children. Because of the strong inhibitory properties of diets in regions of the world where iron deficiency is most prevalent, the use of NaFeEDTA has important advantages for food fortification. PMID:7887226

  7. Inhibited PTHLH downstream leukocyte adhesion-mediated protein amino acid N-linked glycosylation coupling Notch and JAK-STAT cascade to iron-sulfur cluster assembly-induced aging network in no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) by systems-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu; Lin, Hong; Qi, Lianxiu; Diao, Haizhen

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the different biological processes and occurrence numbers between low expression inhibited PTHLH downstream-mediated aging gene ontology (GO) network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) and the corresponding high expression (fold change ?2) inhibited GO network of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Inhibited PTHLH downstream-mediated aging network consisted of aging, branched chain family amino acid biosynthesis, cellular metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger, cytolysis, 'de novo' GDP-l-fucose biosynthesis, detection of mechanical stimulus, glucose homeostasis, G-protein signaling, leukocyte adhesion, iron-sulfur cluster assembly, JAK-STAT cascade, Notch signaling pathway, nucleotide-sugar metabolism, peptidyl-tyrosine sulfation, protein amino acid N-linked glycosylation, protein amino acid phosphorylation, response to drug, rRNA processing, translational initiation, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism, homophilic cell adhesion in no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues. We proposed inhibited PTHLH downstream leukocyte adhesion-mediated protein amino acid N-linked glycosylation coupling Notch and JAK-STAT cascade to iron-sulfur cluster assembly-induced aging network. Our hypothesis was verified by the same inhibited PTHLH downstream-mediated aging GO network in no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues with the corresponding activated GO network of HCC, or the different with the corresponding activated GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues. Inhibited PTHLH downstream leukocyte adhesion-mediated protein amino acid N-linked glycosylation coupling Notch and JAK-STAT cascade to iron-sulfur cluster assembly-induced aging network included TSTA3, ALK, CIAO1, NOTCH3 in no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues from the GEO data set using gene regulatory network inference method and our programming. PMID:22955522

  8. Evaluation of Palm oil mill effluent to maize (Zea mays. L) crop: yields, tissue nutrient content and residual soil chemical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris. O. Nwoko; Sola Ogunyemi

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is produced in large quantities in Nigeria and is amenable to microbial degradation. Thus, represents a low-cost source of plant nutrients. This paper presents the data from two years experiments concerned with the application of aerobically-fermented POME to soils for maize (Zea mays. L) Production at Owerri. Nigeria. Maize grain yield, height, dry matter, tissue

  9. Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets with low omega (u)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios have been shown to decrease aortic cholesterol accumulation and have been suggested to promote weight loss. The involvement of the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT...

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  12. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

  13. Deciphering the iron isotope message of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczyk, Thomas; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2005-04-01

    Mass-dependent variations in isotopic composition are known since decades for the light elements such as hydrogen, carbon or oxygen. Multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and double-spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) permit us now to resolve small variations in isotopic composition even for the heavier elements such as iron. Recent studies on the iron isotopic composition of human blood and dietary iron sources have shown that lighter iron isotopes are enriched along the food chain and that each individual bears a certain iron isotopic signature in blood. To make use of this finding in biomedical research, underlying mechanisms of isotope fractionation by the human body need to be understood. In this paper available iron isotope data for biological samples are discussed within the context of isotope fractionation concepts and fundamental aspects of human iron metabolism. This includes evaluation of new data for body tissues which show that blood and muscle tissue have a similar iron isotopic composition while heavier iron isotopes are concentrated in the liver. This new observation is in agreement with our earlier hypothesis of a preferential absorption of lighter iron isotopes by the human body. Possible mechanisms for inducing an iron isotope effect at the cellular and molecular level during iron uptake are presented and the potential of iron isotope effects in human blood as a long-term measure of dietary iron absorption is discussed.

  14. In Vitro Exposure of Precision-Cut Lung Slices to 2-(4-Amino-3-Methylphenyl)-5-Fluorobenzothiazole Lysylamide Dihydrochloride (NSC 710305, Phortress) Increases Inflammatory Cytokine Content and Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Behrsing, Holger P.

    2013-01-01

    The anticancer drug (2-[4-amino-3-methylphenyl]-5-fluorobenzothiazole lysylamide dihydrochloride) (NSC 710305, Phortress) is a metabolically activated prodrug that causes DNA adduct formation and subsequent toxicity. Preclinically, it was found that hepatic, bone marrow, and pulmonary toxicity presented challenges to developing this drug. An ex vivo precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) model was used to search for concentration dependent effects of NSC 710305 (10, 25, 50, and 100µM) on cytokine content, protein content, and immuno/histological endpoints. Preparation and culture of PCLS caused an initial spike in proinflammatory cytokine expression and therefore treatment with NSC 710305 was delayed until 48h after initiating the slice cultures to avoid confounding the response to slicing with any drug response. PCLSs were evaluated after 24, 48, and 72h exposures to NSC 710305. Reversibility of toxicity due to the 72-h treatment was evaluated after a 24-h recovery period. NSC 710305 caused a concentration-dependent cytokine response, and only the toxicity caused by a 72-h exposure to 25µM reversed during the 24-h recovery period. Immuno/histological examination and quantitation of tissue protein levels indicated that tissue destruction, ED-1 (activated macrophage) staining, and protein levels were associated with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the tissue. In conclusion, the concentration- and time-dependent inflammatory response of PCLS to NSC 710305 preceded relevant tissue damage by a few days. The no-observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 24, 48, and 72h exposures was established as 10µM NSC 710305. PMID:23143926

  15. TonB-Dependent Heme Iron Acquisition in the Tsetse Fly Symbiont Sodalis glossinidius.

    PubMed

    Hrusa, Gili; Farmer, William; Weiss, Brian L; Applebaum, Taylor; Roma, Jose Santinni; Szeto, Lauren; Aksoy, Serap; Runyen-Janecky, Laura J

    2015-04-15

    Sodalis glossinidius is an intra- and extracellular symbiont of the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.), which feeds exclusively on vertebrate blood. S. glossinidius resides in a wide variety of tsetse tissues and may encounter environments that differ dramatically in iron content. The Sodalis chromosome encodes a putative TonB-dependent outer membrane heme transporter (HemR) and a putative periplasmic/inner membrane ABC heme permease system (HemTUV). Because these gene products mediate iron acquisition processes by other enteric bacteria, we characterized their regulation and physiological role in the Sodalis/tsetse system. Our results show that the hemR and tonB genes are expressed by S. glossinidius in the tsetse fly. Furthermore, transcription of hemR in Sodalis is repressed in a high-iron environment by the iron-responsive transcriptional regulator Fur. Expression of the S. glossinidius hemR and hemTUV genes in an Escherichia coli strain unable to use heme as an iron source stimulated growth in the presence of heme or hemoglobin as the sole iron source. This stimulation was dependent on the presence of either the E. coli or Sodalis tonB gene. Sodalis tonB and hemR mutant strains were defective in their ability to colonize the gut of tsetse flies that lacked endogenous symbionts, while wild-type S. glossinidius proliferated in this same environment. Finally, we show that the Sodalis HemR protein is localized to the bacterial membrane and appears to bind hemin. Collectively, this study provides strong evidence that TonB-dependent, HemR-mediated iron acquisition is important for the maintenance of symbiont homeostasis in the tsetse fly, and it provides evidence for the expression of bacterial high-affinity iron acquisition genes in insect symbionts. PMID:25681181

  16. Toxic (Pb, Cd, Hg) and essential (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) metal content of liver tissue of some domestic and bush animals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adei, Evans; Forson-Adaboh, Kwadwo

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic metals in liver, a rich natural source of essential elements, can present health risks to regular consumers of liver. A total of 35 fresh liver samples of cow, sheep, goat, pig, grass-cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), chicken and antelope (Antilocapra americana) were obtained from three different markets in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and an automatic mercury analyzer. Levels of iron in the grass-cutter and pig of 500.5-645.4 mg kg(-1) were the highest in the animal livers examined. Mn concentrations were highest in grass-cutter and rat liver, ranging 16.5-30.2 mg kg(-1). The safe Cu and Zn permissible limits of 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) were exceeded in 70 and 75% of the liver samples, respectively. Generally, for each animal group studied, at least 50% of the sample livers exceeded the Cd permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). The levels of Pb, which ranged 1.3-13.8 mg kg(-1), exceeded the proposed European Commission (EC) limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). Care must be taken by regular consumers of the iron-rich animal livers of grass-cutter, pig and rat because they also had the highest levels of Pb (in grass-cutter and pig) and Cd (in grass-cutter, rat and pig). The liver samples analyzed for Hg had values far below the permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:24784805

  17. Iron-dependent oxidative stress in Chlorella vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Susana Estevez; Gabriela Malanga; Susana Puntarulo

    2001-01-01

    The role of iron as catalyst for oxidative stress was studied during the development of Chlorella vulgaris cells. Increases on iron availability beyond 200 ?M led to a decrease in the growth rate of the cultures of C. vulgaris. Quantification of the EPR signals of POBN\\/lipid radicals adducts indicated that iron addition increased lipid radical content in the membranes (more

  18. IRON INCREASES EXPRESSION OF IRON-EXPORT PROTEIN MTP1 IN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation of reactive iron in acute and chronic lung disease suggests that iron-driven free radical formation could contribute to tissue injury. Safe transport and sequestration of this metal is likely to be of importance in lung defense. We provide evidence for the expression...

  19. Upregulation of uncoupling protein 2 mRNA in genetic obesity: lack of an essential role for leptin, hyperphagia, increased tissue lipid content, and TNF-?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riaz A. Memon; Gökhan S. Hotamisligil; Sarah M. Wiesbrock; K. Teoman Uysal; Raffaella Faggioni; Arthur H. Moser; Kenneth R. Feingold; Carl Grunfeld

    2000-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) has been proposed to play a prominent role in the regulation of energy balance. UCP2 mRNA expression is upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver, but is not altered in skeletal muscle in genetically obese ob\\/ob mice. The mechanisms involved in the upregulation of UCP2 in obesity have not been investigated. We have now examined

  20. Separate pathways for cellular uptake of ferric and ferrous iron.

    PubMed

    Conrad, M E; Umbreit, J N; Moore, E G; Hainsworth, L N; Porubcin, M; Simovich, M J; Nakada, M T; Dolan, K; Garrick, M D

    2000-10-01

    Separate pathways for transport of nontransferrin ferric and ferrous iron into tissue cultured cells were demonstrated. Neither the ferric nor ferrous pathway was shared with either zinc or copper. Manganese shared the ferrous pathway but had no effect on cellular uptake of ferric iron. We postulate that ferric iron was transported into cells via beta(3)-integrin and mobilferrin (IMP), whereas ferrous iron uptake was facilitated by divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1; Nramp-2). These conclusions were documented by competitive inhibition studies, utilization of a beta(3)-integrin antibody that blocked uptake of ferric but not ferrous iron, development of an anti-DMT-1 antibody that blocked ferrous iron and manganese uptake but not ferric iron, transfection of DMT-1 DNA into tissue culture cells that showed enhanced uptake of ferrous iron and manganese but neither ferric iron nor zinc, hepatic metal concentrations in mk mice showing decreased iron and manganese but not zinc or copper, and data showing that the addition of reducing agents to tissue culture media altered iron binding to proteins of the IMP and DMT-1 pathways. Although these experiments show ferric and ferrous iron can enter cells via different pathways, they do not indicate which pathway is dominant in humans. PMID:11005764

  1. Toxicity and biodistribution of activated and non-activated intravenous iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, J. A.; Ogden, J. A.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Pierce, Z. E.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medical treatment has prompted the question of their safety. In this study, the pathophysiology and biodistribution of three different concentrations of intravenously-delivered dextran-coated Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were evaluated in mice. Some groups of mice were exposed to an AC magnetic field (AMF) at levels comparable with those proposed for cancer treatments. Iron biodistribution analysis for both AMF and non-AMF treated mice was performed for all three concentrations used (.6 mg Fe/mouse, 1.8 mg Fe/mouse, and 5.6 mg Fe/mouse). Blood urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total serum protein, and creatinine were also assessed at 4 hours, 7 days, and 14 days post-injection. Histological analysis of lung, spleen, heart, liver, and kidney tissue was conducted at 7 and 14 days post-injection. Prussian blue and H&E stains were used to histomorphometrically assess iron content in the tissues studied. Preliminary results demonstrate small temporary elevation in liver enzymes and hepatocyte vacuolization at all iron concentrations studied. Liver and spleen were the primary sites of IONP deposition. None of the animals demonstrated systemic or local toxicity or illness, with or without AMF activation.

  2. When is iron overload deleterious, and when and how should iron chelation therapy be administered in myelodysplastic syndromes?

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P; Gattermann, Norbert

    2013-12-01

    Iron overload in MDS starts even before patients become red-blood cell transfusion dependent, because disease-associated ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus causes unrestrained iron absorption in the duodenum. However, the main cause of iron overload is regular transfusion therapy, which in MDS is associated with a risk of unclear magnitude for iron-related complications. Iron deposition in tissues can now be detected with non-invasive techniques such as T2* MRI. Iron toxicity in MDS may not only depend on the degree of tissue iron accumulation but also on the extent of chronic exposure to non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), including labile plasma iron (LPI) and intracellular labile iron pools, which increase the level of oxidative stress. Iron chelation therapy (ICT) can rapidly lower NTBI and LPI and more slowly mobilizes tissue iron stores. Further studies, including the ongoing TELESTO controlled trial, will more clearly define the role of ICT in MDS, including any effect on specific morbidities or mortality in the MDS setting. PMID:24507819

  3. Do regional modifications in tissue mineral content and microscopic mineralization heterogeneity adapt trabecular bone tracts for habitual bending? Analysis in the context of trabecular architecture of deer calcanei

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Farnsworth, Ryan W; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2012-01-01

    Calcanei of mature mule deer have the largest mineral content (percent ash) difference between their dorsal ‘compression’ and plantar ‘tension’ cortices of any bone that has been studied. The opposing trabecular tracts, which are contiguous with the cortices, might also show important mineral content differences and microscopic mineralization heterogeneity (reflecting increased hemi-osteonal renewal) that optimize mechanical behaviors in tension vs. compression. Support for these hypotheses could reveal a largely unrecognized capacity for phenotypic plasticity – the adaptability of trabecular bone material as a means for differentially enhancing mechanical properties for local strain environments produced by habitual bending. Fifteen skeletally mature and 15 immature deer calcanei were cut transversely into two segments (40% and 50% shaft length), and cores were removed to determine mineral (ash) content from ‘tension’ and ‘compression’ trabecular tracts and their adjacent cortices. Seven bones/group were analyzed for differences between tracts in: first, microscopic trabecular bone packets and mineralization heterogeneity (backscattered electron imaging, BSE); and second, trabecular architecture (micro-computed tomography). Among the eight architectural characteristics evaluated [including bone volume fraction (BVF) and structural model index (SMI)]: first, only the ‘tension’ tract of immature bones showed significantly greater BVF and more negative SMI (i.e. increased honeycomb morphology) than the ‘compression’ tract of immature bones; and second, the ‘compression’ tracts of both groups showed significantly greater structural order/alignment than the corresponding ‘tension’ tracts. Although mineralization heterogeneity differed between the tracts in only the immature group, in both groups the mineral content derived from BSE images was significantly greater (P < 0.01), and bulk mineral (ash) content tended to be greater in the ‘compression’ tracts (immature 3.6%, P = 0.03; mature 3.1%, P = 0.09). These differences are much less than the approximately 8% greater mineral content of their ‘compression’ cortices (P < 0.001). Published data, suggesting that these small mineralization differences are not mechanically important in the context of conventional tests, support the probability that architectural modifications primarily adapt the tracts for local demands. However, greater hemi-osteonal packets in the tension trabecular tract of only the mature bones (P = 0.006) might have an important role, and possible synergism with mineralization and/or microarchitecture, in differential toughening at the trabeculum level for tension vs. compression strains. PMID:22220639

  4. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  5. Enhanced and selective delivery of enzyme therapy to 9L-glioma tumor via magnetic targeting of PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Wenxi

    2014-01-01

    The stability of enzyme-conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in plasma is of great importance for in vivo delivery of the conjugated enzyme. In this study, ?-glucosidase was conjugated on aminated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the glutaraldehyde method (?-Glu-MNP), and further PEGylated via N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The PEG-modified, ?-glucosidase-immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-?-Glu-MNPs) were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter distribution, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The results showed that the multidomain structure and magnetization properties of these nanoparticles were conserved well throughout the synthesis steps, with an expected diameter increase and zeta potential shifts. The Michaelis constant was calculated to evaluate the activity of conjugated ?-glucosidase on the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, indicating 73.0% and 65.4% of enzyme activity remaining for ?-Glu-MNP and PEG-?-Glu-MNP, respectively. Both magnetophoretic mobility analysis and pharmacokinetics showed improved in vitro/in vivo stability of PEG-?-Glu-MNP compared with ?-Glu-MNP. In vivo magnetic targeting of PEG-?-Glu-MNP was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and electron spin resonance analysis in a mouse model of subcutaneous 9L-glioma. Satisfactory accumulation of PEG-?-Glu-MNP in tumor tissue was successfully achieved, with an iron content of 627±45 nmol Fe/g tissue and ?-glucosidase activity of 32.2±8.0 mU/g tissue. PMID:24959078

  6. Deadly Outbreak of Iron Storage Disease (ISD) in Italian Birds of the Family Turdidae

    PubMed Central

    PAVONE, Silvia; SALAMIDA, Sonia; PECORELLI, Ivan; ROSSI, Elisabetta; MANUALI, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family Turdidae in Italy. The present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central Italy. Only Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos and Turdus merula were affected. No other species of bird held by these breeders died. A change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. Full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative tissue samples were performed. Microscopical examination showed marked iron deposits in liver samples. Bacteriological investigations and molecular analysis to exclude bacterial and viral diseases were carried out. Contamination of food pellet samples by mycotoxins and analysis to detect heavy metal contaminants in food pellet samples were considered. An interesting result was the high iron content found in food pellets. It was higher than that considered suitable for birds, especially for species susceptible to development iron storage disease (ISD). Taken together, the results suggested an outbreak of ISD caused by the high iron content of food given to the birds before the hunting season. The high mortality recorded only in species belonging to the family Turdidae suggests a genetic predisposition in the affected birds. PMID:24920545

  7. Deferasirox removes cardiac iron and attenuates oxidative stress in the iron-overloaded gerbil.

    PubMed

    Al-Rousan, Rabaa M; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Laurino, Joseph P; Kakarla, Sunil K; Gutta, Anil K; Walker, Ernest M; Blough, Eric R

    2009-09-01

    Iron-induced cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in iron-overloaded patients. Deferasirox is a novel, once daily oral iron chelator that was recently approved for the treatment of transfusional iron overload. Here, we investigate whether deferasirox is capable of removing cardiac iron and improving iron-induced pathogenesis of the heart using the iron overload gerbil model. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: control, iron overload, and iron overload + deferasirox treatment. Iron-dextran was given 100 mg/kg per 5 days i.p for 10 weeks. Deferasirox treatment was taken post iron loading and was given at 100 mg/kg/day p.o for 1 or 3 months. Cardiac iron concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Compared with the untreated group, deferasirox treatment for 1 and 3 months decreased cardiac iron concentration 17.1% (P = 0.159) and 23.5% (P < 0.05), respectively. These treatment-associated reductions in cardiac iron were paralleled by decreases in tissue ferritin expression of 20% and 38% at 1 and 3 months, respectively (P < 0.05). Using oxyblot analysis and hydroethidine fluorescence, we showed that deferasirox significantly reduces cardiac protein oxidation and superoxide abundance by 36 and 47.1%, respectively (P < 0.05). Iron-induced increase in oxidative stress was also associated with increased phosphorylation of ERK-, p38-, and JNK-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Interestingly, deferasirox treatment significantly diminished the phosphorylation of all three MAPK subfamilies. These results suggest that deferasirox may confer a cardioprotective effect against iron induced injury. PMID:19650117

  8. Evaluation of mRNA Contents of YBX2 and JHDM2A Genes on Testicular Tissues of Azoospermic Men with Different Classes of Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Reza; Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Samimi Hashjin, Amir; Rajaei, Farzad; Rashvand, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Animal model studies have shown that MSY2 and JHDM2A genes have an important role in spermatogenesis process and fertility of male mice. But the potential role of these genes in human spermatogenesis and fertility is not known yet. Therefore, we evaluated expression ratios of these genes in testis tissues of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, after RNA extraction and cDNA syn- thesis from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal testis tissues, the expression ratios of genes were evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Hematoxcylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used for histological classification of testis tissues. For statistical analysis, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was carried out. Results Our results showed a significant reduction in mRNA level of YBX2 in samples with impaired spermatogenesis (p<0.001) compared to samples with qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and normal spermatogenesis; however, in JHDM2A gene, despite sensible reduction in gene expression level in men with impaired spermatogenesis, no significant differences were shown (p>0.05). Furthermore in YBX2, a significant negative correlation was demonstrated between the efficiency score of spermatogenesis and the threshold cycle (CT) (r=-0.7, p<0.0001), whereas in JHDM2A, this negative correlation was not significant (r=-0.4, p=0.06). Conclusion Generally, these data indicated that YBX2 and JHDM2A genes may play an important role in male infertility, and suggested that these molecules can act as useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility.

  9. Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. Objective In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. Design We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum (p = 0.39). Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed (p = 0.72). However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. Conclusions Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. PMID:21663641

  10. Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, ?6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53±0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter. PMID:24498178

  11. Nontransferrin-bound iron in plasma from hemochromatosis patients: effect of phlebotomy therapy.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, O I; Bomford, A; Polson, R J; Halliwell, B

    1988-10-01

    Plasma from patients with iron overload resulting from idiopathic hemochromatosis contains nontransferrin-bound iron, measurable by the bleomycin, assay. During venesection therapy, the concentration of bleomycin iron declines in a way highly correlated with plasma ferritin concentrations. Even when patients had been venesected to give very low total plasma iron concentrations and high transferrin iron-binding capacity, bleomycin-detectable iron was still present at low concentrations. Bleomycin-detectable iron can stimulate damaging free radical reactions, and its persistence in plasma even after prolonged venesection might contribute to the tissue damage that results from iron overload. PMID:2458783

  12. Ferrous iron formation following the co-aggregation of ferric iron and the Alzheimer's disease peptide ?-amyloid (1–42)

    PubMed Central

    Everett, J.; Céspedes, E.; Shelford, L. R.; Exley, C.; Collingwood, J. F.; Dobson, J.; van der Laan, G.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Telling, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, a link between increased levels of iron and areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has been recognized, including AD lesions comprised of the peptide ?-amyloid (A?). Despite many observations of this association, the relationship between A? and iron is poorly understood. Using X-ray microspectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and spectrophotometric iron(II) quantification techniques, we examine the interaction between A?(1–42) and synthetic iron(III), reminiscent of ferric iron stores in the brain. We report A? to be capable of accumulating iron(III) within amyloid aggregates, with this process resulting in A?-mediated reduction of iron(III) to a redox-active iron(II) phase. Additionally, we show that the presence of aluminium increases the reductive capacity of A?, enabling the redox cycling of the iron. These results demonstrate the ability of A? to accumulate iron, offering an explanation for previously observed local increases in iron concentration associated with AD lesions. Furthermore, the ability of iron to form redox-active iron phases from ferric precursors provides an origin both for the redox-active iron previously witnessed in AD tissue, and the increased levels of oxidative stress characteristic of AD. These interactions between A? and iron deliver valuable insights into the process of AD progression, which may ultimately provide targets for disease therapies. PMID:24671940

  13. Iron overload diminishes atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kirk, E A; Heinecke, J W; LeBoeuf, R C

    2001-06-01

    It has been proposed that elevated levels of tissue iron increase the risk for atherosclerosis, perhaps by favoring the formation of pro-atherogenic oxidized LDL. Working with apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice, which do not require a high-fat diet to develop atherosclerosis, we compared the effects of standard diet (0.02% iron) or a 2% carbonyl iron diet. After 24 weeks, mice fed the 2% carbonyl iron diet had twice as much iron in their plasma, a ninefold increase in bleomycin-detectable free iron in their plasma, and ten times as much iron in their livers as control mice. Dietary iron overload caused a modest (30%) rise in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol. Nevertheless, this regimen did not exacerbate, but rather reduced the severity of atherosclerosis by 50%, and it failed to elevate hepatic levels of heme oxygenase mRNA, which is induced by many different oxidative insults in vitro. Moreover, hepatic levels of protein-bound dityrosine and ortho-tyrosine, two markers of metal-catalyzed oxidative damage in vitro, failed to rise in iron-overloaded animals. Our observations suggest that elevated serum and tissue levels of iron are not atherogenic in apoE(-/-) mice. Moreover, they call into question the hypothesis that elevated levels of tissue iron promote LDL oxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:11413162

  14. Determination of heavy metal contents in water, sediments, and fish tissues of Shizothorax plagiostomus in river Panjkora at Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Kabir; Azizullah, Azizullah; Shama, Shama; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2014-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the contamination of water, sediments, and fish tissues with heavy metals in river Panjkora at Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Water, sediments, and fish (Shizothorax plagiostomus) samples were collected from September 2012 to January 2013 at three different sites (upstream site at Sharigut, sewage site at Timergara, and downstream site at Sadoo) of river Panjkora. The concentrations of heavy metals in water were in the order Zn?>?Cu???Pb?>?Ni???Cd with mean values of 0.30, 0.01, 0.01, 0.0 and 0.0 mg/l, respectively, which were below the maximum permissible limits of WHO for drinking water. In sediments, heavy metals were found in the order Cu?>?Zn?>?Ni?>?Pb?>?Cd with mean concentrations of 50.6, 38.7, 9.3, 8, and 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Ni and Cd were not found in any fish tissues, but Zn, Cu, and Pb were detected with the mean concentration ranges of 0.04-1.19, 0.03-0.12, and 0.01-0.09 ?g/g, respectively. The present study demonstrates that disposal of waste effluents causes a slight increase in the concentration of heavy metals in river Panjkora as revealed by variation in metal concentrations from upstream to downstream site. Sewage disposal was also found to change physicochemical characteristics of Panjkora water. At present, water and fish of river Panjkora are safe for human consumption, but the continuous sewage disposal may create problems in the future. PMID:25017990

  15. Dietary iron deficiency compromises normal development of elastic fibers in the aorta and lungs of chicks.

    PubMed

    Hill, Charles H; Ashwell, Chris M; Nolin, Shelly J; Keeley, Fred; Billingham, Catherine; Hinek, Aleksander; Starcher, Barry

    2007-08-01

    Elastic fibers play a key role in the structure and function of numerous organs that require elasticity. Elastogenesis is a complex process in which cells first produce a microfibrillar scaffold, composed of numerous structural proteins, upon which tropoelastin assembles to be cross-linked into polymeric elastin. Recently, it was demonstrated that low concentrations of free iron upregulate elastin gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. The present studies were conducted to assess whether low-iron diets would affect the deposition of elastic fibers in an in vivo model. One-day-old chicks were fed semipurified diets containing 1.3 (low), 12 (moderate), and 24 (control) mg/kg of iron. After 3 wk, chicks in the low-iron group were underweight and anemic. Their aortas were smaller with significantly thinner walls than control chicks, yet elastin or collagen content did not decrease relative to total protein. They also demonstrated a significantly lower stress-strain resistance than the controls. Electron microscopy demonstrated that aortic and lung smooth muscle cells were vacuolated and surrounded by loose extracellular matrix and disorganized elastic lamellae with diffuse and fragmented networks of elastic fibers and microfibrils. Immunohistology demonstrated that fibrillin-3 (FBN3) was disorganized and markedly reduced in amount in aortas of the low-iron chicks. Elastin messenger RNA levels were not downregulated in the tissues from the low-iron-fed chicks; however, there was a significant reduction in expression of the FBN1 and FBN3 genes compared with control chicks. The studies indicate that iron deficiency had a pronounced negative effect on elastic fiber development and suggests that fibrillin may have an important role in this pathology. PMID:17634261

  16. Intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine for acute iron intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, Rachelle; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Kozer, Eran; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Goldstein, Lee H; Youngster, Ilan; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-10-01

    Free radical formation and release of oxidant agents have been suggested as possible mechanisms for tissue damage in acute iron intoxication. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione substitute and an antioxidant, is widely used as an antidote for various intoxications. Our aim was to determine whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) NAC would reduce the mortality of rats after acute, toxic oral doses of iron. Male Wistar rats were studied in three phases. In the first phase, animals were assigned to groups 1 (distilled water by gavage) and 2 (i.p. NAC) and observed for survival. In the second phase, rats were assigned to groups 3 (400?mg/kg elemental iron orally) and 4 (400?mg/kg elemental iron, followed by 150?mg/kg i.p. NAC). Survival was observed. Because most rats in Group 3 died within 90 minutes after iron administration, a third phase was conducted in order to allow for comparison of iron and transaminase serum levels after the administration of iron and NAC (group 5: n?=?10). Mortality was significantly lower in rats treated with iron and NAC, compared to those treated with iron (P?=?0.016). Median serum iron level was significantly lower among rats treated with iron and NAC, compared with rats treated with iron alone (P?=?0.002). In a rat model of acute iron intoxication, i.p. administration of NAC may decrease serum iron levels and mortality. PMID:21740343

  17. Hepcidin regulates ferroportin expression and intracellular iron homeostasis of erythroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, De-Liang; Senecal, Thomas; Ghosh, Manik C.; Ollivierre-Wilson, Hayden; Tu, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    The iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, regulates systemic iron homeostasis by interacting with the iron export protein ferroportin (FPN1) to adjust iron absorption in enterocytes, iron recycling through reticuloendothelial macrophages, and iron release from storage in hepatocytes. We previously demonstrated that FPN1 was highly expressed in erythroblasts, a cell type that consumes most of the serum iron for use in hemoglobin synthesis. Herein, we have demonstrated that FPN1 localizes to the plasma membrane of erythroblasts, and hepcidin treatment leads to decreased expression of FPN1 and a subsequent increase in intracellular iron concentrations in both erythroblast cell lines and primary erythroblasts. Moreover, injection of exogenous hepcidin decreased FPN1 expression in BM erythroblasts in vivo, whereas iron depletion and associated hepcidin reduction led to increased FPN1 expression in erythroblasts. Taken together, hepcidin decreased FPN1 expression and increased intracellular iron availability of erythroblasts. We hypothesize that FPN1 expression in erythroblasts allows fine-tuning of systemic iron utilization to ensure that erythropoiesis is partially suppressed when nonerythropoietic tissues risk developing iron deficiency. Our results may explain why iron deficiency anemia is the most pronounced early manifestation of mammalian iron deficiency. PMID:21700773

  18. Hepcidin regulates ferroportin expression and intracellular iron homeostasis of erythroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Liang; Senecal, Thomas; Ghosh, Manik C; Ollivierre-Wilson, Hayden; Tu, Tiffany; Rouault, Tracey A

    2011-09-01

    The iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, regulates systemic iron homeostasis by interacting with the iron export protein ferroportin (FPN1) to adjust iron absorption in enterocytes, iron recycling through reticuloendothelial macrophages, and iron release from storage in hepatocytes. We previously demonstrated that FPN1 was highly expressed in erythroblasts, a cell type that consumes most of the serum iron for use in hemoglobin synthesis. Herein, we have demonstrated that FPN1 localizes to the plasma membrane of erythroblasts, and hepcidin treatment leads to decreased expression of FPN1 and a subsequent increase in intracellular iron concentrations in both erythroblast cell lines and primary erythroblasts. Moreover, injection of exogenous hepcidin decreased FPN1 expression in BM erythroblasts in vivo, whereas iron depletion and associated hepcidin reduction led to increased FPN1 expression in erythroblasts. Taken together, hepcidin decreased FPN1 expression and increased intracellular iron availability of erythroblasts. We hypothesize that FPN1 expression in erythroblasts allows fine-tuning of systemic iron utilization to ensure that erythropoiesis is partially suppressed when nonerythropoietic tissues risk developing iron deficiency. Our results may explain why iron deficiency anemia is the most pronounced early manifestation of mammalian iron deficiency. PMID:21700773

  19. OPT3 Is a Phloem-Specific Iron Transporter That Is Essential for Systemic Iron Signaling and Redistribution of Iron and Cadmium in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Gayomba, Sheena R.; Jung, Ha-il; Vimalakumari, Nanditha K.; Piñeros, Miguel; Craft, Eric; Rutzke, Michael A.; Danku, John; Lahner, Brett; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Knowledge of the signaling mechanisms that communicate iron demand from shoots to roots to regulate iron uptake as well as the transport systems mediating iron partitioning into edible plant tissues is critical for the development of crop biofortification strategies. Here, we report that OPT3, previously classified as an oligopeptide transporter, is a plasma membrane transporter capable of transporting transition ions in vitro. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana show that OPT3 loads iron into the phloem, facilitates iron recirculation from the xylem to the phloem, and regulates both shoot-to-root iron signaling and iron redistribution from mature to developing tissues. We also uncovered an aspect of crosstalk between iron homeostasis and cadmium partitioning that is mediated by OPT3. Together, these discoveries provide promising avenues for targeted strategies directed at increasing iron while decreasing cadmium density in the edible portions of crops and improving agricultural productivity in iron deficient soils. PMID:24867923

  20. Isochores and tissue-specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander E. Vinogradov

    2003-01-01

    The housekeeping (ubiquitously expressed) genes in the mammal genome were shown here to be on average slightly GC-richer than tissue-specific genes. Both housekeeping and tissue-specific genes occupy similar ranges of GC content, but the former tend to concentrate in the upper part of the range. In the human genome, tissue-specific genes show two maxima, GC-poor and GC-rich. The strictly tissue-specific

  1. Prediction of fatty acids content in pig adipose tissue by near infrared spectroscopy: at-line versus in-situ analysis.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Rojas, E; Garrido-Varo, A; De Pedro-Sanz, E; Guerrero-Ginel, J E; Pérez-Marín, D

    2013-11-01

    A handheld micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based spectrometer working in the near infrared region (NIR) (1600-2400nm) was evaluated for in-situ and non-destructive prediction of main fatty acids in Iberian pig (IP) carcasses. 110 IP carcasses were measured. Performance of the instrument was compared with at-line high-resolution NIRS monochromators working in two analysis modes: melted fat samples (transflectance cups) and intact adipose tissues (interactance fiber optic). Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) values obtained on the MEMS-NIRS device were: 0.68% (stearic), 1.30% (oleic), 0.55% (linoleic) and 1% (palmitic), explaining a variability of 83%, 84%, 81% and 78%, respectively. As expected, this represented a loss of predictive capability in comparison to at-line models, even with the same spectral characteristics as on the handheld device. However, the estimated total errors were at the same level for gas chromatography and NIRS analysis. This indicates that the MEMS-NIRS in-situ analysis of each individual carcass provides a cost-effective and real-time quality control system with suitable accuracy. PMID:23793086

  2. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  3. Hepatic Iron Overload and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly evident that excess body iron may be complicated by the supervention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) was the first condition in which hepatic iron overload was shown to predispose to the development of HCC. The inherited predisposition to excessive absorption of dietary iron in HH is almost always the result of homozygosity of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene, which causes inappropriately low secretion of hepcidin. HCC develops in 8-10% of patients with HH and is responsible for approximately 45% of deaths in the HCC patients. Cirrhosis is almost always present when HCC is diagnosed. Dietary iron overload is a condition which occurs in rural-dwelling Black Africans in southern Africa as a result of the consumption, over time, of large volumes of alcohol home-brewed in iron containers and having, as a consequence, a high iron content. Iron loading of the liver results and may be complicated by malignant transformation of the liver (relative risk of approximately 10.0). Accompanying cirrhosis does occur but is less common than that in HH. The development of HCC as a consequence of increased dietary iron, and the fact that it may develop in the absence of cirrhosis, has been confirmed in an animal model. Drinking water with a high iron content might contribute to the high incidence of HCC in parts of Taiwan. The metabolic syndrome [obesity, insulin resistance type 2 (or diabetes mellitus type 2), non-alcoholic fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] has in recent years become a major public health problem in some resource-rich countries. A link between excess body iron and insulin resistance or the metabolic syndrome has become apparent. The metabolic syndrome may be complicated by the supervention of HCC, and recent evidence suggests that increased body iron may contribute to this complication. PMID:24804175

  4. Hepatic iron overload and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly evident that excess body iron may be complicated by the supervention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) was the first condition in which hepatic iron overload was shown to predispose to the development of HCC. The inherited predisposition to excessive absorption of dietary iron in HH is almost always the result of homozygosity of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene, which causes inappropriately low secretion of hepcidin. HCC develops in 8-10% of patients with HH and is responsible for approximately 45% of deaths in the HCC patients. Cirrhosis is almost always present when HCC is diagnosed. Dietary iron overload is a condition which occurs in rural-dwelling Black Africans in southern Africa as a result of the consumption, over time, of large volumes of alcohol home-brewed in iron containers and having, as a consequence, a high iron content. Iron loading of the liver results and may be complicated by malignant transformation of the liver (relative risk of approximately 10.0). Accompanying cirrhosis does occur but is less common than that in HH. The development of HCC as a consequence of increased dietary iron, and the fact that it may develop in the absence of cirrhosis, has been confirmed in an animal model. Drinking water with a high iron content might contribute to the high incidence of HCC in parts of Taiwan. The metabolic syndrome [obesity, insulin resistance type 2 (or diabetes mellitus type 2), non-alcoholic fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] has in recent years become a major public health problem in some resource-rich countries. A link between excess body iron and insulin resistance or the metabolic syndrome has become apparent. The metabolic syndrome may be complicated by the supervention of HCC, and recent evidence suggests that increased body iron may contribute to this complication. PMID:24804175

  5. Elevated systemic hepcidin and iron depletion in obese premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Freels, Sally; Guzman, Grace; Holterman, Ai-Xuan L; Braunschweig, Carol

    2010-07-01

    Hepcidin, the body's main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, is upregulated in response to inflammation and is thought to play a role in the manifestation of iron deficiency (ID) observed in obese populations. We determined systemic hepcidin levels and its association with body mass, inflammation, erythropoiesis, and iron status in premenopausal obese and nonobese women (n = 20/group) matched for hemoglobin (Hb). The obese participants also had liver and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessed for tissue iron accumulation and hepcidin mRNA expression. Despite similar Hb levels, the obese women had significantly higher serum hepcidin (88.02 vs. 9.70 ng/ml; P < 0.0001) and serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) (P = 0.001) compared to nonobese. In the obese women hepcidin was not correlated with serum iron (r = -0.02), transferrin saturation (Tsat) (r = 0.17) or sTfR (r = -0.12); in the nonobese it was significantly positively correlated with Tsat (r = 0.70) and serum iron (r = 0.58), and inversely with sTfR (r = -0.63). Detectable iron accumulation in the liver and abdominal adipose tissue of the obese women was minimal. Liver hepcidin mRNA expression was ~700 times greater than adipose tissue production and highly correlated with circulating hepcidin levels (r = 0.61). Serum hepcidin is elevated in obese women despite iron depletion, suggesting that it is responding to inflammation rather than iron status. The source of excess hepcidin appears to be the liver and not adipose tissue. The ID of obesity is predominantly a condition of a true body iron deficit rather than maldistribution of iron due to inflammation. However, these findings suggest inflammation may perpetuate this condition by hepcidin-mediated inhibition of dietary iron absorption. PMID:19816411

  6. Direct profiling of phytochemicals in tulip tissues and in vivo monitoring of the change of carbohydrate content in tulip bulbs by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2009-12-01

    Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a recently developed ESI-based ionization technique which generates electrospray from the tip of a solid needle. In this study, we have applied PESI interfaced with a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct profiling of phytochemicals in a section of a tulip bulb in different regions, including basal plate, outer and inner rims of scale, flower bud and foliage leaves. Different parts of tulip petals and leaves have also been investigated. Carbohydrates, amino acids and other phytochemicals were detected. A series of in vivo PESI-MS experiments were carried out on the second outermost scales of four living tulip bulbs to monitoring the change of carbohydrate content during the first week of initial growth. The breakdown of carbohydrates was observed which was in accordance with previous reports achieved by other techniques. This study has indicated that PESI-MS can be used for rapid and direct analysis of phytochemicals in living biological systems with advantages of low sample consumption and little sample preparation. Therefore, PESI-MS can be a new choice for direct analysis/profiling of bioactive compounds or monitoring metabolic changes in living biological systems. PMID:19815427

  7. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  8. Autopsy Tissue Program. [Plutonium determination in selected tissues of human cadavers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fox; G. Tietjen

    1979-01-01

    The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues

  9. Investigating the Roles of Vacuoles in Iron Trafficking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Cockrell, Allison Leigh

    2013-11-27

    ......................................................................................................... 120 APPENDIX A IRON TRAFFICKING IN MAMMALIAN SYSTEMS ................. 148 APPENDIX B CHANGING IRON CONTENT OF THE MOUSE BRAIN DURING DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................... 157 APPENDIX C... LOW-MOLECULAR-MASS METAL COMPLEXES IN THE MOUSE BRAIN ...................................................................................................... 188 APPENDIX D REFERENCES...

  10. OPT3 is a phloem-specific iron transporter that is essential for systemic iron signaling and redistribution of iron and cadmium in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Cadmium, on the other hand, is a non-essential and highly toxic element that competes with iron for uptake and partitioning in plant tissues, posing a threat to crop productivity and human health. Knowledge of signaling mechanis...

  11. Simultaneous UPLC-MS/MS analysis of native catechins and procyanidins and their microbial metabolites in intestinal contents and tissues of male Wistar Furth inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Katheryn M; Neilson, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    Procyanidins have been extensively investigated for their potential health protective activities. However, the potential bioactivities of procyanidins are limited by their poor bioavailability. The majority of the ingested dose remains unabsorbed and reaches the colon where extensive microbial metabolism occurs. Most existing analytical methods measure either native compounds (catechins and procyanidins), or their microbial metabolites. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-throughput extraction and UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous measurement of both native procyanidins and their metabolites, facilitating high-throughput analysis of native and metabolite profiles in various regions of the colon. The present UPLC-MS/MS method facilitates simultaneous resolution and detection of authentic standards of 14 native catechin monomers and procyanidins, as well as 24 microbial metabolites. Detection and resolution of an additional 3 procyanidin dimers and 10 metabolites for which standards were not available was achieved. Elution and adequate resolution of both native compounds and metabolites were achieved within 10min. The intraday repeatability for native compounds was between 1.1 and 16.5%, and the interday repeatability for native compounds was between 2.2 and 25%. Intraday and interday repeatability for metabolites was between 0.6 and 24.1% and 1 and 23.9%, respectively. Observed lower limits of quantification for native compounds were ?9-350fmol on-column, and for the microbial metabolites were ?0.8-12,000fmol on-column. Observed lower limits of detection for native compounds were ?4.5-190fmol on-column, and for metabolites were 0.304-6020fmol on-column. For native monomers and procyanidins, extraction recoveries ranged from 38 to 102%. Extraction recoveries for the 9 microbial metabolites tested ranged from 41 to 95%. Data from tissue analysis of rats gavaged with grape seed extract indicate fairly high accumulation of native compounds, primarily monomers and dimers, in the cecum and colon. Metabolite data indicate the progressive nature of microbial metabolism as the digesta moves through the lower GI tract. This method facilitates the high-throughput, sensitive, and simultaneous analysis of both native compounds and their microbial metabolites in biological samples and provides a more efficient means of extraction and analysis than previous methods. PMID:24704909

  12. Iron and Prochlorococcus/

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne Williford

    2009-01-01

    Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

  13. Iron in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leafy greens at a meal, you can improve absorption of vegetable sources of iron up to three ... Foods rich in vitamin C also increase iron absorption. Some foods reduce iron absorption. For example, commercial ...

  14. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  15. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. Red blood cells bring oxygen to the ... such as your spleen, remove old blood cells. Iron is a key part of red blood cells. ...

  16. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in people with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  17. Liver iron overload induced by tamoxifen in diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jatobá, Carlos André Nunes; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; de Paiva Rodrigues, Sarah Jane; de Almeida Câmara, Maria Margareth; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Freire-Neto, Francisco; da Rocha, Luiz Reginaldo Menezes; da Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Brandão-Neto, José; de Carvalho Formiga, Maria Célia; de Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2008-04-01

    Tamoxifen (TX), a drug used in the treatment of breast cancer, may cause hepatic changes in some patients. The consequences of its use on the liver tissues of rats with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between plasma hepatic enzyme levels and the presence of iron overload in the hepatic tissue of female Wistar rats with or without streptozotocin-induced DM and using TX. Female rats were studied in control groups: C-0 (non-drug users), C-V (sorbitol vehicle only) and C-TX (using TX). DM (diabetic non-drug users) and DM-TX (diabetics using TX) were the test groups. Sixty days after induced DM, blood samples were collected for glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin measures. Hepatic fragments were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Perls. The hepatic iron content was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. AST, ALT and ALP levels were significantly elevated in the DM and DM-TX groups, with unchanged bilirubin levels. Liver iron overload using Perls stain and atomic absorption spectrometry were observed exclusively in groups C-TX and DM-TX. There was positive correlation between AST, ALT and ALP levels and microscopic hepatic siderosis intensity in group DM-TX. In conclusion, TX administration is associated with liver siderosis in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In addition, TX induced liver iron overload with unaltered hepatic function in non-diabetic rats and may be a useful tool for investigating the biological control of iron metabolism. PMID:17636394

  18. Desferrioxamine and vitamin E protect against iron and MPTP-induced neurodegeneration in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lan; D. H. Jiang

    1997-01-01

    Summary To elucidate the neuroprotective effects of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO) and the antioxidant vitamin E on excessive iron-induced free radical damage, a chronic iron-loaded mice model was established. The relationship between striatal iron content, oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio, hydroxyl radical (.OH) levels and dopamine concentrations were observed in DFO or vitamin E pretreated iron-loaded\\/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL\\/6 mice.

  19. Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Membrane Vesicles in Iron Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

  20. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  1. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other medications; or any of ...

  2. Effect of transferrin saturation on internal iron exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamaschi, G.; Eng, M.J.; Huebers, H.A.; Finch, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Radioiron was introduced into the intestinal lumen to evaluate absorption, injected as nonviable red cells to evaluate reticuloendothelial (RE) processing of iron, and injected as hemoglobin to evaluate hepatocyte iron processing. Redistribution of iron through the plasma was evaluated in control animals and animals whose transferrin was saturated by iron infusion. Radioiron introduced into the lumen of the gut as ferrous sulfate and as transferrin-bound iron was absorbed about half as well in iron-infused animals, and absorbed iron was localized in the liver. The similar absorption of transferrin-bound iron suggested that absorption of ferrous iron occurred via the mucosal cell and did not enter by diffusion. The decrease in absorption was associated with an increase in mucosal iron and ferritin content produced by the iron infusion. An inverse relationship (r = -0.895) was shown between mucosal ferritin iron and absorption. When iron was injected as nonviable red cells, it was deposited predominantly in reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. Return of this radioiron to the plasma was only 6% of that in control animals. While there was some movement of iron from spleen to liver, this could be accounted for by intravascular hemolysis. Injected hemoglobin tagged with radioiron was for the most part taken up and held by the liver. Some 13% initially localized in the marrow in iron-infused animals was shown to be storage iron unavailable for hemoglobin synthesis. These studies demonstrate the hepatic trapping of absorbed iron and the inability of either RE cell or hepatocyte to release iron in the transferrin-saturated animal.

  3. Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Karima; Had-Aissouni, Laurence; Melon, Christophe; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Poucet, Bruno; Save, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phone technology over the last decade raises concerns about the impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on health. More recently, a link between EMF, iron overload in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has been suggested. Co-exposure to EMF and brain iron overload may have a greater impact on brain tissues and cognitive processes than each treatment by itself. To examine this hypothesis, Long-Evans rats submitted to 900 MHz exposure or combined 900 MHz EMF and iron overload treatments were tested in various spatial learning tasks (navigation task in the Morris water maze, working memory task in the radial-arm maze, and object exploration task involving spatial and non spatial processing). Biogenic monoamines and metabolites (dopamine, serotonin) and oxidative stress were measured. Rats exposed to EMF were impaired in the object exploration task but not in the navigation and working memory tasks. They also showed alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus. Rats that received combined treatment did not show greater behavioral and neurochemical deficits than EMF-exposed rats. None of the two treatments produced global oxidative stress. These results show that there is an impact of EMF on the brain and cognitive processes but this impact is revealed only in a task exploiting spontaneous exploratory activity. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between EMF and a high content of iron in the brain. PMID:24144546

  4. Biodistribution and imaging of fluorescently-tagged iron oxide nanoparticles in a breast cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jennifer A; Savellano, Mark D; Hoopes, P Jack

    2013-02-26

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) hyperthermia is an emerging treatment that shows great potential as a cancer therapy both alone and in synergy with conventional modalities. Pre-clinical studies are attempting to elucidate the mechanisms of action and distributions of IONP in various in vitro and in vivo models, however these studies would greatly benefit from real-time imaging of IONP locations both in cellular and in mammalian systems. To this end, fluorescently-tagged IONP (fIONP) have been employed for real time tracking and co-registration of IONP with iron content. Starch-coated IONP were fluorescently-tagged, purified and analyzed for fluorescent signal at various concentrations. fIONP were incubated with MTGB cells for varying times and cellular uptake analyzed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). fIONP were also injected into a bilateral mouse tumor model for radiation modification of tumor tissue and enhanced fIONP deposition assessed using a Xenogen IVIS fluorescent imager. Results demonstrated that fIONP concentrations in vitro correlated with ICPMS iron readings. fIONP could be tracked in vitro as well as in tissue samples from an in vivo model. Future work will employ whole animal fluorescent imaging to track the biodistribution of fIONP over time. PMID:25301997

  5. Biodistribution and imaging of fluorescently-tagged iron oxide nanoparticles in a breast cancer mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Jennifer A.; Savellano, Mark D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) hyperthermia is an emerging treatment that shows great potential as a cancer therapy both alone and in synergy with conventional modalities. Pre-clinical studies are attempting to elucidate the mechanisms of action and distributions of IONP in various in vitro and in vivo models, however these studies would greatly benefit from real-time imaging of IONP locations both in cellular and in mammalian systems. To this end, fluorescently-tagged IONP (fIONP) have been employed for real time tracking and co-registration of IONP with iron content. Starch-coated IONP were fluorescently-tagged, purified and analyzed for fluorescent signal at various concentrations. fIONP were incubated with MTGB cells for varying times and cellular uptake analyzed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). fIONP were also injected into a bilateral mouse tumor model for radiation modification of tumor tissue and enhanced fIONP deposition assessed using a Xenogen IVIS fluorescent imager. Results demonstrated that fIONP concentrations in vitro correlated with ICPMS iron readings. fIONP could be tracked in vitro as well as in tissue samples from an in vivo model. Future work will employ whole animal fluorescent imaging to track the biodistribution of fIONP over time.

  6. Mitoferrin is essential for erythroid iron assimilation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, George C; Cope, John J; Li, Liangtao; Corson, Kenneth; Hersey, Candace; Ackermann, Gabriele E; Gwynn, Babette; Lambert, Amy J; Wingert, Rebecca A; Traver, David; Trede, Nikolaus S; Barut, Bruce A; Zhou, Yi; Minet, Emmanuel; Donovan, Adriana; Brownlie, Alison; Balzan, Rena; Weiss, Mitchell J; Peters, Luanne L; Kaplan, Jerry; Zon, Leonard I; Paw, Barry H

    2006-03-01

    Iron has a fundamental role in many metabolic processes, including electron transport, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, oxygen transport and many essential redox reactions involving haemoproteins and Fe-S cluster proteins. Defective iron homeostasis results in either iron deficiency or iron overload. Precise regulation of iron transport in mitochondria is essential for haem biosynthesis, haemoglobin production and Fe-S cluster protein assembly during red cell development. Here we describe a zebrafish mutant, frascati (frs), that shows profound hypochromic anaemia and erythroid maturation arrest owing to defects in mitochondrial iron uptake. Through positional cloning, we show that the gene mutated in the frs mutant is a member of the vertebrate mitochondrial solute carrier family (SLC25) that we call mitoferrin (mfrn). mfrn is highly expressed in fetal and adult haematopoietic tissues of zebrafish and mouse. Erythroblasts generated from murine embryonic stem cells null for Mfrn (also known as Slc25a37) show maturation arrest with severely impaired incorporation of 55Fe into haem. Disruption of the yeast mfrn orthologues, MRS3 and MRS4, causes defects in iron metabolism and mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Murine Mfrn rescues the defects in frs zebrafish, and zebrafish mfrn complements the yeast mutant, indicating that the function of the gene may be highly conserved. Our data show that mfrn functions as the principal mitochondrial iron importer essential for haem biosynthesis in vertebrate erythroblasts. PMID:16511496

  7. Pleiotropic actions of iron balance in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Fang, Xuexian; Wang, Fudi

    2015-03-01

    As an essential element, iron plays a central role in many physiological processes, including redox balance, inflammation, energy metabolism, and environment sensing. Perturbations in iron homeostasis are associated with several conditions, including hyperglycemia and diabetes, both of which have been studied in patients and animal models. To clarify the pleiotropic role of iron homeostasis in diabetes development, the early studies on diseases with iron-overload, studies on clinical iron depletion therapies, associations between iron-related genetic polymorphisms and diabetes, and etiological mechanisms underlying iron perturbations-impaired insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were carefully reviewed and discussed. Hereditary hemochromatosis, transfusion-dependent thalassemia, and excess heme iron intake can increase the risk of developing diabetes. Genetically modified mice and mice fed a high-iron diet present with discrepant phenotypes due to differences in tissue iron distribution. Moreover, several genetic polymorphisms related to iron homeostasis have been associated with the risk of developing diabetes. Tightly controlled iron metabolism is essential for insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, and iron overload in pancreatic islets alters reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) stability and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, thereby impairing the function and viability of ?-cells. Decreased levels of adiponectin, macrophage-mediated inflammation, and ROS-mediated liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation can contribute to iron overload-induced insulin resistance, whereas iron deficiency could also participate in obesity-related inflammation, hypoxia, and insulin resistance. Because iron homeostasis is closely correlated with many metabolic processes, future studies are needed in order to elucidate the finely tuned network among iron homeostasis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and hypoxia. PMID:25520048

  8. Dietary iron intake and serum ferritin concentration in 213 patients homozygous for the HFEC282Y hemochromatosis mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Lovato, Laura; Barton, James C; Vitolins, Mara; McLaren, Gordon; Acton, Ronald T; McLaren, Christine; Harris, Emily L; Speechley, Mark; Eckfeldt, John H; Diaz, Sharmin; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Adams, Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary iron content influences iron stores in HFEC282Y homozygotes as assessed by serum ferritin concentration. DESIGN: Serum ferritin concentration was measured and a dietary iron questionnaire was completed as part of the evaluation of 213 HFEC282Y homozygotes who were identified through screening of >100,000 primary care patients at five HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study Field Centers in the United States and Canada. RESULTS: No significant relationships between serum ferritin concentration and dietary heme iron content, dietary nonheme iron content or reports of supplemental iron use were found. CONCLUSION: These results do not support recommending dietary heme or nonheme iron restrictions for HFEC282Y homozygotes diagnosed through screening in North America. PMID:22720276

  9. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue ...

  10. IRON REGULATES XANTHINE OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The iron chelator deferoxamine has been reported to inhibit both xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase activity, but the relationship of this effect to the availability of iron in the cellular and tissue environment remains unexplored. XO and total xanthine oxidoreduct...

  11. Iron Homeostasis in Plants: Sensing and Signaling Pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Since iron is both an essential element as well as a potential toxin, it is a nutrient which on the one hand fulfils many important functions in plants but on the other can cause severe cell damage as a consequence of the formation of reactive hydroxyl radicals. Uptake of iron, its concentrations within particular tissues, and its subcellular distribution is

  12. Localization of mRNA for inflammatory cytokines in radicular cyst tissue by in situ hybridization, and induction of inflammatory cytokines by human gingival fibroblasts in response to radicular cyst contents.

    PubMed

    Honma, M; Hayakawa, Y; Kosugi, H; Koizumi, F

    1998-09-01

    The expression of mRNA encoding the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-alpha) have been examined in radicular cysts by in situ hybridization. Furthermore, the biological activity of the contents of radicular cysts (RCC) has been assayed by adding extracts of RCC to cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and analyzing the culture medium for the release of inflammatory cytokines. In the epithelial layer, keratinocytes expressed all cytokine mRNAs examined at various levels. Basal layer cells expressed mRNA for each cytokine. In the subepithelial granulation tissue of the cysts, fibroblasts and macrophages expressed mRNA for IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA at varying levels; especially clear expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA was detected on macrophages. The infiltrating lymphoid cells, largely composed of T cells and plasma cells, expressed these cytokine mRNAs, especially those encoding IL-6 and IL-8, at various levels. In vitro analysis indicated dose-dependent release of both IL-6 and IL-8 by HGFs in response to RCC. After heating to 100 degrees C for 10 min, RCC almost completely failed to stimulate IL-6 release from HGFs. Furthermore, anti-IL-1beta antibody (neutralization test) did not prevent the stimulation of IL-6 release by RCC. Significant amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were detected in RCC in two cases, and a trace amount of IL-1beta was detected in one case. This study demonstrated the wide expression of mRNA encoding inflammatory cytokines in radicular cyst tissues, and RCC itself was capable of stimulating IL-6 and IL-8 production from HGFs. PMID:9736430

  13. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  14. Plant mechanisms of siderophore-iron utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms of siderophore iron-utilization by plants were examined to determine whether plants have direct mechanisms for acquiring iron from microbially-produced hydroxamate siderophores or simply take up inorganic iron in equilibrium with the chelate (shuttle mechanism). Experiments were designed to determine whether the monocot plant species, oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) could acquire iron from ferrichrome under hydroponic conditions in which iron uptake was most likely to occur by direct use of the chelating agent. Ten-day-old iron-deficient seedlings, grown in aerated Hoagland's nutrient solution (minus iron) buffered at pH 7.4 with CaCO/sub 3/, were placed in fresh nutrient solution containing 10/sup -7.4/M radioactive /sup 55/FeCl/sub 3/ (23.7 mCi/mg) with the synthetic chelate, EDDHA (10..pi../sup 5/M), ferrichrome (10/sup -5/M), or with no chelate. After 6 days, shoot content of /sup 55/Fe in shoots of plants provided with ferrichrome was 100-fold greater than that in shoots of plants provided with EDDHA. Therefore iron uptake by oat under these conditions not only indicates direct use of ferrichrome, but also suggest that oat may be better able to acquire iron from siderophores than from synthetic chelates. One possible mechanism for direct use of chelating agents, may involve siderophore binding sites on the plasmalemma of root cortical cells where iron is split from the chelate by enzymatic reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. To demonstrate hypothesized siderophore binding sites on oat roots, experiments examined possible competition for presumed siderophore binding sites by an inert analog of ferrichrome constructed by irreversible chelation with chromium.

  15. Tissue Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Langer; Joseph P. Vacanti

    1993-01-01

    The loss or failure of an organ or tissue is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly problems in human health care. A new field, tissue engineering, applies the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissue. This article discusses the foundations and challenges of this interdisciplinary field and its attempts to provide

  16. Antimony in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Sb concentrations determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in 60 iron meteorites range from 0.2 ng/g to 36 microg/g. The meteorites with the highest Sb concentrations are those of the nonmagmatic groups IAB and IIICD, while meteorites with the lowest Sb concentrations are found in groups IVA and IVB. In all groups Sb is positively correlated with Ni; slopes on log Sb vs log Ni plots decrease with increasing Ni. This decrease may reflect an increasing tendency to avoid schreibersite during the analysis of high-Ni meteorites because Sb partitions strongly into schreibersite. It is found that schreibersite from New Westville is enriched in Cr, Ni, Ge, As, Sb, and Au and depleted in Fe, Co, Ir; the Sb content in schreibersite is 540 times higher than the bulk metal value.

  17. Studies the alterations of biochemical and mineral contents in bone tissue of mus musculus due to aluminum toxicity and the protective action of desferrioxamine and deferiprone by FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and XRD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J.

    The present study has attempt to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of aluminum intoxicated bone and determine the protective action of desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques for four groups of animals such as control (Group I), aluminum intoxicated (Group II), Al + DFP (Group III) and Al + DFO + DFP (Group IV) treated groups respectively. The FTIR spectra of the aluminum intoxicated bone showed significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The bands ratio at I1400/I877 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by Al + DFP to Al + DFO + DFP treated bone tissue for treatments of 16 weeks. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the carbonate inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of bone diseases and pathologies. The alteration of proteins profile indicated by Amide I and Amide II, where peak area values decreased from control to aluminum respectively, but enhanced by treated with DFP (p.o.) and DFO + DFP (i.p.) respectively. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to aluminum toxicity. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the aluminum exposed bone were less than those of the control group, and enhanced by treatments with DFO and DFP. The concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Therefore, present study suggests that due to aluminum toxicity severe loss of bone minerals, decrease in the biochemical constituents and changes in the surface morphology.

  18. Hepcidin Regulates Cellular Iron Efflux by Binding to Ferroportin and Inducing Its Internalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeta Nemeth; Marie S. Tuttle; Julie Powelson; Michael B. Vaughn; Adriana Donovan; Diane McVey Ward; Tomas Ganz; Jerry Kaplan

    2004-01-01

    Hepcidin is a peptide hormone secreted by the liver in response to iron loading and inflammation. Decreased hepcidin leads to tissue iron overload, whereas hepcidin overproduction leads to hypoferremia and the anemia of inflammation. Ferroportin is an iron exporter present on the surface of absorptive enterocytes, macrophages, hepatocytes, and placental cells. Here we report that hepcidin bound to ferroportin in

  19. Tissue Mechanics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students reflect on their experiences making silly putty (the previous hands-on activity in the unit), especially why changing the borax concentration alters the mechanical properties of silly putty and how this pertains to tissue mechanics. Students learn why engineers must understand tissue mechanics in order to design devices that will be implanted or used inside bodies, to study pathologies of tissues and how this alters tissue function, and to design prosthetics. Finally, students learn about collagen, elastin and proteoglycans and their roles in giving body tissues their unique functions. This prepares them for the culminating design-build-test activity of the unit.

  20. Decomposition of water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with dithiocarbamates and of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol ligands in animal organisms.

    PubMed

    Serezhenkov, Vladimir A; Timoshin, Alexander A; Orlova, Tsvetina R; Mikoyan, Vasak D; Kubrina, Lioudmila N; Poltorakov, Alexander P; Ruuge, Enno K; Sanina, Natalia A; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2008-05-01

    EPR studies have shown that water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MNIC-MGD) (3 micromol) injected to intact mice were decomposed virtually completely within 1h. The total content of MNIC-MGD in animal urine did not exceed 30 nmol/ml. In the liver, a small amount of MNIC-MGD were converted into dinitrosyl iron complexes (30 nmol/g of liver tissue). The same was observed in intact rabbits in which MNIC-MGD formation was induced by endogenous or exogenous NO binding to NO traps, viz., iron complexes with MGD. In mice, the content of MNIC-MGD in urine samples did not change after bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS. It was supposed that MNIC-MGD decomposition in intact animals was largely due to the release of NO from the complexes and its further transfer to other specific acceptors. In mice with iNOS expression, the main contribution to MNIC-MGD decomposition was made by superoxide ions whose destructive effect is mediated by an oxidative mechanism. This effect could fully compensate the augmented synthesis of MNIC-MGD involving endogenous NO whose production was supported by iNOS. Water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with various thiol-containing ligands and thiosulfate injected to intact mice were also decomposed; however, in this case the effect was less pronounced than in the case of MNIC-MGD. It was concluded that DNIC decomposition was largely due to the oxidative effect of superoxide ions on these complexes. PMID:18222183

  1. Degradation of trichloronitromethane by iron water main corrosion products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Yub Lee; Carrie R. Pearson; Raymond M. Hozalski; William A. Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may undergo reduction reactions at the corroded pipe wall in drinking water distribution systems consisting of cast or ductile iron pipe. Iron pipe corrosion products were obtained from several locations within two drinking water distribution systems. Crystalline-phase composition of freeze-dried corrosion solids was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, and ferrous and ferric iron contents were determined via

  2. Stabilized ferrous gluconate as iron source for food fortification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexis E. Lysionek; Marcela B. Zubillaga; María J. Salgueiro; Ricardo A. Caro; Natalia M. Leonardi; Eduardo Ettlin; José R. Boccio

    2003-01-01

    The iron bioavailability and acute oral toxicity in rats of a ferrous gluconate compound stabilized with glycine (SFG), designed\\u000a for food fortification, was studied in this work by means of the prophylactic method and the Wilcoxon method, respectively. For the former studies, SFG was homogenously added to a basal diet of low iron\\u000a content, reaching a final iron concentration of

  3. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  4. Mucus and iron absorption regulation in rats fed various levels of dietary iron

    SciTech Connect

    Wien, E.M.; Van Campen, D.R. (Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses: (1) that iron binding by secreted mucus enhances iron absorption and (2) that iron binding by secreted mucus prevents excess iron absorption. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 200 or 500 mg Fe/kg diet (Fe-0, Fe-200 and Fe-500 rats, respectively) for 3 wk. Iron absorption was measured in fasted rats using 59FeCl3 in a 10-min in situ duodenal ligated-segment procedure. After draining the segment contents, the mucus layer was separated from the under-lying mucosal surface using Quarterman's agar cast technique. In comparison with that in Fe-200 rats, iron absorption in Fe-0 rats was markedly increased, but the 59Fe and the total mucus in the mucus layer were decreased. The 59Fe absorption and total mucus and total iron in the mucus layer were similar in Fe-500 rats and Fe-200 rats, but the 59Fe in the mucus layer was marginally lower in Fe-500 rats. There was no evidence that mucus enhanced iron absorption; it appeared to trap or bind iron proportionally to the amount of secreted mucus, suggesting protection against excess absorption. Mucus secretion and possibly synthesis were decreased in the Fe-0 rats.

  5. Iron uptake in quiescent and inflammation-activated astrocytes: A potentially neuroprotective control of iron burden

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzoni, Ilaria; Zacchetti, Daniele; Campanella, Alessandro; Grohovaz, Fabio; Codazzi, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes play a crucial role in proper iron handling within the central nervous system. This competence can be fundamental, particularly during neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative processes, where an increase in iron content can favor oxidative stress, thereby worsening disease progression. Under these pathological conditions, astrocytes undergo a process of activation that confers them either a beneficial or a detrimental role on neuronal survival. Our work investigates the mechanisms of iron entry in cultures of quiescent and activated hippocampal astrocytes. Our data confirm that the main source of iron is the non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and show the involvement of two different routes for its entry: the resident transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in quiescent astrocytes and the de novo expressed divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in activated astrocytes, which accounts for a potentiation of iron entry. Overall, our data suggest that at rest, but even more after activation, astrocytes have the potential to buffer the excess of iron, thereby protecting neurons from iron overload. These findings further extend our understanding of the protective role of astrocytes under the conditions of iron-mediated oxidative stress observed in several neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:23583428

  6. Iron metabolism in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Benedikt; Effenberger, Maria; Zoller, Heinz

    2014-11-01

    Recipient's iron status is an important determinant of clinical outcome in transplantation medicine. This review addresses iron metabolism in solid organ transplantation, where the role of iron as a mediator of ischemia-reperfusion injury, as an immune-modulatory element, and as a determinant of organ and graft function is discussed. Although iron chelators reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in cell and animal models, these benefits have not yet been implemented into clinical practice. Iron deficiency and iron overload are associated with reduced immune activation, whose molecular mechanisms are reviewed in detail. Furthermore, iron overload and hyperferritinemia are associated with poor prognosis in end-stage organ failure in patients awaiting kidney, or liver transplantation. This negative prognostic impact of iron overload appears to persist after transplantation, which highlights the need for optimizing iron management before and after solid organ transplantation. In contrast, iron deficiency and anemia are also associated with poor prognosis in patients with end-stage heart failure. Intravenous iron supplementation should be managed carefully because parenterally induced iron overload could persist after successful transplantation. In conclusion, current evidence shows that iron overload and iron deficiency are important risk factors before and after solid organ transplantation. Iron status should therefore be actively managed in patients on the waiting list and after transplantation. PMID:24964028

  7. Arabidopsis HY1 confers cadmium tolerance by decreasing nitric oxide production and improving iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Yang, Zheng; Xie, Yanjie; Nie, Li; Cui, Jin; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Up-regulation of the gene that encodes intracellular heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) benefits plants under cadmium (Cd(2+)) stress; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we elucidate the role of Arabidopsis HY1 (AtHO1) in Cd(2+) tolerance by using genetic and molecular approaches. Analysis of two HY1 null mutants, three HY1 overexpression lines, HO double or triple mutants, as well as phyA and phyB mutants revealed the specific hypersensitivity of hy1 to Cd(2+) stress. Supplementation with two enzymatic by-products of HY1, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron (Fe, especially), rescued the Cd(2+)-induced inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation in hy1-100. The mutation of HY1, which exhibited lower glutathione content than Col-0 in root tissues, was able to induce nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, Cd(2+) accumulation, and severe Fe deficiency in root tissues. However, the contrasting responses appeared in 35S:HY1-4. Additionally, reduced levels of Ferric Reduction Oxidase 2 (FRO2) and Iron-Regulated Transporter 1 (IRT1) transcripts, and increased levels of Heavy Metal ATPase 2/4 (HMA2/4) transcripts bolster the notion that HY1 up-regulation ameliorates Fe deficiency, and might increase Cd(2+) exclusion. Taken together, these results showed that HY1 plays a common link in Cd(2+) tolerance by decreasing NO production and improving Fe homeostasis in Arabidopsis root tissues. PMID:23974911

  8. Iron requirements in infancy.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and infants constitute a risk group due to their high iron requirements. Iron is critical for brain development, and case control studies have shown a consistent association between iron deficiency anemia in infancy and poor neurodevelopment, suggesting that it is important to prevent iron deficiency anemia in infants. However, it is also important to avoid excessive iron intakes which may have adverse effects on growth. Due to redistribution of iron from hemoglobin to iron stores, healthy, term, normal birth weight infants are virtually self-sufficient with regard to iron during the first 6 months of life. After that age, iron becomes a critical nutrient. The estimated daily iron requirements at the age of 6-12 months (0.9-1.3 mg/kg body weight) are higher than during any other period of life. Exclusively breast-fed infants normally do not need additional iron until 6 months of life. Formula-fed infants should receive iron-fortified formula. Low birth weight infants should receive additional iron supplements from an early age. From 6 months of age, all infants should receive a sufficient intake of iron-rich (complementary) foods, which may be meat products or iron-fortified foods. The estimations of iron requirements in infants have a weak evidence base and current European and American recommendations for infants differ significantly. To further clarify iron requirements in infants, there is clearly a need for randomized, controlled trials assessing the effects of different iron intake on anemia, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes. PMID:22123641

  9. Selenium content in blood fractions and liver of beef heifers is greater with a mix of inorganic/organic or organic versus inorganic supplemental selenium but the time required for maximal assimilation is tissue-specific.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Kristen M; Burris, Walter R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2011-12-01

    Selenium (Se) content of feedstuffs is dependent on the Se level of the soil. Even though Se in grass and forage crops is primarily present in organic forms, Se is commonly supplemented in cattle diets in an inorganic (sodium selenite) form in geographic regions where Se soil concentrations are low. The purpose of this study was to answer two important questions about inorganic (ISe) vs organic (OSe) forms of dietary supplementation of Se (3 mg/day) to growing beef heifers (0.5 kg/day): (1) what would the effect of supplementing Se with an equal blend of ISe:OSe (Mix) have on Se tissue concentrations and (2) how long does it take for the greater assimilation with OSE to occur and stabilize? A long-term (224 day) Se dietary supplementation trial was conducted with serial sampling performed (days 28, 56, 112, and 224) to determine the length of time required to achieve Se supplement (OSE, Mix, and ISe)-dependent changes in Se assimilation in blood fractions and liver tissue. Forty maturing Angus heifers were fed a corn silage-based diet for 98 days with no Se supplementation, and then a cracked corn/cottonseed hull-based diet (basal diet) without Se supplementation for 74 days. Liver biopsies were taken for Se analysis, and heifers were fed the same diet for another 14 days. Heifers were assigned (n?=?10) to one of four Se treatment groups such that basal liver Se contents were stratified among groups, and then fed enough of the basal diet (0.08 mg Se per day) and a mineral-vitamin mix that provided 0.16 (control) or 3.0 mg Se per day in ISe (sodium selenite), OSe (Sel-Plex(®)), or Mix (1:1 ISe:OSe) form to support 0.5 kg/day growth for 224 days. More Se was found in whole blood, red blood cells, serum, and liver of Mix and OSe heifers than ISe heifers, and all were greater than control. Se content either increased until day 56 then was stable (liver and plasma), or was stable until day 56 (whole blood) or day 112 (red blood cells) and then increased steadily through day 224, for all supplemental Se treatments. These data indicate that a 1:1 mix (1.5 mg Se:1.5 mg Se) of supplemental ISe and OSe is equal to 3 mg/day OSe supplementation and greater than 3 mg/day ISe supplementation. The data also indicate that Se levels stabilized in liver and plasma by 56 to 112 days whereas whole blood and red blood cell concentrations were still increasing through 224 days of supplementation, regardless of the form of supplemental Se. PMID:21562759

  10. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. (USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  11. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, Jan G.; Teutsch, Nadya; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-12-01

    Stable iron isotope ratios in three soils (two Podzols and one Cambisol) were measured by MC-ICPMS to investigate iron isotope fractionation during pedogenic iron transformation and translocation processes under oxic conditions. Podzolization is a soil forming process in which iron oxides are dissolved and iron is translocated and enriched in the subsoil under the influence of organic ligands. The Cambisol was studied for comparison, representing a soil formed by chemical weathering without significant translocation of iron. A three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate operationally-defined iron mineral pools (i.e., poorly-crystalline iron oxides, crystalline iron oxides, silicate-bound iron) from the soil samples. Iron isotope ratios of total soil digests were compared with those of the separated iron mineral pools. Mass balance calculations demonstrated excellent agreement between results of sequential extractions and total soil digestions. Systematic variations in the iron isotope signature were found in the Podzol profiles. An enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.6‰ in ? 57Fe was found in total soil digests of the illuvial Bh horizons which can be explained by preferential translocation of light iron isotopes. The separated iron mineral pools revealed a wide range of ? 57Fe values spanning more than 3‰ in the Podzol profiles. Strong enrichments of heavy iron isotopes in silicate-bound iron constituting the residue of weathering processes, indicated the preferential transformation of light iron isotopes during weathering. Iron isotope fractionation during podzolization is probably linked to the ligand-controlled iron translocation processes. Comparison of iron isotope data from eluvial and illuvial horizons of the Podzol profiles revealed that some iron must have been leached out of the profile. However, uncertainties in the initial iron content and iron isotopic composition of the parent materials prevented thorough mass balance calculations of iron fluxes within the profiles. In contrast to the Podzol profiles, the Cambisol profile displayed uniform ? 57Fe values across soil depth and showed only a small enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.4‰ in the poorly-crystalline iron oxide pool extracted by 0.5 M HCl. This work demonstrates that significant iron isotope fractionations can occur during pedogenesis in oxic environments under the influence of organic ligands. Our findings provide new insights into fractionation mechanisms of iron isotopes and will help in the development of stable iron isotopes as tracers for biogeochemical iron cycling in nature.

  12. Rapid Spectrophotometric Technique for Quantifying Iron in Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Potential Translation to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dadashzadeh, Esmaeel R.; Hobson, Matthew; Bryant, L. Henry; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles provides the ability to track cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Quantifying intracellular iron concentration in SPIO labeled cells would allow for the comparison of agents and techniques used to magnetically label cells. Here we describe a rapid spectrophotometric technique (ST) to quantify iron content of SPIO labeled cells, circumventing the previous requirement of an overnight acid digestion. Following lysis with 10% SDS of magnetically labeled cells, quantification of SPIO doped or labeled cells was performed using commonly available spectrophotometric instrument(s) by comparing absorptions at 370 and 750 nm with correction for turbidity of cellular products to determine iron content of each sample. Standard curves demonstrated high linear correlation (R2 = 0.998) between absorbance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles and concentration in known SPIO doped cells. Comparisons of the ST to ICP-MS or NMR relaxometric (R2) determinations of intracellular iron contents in SPIO containing samples resulted in significant linear correlation between the techniques (R2 vs. ST, R2>0.992, p<0.0001, ST vs. ICP-MS, R2>0.995, p<0.0001) with the limit of detection of ST for iron = 0.66?g/ml. We have developed a rapid straightforward protocol that does not require overnight acid digestion for quantifying iron oxide content in magnetically labeled cells using readily available analytic instrumentation that should greatly expedite advances in comparing SPIO agents and protocols for labeling cells. PMID:23109392

  13. Rapid methods of determining cooling rates of iron and stony iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.M.; Goldstein, J.I.

    1967-01-01

    Two rapid and simple methods have been developed for determining the approximate cooling rates of iron and stony-iron meteorites in which kamacite formed by diffusion-controlled growth along planar fronts. The first method requires only measurements of the mean kamacite bandwidth and the bulk nickel content. The second method requires the determination of the nickel composition near the taenite-kamacite interface with an electron microprobe.

  14. Cardiac ferroportin regulates cellular iron homeostasis and is important for cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Lakhal-Littleton, Samira; Wolna, Magda; Carr, Carolyn A.; Miller, Jack J. J.; Christian, Helen C.; Ball, Vicky; Santos, Ana; Diaz, Rebeca; Biggs, Daniel; Stillion, Richard; Holdship, Philip; Clarke, Kieran; Davies, Benjamin; Robbins, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential to the cell. Both iron deficiency and overload impinge negatively on cardiac health. Thus, effective iron homeostasis is important for cardiac function. Ferroportin (FPN), the only known mammalian iron-exporting protein, plays an essential role in iron homeostasis at the systemic level. It increases systemic iron availability by releasing iron from the cells of the duodenum, spleen, and liver, the sites of iron absorption, recycling, and storage respectively. However, FPN is also found in tissues with no known role in systemic iron handling, such as the heart, where its function remains unknown. To explore this function, we generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Fpn. We show that these animals have severely impaired cardiac function, with a median survival of 22 wk, despite otherwise unaltered systemic iron status. We then compared their phenotype with that of ubiquitous hepcidin knockouts, a recognized model of the iron-loading disease hemochromatosis. The phenotype of the hepcidin knockouts was far milder, with normal survival up to 12 mo, despite far greater iron loading in the hearts. Histological examination demonstrated that, although cardiac iron accumulates within the cardiomyocytes of Fpn knockouts, it accumulates predominantly in other cell types in the hepcidin knockouts. We conclude, first, that cardiomyocyte FPN is essential for intracellular iron homeostasis and, second, that the site of deposition of iron within the heart determines the severity with which it affects cardiac function. Both findings have significant implications for the assessment and treatment of cardiac complications of iron dysregulation. PMID:25713362

  15. Cardiac ferroportin regulates cellular iron homeostasis and is important for cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Lakhal-Littleton, Samira; Wolna, Magda; Carr, Carolyn A; Miller, Jack J J; Christian, Helen C; Ball, Vicky; Santos, Ana; Diaz, Rebeca; Biggs, Daniel; Stillion, Richard; Holdship, Philip; Larner, Fiona; Tyler, Damian J; Clarke, Kieran; Davies, Benjamin; Robbins, Peter A

    2015-03-10

    Iron is essential to the cell. Both iron deficiency and overload impinge negatively on cardiac health. Thus, effective iron homeostasis is important for cardiac function. Ferroportin (FPN), the only known mammalian iron-exporting protein, plays an essential role in iron homeostasis at the systemic level. It increases systemic iron availability by releasing iron from the cells of the duodenum, spleen, and liver, the sites of iron absorption, recycling, and storage respectively. However, FPN is also found in tissues with no known role in systemic iron handling, such as the heart, where its function remains unknown. To explore this function, we generated mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Fpn. We show that these animals have severely impaired cardiac function, with a median survival of 22 wk, despite otherwise unaltered systemic iron status. We then compared their phenotype with that of ubiquitous hepcidin knockouts, a recognized model of the iron-loading disease hemochromatosis. The phenotype of the hepcidin knockouts was far milder, with normal survival up to 12 mo, despite far greater iron loading in the hearts. Histological examination demonstrated that, although cardiac iron accumulates within the cardiomyocytes of Fpn knockouts, it accumulates predominantly in other cell types in the hepcidin knockouts. We conclude, first, that cardiomyocyte FPN is essential for intracellular iron homeostasis and, second, that the site of deposition of iron within the heart determines the severity with which it affects cardiac function. Both findings have significant implications for the assessment and treatment of cardiac complications of iron dysregulation. PMID:25713362

  16. Combined histological and hematological assessment of iron-induced organ damage in a gerbil model of iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man; Liu, Rong-Rong; Wang, Cong-Jun; Kang, Wei; Yang, Gao-Hui; Zhong, Wu-Ning; Lai, Yong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies with gerbil models have suggested that excessive iron exposure causes cardiomyopathy and hepatic injury, but pathological analysis was not comprehensive, preventing a detailed understanding of how the metal induces this damage. Methods and results: Gerbils received single intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (200 mg/kg) or saline and were then analyzed comprehensively for hematological and histological signs of organ damage. These tests included hematology parameters and determination of liver iron concentration, malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activity; examination of heart and liver tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Prussian-blue and Masson stain; and electron microscopy analysis of heart and liver ultrastructure. Iron-overloaded animals showed significantly different hematology parameters and significantly higher liver iron concentrations than saline-injected animals, as well as significantly higher malondialdehyde levels and significantly lower glutathione peroxidase activity. Histology analyses showed cellular damage, iron deposits, and both myocardial and liver fibrosis, while electron microscopy of heart and liver sections showed abundant iron deposition lysosomes, and disordered and swollen mitochondria. All these pathological changes increased with exposure time. Conclusions: This comprehensive assessment of iron overload in a gerbil model suggests that excessive iron deposition induces extensive cellular damage, particularly fibrosis in heart and liver. This damage may be the direct result of iron-mediated lipid peroxide damage and of iron deposition that cause compression of myocardial and liver cells, as well as vascular occlusion.

  17. Baicalin suppresses iron accumulation after substantia nigra injury: relationship between iron concentration and transferrin expression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunyan; Chen, Xin; Xiong, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that baicalin prevented iron accumulation after substantia nigra injury, reduced divalent metal transporter 1 expression, and increased ferroportin 1 expression in the substantia nigra of rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease rats. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between iron accumulation and transferrin expression in C6 cells, to explore the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of baicalin on iron accumulation observed in Parkinson's disease rats. Iron content was detected using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron content decreased 41% after blocking divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin 1 proteins. After treatment with ferric ammonium citrate of differing concentrations (10, 50, 100, 400?g/mL) in C6 glioma cells, cell survival rate and ferroportin 1 expression were negatively correlated with ferric ammonium citrate concentration, but divalent metal transporter 1 expression positively correlated with ferric ammonium citrate concentration. Baicalin or deferoxamine reduced divalent metal transporter 1 expression, but increased ferroportin 1 expression in the 100?g/mL ferric ammonium citrate-loaded C6 cells. These results indicate that baicalin down-regulated iron concentration, which positively regulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression and negatively regulated ferroportin 1 expression, and decreased iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. PMID:25206866

  18. Fixing frataxin: ‘ironing out’ the metabolic defect in Friedreich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Anzovino, A; Lane, D J R; Huang, M L-H; Richardson, D R

    2014-01-01

    The metabolically active and redox-active mitochondrion appears to play a major role in the cellular metabolism of the transition metal, iron. Frataxin, a mitochondrial matrix protein, has been identified as playing a key role in the iron metabolism of this organelle due to its iron-binding properties and is known to be essential for iron–sulphur cluster formation. However, the precise function of frataxin remains elusive. The decrease in frataxin expression, as seen in the inherited disorder Friedreich's ataxia, markedly alters cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism in both the mitochondrion and the cell. The resulting dysregulation of iron trafficking damages affects tissues leading to neuro-and cardiodegeneration. This disease underscores the importance of iron homeostasis in the redox-active environment of the mitochondrion and the molecular players involved. Unravelling the mechanisms of altered iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia will help elucidate a biochemical function for frataxin. Consequently, this will enable the development of more effective and rationally designed treatments. This review will focus on the emerging function of frataxin in relation to the observed alterations in mitochondrial iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia. Tissue-specific alterations due to frataxin loss will also be discussed, as well as current and emerging therapeutic strategies. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24138602

  19. Effects of iron overload on chronic metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Manco, Melania

    2014-06-01

    Iron can affect the clinical course of several chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis. Iron overload can affect major tissues involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (pancreatic ? cells, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) and organs affected by chronic diabetic complications. Because iron is a potent pro-oxidant, fine-tuned control mechanisms have evolved to regulate entry, recycling, and loss of body iron. These mechanisms include the interplay of iron with transferrin, ferritin, insulin, and hepcidin, as well as with adipokines and proinflammatory molecules. An imbalance of these homoeostatic mechanisms results in systemic and parenchymal siderosis that contributes to organ damage (such as ?-cell dysfunction, fibrosis in liver diseases, and atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability). Conversely, iron depletion can exert beneficial effects in patients with iron overload and even in healthy frequent blood donors. Regular assessment of iron balance should be recommended for patients with chronic metabolic diseases, and further research is needed to produce guidelines for the identification of patients who would benefit from iron depletion. PMID:24731656

  20. Does hepatomegaly alter iron-dependent oxidative effects in human plasma?

    PubMed

    Galleano, Monica; Lemberg, Abraham; Puntarulo, Susana

    2003-07-01

    A four-fold increase in the iron content of normal subjects was detected in plasma after 5 hours of iron administration. Iron supplementation had a surprisingly erratic effect on four patients with hepatomegaly secondary to heart insufficiency, since the increase in the iron content in the plasma after iron-dextran administration was either within the control range or significantly lower, independently of the initial values. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was 2.5 +/- 0.2 and 4.3 +/- 0.4 microM for control and hepatomegalic subjects, respectively. The TBARS basal level was increased by iron supplementation. The difference between TBARS content in hepatomegalic and control subjects, after 5 hours of iron administration, was increased by 50% as compared to the difference in the basal content of TBARS. alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-T) content in plasma from subjects with hepatomegaly showed a significant decrease (-41%) as compared to control subjects. No significant difference over the basal level of alpha-T was measured after 5 hours of iron administration in any subject. The data presented here suggest that abnormal liver condition affects iron-dependent oxidative stress in plasma. Moreover, alpha-T does not seem to be the main antioxidant to control iron-dependent oxidative stress in plasma. PMID:12929730

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency ...

  2. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E. [Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Webb, Sam [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford Linear Accelerator Complex National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California (United States); Nichol, Helen [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd. Rm A302, Saskatoon, SK S7N5E5 (Canada)

    2010-07-23

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  3. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  4. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng, Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  5. Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Basuli, Debargha; Stevens, Richard G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic diseases, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis ,metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure body iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic. PMID:24904420

  6. Tissue Processing

    Cancer.gov

    Tissue samples, also called biospecimens, are tissue and fluid samples taken from the human body that can be used for research. Biospecimens from cancer patients are critical to cancer research because they contain an extraordinary amount of biological information, written in the language of cells. Genes and proteins in biospecimens can identify the biological characteristics of cancer cells.

  7. Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity. PMID:19161863

  8. Crystallography of dislocation networks in annealed iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Ohr; D. N. Beshers

    1963-01-01

    Crystallographic analyses of dislocation networks in annealed b.c.c. iron observed in the electron microscope have been carried out by applying the kinematical theory of electron diffraction contrast at dislocations and Frank's formula for determining the dislocation content of a grain boundary from a crystallographic survey. From the analyses, the Burgers vectors of the individual dislocations, as well as the other

  9. Cloning, differential tissue expression of a novel hcApo gene, and its correlation with total carotenoid content in purple and white inner-shell color pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilei; Bai, Zhiyi; Luo, Hongrui; Liu, Yue; Wang, Guiling; Li, Jiale

    2014-04-01

    As a molecular carrier and storage protein, apolipoprotein (Apo) mediates the intracellular uptake of lipids, proteins, vitamins and carotenoids. In this study, we identified a novel Apo gene, designated hcApo, from the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. The complete hcApo cDNA consists of 4104 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 1155 amino acid residues. The hcApo protein contains a conserved lipoprotein N-terminal domain (LPD-N) that is a characteristic of the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) superfamily. The hcApo mRNA is constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues with the highest expression level in the liver. Moreover, differential expression analysis revealed that the hcApo gene is more highly expressed in the liver, kidney, mantle and gill of purple line mussels compared to white line mussels. In situ hybridization investigations of the precise expression site of hcApo mRNA in the mantle showed that hcApo mRNA is specifically expressed in the outer epithelial cells of the middle fold and the inner epithelial cells of the outer fold of the mantle, as well as throughout the outer epithelium of the outer fold and ventral mantle. Another very important finding is that significantly positive correlation existed between the hcApo gene expression level and the total carotenoid content in purple line mussels. These findings may provide a better understanding of the roles of hcApo in the molecular mechanisms of shell formation and coloring of H. cumingii. PMID:24486507

  10. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  11. Metallurgy Beyond Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    Metallurgy is one of the oldest sciences. Its history can be traced back to 6000 BCE with the discovery of Gold, and each new discovery - Copper, Silver, Lead, Tin, Iron and Mercury - marked the beginning of a new era of civilization. Currently there are 86 known metals, but until the end of the 17th century, only 12 of these were known. Steel (Fe-C alloy) was discovered in the 11th century BCE; however, it took until 1709 CE before we mastered the smelting of pig-iron by using coke instead of charcoal and started the industrial revolution. The metallurgy of nowadays is mainly about discovering better materials with superior properties to fulfil the increasing demand of the global market. Promising are the Glassy Metals or Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) - discovered at first in the late 50s at the California Institute of Technology - which are several times stronger than the best industrial steels and 10-times springier. The unusual structure that lacks crystalline grains makes BMGs so promising. They have a liquid-like structure that means they melt at lower temperatures, can be moulded nearly as easily as plastics, and can be shaped into features just 10 nm across. The best BMG formers are based on Zr, Pd, Pt, Ca, Au and, recently discovered, also Fe. They have typically three to five components with large atomic size mismatch and a composition close to a deep eutectic. Packing in such liquids is very dense, with a low content of free volume, resulting in viscosities that are several orders of magnitude higher than in pure metal melts.

  12. High iron accumulation in hair and nail of people living in iron affected areas of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Banerjee, Saumen; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum

    2014-12-01

    Human populace of Assam, India repeatedly exposed to high concentration of iron in groundwater results in adverse health effects like hemochromatosis, liver cirrhosis and siderosis. In the present study, human hair and nail analysis were carried out to establish a possible relationship between iron toxicity and its deposition among the residents. Nail and hair iron concentrations ranged from 28.2 to 1046?gg(-1) (n=114) and 26.5-838 (n=108)?gg(-1) levels, respectively, among all the study participants. The iron content of the groundwater (421-5340?gL(-1)) (n=64) used for drinking purposes was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.788, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.709, p<0.0001) iron concentrations. Age- and sex-matched controls corresponding to each group were selected from population residing in other parts of the country where groundwater does not have excess iron. All the study groups included population drinking iron-contaminated water above the WHO/BIS limit (>300µgL(-1)) for 5 years (Group 1), for more than 5-10 years (Group 2) and for more than 10 years (Group 3). Results suggested that the participants consuming groundwater exceeding the WHO limit of iron had significantly more iron accumulation than those using groundwater containing ?300?gL(-1) iron (p<0.01). There was statistically higher concentration of iron in the nail samples than the hair samples in all the study groups (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation in iron concentration and the residence time of the participants (p<0.01). Iron levels in the male participants were significantly higher than the female participants in the present study (p<0.01). The current findings are sufficiently compelling to warrant more extensive study of iron exposure through drinking water and adverse effects to the human in the areas where iron concentration is high. PMID:25261608

  13. Effects of green tea on iron accumulation and oxidative stress in livers of iron-challenged thalassemic mice.

    PubMed

    Saewong, T; Ounjaijean, S; Mundee, Y; Pattanapanyasat, K; Fucharoen, S; Porter, J B; Srichairatanakool, S

    2010-03-01

    Liver is affected by secondary iron overload in transfusions dependent b-thalassemia patients. The redox iron can generate reactive oxidants that damage biomolecules, leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Iron chelators are used to treat thalassemias to achieve negative iron balance and relieve oxidant-induced organ dysfunctions. Green tea (GT) (Camellia sinensis) catechins exhibit anti-oxidation, the inhibition of carcinogenesis, the detoxification of CYP2E1-catalyzed HepG2 cells and iron chelation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of GT in iron-challenged thalassemic mice. Heterozygous BKO type-thalassemia (BKO) mice (C57BL/6) experienced induced iron overload by being fed a ferrocene-supplemented diet (Fe diet) for 8 weeks, and by orally being given GT extract (300 mg/kg) and deferiprone (DFP) (50 mg/kg) for a further 8 weeks. Liver iron content (LIC) was analyzed by TPTZ colorimetric and Perl's staining techniques. Concentrations of liver reduced glutathione (GSH), collagen and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. Dosages of the GT extract and DFP lowered LIC in the Fe diet-fed BKO mice effectively. The extract did not change any concentrations of liver glutathione, collagen and MDA in the BKO mice. Histochemical examination showed leukocyte infiltration in the near by hepatic portal vein and high iron accumulation in the livers of the iron-loaded BKO mice, however GT treatment lowered the elevated iron deposition. In conclusion, green tea inhibits or delays the deposition of hepatic iron in regularly iron-loaded thalassemic mice effectively. This will prevent the iron-induced generation of free radicals via Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions, and consequently liver damage and fibrosis. Combined chelation with green tea would be investigated in beta-thalassemia patients with iron overload. PMID:20218965

  14. SNAPing Coronal Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    This is a Snapshot Survey to explore two forbidden lines of highly ionized iron in late-type coronal sources. Fe XII 1349 {T 2 MK} and Fe XXI 1354 {T 10 MK} - well known to Solar Physics - have been detected in about a dozen cool stars, mainly with HST/STIS. The UV coronal forbidden lines are important because they can be observed with velocity resolution of better than 15 km/s, whereas even the state-of-the-art X-ray spectrometers on Chandra can manage only 300 km/s in the kilovolt band where lines of highly ionized iron more commonly are found. The kinematic properties of hot coronal plasmas, which are of great interest to theorists and modelers, thus only are accessible in the UV at present. The bad news is that the UV coronal forbidden lines are faint, and were captured only in very deep observations with STIS. The good news is that 3rd-generation Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, slated for installation in HST by SM4, in a mere 25 minute exposure with its G130M mode can duplicate the sensitivity of a landmark 25-orbit STIS E140M observation of AD Leo, easily the deepest such exposure of a late-type star so far. Our goal is to build up understanding of the properties of Fe XII and Fe XXI in additional objects beyond the current limited sample: how the lineshapes depend on activity, whether large scale velocity shifts can be detected, and whether the dynamical content of the lines can be inverted to map the spatial morphology of the stellar corona {as in "Doppler Imaging''}. In other words, we want to bring to bear in the coronal venue all the powerful tricks of spectroscopic remote sensing, well in advance of the time that this will be possible exploiting the corona's native X-ray radiation. The 1290-1430 band captured by side A of G130M also contains a wide range of key plasma diagnostics that form at temperatures from below 10,000 K {neutral lines of CNO}, to above 200,000 K {semi-permitted O V 1371}, including the important bright multiplets of C II at 1335 and Si IV at 1400; yielding a diagnostic gold mine for the subcoronal atmosphere. Because of the broad value of the SNAP spectra, beyond the coronal iron project, we waive the normal proprietary rights.

  15. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano-Fe2O3 could not only increase seed germination and seedling growth, but also ultimately improve physiological function and resistance to environmental stresses of watermelon. PMID:23882795

  16. Variable-temperature solid-state NMR studies of iron(II) and iron(III) complexes

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Patricia Arlene

    1989-01-01

    VARIABLE-TEMPERATURE SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF IRON(II) AND IRON(III) COMPLEXES A Thesis by PATRICIA ARLENE SHEPARD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Chemistry VARIABLE-TEMPERATURE SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF IRON(II) AND IRON(III) COMPLEXES A Thesis by PATRICIA ARLENE SHEPARD Approved as to style and content by: g, ( James F. Haw (Chair...

  17. Iron nutrition in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

  18. Degradation of trichloronitromethane by iron water main corrosion products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Yub; Pearson, Carrie R; Hozalski, Raymond M; Arnold, William A

    2008-04-01

    Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may undergo reduction reactions at the corroded pipe wall in drinking water distribution systems consisting of cast or ductile iron pipe. Iron pipe corrosion products were obtained from several locations within two drinking water distribution systems. Crystalline-phase composition of freeze-dried corrosion solids was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, and ferrous and ferric iron contents were determined via multiple extraction methods. Batch experiments demonstrated that trichloronitromethane (TCNM), a non-regulated DBP, is rapidly reduced in the presence of pipe corrosion solids and that dissolved oxygen (DO) slows the reaction. The water-soluble iron content of the pipe solids is the best predictor of TCNM reaction rate constant. These results indicate that highly reactive DBPs that are able to compete with oxygen and residual disinfectant for ferrous iron may be attenuated via abiotic reduction in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:18207489

  19. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer), a new intravenous iron preparation and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Markus R; Andreasen, Hans B; Fütterer, Sören; Nawroth, Thomas; Schünemann, Volker; Kolb, Ute; Hofmeister, Wolfgang; Muñoz, Manuel; Bock, Klaus; Meldal, Morten; Langguth, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency anemia with polynuclear iron formulations is an established therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease but also in other disease areas like gastroenterology, cardiology, oncology, pre/post operatively and obstetrics' and gynecology. Parenteral iron formulations represent colloidal systems in the lower nanometer size range which have traditionally been shown to consist of an iron core surrounded by a carbohydrate shell. In this publication, we for the first time describe the novel matrix structure of iron isomaltoside 1000 which differs from the traditional picture of an iron core surrounded by a carbohydrate. Despite some structural similarities between the different iron formulations, the products differ significantly in their physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, free and labile iron content, and release of iron in serum. This study compares the physiochemical properties of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) with the currently available intravenous iron preparations and relates them to their biopharmaceutical properties and their approved clinical applications. The investigated products encompass low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer), sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit), iron sucrose (Venofer), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject/Injectafer), and ferumoxytol (Feraheme) which are compared to iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer). It is shown that significant and clinically relevant differences exist between sodium ferric gluconate and iron sucrose as labile iron formulations and iron dextran, iron carboxymaltose, ferumoxytol, and iron isomaltoside 1000 as stable polynuclear formulations. The differences exist in terms of their immunogenic potential, safety, and convenience of use, the latter being expressed by the opportunity for high single-dose administration and short infusion times. Monofer is a new parenteral iron product with a very low immunogenic potential and a very low content of labile and free iron. This enables Monofer, as the only IV iron formulation, to be administered as a rapid high dose infusion in doses exceeding 1000 mg without the application of a test dose. This offers considerable dose flexibility, including the possibility of providing full iron repletion in a single infusion (one-dose iron repletion). PMID:21439379

  20. Genetic engineering approaches to improve the bioavailability and the level of iron in rice grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lucca; R. Hurrell; I. Potrykus

    2001-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient deficiency world-wide. A major cause is the poor absorption of iron from\\u000a cereal and legume-based diets high in phytic acid. We have explored three approaches for increasing the amount of iron absorbed\\u000a from rice-based meals. We first introduced a ferritin gene from Phaseolus vulgaris into rice grains, increasing their iron content up to

  1. An iron meteorite from Akyumak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colakoglu, K.; Ceylan, M.

    1988-12-01

    The microstructure of an iron meteorite which fell near Akyumak, Turkey on August 2, 1981, has been examined and its composition determined. The Ni content is 7.7 pct and kamacite bandwidth is 0.32 + or - 0.06 mm. The kamacite contains Neumann bands and some daubreelite inclusions. Taenite and plessite account for about 45 to 50 pct of the metal. Finger, cellular, and net plessite are observed. Gallium (1.9 ppm), Ge (less than 40 ppm) and Ir (1.81 ppm) were determined by neutron activation. The microstructural observations and chemical data show Akyumak to be a fine octahedrite and a member of group IVA (Buchwald, 1975).

  2. Dietary strategies to improve the iron and zinc nutriture of young women following a vegetarian diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Gibson; U. M. Donovan; A. L. M. Heath

    1997-01-01

    Dietary strategies to enhance the content and bioavailability of iron and zinc in vegetarian diets were compiled. Strategies\\u000a included increasing promoters and decreasing antagonists of iron and zinc absorption, adopting food preparation and processing\\u000a methods which hydrolyze the phytate content of cereals and legumes, and using iron cookware. These strategies were used to\\u000a devise two vegetarian menus based on food

  3. Iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z; Webb, Jinelle A; Giger, Urs

    2012-03-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be reviewed, followed by a discussion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic recommendations for dogs and cats with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22942439

  4. Tissue Debridement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Soudry; Alexander Lerner

    \\u000a The major factor determining the outcome in high-energy combat injuries to the limbs is the severity and extension of the\\u000a soft tissue damage. Primary radical debridement is a crucial phase in the management of patients after open high-energy injuries.\\u000a Inadequate tissue debridement remains the major cause of acute and chronic infection after severe trauma. Often, this important\\u000a first surgical procedure

  5. The influence of the iron content on the reductive decomposition of A{sub 3?x}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} garnets (A = Mg, Mn; 0.47 ? x ? 2.85)

    SciTech Connect

    Aparicio, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz; Filip, Jan, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz; Mashlan, Miroslav, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz; Zboril, Radek, E-mail: claudia.aparicio@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-27

    Thermally-induced reductive decomposition of natural iron-bearing garnets of the almandine-pyrope and almandine-spessartine series were studied at temperatures up to 1200 °C (heating rate of 10 °C/min) under atmosphere of forming gas (10% of H{sub 2} in N{sub 2}). Crystallochemical formula of the studied garnet was calculated as {sup VIII}(A{sub 3?x}Fe{sub x}{sup 2+}){sup VI}(Al,Fe{sup 3+}){sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12}, where the amount of Fe{sup 3+} in the octahedral sites is negligible with the exception of pyrope, A = Mg, Mn, and 0.47 ? x ? 2.85. The observed decomposition temperature, determined from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, is greater than 1000 °C in all cases and showed almost linear dependence on the iron content in the dodecahedral sites of the studied garnets, with the exception of garnet with a near-pyrope composition (Prp{sub 80}Alm{sub 20}). The initial garnet samples and decomposition products were characterized in details by means of X-ray powder diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We found that all studied garnets have common decomposition products such as metallic iron (in general, rounded particles below 4 ?m) and Fe-spinel; the other identified decomposition products depend on starting chemical composition of the garnet: Fe-cordierite, olivine (fayalite or tephroite), cristobalite, pyroxene (enstatite or pigeonite), and anorthite. Anorthite and pigeonite were only present in garnets with Ca in the dodecahedral site. All the identified phases were usually well crystallized.

  6. Review on iron and its importance for human health.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-02-01

    It is well-known that deficiency or over exposure to various elements has noticeable effects on human health. The effect of an element is determined by several characteristics, including absorption, metabolism, and degree of interaction with physiological processes. Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms as it participates in a wide variety of metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and electron transport. However, as iron can form free radicals, its concentration in body tissues must be tightly regulated because in excessive amounts, it can lead to tissue damage. Disorders of iron metabolism are among the most common diseases of humans and encompass a broad spectrum of diseases with diverse clinical manifestations, ranging from anemia to iron overload, and possibly to neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the latest progress in studies of iron metabolism and bioavailability, and our current understanding of human iron requirement and consequences and causes of iron deficiency. Finally, we discuss strategies for prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:24778671

  7. Review on iron and its importance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that deficiency or over exposure to various elements has noticeable effects on human health. The effect of an element is determined by several characteristics, including absorption, metabolism, and degree of interaction with physiological processes. Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms as it participates in a wide variety of metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and electron transport. However, as iron can form free radicals, its concentration in body tissues must be tightly regulated because in excessive amounts, it can lead to tissue damage. Disorders of iron metabolism are among the most common diseases of humans and encompass a broad spectrum of diseases with diverse clinical manifestations, ranging from anemia to iron overload, and possibly to neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the latest progress in studies of iron metabolism and bioavailability, and our current understanding of human iron requirement and consequences and causes of iron deficiency. Finally, we discuss strategies for prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:24778671

  8. Molecular Structure of Iron

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-04-16

    Since antiquity, Iron has been known for its malleability and abundance. Iron is a soft grey metal that is very ductile and easy to work; it can be rolled, hammered, bent, and tempered. Iron makes up 5% of the earth's crust in the form of ores such as hematite, limonite, magnetite, and taconite. This makes it the second most abundant metal, following aluminum. Most iron is used to manufacture carbon steel: iron with about 1.5% carbon and traces of other elements, but it is also used for many other alloys and steels of various types. Iron melts at 1808 degrees Kelvin and boils at 3023 degrees Kelvin. Insufficient iron in the bloodstream causes anemia, a medical condition causing unusual tiredness and other symptoms resulting from underdeveloped or few red blood cells.

  9. Effect of dietary vitamin E level on growth, tissue lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte fragility of transgenic coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Huei; Higgs, David A; Balfry, Shannon K; Devlin, Robert H

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E concentration on growth performance, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liver and muscle tissue, and erythrocyte fragility of transgenic growth hormone coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Fish were fed one of four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous experimental diets that contained either 11, 29, 50, or 105 IU of vitamin E/kg. Following the 10-week feeding trial, no significant (P>0.05) diet-related differences were detected in growth, whole body proximate composition or erythrocyte fragility. The vitamin E contents of liver and muscle, however, were affected by the dietary treatment. Fish fed diets containing > or =50 IU of vitamin E/kg had significantly increased vitamin E concentrations in their tissues. Iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation of liver and muscle tissue of fish fed elevated dietary vitamin E (> or =50 IU vitamin E/kg diet) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that noted for fish fed the diet containing no supplemental vitamin E. The results indicated that changes in tissue lipid peroxidation measurements precede clinical signs of sub-optimal vitamin E intake. PMID:15528168

  10. Iron deficiency alters megakaryopoiesis and platelet phenotype independent of thrombopoietin.

    PubMed

    Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding. PMID:24464533

  11. Secondary hardness of alloy white irons

    SciTech Connect

    Potapova, M.S.; Morozova, I.G.; Sokol, I.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the phase composition, structure, and hardness of hardened and tempered white irons alloyed with chromium and molybdenum. The selection of the optimum (from the point of view of secondary hardness) hardening temperature was made on 15 X 15 mm disk specimens of 4Kh16 iron. The results of this investigation of a large number of heats of white iron containing 2.53.5% C, from 0 to 30% Cr, and 0.5% Mo showed that the maximum secondary hardness may be obtained in tempering of irons containing 5-10% Cr hardened from 1100/sup 0/C. With an increase in molybdenum content in the experimental chromium irons the area of appearance of the maximum hardness shifts to higher temperatures and the interval of these temperatures is broadened. It is found that the secondary hardness of chromium white irons is determined by the quantity of residual austenite in the hardened condition and its decomposition in tempering.

  12. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  13. Excess adiposity, inflammation, and iron-deficiency in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Liang, Huifang; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Freels, Sally; Braunschweig, Carol A

    2009-02-01

    Iron deficiency is more prevalent in overweight children and adolescents but the mechanisms that underlie this condition remain unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between iron status and excess adiposity, inflammation, menarche, diet, physical activity, and poverty status in female adolescents included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 dataset. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics (t test, chi(2)) were used to assess differences between normal-weight (5th < or = body mass index [BMI] percentile <85th) and heavier-weight girls (< or = 85th percentile for BMI) for demographic, biochemical, dietary, and physical activity variables. In addition, logistic regression analyses predicting iron deficiency and linear regression predicting serum iron levels were performed. Heavier-weight girls had an increased prevalence of iron deficiency compared to those with normal weight. Dietary iron, age of and time since first menarche, poverty status, and physical activity were similar between the two groups and were not independent predictors of iron deficiency or log serum iron levels. Logistic modeling predicting iron deficiency revealed having a BMI > or = 85th percentile and for each 1 mg/dL increase in C-reactive protein the odds ratio for iron deficiency more than doubled. The best-fit linear model to predict serum iron levels included both serum transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein following log-transformation for normalization of these variables. Findings indicate that heavier-weight female adolescents are at greater risk for iron deficiency and that inflammation stemming from excess adipose tissue contributes to this phenomenon. Food and nutrition professionals should consider elevated BMI as an additional risk factor for iron deficiency in female adolescents. PMID:19167957

  14. Phototrophs in High-Iron-Concentration Microbial Mats: Physiological Ecology of Phototrophs in an Iron-Depositing Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [14C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations. PMID:10584006

  15. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  16. Innovative Method for Separating Phosphorus and Iron from High-Phosphorus Oolitic Hematite by Iron Nugget Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Wang, Xing; Chen, Siming

    2014-10-01

    This study puts forward a new method to separate phosphorus and iron from high-phosphorus oolitic hematite through iron nuggets process. Firstly, the physical, chemical, and microscopic characteristics of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite are investigated. Then, the reaction mechanisms of high-phosphorus hematite together with feasibility to separating phosphorus and iron by iron nugget process are discussed. Meanwhile, the experiments of high-phosphorus hematite used in rotary hearth furnace iron nugget processes are studied as well. The results indicate that the iron nugget process is a feasible and efficient method for iron and phosphorus separation of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite. The phosphorus content in iron nuggets is relatively low. Through the optimization of process parameters, the lowest of phosphorus in iron nuggets is 0.22 pct, the dephosphorization rate is above 86 pct, and the recovery of Fe is above 85 pct by the iron nugget process. This study aims to provide a theoretical and technical basis for economical and rational use of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite.

  17. Separate MRI Quantification of Dispersed (Ferritin-like) and Aggregated (Hemosiderin-like) Storage Iron

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jens H.; Tang, Haiying; Tosti, Christina L.; Swaminathan, Srirama V.; Nunez, Alvaro; Hultman, Kristi; Szulc, Kamila U.; Wu, Ed X.; Kim, Daniel; Sheth, Sujit; Brown, Truman R.; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method is proposed for separately quantifying the two principal forms of tissue storage (non-heme) iron: ferritin iron, a dispersed, soluble fraction that can be rapidly mobilized, and hemosiderin iron, an aggregated, insoluble fraction that serves as a long-term reserve. The method utilizes multiple spin echo (MSE) sequences, exploiting the fact that aggregated iron can induce non-monoexponential signal decay for MSE sequences. The method is validated in vitro for agarose phantoms, simulating dispersed iron with manganese chloride and aggregated iron with iron oxide microspheres. To demonstrate feasibility for human studies, preliminary in vivo data from two healthy controls and six patients with transfusional iron overload are presented. For both phantoms and human subjects, conventional R2 and R2? relaxation rates are also measured in order to contrast the proposed method with established MRI iron quantification techniques. Quantification of dispersed (ferritin-like) iron may provide a new means of monitoring the risk of iron-induced toxicity in patients with iron overload and, together with quantification of aggregated (hemosiderin-like) iron, improve the accuracy of estimates for total storage iron. PMID:20432291

  18. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth. PMID:22845493

  19. Metabolic pathway and distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Schlachter, Eva K; Widmer, Hans Ruedi; Bregy, Amadé; Lönnfors-Weitzel, Tarja; Vajtai, Istvan; Corazza, Nadia; Bernau, Vianney JP; Weitzel, Thilo; Mordasini, Pasquale; Slotboom, Johannes; Herrmann, Gudrun; Bogni, Serge; Hofmann, Heinrich; Frenz, Martin; Reinert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Experimental tissue fusion benefits from the selective heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) under high frequency irradiation. However, the metabolic pathways of SPIONs for tissue fusion remain unknown. Hence, the goal of this in vivo study was to analyze the distribution of SPIONs in different organs by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis after a SPION-containing patch implantation. Methods: SPION-containing patches were implanted in rats. Three animal groups were studied histologically over six months. Degradation assessment of the SPION-albumin patch was performed in vivo using MRI for iron content localization and biodistribution. Results: No SPION degradation or accumulation into the reticuloendothelial system was detected by MRI, MRI relaxometry, or histology, outside the area of the implantation patch. Concentrations from 0.01 ?g/mL to 25 ?g/mL were found to be hyperintense in T1-like gradient echo sequences. The best differentiation of concentrations was found in T2 relaxometry, susceptibility-sensitive gradient echo sequences, and in high repetition time T2 images. Qualitative and semiquantitative visualization of small concentrations and accumulation of SPIONs by MRI are feasible. In histological liver samples, Kupffer cells were significantly correlated with postimplantation time, but no differences were observed between sham-treated and induction/no induction groups. Transmission electron microscopy showed local uptake of SPIONs in macrophages and cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Apoptosis staining using caspase showed no increased toxicity compared with sham-treated tissue. Implanted SPION patches were relatively inert with slow, progressive local degradation over the six-month period. No distant structural alterations in the studied tissue could be observed. Conclusion: Systemic bioavailability may play a role in specific SPION implant toxicity and therefore the local degradation process is a further aspect to be assessed in future studies. PMID:21980242

  20. Magnetic properties and internal friction of iron carbide powder steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Zagainov; E. S. Gorkunov

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the carbon content and the density on the magnetic properties and internal friction of iron carbide baked powder steels is investigated. It is shown that for a separate determination of the carbon content and the density of baked steels one needs to use the coercive force and the velocity of propagation of oscillations or the natural resonance

  1. The Multicopper Ferroxidase Hephaestin Enhances Intestinal Iron Absorption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fuqua, Brie K.; Lu, Yan; Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M.; Wilkins, Sarah J.; Wolkow, Natalie; Bell, Austin G.; Hsu, JoAnn; Yu, Catherine C.; Chen, Huijun; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    Hephaestin is a vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase important for the transfer of dietary iron from intestinal cells to the blood. Hephaestin is mutated in the sex-linked anemia mouse, resulting in iron deficiency. However, sex-linked anemia mice still retain some hephaestin ferroxidase activity. They survive, breed, and their anemia improves with age. To gain a better understanding of the role of hephaestin in iron homeostasis, we used the Cre-lox system to generate knockout mouse models with whole body or intestine-specific (Villin promoter) ablation of hephaestin. Both types of mice were viable, indicating that hephaestin is not essential and that other mechanisms, multicopper ferroxidase-dependent or not, must compensate for hephaestin deficiency. The knockout strains, however, both developed a microcytic, hypochromic anemia, suggesting severe iron deficiency and confirming that hephaestin plays an important role in body iron acquisition. Consistent with this, the knockout mice accumulated iron in duodenal enterocytes and had reduced intestinal iron absorption. In addition, the similarities of the phenotypes of the whole body and intestine-specific hephaestin knockout mice clarify the important role of hephaestin specifically in intestinal enterocytes in maintaining whole body iron homeostasis. These mouse models will serve as valuable tools to study the role of hephaestin and associated proteins in iron transport in the small intestine and other tissues. PMID:24896847

  2. Injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue for tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung-Mi; You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is a process of implanting tissues or materials to treat wrinkles or soft tissue defects in the body. Over the years, various materials have evolved to correct soft tissue defects, including a number of tissues and polymers. Autogenous dermis, autogenous fat, autogenous dermis-fat, allogenic dermis, synthetic implants, and fillers have been widely accepted for soft tissue augmentations. Tissue engineering technology has also been introduced and opened a new venue of opportunities in this field. In particular, a long-lasting filler consisting of hyaluronic acid filler and living human mesenchymal cells called "injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue" has been created and applied clinically, as this strategy has many advantages over conventional methods. Fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells can be clinically used as injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue at present. In this review, information on the soft tissue augmentation method using the injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue is provided. PMID:25473206

  3. TISSUE CULTURE STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Sheldon; Kirk, Paul L.

    1953-01-01

    Some of the compounds in the active fraction of ultrafiltrates of chick embryo extract have been identified as taurine, serine, glutamic acid, xanthine, uracil, glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, ferrous iron, and inorganic phosphate. Based on the identity of these compounds a synthetic replacement for the ultrafilterable portion of chick embryo extract has been devised. There is an additional nutritional requirement that can be met by vitamin B12. Folic acid appears to be beneficial to the system though the requirements of this or any of the above compounds except vitamin B12 remain for future research. The low nitrogen content of the isolated fraction and the synthetic mixture suggests that the main nutrition of chick cells in roller tube cultures is derived from the non-dialyzable portion of the medium. PMID:13109159

  4. Iron and transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramovski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Blood bankers have focused their energy to secure blood transfusion, and only recently have studies been published on the effect of blood donation on iron metabolism. In many facilities, hemoglobin measurement is only performed just before or even during blood donation, but the determination of iron stores is largely ignored. The 2013 paradox of transfusion medicine is due to the fact that blood donation may be harmful and leads to iron deficiency with or without anemia, but for other individuals, it may be a healthy measure preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to discuss iron metabolism in the perspective of blood donation, notably regarding their possible genetic profiles that eventually will discriminate "good" iron absorbers from "bad" iron responders. PMID:24148756

  5. Iron regulation by hepcidin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ningning; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that is involved in the control of iron homeostasis in the body. Physiologically, hepcidin is controlled by iron stores, inflammation, hypoxia, and erythropoiesis. The regulation of hepcidin expression by iron is a complex process that requires the coordination of multiple proteins, including hemojuvelin, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP receptors, and transferrin. Misregulation of hepcidin is found in many disease states, such as the anemia of chronic disease, iron refractory iron deficiency anemia, cancer, hereditary hemochromatosis, and ineffective erythropoiesis, such as ?-thalassemia. Thus, the regulation of hepcidin is the subject of interest for the amelioration of the detrimental effects of either iron deficiency or overload. PMID:23722909

  6. IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    PubMed Central

    VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

  7. IRON REGULATES XANTHINE OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE LUNG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Ghio; Thomas P. Kennedy; Jacqueline Stonehuerner; Jacqueline D. Carter; Kelly A. Skinner; Dale A. Parks; John R. Hoidal

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT The iron chelator deferoxamine,has been reported to inhibit both xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity, but the relationship of this effect to the availability of iron in the cellular and tissue environment,remains unexplored. XO and total xanthine oxidoreductase activity in cultured V79 cells was increased with exposure to ferric ammonium sulfate and inhibited by deferoxamine.Lung,XO and total

  8. Heavy metal contaminants in tissues of the garfish, Belone belone L., 1761, and the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix L., 1766, from Turkey waters.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Aysun; Tepe, Yalçin; Türkmen, Mustafa; Mutlu, Ekrem

    2009-01-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. Fish samples were collected through the coastal waters of Turkey and the contents of cadmium, cobalt, chrome, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, zinc and lead in the liver and muscle tissues were determined. Among the metals analyzed, copper, zinc and iron were the most abundant in the different tissues while cadmium and lead were the least abundant both in Belone belone and Pomatomus saltatrix. Metal concentrations in muscles of fish species were found 0.01-0.38 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, 0.01-0.53 mg kg(-1) for cobalt, 0.05-1.87 mg kg(-1) for chromium, 0.21-5.89 mg kg(-1) for copper, 9.99-43.3 mg kg(-1) for iron, 0.14-1.33 mg kg(-1) for manganese, 0.06-4.70 mg kg(-1) for nickel, 0.09-0.81 mg kg(-1) for lead, 3.85-15.9 mg kg(-1) for zinc, respectively. Regional changes in metal concentration were observed in the tissues of both species, but these variations may not influence consumption advisories. PMID:18784894

  9. Iron (III) isomaltoside 1000.

    PubMed

    Mace, Thomas A R; Syed, Ahsan; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Intravenous (iv.) iron is now the recommended treatment for iron deficiency anemia if oral preparations have failed or in those undergoing hemodialysis. Iron isomaltoside is a new iv. iron preparation, licensed since 2009 in the UK and Europe. The iron is tightly bound within a nonionic isomaltoside carbohydrate matrix, as opposed to most other iv. iron preparations that use branched polymers to form a carbohydrate shell. This conformation produces a low immunogenic potential, which allows high single-dose infusions to adequately replenish stores. Two Phase III, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter clinical trials have investigated the safety profile of iron isomaltoside in chronic kidney disease and chronic heart failure. Two serious adverse events were observed (Staphylococcus aureus sepsis and angina pectoris), although their relationship to the drug was questioned. Significant hemoglobin and serum ferritin rises were seen in the chronic kidney disease group. The chronic heart failure group showed a significant serum ferritin rise and improved 'overall quality of life' but a nonsignificant hemoglobin rise. Preparations of iv. iron can cause renal injury, possibly through oxidative stress. Modern preparations, such as iron isomaltoside and ferumoxytol, have demonstrated less free iron release and hence may theoretically cause less renal damage. The cost of iron isomaltoside is greater than some of the current standard preparations used in most hospitals in the UK and Europe. However, when overheads and patient throughput are calculated, it may be a more cost-effective therapy than current therapies in the UK, owing to its faster infusion rate. Currently, there remains limited data on efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness. Although initial data are encouraging, they come from only three published small trials, thus restricting the conclusions that can be made. Future research needs to concentrate on comparative analyses with other iv. iron therapies. PMID:23782077

  10. Reactivity of Iron

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stoebe, Thomas G.

    In this laboratory excercise, students will be introduced to the oxidation / corrosion of iron from two different sources (flame and water). From the examination of corrosion from multiple sources, students will be able to compare and contrast the effects each has on the iron samples. Students will also be able to observe the effect of various material processing techniques has on the corrosive properties of iron.

  11. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  13. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  14. Physiology of iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. 'Ironomics' certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  15. Erythropoietin, iron, and erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Goodnough, L T; Skikne, B; Brugnara, C

    2000-08-01

    Recent knowledge gained regarding the relationship between erythropoietin, iron, and erythropoiesis in patients with blood loss anemia, with or without recombinant human erythropoietin therapy, has implications for patient management. Under conditions of significant blood loss, erythropoietin therapy, or both, iron-restricted erythropoiesis is evident, even in the presence of storage iron and iron oral supplementation. Intravenous iron therapy in renal dialysis patients undergoing erythropoietin therapy can produce hematologic responses with serum ferritin levels up to 400 microg/L, indicating that traditional biochemical markers of storage iron in patients with anemia caused by chronic disease are unhelpful in the assessment of iron status. Newer measurements of erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices using automated counters show promise in the evaluation of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. Assays for serum erythropoietin and the transferrin receptor are valuable tools for clinical research, but their roles in routine clinical practice remain undefined. The availability of safer intravenous iron preparations allows for carefully controlled studies of their value in patients undergoing erythropoietin therapy or experiencing blood loss, or both. PMID:10910892

  16. Iron amino acid chelates.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel

    2004-11-01

    Iron amino acid chelates, such as iron glycinate chelates, have been developed to be used as food fortificants and therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Ferrous bis-glycine chelate (FeBC), ferric tris-glycine chelate, ferric glycinate, and ferrous bis-glycinate hydrochloride are available commercially. FeBC is the most studied and used form. Iron absorption from FeBC is affected by enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption, but to a lesser extent than ferrous sulfate. Its absorption is regulated by iron stores. FeBC is better absorbed from milk, wheat, whole maize flour, and precooked corn flour than is ferrous sulfate. Supplementation trials have demonstrated that FeBC is efficacious in treating iron deficiency anemia. Consumption of FeBC-fortified liquid milk, dairy products, wheat rolls, and multi-nutrient beverages is associated with an improvement of iron status. The main limitations to the widespread use of FeBC in national fortification programs are the cost and the potential for promoting organoleptic changes in some food matrices. Additional research is required to establish the bioavailability of FeBC in different food matrices. Other amino acid chelates should also be evaluated. Finally there is an urgent need for more rigorous efficacy trials designed to define the relative merits of amino acid chelates when compared with bioavailable iron salts such as ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate and to determine appropriate fortification levels PMID:15743019

  17. Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism via ineffective erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A; Trindade, Luciano S; Arruda, Sandra F

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin A modulates inflammatory status, iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Given that these factors modulate the expression of the hormone hepcidin (Hamp), we investigated the effect of vitamin A deficiency on molecular biomarkers of iron metabolism, the inflammatory response and the erythropoietic system. Five groups of male Wistar rats were treated: control (AIN-93G), the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) diet, the iron-deficient (FeD) diet, the vitamin A- and iron-deficient (VAFeD) diet or the diet with 12 mg atRA/kg diet replacing all-trans-retinyl palmitate by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Vitamin A deficiency reduced serum iron and transferrin saturation levels, increased spleen iron concentrations, reduced hepatic Hamp and kidney erythropoietin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and up-regulated hepatic and spleen heme oxygenase-1 gene expression while reducing the liver HO-1 specific activity compared with the control. The FeD and VAFeD rats exhibited lower levels of serum iron and transferrin saturation, lower iron concentrations in tissues and lower hepatic Hamp mRNA levels compared with the control. The treatment with atRA resulted in lower serum iron and transferrin concentrations, an increased iron concentration in the liver, a decreased iron concentration in the spleen and in the gut, and decreased hepatic Hamp mRNA levels. In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin A deficiency leads to ineffective erythropoiesis by the down-regulation of renal erythropoietin expression in the kidney, resulting in erythrocyte malformation and the consequent accumulation of the heme group in the spleen. Vitamin A deficiency indirectly modulates systemic iron homeostasis by enhancing erythrophagocytosis of undifferentiated erythrocytes. PMID:24998947

  18. Iron metabolism in hemodialyzed patients – a story half told?

    PubMed Central

    Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Levin-Iaina, Nomy; Slotki, Itzchak; Matuszkiewicz-Rowinska, Joanna; Glowinska, Irena; Malyszko, Jacek S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction All living organisms have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to maintain appropriate iron levels in their cells and within their body. Recently our understanding of iron metabolism has dramatically increased. Overt labile plasma iron (LPI) represents a component of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) that is both redox active and chelatable, capable of permeating into organs and inducing tissue iron overload. The LPI measures the iron-specific capacity of a given sample to produce reactive oxygen species. We studied for the first time NTBI correlations with markers of iron status and inflammation in prevalent hemodialyzed patients. Material and methods Complete blood count, urea, serum lipids, fasting glucose, creatinine, ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were studied by standard laboratory method. The NTBI was assessed commercially available kits from Aferrix Ltd in Tel Aviv, Israel. A test result of 0.6 units of LPI or more indicates a potential for iron-mediated production of reactive oxygen species in the sample. Results Patients with LPI units ? 0.6 had higher serum iron, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) dose, ferritin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), hepcidin and lower hemojuvelin. In hemodialyzed patients NTBI correlated with hsCRP (r = 0.37, p < 0.01), ferritin (r = 0.41, p < 0.001), IL-6 (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis predictors of NTBI were hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase, explaining 58% of the variability Conclusions Elevated NTBI in HD may be due to disturbed iron metabolism. Anemia and liver function might also contribute to the presence of NTBI in this population. PMID:25624847

  19. Molecular mechanisms governing Arabidopsis iron uptake.

    PubMed

    Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Bauer, Petra; Ivanov, Rumen

    2015-02-01

    Plants are the principal source of dietary iron (Fe) for most of Earth's population and Fe deficiency can lead to major health problems. Developing strategies to improve plant Fe content is a challenge because Fe is essential and toxic and therefore regulating Fe uptake is crucial for plant survival. Acquiring soil Fe relies on complex regulatory events that occur in root epidermal cells. We review recent advances in elucidating many aspects of the regulation of Fe acquisition. These include the expanding protein network involved in FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT)-dependent gene regulation and novel findings on the intracellular trafficking of the Fe transporter IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1). We outline future challenges and propose strategies, such as exploiting natural variation, to further expand our knowledge. PMID:25499025

  20. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. PMID:24184442

  1. Bioavailability of Heme Iron in Biscuit Filling Using Piglets as an Animal Model for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Gutiérrez, Adrián Guillermo; González-Rosendo, Guillermina; Sánchez-Muñoz, Jonathan; Polo-Pozo, Javier; Rodríguez-Jerez, José Juan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioavailability of heme iron added to biscuit filling. It comprised two stages: first, the development of the heme iron enriched biscuit filling; second, the evaluation of the bioavailability of the mineral in fattening piglets. Two groups were selected randomly and fed: a) Low iron feed and biscuits with heme iron supplemented filling; b) Normal feed (with ferrous sulphate). Weight and blood parameters were measured every fifteen days. Averages were compared after duplicate analyses. The filling had a creamy appearance, chocolate taste and smell, appropriate spreadability, heme iron content of 2.6 mg per gram and a shelf-life of a month. The heme iron supplemented pigs registered a greater (P<0.05) weight gain (27.8% more than the control group). Mortality in the heme iron group was 10%, compared to 50% in the control group. The amount of iron measured in the different compartment was greater in the heme group (3315 mg) than in the control group (2792 mg). However, the amount of iron consumed in the latter was greater. We show that an acceptable product with high heme iron content can be formulated, suitable for use as biscuit filling. The heme iron supplement produced better weight increase and lesser mortality in fattening pigs. The bioavailability of heme iron was 23% greater (P<0.05) compared to ferrous sulphate. PMID:18311330

  2. Serum vitamin c and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, R; Nair, Preeti P; Singh, Manika; Singh, Manishi; Singh, MP; Jain, Arpit

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were estimated. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in OSMF individuals. Serum Iron content can be a predictor for the progression of this condition. OSMF is basically a disorder of collagen metabolism where Vitamin C gets utilized in conversion of proline into hydroxyproline, this hydroxylation reaction requires ferrous Iron and Vitamin C. Many studies regarding micronutrients and other antioxidants levels have been emphasized, but very few studies are done on the Serum levels of Vitamin C and its correlation with Iron in OSMF patients. Methods: Thirty five OSMF patients and 50 deleterious habit free healthy individuals (controls) were selected. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each individual. Vitamin C level in serum was estimated by 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine method and Iron estimated by Tripyridyl method. Results: The level of Serum Vitamin-C and Iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls which were statistically significant. Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, it seems possible that the chemical, thermal and/or mechanical factors associated with the use of areca nut may act in conjunction with the Vitamin C and Iron deficiency leading to the development of OSMF. Therapeutic substitution of vitamin C and Iron may be recommended in the management of OSMF PMID:25565730

  3. [The role of lactoferrin in the iron metabolism. Part I. Effect of lactofferin on intake, transport and iron storage].

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Iron belongs to the most widely distributed elements and is essential for the metabolism of almost all organisms. It is required for enzymatic reactions, in particular of those involving electron transport. It also participates in the transport and storage of oxygen in tissues. Iron is present in hem-containing proteins (hemoproteins) such as: hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes,cytochrome oxidases, catalases and peroxidases. It is also a constituent of proteins which do not contain hem molecule: flavoproteins (succinate and NADH dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial aconitase. In addition, iron takes part in many metabolic processes, among others in synthesis and catabolism of some hormones, synthesis of high-energy compounds and collagen, detoxification processes and immune reactions. It also participates in formation of reactive oxygen species which may exhibit both beneficial and harmful effects. Iron occurs in aqueous solutions as ferric (Fe+++) and ferrous (Fe++) ion. Although Fe+++ is hardly soluble, the organisms evolved mechanisms allowing to acquire and utilize that element irrespectively of its valency. The iron metabolism encompasses: intake, transport, participation in metabolism and storage. The iron metabolism undergoes in a closed cycle; in the physiological state only small amount of this metal is absorbed in the alimentary duct and disposed from the organism. A number of proteins is involved in iron metabolism including: ferritin, transferrin,transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter (DMT1), cytochrome b, ferroportin, hephaestin, hepcidin and lactoferrin (LF). A beneficial effect of LF on iron acquisition in the gut is best documented.That process involves a receptor-mediated absorption of iron-bound LF through intestinal epithelial cells. The role of LF in transfer of iron from maternal milk may be of utmost importance. Many observations indicate also that LF participates in the process of iron storage,predominantly in the liver. Contradictory data exist, however, regarding the role of LF in iron transport to other cell types and organs. PMID:19002083

  4. Fracture toughness studies of nodular iron using a J-integral approach

    E-print Network

    Mead, Hearl Edward

    1979-01-01

    in silicon content and nodule count except at low temperatures. An unsuccessful attempt was made to correlate the Kl lc values of nodular iron to the results of notched tensile tests. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The financial support of this work by the Iron... Electron Microscope Fractography RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fracture Toughness Fractography Silicon Content Pearlite Content Xl. 16 18 20 21 21 21 30 33 35 35 42 71 Nodule Count Notched Tensile Tests Comparative Results CONCLUSIONS RE FE...

  5. Cell viability and chondrogenic differentiation capability of human mesenchymal stem cells after iron labeling with iron sucrose.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Thorfve, Anna; Brantsing, Camilla; Junevik, Katarina; Baranto, Adad; Barreto Henriksson, Helena

    2014-11-01

    For evaluation of cell therapy strategies using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), it is important to be able to trace transplanted cells and their distribution in tissues, for example, cartilage, over time. The aim of the study was to determine effects on cell viability, traceability, and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs after iron labeling with iron sucrose. hMSCs were collected (seven donors, 13-57 years) from patients undergoing spinal surgery. Two subsets of experiments were performed. (1) Iron labeling of hMSCs: 1 mg/mL of Venofer(®) (iron sucrose) was added (16 h) to cultures. hMSCs were examined for uptake of iron sucrose (Prussian blue staining) and cell viability (flow cytometry). (2) Iron-labeled hMSCs (passage 4) (n=4, pellet mass), 200,000 cells/tube, were cultured (DMEM-HG) with 10 ng/mL TGF? and compared with controls (from each donor). The pellets were harvested at days 7, 14, and 28. Real-time PCR, IHC, and histology were used to evaluate SOX9, ACAN, C6S, and COL2A1 expression. Mean number of cells containing iron deposits was 98.1% and mean cell viability was 92.7% (no significant difference compared with unlabeled control cells). Pellets containing iron-labeled cells expressed COL2A1 on protein level (all time points), in similar levels as controls, and glycosaminoglycan accumulation was observed in iron-labeled pellets (day 14 or day 28). Results were supported by the expression of chondrogenic genes SOX9, ACAN, and COL2A1. The results in vitro indicate that iron sucrose can be used as a cell tracer for evaluation of cellular distribution in vivo after transplantation of MSCs and thus contribute with important knowledge when exploring new treatment strategies for degenerated cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25036548

  6. Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

    1972-01-01

    The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

  7. Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children with Iron Deficiency Failing to Respond to Oral Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crary, Shelley E.; Hall, Katherine; Buchanan, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Background For decades parenteral iron has been used in patients with iron deficiency unresponsive to oral iron therapy and in hemodialysis-dependent patients receiving erythropoietin. Newer intravenous (IV) iron formulations such as iron sucrose have replaced high molecular weight iron dextran in dialysis patients; however, the use of parenteral iron in children without renal disease has not been well defined. Procedure Pharmacy records were reviewed on children (? 18 yrs of age) who received IV iron sucrose at Children's Medical Center Dallas between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2009. Patients who received iron sucrose for chronic renal disease were excluded from analysis. Results Thirty-eight children received iron sucrose for non-renal indications, 13 with iron deficiency refractory to oral iron therapy, 13 with iron malabsorption or dependence on parenteral nutrition, 7 for chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, and 5 for miscellaneous indications. Among these 38 children, who received a total of 510 doses of IV iron sucrose, there were only 6 adverse reactions. Patients in all categories had a good response to the iron sucrose, with a median hemoglobin rise of 1.9 – 3.1 g/dl depending on the indication. Conclusions Parenteral iron is a safe and effective means to treat iron deficiency in children who cannot receive or do not respond to oral iron due to intolerance, poor adherence or iron malabsorption. PMID:21298748

  8. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism for, the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxides and silicate phase surfaces. The reflectance spectrum of the clay-iron preparations in the visible range is generally similar to the reflectance curves of bright regions on Mars. This strengthens the evidence for the predominance of nanophase iron oxides/oxyhydroxides in Mars soil. The mode of formation of these nanophase iron oxides on Mars is still unknown. It is puzzling that despite the long period of time since aqueous weathering took place on Mars, they have not developed from their transitory stage to well-crystallized end-members. The possibility is suggested that these phases represent a continuously on-going, extremely slow weathering process.

  9. Potential impacts of iron biofortification in India.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alexander J; Meenakshi, J V; Qaim, Matin; Nestel, Penelope; Sachdev, H P S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2008-04-01

    Iron deficiency is a widespread nutrition and health problem in developing countries, causing impairments in physical activity and cognitive development, as well as maternal mortality. Although food fortification and supplementation programmes have been effective in some countries, their overall success remains limited. Biofortification, that is, breeding food crops for higher micronutrient content, is a relatively new approach, which has been gaining international attention recently. We propose a methodology for ex ante impact assessment of iron biofortification, building on a disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) framework. This methodology is applied in an Indian context. Using a large and representative data set of household food consumption, the likely effects of iron-rich rice and wheat varieties are simulated for different target groups and regions. These varieties, which are being developed by an international public research consortium, based on conventional breeding techniques, might be ready for local distribution within the next couple of years. The results indicate sizeable potential health benefits. Depending on the underlying assumptions, the disease burden associated with iron deficiency could be reduced by 19-58%. Due to the relatively low institutional cost to reach the target population, the expected cost-effectiveness of iron biofortification compares favourably with other micronutrient interventions. Nonetheless, biofortification should not be seen as a substitute for other interventions. Each approach has its particular strengths, so they complement one another. PMID:18291567

  10. Hypersensitivity from intravenous iron products.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J; Auerbach, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In the last several years, intravenous therapy with iron products has been more widely used. Although it has been a standard procedure in dialysis-associated anemia since the early 1990s, its use is expanding to a host of conditions associated with iron deficiency, especially young women with heavy uterine bleeding and pregnancy. Free iron is associated with unacceptable high toxicity inducing severe, hemodynamically significant symptoms. Subsequently, formulations that contain the iron as an iron carbohydrate nanoparticle have been designed. With newer formulations, including low-molecular-weight iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside, and ferric carboxymaltose, serious adverse events are rare. PMID:25017687

  11. Internal Tissue Adhesive Approved

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Internal Tissue Adhesive Approved TissuGlu connects tissue flaps stemming from surgery ... and Drug Administration has approved the first tissue adhesive for internal use. Known as TissuGlu, surgeons can ...

  12. The case for iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN H. MARTIN; R. MICHAEL GORDON; STEVE E. FITZWATER

    1991-01-01

    Excess major nutrients occur in offshore areas ranging from the tropical equatorial Pacific to the polar Antarctic. In spite of the great ecological differences in these environments, the authors believe they share a common trait: iron deficiency. Here they present the case of iron; they point out that all of these areas are far from Fe-rich terrestrial sources and that

  13. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  14. Iron complexed afterchrome dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Czajkowski; Ma?gorzata Szymczyk

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of elimination of chromium in dye effluents during application of afterchrome dyes has been investigated. Eight commercially available azo mordant dyes were used in dyeing of wood fabric and aftertreated with iron (II) and iron (III) salts. Colour and lightfastness of received dyeings was compared with those obtained with the use of traditional chromium-aftertreated method. The structure of

  15. The impact of iron limitation on the physiology of the Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros simplex.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Katherina; Trimborn, Scarlett; Rost, Björn; Ralph, Peter J; Hassler, Christel S

    2014-01-01

    Iron availability strongly governs the growth of Southern Ocean phytoplankton. To investigate how iron limitation affects photosynthesis as well as the uptake of carbon and iron in the Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros simplex, a combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and radiotracer incubations in the presence and absence of chemical inhibitors was conducted. Iron limitation in C. simplex led to a decline in growth rates, photochemical efficiency and structural changes in photosystem II (PSII), including a reorganisation of photosynthetic units in PSII and an increase in size of the functional absorption cross section of PSII. Iron-limited cells further exhibited a reduced plastoquinone pool and decreased photosynthetic electron transport rate, while non-photochemical quenching and relative xanthophyll pigment content were strongly increased, suggesting a photoprotective response. Additionally, iron limitation resulted in a strong decline in carbon fixation and thus the particulate organic carbon quotas. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that, independent of the iron supply, carbon fixation was dependent on internal, but not on extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity. Orthovanadate more strongly inhibited iron uptake in iron-limited cells, indicating that P-type ATPase transporters are involved in iron uptake. The stronger reduction in iron uptake by ascorbate in iron-limited cells suggests that the re-oxidation of iron is required before it can be taken up and further supports the presence of a high-affinity iron transport pathway. The measured changes to photosystem architecture and shifts in carbon and iron uptake strategies in C. simplex as a result of iron limitation provide evidence for a complex interaction of these processes to balance the iron requirements for photosynthesis and carbon demand for sustained growth in iron-limited waters. PMID:24719494

  16. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489...STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. ...iron or ductile iron pipe on which general...

  17. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489...STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. ...iron or ductile iron pipe on which general...

  18. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489...STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. ...iron or ductile iron pipe on which general...

  19. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. 192.489...STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. ...iron or ductile iron pipe on which general...

  20. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron