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1

Water-induced degradation in lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-induced degradation in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramics was studied by a comparison experiment. In one treatment, PZT rings were immersed in a 0.01 M NaOH solution for long periods of time; in the other treatment, PZT rings were placed in a 0.01 M NaOH solution and hydrogen was evolved onto their silver electrodes by the electrolysis of water. No degradation occurred to samples immersed in the NaOH solution; but for the samples that were also treated by electrolysis of water, serious degradation occurred as their mechanical quality factor decreased dramatically and their dielectric loss increased considerably. I-V measurement showed that the resistance decreased greatly in the degraded samples, which could be explained by the formation of charge carriers due to the reduction reaction of atomic hydrogen from the electrolysis of water. It was proposed that the reduction reaction of atomic hydrogen at ambient temperature is an important origin for the degradation of piezoelectric ceramic devices.

Chen, W. P.; Chan, H. L. W.; Yiu, F. C. H.; Ng, K. M. W.; Liu, P. C. K.

2002-05-01

2

Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric, Dielectric, and Elastic Properties of Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piezoelectric resonance and the ferroelectric hysteresis loopin 8\\/65\\/35 lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics were measuredsimultaneously at temperatures ranging from 20 to 140°C. The complexelastic compliance and the complex piezoelectric and dielectric constantswere extracted from the piezoelectric resonance data, while thetemperature-dependent remanent polarization and coercive field were obtainedfrom the ferroelectric hysteresis loops. From the temperature behavior of theabove quantities,

Vid Bobnar; Zdravko Levstik; andAdrijan Levstik

1998-01-01

3

Effect of gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of barium stannate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tin doped barium titanate ceramics has been obtained by solid state reaction method followed by high energy ball milling. The effect of heavy dose gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the synthesized barium stannate titanate ceramics has been observed. It has been found that on irradiation the ferroelectric property decreases with decreasing values of Pr and Ec. The piezoelectric properties including d33, electrostrictive strain and electromechanical coupling coefficient (Kp) also decrease following the same trend of Pr and Ec. Grain size decreases and grain patterns become irregular after irradiation as observed from SEM micrographs. The Thermoluminescence (TL) property of the barium stannate titanate ceramics has also been investigated and reported.

Nath, A. K.; Medhi, Nirmali

2013-10-01

4

Water-Induced Degradation in Lead Zinc Niobate Lead Zirconate Titanate Soft Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-induced degradation of lead zinc niobate-lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(ZrTi)O3) soft piezoelectric ceramics is studied using electrochemical hydrogen charging, in which the silver electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramics constitute a cathode in 0.01-M NaOH solution to evolve hydrogen by electrolysis of water. It is found that with the increasing hydrogen charging time, the resonance impedance increases, the difference between the resonance frequency and the anti-resonance frequency decreases, the spontaneous polarization, the remanent polarization and the piezoelectric coefficient d33 decrease. The degradation behaviour of the soft piezoelectric ceramics can be explained to hydrogen incorporating into the lattice and forming hydroxy (OH-) bonds in the perovskite structure, which prevents the Ti ions from switching and increases the coercive field Ec. The degradation characteristics of the soft piezoelectric ceramics are quite different from that of lead zirconate titanate hard piezoelectric ceramics.

Jiang, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Wan-Ping; Peng, Zhi; Zeng, Min; Chan-Wang, Li-Hua; Yin, Qing-Rui

2005-05-01

5

Gamma Ray Irradiation Effects on the Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of heavy dose gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics has been investigated. It is found that on irradiation the ferroelectric property decreases and polarization behavior shows double loop hysteresis. The piezoelectric properties including piezoelectric charge constant ( d 33), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( K p), and electrostrictive strain also decreases. The most probable reason for decreased ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties may be the occurrence of random local strain upon irradiation. The phase transition temperature from ferroelectric to paraelectric decreases and degree of diffuseness increases on irradiation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve showed a peak at 226 °C showing that irradiated BaTiO3 has TL properties. Presence of TL clearly indicates that gamma ray irradiation causes trapped holes and electrons and these trapped charges are released at temperature higher than 226 °C. The creation of trapped holes and electrons effected the microstrain of BaTiO3 ceramic leading to change in the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramic.

Medhi, Nirmali; Nath, A. K.

2013-09-01

6

Piezoelectric properties of high Curie temperature barium titanate-bismuth perovskite-type oxide system ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT)—bismuth magnesium titanium oxide [Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3, BMT] system ceramics were prepared in an ambient atmosphere in order to increase the Curie temperature (Tc) of BT above 132 °C. A single perovskite phase was observed for BT-BMT ceramics with BMT compositions less than 50 mol %, and their relative densities were greater than 94%. Synchrotron measured x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that all the cations in the ceramics were homogeneously distributed. The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties revealed that the BT-BMT system ceramics exhibited relaxorlike characteristics with a dielectric maximum temperature as high as 360 °C for the 0.5BT-0.5BMT ceramic. The apparent piezoelectric constant (d?) was 60 pC/N for the 0.4BT-0.6BMT ceramic. Based upon these results, the BT-BMT system shows potential as a new type of lead-free material for high Tc piezoelectric applications.

Wada, Satoshi; Yamato, Keisuke; Pulpan, Petr; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Lee, Bong-Yeon; Iijima, Takashi; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

2010-11-01

7

Large Piezoelectric Constant and High Curie Temperature of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Ternary System Based on Bismuth Sodium Titanate-Bismuth Potassium Titanate-Barium Titanate near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic ternary system based on bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3 (BNT) - bismuth potassium titanate (Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 (BKT) - barium titanate BaTiO3 (BT) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases has been investigated. In the case of a(Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-bBaTiO3-c(Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 [BNBK(100a\\/100b\\/100c)] solid solution ceramics, the highest piezoelectric constant d33=191 pC\\/N, Curie temperature, Tc=301°C, electromechanical coupling factor,

Hajime Nagata; Masaki Yoshida; Yoichi Makiuchi; Tadashi Takenaka

2003-01-01

8

Elastic constants measured from acoustic wave velocities in barium titanate piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longitudinal and transverse wave velocities in barium titanate (BT) ceramics sintered at different firing temperatures were measured using an ultrasonic precision thickness gauge with high-frequency pulse generation to evaluate elastic constants, such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. With increasing firing temperature, the longitudinal and transverse wave velocities increased; as a result, Young’s modulus increased because of BT ceramics being mechanically hard. Poisson’s ratio after DC poling, however, was almost independent of the firing temperature. It was confirmed that there was an important factor for generating piezoelectricity regarding changes in Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio after DC poling compared with those before DC poling, that is, lowering Young’s modulus and increasing Poisson’s ratio. Furthermore, the modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus increased with the firing temperature because of the increase in ceramic bulk density. The modulus of rigidity decreased and the bulk modulus increased during DC poling because of domain alignment.

Ogawa, Toshio; Ikegaya, Taiki

2015-01-01

9

A Piezoelectric Plethysmograph Sensor Based on a Pt Wire Implanted Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Bulk Ceramic  

PubMed Central

This work reports on the development of a Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) bulk ferroelectric poled ceramic structure as a Piezoelectric Plethysmograph (PZPG) sensor. The ceramic was implanted during its fabrication with a platinum (Pt) wire which works as an internal electrode. The ceramic was then submitted to an experimental setup in order to validate and determine the Pt-wire mechanical effects. This PZPG sensor was also mounted on a finger splint in order to measure the blood flow that results from the pulsations of blood occurring with each heartbeat. Fingertip pulses were recorded jointly with an ECG signal from a 25 year old male to compare the time shift; the PZPG sensor guarantees the electrical isolation of the patient. The proposed PZPG has several advantages: it can be adjusted for fingertip measurements, but it can easily be extended by means of spare bands, therefore making possible PZPG measurements from different body locations, e.g., forehead, forearm, knee, neck, etc. PMID:22163596

González-Morán, Carlos O.; Flores-Cuautle, J.J. Agustín; Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto

2010-01-01

10

Enhanced piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sol-gel derived ceramics using single crystal PZT cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoceramic materials have attracted much attention for sensing, actuation, structural health monitoring and energy harvesting applications in the past two decades due to their excellent coupling between energy in the mechanical and electrical domains. Among all piezoceramic materials, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been the most broadly studied and implemented, in industrial applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling coefficients. Piezoceramic materials are most often employed as thin films or monolithic wafers. While there are numerous methods for the synthesis of PZT films, the sol-gel processing technique is the most widely used due to its low densification temperature, the ease at which the film can be applied without costly physical deposition equipment and the capability to fabricate both thin and thick films. However, the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived films are substantially lower than those of bulk materials, which limit the application of sol-gel films. In comparison, single crystal PZT materials have higher piezoelectric coupling coefficients than polycrystalline materials due to their uniform dipole alignment. This paper will introduce a novel technique to enhance the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived ceramics through the use of single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 microcubes as an inclusion in the PZT sol-gel. The PZT single crystal cubes are synthesized through a hydrothermal based method and their geometry and crystal structure is characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A mixture of PZT cubes and sol-gel will then be sintered to crystallize the sol-gel and obtain full density of the ceramic. XRD and SEM analysis of the cross section of the final ceramics will be performed and compared to show the crystal structure and microstructure of the samples. The P-E properties of the samples will be tested using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Finally, a laser interferometer will be used to directly measure the piezoelectric strain-coupling coefficient of the PZT sol-gel ceramics with and without PZT cube inclusions. The results will show that with the integration of PZ0.52T0.48 crystal inclusions the d33 coupling coefficient will increase more than 200% compared to that of pure PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 sol-gel.

Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A.

2010-04-01

11

Effects of porosity on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

We report porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics fabricated by tert-butyl alcohol-based gel-casting process which show a very high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient (0.77), high hydrostatic figure of merit (9594x10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/N), and low acoustic impedance (3.7 Mrayls). We show that the porosity effectively affects the performance of the samples in two ways: (1) a higher porosity simplifies the resonance behavior, leading to more efficient energy transduction; (2) its replacement of active ceramic phase leads to low relative permittivity, high hydrostatic figure of merit, and low acoustic impedance. It was confirmed the properties could be tailored by controlling the porosity.

Yang Ankun; Wang Changan; Guo Rui; Huang Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2011-04-11

12

Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

Flinn, I.

1975-01-01

13

Enhanced piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate sol-gel derived ceramics using single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoceramic materials have attracted much attention for sensing, actuation, structural health monitoring, and energy harvesting applications in the past two decades due to their excellent coupling between energy in the mechanical and electrical domains. Among all piezoceramic materials, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been the most broadly studied and implemented, in industrial applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling coefficients. Piezoceramic materials are most often employed as thin films or monolithic wafers. While there are numerous methods for the synthesis of PZT films, the sol-gel processing technique is the most widely used due to its low densification temperature, the ease at which the film can be applied without costly physical deposition equipment and the capability to fabricate both thin and thick films. However, the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived films are substantially lower than those of bulk materials, which limit the application of sol-gel films. In comparison, single crystal PZT materials have higher piezoelectric coupling coefficients than polycrystalline materials due to their uniform dipole alignment. This paper will introduce a novel technique to enhance the piezoelectric properties of PZT sol-gel derived ceramics through the use of single crystal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 microcubes as an inclusion in the PZT sol-gel. The PZT single crystal cubes are synthesized through a hydrothermal based method and their geometry and crystal structure is characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A mixture of PZT cubes and sol-gel will then be sintered to crystallize the sol-gel and obtain full density of the ceramic. XRD and SEM analysis of the cross section of the final ceramics will be performed and compared to show the crystal structure and microstructure of the samples. The P-E properties of the samples will be tested using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Finally, a laser interferometer will be used to directly measure the piezoelectric strain-coupling coefficient of the PZT sol-gel ceramics with and without PZT cube inclusions. The results will show that with the integration of PZT crystal inclusions the d33 coupling coefficient will increase more than 200% compared to that of pure PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 sol-gel.

Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A.

2010-09-01

14

Slow relaxation of field-induced piezoelectric resonance in paraelectric barium stannate titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kind of slow relaxation of field-induced piezoelectric resonance is observed in paraelectric barium stannate titanate ceramics. The piezoelectric resonance peaks vanish in several minutes when bias field is either applied or removed. These phenomena may be universal for dielectrics and can be explained by a model of slow dipoles composed of injected homocharges. With this model, the authors predict a negative piezoelectric modulus of d33 when just the bias field is removed, and verify it by experimental results.

Wei, Xiaoyong; Feng, Yujun; Yao, Xi

2004-03-01

15

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Size Effects in Fine-Grained Morphotropic-Phase-Boundary Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics  

E-print Network

Titanate Ceramics Clive A. Randall,* Namchul Kim, John-Paul Kucera,* Wenwu Cao, and Thomas R. Shrout The processing, electromechanical properties, and micro- structure of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics over the influence of grain size on the piezoelectric properties in PZT ceramics. In general, grain-size studies were

Cao, Wenwu

16

Engineering domain configurations for enhanced piezoelectricity in barium titanate single crystals  

E-print Network

Engineering domain configurations for enhanced piezoelectricity in barium titanate single crystals piezoelectric responses of barium titanate single crystals under different crystallographic orientations, and use it to explain the ultrahigh piezoelectric response recently observed in a 270 cut barium titanate

Li, Jiangyu

17

Sensitivity analysis of piezoelectric paint sensors made up of PZT ceramic powder and water-based acrylic polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain sensor based on piezoelectric paint film has been designed to be used in structural vibration monitoring applications. The piezoelectric paint film can be considered as a piezoelectric composite constituted by two phases: lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder (active phase) homogeneously distributed in a water-based acrylic polymer (passive phase). Two electrodes placed to both sides of the film

Ismael Payo; J. M. Hale

2011-01-01

18

Fracture mechanics for piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We Study cracks either in piezoelectrics, or on interfaces between piezoelectrics and other materials such as metal electrodes or polymer matrices. The projected applications include ferroelectric actuators operating statically or cyclically, over the major portion of the samples, in the linear regime of the constitutive curve, but the elevated field around defects causes the materials to undergo hysteresis locally. The fracture mechanics viewpoint is adopted—that is, except for a region localized at the crack tip, the materials are taken to be linearly piezoelectric. The problem thus breaks into two subproblems: (i) determining the macroscopic field regarding the crack tip as a physically structureless point, and (ii) considering the hysteresis and other irreversible processes near the crack tip at a relevant microscopic level. The first Subproblem, which prompts a phenomenological fracture theory, receives a thorough investigation in this paper. Griffith's energy accounting is extended to include energy change due to both deformation and polarization. Four modes of square root singularities are identified at the tip of a crack in a homogeneous piezoelectric. A new type of singularity is discovered around interface crack tips. Specifically, the singularities in general form two pairs: r {1}/{2}±i? and r {1}/{2}±i? , where ?. and k are real numbers depending on the constitutive constants. Also solved is a class of boundary value problems involving many cracks on the interface between half-spaces. Fracture mechanics are established for ferroelectric ceramics under smallscale hysteresis conditions, which facilitates the experimental study of fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth under combined mechanical and electrical loading. Both poled and unpoled fcrroelectrie ceramics are discussed.

Suo, Z.; Kuo, C.-M.; Barnett, D. M.; Willis, J. R.

1992-05-01

19

Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 ? load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber.

Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Prabaharan, T.; Shyam, A.

2011-11-01

20

Templated Grain Growth of Textured Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallographic texturing of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics offers a means of achieving significant enhancements in the piezoelectric response. Templated grain growth (TGG) en- ables the fabrication of textured ceramics with single crystal-like properties, as well as single crystals. In TGG, nucleation and growth of the desired crystal on aligned single crystal template particles results in an increased fraction of oriented material

G. L. Messing; S. Trolier-McKinstry; E. M. Sabolsky; C. Duran; S. Kwon; B. Brahmaroutu; H. Yilmaz; P. W. Rehrig; K. B. Eitel; E. Suvaci; M. Seabaugh; K. S. Oh

2004-01-01

21

Evolution of a stable polarization state in lead zirconate titanate ceramics by repeated partial switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the ferroelectric polarization of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) bulk ceramics under varying electric fields is examined. Repeated partial switching and backswitching results in a decrease of the switchable polarization, but has no effect on the effective strain. This is attributed to a stabilization of the domain structure, which leads to a decrease of the electric losses. The results are discussed with respect to the effective strain of PZT ceramics for piezoelectric actuators.

Granzow, T.; Balke, N.; Lupascu, D. C.; Rödel, J.

2005-11-01

22

Models and Characterization of Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected literature on the use of linearized constitutive equations and complex piezoelectric coefficients to develop models and characterize materials is presented in brief. One-dimensional models of simple piezoelectric ceramic components are derived using linearized constitutive equations and other fundamental relations to illustrate the procedure used to develop multi-dimensional models. Then, the procedure for building models of multi-layer devices using models of components is illustrated. Models are also used to characterize materials. A method to determine the errors when the ANSI/IEEE Standard method is used to determine real piezoelectric coefficients and methods to characterize non-Standard shapes often used in devices are also presented

Ebenezer, D. D.

2008-07-01

23

Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramic Vibrator with Internal Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilayer piezoelectric vibrators made from high mechanical quality factor (Q m) PbZrTiO3 ceramic material with internal electrodes have been investigated for application to ultrasonic devices. The existence of internal electrodes activates the ceramic sintering reaction and as a result, cofiring of the the multilayer vibrator at a lower temperature becomes possible. Multilayer vibrators with 2-9 layers of internal electrodes were

Yoshiaki Fuda; Hiroshi Ono; Futoshi Shiotani; Katsunori Kumasaka

1995-01-01

24

Evolution of bias field and offset piezoelectric coefficient in bulk lead zirconate titanate with fatigue  

SciTech Connect

Hysteresis loops of the piezoelectric coefficient, d{sub 33}=f(E{sub 3}), are measured on virgin and fatigued lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Four parameters are directly extracted from the measurements: internal bias field E{sub b}, offset piezoelectric coefficient d{sub offset}, coercive field E{sub c}, and remnant piezoelectric coefficient d{sub r}. The reduction in d{sub r} displays the decreasing switchable polarization with fatigue cycling. E{sub b} and d{sub offset} are found to be linearly related. After thermal annealing, both offsets disappear, while the increase in E{sub c} and the reduction in d{sub r} withstand annealing. The microscopic entities responsible for the offsets are less stable than those for reduced switching.

Zhang Yong; Baturin, Ivan S.; Aulbach, Emil; Lupascu, Doru C.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Roedel, Juergen [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

2005-01-03

25

Electronic structure of nanograin barium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of states and band structure of 20 nm barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) ceramics are investigated by first-principles calculation. The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW)\\u000a method is used and the exchange correlation effects are treated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results\\u000a show that there is substantial hybridization between the Ti 3d and O 2p states

Xiangyun Deng; Xiaohui Wang; Dejun Li; Longtu Li

2007-01-01

26

A study on (K, Na) NbO3 based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics micro speaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flat panel micro speaker was fabricated from (K, Na) NbO3 (KNN)-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics by a tape casting and cofiring process using Ag-Pd alloys as an inner electrode. The interface between ceramic and electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The acoustic response was characterized by a standard audio test system. We found that the micro speaker with dimensions of 23 × 27 × 0.6 mm3, using three layers of 30 ?m thickness KNN-based ceramic, has a high average sound pressure level (SPL) of 87 dB, between 100 Hz-20 kHz under five voltage. This result was even better than that of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramics under the same conditions. The experimental results show that the KNN-based multilayer ceramics could be used as lead free piezoelectric micro speakers.

Gao, Renlong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Huan, Yu; Sun, Yiming; Liu, Jiayi; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

2014-10-01

27

Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramic Actuator with Interdigital Internal Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multilayer piezoelectric ceramic actuator with interdigital internal electrodes has been developed. The internal electrodes of this actuator are line electrodes which are printed on piezoelectric ceramic green sheets and stacked such that alternating electrode lines are displaced by one-half pitch. This actuator is displaced at right angles to the stacking direction due to the piezoelectric longitudinal effect. Therefore, it

Junichi Ohashi; Yoshiaki Fuda; Tomeji Ohno

1993-01-01

28

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Barium Titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric constant and loss of barium titanate and barium-strontium titanate have been measured at biasing field strengths from 0 to 5 megavolts per meter, at temperatures from -50°C to +135°C and at frequencies from 0.1 to 25 megacycles. The measurements versus temperature indicate the expected agreement with the Curie-Weiss law at temperatures above the Curie point. Measurements versus field

Shepard Roberts

1947-01-01

29

Anomalies of piezoelectric coefficients in barium titanate thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of electromechanical devices involves the use of different material coefficients, whose measurement is a difficult task, especially when the problem concerns thin films. Required coefficients of thin films could be found theoretically, using known values of the bulk constants. Electromechanical coefficients of barium titanate thin films are still unknown; therefore, it is expedient to carry out their calculations. We give here the full set of electromechanical coefficients of barium titanate thin films for the whole range of technologically available misfit strains. In the present paper, piezoelectric coefficients as functions of a misfit strain were calculated. It was revealed that piezoelectric coefficients exhibit anomalies at phase boundaries and inside the monoclinic r-phase as well. The obtained results allow finding the required values of the thin-film parameters, varying the misfit strain.

Shirokov, Vladimir; Kalinchuk, Valery; Shakhovoy, Roman; Yuzyuk, Yury

2014-11-01

30

Kinetic ceramics piezoelectric hydraulic pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development and testing of two Piezoelectrically driven Hydraulic Pumps (PHP2 & PHP3) utilizing low cost discrete multilayer piezoelectric actuators and low cost structural components. New valve technologies were developed utilizing reed and MEMS valves. Structural optimization was performed to decrease weight and volume. The PHP3 design extracts power from a PZT material with high efficiency despite impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric actuator and fluid by utilizing a hydraulic pendulum energy recovery technique. Hydraulic power of 168 watts can be developed with a pump mass of under 1lb. Flow rate of 2300 cc/min free flow has been demonstrated as well as output pressure greater than 200 bar in the stalled condition. The result of the effort is practical solid state conversion of electrical energy into a useable hydraulic source for actuation systems without having normal rotational wear components. The PHP2 pump was used to power the hydraulic primary flight controls in a RPV technology demonstrator flight tested in November 2006.

O'Neill, Conal; Burchfield, John

2007-04-01

31

Elastic and Piezoelectric Coefficients of Single-Crystal Barium Titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical resonance and antiresonance frequencies were measured on barium titanate single-crystal elements maintained under electric dc bias from -50°C to +150°C. A complete set of elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of the tetragonal modification at 25°C is obtained. The elastic compliances show substantial deviation from cubic symmetry. Measurements in the orthorhombic state show longitudinal compliance four times higher than in

Don Berlincourt; Hans Jaffe

1958-01-01

32

Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of lead titanate-polyethylene oxide composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-ceramic composites with pyroelectric sensitivity are presented as promising candidates for infrared detection. Selection of the appropriate ceramic filler and the polymer matrix is one of the key parameters in the development of optimized materials for specific applications. In this work lead-titanate (PT) ceramic is incorporated into a flexible polymer matrix, polyethylene oxide (PEO) with relatively high electrical conductivity to develop sensitive and at the same time flexible composites. PT particles are dispersed in PEO at varying volume fractions, and composite materials cast in the form of films for the measurements. The dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties are measured. From these data the piezoelectric voltage coefficients as well as pyroelctric figures of merit of the composite films have been determined and values were compared with that of PT-epoxy composites in order to determine the effect of electrical conductivity of the polymer matrix on the poling efficiency and the final properties. It is found that, in general, both the piezoelectric and the pyroelectric figures of merit increase with concentration of PT; however, it is at the expense of mechanical flexibility of the material. Moreover PT-PEO composites show superior pyroelectric sensitivity compared to PT-Epoxy composites. Improving the electrical conductivity of the polymer phase enhances the poling process significantly.

Khanbareh, H.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

2014-11-01

33

Development of a Templated Grain Growth System for Texturing Piezoelectric Ceramics  

E-print Network

be obtained from crystallographically textured piezoelectric ceramics. Single crystal piezoelectrics demonstrate high strain because crystal orientation can be controlled ­ the perfect lattice simplifies crystal orientation. Single crystals actuate better than typical ceramics, but are expensive. Highly textured ceramics

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

34

High-Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramic Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active combustion control of spatial and temporal variations in the local fuel-to-air ratio is of considerable interest for suppressing combustion instabilities in lean gas turbine combustors and, thereby, achieving lower NOx levels. The actuator for fuel modulation in gas turbine combustors must meet several requirements: (1) bandwidth capability of 1000 Hz, (2) operating temperature compatible with the fuel temperature, which is in the vicinity of 400 F, (3) stroke of approximately 4 mils (100 m), and (4) force of 300 lb-force. Piezoelectric actuators offer the fastest response time (microsecond time constants) and can generate forces in excess of 2000 lb-force. The state-of-the-art piezoceramic material in industry today is Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, called PZT. This class of piezoelectric ceramic is currently used in diesel fuel injectors and in the development of high-response fuel modulation valves. PZT materials are generally limited to operating temperatures of 250 F, which is 150 F lower than the desired operating temperature for gas turbine combustor fuel-modulation injection valves. Thus, there is a clear need to increase the operating temperature range of piezoceramic devices for active combustion control in gas turbine engines.

Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.; Dynys, Frederick W.

2005-01-01

35

(Bi(1\\/2)Na(1\\/2))TiO3-BaTiO3 system for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the (Bi(1\\/2)Na(1\\/2))TiO3 (BNT)-based solid solutions, Ba-modified bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi(1\\/2)Na(1\\/2))(1-x)Ba(x)TiO3 (BNBT), is studied for its dielectric and piezoelectric properties as a new group of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. A rhombohedral (F sub alpha)-tetragonal (F sub beta) morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is shown to exist at x = 0.06-0.07 by X-ray data, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties. BNBT ceramics with

Tadashi Takenaka; Kei-Ichi Maruyama; Koichiro Sakata

1991-01-01

36

Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide reliable stress sensing under dynamic loadings.

Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

2011-11-01

37

Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide reliable stress sensing under dynamic loadings.

Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

2012-04-01

38

Large effective-strain piezoelectric actuators using nested cellular architecture with exponential strain amplification mechanisms  

E-print Network

Design and analysis of piezoelectric actuators having over 20% effective strain using an exponential strain amplification mechanism are presented in this paper. Piezoelectric ceramic material, such as lead zirconate titanate ...

Ueda, Jun

39

Pre-stressed Curved Actuators: Characterization and Modeling of their Piezoelectric Behavior  

E-print Network

Pre-stressed Curved Actuators: Characterization and Modeling of their Piezoelectric Behavior Karla actuators consist of a piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate or PZT) sandwiched between various thermo elastic relations and ferroelectric domain theory. The model predicts displacements based

40

Preparation and Characterization of Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramics Qiang Chen1,a  

E-print Network

Preparation and Characterization of Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramics Qiang Chen1,a , Jinxu Li1,b properties; Perovskites; (K,Na)NbO3 Abstract. (K,Na)NbO3-based piezoelectric ceramics are promising piezoelectric properties. In this paper, lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0

Volinsky, Alex A.

41

STABILIZED BARIUM TITANATE CERAMICS FOR CAPACITOR DIELECTRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of additions of LaâOâ and LaâOâ--; 3TiOâ on the electronic properties of barium titanate were investigated. ; It was found that small additions of the components markedly increase the ; lifetime of the material subjected to d-c fields of 50 v per mil at 200 l ; C. (auth);

J. B. MacChesney; P. K. Gallagher; F. V. DiMarcello

1963-01-01

42

Development of optical phase shifter based on piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase shifter is necessary in the optical phase-shifting measurement. At present the phase shifter commonly used is approximately divided into the penetrance-type and the reflection-type. In this paper, a reflection-type phase shifter made of piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble is developed. The assemble are constituted of the flat piezoelectric ceramic with parallel connection circuit and inline structure. The communication between the computer and MCU is by RS232. The D/A converter controlled by the MCU outputs 0~10V voltage. Then the voltage is amplified to 0~400V DC voltage by the designed linear DC amplifier. When this voltage loads on the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the assemble will axially extend 0~5mm. In this paper, the connecting types for the mechanical construction and circuit of the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the driving power and the DC amplifier with high linearity are all introduced. The whole system developed is standardized by using phase-interfering Michelson. The standardization and the practical application indicates that this system has excellent linearity and precision repeatability.

Yu, Fusheng; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yao, Chunjuan; Leng, Changlin

2005-02-01

43

Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic  

SciTech Connect

Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1?xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.

Nayak, P., E-mail: priyambada.pce@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha-769008 (India); Badapanda, T. [Department of Physics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-752054 (India); Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S. [Colloids and Materials Chemistry, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-751013 (India)

2014-04-24

44

Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1-xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba2+ ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba2+ ion in SBT lattice.

Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

2014-04-01

45

Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties and Tunability of Lead-Free Ceramics Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium-doped barium titanate Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 lead-free ceramics (hereinafter referred to as BZT) were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method by adopting the high-energy ball milling technique. Nanosized BZT powders resulted from high-energy ball milling, which in turn enhanced the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. A single-phase perovskite structure free from secondary phase peaks was observed for sintered BZT samples, and a relative density of ˜94% of the theoretical density was achieved. The electric-field-induced polarization-current data indicate the ferroelectric nature of the samples. Unipolar strain as high as 0.12% was realized for the ceramics sintered at 1350°C, indicating their potential for use in actuator applications. Very high tunability of >70% for these ceramics is also reported.

Mahesh, M. L. V.; Bhanuprasad, V. V.; James, A. R.

2013-12-01

46

Electrical modeling of Piezoelectric ceramics for analysis and evaluation of sensory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectricity is an ability of some materials to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. Piezoelectric ceramics are often used for sensory systems to monitor mechanical characteristics of structures through an electrical signal. Thus, to support system level analysis and evaluation of sensory systems, understanding and estimating the electrical behavior of piezoelectric ceramics with a minimum effort

Jina Kim; Benjamin L. Grisso; Jeong K. Kim; Dong Sam Ha; Daniel J. Inman

2008-01-01

47

Strontium doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics: study of calcination and sintering process to improve piezo effect.  

PubMed

Perovskite crystal structure is found in many ionic solids like CaTiO3, BaTiO3 and Lead Zirconate Titanates (PZT). In this structure off-center position of cations in oxygen octahedral causes polarization and produces direct and indirect piezoelectric responses in ceramic materials that are suitable for many ultrasonic applications. In the present study 9% Sr doped PZT ceramics were prepared and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties measured. X ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of calcined powders demonstrated a decrease in the PbO content during the calcination stage at 850 degrees C. This was counterbalanced by adding excess PbO at the time of preparation of mixtures. Sintering was carried out at 1200 degrees C for 2 hours in lead rich atmosphere. The properties achieved were Dielectric Constant (K) = 1440, Tangent Loss (Tan delta) = 0.0062, Charge Coefficient (d33) = 335 pC/N and density = 7.55 g/cm3. SEM analysis of sintered samples demonstrated that grain size was 2-3 microm with clean grain boundaries and no large size porosity observed. XRD analysis of sintered pellets exhibited that material prepared was free of any precipitated phase usually harmful for the piezo effect. PMID:21770202

Khalid, Muhammad; Shoaib, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Azam

2011-06-01

48

Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Piezoelectric Ceramics by Coulomb Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport properties of bulk and guided acoustic waves travelling in a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disc, originally manufactured to serve as ultrasonic transducer, have been monitored by scanned Coulomb coupling. The images are recorded by excitation and detection of ultrasound with local electric field probes via piezoelectric coupling. A narrow pulse has been used for excitation. Broadband coupling is achieved since neither mechanical nor electrical resonances are involved. The velocities of the traveling acoustic waves determined from the images are compared with characteristic velocities calculated from material properties listed by the manufacturer of the PZT plate.

Habib, Anowarul; Shelke, Amit; Pluta, Mieczyslaw; Kundu, Tribikram; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grill, Wolfgang

2012-07-01

49

High-Sensitivity Accelerometer Using Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high sensitivity accelerometer using multilayer piezoelectric ceramics including internal electrodes has been developed. The sensitivity of this accelerometer is about 900 pC\\/G at the frequency range from 0.01 to 10 Hz. Because the circuit was structed to cancel pyroelectric voltages, the output voltage changes of this accelerometer were decreased to 1\\/10 compared with the case of a noncanceling circuit.

Yasunori Ohtsuki; Yoshiaki Fuda; Tetsuo Yoshida

1993-01-01

50

Piezoelectric ceramic assembly tubes for torsional actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efforts described here are intended to provide a basis for the utilization of novel piezoelectric actuators in smart materials and structures. The actuator design developed in this study is a segmented, piezoelectric tube, with the individual segments driven in a d15 shear mode. The PZT-5A tubes were cut longitudinally in to an even number of equal slender segments. These slender segments were poled individually along their length using a continuous poling technique developed at NRL. The polarization of the poled segments alternates in direction between adjacent segments. The segments were reassembled with a conductive epoxy so that it serves as both joint and electrode. The assembled actuator tubes were evaluated by applying electric field normal to the polarization direction of the segments, demonstrating proof of concept. These solid state prototype devices were driven to precise angular displacement and torque output. Reliability test, including both fatigue and mechanical loading of the device, were conducted. In conjunction with this effort, numerical computation analyses were performed with respect to structural integrity versus segment joint thickness, and the relative effect of cylindrical versus polygonal configurations. These studies facilitated the successful production of prototypes. Projected actuator outputs based on electromechanical test results are also discussed in terms of requirements for noise and vibration control of helicopter rotor blades.

Kim, Chulho; Glazounov, Alexandre E.; Flippen, Luther D.; Pattnaik, Amitav; Zhang, Qi Ming; Lewis, David, III

1999-07-01

51

Compact piezoelectric micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advance of micro/nanotechnology promotes the development of micromotors in recent years. In this article, a compact piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator is proposed. A traveling wave is generated by superposition of bending modes with 90° phase difference excited by d15 inverse piezoelectric effects. The operating principle simplifies the system structure significantly, and provides a miniaturization solution. A research prototype with the size of 0.75× 0.75×1.55 mm is developed. It can produce start-up torque of 0.27?Nmand maximum speed of 2760 r/min at 14RMS.

Yan, Liang; Lan, Hua; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

2013-04-01

52

Phase diagram and enhanced piezoelectricity in the strontium titanate doped potassium-sodium niobate solid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of the (1-x)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xSrTiO3 ceramics, densified by the Spark-Plasma-Sintering method, have been studied. A phase diagram was established from the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. A tetragonal-orthorhombic morpho-tropic phase boundary (MPB) was found at x 0.05. Around the MPB, piezoelectric properties were greatly improved. The origin for the enhanced piezoelectricity has been proposed.

Ruiping Wang; Rong-Jun Xie; Kotaro Hanada; Kunio Matsusaki; Hiroshi Bando; Mitsuru Itoh

2005-01-01

53

Response of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate to high-energy xenon ion beam pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a new radiation detector, the characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are currently being studied using a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam. In this study, the response of the PZT element to the pulsed beam was investigated by changing the beam intensity. It was found that the time distribution of the Xe ions in the pulse duration must be taken into account to understand the formation of the output signal that appeared on the PZT element.

Takechi, Seiji; Miura, Yoshinori; Mitsuhashi, Tomoaki; Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Okudaira, Osamu; Shibata, Hiromi; Fujii, Masayuki; Okada, Nagaya; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio

2014-11-01

54

Local and global energy release rates for an electrically yielded crack in a piezoelectric ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural reliability concerns of various electromechanical devices call for a better understanding of the mechanisms of fracture in piezoelectric ceramics subjected to combined mechanical and electrical loading. For these materials, due to unexplained discrepancies between theory and experiments, even the basic criterion of fracture remains a point of controversy. A viewpoint adopted in this paper is to model piezoelectric ceramics

Huajian Gao; Tong-Yi Zhang; Pin Tong

1997-01-01

55

An investigation of the development of novel piezoelectric actuator designs by fused deposition of ceramics (FDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramic materials are widely used in numerous applications for both sensing mechanical force and producing actuation under an applied electric field. In some applications such as manufacturing of optical instruments and semiconductor chips, a displacement of a few hundred microns with a precision positioning of 0.1 mum is required. Piezoelectric ceramics are well suited for such a positioning accuracy,

Farhad Mohammadi

2001-01-01

56

Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic micro-actuator and its reliability for hard disk drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new U-type micro-actuator for precisely positioning a magnetic head in high-density hard disk drives was proposed and developed. The micro-actuator is composed of a U-type stainless steel substrate and two piezoelectric ceramic elements. Using a high-d31 piezoelectric coefficient PMN-PZT ceramic plate and adopting reactive ion etching process fabricate the piezoelectric elements. Reliability against temperature was investigated to ensure the

Yang Jing; Jianbin Luo; Wenyan Yang; Guoxian Ju

2004-01-01

57

Electrical properties of lanthanum doped barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Pure and lanthanum doped barium titanate (BT) ceramics were prepared by sintering pellets at 1300 deg. C for 8 h, obtained from nanopowders synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. XRD results showed formation of a tetragonal structure. The presence of dopants changed the tetragonal structure to pseudo-cubic. The polygonal grain size was reduced up to 300 nm with addition of lanthanum as a donor dopant. Determined dielectric properties revealed that lanthanum modified BT ceramics possessed a diffused ferroelectric character in comparison with pure BT that is a classical ferroelectric material. In doped BT phase transition temperatures were shifted to lower temperatures and dielectric constant values were much higher than in pure BT. A modified Currie Weiss law was used to explore the connection between the doping level and degree of diffuseness of phase transitions. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were carried out at different temperatures in order to investigate electrical resistivity of materials and appearance of a PTCR effect. - Highlights: {yields} Pure and lanthanum doped BaTiO{sub 3} were prepared by polymeric precursors method. {yields} Change of structure from tetragonal to pseudo-cubic. {yields} Lanthanum as a donor dopant influenced on change of ferro-para phase transition. {yields} The diffuseness factor indicated the formation of diffuse ferroelectric material. {yields} Lanthanum affected on PTCR effect appearance in BT ceramics.

Vijatovic Petrovic, M.M., E-mail: miravijat@yahoo.com [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Bobic, J.D. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Ramoska, T.; Banys, J. [Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, Vilnius (Lithuania); Stojanovic, B.D. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia)

2011-10-15

58

PROPERTIES OF PIEZOELECTRIC TITANATES AND ZIRCONATES INCLUDING A DISCUSSION OF THEIR CONTROL AND EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented at the 1956 Electronic Components Conf., Washington, D. C., ; May 1956. This paper is in two parts. The flrst part reports on the program ; pursued by Sandia Corporation in a planned effort toward obtaining more uniform ; and efficient piezoelectric ceramics. The second part discasses speciflcations ; and tests used by Sandia to ensure procurement of satisfactory

T. G. Kinsley; R. D. Wehrle

1956-01-01

59

Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ceramic and Nanocomposite Titanates of Transition Metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic and nanocomosite samples of the titanates of transition metals have been synthesized and their microwave dielectric properties have been investigated. Frequency and magnetic field dependences of the transmission and reflection coefficients in centimeter and millimeter wavebands were measured. It is established for most of studied ceramic titanates that transmission coefficient increases and reflection coefficient decreases when frequency increases. An absorption maximum has been found for ceramic sample made of Co0.9Fe0.1TiO3. The real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric permittivity were determined from measurements of transmission and reflection coefficients. On the whole, real part of dielectric permittivity of nanocomposite titanates based on an opal matrix is less than for ceramic titanates.

Rinkevich, Anatoly B.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny A.; Perov, Dmitry V.; Ryabkov, Yury I.; Samoylovich, Mikhail I.; Klescheva, Svetlana M.

2014-10-01

60

Tunability and relaxor properties of ferroelectric barium stannate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium stannate titanate [Ba(SnxTi1-x)O3, x =0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4] ceramics were prepared using a conventional solid-state reaction process. Their dielectric properties were measured under direct current bias fields ranging from 0to2.5kV/cm. A transformation from normal to relaxor ferroelectrics was observed when x ?0.3. Broken long-range order or "dirty" ferroelectric domains and nanodomains were observed in Ba(Sn0.1Ti0.9)O3 and Ba(Sn0.4Ti0.6)O3 by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Voltage driven tunability was found to decrease with increasing Sn content. The change from normal ferroelectric into relaxor ferroelectric had a negative impact on the tunability value of the materials.

Lu, S. G.; Xu, Z. K.; Chen, Haydn

2004-11-01

61

Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic composite approach  

SciTech Connect

The electric-field-induced strain response mechanism in a polycrystalline ceramic/ceramic composite of relaxor and ferroelectric materials has been studied using in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction. The addition of ferroelectric phase material in the relaxor matrix has produced a system where a small volume fraction behaves independently of the bulk under an applied electric field. Inter- and intra-grain models of the strain mechanism in the composite material consistent with the diffraction data have been proposed. The results show that such ceramic/ceramic composite microstructure has the potential for tailoring properties of future piezoelectric materials over a wider range than is possible in uniform compositions.

Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook; Webber, Kyle G. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, Christina [Diamond Light Source, Beamline I12 JEEP, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kimpton, Justin A. [The Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

2014-03-28

62

Solvothermal preparation of potassium niobate/barium titanate nanocomplex ceramics with three dimensional network-configuration of structure-gradient region and their dielectric properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve dielectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT)-based ceramics, the BT/potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) nanocomplex ceramics were designed to expect the formation of a three dimensional network-configuration of a structure-gradient region (SGR), where the polar vector can easily rotate. The KN epitaxial nanolayers were formed on BT compacts with a necking structure by a solvothermal method and the maximal dielectric constant of 1450 and the relatively large apparent piezoelectric constant d33* of 318 pm/V were recorded for the KN/BT nanocomplex ceramics. The experimental facts suggest that the configuration of the SGR, in addition to the relative density, is one of the important factors to enhance the dielectric properties of the KN/BT nanocomplex ceramics.

Ueno, S.; Kawashima, H.; Nakashima, K.; Kumada, N.; Magome, E.; Moriyoshi, C.; Kuroiwa, Y.; Fujikawa, Y.; Tanaka, D.; Furukawa, M.; Wada, S.

2013-08-01

63

Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

Erhart, Jirí

2013-01-01

64

Development of novel piezoelectric ceramics and composites for sensors and actuators by solid freeform fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel piezoelectric ceramic, and ceramic\\/polymer composite structures were fabricated by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for sensor and actuator applications. SFF techniques including: Fused Deposition of Ceramics (FDC) and Sanders Prototyping (SP) were utilized to fabricate a variety of complex structures directly from a computer aided design (CAD) file. Many novel and complex composite structures including volume fraction gradients (VFG), staggered

A. Safari; S. C. Danforth

1998-01-01

65

Three-dimension finite element analysis on coupling effect of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs under the concentrated load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric ceramic has been one of structures extensively applied. Due to the complexity in its boundary condition and its stress state, the relevant researches on these carried out in traditional experimental ways have shown inefficiency and limitations. In view of this, the paper studies the piezoelectric ceramic's boundary condition and its stress state by setting up the three dimension finite models of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs. The computer simulations are conducted. In the simulation, varied concentrated loads are applied and different buried depths of piezoelectric ceramics are considered. The block elements are adopted to simulate the concrete slabs, while the plane elements are used for the piezoelectric ceramics. Firstly, the stress distribution of the concrete slabs and that of the piezoelectric ceramics in slabs are derived from the computer nonlinear solver. Then piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric ceramics in the stress field are simulated. And the equivalent circuit parameters of the piezoelectric ceramics under the varied concentrated loads are obtained. The results of the analysis show that three dimension finite element analysis is a convenient and reliable tool for studies on the coupling effect of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs. The study offers references for the further three dimension finite element analysis on concrete structure stress monitoring with the use of piezoelectric ceramics in concrete slabs.

Qu, Chen

2009-07-01

66

Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

2011-10-01

67

Conformable amplified lead zirconate titanate sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to measure subtle changes in arterial pressure using devices mounted on the skin can be valuable for monitoring vital signs in emergency care, detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and continuously assessing health status. Conventional technologies are well suited for use in traditional clinical settings, but cannot be easily adapted for sustained use during daily activities. Here we introduce a conformal device that avoids these limitations. Ultrathin inorganic piezoelectric and semiconductor materials on elastomer substrates enable amplified, low hysteresis measurements of pressure on the skin, with high levels of sensitivity (~0.005?Pa) and fast response times (~0.1?ms). Experimental and theoretical studies reveal enhanced piezoelectric responses in lead zirconate titanate that follow from integration on soft supports as well as engineering behaviours of the associated devices. Calibrated measurements of pressure variations of blood flow in near-surface arteries demonstrate capabilities for measuring radial artery augmentation index and pulse pressure velocity.

Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Joe, Pauline; Yona, Raissa; Liu, Yuhao; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yongan; Damadoran, Anoop R.; Xia, Jing; Martin, Lane W.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

2014-08-01

68

Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

Bryant, Robert G.

2007-01-01

69

Structure and properties of sodium bismuth titanate ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric materials are commonly used in sensor and actuator technologies due to their unique ability to couple electrical and mechanical displacements. Applications of piezoelectric materials range from diesel engine fuel injectors, sonar, ultrasound, and nanopositioners in scanning microscopes. Changing environmental regulations and policies have led to a recent surge in the research of lead-free piezoelectric materials. One such system currently under investigation is sodium bismuth titanate (Na0.5Bi0.5 TiO3) or NBT. It has recently been investigated with the addition of chemical modifiers as well as part of various solid solutions with other compounds. However, research into the structure and properties of NBT is still in its infancy. The aim of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the crystal structure and property relationships in NBT. First, the formation of the NBT phase during solid state processing was examined using in situ X-ray diffraction. It was determined that NBT forms through a particle conversion mechanism of the Bi2O 3 particle. The average and local room temperature structure of calcined and sintered NBT were examined using both high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction techniques. It was determined that the room temperature average structure of this material is best modeled using the monoclinic Cc space group rather than the previously accepted rhombohedral R3c space group. A combined high resolution XRD and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement provided refined lattice parameters, atomic positions, and displacement parameters. The departure of the local structure of NBT from the average structure was examined through the Pair Distribution Function analysis. It was determined that Na+ and Bi3+, which share the A-site, have differing bonding environments with their surrounding O2- ions. In order to understand the origin of the piezoelectric depolarization behavior of NBT, crystal structure refinements were undertaken at elevated temperatures. It was determined that a fraction of the material is present in short range regions and could not be described using the average Cc structure. It was therefore modeled using the prototype cubic phase of the Pm3¯m space group. It was proposed that thermal depoling in NBT occurs due to the loss of long-range ferroelectric order along with a decreasing volume fraction of the major Cc phase and the associated percolation of a nanoscale disordered phase. Finally, effect of a donor ( La•A , where A denotes the A-site) and an acceptor ( Fe/B , where B denotes the B-site) chemical modification on the temperature dependent structure and properties was explored. It was shown that La substitution decreased the depolarization temperature with an associated higher fraction of the Pm3¯m phase, while Fe modification led to an increase in the depolarization temperature and a decrease in the fraction of the Pm3¯m phase. The correlation between the changes in depolarization temperature and the Pm3¯ m phase fraction supports the hypothesis that the local scale disordered portion of the material influences the depolarization of NBT.

Aksel, Elena

70

Problem of Piezoelectric Sensitivity of 1–3Type Composites Based on Ferroelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new anisotropic 1–3-type composite with high piezoelectric sensitivity is put forward, and trends in increasing the effective parameters characterising piezoelectric sensitivity are analysed. Effective piezoelectric coefficients and , squared figure of merit and related hydrostatic parameters , and are studied within the framework of the proposed model of the ferroelectric ceramic\\/porous polymer composite with 1–3–0 connectivity. Effects of porosity,

Vitaly Yu. Topolov; Anatoly E. Panich

2009-01-01

71

On saturation-strip model of a permeable crack in a piezoelectric ceramic  

E-print Network

and Sun [12] show that there is a decrease in the critical stress of a cracked piezoelectric body. This contribution elucidates how an applied electric field affects crack growth in piezoelectric ceramic through its if the electric field is applied along the direction of poling axis, and there is an increase in critical stress

Li, Shaofan

72

Densification, crystallization, and electrical properties of lead zirconate titanate glass-ceramics.  

PubMed

Piezoelectric glass-ceramics in the lead zirconate titanato-lead silicate system were developed. SiO(2) was required for glass formability, and excess PbO allowed low temperature processing. The amounts of those constituents were limited by the optimization of the piezoelectric properties. Only a small region of compositions in this system yielded the desired combination of glass formability, crystallization and densification behavior, and resulting piezoelectric properties. Selected compositions were melted and roller quenched to form glass ribbon, then milled into glass powder. Pressed glass powder densified to closed porosity at 850 degrees C with piezoelectric d(33 ) and g(33) coefficients of 26 pC/N and 33x10(-3 ) Vm/N. The low temperature sintering behavior of these ferroelectric glass-ceramics provides the possibility of incorporating a piezoelectric material as a sensor or actuator in thick film circuits or low-fire multilayer packages. PMID:18238613

Houng, B; Kim, C Y; Haun, M J

2000-01-01

73

Ferroelectricity, Domain Structure, and Phase Transitions of Barium Titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summarizing account is given of the research on barium titanate in progress at the Laboratory for Insulation Research at M. I. T. since 1943. The investigations have led to an understanding of the mechanism of ferroelectricity in the titanates and to discoveries such as the piezoelectric effect in the ceramics and the domain structure of the single crystals of

A. von Hippel

1950-01-01

74

Electromechanical coupling and temperature-dependent polarization reversal in piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

Electrostriction plays a central role in describing the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric materials, including widely used piezoelectric ceramics. The piezoelectric properties are closely related to the underlying electrostriction. Small-field piezoelectric properties can be described as electrostriction offset by the remanent polarization which characterizes the ferroelectric state. Indeed, even large-field piezoelectric effects are accurately accounted for by quadratic electrostriction. However, the electromechanical properties deviate from this simple electrostrictive description at electric fields near the coercive field. This is particularly important for actuator applications, for which very high electromechanical coupling can be obtained in this region. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric ceramics at electric field strengths close to the coercive field, and the effects of temperature on electromechanical processes during polarization reversal. The roles of intrinsic ferroelectric strain coupling and extrinsic domain processes and their temperature dependence in determining the electromechanical response are discussed. PMID:21937304

Weaver, Paul M; Cain, Markys G; Correia, Tatiana M; Stewart, Mark

2011-09-01

75

Strong piezoelectricity exhibited by large-grained BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good understanding of the strong piezoelectric mechanism of BaTiO3 ceramics is very important from both scientific and technological viewpoints. This Letter reports an unusual piezoelectric phenomenon observed in a group of large-grained dense BaTiO3 ceramics with average grain sizes ranging from 5.1 to 16.3 ?m, which are prepared with a hydrothermally synthesized BaTiO3 fine powder by hot-press sintering. Among these BaTiO3 ceramics, the one possessing an average grain size of 5.6 ?m exhibits a particularly prominent piezoelectricity with piezoelectric constants d33 = 485 pC/N and d33* = 725 pm/V at room temperature and a peak d33 value of 574 pC/N around 8.5 °C. This ceramic is further investigated from the aspects of domain patterns and polarization versus electric field (P-E) loops and compared with a conventionally sintered BaTiO3 ceramic prepared using a solid-state reaction method. The investigation shows that it has the domain patterns of simple parallel stripes inside the grains and the square-like P-E loops and differs significantly from the conventionally sintered ceramic, and indicates that the observed strong piezoelectricity is strongly related to the large remanent polarization.

Zhang, J. L.; Ji, P. F.; Wu, Y. Q.; Zhao, X.; Tan, Y. Q.; Wang, C. L.

2014-06-01

76

Engineering of piezoelectric properties in ferroelectric ceramics and thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses different possibilities for controlling piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric materials and devices. The piezoelectric properties engineering can be made on different scales. Tuning of the piezoelectric response by controlling con- tributions from domain walls displacement is used to illustrate engineering on nanometer scale. Texture control in ferroelec- tric films and grain size control is discussed as an example

D. DAMJANOVIC; F. CHU; D. V. TAYLOR; M. DEMARTIN MAEDER; L. SAGALOWICZ; P. DURAN MARTIN; N. SETTER

77

Piezoelectric and Dielectric Performance of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electric Cyclic Fatigue  

SciTech Connect

Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Their responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. Mechanical strain and charge density or polarization loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled to more than 10^8 cycles. Important quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, coercive field have been characterized accordingly under corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement condition also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications to the application of interest have been discussed.

Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Mottern, Alexander M [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

2012-01-01

78

Piezoelectric and dielectric performance of poled lead zirconate titanate subjected to electric cyclic fatigue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using a piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Its responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. The mechanical strain and charge density loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled for more than 108 cycles. The various quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, and coercive field were characterized accordingly under the corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, the offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement conditions also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications for the application of interest have been discussed.

Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M.

2012-02-01

79

Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are discussed with respect to Titan: observations of the atmosphere; laboratory simulations and theoretical models of Titan's atmosphere; endpoints of atmospheric chemistry - aerosols and oceans; exobiology; and the next steps in understanding Titan.

Owen, Tobias; Gautier, Daniel; Raulin, Francois; Scattergood, Thomas

1992-01-01

80

Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate by Fluid Flow in Intravascular Oxygenator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the enhancement in oxygen transfer rate in hollow-fiber-membrane (HFM) modules using a plumbum piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator and a piezoelectric poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor. We developed a vibrating intravascular lung assist device (VIVLAD) for patients having chronic respiratory problems and performed experiments on hydrodynamic flow through a bundle of sinusoidal vibrating hollow fibers. These modules were used to provide some insight into how wall vibrations might enhance the performance of an intravascular lung assist device. The experimental design and procedure are then applied to the fabrication of a device used to assess the effectiveness of membrane vibrations. The test section was a cylindrical duct with an inner diameter of 30 mm. The flow rate was controlled by a pump and monitored by a built-in flowmeter. The vibration apparatus was composed of a piezovibrator, a function generator, and a power amplifier. The direction of vibration was radial to the fluid flow. Gas flow rates of up to 6 L/min through 120-cm-long hollow fibers were achieved by exciting the piezovibrator. The time and frequency responses of PVDF sensors were investigated through various frequencies in VIVLAD. In these devices, the flow of blood and the source of oxygen were separated by a semipermeable membrane that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse into and out of the fluid, respectively. Results of the experiments have shown that a vibrating intravascular lung assist device performs effectively.

Kim, Gi?Beum; Hong, Chul?Un; Kwon, Tae?Kyu

2006-04-01

81

Barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate ceramics via sol-gel process: novel high-energy-density capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate, [(BaZr0.2Ti0.80)O3]1-x-[(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3]x (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) (BZT-BCT) ceramics with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and moderate electric breakdown field were prepared by the sol-gel synthesis technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed tetragonal crystal structure and this was further confirmed by Raman spectra. Well-behaved ferroelectric hysteresis loops and moderate polarizations (spontaneous polarization, Ps ~ 3-6 µC cm-2) were obtained in these BZT-BCT ceramics. Frequency-dependent dielectric spectra confirmed that ferroelectric diffuse phase transition (DPT) exists near room temperature. Scanning electron microscope images revealed monolithic grain growth in samples sintered at 1280 °C. 1000/? versus (T) plots revealed ferroelectric DPT behaviour with estimated ? values of ~1.52, 1.51 and 1.88, respectively, for the studied BZT-BCT compositions. All three compositions showed packing-limited breakdown fields of ~47-73 kV cm-1 with an energy density of 0.05-0.6 J cm-3 for thick ceramics (>1 mm). Therefore these compositions might be useful in Y5V-type capacitor applications.

Sreenivas Puli, Venkata; Kumar, Ashok; Chrisey, Douglas B.; Tomozawa, M.; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

2011-10-01

82

EXAFS and XANES analysis of plutonium and cerium edges from titanate ceramics for fissile materials disposal.  

SciTech Connect

We report x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra from the plutonium L{sub III} edge and XANES from the cerium L{sub II} edge in prototype titanate ceramic hosts. The titanate ceramics studied are based upon the hafnium-pyrochlore and zirconolite mineral structures and will serve as an immobilization host for surplus fissile materials, containing as much as 10 weight % fissile plutonium and 20 weight % (natural or depleted) uranium. Three ceramic formulations were studied: one employed cerium as a ''surrogate'' element, replacing both plutonium and uranium in the ceramic matrix, another formulation contained plutonium in a ''baseline'' ceramic formulation, and a third contained plutonium in a formulation representing a high-impurity plutonium stream. The cerium XANES from the surrogate ceramic clearly indicates a mixed III-IV oxidation state for the cerium. In contrast, XANES analysis of the two plutonium-bearing ceramics shows that the plutonium is present almost entirely as Pu(IV) and occupies the calcium site in the zirconolite and pyrochlore phases. The plutonium EXAFS real-space structure shows a strong second-shell peak, clearly distinct from that of PuO{sub 2}, with remarkably little difference in the plutonium crystal chemistry indicated between the baseline and high-impurity formulations.

Fortner, J. A.; Kropf, A. J.; Bakel, A. J.; Hash, M. C.; Aase, S. B.; Buck, E. C.; Chamerlain, D. B.

1999-11-16

83

Simulation and calculation of the piezoelectric modulus of a lead zirconate-titanate thin film in a test microstructure  

SciTech Connect

Results of simulation of stresses in the test structure of a silicon beam and analytical calculation of piezoelectric modulus d{sub 31} of a lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film arranged in the region of an elastic element are presented. The characteristics of the sensitive element of acceleration are calculated based on a PZT thin film with an inertial mass made of silicon.

Amelichev, V. V., E-mail: V.Amelichev@tcen.ru [Moscow State Institute of Electronic Engineering, NPK Technological Center (Russian Federation); Saikin, D. A.; Roshchin, V. M.; Silibin, M. V. [Moscow State Institute of Electronic Engineering (Technical University) (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

84

Dielectric relaxation behavior in barium stannate titanate ferroelectric ceramics with diffused phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity was investigated for two ferroelectric ceramic compositions in a barium stannate titanate solid solution system. The dielectric relaxation behavior was observed in these ferroelectrics with diffused phase transition. In view of the polar nanoregion, the relationship between relaxor ferroelectric and ferroelectrics with a diffused phase transition was explored. The results suggest that, in barium stannate titanate, the relaxor ferroelectric dielectric behavior is universal in the diffused phase transition region, but it only appears when the experimental frequency is close to the relaxation frequency of polar nanoregion at that temperature.

Xiaoyong, Wei; Yujun, Feng; Xi, Yao

2003-09-01

85

Adaptive CMAC model reference control system for linear piezoelectric ceramic motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present a design method for a model reference control structure using a cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC). Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM) are highly nonlinear and time-varying. An adaptive CMAC model reference control system is proposed to control the position of the moving table of the LPCM

Ya-Fu Peng; Rong-Jong Wain; Chih-Min Lin

2003-01-01

86

Piezoelectric cement-based materials with large coupling and voltage coefficients  

E-print Network

of the polarization. Conventional piezoelectric materials are the perovskite ceramics (e.g., titanates, zirco- natesPiezoelectric cement-based materials with large coupling and voltage coefficients Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Chung, Deborah D.L.

87

Large Effective-Strain Piezoelectric Actuators Using Nested Cellular Architecture With Exponential Strain Amplification Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and analysis of piezoelectric actuators having over 20% effective strain using an exponential strain amplification mechanism are presented in this paper. Piezoelectric ceramic material, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), has large stress and bandwidth, but its extremely small strain, i.e., only 0.1%, has been a major bottleneck for broad applications. This paper presents a new strain amplification design,

Jun Ueda; Thomas W. Secord; H. Harry Asada

2010-01-01

88

Application of a Classical Lamination Theory Model to the Design of Piezoelectric Composite Unimorph Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the design, development, and characterization of unimorphtype laminated piezoelectric actuators. The actuators consist of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer sandwiched between unidirectional Kevlar 49 and epoxy composite layers. Differential thermal expansion during processing places the ceramic plate in a state of residual compression and results in a curved actuator. Modified classical lamination theory (MCLT) (modified

Kyle G. Webber; David P. Hopkinson; Christopher S. Lynch

2006-01-01

89

Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba1-xSm2x/3Zr0.05Ti0.95O3 [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x?0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

Badapanda, T.; Sarangi, S.; Behera, B.; Anwar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

2014-04-01

90

Lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate based antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase switching multilayer ceramic actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate (PLZST) based antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase switching multilayer ceramic actuators were prepared by the tape casting method. The ceramic powders used were synthesized by a two-step wet chemical method using colloidal processing with a composition of Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.65Sn0.25Ti0.10)O3. The actuators sintered at 1100°C with Pd\\/Ag internal electrode and consisted of 20 active layer of 40?m thick.

Chen Ming; Yao Xi; Zhang Liangying

2001-01-01

91

Field forced antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric switching in modified lead zirconate titanate stannate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Electric-field-forced antiferroelectric- to-ferroelectric phase transitions in several compositions of modified lead zirconate titanate stannate antiferroelectric ceramics are studied for ultra-high-field-induced strain actuator applications. Two types of fatigue effects are observed in these ceramic compositions. In one, the fatigue effects only proceed to a limited extent and the properties may be restored by annealing above the Curie temperature, while in the other, the fatigue effects proceed to a large extent and the properties cannot be restored completely by heat treatment.

Pan, W.; Zhang, Q.; Bhalla, A.; Cross, L.E. (Materials Research Lab., Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (US))

1989-04-01

92

Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic  

SciTech Connect

Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba{sub 1?x}Sm{sub 2x/3}Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x?0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

Badapanda, T., E-mail: badapanda.tanmaya@gmail.com [Department of Physics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-752054 (India); Sarangi, S.; Behera, B. [School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar Sambalpur, Odisha-768019 (India); Anwar, S. [Colloids and Materials Chemistry, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-751013 (India); Sinha, T. P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata-700009 (India)

2014-04-24

93

Relaxor freezing and electric-field induced ferroelectric transition in a lanthanum lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transition lines between various phases in the electric-field temperature phase diagram of 9\\/65\\/35 lanthanum lead zirconate titanate ceramics were determined by measurements of the temperature and electric-field dependent dielectric constant. Above the critical field (EC) the dc bias electric field induces a transition from the relaxor to the ferroelectric phase, while below EC the system exhibits a freezing transition between

V. Bobnar; Z. Kutnjak; R. Pirc; A. Levstik

1999-01-01

94

Fabrication of transparent lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics from fine powders by two-stage sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that transparent lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics were fabricated from fine powders using an inexpensive two-stage sintering technique. The powders were prepared by hydrolysis from low-cost inorganic precursors. In the two-stage sintering method, uniaxially pressed green pelets were densified to nearly theoretical values in an oxygen gas atmosphere during the first-stage sintering, at 1000[degrees]C for 1

Yoshio Yoshikawa; Kaoru Tsuzuki

1992-01-01

95

Enhanced piezoelectric performance of composite sol-gel thick films evaluated using piezoresponse force microscopy  

PubMed Central

Conventional composite sol-gel method has been modified to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ceramic thick films. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN-PT) thick films were fabricated using the modified sol-gel method for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this work, piezoresponse force microscopy was employed to evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics of PZT and PMN-PT composite sol-gel thick films. The images of the piezoelectric response and the strain-electric field hysteresis loop behavior were measured. The effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33,eff) of the films was determined from the measured loop data. It was found that the effective local piezoelectric coefficient of both PZT and PMN-PT composite films is comparable to that of their bulk ceramics. The promising results suggest that the modified composite sol-gel method is a promising way to prepare the high-quality, crack-free ceramic thick films. PMID:23798771

Liu, Yuanming; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kirk Shung, K.; Li, Jiangyu; Zhou, Qifa

2013-01-01

96

Characterization of Lead-Free B2O3 Doped Barium Stannate Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free barium stannate titanate ceramics doped with 2 wt% of B2O3 were prepared via a solid state sintering. The optimum condition for the preparation was carried out. Properties of the lead free material were characterized by various methods. The high dielectric constant >14000 with low tan ? 0.040 was observed at 34° C for the samples prepared at the optimum condition. Plots of dielectric permittivity as a function of temperature showed that the ceramics exhibit a diffuse ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. The dielectric constant was also measured as a function of electric field. The dielectric-electric field measurement indicated that this material exhibits a high tunability. In addition, mechanical property such as hardness was investigated. Relation between grain size and hardness of the ceramics was found to obey the Hall-Petch equation: Hv = 0.07+12.9G-1/2.

Tawichai, N.; Pengpat, K.; Rujijanagul, G.

2009-07-01

97

Properties of PZT-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics Between -150 and 250 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of three PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and one PLZT electrostrictive ceramic were measured as a function of temperature. In this work, the dielectric, ferroelectric polarization versus electric field, and piezoelectric properties of PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PLZT-9/65/35 were measured over a temperature range of -150 to 250 C. In addition to these measurements, the relative thermal expansion of each composition was measured from 25 to 600 C and the modulus of rupture of each material was measured at room temperature. This report describes the experimental results and compares and contrasts the properties of these materials with respect to their applicability to intelligent aerospace systems.

Hooker, Matthew W.

1998-01-01

98

High temperature properties of BiScO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart actuators and intelligent structures are sought after for aeronautical applications. As a result of high Curie temperature (430 °C) and piezoelectric coefficient (>200 pC/N), BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BS-PT) ceramics are prospective materials for high temperature actuators. This paper reports on the temperature dependent electrical, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of liquid phase sintered BS-PT ceramics. Compared to solid state sintered BS-PT, liquid phase sintered BS-PT with Bi2O3 showed improved electrical performance: (1) threefold reduction in loss tangent at elevated temperatures, (2) fivefold increase in dc resistivity at high electrical fields, and (3) 15% increase in high field piezoelectric coefficient. Hysteresis loops of the highly resistive ceramics were saturated and showed no major dependence on the magnitude and the frequency of the applied field. BS-PT ceramics exhibit depoling behavior at temperatures below (>350 °C) the Curie temperature (430 °C). Liquid phase sintering using excess Bi2O3 is shown to be a promising approach to produce superior BS-PT ceramics for high temperature actuators.

Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Fred

2009-07-01

99

High temperature piezoelectric drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460°C), high pressure (~9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000°C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600°C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500°C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500°C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

2009-03-01

100

Optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules for vibration suppression of highly constrained structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibration suppression efficiency of so-called shunted piezoelectric systems is decisively influenced by the number, shape, dimensions and position of the piezoelectric ceramic elements integrated into the structure. This paper presents a procedure based on evolutionary algorithms for optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules on highly constrained lightweight structures. The optimization loop includes the CAD software CATIA V5, the FE package ANSYS and DynOPS, a proprietary software tool able to connect the Evolving Object library with any simulation software that can be started in batch mode. A user-defined piezoelectric shell element is integrated into ANSYS 9.0. The generalized electromechanical coupling coefficient is used as the optimization objective. Position, dimensions, orientation, embedding location in the composite lay-up and wiring of customized patches are determined for optimum vibration suppression under consideration of operational and manufacturing constraints, such as added mass, maximum strain and requirements on the control circuit. A rear wing of a racing car is investigated as the test object for complex, highly constrained geometries.

Belloli, Alberto; Ermanni, Paolo

2007-10-01

101

Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of lanthanum-modified PZTFN ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specimens of Pb1-1.5 x La x (Zr0.53Ti0.47)1- y- z Fe y Nb z O3 ( x = 0, 0.004, 0.008, 0.012, and 0.016, y = z = 0.01) (PZTFN) ceramics were synthesized by a semi-wet route. In the present study, the effect of La doping was investigated on the structural, microstructural, dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics. The results show that, the tetragonal (space group P4 mm) and rhombohedral (space group R3 c) phases are observed to coexist in the sample at x = 0.012. Microstructural investigations of all the samples reveal that La doping inhibits grain growth. Doping of La into PZTFN improves the dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. The hysteresis loops of all specimens exhibit nonlinear behavior. The dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties show a maximum response at x ? 0.012, which corresponds to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB).

Kumar, Arvind; Mishra, S. K.

2014-10-01

102

Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

2014-12-01

103

Theoretical study on the static performance of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 1-3 connectivity  

E-print Network

Theoretical study on the static performance of piezoelectric ceramic- polymer composites with 1 1992) Inhomogeneous displacement profiles have been derived for a single-rod composite and a single-tube l-3 ceramic-polymer composite under both uniaxial and hydrostatic stress. The effective

Cao, Wenwu

104

Sintering kinetic studies in nonstoichiometric strontium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nonstoichiometry on the densification of SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics with Sr/Ti ratios from 0.997 to 1.02 was systematically addressed. The kinetics of densification was studied by dilatometric analysis. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for crystallographic and microstructure characterization. Ti excess enhanced matter transport during sintering whereas Sr excess decreased it. The shrinkage rate and average grain size increased with the decrease of Sr/Ti ratio. Close values of the activation energy for the initial densification and the near constant onset temperature for densification suggest that identical transport mechanisms control the densification of all the compositions. Small excesses of TiO{sub 2} and SrO were mostly incorporated into the perovskite lattice inducing alterations in the defect chemistry of the material and the mass transport during sintering is controlled by Sr vacancies. Very small stoichiometric variations have a strong influence on the sintering kinetics and resulting microstructure of ST ceramics.

Amaral, Luis [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Senos, Ana M.R. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: anamor@ua.pt; Vilarinho, Paula M. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2009-02-04

105

Structural contribution to the ferroelectric fatigue in lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ferroelectric devices are based on doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), at which the relevant material's properties approach their maximum. Based on a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of MPB PZT, bulk fatigue is unambiguously found to arise from a less effective field induced tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation, at which the degradation of the polarization flipping is detected by a less intense and more diffuse anomaly in the atomic displacement parameter of lead. The time dependence of the ferroelectric response on a structural level down to 250 ?s confirms this interpretation in the time scale of the piezolectric strain response.

Hinterstein, M.; Rouquette, J.; Haines, J.; Papet, Ph.; Glaum, J.; Knapp, M.; Eckert, J.; Hoffman, M.

2014-09-01

106

Study of the structure of ferroelectric domain walls in barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Structure of 90{degree} ferroelectric domain boundaries in barium titanate ceramics has been studied by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy and High Resolution TEM. Tilts of specific fringes across domain walls are measured on HREM images and Selected Area Diffraction Patterns. They are in a good agreement with the twin model admitted for these domain boundaries. A computerized method has been developed to give access to quantitative information about atomic displacements across these ferroelectric domain walls. The so calculated displacement field is then compared with Landau-Ginzburg based theoretical predictions.

Normand, L.; Thorel, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Evry cedex (France) ; Kilaas, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Montardi, Y. [Rhone-Poulenc, CRA, Aubervilliers (France)

1995-02-01

107

Structures of 90{degrees} domain walls in ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Ferroelectric domain walls in tetragonal ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics are studied by means of electron microscopy. SEM and TEM observations are consistent with domain configuration already proposed. Conventional TEM measurements on SADP agree very well with twin-related model currently admitted for ferroelectric domains. In spite of the very small lattice parameter variation during cooling (involving a small spontaneous strain) of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics, displacements of specific features associated with atomic column positions are measured across domain walls on high resolution images. Using a dedicated image analysis software, these displacements are calculated with a high precision. 2D vector-maps of the atomic displacements show different kinds of atomistic structure for different domain walls.

Normand, L.; Thorel, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Evry (France); Kilaas, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-03-01

108

Investigation of high Curie temperature (1-x)BiSc{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the (1-x)BiSc{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} solid solution were fabricated. For y=0.5, ceramics were single phase, and piezoelectric coefficients (d{sub 33}) and electromechanical coupling coefficients (k{sub p}) for MPB compositions were 300 pC/N and 0.49, respectively; a level of piezoelectric activity similar to that of hard, lead zirconate titanate compositions but with T{sub C}approx60 deg. C higher at approx440 deg. C. For ceramics with y>=0.7, dielectric measurements in combination with diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of two ferroelectric phases for most PbTiO{sub 3} contents studied. The presence of two ferroelectric phases was associated with a decrease in piezoelectric activity and although raw materials costs for y=0.7 and 0.8 with respect to y=0 were significantly lower (less Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and T{sub C} greater (approx500 deg. C), d{sub 33} (approx100 pC/N) and k{sub p} (0.18) were too low to be commercially useful for actuator applications.

Sterianou, I.; Sinclair, D. C.; Reaney, I. M. [Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P.; Bell, A. J. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

109

X-ray diffraction study of crystalline barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

In this study, BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics have been prepared via solid-state reaction method. The powders were calcined for 2 hours at different temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1200°C. Using X-ray diffraction with a Rietveld analysis, the phase formation and crystal structure of the BaTiO{sub 3} powders were studied. Change in crystallite size and tetragonality as a function of calcination temperature were also discussed. It has been found that the formation of pure perovskite phase of BaTiO{sub 3} began at calcination condition of 1000 °C for 2 hours. The crystal structure of BaTiO{sub 3} formed is in the tetragonal structure. The second phases of BaCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} existed with calcination temperature below 1000 °C. Purity, crystallite size and tetragonality of BaTiO{sub 3} powders were found to increase with increasing calcination temperature.

Zali, Nurazila Mat; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohamad, Siti Mariam; Foo, Choo Thye; Murshidi, Julie Adrianny [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-02-12

110

Electric and elastic behaviors of a piezoelectric ceramic with a charged surface electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies on electric and elastic behaviors induced by internal or surface electrodes in a piezoelectric ceramic are mainly concentrated on a two-dimensional analysis. However, most sensors and actuators are related to a three-dimensional piezoelectric body with electrodes. This paper is concerned with the electroelastic analysis of a penny-shaped thin electrode coating on the surface of a hexagonal piezoelectric half-space. The Hankel transform technique is employed to reduce the mixed boundary value problem to an Abel integral equation. Solving the resulting equation analytically, a solution is obtained in a closed form. Explicit expressions for the complete electric and elastic behaviors in any position in the entire piezoelectric half-space are determined in terms of elementary functions. The results indicate that the vertical surface displacement reaches a maximum at the entire electrode region, while the radial surface displacement reaches a peak only at the electrode edge. Moreover, in addition to electric displacement and electric field, elastic stresses exhibit singular behavior near the electrode edge.

Li, Xian-Fang; Lee, Kang Yong

2004-04-01

111

Alteration of cold crucible melter titanate-based ceramics: Comparison with hot-pressed titanate-based ceramic  

SciTech Connect

Synroc ceramics were synthesized in an induction-heated cold crucible at laboratory scale (1 kg) from an oxide mixture, and at industrial prototype scale (45 kg) from Synroc previously produced by sintering under load at high temperature. After melting, both materials contained the major phases of Synroc-C. The chemical durability of both melted materials, as determined by static leaching of powder samples in initially pure water at 90 C with an SA/V ratio of 20,000 m{sup {minus}1}, was equivalent to that of conventional hot-pressed Synroc-C. Cerium, used in this investigation to simulate the presence of tri- and tetravalent actinides, was found in steady-state concentrations on the order of 1 ppb (i.e., NL(Ce) {le} 10{sup {minus}6} g{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}). The concentration in the leachates was independent of the initial CeO{sub 2} content of the Synroc (at least up to 10 wt%); moreover, it is similar to the results obtained with hot-pressed Synroc-C specifically formulated for conditioning long-lived actinides.

Advocat, T.; Leturcq, G.; Lacombe, J.; Vernaz, E.; Bonnetier, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Service de Confinement des Dechets; Berger, G. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Day, R.A.; Hart, K. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales (Australia)

1997-12-31

112

Temperature Stability of V2O5-Doped KNN-LS-BF Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

V2O5-doped Na0.5K0.5NbO3-LiSbO3-BiFeO3 (KNN-LS-BF) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the traditional sintering method, and their temperature stability was studied. Characterization of the temperature dependences of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the V2O5-doped KNN-LS-BF ceramics showed that V2O5 doping could significantly improve the temperature stability in the temperature range of 30°C to 420°C and cause a downward shift in the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition to below room temperature. It was also found that the V2O5-doped KNN-LS-BF ceramics possess good dielectric and piezoelectric properties ( ? r > 1066, tan ? < 4%, d 33 > 185 pC/N, k p > 0.25) in the temperature range of 30°C to 300°C.

Wang, Hua; Zhai, Xia; Xu, Ji-Wen; Yuan, Chang-Lai; Yang, Ling

2013-08-01

113

Piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) modulates axonal guidance growth of rat cortical neurons via RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 pathways.  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation is critical for axonal connection, which can stimulate axonal migration and deformation to promote axonal growth in the nervous system. Netrin-1, an axonal guidance cue, can also promote axonal guidance growth, but the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under indirect electric stimulation is still unknown. We investigated the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stimulation in the primary cultured cortical neurons. PZT induced marked axonal elongation. Moreover, PZT activated the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by increasing the frequency and amplitude of EPSCs of the cortical neurons in patch clamp assay. PZT downregulated the expression of Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC). Rho GTPase signaling is involved in interactions of Netrin-1 and DCC. PZT activated RhoA. Dramatic decrease of Cdc42 and Rac1 was also observed after PZT treatment. RhoA inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3-Exo) prevented the PZT-induced downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC. We suggest that PZT can promote axonal guidance growth by downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC to mediate axonal repulsive responses via the Rho GTPase signaling pathway. Obviously, piezoelectric materials may provide a new approach for axonal recovery and be beneficial for clinical therapy in the future. PMID:24203571

Wen, Jianqiang; Liu, Meili

2014-03-01

114

Study of the characteristics of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate radiation detector using a pulsed xenon source  

SciTech Connect

The detector characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were studied by directly irradiating a multilayered PZT detector with 400 MeV/n xenon ions. An extracted beam was processed with a rotating slit. Thus, passed through {approx}10{sup 3} xenon ions were available for 50 to 250 {mu}s. The effect of polarization on the output signal was discussed, and the optimal electrode configuration was determined. The output signal appeared as an isolated pulse whose amplitude was qualitatively understood by the Bethe-Bloch formula. However, the calculated and the observed values differed depending on the rotation speed of the slit. A process that can explain the differences is presented here. The output signal appearing beyond the range of 400 MeV/n xenon ion beam was discussed. The sensitivity was compared with that obtained with hypervelocity collision of dust.

Miyachi, Takashi [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Okudaira, Osamu [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takechi, Seiji; Kurozumi, Atsuma; Morinaga, Shinya; Uno, Takefumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka-City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto-University, Kyoto-606-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masanori [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co. Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan)

2010-05-15

115

Preparation and characterization of Grain-Oriented Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Electrophoresis Deposition Method under A High Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium titanate (BaTiO3) grain-oriented ceramics were prepared using electrophoresis deposition (EPD) method under high magnetic field of 12 T. First, BaTiO3 nanoparticles with high c/a ratio of 1.008 and size of 84 nm were prepared by two-step thermal decomposition method with barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. Using the BaTiO3 slurry, BaTiO3 nanoparticle accumulations were prepared by EPD method under high magnetic field. After binder burnout, the accumulations were sintered and BaTiO3 grain-oriented ceramics were prepared. Moreover, dielectric properties of their ceramics were investigated

Kita, T.; Kondo, S.; Takei, T.; Kumada, N.; Nakashima, K.; Fujii, I.; Wada, S.; Suzuki, T. S.; Uchikoshi, T.; Sakka, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kawada, S.; Kimura, M.

2011-10-01

116

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-BaNb2O6 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1 - x)Bi0.5K0.5TiO3- xBaNb2O6 [(1 - x)KBT- xBN] with x ranging from 0 to 0.03 have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of BaNb2O6 addition on the crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 ceramic were investigated. In the studied composition range, the x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that single perovskite phase formed in specimens with x < 0.03 and a trace secondary phase could be detected for x = 0.03. A morphotropic phase boundary separating rhombohedral and tetragonal phases was identified in the range of x = 0.01 to 0.02, where the optimum dielectric and piezoelectric properties were achieved with values of dielectric constant ? = 2960, piezoelectric constant d 33 = 96 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factor k p = 17.8%, and mechanical quality factor Q m = 150. Dielectric study revealed that all samples showed diffuse phase-transition characteristics. Furthermore, polarization-electric field ( P- E) hysteresis loops were of slim-loop type with small remanent polarization values for all compositions. The related physical mechanisms for the enhancement of dielectric and piezoelectric properties are discussed. The results demonstrate a tremendous potential of the studied system for use as lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Pu, Yongping; Gao, Pan; Wu, Ting; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Zijing

2015-01-01

117

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-BaNb2O6 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1 - x)Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-xBaNb2O6 [(1 - x)KBT-xBN] with x ranging from 0 to 0.03 have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of BaNb2O6 addition on the crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 ceramic were investigated. In the studied composition range, the x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that single perovskite phase formed in specimens with x < 0.03 and a trace secondary phase could be detected for x = 0.03. A morphotropic phase boundary separating rhombohedral and tetragonal phases was identified in the range of x = 0.01 to 0.02, where the optimum dielectric and piezoelectric properties were achieved with values of dielectric constant ? = 2960, piezoelectric constant d 33 = 96 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factor k p = 17.8%, and mechanical quality factor Q m = 150. Dielectric study revealed that all samples showed diffuse phase-transition characteristics. Furthermore, polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops were of slim-loop type with small remanent polarization values for all compositions. The related physical mechanisms for the enhancement of dielectric and piezoelectric properties are discussed. The results demonstrate a tremendous potential of the studied system for use as lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Pu, Yongping; Gao, Pan; Wu, Ting; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Zijing

2014-12-01

118

Roles of Li and Ta in Pb-free piezoelectric (Na,K)NbO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of (Na,K)NbO3 (NKN) is enhanced not only at its morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition but also enhanced at its polymorphic phase transition (PPT) temperature between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (TO-T). Thus, for NKN-based ceramics, even higher d33 could be obtained if both MPB and PPT are simultaneously optimized. This temperature as well as composition dependence of piezoelectric properties of NKN-based ceramics requires a systematic approach that differentiates factors for MPB and PPT. In this paper, the roles of Li and Ta known to affect d33 and TO-T were identified in relation with lattice parameters.

Sung, Y. S.

2014-10-01

119

Piezoelectric performances of undoped ( K , Na ) NbO3 ceramics and crystals for transducers applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to take control on the grain size and densification of undoped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN), from micrometer to millimeter grain sizes. For this purpose, ceramics are prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventional sintering. Their piezoelectric properties are comparatively studied. After full structural and microstructural characterizations, high electromechanical properties (kt = 45 %, kp = 30 %, Z = 20 MRay) for conventional sintering and (kt = 45 %, kp = 48 %, Z = 30 MRay) for SPS sintering are obtained. Otherwise, millimeter grains are produced by the floating zone method used for crystal growth, and their electromechanical properties are determined and compared to their homologous ceramics. Moreover, using the characteristics of the three materials, simulated electroacoustic responses of single-element transducers are compared. The results show that KNN is suitable for transducer applications.

Bah, Micka; Giovannelli, Fabien; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Retoux, Richard; Feuillard, Guy; Le Clézio, Emmanuel; Monot-Laffez, Isabelle

2014-11-01

120

A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (< 10(exp 4) pC/N). For instance, more than 80% of PEHT related papers are on transverse "31" mode cantilever beam type PEHTs (CBPEHTs) having piezoelectric coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting for the PZT-Stack is established. The modeled results matched well with experimental measurements. This study demonstrated that high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures enable PEHTs to harvest more electrical energy from mechanical vibrations or motions, suggesting an effective design for high-performance low-footprint PEHTs with potential applications in military, aerospace, and portable electronics. In addition, this study provides a route for using piezoelectric multilayer stacks for active or semi-active adaptive control to damp, harvest or transform unwanted dynamic vibrations into useful electrical energy.

Xu, Tian-Bing; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Tang, Xiudong; Jiang, Xiaoning

2011-01-01

121

Electric field induced phase transition of antiferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The electric field induced phase transition behavior of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate (PLZTS) ceramics was investigated. PLZTS undergoes a tetragonal antiferroelectric (AFE{sub Tet}) to rhombohedral ferroelectric (FE{sub Rh}) phase transition with the application of an electric field. The volume increase associated with this antiferroelectric (AFE){endash}ferroelectric (FE) phase transition plays an important role with respect to actuator applications. This volume increase involves an increase in both transverse and longitudinal strains. The E field at which the transverse strain increases is accompanied by an abrupt jump in polarization. The longitudinal strain, however, lags behind this polarization jump exhibiting a slight decrease at the onset of phase switching. This decoupling was related to the preferentially oriented AFE domain configuration, with its tetragonal c-axis perpendicular to the applied electric field. It is suggested that phase switching involves multiple steps involving both structural transformation and domain reorientation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Park, S.; Pan, M.; Markowski, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Cross, L.E. [Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

1997-08-01

122

Blocking effect of crystal–glass interface in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: The blocking effect of the crystal–glass interface on the carrier transport behavior in the lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics: preparation and characterization. - Highlights: • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition promotes the crystallization of the major crystalline phase. • The Z? and M? peaks exist a significant mismatch for 0.5 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • The Z? and M? peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • Crystallite impedance decreases while crystal–glass interface impedance increases. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface. - Abstract: The microstructures and dielectric properties in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. SEM analysis indicated that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive decreases the average crystallite size. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the positions of Z? and M? peaks are close for undoped samples. When La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration is 0.5 mol%, the Z? and M? peaks show a significant mismatch. Furthermore, these peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. With increasing La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, the contribution of the crystallite impedance becomes smaller, while the contribution of the crystal–glass interface impedance becomes larger. More interestingly, it was found that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface in the temperature range of 250–450 °C. This may be attributed to a decrease of activation energy of the crystallite and an increase of the crystal–glass interface area.

Wang, Xiangrong [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Baturin, Ivan [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Science, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-10-15

123

Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This narrow-angle camera image of Titan was taken through the Clear filter from a distance of 0.9 million km on 25 August 1981. With a phase angle of 155 degrees, the thick atmosphere can be seen illuminated completely around the disk. A distinct upper haze layer is present over much of the circumference of the disk. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

2000-01-01

124

Miniature pressure sensor and micromachined actuator structure based on low-temperature-cofired ceramics and piezoelectric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method to fabricate pressure sensors using low-temperature-cofired ceramics (LTCC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric polymer is presented. The basic structure consists essentially of two LTCC substrates with an interlayer of PVDF sandwiched between them. For the top and bottom electrodes, a thin conductive film is deposited on both sides of the PVDF layer, but simultaneously PVDF layers with

P. K. Khanna; B. Hornbostel; R. Grimme; W. Schäfer; J. Dorner

2004-01-01

125

Strain engineering of piezoelectric properties of strontium titanate F. Sun H. Khassaf S. P. Alpay  

E-print Network

and ferroelectric phase transformations. The piezoelectric behavior of epitaxial STO films is described in various strain-induced ferroelectric phase fields in a temperature range from -50 to 50 °C. The calculations show in a variety of sensor and actuator applications as well as surface acoustic wave devices and thin-film bulk

Alpay, S. Pamir

126

The role of interfaces on an apparent grain size effect on the dielectric properties for ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the effect of interfaces (and thus internal surface area effects) on the value of dielectric constant (K?) calculated from capacitance and geometry data for sub-micron barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics prepared with decreasing grain size (and grain volumes). A series model is proposed to explain the decreasing values of apparent K? obtained for grain sizes below 0.5 ?m. A

M. H. Frey; Z. Xu; P. Han; D. A. Payne

1998-01-01

127

Aging effects on curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-bearing high-level nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich high-level nuclear waste showed a gradual decrease in density up to a dose of 8.5 à 10¹⁷ α decays {center dot} g⁻¹. After that, the rate of density change increased apparently because of crack formation. Optical microscopy showed cracks <0.1 mm long and <1 μm wide after a dose of 7.9

Hisayoshi Mitamura; Seiichiro Matsumoto; Y. Tamuro; Y. Togashi; K. P. Hart; E. R. Vance; T. Miyazaki; Timothy J. White

1992-01-01

128

Self-irradiation damage of a curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich high level nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the polyphase titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich simulated high-level nuclear waste doped with 0.69 wt% of ²⁴⁴Cm to accelerate long-term self-irradiation due to α decays. α autoradiography showed that α emissions were almost uniformly distributed throughout the curium-doped samples on a < 20μm scale although micropore surfaces and titanium oxide agglomerates were free of α emitting nuclides.

T. Miyazaki; T. J. White; H. Mitamura; S. Matsumoto; Kiyoshi Nukaga; Yoshihiro Togashi; Tamio Sagawa; Shingo Tashiro; Desmond M. Levins; Akira Kikuchi

1990-01-01

129

Piezoelectric properties of BiFeO{3} PbTiO{3} ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics of type (BiFeO{3})x (PbTiO{3})1 - x have been fabricated using conventional mixed oxide synthesis. The strain field (xE)/polarisation field (PE) behaviour of compositions x = 0.80, 0.70, 0.65 and 0.60 have been studied. At high field strengths, piezoelectricity can be instilled in these materials. The composition x = 0.70 is observed to be the most active of those studied, with a total strain of 0.22% and a d{33} of 160 pm V-1 using an electric field strength of 18 MV m-1. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the coercive field using the PE data in these materials. The most active composition is observed to lie outside the mixed phase region.

Comyn, T. P.; Stevenson, T.; Bell, A. J.

2005-09-01

130

Impact of critical point on piezoelectric and electrocaloric response in barium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction that the piezoelectric tensor is diverging at the critical point is verified for BaTiO3 (BTO), which is the oldest perovskite structured ferroelectric material with an extremely long and eventful research history. Here we investigate experimentally by dielectric and calorimetric measurements the existence and the position of the critical point in the electric-field-temperature (E-T) phase diagram of BTO in the vicinity of the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition. Measurements of the piezoelectric coefficient d31 as a function of the temperature and the electric field applied along the [001] direction show a critical enhancement of the piezoelectric response in the vicinity of the critical point, in agreement with recent calculations by Porta [J. Phys.: Condens. MatterJCOMEL0953-898410.1088/0953-8984/22/34/345902 22, 345902 (2010)]. The electrocaloric responsivity is found to be enhanced due to the latent heat on the paraelectric to ferroelectric transition locus below the critical point.

Novak, Nikola; Pirc, Raša; Kutnjak, Zdravko

2013-03-01

131

Enhanced ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and ferromagnetism in Nd-modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free multiferroic ceramics of 0.75Bi1-xNdxFeO3 - 0.25BaTiO3 + 1 mol. % MnO2 were prepared by a conventional ceramic technique and their structure, piezoelectricity, and multiferroicity were studied. The ceramics sintered at 890-990 °C possess a pure perovskite structure. A morphotropic phase boundary of rhombohedral and monoclinic phases is formed at x = 0.05. A small amount of Nd improves the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. The ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition becomes gradually diffusive with x increasing. After the addition of Nd, the ferromagnetism of the ceramics is greatly enhanced by ˜320%. The increase in sintering temperature improves significantly the ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and ferromagnetic properties of the ceramics. The ceramics with x = 0.05 sintered at 950-990 °C possess improved ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, magnetism and insulation with Pr of 16.5-17.5 ?C/cm2, d33 of 113-121 pC/N, Mr of 0.127-0.138 emu/g, R of ˜5 × 109 ?.cm and high TC of 473-482 °C, indicating that the ceramic is a promising candidate for room-temperature multiferroic and high-temperature piezoelectric materials.

Zheng, Qiaoji; Luo, Lingling; Lam, Kwok Ho; Jiang, Na; Guo, Yongquan; Lin, Dunmin

2014-11-01

132

Enhanced piezoelectric and mechanical properties of AlN-modified BaTiO3 composite ceramics.  

PubMed

BaTiO3-xAlN (BT-xAlN) composite ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction sintering. The effects of the AlN content on the crystalline structures, densities, and electrical and mechanical properties of the BT ceramics were investigated. The BT-1.5%AlN ceramic exhibits a good piezoelectric constant of 305 pC N(-1) and an improved Vickers hardness of 5.9 GPa. The enhanced piezoelectricity originates from interactions between defect dipoles and spontaneous polarization inside the domains due to the occurrence of local symmetry, caused by the preferential distribution of the Al(3+)-N(3-) pairs vertical to the c axis. The hardening of the material is attributed to the improved density, and particle and grain boundary strengthening. Our work indicates that if a suitable doping ion pair is designed, lead-free ceramic systems prepared from ordinary raw materials by a conventional sintering method have a high probability of exhibiting good piezoelectric and mechanical properties simultaneously. PMID:24852079

Xu, Dan; Wang, Lidong; Li, Weili; Wang, Wei; Hou, Yafei; Cao, Wenping; Feng, Yu; Fei, Weidong

2014-07-14

133

Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors  

PubMed Central

We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 ?m long and 850-485 ?m wide constructed from 8 ?m thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100?l, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

2011-01-01

134

Modeling of piezoelectric ceramic vibrators including thermal effects. Part IV. Development and experimental evaluation of a bond graph model of the thickness vibrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a model of the piezoelectric ceramic vibrator which includes thermal energy exchange on an equal footing with the electrical and mechanical energy. By use of an isentropically linear model for the material and the bond graph models for a piezoelectric thickness vibrator and heat conduction previously developed by the authors, a thermodynamically complete model is developed. For

Won-Kyu Moon; Ilene J. Busch-Vishniac

1997-01-01

135

Miniature cryogenic valves for a Titan Lake sampling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini mission has revealed Titan to be one of the most Earthlike worlds in the Solar System complete with many of the same surface features including lakes, river channels, basins, and dunes. But unlike Earth, the materials and fluids on Titan are composed of cryogenic organic compounds with lakes of liquid methane and ethane. One of the potential mission concepts to explore Titan is to land a floating platform on one of the Titan Lakes and determine the local lake chemistry. In order to accomplish this within the expected mass volume and power budgets there is a need to pursue the development for a low power lightweight cryogenic valves which can be used along with vacuum lines to sample lake liquid and to distribute to various instruments aboard the Lander. To meet this need we have initiated the development of low power cryogenic valves and actuators based on a single crystal piezoelectric flextensional stacks produced by TRS ceramics Inc. Since the origin of such high electromechanical properties of Relaxor-PT single crystals is due to the polarization rotation effect, (i.e., intrinsic contributions), the strain per volt decrease at cryogenic temperatures is much lower than in standard Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics. This makes them promising candidates for cryogenic actuators with regards to the stroke for a given voltage. This paper will present our Titan Lake Sampling and Sample Handling system design and the development of small cryogenic piezoelectric valves developed to meet the system specifications.

Sherrit, Stewart; Zimmerman, Wayne; Takano, Nobuyuki; Avellar, Louisa

2014-04-01

136

Prototyping of radially oriented piezoelectric ceramic-polymer tube composites using fused deposition and lost mold processing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric tube composite hydrophones of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed using Fused Deposition (FD) and lost mold processing (LMP). In this work, a new series of thermoplastic binder formulations, named the ECG series, were developed for the FD process. The ECG-9 formulation exhibits mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties suitable for the Fused Deposition of functional lead zirconate titanate ceramic devices. This binder consists of 100 parts (by weight) Vestoplast 408, 20 parts Escorez 2520, 15 parts Vestowax A-227, and 5 parts Indopol H-1500. Oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, stearic acid, and stearyl alcohol (in toluene) were tested for use as a dispersant in the PZT/ECG-9 system. It was found that stearic acid adsorbs the most onto PZT powder, adsorbing 8.1 mg/m2. Using stearic acid, solutions of increasing concentration (5.0--50.0 g/l) were measured for adsorption. It was found that 30.0 g/l is the minimum concentration necessary for optimum surface coverage. The surfactant-coated powder was compounded with ECG-9 binder to create a 54 vol.% mix. The mix was extruded using a single screw extrusion apparatus into continuous lengths (>30 m) of 1.78 mm diameter filament. Fused Deposition was used to create composite designs of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity. After sintering, samples exhibit a sintered density greater than 97%. Sanders Prototyping (SPI) was used to manufacture molds for use with LMP techniques. Molds of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed. The molds were infiltrated with a 55 vol.% aqueous based PZT slurry. The parts were subjected to a binder decomposition cycle, followed by sintering. Resultant samples were highly variable due to random macro-pores present in the samples after sintering. The resultant preforms were embedded in epoxy, and polished to dimensions of 8.0 mm inside diameter (ID), 14.0 mm outside diameter (OD), and 10.0 mm length (l) the OD and l dimensions are accurate to +/--2%, while the ID is accurate to +/--5%. Samples were corona poled, and the electromechanical properties were evaluated. Dielectric constant (K), hydrostatic charge coefficients (dh), and radial displacements (ur) were measured. Of the seven composite types studied, the FD-based composites with 3-2 connectivity exhibited the highest average dh of 42.4 pCN. The same 3-2 composites exhibited the highest dhgh (FOM) of 140 fm2/N.

McNulty, Thomas Francis

137

Effects of thickness on the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films  

E-print Network

Ferroelectric ceramics have been employed extensively in a variety of sensors and actuators including strain of ferroelectric thin films include micro actuators,1 micro sensors,2 ultrasonic motors,3 non- volatile computer was carried out to evaluate the existing methods for determination of the d33 coefficient of ferroelectric

Sottos, Nancy R.

138

Preparation and characterization of yBiGaO(3)-(1-x-y)BiScO(3)-xPbTiO(3) piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

The ternary system of yBiGaO(3)-(1-x-y)BiScO(3)-xPbTiO(3) (BGS-PT) ceramics was prepared by using conventional mixing oxide processing. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the BGS-PT ceramics showed the perovskite structure. The Curie temperature (TC) of BGSPT ceramics was found to increase with increasing BiGaO3 content. However, a larger BiGaO3 content led to sharply decreased piezoelectric properties, and the secondary phase was formed in the BGS-PT system. BGS-PT ceramics with x = 0.56, y = 0.19 showed a high Curie temperature T(C) and a large piezoelectric constant d(33) of 501??C and 152 pC/N, respectively. The high T(C) of BGS-PT ceramics with usable piezoelectric properties suggests future high-temperature applications. PMID:18276546

Jiang, Yihang; Qin, Baoquan; Chen, Yi; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Jiang, Yuzhi; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

2007-12-01

139

Theoretical and experimental investigation of traveling wave propagation on a several- millimeter-long cylindrical pipe driven by piezoelectric ceramic tubes.  

PubMed

A novel method is presented for investigation of the traveling wave propagation generated on a thin film pipe with a short length of several millimeters. As a bridge to connect two piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) tubes, a thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe is fabricated by a new technique of rotating magnetron sputtering. The vibrator combines the vibration of the axial mode of the PZT tube and the radial mode of the TFMG pipe. Theoretical analyses of the TFMG pipe and PZT tube, with a comparison of the finite element modeling, clarify the vibration characteristics so that the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions, and driving voltage signals are designed. In the experiment, the designed vibrator was fabricated and the vibration characteristics were measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer system. The pure traveling wave propagation obtained theoretically and experimentally demonstrates the validity of this work. This study shows a new way to achieve a pure traveling wave on a short cylindrical pipe driven by PZT tubes. PMID:20639154

Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Hata, Seiichi; Sakurai, Junpei; Shimokohbe, Akira

2010-07-01

140

Preparation and structural characterization of rare-earth doped lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new preparation route towards rare-earth (RE) doped polycrystalline lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics (RE = Y 3+, Nd 3+, Yb 3+), based on the use of doped lanthanum oxide or zirconia, is reported. Structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction reveals that secondary phase formation can be substantially diminished in comparison to conventional preparation methods. The distribution of the rare-earth dopants was investigated as a function of concentration by static 207Pb spin echo NMR spectra, using Fourier Transformation of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin echo trains. For the Nd- and Yb-doped materials, the interaction of the 207Pb nuclei with the unpaired electron spin density results in significant broadening and shifting of the NMR signal, whereas these effects are absent in the diamagnetic Y 3+ doped materials. Based on different concentration dependences of the NMR lineshape parameters, we conclude that the structural role of the Nd 3+ dopants differs significantly from that of Yb 3+. While the Nd 3+ ions appear to be statistically distributed in the PLZT lattice, incorporation of Yb 3+ into PLZT appears to be limited by the appearance of doped cubic zirconia as a secondary phase.

de Queiroz, Thiago Branquinho; Mohr, Daniel; Eckert, Hellmut; de Camargo, Andrea S. S.

2009-08-01

141

Strongly enhanced incorporation of oxygen into barium titanate based multilayer ceramic capacitors using water vapor  

SciTech Connect

The reoxidation of sintered BaTiO{sub 3}-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is currently an empirically determined, but poorly understood, procedure. In this work, the incorporation of oxygen into BaTiO{sub 3}-based MLCCs has been studied by means of isotope exchange annealing ({sup 18}O{sub 2}/{sup 16}O{sub 2}, {sup 1}H{sub 2}{sup 18}O/{sup 1}H{sub 2}{sup 16}O or {sup 2}H{sub 2}{sup 16}O/{sup 1}H{sub 2}{sup 16}O) and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Oxygen isotope profiles in the barium titanate dielectric can be described by a bulk diffusion coefficient D* and a surface exchange coefficient k*. The values obtained for k* indicate that oxygen incorporation from H{sub 2}O is much faster than from dry O{sub 2}; it thus plays the key role in the reoxidation process.

Kessel, M.; De Souza, R. A.; Martin, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Yoo, H.-I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-12

142

Dielectric and Ferroelectric Behavior of Bismuth-Doped Barium Titanate Ceramic Prepared by Microwave Sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth-doped barium titanate ceramics with the general formula Ba1-x Bi2x/3TiO3 (x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05) have been prepared by the solid state reaction technique. The phase formation and structural property of all compositions have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Rietveld refinement. XRD pattern reports the single phase tetragonal crystal system with space group of P4mm. All compositions have been sintered at 1100°C in a microwave furnace for 30 min. The variation of dielectric constant with respect to temperature and frequency was studied and it was found that the dielectric constant decreases whereas transition temperature increased with the increase in Bi content. The diffusivity parameter was calculated by the modified Curie-Weiss law and the diffusivity increased with the increase in Bi content. The ferroelectric property was studied by the P-E hysteresis loop and it was observed that the saturation polarization decreased, but the coercive field increased with Bi content. The optical band gap was calculated from UV-Visible spectroscopy and found to decrease with Bi content.

Mahapatra, A.; Parida, S.; Sarangi, S.; Badapanda, T.

2014-12-01

143

Crystal structure and electrical properties of bismuth sodium titanate zirconate ceramics  

PubMed Central

Lead-free bismuth sodium titanate zirconate (Bi0.5Na0.5Ti1-xZrxO3 where x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.80 mole fraction) [BNTZ] ceramics were successfully prepared using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The samples were sintered for 2 h at temperatures lower than 1,000°C. The density of the BNTZ samples was at least 95% of the theoretical values. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that small grains were embedded between large grains, causing a relatively wide grain size distribution. The density and grain size increased with increasing Zr concentration. A peak shift in X-ray diffraction patterns as well as the disappearance of several hkl reflections indicated some significant crystal-structure changes in these materials. Preliminary crystal-structure analysis indicated the existence of phase transition from a rhombohedral to an orthorhombic structure. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also found to correlate well with the observed phase transition. PMID:22221595

2012-01-01

144

Morphotropic phase boundary and electric properties in (1-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBiCoO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

E-print Network

-free piezoelectric ceramics Fei-Fei Guo, Bin Yang, Shan-Tao Zhang, Xiao Liu, Li-Mei Zheng et al. Citation: J. Appl ceramics Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 252905 (2012) Enhanced piezoelectric performance from carbon fluoropolymer phase boundary and electric properties in (12x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBiCoO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

Cao, Wenwu

145

Luminescence properties of barium--gadolinium-titanate ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+).  

PubMed

Barium-gadolinium-titanate (BaGd2 Ti4 O12) powder ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. From the X-ray diffraction spectrum, it was observed that Eu(3+) and Tb(3+):BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics are crystallized in the form of an orthorhombic structure. Scanning electron microscopy image shows that the particles are agglomerated and the particle size is about 200 nm. Eu(3+) - and Tb(3+) -doped BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics were examined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. Emission spectra of Eu(3+)-doped BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics showed bright red emission at 613 nm ((5)D0 ?(7)F2) with an excitation wavelength ?(exci) ?= 408 nm ((7)F0 ? (5)D3) and Tb(3+):BaGd2 Ti4 O12 ceramic powder has shown green emission at 534 nm ((5)D4 ? (7)F5) with an excitation wavelength ?(exci) ?= 331 nm (((7)F6 ? (5)D1). TL spectra show that Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions affect TL sensitivity. PMID:24616270

Hemasundara Raju, S; Muni Sudhakar, B; Sudhakar Reddy, B; Dhoble, S J; Thyagarajan, K; Nageswara Raju, C

2014-11-01

146

Corrosion Behavior of Titanate Ceramics in Short-Term MCC-1 Tests: The Effects of Surface Finish  

SciTech Connect

Two series of MCC-1 tests were designed and conducted to describe the effects of surface finish on the corrosion behavior of titanate ceramics. These effects are important for the comparison of short-term test results from different laboratories. Test samples were prepared with 240- and 600-grit finishes. Tests, conducted for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days at 90 C, were carried out in Teflon{reg_sign} vessels. Two different ceramics were used in this study: a Hf-Ce-Ce ceramic containing pyrochlore, perovskite, rutile and a small amount of a silicate phase, and a Hf-Ce-U ceramic containing pyrochlore and rutile. This study shows no detectable difference in the results of tests with ceramics finished to 240-grit and 600-grit; therefore, tests conducted at these two surface finishes can be directly compared. Due to its broader use, we recommend that short-term tests be conducted with monoliths finished to 600-grit. Comparison of data from blank tests in Teflon{reg_sign} and stainless steel vessels shows that the background associated with Teflon{reg_sign} vessels is lower. Therefore, we recommend that short-term tests be conducted in Teflon{reg_sign} vessels.

Bakel, A.J.; Basco, J.K.; Nole, M.K.; Chamberlain, D.B.

2000-07-28

147

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the KNN ceramic compound doped with Li, La and Ta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the purpose of improving the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN), a multiple doping strategy was tested in this research. Piezoceramics with composition [(K0.5Na0.5)0.94Li0.06]0.97La0.01(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 were prepared by the traditional ceramic method. The calcined powders were sintered in their own atmosphere at 1,100 °C for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the Li+, La3+ and Ta5+ cations diffuse into the KNN structure to form a perovskite-structured solid solution. For 1 h sintering time, a dominant orthorhombic phase is obtained, whereas for the longer times, the dominant phase was tetragonal. The presence of a tetragonal tungsten-bronze minority second phase is confirmed. Scanning electron micrographs show rectangular-shaped grains with a mean size of 1.1 ± 0.2 ?m. The existence of pores and traces of a liquid phase favoring grain growth and homogeneity is also observed. Experimental results show an enhancement of the permittivity associated with the enlargement of the c parameter of the cell that increases with sintering time. Li+ incorporation into the structure is made evident by its transition temperature at 400 °C different from those of KNNLaTi (81-110 °C) and KNNLaTa (340 °C). An analysis of the phase transition of the samples indicates a normal rather than a diffuse transition. The electromechanical parameters k p, Q m, ? p, s 11, d 31 and g 31 are determined and compared to those of commercial PZT ceramics.

Fuentes, J.; Portelles, J.; Durruthy-Rodríguez, M. D.; H'Mok, H.; Raymond, O.; Heiras, J.; Cruz, M. P.; Siqueiros, J. M.

2014-09-01

148

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the KNN ceramic compound doped with Li, La and Ta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the purpose of improving the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN), a multiple doping strategy was tested in this research. Piezoceramics with composition [(K0.5Na0.5)0.94Li0.06]0.97La0.01(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 were prepared by the traditional ceramic method. The calcined powders were sintered in their own atmosphere at 1,100 °C for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the Li+, La3+ and Ta5+ cations diffuse into the KNN structure to form a perovskite-structured solid solution. For 1 h sintering time, a dominant orthorhombic phase is obtained, whereas for the longer times, the dominant phase was tetragonal. The presence of a tetragonal tungsten-bronze minority second phase is confirmed. Scanning electron micrographs show rectangular-shaped grains with a mean size of 1.1 ± 0.2 ?m. The existence of pores and traces of a liquid phase favoring grain growth and homogeneity is also observed. Experimental results show an enhancement of the permittivity associated with the enlargement of the c parameter of the cell that increases with sintering time. Li+ incorporation into the structure is made evident by its transition temperature at 400 °C different from those of KNNLaTi (81-110 °C) and KNNLaTa (340 °C). An analysis of the phase transition of the samples indicates a normal rather than a diffuse transition. The electromechanical parameters k p, Q m, ? p, s 11, d 31 and g 31 are determined and compared to those of commercial PZT ceramics.

Fuentes, J.; Portelles, J.; Durruthy-Rodríguez, M. D.; H'Mok, H.; Raymond, O.; Heiras, J.; Cruz, M. P.; Siqueiros, J. M.

2015-02-01

149

Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ?32?MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.

2012-08-28

150

Hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ˜32 MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

Alvine, K. J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, M. E.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Pitman, S. G.

2012-08-01

151

Self-sensing tunable vibration absorber incorporating piezoelectric ceramic-magnetostrictive composite sensoriactuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel self-sensing tunable vibration absorber (SSTVA) is developed for active absorption of vibrations in vibrating structures. The SSTVA consists of a piezoelectric ceramic-magnetostrictive composite sensoriactuator suspended in a mounting frame by two flexible beams connected to the axial ends of the sensoriactuator. The sensoriactuator serves to produce an axial force for tuning of the natural frequency of the SSTVA, to gather the signals associated with structural vibrations and to provide a lumped damped mass for the SSTVA. By monitoring the sensoriactuator output voltage while adjusting its input magnetic field (or electric current), the natural frequency of the SSTVA is tuned to the targeted resonance frequency of a structure. In this paper, the working principle, design prototype and operating performance of a 62.5 Hz SSTVA are reported. A high tunability of the natural frequency of 20% and a good sensing capability of vibrations comparable to a commercial accelerometer are obtained, together with a high absorbability of vibrations of ~ 4 dB in a steel-plate-neoprene resilient mount structure.

Duan, Yuan-Feng; Wing Or, Siu

2011-08-01

152

An Experimental Investigation towards Improvement of Thermoelectric Properties of Strontium Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct energy conversion between heat and electricity based on thermoelectric effects is a topic of long-standing interest in condensed matter materials science. Experimental and theoretical investigations in order to understand the mechanisms involved and to improve the materials properties and conversion efficiency have been ongoing for more than half a century. While significant achievements have been accomplished in improving the properties of conventional heavy element based materials (such as Bi2Te 3 and PbTe) as well as the discovery of new materials systems for the close-to-room temperature and intermediate temperatures, high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics is still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe. Recently, oxides have exhibited great potential to be investigated for high-temperature thermoelectric power generation. The objective of this dissertation is to synthesize and investigate both electronic and thermal transport in strontium titanate (SrTiO3) ceramics in order to experimentally realize its potential and to ultimately investigate the possibility of further improvement of the thermoelectric performance of this perovskite oxide for mid- to high temperature applications. Developing a synthesis strategy and tuning various synthesis parameters to benefit the thermoelectric transport form the foundation of this study. It is worth mentioning that the results of this study has been employed to prepare targets for pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) to study the thermoelectric properties of corresponding thin films and superlattice structures at Dr. Husam Alshareef's group at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. Considering the broad range of functionality of SrTiO3, the findings of this work will surely benefit other fields of research and application of this functional oxide such as photoluminescence, ferroelectricity or mixed-ionic electronic conductivity. This dissertation will ultimately attempt to answer the question, "Is it possible to further improve the thermoelectric properties of SrTiO 3-based ceramics?". The organization of the dissertation is as follows: In Chapter 1, the fundamental concepts in the thermoelectric theory is explained. Second, we briefly review the characteristics of "good" thermoelectric materials and highlight the differences exist between SrTiO3 and conventional thermoelectric materials. In Chapter 2, SrTiO3 is introduced and the electronic and thermal properties arising from its crystal structure are discussed. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the fundamentals of measurements of the electronic and thermal transport properties which are the backbone of the current work. Our experimental results are presented in Chapter 4 and 5. The synthesis and processing techniques to prepare doped SrTiO3 powder and bulk polycrystalline ceramic are presented in Chapter 3. The optimizations of the synthesis and densification parameters involved are presented and discussed in this chapter as well. Significant improvement achieved in the thermoelectric figure of merit of Pr-doped SrTiO3 and the studies performed to understand the results are presented in Chapter 5. Concluding remarks and future work are discussed in Chapter 6.

Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash

153

Strontium Titanate DC Electric Field Switchable and Tunable Bulk Acoustic Wave Solidly Mounted Resonator  

E-print Network

Strontium Titanate DC Electric Field Switchable and Tunable Bulk Acoustic Wave Solidly Mounted Abstract - A voltage switchable/tunable strontium titanate solidly mounted BAW resonator was implemented films, piezoelectric resonators. I. INTRODUCTION Strontium titanate (STO) and barium strontium titanate

York, Robert A.

154

Synthesis of Anisotropic Lead Titanate Powders for Templated Grain Growth of Textured Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Needle-shaped PbTiO3 (PT) template particles were successfully synthesized using two different types of approaches, molten salt synthesis (MSS) and thermal synthesis method. In eutectic NaCl-KCl molten salt system, homogeneous and nonagglomerated needle-shaped PT particles were produced from PbO and needle-like TiO2 compound heated at 800-850°C for 2 h. The effect of heating temperature on the morphology of formed powders was studied in order to identify the optimum processing parameters. The template formation mechanism is discussed. Using thermal synthesis method, comparable needle-shaped PT crystalline particles were also obtained in one step. Plate-shaped PT powders were derived via flux synthesis. The effect of additives such as MnCl2 and LiF on the morphology of derived PT was studied. Adding a certain amount of MnCl2 led to the formation of well-defined plate-shaped PT particles. The structure and morphology of synthesized powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).

Ma, S.; Fuh, J. Y. H.; Zhang, Y. F.; Lu, L.

155

Enhanced piezoelectricity and nature of electric-field induced structural phase transformation in textured lead-free piezoelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter provides a comparative description of the properties of textured and randomly oriented poly-crystalline lead-free piezoelectric 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)-0.07BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics. A high longitudinal piezoelectric constant of (d33) ˜ 322 pC/N was obtained in (001)PC textured NBT-7BT ceramics, which is almost ˜2× times the d33 coefficient reported for randomly oriented ceramics of the same composition. In situ neutron diffraction experiments revealed that characteristically different structural responses are induced in textured and randomly oriented NBT-BT ceramics upon application of electric fields (E), which are likely related to the varying coherence lengths of polar nanoregions and internal stresses induced by domain switching.

Maurya, Deepam; Pramanick, Abhijit; An, Ke; Priya, Shashank

2012-04-01

156

Study of polymorphic phase boundary in (Na,K,Li) (Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li, Ta and Sb co-doped (Na,K)NbO3 ceramics have been widely investigated due to the significantly enhanced piezoelectric properties attributed to the polymorphic phase transition (PPT). An empirical discriminant k = x/0.3 + y/0.3 + z/0.06 to estimate the PPT composition of Liz(Na0.5+?K0.5-?)1-zNb1-x-yTaxSbyO3 ceramics was deduced based on a displayed phase diagram between the phase structure and doping contents. The phase structure could be conveniently estimated by k, in which a PPT appeared in the vicinity of k = 1, crossing O symmetry at k < 1 and T symmetry at k > 1. Around k = 1, a series of LizNa0.52K0.48-zNb0.90Ta0.05Sb0.05O3 ceramics was prepared by a traditional solid-state reaction in a narrow range 0.03 ? z ? 0.05. A PPT at room temperature appeared critically in the z = 0.04 composition, indicating a good feasibility of the suggested empirical equation to determine the critical PPT composition in the present study. The optimized piezoelectric properties d33 255 pC N-1 and kp 35.0% were attained due to the PPT behaviour.

Zhao, Xiaokun; Zhang, Boping; Zhu, Lifeng; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Pengfei

2014-02-01

157

Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Micromotors  

E-print Network

This report describes development of micro-fabricated piezoelectric ultrasonic motors and bulk-ceramic piezoelectric ultrasonic motors. Ultrasonic motors offer the advantage of low speed, high torque operation without ...

Flynn, Anita M.

1995-06-01

158

Fundamental limitation to the magnitude of piezoelectric response of ?001?pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?001?pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic was found to exhibit a 65% improvement in the longitudinal piezoelectric response as compared to its random counterpart. Piezoresponse force microscopy study revealed the existence of larger 180° and non-180° domains for textured ceramic as compared to the random ceramic. Improvement in piezoresponse by the development of ?001?pc texture is discussed in terms of the crystallographic nature of KNN and domain morphology. A comparative analysis performed with a rhombohedral composition suggested that the improvement in longitudinal piezoresponse of polycrystalline ceramics by the development of ?001?pc texture is determined by the crystal structure.

Gupta, Shashaank; Belianinov, Alexei; Baris Okatan, Mahmut; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Priya, Shashank

2014-04-01

159

Effect of domain structure on the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of lead-free alkali niobate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Load-bearing applications, such as actuators, require sufficient mechanical properties to guarantee long lifetime and reliability. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics show relatively low mechanical strength which decreases after applying an electric field. Thus far, evaluations of the mechanical properties have not been the focus in the case of alkali niobate-based (NKN) ceramics. For this purpose, differently poled Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-xNbO3 ceramics have been observed by means of 3-point bending tests. Best results were achieved with Li0.02Na0.49K0.49NbO3, with a flexural strength of 115 MPa in unpoled state. This value was maximized at a 90° domain switching fraction ? of about 20% to 134 MPa. Other compositions showed similar behavior, which led to the idea that domain switching can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of NKN ceramics. Internal stresses induced via domain reorientation might be the cause of this phenomenon and will be examined in this study.

Martin, Alexander; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

2014-09-01

160

Microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (Pb1-xSrx)Nb1.96Ti0.05O6 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Pb1-xSrx)Nb1.96Ti0.05O6 with 2 wt% excess PbO (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08) piezoelectric ceramics with high Curie temperature were fabricated via the conventional solid state reaction method. Effects of Sr2+ amount on crystallite structure, microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. The substitution of Sr2+ ions for Pb2+ ions is effective to lower sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that all ceramics form the single orthorhombic ferroelectric phase. The doping of Sr2+ ions facilitates improving densification of the ceramics. Grain size and lattice parameters of the ceramics vary with the change of the Sr2+ contents. Both Curie temperature and maximum dielectric constant change with increasing the Sr2+ amounts. The dielectric constant data were also studied using the Curie-Weiss law and modified Curie-Weiss law. The ceramic with x = 0.04 possesses excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties, presenting a high potential to be used in high-temperature applications as piezoelectric transducers.

Yuan, Jing-jing; Chen, Xiao-ming; Zhou, Jian-ping; Liu, Peng

2014-09-01

161

Piezoelectric dilatometric analysis using homodyne and heterodyne laser interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric materials has been widely studied since such property is found to be a key element of enhanced sensitivity in piezoelectric sensors or actuators. However a unified view of this coupling as function of frequencies verified using multiple measurement techniques has not previously been available. This study examines and compares multiple optical based homodyne and heterodyne interferometry techniques for piezoelectric displacement measurement, over a wide range of frequencies from DC to 20 MHz. A custom configured homodyne optical interferometer and a commercial heterodyne Laser Doppler Vibrometer are used in the study. Because the frequency ranges used by these devices overlap, it is possible to compare the results. Ferroelectric lead titanate PbTiO3 (PT) ceramic sample with high ferroelectric strain is studied in this work. Frequency dependence of the electromechanical displacement is obtained using multiple techniques and the emphasis of the interrogations is given to frequencies near piezoelectric resonances.

Delahoussaye, Keith

162

Plate-like structure health monitoring based on ultrasonic guided wave technology by using bonded piezoelectric ceramic wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramic wafers are applied for the excitation and detection of ultrasonic guided waves to determine the health state of plate-like structures. Two PZT wafers, whose diameter is 11mm and thickness is 0.4mm respectively, are bonded permanently on the surface of a 1mm thick aluminum plate. One of these wafers is actuated by sinusoidal tone burst at various frequencies ranging from 100kHz to 500kHz, the other one is used as a receiver for acquiring ultrasonic guided wave signals. According to the amplitudes and shapes of these received signals, guided wave modes and their proper frequency range by using these wafers are determined. For the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, the Daubechies wavelet of order 40 is used for signal denoising as the mother wavelet. Furthermore, the detection of an artificial cylindrical through-hole defect is achieved by using S0 at 300kHz. Experimental results show that it is feasible and effective to detect defects in plate-like structures based on ultrasonic guided wave technology by using bonded piezoelectric ceramic wafers.

Liu, Zenghua; Zhao, Jichen; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

2008-11-01

163

Label-free detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals by integrating a competitive binding assay with a piezoelectric ceramic resonator.  

PubMed

A piezoelectric biosensor for detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was developed by incorporating chemical/biochemical recognition elements on the ceramic resonator surface for competitive binding assays. A facile electrodeposition was employed to modify the sensor surface with Au nanoparticles, which increased the surface area and enhanced the binding capacity of the immobilized probes. Thiol-labeled long chain hydrocarbon with bisphenol A (BPA) as head group was synthesized and self-assembled on the Au nanoparticle surface as the sensing probes, which showed a linear response upon the binding of estrogen receptor (ER-?) ranging from 1 to 30 nM. Detection of estrone, 17?-estradiol and BPA was achieved by integrating a competitive binding assay with the piezoelectric sensor. In this detection scheme, different concentrations of EDCs were incubated with 30 nM of ER-?, and the un-bounded ER-? in the solution was captured by the probes immobilized on the ceramic resonator, which resulted in the frequency changes for different EDCs. The biosensor assay exhibited a linear response to EDCs with a low detection limit of 2.4-2.9 nM (S/N=3), and required only a small volume of sample (1.5 µl) with the assay time of 2h. The performance of the biosensor assay was also evaluated for rapid and facile determination of EDCs of environmental relevant concentrations in drinking water and seawater, and the recovery rate was in the range between 94.7% and 109.8%. PMID:24201004

Hu, Liang-sheng; Fong, Chi-Chun; Zou, Lan; Wong, Wing-Leung; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Wu, Rudolf S S; Yang, Mengsu

2014-03-15

164

In situ neutron diffraction studies of a commercial, soft lead zirconate titanate ceramic: Response to electric fields and mechanical stress  

SciTech Connect

Structural changes in commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics (EC-65) under the application of electric fields and mechanical stress were measured using neutron diffraction instruments at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural changes during electric-field application were measured on the WOMBAT beamline at ANSTO and include non-180{sup o} domain switching, lattice strains and field-induced phase transformations. Using time-resolved data acquisition capabilities, lattice strains were measured under cyclic electric fields at times as short as 30 {mu}s. Structural changes including the (002) and (200) lattice strains and non-180{sup o} domain switching were measured during uniaxial mechanical compression on the NRSF2 instrument at ORNL. Contraction of the crystallographic polarization axis, (002), and reorientation of non-180{sup o} domains occur at lowest stresses, followed by (200) elastic strains at higher stresses.

Pramanick, Abhijit [University of Florida; Prewitt, Anderson [University of Florida; Cottrell, Michelle [University of Florida; Lee, Wayne [ITT Corporation Acoustic Sensors; Studer, Andrew J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO; An, Ke [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Jones, Jacob [University of Florida

2010-01-01

165

Effects of Fe2O3 Additive on the Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT-PFW-PMN Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary piezoelectric ceramics 0.90Pb0.95Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-0.03Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3-0.07Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZT-PFW-PMN) + 0.2 wt.% CeO2 + x wt.% Fe2O3 (x = 0.0 to 0.20) were prepared by the conventional solid-state method. The effects of Fe2O3 addition on the structure and electrical properties of the system were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the phase structure of all samples was tetragonal phase and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties were significantly promoted with increasing Fe2O3 addition. The coercive field E C and internal bias field E i were found to increase with increasing Fe2O3 content. As a result, addition of 0.05 wt.% Fe2O3 for this system resulted in excellent electrical properties, with the following parameter values: Q m = 1839, K p = 0.61, d 33 = 382 pC/N, ? r = 1823, tan ? = 0.0054, P r = 19.26 ?C/cm2, E C = 13.28 kV/cm, and E i = 0.76 kV/cm. The results indicate that the Fe2O3-modified PZT-PFW-PMN ceramics exhibited favorable properties and could be good candidates for use in high-power piezoelectric transformer applications.

Zong, Ximei; Yang, Zupei

2014-11-01

166

Effects of Fe2O3 Additive on the Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT-PFW-PMN Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary piezoelectric ceramics 0.90Pb0.95Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-0.03Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3-0.07Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZT-PFW-PMN) + 0.2 wt.% CeO2 + x wt.% Fe2O3 ( x = 0.0 to 0.20) were prepared by the conventional solid-state method. The effects of Fe2O3 addition on the structure and electrical properties of the system were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the phase structure of all samples was tetragonal phase and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties were significantly promoted with increasing Fe2O3 addition. The coercive field E C and internal bias field E i were found to increase with increasing Fe2O3 content. As a result, addition of 0.05 wt.% Fe2O3 for this system resulted in excellent electrical properties, with the following parameter values: Q m = 1839, K p = 0.61, d 33 = 382 pC/N, ? r = 1823, tan ? = 0.0054, P r = 19.26 ?C/cm2, E C = 13.28 kV/cm, and E i = 0.76 kV/cm. The results indicate that the Fe2O3-modified PZT-PFW-PMN ceramics exhibited favorable properties and could be good candidates for use in high-power piezoelectric transformer applications.

Zong, Ximei; Yang, Zupei

2015-01-01

167

Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3}-Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

(0.95-x)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.05Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d{sub 33} = 505pC/N, k{sub p} = 55.9%, k{sub t} = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and P{sub r} = 39.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature T{sub c} was found to increase from 371 Degree-Sign C to 414 Degree-Sign C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

Zhao Tianlong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen Jianguo; Dong Shuxiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Chunming [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu Yang [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

2013-07-14

168

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite Ba0.999Pr0.001TiO3 ceramics has been prepared through a solid-state reaction method. Dielectric properties of the doped BaTiO3 (barium titanate) ceramics as a function of temperature at frequencies of 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz, and 1 MHz are studied and reported here. Analyzing the empirical parameters, it has been shown that the Pr3+ addition up-shifted the temperature of the maximal dielectric constant to 180 (K) at 1 kHz. The value of the dielectric constant at higher frequencies dropped markedly. Such a marked drop in the value of the dielectric constant at higher frequencies can be explained in terms of interfacial polarization. The high dielectric constant at lower frequencies is due to the build-up of charges at the grain-grain boundary interface which is responsible for the large polarization. The ceramic was subjected to Rietveld refinement for quantitative analysis of the microstructure of the material.

Panigrahi, M. R.

2014-09-01

169

The effect of biaxial texture on the effective electromechanical constants of polycrystalline barium titanate and lead titanate thin films  

E-print Network

barium titanate and lead titanate thin films Jennifer L. Ruglovsky a,*, Jiangyu Li b , Kaushik to an enhanced piezoelectric effect for barium titanate films, but not for lead titanate. Twist texturing about for a polycrystalline film. We explore tetragonal 4MM materials, and give specific results for barium titanate and lead

Atwater, Harry

170

Determination of metal impurities in advanced lead zirconate titanate ceramics by axial view mode inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry quantification method for the determination of Al, Ca, Cr Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni, Zn, Ba, K, In and Co in lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) ceramics, modified with strontium and chromium, was developed. Total digestion of ceramics was achieved with a HNO(3), H(2)O(2) and HF (ac) mixture by using a microwave furnace. The sensitivity of the net signal intensity respect to radiofrequency power (P) and nebulizer argon flow (F(N)) variations was strongly dependent of the total excitation energy of line (TEE). For lines with TEE near metastable atoms and ions of argon, an increment of the sensitivities to P and F(N) variation was observed. At robust plasma conditions the matrix effect was reduced for all matrices and analytes considered. The precision of analysis ranged from 3 to 13%, whereas the analytes recoveries in the spiked samples varied, mostly, from 90 to 110%. The detection limits of studied elements were from 0.004 to 10 mg kg(-1). PMID:22608413

Villanueva Tagle, M E; Larrea Marín, M T; Martin Gavilán, O; Durruthy Rodríguez, M D; Calderón Piñar, F; Pomares Alfonso, M S

2012-05-30

171

Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Al2O3 containing lead titanate based glass-ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass Samples were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. These glass samples were converted to glass-ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The density, dielectric constant and volume fraction of PbTiO3 in glass-ceramic samples have been observed to increase with Al2O3 addition. The observed increase in the above properties has been attributed to formation of tetragonal PbTiO3 phase in the glass-ceramics. All the glassceramic samples exhibited the ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The value of remnant polarization was observed to increase with Al2O3 addition. The enhancement in the values of remnant polarization may be attributed to increase in the volume fraction of PbTiO3 phase in glass-ceramics.

Rahangdale, V. U.; Gala, D. K.; Acharya, R. M.; Deshpande, V. K.

2014-04-01

172

Development of piezoelectric skin friction force vector transducer for a hypersonic wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A surface shear force transducer for use in impulse type hypersonic tunnels is described. Sensors are constructed of lead zirconate titanate composition piezoelectric ceramic materials. The diameter of the sensing diaphragm is 0.75 inches and overall transducer dimensions are 1.0 inch diameter and 0.625 inch height. Analysis of the tranducer is made to help design criteria and fabrication techniques. Discussions on design and fabrication techniques are presented as well as performance of transducers delivered.

Kahng, S. K.

1972-01-01

173

Piezoelectric Properties of Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of eutectic behavior of PbTiO3-PbZrO3-Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 ternary system, perovskite-structured Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 ceramics were able to be prepared using conventional electronic ceramic processing at low sintering temperature compatible with Ag as inner electrode materials, promising for co-firing technology to fabricate monolithic multilayer piezoelectric transducers. The dependence of its piezoelectric properties on sintering temperature and various dopants were investigated experimentally and a piezoelectric property with dielectric constant of ?33T/?0=1190, dielectric loss of tan ?=0.6%, piezoelectric coefficient of d33=270 pC/N, planar coupling coefficient of kp=0.54, thickness coupling coefficient of kt=0.46 and Curie temperature of Tc=346 °C was obtained for the 0.5% Co-doped Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 ceramics sintered at 950 °C.

He, Wenze; Yu, Jian

2011-02-01

174

Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC

K. H. Lam; C. L. Sun; K. W. Kwok; H. L. W. Chan

2009-01-01

175

Polymorphic structure evolution and large piezoelectric response of lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The polymorphic structure evolution of (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics was investigated by analysis of the in situ X-ray diffraction and dielectric spectra. The results indicated that a confined orthorhombic (O) phase region induced by the approach of the rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases existed in an extremely narrow temperature range of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9})O{sub 3} composition. The electric properties near the O–T phase boundaries of (Ba{sub 0.95}Ca{sub 0.05})(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} and (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9})O{sub 3} were compared. The results suggested that the confined O phase region is an important factor that contributes to the extremely large piezoelectric response.

Tian, Ye [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Chao, Xiaolian, E-mail: chaoxl@snnu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangzp@snnu.edu.cn; Wei, Lingling; Liang, Pengfei; Yang, Zupei, E-mail: chaoxl@snnu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangzp@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Jin, Li [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

2014-03-17

176

Modeling of piezoelectric ceramic vibrators including thermal effects. Part IV. Development and experimental evaluation of a bond graph model of the thickness vibrator  

SciTech Connect

This article develops a model of the piezoelectric ceramic vibrator which includes thermal energy exchange on an equal footing with the electrical and mechanical energy. By use of an isentropically linear model for the material and the bond graph models for a piezoelectric thickness vibrator and heat conduction previously developed by the authors, a thermodynamically complete model is developed. For a simple case, the predicted results from the developed model are compared with the results from experiments. Predictions are found to compare very favorably with these measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

Moon, W.; Busch-Vishniac, I.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

1997-03-01

177

Piezoelectric ceramic bimorph coupled to thin metal plate as cooling fan for electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of piezoelectric fans for cooling electronic devices were constructed and tested at 60 Hz, 110 V and 220 V, respectively. The aim of the work is to investigate the possibility of replacing the rotary type of fan in some noise-sensitive electronic devices. Different vibrating metal plates were tested and analyzed theoretically. It is found that the resonant frequency

Ju Hyun Yoo; Jae Il Hong; Wenwn Cao

2000-01-01

178

Fabrication of Lead-Free Lithium-Doped Na0.5K0.5NbO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics with Dense Grain Structure Using Sol-Gel Surface Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric 0.06(LiNbO3)-0.94(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (LNKN) ceramics in disc form were fabricated and characterized to acquire good electromechanical properties. A molding method including cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was used to form a dense and regular microstructure and suppress the cracking problems of LNKN ceramics during the following high-temperature sintering. The LNKN ceramic sintered at 1040 °C showed a high piezoelectric constant d33 of 170 pC/N owing to its high density. Furthermore, perovskite LNKN films with the same composition as the ceramics were fabricated using 2-methoxyethanol-based sol-gel solution. The sol-gel surface coating on the LNKN ceramics was found to be very effective for increasing the piezoelectric constant because of the interface stabilization effect leading to a uniform electric field in piezoelectric elements. As a result, we obtained the highest piezoelectric constant d33 of 183 pC/N. The lead-free LNKN ceramics are promising for applications in eco-friendly ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices.

Lim, Sun Kyung; Han, Jeong Seon; Yoo, Ae Ri; Lee, Seong Eui; Lee, Hee Chul

2013-10-01

179

Evaluation of polarization of embedded piezoelectrics by the thermal wave method.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the benefit of the thermal wave method for the evaluation of the polarization state of embedded piezoelectrics. Two types of samples were investigated: A low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)/lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor-actuator and a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator. At modulation frequencies below 10 Hz, the pyroelectric response was governed by thermal losses to the embedding layers. Here, the sample behavior was described by a harmonically heated piezoelectric plate exhibiting heat losses to the environment characterized by a single thermal relaxation time. PMID:23007766

Suchaneck, Gunnar; Eydam, Agnes; Hu, Wenguo; Kranz, Burkhart; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Gerlach, Gerald

2012-09-01

180

Evaluation of electromechanical coupling parameters of piezoelectric materials by using piezoelectric cantilever with coplanar electrode structure in quasi-stasis.  

PubMed

Based on Timoshenko beam theory, a principle model is proposed to establish the relationship between electric charge and excitation acceleration, and in quasi-stasis we apply the direct piezoelectric effect of multilayer cantilever with coplanar electrode structure to evaluate the piezoelectric strain coefficient d15 and electromechanical coupling coefficient k15. They are measured as 678 pC/N and 0.74 for the commercial piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT-51) bulk specimen and 656 pC/N and 0.63 for the lead magnesium niobate (PMN) bulk specimen, and they are in agreement with the calibration and simulation values. The maximum of relative errors is less than 4.2%, so the proposed method is reliable and convenient. PMID:24474142

Zheng, Xuejun; Zhu, Yuankun; Liu, Xun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jianguo

2014-02-01

181

Fundamental limitation to the magnitude of piezoelectric response of (001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic  

SciTech Connect

(001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic was found to exhibit a 65% improvement in the longitudinal piezoelectric response as compared to its random counterpart. Piezoresponse force microscopy study revealed the existence of larger 180 and non-180 domains for textured ceramic as compared to that of the random ceramic. Improvement in piezoresponse by the development of (001)pc texture is discussed in terms of the crystallographic nature of KNN and domain morphology. A comparative analysis performed with a rhombohedral composition suggested that the improvement in longitudinal piezoresponse of polycrystalline ceramics by the development of (001)pc texture is limited by the crystal structure.

Gupta, Shashaank [ORNL] [ORNL; Belianinov, Alex [ORNL] [ORNL; Okatan, Mahmut B [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL; Priya, Shashaank [Virginia Tech] [Virginia Tech

2014-01-01

182

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (Bi 1? x ? y Nd x Na 1? y ) 0.5Ba y TiO 3 lead-free ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New lead-free (Bi1?x?yNdxNa1?y)0.5BayTiO3 ceramics were prepared by a conventional ceramic technique and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Nd3+ and Ba2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases is formed at 0.04

Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok

2010-01-01

183

Synthesis of (K, Na) (Nb, Ta)O 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramic powders by high temperature mixing method under hydrothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facile hydrothermal route via high temperature mixing method was used to synthesize (K, Na) (Nb, Ta)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramic powders. The influence of Ta doping and K+\\/(K++Na+) molar ratios in the starting solution on the resultant powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. The Ta element was successfully doped

Honghui Gu; Kongjun Zhu; Xuming Pang; Bin Shao; Jinhao Qiu; Hongli Ji

184

Identical scaling behavior of saturated dynamic hysteresis in rhombohedral lead zirconate titanate bulk ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling behaviors of dynamic hysteresis were investigated in serial rhombohedral Nb-doped Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) bulk ceramics as a function of frequency (f) and field amplitude (E0). Three distinct regions were plotted including linear loops, minor loops, and saturated loops with an increase of E0. When the external fields were over ˜1.5 times of coercive field (Ec), the scaling relations of saturated loops for these PZT ceramics could be expressed with an identical form as hysteresis area ?A? ? f 0.01E00.10, which indicated that similar ferroelectric systems with different compositions could display a uniform scaling law under high-E0 and low-f regions.

Chen, Xuefeng; Dong, Xianlin; Zhou, Zhiyong; Wang, Junxia; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Zhang, Hongling

2013-12-01

185

Antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric phase-switching lead lanthanum zirconite stannate titanate (PLZST) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric field induced antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) phase transformations are accompanied by large strain and significant hysteresis. The properties of these materials can be tailored to fit specific applications such as high strain actuators and charge capacitors. As an attempt to reduced hysteresis, Barium and Strontium A-site substitution of the phase transformation behavior of (Pb0.98-(delta )La0.02A(delta )) (ZrxSnyTiz)O3 (A equals Ba, Sr) ceramics have been investigated. The ceramic samples in this study produced 0.2% to 0.3% strain level. Barium proved to be a strong FE stabilizer with decreasing both switching field and hysteresis, while Strontium proved to be a strong AFE stabilizer. Some practical data, including temperature stability and current requirements, are also to be discussed.

Yoshikawa, Shoko; McNeal, Kelley; Park, Seung Eek E.; Pan, Ming-Jen; Cross, Leslie E.

1997-02-01

186

Dielectric, electromechanical, optical, and mechanical properties of lanthanum-modified lead titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric, electromechanical, optical, and mechanical properties of hot-pressed lanthanum-modified PbTiOâ ceramics were measured as a function of crystal tetragonality, c\\/a, in a range of tetragonal-to-cubic phases. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: The c\\/a changes linearly as a function of lanthanum content. Similarly, Curie point changed linearly and remanent polarization, coercive field, and coupling factors decreased

T. Yamamoto; HIDEJI IGARASHI; KIYOSHI OKAZAKI

1983-01-01

187

Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramics processed under low oxygen partial pressure atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (Sn-NKN) ceramics fired under various oxygen partial pressure (pO2) conditions have been investigated and discussed in terms of bulk piezoelectric and dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction measurements and Rayleigh analysis indicate that the substitution site of the Sn cations depend on the pO2 atmosphere in the firing process. For pO2 higher than 1.0 × 10-10 atm, Sn cations mainly substitute as Sn4+ at the B-site of perovskite NKN, whereas Sn2+ A-site substitution is favored under a low-pO2 atmosphere. Low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics exhibit higher relative permittivity, Curie temperature, and piezoelectric coefficient (d33). Sn2+ at A-site acts as a donor and reduces the p-type carrier concentrations that result from an electronic compensation of metal vacancies created through the high volatility of Na and K suboxides. The higher piezoelectricity and resistivity in low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics make this material suitable for base-metal cofired devices such as Ni-inner-electrode multilayer capacitors and actuators.

Kobayashi, Keisuke; Doshida, Yutaka; Mizuno, Youichi; Randall, Clive A.

2014-01-01

188

Machining piezoelectric (PZT) ceramics using an electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machining of advanced engineering materials such as composites and ceramics is important but it is very difficult and uneconomical to do so by conventional methods of machining. A need for new techniques for machining these advanced engineering materials cannot be over-emphasized. In this study, the authors have attempted to explore the feasibility of using an electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process

Y. P. Singh; Vijay K. Jain; Prashant Kumar; D. C. Agrawal

1996-01-01

189

Robust polarization and strain behavior of sm-modified BiFeO3 piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

The route to phase-pure BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics with excellent ferroelectric and electromechanical properties is severely impeded by difficulties associated with the perovskite phase stability during synthesis. This has meant that dopants and solid solutions with BFO have been investigated as a means of not only improving the functional properties, but also of improving the perovskite phase formation of BFO-based ceramics. The present work focuses on Sm-modified BFO ceramics of composition Bi0.88Sm0.12FeO3. The polarization and strain behaviors were investigated as a function of the phase composition, microstructure, and chemical composition. Addition of Sm reduces the susceptibility of the BFO perovskite to phase degradation by Si impurities. Si was observed to react into Sm-rich grains dispersed within the microstructure, with no large increases in the amount of bismuth-parasitic phases, namely Bi25FeO39 and Bi2Fe4O9. These as-prepared ceramics exhibited robust polarization behavior showing maximum remnant polarizations of ~40 to 50 ?C/cm(2). The electric-fieldinduced strain showed an appreciable stability in terms of the driving field frequency with maximum peak-to-peak strains of ~0.3% and a coercive field of ~130 kV/cm. PMID:25585392

Walker, Julian; Budic, Bojan; Bryant, Peter; Kurusingal, Valsala; Sorrell, Charles; Bencan, Andreja; Rojac, Tadej; Valanoor, Nagarajan

2015-01-01

190

Enhanced piezoelectric performance of (0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

(0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BSI-PT-PZN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by traditional solid-state reaction method. Combining X-ray diffraction results with piezoelectric data, it was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) occurred at x = 0.575. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33}, curie temperature T{sub c}, and electromechanical coupling factor k{sub p} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics with MPB composition were 427 pC/N, 412 Degree-Sign C, and 0.51, respectively. Furthermore, the strain of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics reached up to 0.25% under the electric field of 40 kV/cm. Temperature-dependent electromechanical coupling coefficient for MPB composition was stable from room temperature up to 350 Degree-Sign C. The piezoelectric properties of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were comparable to that of 0.36BiScO{sub 3}-0.64PbTiO{sub 3} (BS-PT) ceramics, and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics was about twice that of our previous reported 0.4Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-0.6PbTiO{sub 3} (BSI-PT) ceramics. The reduction in the expensive Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and comparable piezoelectric properties with BS-PT ceramics indicated that BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were promising for commercial applications as high temperature actuators and sensors.

Chen Jianguo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road No. 149, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhao Tianlong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng Jinrong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road No. 149, Shanghai 200072 (China); Dong Shuxiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-04-14

191

Polar nanodomains and local ferroelectric phenomena in relaxor lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Transparent Pb{sub 0.9125}La{sub 0.0975}(Zr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}){sub 0.976}O{sub 3} ceramics (conventionally abbreviated as PLZT 9.75/65/35) is a typical relaxor characterized by the absence of the ferroelectric order at the macroscopic scale. In this letter, we report on the observation of complex polar structures on the surface of this material via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The irregular polarization patterns are associated with the formation of a glassy state, where random electric fields destroy the long-range ferroelectric order. The measure of the disorder, the correlation length of {approx}50 nm, was directly deduced from the PFM images. Local poling of relaxor ceramics resulted in the formation of a stable micron-size domain that could be continuously switched under varying dc bias (local relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition). Fractal analysis was applied to analyze the origin of local order in PLZT.

Shvartsman, V.V.; Kholkin, A.L.; Orlova, A.; Kiselev, D.; Bogomolov, A.A.; Sternberg, A. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and Center for Research in Ceramic and Composite Materials (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Physics, Tver State University, 170000 Tver (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia)

2005-05-16

192

Giant piezoelectricity in potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.  

PubMed

Environment protection and human health concern is the driving force to eliminate the lead from commercial piezoelectric materials. In 2004, Saito et al. [ Saito et al., Nature , 2004 , 432 , 84 . ] developed an alkali niobate-based perovskite solid solution with a peak piezoelectric constant d33 of 416 pC/N when prepared in the textured polycrystalline form, intriguing the enthusiasm of developing high-performance lead-free piezoceramics. Although much attention has been paid on the alkali niobate-based system in the past ten years, no significant breakthrough in its d33 has yet been attained. Here, we report an alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramic with the largest d33 of ?490 pC/N ever reported so far using conventional solid-state method. In addition, this material system also exhibits excellent integrated performance with d33?390-490 pC/N and TC?217-304 °C by optimizing the compositions. This giant d33 of the alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramics is ascribed to not only the construction of a new rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary but also enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Our finding may pave the way for "lead-free at last". PMID:24499419

Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

2014-02-19

193

Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Er{sup 3+} doped CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er{sup 3+} doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

Peng Dengfeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Chaonan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao'an Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

2012-05-15

194

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of PNN-PZN-PZT ceramics for actuator application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fields of optics, precision machinery and semiconductor processing, microposition actuators are required for the control of position in the submicron range. In this paper, 0.5PNN-(0.5-x)PZN-xPZT(x:0.0~0.5) ceramics were fabricated with various mole ratios of the PZT powders prepared by a molten-salt synthesis method and PNN, PZN powders prepared by a columbite precursor method. The formation rate of perovskite phase

Su-Ho Lee; Han-Geun Kim; Hun-Il Choi; Geon Sa-Gong

1997-01-01

195

Influence of a silver epoxy dopant on the performance of broken piezoelectric ceramic transducer based on an analytical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, an unprecedented increase in the types of, the methods of using, and the demand for piezoelectric ceramic transducers (PCTs) has been observed in the market. These factors increase the probability of PCTs being subjected to breakage. Therefore, this study proposes a simple, low-cost procedure which uses available components to repair and reinstall five broken PCTs and then tests them as emitters and receivers in bulk and surface wave detection. An SM211 PCT with a 7.2 MHz frequency, a high damping and electromechanical coupling coefficient, and two silver electrodes were selected for the experiment. A Mason circuit was used for the procedure, the Laplace transform was used as a mathematical analysis method, and MATLAB was the technical computing language used to model the new transfer function for this type of PCT. This study proved that silver electrodes are a significant load on PCTs, particularly at high frequencies. Very good identity correlations between this mathematical and the experimental responses of the standard PCT were obtained. Later this mathematical model was used to prove the explanations provided by this research. The response of the standard PCT was compared with that of the samples of PCT that have been repaired (SPCTR). Through this comparison, many conclusions were obtained, and several recommendations were made, which can be taken advantage of by people who are interested in this field of research. Such recommendations include analyzing the response of SPCTR and explaining the types of ultrasonic tests in which SPCTR can be used.

Abdulhamed Mohammed, Arshed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Zaki Nuawi, Mohd

2014-04-01

196

Processing Techniques Developed to Fabricate Lanthanum Titanate Piezoceramic Material for High-Temperature Smart Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezoelectric ceramic materials are potential candidates for use as actuators and sensors in intelligent gas turbine engines. For piezoceramics to be applied in gas turbine engines, they will have to be able to function in temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2500 F. However, the maximum use temperature for state-of-the-art piezoceramic materials is on the order of 300 to 400 F. Research activities have been initiated to develop high-temperature piezoceramic materials for gas turbine engine applications. Lanthanum titanate has been shown to have high-temperature piezoelectric properties with Curie temperatures of T(sub c) = 1500 C and use temperatures greater than 1000 C. However, the fabrication of lanthanum titanate poses serious challenges because of the very high sintering temperatures required for densification. Two different techniques have been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to fabricate dense lanthanum titanate piezoceramic material. In one approach, lower sintering temperatures were achieved by adding yttrium oxide to commercially available lanthanum titanate powder. Addition of only 0.1 mol% yttrium oxide lowered the sintering temperature by as much as 300 C, to just 1100 C, and dense lanthanum titanate was produced by pressure-assisted sintering. The second approach utilized the same commercially available powders but used an innovative sintering approach called differential sintering, which did not require any additive.

Goldsby, Jon C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

2004-01-01

197

Comparison of the properties of tonpilz transducers fabricated with 001 fiber-textured lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate ceramic and single crystals.  

PubMed

Tonpilz transducers are fabricated from 001 fiber-textured 0.72Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) (PMN-28PT) ceramics, obtained by the templated grain growth process, and PMN-28PT ceramic and Bridgman grown single crystals of the same composition. In-water characterization of single element transducers shows higher source levels, higher in-water coupling, and more usable bandwidth for the 81 vol % textured PMN-28PT device than for the ceramic PMN-28PT element. The 81 vol % textured PMN-28PT tonpilz element measured under large signals shows linearity in sound pressure levels up to 0.23 MV/m drive field but undergoes a phase transition due to a lowered transition temperature from the SrTiO(3) template particles. Although the textured ceramic performs well in this application, it could be further improved with compositional tailoring to raise the transition temperature and better processing to improve the texture quality. With these improvements textured piezoelectric ceramics will be viable options for medical ultrasound, actuators, and sonar applications because of their ease of processing, compositional homogeneity, and potentially lower cost than single crystal. PMID:19894807

Brosnan, Kristen H; Messing, Gary L; Markley, Douglas C; Meyer, Richard J

2009-11-01

198

Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical failure or depolarization, especially at elevated temperatures. In this work, three kinds of ceramic-polymer composite piezoelectric materials were evaluated and compared against state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials. The new composites are unstructured and structured composites containing granular lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles or PZT fibers in a polyurethane matrix. The composites were used to build energy harvesting patches which were attached to a tire and tested under simulated rolling conditions. The energy density of the piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials is initially not as high as that of the reference materials (a macro-fiber composite and a polyvinylidene fluoride polymer). However, the area normalized power output of the composites after temperature and strain cycling is comparable to that of the reference devices because the piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites did not degrade during operation.

van den Ende, D. A.; van de Wiel, H. J.; Groen, W. A.; van der Zwaag, S.

2012-01-01

199

Wireless energy transmission through a sealed wall using the acoustic-electric interaction of piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a system to transmit and store electric energy by using transmitting element, a chargeable battery, and a rectifier together with a dc-dc converter to connect the two components as an integrated system. The transmitting element is modeled by two piezoelectric transducers. One is as the driving transducer for generating acoustic wave; the other is as the receiving transducer for converting the acoustic energy into electric energy. A dc-dc converter employed in the storage circuit is to match the optimal output voltage of the receiving transducer with the battery voltage for efficient charging. A synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) in parallel with the receiving transducer is introduced to artificially extend the closed circuit interval of the rectifier. This analysis extends a previous one by considering that influence of wall thickness which always exists in the application. The characteristics of the energy-transmitting element are studied. Performance of the energy-transmitting element is optimized by synthetic adjusting parameters of the element, and carefully choosing input frequency of electric source.

Hu, Hongping; Xue, Huan; Hu, Yuantai; Chen, Xuedong

2009-07-01

200

Effect of poling temperature on piezoelectricity of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical poling is indispensable for endowing isotropic ferroelectric polycrystals with a net macroscopic polarization and hence piezoelectricity. However, little attention has been paid to the optimization of poling conditions in (K, Na)NbO3-based ceramics with a polymorphic phase transition. This study investigated the electrical properties of CaZrO3-modified (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3 lead-free piezoceramics as a function of the poling temperature. Peak piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 352 ± 7 pC/N and planar electromechanical coupling factor kp of 0.47 were obtained at the optimized poling temperature of 120 °C, which crosses the polymorphic phase transition regime. In-depth analysis of the asymmetric polarization hysteresis loops and bipolar strain curves uncovered striking analogy between electrical poling and unipolar cycling in the current system, which is attributed to a competition between domain reorientation and space charge accumulation.

Yao, Fang-Zhou; Wang, Ke; Jo, Wook; Lee, Jae-Shin; Li, Jing-Feng

2014-09-01

201

Ferroelectric and impedance response of lead-free (B0.5N0.5) TiO3-BaZrO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric (0.96B0.5N0.5TiO3)-0.04BaZrO3 (BNT-BZ4) was synthesized by using a solid-state reaction method. SEM micrograph shows dense microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the formation of a BNB-BZ4 single phase having pseudocubic symmetry. A maximum value of remnant polarization (30?C/cm2) and piezoelectric constant (112 pC/N) was observed for BNT-BZ4 ceramic. The temperature dependences of the dielectric properties of BNT-BZ4 were investigated in the temperature range of 25-600°C at various frequencies (0.1 Hz-1 MHz). The maximum dielectric constant value (epsilonr) reaches a highest value of 4046 (at 10 kHz). The electrical properties were investigated by using complex impedance spectroscopy and provided better understanding of relaxation process.

Rahman, Jamil ur; Hussain, Ali; Maqbool, Adnan; Kim, Jin Soo; Song, Tae Kwon; Lee, Je Hyun; Kim, Won Jeong; Kim, Myong Ho

2014-06-01

202

Grain-oriented lead(magnesium(1/3)niobium(2/3))oxygen(3)-lead titanate ceramics prepared by templated grain growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhombohedral Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) show enhanced strain levels combined with exceedingly large piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients for <001>-oriented and -poled crystal cuts. In principle, <001> fiber-textured PMN-PT ceramics should possess a high fraction of the electromechanical and dielectric properties displayed by their single crystal counterparts. To investigate this, the Templated Grain Growth (TGG) process was used to fiber-texture PMN-PT in the <001> direction. The TGG process involves the growth of multiple oriented template particles into a fine-grained matrix during thermal processing. Potential template particles with a layered-perovskite and tungsten-bronze structure (Bi4Ti3O12, Sr3Ti 2O7, KSr2Nb5O15, and Sr 2Nb2O7) were shown to form a cubic-pyrochlore phase when reacted with the PMN-PT matrix at temperatures >850°C. The BaTiO3 crystals were stable within the PMN-PT matrix at temperatures >850°C and they were shown to act as proper heteroepitaxial substrates for templated growth of the PMN-PT composition. The TGG kinetics from {001}-, {110}-, and {111}-BaTiO 3 crystals were observed and fitted to a diffusion-controlled model with a non-constant driving force. The crystal growth kinetics were shown to be limited by the decrease in the driving force due to the coarsening and shape change of the matrix grains. PMN-32.5PT ceramics were fiber-textured by initially aligning {001}-BaTiO 3 platelets (˜75-150 mum in diameter) within the matrix by tapecasting. Dense PMN32.5PT ceramics (1 wt% excess PbO) with a 5 vol% template concentration were <001> textured to a texture fraction ˜0.90 with an annealing time >1 h at 1150°C. An increase in texture fraction of the {001}-BaTiO3 templated PMN-32.5PT ceramics produced an increase in the piezoelectric, electromechanical coupling, and compliance coefficients over randomly-oriented samples of the same composition. The d33 coefficient of highly textured PMN-32.5PT ceramics (˜90%-textured) were found to be ˜1.2-1.5 times greater than randomly-oriented samples. The magnitude of the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also found to be limited by the presence of misoriented templated-grains, unoriented grains, porosity, and the remnant BaTiO3 templates. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Sabolsky, Edward Michael

2001-07-01

203

Phase transitional behavior and piezoelectric properties of (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-LiNbO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1-x)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xLiNbO3 {[Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-x]NbO3} (x=0.04-0.20) have been synthesized by an ordinary sintering technique. The materials with perovskite structure is orthorhombic phase at x ?0.05 and becomes tetragonal phase at x ?0.07, a phase K3Li2Nb5O15 with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure begins to appear at x =0.08 and becomes dominant with increasing the content of LiNbO3. A morphotropic phase boundary between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases is found in the composition range 0.05piezoelectric and electromechanical properties are enhanced for compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. Piezoelectric constant d33 values reach 200-235pC/N. Electromechanical coefficients of the planar mode and the thickness mode reach 38%-44% and 44%-48%, respectively. The Curie temperatures (TC) of [Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-x]NbO3 (x=0.04-0.20) are in the range of 452-510°C, at least 100°C higher than that of conventional Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3. Our results show that [Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-x]NbO3 is a good lead-free high-temperature piezoelectric ceramic.

Guo, Yiping; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Ohsato, Hitoshi

2004-11-01

204

Effect of high density and reduced ionic defects on piezoelectric behavior of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reduced concentration of ionic defects along with >99 % of the theoretical density has been achieved for K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic by employing a twofold sintering technique. Lower concentration of ionic defects resulted in an order of magnitude improvement in the resistivity and hence enhanced poling of the ceramic at 100 °C. High density and improved poling of the ceramic resulted in a significant improvement in electromechanical properties while maintaining the high orthorhombic-tetragonal ( T o-t) and Curie ( T c) temperatures of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (200 and 395 °C respectively). A comparison with the previous studies suggested that the piezoelectric properties of the ceramic synthesized in this study were similar to those synthesized using complex techniques such as spark plasma sintering and hot pressing. This is a significant advancement facilitating the possibility of transition of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic toward device application.

Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank

2015-01-01

205

Response of intergrown microstructure to an electric field and its consequences in the lead-free piezoelectric bismuth sodium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the R3c average structure and micro-structure of the ceramic Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) in situ under applied electric fields using diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction implies the presence of significant octahedral tilt twin disorder, corresponding to the existence of a fine scale intergrown microstructural (IGMS) 'phase' within the R3c rhombohedral average structure matrix. A careful neutron refinement suggests not only that the off-centre displacements of the cations relative to the oxygens in the R3c regions increases systematically on application of an electric field but also that the phase fraction of the IGMS regions increases systematically. The latter change in phase fraction on application of the electric field enhances the polar displacement of the cations relative to the oxygen anions and affects the overall strain response. These IGMS regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another, resulting in polarisation relaxation and strain behaviour observed in BNT-containing materials.

Liu, Yun; Norén, Lasse; Studer, Andrew J.; Withers, Ray L.; Guo, Yiping; Li, Yongxiang; Yang, Hui; Wang, Jian

2012-03-01

206

Enhanced active piezoelectric 0-3 nanocomposites fabricated through electrospun nanowires  

SciTech Connect

The use of monolithic piezoceramic materials in sensing and actuation applications has become quite common over the past decade. However, these materials have several properties that limit their application in practical systems. These materials are very brittle due to the ceramic nature of the monolithic material, making them vulnerable to accidental breakage during handling and bonding procedures. In addition, they have very poor ability to conform to curved surfaces and result in large add-on mass associated with using a typically lead-based ceramic. These limitations have motivated the development of alternative methods of applying the piezoceramic material, including piezoceramic fiber composites and piezoelectric 0-3 composites (also known as piezoelectric paint). Piezoelectric paint is desirable because it can be spayed or painted on and can be used with abnormal surfaces. However, the piezoelectric paint developed in prior studies has resulted in low coupling, limiting its application. In order to increase the coupling of the piezoelectric paint, this effort has investigated the use of piezoelectric nanowires rather than spherical piezoelectric particle, which are difficult to strain when embedded in a polymer matrix. The piezoceramic wires were electrospun from a barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) sol gel to produce fibers with 500-1000 nm diameters and subsequently calcinated to acquire perovskite BaTiO{sub 3}. An active nanocomposite paint was formed using the resulting piezoelectric wires and was compared to the same paint with piezoelectric nanoparticles. The results show that the piezoceramic wires produce 0-3 nanocomposites with as high as 300% increase in electromechanical coupling.

Feenstra, Joel [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Sodano, Henry A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States)

2008-06-15

207

Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

2013-04-01

208

Response of intergrown microstructure to an electric field and its consequences in the lead-free piezoelectric bismuth sodium titanate  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the R3c average structure and micro-structure of the ceramic Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BNT) in situ under applied electric fields using diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction implies the presence of significant octahedral tilt twin disorder, corresponding to the existence of a fine scale intergrown microstructural (IGMS) 'phase' within the R3c rhombohedral average structure matrix. A careful neutron refinement suggests not only that the off-centre displacements of the cations relative to the oxygens in the R3c regions increases systematically on application of an electric field but also that the phase fraction of the IGMS regions increases systematically. The latter change in phase fraction on application of the electric field enhances the polar displacement of the cations relative to the oxygen anions and affects the overall strain response. These IGMS regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another, resulting in polarisation relaxation and strain behaviour observed in BNT-containing materials. - Graphical abstract: The intergrown microstructure at very fine scales within the R3c rhombohedral phase matrix of BNT, originating from octahedral tilt twinning disorder, will increase with respect to an external field. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of an intergrown microstructural 'phase' within the average structure matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This phase fraction of the intergrown microstructural regions changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another.

Liu Yun, E-mail: yliu@rsc.anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Noren, Lasse [Research School of Chemistry, the Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Studer, Andrew J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia); Withers, Ray L.; Guo Yiping [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Li Yongxiang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yang Hui [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); College of Life Science and Technology, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xian 710021 (China); Wang Jian [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-03-15

209

PRODUCT DATA Piezoelectric Accelerometer  

E-print Network

element used is a PZ 23 lead zirconate titanate element. The housing material is titanium. Calibration around a triangular centre post. The ring prestresses the piezoelectric elements to give a high degree Characteristics Dimensions See outline drawing Weight gram (oz.) 17 (0.6) Case Material Titanium Connector 10

Phani, A. Srikantha

210

Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (Bi0.94-xLaxNa0.94)0.5Ba0.06TiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Bi0.94-x LaxNa0.94)0.5Ba0.06TiO3 have been fabricated by an ordinary sintering technique, and their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties have been studied. The results of x-ray diffraction reveal that La3+ and Ba2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. After the partial substitution of La3+ for Bi3+ in the (Bi0.94-x Lax Na0.94)0.5Ba0.06TiO3 ceramics (x = 0-0.04), the ceramics exhibit a lower coercive field Ec and a larger remanent polarization Pr. Because of the large Pr and low Ec, the ceramics with x = 0.02-0.04 exhibit optimum piezoelectric properties: d33 = 181-196 pC N-1 and kP = 33.2-36.3%. The depolarization temperature Td decreases with increasing x (x = 0 - 0.04). At the high La3+ level (x = 0.06-0.12), the ceramics exhibit weak ferroelectricity and thus possess very poor piezoelectricity, and the low dielectric anomaly at Td disappears. In addition, the ceramics exhibit a relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The temperature dependences of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties suggest that the ceramics with x = 0-0.04 may contain both polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above Td, while for the ceramics with x = 0.06-12, the polar and non-polar regions coexist at room temperature.

Zheng, Qiaoji; Xu, Chenggang; Lin, Dunmin; Gao, Daojiang; Kwok, K. W.

2008-06-01

211

Piezoelectric properties of <001> textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric properties of (1-x) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x=0.3-0.35), ceramics with a high degree of <001> fiber texture were investigated for possible actuator applications. Piezoelectric coefficients (d33) in excess of 1200 pC/N associated with strain levels up to >0.3% were observed in samples prepared by a reactive templated grain growth process. No excess PbO was used in the starting composition. A high degree of fiber texture was achieved using <001> oriented BaTiO3 template particles in a fine-grained precursor for the PMN-32PT matrix. High densities together with texture resulted in a significant increase in strain levels and d33 values compared to their polycrystalline counterparts. Peak dielectric constants on the order of 22 000 with losses of ˜2% and well-saturated hysteresis loops with a Pr˜27 ?C/cm2 were recorded on the textured samples. These domain engineered, textured ceramics have tremendous potential for high-performance actuators.

Sabolsky, E. M.; James, A. R.; Kwon, S.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Messing, G. L.

2001-04-01

212

A measurement method for piezoelectric material properties under longitudinal compressive stress--a compression test method for thin piezoelectric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new compression test method for piezoelectric materials to investigate changes in piezoelectric properties under the compressive stress condition. Until now, compression tests of piezoelectric materials have been generally conducted using bulky piezoelectric ceramics and pressure block. The conventional method using the pressure block for thin piezoelectric patches, which are used in unimorph or bimorph actuators, is prone

Lae-Hyong Kang; Dae-Oen Lee; Jae-Hung Han

2011-01-01

213

Optical properties of polystyrene (PS)/ferroelectric barium stannate titanate Ba(Ti0.9Sn0.1)O3 ceramic (BST) composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A composite of polystyrene PS/Ferroelectric Barium Stannate Titanate BST with different BST concentration was prepared. Structural measurements (XRD, TGA) showed that they form a good composite for all samples except at BST concentration 10%; this was explained by a non additive law and critical mass of BST. The dielectric properties were measured using HP low impedance frequency analyzer where the samples behaved as RC networks. They become more capacitive than resistive with frequency increments, and the bulk resistance decreased with increasing BST ceramic concentration. Measurement of the optical band gap in the UV-Vis light range show that it is increased with increasing BST concentration which indicate that samples formed a good composite.

AL-Akhras, M.-Ali; Saq'an, Subhi; Ghadieh, Zeinab

2013-12-01

214

Ferroelectric instabilities and enhanced piezoelectric response in Ce modified BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structure, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric behaviors of the Ba(Ti1-xCex)O3 solid solution have been investigated at close composition intervals in the dilute concentration regime. Ce concentration as low as 2 mol. % induces tetragonal-orthorhombic instability and coexistence of the phases, leading to enhanced high-field strain and direct piezoelectric response. Detailed structural analysis revealed tetragonal + orthorhombic phase coexistence for x = 0.02, orthorhombic for 0.03 ? x ? 0.05, and orthorhombic + rhombohedral for 0.06 ? x ? 0.08. The results suggest that Ce-modified BaTiO3 is a potential lead-free piezoelectric material.

Brajesh, Kumar; Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; Ranjan, Rajeev

2015-01-01

215

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of sodium lithium niobate Na1-xLixNbO3 lead free ferroelectric ceramics  

E-print Network

ferroelectric ceramics G. R. Li & Q. R. Yin & L. Y. Zheng Y. Y. Guo & W. W. Cao Published online: 17 May 2007 curves of LNN ceramics showed that there exist three phase transitions from room temperature up. The solid solution NaxLi1-xNbO3 (LNN) ceramics is a very interest- ing material due to its lead free

Cao, Wenwu

216

Phase transition temperatures and piezoelectric properties of (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3- and (Bi(1/2)K(1/2))TiO3-based bismuth perovskite lead-free ferroelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

The phase transition temperatures and the dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of bismuth perovskite lead-free ferroelectric ceramics such as (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3 (BNT)- and (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3 (BKT)-based solid solutions have been reviewed. According to the results obtained by our group, these ceramics can be considered as superior lead-free piezoelectric materials for reducing environmental damage. Perovskite-type ceramics appear to be suitable for actuator and high-power applications that require a large piezoelectric constant d33 and a high Curie temperature TC or a high depolarization temperature Td (> 200 degrees C). In this paper, we summarize the relationship between phase transition temperatures and piezoelectric properties. In the case of the BNT-based solid solutions, the highest piezoelectric properties were obtained at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal phases. However, d33 and Td were shown to have a tradeoff relationship. Considering the high Td and high d33, the tetragonal side of the MPB composition is suitable for piezoelectric actuator application. Meanwhile, the Qm values on the rhombohedral side of the MPB composition were better than those on the tetragonal side, and excellent high-power characteristics were obtained for Mn-doped BNT-(Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3-BKT ternary systems with rhombohedral symmetry. BKT ceramics were prepared by the hot-pressing (HP) method, and their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were clarified. BKT ceramics doped with a small amount of Bi have a relatively high remanent polarization of Pr = 27.6 microC/cm2 and high piezoelectric properties (k33 = 0.40 and d33 = 101 pC/N). In addition, it was clarified that BKT ceramics have a high Td of approximately 300 degrees C. The solid solution (1-x)BKT-xBaTiO3 (BKT-BT100x) exhibited a high Td of approximately 300 degrees C at x > 0.4. PMID:19686975

Takenaka, Tadashi; Nagata, Hajime; Hiruma, Yuji

2009-08-01

217

Effects of Polarization on Mechanical Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics Evaluated by Modified Small Punch Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide method, and the strength of the resultant PZT ceramics was evaluated using modified small punch (MSP) tests. Load-displacement curve test results showed that the crack-initiation and fracture strengths of PZT ceramics decreased after polarization. The effect of the polarization accelerated the fatigue properties of PZT ceramics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that microcracks were formed before the maximum load in the MSP test, and the first load drop corresponded to crack initiation.

Deng, Qihuang; Fan, Yuchi; Wang, Lianjun; Xiong, Zhi; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Kawasaki, Akira; Jiang, Wan

2012-01-01

218

Intrinsic and coupling-induced elastic nonlinearity of lanthanum-doped lead magnesium niobatelead titanate electrostrictive ceramic  

E-print Network

Intrinsic and coupling-induced elastic nonlinearity of lanthanum-doped lead magnesium niobate July 2000 The elastic nonlinearity of lanthanum-doped lead magnesium niobate­lead titanate the measurement results on the elastic nonlinearity of PMN-PT and their field dependence. The lanthanum-doped PMN

Cao, Wenwu

219

Mechanical and dielectric characterization of lead zirconate titanate(PZT)/polyurethane(PU) thin film composite for energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lead Zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic is known by its piezoelectric feature, but also by its stiffness, the use of a composite based on a polyurethane (PU) matrix charged by a piezoelectric material, enable to generate a large deformation of the material, therefore harvesting more energy. This new material will provide a competitive alternative and low cost manufacturing technology of autonomous systems (smart clothes, car seat, boat sail, flag ...). A thin film of the PZT/PU composite was prepared using up to 80 vol. % of ceramic. Due to the dielectric nature of the PZT, inclusions of this one in a PU matrix raises the permittivity of the composite, on other hand this latter seems to decline at high frequencies.

Aboubakr, S.; Rguiti, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Eddiai, A.; Courtois, C.; d'Astorg, S.

2014-04-01

220

Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-07-07

221

Optical amplification in disordered electrooptic Tm{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} codoped lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics and study of spectroscopy and communication between cations  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth doped electro-optic (EO) ceramics of lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) are promising in building multifunctional optical devices, by taking advantage of both EO effect and optical activity. In this work, the combination of the measured spectra of absorption and photoluminescence, the fluorescent decay, the calculated Judd-Ofelt parameters, and measured single pass gain in Tm{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} codoped PLZT ceramics have marked them out as promising gain media in building electrically controllable lasers/optical amplifiers and other multifunctional devices. Optical energy storage was also observed in the optical amplification dynamics.

Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Long; Sun, Fankui; Zhang, Jingwen, E-mail: jingwenz@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Xuesheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wheaton College, Norton Massachusetts 02766 (United States); Li, Kewen K. [Boston Applied Technologies, Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts 01801 (United States)

2014-02-21

222

Giant self-biased magnetoelectric response with obvious hysteresis in layered homogeneous composites of negative magnetostrictive material Samfenol and piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) response and obvious hysteresis are observed in trilayer homogenous ME laminate composite consisting of negative magnetostrictive Samfenol (SmFe2) plates and piezoelectric ceramic PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3) plates. The large anisotropic field of SmFe2 oriented the direction [111] of easy magnetization results in an enhanced internal bias due to its huge intrinsic anisotropic constant. The experimental results demonstrate that this composite exhibits ˜30 times higher ME voltage coefficient than that of composite FeNi/PZT/FeNi with weak ME coupling at zero bias. These results provide the possibility of this homogeneous ME composite for ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensing without bias.

Zhang, Jitao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; He, Wei; Yang, Aichao; Lu, Caijiang

2013-11-01

223

RMS Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RMS Titanic raised a 23- by 14-foot section of the Titanic's outer hull this week. RMS, which has exclusive rights to photograph the Titanic and to possess any items recovered from the wreck, doesn't miss an opportunity to market Titanic-oriented merchandise on their site. Nonetheless, visitors wanting to know more about the Titanic will be interested in the expedition calendar and background information on the Titanic's voyage and the exploration of its remains.

2000-01-01

224

Understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectricity describes the behavior of a class of materials which exhibit a relationship between mechanical strain and electrical field. Piezoelectric materials can be crystals (e.g. quartz), ceramic (e.g. lead-zirconate-titanate---PZT---the primary focus of the present research), or polymers (e.g. polyvinylidine-fluoride - PVDF). Piezopolymers and piezoceramics offer a significant improvement in piezoelectric properties over naturally occurring piezoelectrics like quartz. In the last five years, research in piezoelectrics has begun to change focus from the more traditional sensor/actuator applications to utilizing piezoelectric materials in energy harvesting applications. The present research will explore the very low frequency response of piezoelectrics, including several energy harvesting applications, as well as the interactions between thermal, mechanical and electrical energy in a thermally driven piezoelectric energy generation system. In Chapter 1, the history of piezoelectric research and development is given, along with an overview of piezoelectricity for those readers who are not familiar with the topic. In Chapter 2, current investigations in piezoelectric energy harvesting research are summarized. The present research, namely understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials is also summarized. In addition, two applications: thermal management in a satellite and energy harvesting from a vibrating highway bridge are detailed as motivators for the present research. Chapter 3 gives a summary of the relevant piezoelectric theory. In addition, electrical circuit theory and thermodynamic heat capacity/heat energy considerations required to complete the present research are given. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the experimental testing completed during the course of the present research. Significant testing, including determination of the PZT/Aluminum substrate sample time constants, thermal calibration testing and quantification of the voltage resulting from the PZT/Aluminum substrate samples, is detailed and summarized. In Chapter 5 the research analysis, including variance of the PZT element capacitance with loading condition, is presented. Novel piezoelectric theory associated with the thermally induced planar strain loading condition, along with corroborating test results, are also presented. Chapter 6 notes the significant results, conclusions and recommendations for future research resulting from the present research, including a system level summary of the 'satellite' and 'bridge' applications.

Ganley, Jeffrey Mark

2007-12-01

225

Ferroelastic domains in lead-free barium zirconate titanate - barium calcium titanate piezoceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions.

Ehmke, Matthias Claudius

226

A piezoelectrically actuated ball valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bimorph strip composed of two layers of poled piezoelectric ceramic material closes and opens valve. Strip performs like capacitator, allowing initial inrush of current when valve is energized and then only small leakage current flows as valve remains energized.

Erwin, L. R.; Schwartz, H. W.; Teitelbaum, B. R.

1972-01-01

227

Improved Piezoelectric Loudspeakers And Transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loudspeakers and related acoustic transducers of improved type feature both light weight and energy efficiency of piezoelectric transducers and mechanical coupling efficiency. Active component of transducer made from wafer of "rainbow" piezoelectric material, ceramic piezoelectric material chemically reduced on one face. Chemical treatment forms wafer into dishlike shallow section of sphere. Both faces then coated with electrically conductive surface layers serving as electrodes. Applications include high-fidelity loudspeakers, and underwater echo ranging devices.

Regan, Curtis Randall; Jalink, Antony; Hellbaum, Richard F.; Rohrbach, Wayne W.

1995-01-01

228

Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1???x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} doped with 1at.?% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}{sup ?}?V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen [Materials Science Department, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Damjanovic, Dragan [Ceramics Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Erdem, Emre [Institute of Physical Chemistry I, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Keeble, David J. [Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Jo, Wook [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Granzow, Torsten [Centre de Recherche Public—Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

2014-09-14

229

Piezoelectric composites for sensor and actuator applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 25 years, piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been conceptualized, prototyped, fabricated, and implemented in an array of applications encompassing medical imaging and military missions, among others. A detailed snapshot of the materials used, and a detailed account of the major innovative methods developed in making various piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites are presented. The salient aspects of processing of such

E. Koray Akdogan; Mehdi Allahverdi; Ahmad Safari

2005-01-01

230

Electric field-induced acoustic emission phenomena in ferroelectric and related ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field induced AE phenomena in bulk ferroelectric and related ceramics as well as multilayer ceramic actuators were investigated in this work. Concerning the field induced AE measurement technique, it was shown that commonly used voltage application units can excite sample vibrations electromechanically through their voltage stabilization processes and generate extrinsic AE signals. In order to detect intrinsic AE signals from within piezoelectric samples, a modified voltage application unit with a long time constant tau was proposed. For the study of origins of field induced AE, a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5A), an electrostrictive lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.9PMN-0.1PT) and a field-enhanced ferroelectric type lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT(9/65/35)) ceramics were selected. Pre-applied maximum field dependence on the AE generation were observed for ferroelectric PZT-5A and electrostrictive 0.9PMN-0.1PT ceramics. The study showed that there are two origins for the field induced AE of the ferroelectric PZT-5A: deformation related to domain reorientation processes and piezoelectric deformation unrelated to domain reorientation processes. The stress induction/relaxation process simply caused by the electrostrictive deformation was found to be the origin of AE in the electrostrictive 0.9PMN-0.1PT ceramics. The electric field induced non-ferroelectric to ferroelectric transition, reorientation process of the induced ferroelectric domains and induced internal stress were found to be the origins of AE in the field-enhanced ferroelectric PLZT (9/65/35). The potential use of the AE method in production was explored using a Multilayer Ceramic Actuator (MCA) fabricated by a tape casting method.

Aburatani, Hideaki

231

Piezoelectric properties of (Pb/sub 1-x/Ba/sub x/)/sub 2. 5-y/Na/sub 2y/Nb/sub 5/O/sub 15/ ceramic in the morphotropic region  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the effect of the sodium content of solid solutions of the title ceramic, obtained by hot pressing, on its piezoelectric properties and Curie temperature. It is established that the addition of NaNbO/sub 3/ to the morphotropic compositions increases the Curie point by about 100 C. There is then an increase in the ferrorigidity of the ceramic. The greatest temperature stability of the piezomodulus is found in compositions corresponding to the edge of the morphotropic region on the side of the rhombic phase with a (010) polar orientation.

Lopatin, S.S.; Biyatenko, Yu.N.; Medvedev, B.S.; Lupeiko, T.G.

1987-02-01

232

Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT-Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT-EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT-Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

2014-05-01

233

Ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: The oxygen vacancy was confirmed by the left figure and the role of oxygen vacancy on the piezoelectric properties was discussed. - Highlights: • The d{sub 33}, ? and T{sub c} were found to be 22 pC/N, ? ? 10{sup 6} ? cm and 586 °C. • The electromechanical properties: k{sub p} ? 5.0%, k{sub t} ? 8.7% and Q{sub m} ? 651. • The oxygen vacancy is responsible for electrical properties at high temperature. - Abstract: Aurivillius-type ceramic, Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBNBN), was synthesized by using conventional solid-state processing. Phase structure and microstructural morphology were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of the SBNBN ceramic were investigated in detail. Curie temperature (T{sub c}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}), electromechanical coupling coefficient k{sub p}, k{sub t} and quality factor Q{sub m} of the SBNBN ceramic were found to be 586.5 °C, 22 pC/N, 5.0%, 8.7% and 651, respectively. In addition, the reasons for varieties of the resistivity and dielectric properties at high temperature were also discussed.

Fang, Pinyang, E-mail: fpy_2000@163.com; Xi, Zengzhe; Long, Wei; Li, Xiaojuan

2013-11-15

234

ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric properties of Sm1.5Sr0.5NiO4- ? ceramics with different concentrations of oxygen vacancies were characterized. The ceramics with lower concentration of oxygen vacancies were prepared by directly sintering the sol-gel derived powders in air, while the higher one could be obtained by annealing the as-sintered ceramics in the flow of nitrogen. The post-densification annealing in the flow of nitrogen decreased the dielectric constant at low temperature and increased it at high temperature, while the dielectric loss increased in overall temperature range. The activation energy of low-temperature dielectric relaxation decreased with increasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies, and so did that of bulk electrical resistances although the values of resistances increased, while the activation energy of electrical resistances for grain boundary increased though the values of resistances decreased. The giant dielectric response in the as-sintered Sm1.5Sr0.5NiO4- ? ceramics should be mainly attributed to the small polaronic hopping process, while that of annealed ceramics should be directly linked to the oxygen vacancies.

Liu, G.; Liu, X. Q.; Chen, X. M.

2014-09-01

235

Isothermal relaxation of field-biased barium stannate titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isothermal time dependences of the dielectric constant and the discharging current of barium stannate titanate ceramics after application or removal of a step field were investigated in both ferroelectric and paraelectric temperature regions. The experimental results exhibited a substantial difference for these two phases. For the ferroelectric phase, the relaxation of the dielectric constant is weak and the discharging current obeys Hammon's model. While for the paraelectric phase, the relaxation is relatively strong and the discharging current obeys the complex exponential decay model. The relaxation of the field-induced piezoelectric resonance indicated the first relaxation observed in a paraelectric phase sample corresponding to homocharges. The authors proposed that the transportation of homocharges is the microscopic origin of the strong relaxation observed in the paraelectric phase.

Wei, Xiaoyong; Jin, Li; Yao, Xi

2005-08-01

236

Performance of tonpilz transducers with segmented piezoelectric stacks using materials with high electromechanical coupling coefficient.  

PubMed

Tonpilz acoustic transducers for use underwater often include a stack of piezoelectric material pieces polarized along the length of the stack and having alternating polarity. The pieces are interspersed with electrodes, bonded together, and electrically connected in parallel. The stack is normally much shorter than a quarter wavelength at the fundamental resonance frequency so that the mechanical behavior of the transducer is not affected by the segmentation. When the transducer bandwidth is less than a half octave, as has conventionally been the case, for example, with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, stack segmentation has no significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the device in its normal operating band near the fundamental resonance. However, when a high coupling coefficient material such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is used to achieve a wider bandwidth with the tonpilz, the performance difference between a segmented stack and a similar piezoelectric section with electrodes only at the two ends can be significant. This paper investigates the effects of stack segmentation on the performance of wideband underwater tonpilz acoustic transducers. Included is a discussion of a particular tonpilz transducer design using single crystal piezoelectric material with high coupling coefficient compared with a similar design using more traditional PZT ceramics. PMID:24437755

Thompson, Stephen C; Meyer, Richard J; Markley, Douglas C

2014-01-01

237

Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

2002-01-01

238

Active piezoelectric diaphragms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes (ICE). When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis, rather than the expected in-plane direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M., Jr.; Covington, Ed W., III

2002-07-01

239

Titan Meteorology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern hemisphere summer.

Mitchell, Jonathan

2012-04-01

240

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of Ta2O5/Y2O3 codoping on the microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Co0.56Zn0.40)1/3Nb2/3O3- xA- xB (A = 0.045 wt.% Ta2O5; B = 0.113 wt.% Y2O3) ceramics ( x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32) prepared according to the conventional solid-state reaction technique were investigated. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the main crystal phase in the sintered ceramics was BaZn0.33Nb0.67O3-Ba3CoNb2O9. The additional surface phase of Ba8CoNb6O24 and trace amounts of Ba5Nb4O15 second phase were present when Ta2O5/Y2O3 was added to the ceramics. The 1:2 B-site cation ordering was affected by the substitution of Ta5+ and Y3+ in the crystal lattice, especially for x = 4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the optimally doped ceramics sintered at 1340°C for 20 h showed a compact microstructure with crystal grains in dense contact. Though the dielectric constant increased with the x value, appropriate addition would result in a tremendous modification of the Q × f and ? f values. Excellent microwave dielectric properties ( ? r = 35.4, Q × f = 62,993 GHz, and ? f = 2.6 ppm/°C) were obtained for the ceramic with x = 0.4 sintered in air at 1340°C for 20 h.

Bin, Tang; Feng, Si; Ying-xiang, Li; He-tuo, Chen; Xiao, Zhang; Shu-ren, Zhang

2014-11-01

241

Present and future of piezoelectric single crystals and the importance of B-site cations for high piezoelectric response.  

PubMed

High quality piezoelectric single crystals, such as Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3 (PZNT) and Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT), have been investigated, and, because their piezoelectric properties are greatly superior to those of Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O3 (PZT) ceramics, they have been used for certain transducer applications since the late 1990s. The present situation for these relaxor-PT (lead titanate) single crystals is summarized. In this review, some possible high Tc > 200 degrees C single crystals are also introduced. Single crystals of Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 (PINT) binary system and Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(Sc(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 (PSMNT) tertiary system have been synthesized, and their electrical properties are reported. In addition, a novel guiding principle for discovering excellent piezoelectric materials, namely the presence of low molecular mass B-site ions that can enter the lead-perovskite Pb(B'B'')O3 structure, is introduced. PMID:11885676

Yamashita, Yohachi; Hosono, Yasuharu; Harada, Kouichi; Yasuda, Naohiko

2002-02-01

242

Phase transition and electric field induced strain properties in Sm modified lead zirconate stannate titanate based antiferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Sm addition on the crystal structures and electrical properties of Pb1-3x/2Smx(Zr0.63Sn0.26Ti0.11)O3 ceramics were investigated in this work. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that with increasing Sm content from 0.005 to 0.03, the phase structure of the specimens underwent transition from ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) state due to the substitution of Sm3+ with smaller ion radius for Pb2+ decreasing the tolerance factor of the ceramics. In addition, it was observed that with the improvement of Sm3+ content, the strain of the specimens first increased and then decreased, and the largest value of 0.735% was obtained in the sample with x = 0.015 near AFE/FE phase boundary at the measuring frequency 1 Hz. This is because the reversal of the domains, which produces the strain, is more consummate in this composition. Further, the strain at different frequencies was nearly the same at high electric field, which was attributed to that the electric field applied to the sample was so large that the reorientation of the domains could finish in all measuring frequencies. Both a high strain level and a relatively good frequency stability in the specimen with x = 0.015 make a potential candidate for actuators applications over a wide-frequency working range.

Zhang, Qingfeng; Yang, Tongqing; Zhang, Yangyang; Yao, Xi

2013-06-01

243

Theoretical model to describe dispersive nonlinear properties of lead zirconatetitanate ceramics  

E-print Network

Theoretical model to describe dispersive nonlinear properties of lead zirconate­titanate ceramics K signals measured in lead zirconate­titanate PZT ceramics suggest the introduction of a revised theoretical

244

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Yb-doped Ca0.9- x Yb x La0.1 MnO3 (0 ? x ? 0.05) ceramics prepared by using the Pechini method derived powders have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that all samples exhibit single phase with orthorhombic perovskite structure. All ceramic samples possess high relative densities, ranging from 97.04% to 98.65%. The Seebeck coefficient is negative, indicating n-type conduction in all samples. The substitution of Yb for Ca leads to a marked decrease in the electrical resistivity, along with a moderate decrease in the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient. The highest power factor is obtained for the sample with x = 0.05. The electrical conduction in these compounds is due to electrons hopping between Mn3+ and Mn4+, which is enhanced by increasing Yb content.

Zhang, Bo; Chang, Aimin; Zhao, Qing; Ye, Haitao; Wu, Yiquan

2014-11-01

245

Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of excess Li content on the phase structure and microwave dielectric properties, especially on the temperature coefficient, of LiNb0.6 Ti0.5O3 (LNT) ceramics were studied. The results show that small amounts of Li effectively enhanced the sintering process due to the compensation of high volatility of Li, leading to a densification and homogenous microstructure, and therefore enhanced the dielectric properties. However, too much Li leads to a secondary phase and cause abnormal grain growth. The LNT + 5 wt.% Li ceramic sintered at 1075°C in the air shows the best properties of ? r = 69.73, Q × f = 5543 GHz, and ? f = -4.4 ppm/°C.

Li, Enzhu; Zou, Mengying; Duan, Shuxin; Xu, Ning; Yuan, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohua

2014-11-01

246

Structure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of (Bi0.98- x La0.02Na1- x )0.5Ba x TiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (Bi0.98- x La0.02Na1- x )0.5Ba x TiO3 ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique and their structure, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties have been studied. The results of X-ray diffraction show that La2+ and Ba2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exists at 0.04< x<0.10. Compared with pure Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramics, the (Bi0.98- x La0.02Na1- x )0.5Ba x TiO3 ceramics possess much smaller coercive field E c and larger remanent polarization P r. Because of the low E c (3.38 kV/mm), large P r (46.2 ?C/cm2) and the formation of the MPB of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases, the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics are significantly enhanced at x=0.06: d 33=181 pC/N and k p=36.3%. The depolarization temperature T d reaches a minimum value near the MPB. The ceramics exhibit relaxor characteristic, which is probably a result from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The temperature dependences of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties suggest that the ceramics may contain both polar and non-polar regions at the temperatures above T d.

Lin, Dunmin; Kwok, K. W.

2009-10-01

247

High electrostrictive coefficient Q33 in lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the electrostrictive effect in Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BZT-xBCT, x = 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) ceramics was investigated to gain understanding of their high piezoelectric activity. The electrostrictive coefficient Q33 of the BZT-xBCT ceramics was observed to be around 0.04 m4/C2, twice that reported for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based ceramics. The Q33 was found to be quite stable with respect to temperature and composition for the BZT-xBCT ceramics. The addition of Fe3+ dopant to the ceramics greatly decreased their Curie temperature without affecting their Q33, which remained 0.04 m4/C2. Moreover, a high and hysteresis-free electric-field-induced strain was obtained for 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics at room temperature, caused by their high Q33 coefficient and lower-than-room-temperature Curie temperature. The small-signal M33 coefficient of 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics was found to be 1.5 × 10-16 m2/V2 (0.32 × 10-16 m2/V2 for undoped counterpart). These results indicate that 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics have great potential as alternatives for hard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics in actuator applications, where reproducible and non-hysteretic deformation responses are required.

Li, Fei; Jin, Li; Guo, Runping

2014-12-01

248

Abnormal electronic transition variations of lanthanum-modified lead zironate stannate titanate ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary: A spectroscopic evidence  

SciTech Connect

The structure-related optical response of (Pb{sub 1-1.5x}La{sub x})(Zr{sub 0.42}Sn{sub 0.40}Ti{sub 0.18})O{sub 3} (100x/42/40/18) ceramics with different compositions has been investigated. Based on x-ray diffraction, the phase transition from rhombohedral to tetragonal structure is revealed between compositions of x = 2.6% and 2.8% near morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Correspondingly, abnormal spectral response in the photon energy from 1.4 to 6.1 eV is observed near MPB. Furthermore, the blue shift of the two critical points related parameters, which is obtained from fitting the reflectance spectra, indicates that the variation of electronic band structure near MPB is responsible for the anomalous behavior.

Chen, X.; Jiang, K.; Hu, Z. G.; Chu, J. H. [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chen, X. F.; Wang, G. S.; Dong, X. L. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2012-07-02

249

Modeling of piezoelectric ceramic vibrators including thermal effects. Part III. Bond graph model for one-dimensional heat conduction  

SciTech Connect

A new bond graph model for conduction heat transfer is developed, and applied to thermal energy balance in the piezoelectric thickness vibrator. In formulation of the heat conduction model, the mechanical and electrical effects are included. Hence, it can be directly applied to the temperature-dependent thickness vibrator. For the purpose of evaluation of the new method, one-dimensional heat conduction excluding other variable effects is compared with the results of the analytic solutions in simple cases. The simulation illustrates the validity and the accuracy of the model. Although the model is applied to the one-dimensional case only, the method can be easily used for general heat conduction problems. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

Moon, W.; Busch-Vishniac, I.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

1997-03-01

250

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} added (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O{sub 3} ceramics sintered at low temperature  

SciTech Connect

In this study, in order to develop low temperature sintering ceramics for a thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer, (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, MnO{sub 2}, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering aids at 870, 900, and 930 deg. C. Their respective dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. At the sintering temperature of 900 deg. C, the optimum value was shown for the density of 6.94 g/cm{sup 3}, thickness vibration mode electromechanical coupling factor (henceforth, k{sub t}) of 0.497, thickness vibration mode mechanical quality factor (henceforth, Q{sub mt}) of 3162, and dielectric constant (henceforth, {epsilon}{sub r}) of 209 for thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer application.

Kim, Dohyung; Yoo, Juhyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semyung University, Jechon, Chungbuk 390-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Insung; Song, Jaesung [Piezoelectric Devices Research Group, KERI, Changwon 641-12 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15

251

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Temperature on Piezoelectric Sensors for Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring  

PubMed Central

The electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique is considered to be one of the most promising methods for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This technique is simple to implement and uses small and inexpensive piezoelectric sensors. However, practical problems have hindered its application to real-world structures, and temperature effects have been cited in the literature as critical problems. In this paper, we present an experimental study of the effect of temperature on the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensors used in the EMI technique. We used 5H PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic sensors, which are commonly used in the EMI technique. The experimental results showed that the temperature effects were strongly frequency-dependent, which may motivate future research in the SHM field. PMID:24434878

Baptista, Fabricio G.; Budoya, Danilo E.; de Almeida, Vinicius A. D.; Ulson, Jose Alfredo C.

2014-01-01

252

An experimental study on the effect of temperature on piezoelectric sensors for impedance-based structural health monitoring.  

PubMed

The electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique is considered to be one of the most promising methods for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This technique is simple to implement and uses small and inexpensive piezoelectric sensors. However, practical problems have hindered its application to real-world structures, and temperature effects have been cited in the literature as critical problems. In this paper, we present an experimental study of the effect of temperature on the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensors used in the EMI technique. We used 5H PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic sensors, which are commonly used in the EMI technique. The experimental results showed that the temperature effects were strongly frequency-dependent, which may motivate future research in the SHM field. PMID:24434878

Baptista, Fabricio G; Budoya, Danilo E; de Almeida, Vinicius A D; Ulson, Jose Alfredo C

2013-01-01

253

Effects of Copper Doping on Dielectric and A.C. Conductivity in Layered Sodium Tri-Titanate Ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 molar percentage (mp) of CuO doped derivatives of layered Na2Ti3O7 ceramic have been reported. The results show that copper substitutes as Cu2+ at Ti4+ octahedral sites. From the dependence of loss tangent (tan ?) and the relative permittivity (??) on temperature and frequency, it is concluded that all the derivatives are of polar nature. The relaxation peaks at lower temperatures have been attributed to the presence of different types of dipoles, whereas peaks in the higher temperature region indicate possible ferroelectric phase transition. The dependence of conductivity on temperature show that electron hopping (polaron) conduction exists in a wide span of temperature range. However, the associated interlayer ionic conduction exists in a small temperature range. Interlayer alkali ion hopping mechanism of conduction has been proposed toward higher temperatures. The conductivity versus frequency plots reveal that the polaron conduction plays a prominent role toward the lower temperature side that diminishes with the rise in temperature. The most probable relaxation times for 0.01 and 0.1 mp CuO doped derivatives are almost same but it records an increased value for 1.0 mp doped material. This again attributes to the possible change in the symmetry of copper environment.

Shripal; Dwivedi, Shailja; Singh, Rakesh; Tandon, R. P.

2013-09-01

254

High-Temperature Piezoelectrics with Large Piezoelectric Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature piezoelectric materials are of interest for sensors and actuators in various industrial applications in which the devices are exposed to high temperature. A lot of research has been conducted in this area to bring forth a suitable piezoelectric material having a high Curie temperature for suitable usage at a high temperature with good piezoelectric properties. This report is an attempt to review the state of the art in high-temperature piezoelectric materials, covering their issues and concerns at elevated temperatures. Among the non-ferroelectric crystal classes, langasite and oxyborate crystals retain their piezoelectricity up to a very high temperature, but their piezoelectric coefficient is much smaller compared to a standard piezoelectric material such as lead zirconate titanate. A similar trend has also been observed in ferroelectric crystal class which shows poor piezoelectricity but retains it until a high temperature. Recent studies on solid solutions of bismuth-based oxides and lead titanate with the chemical formulae Bi(Me3+) O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2)O3-PbTiO3 (Me3+ represents a trivalent cation and Me1 and Me2 are cations having a combined valency of 3) show a much application potential of these materials due to improved piezoelectric property and high Curie temperature. BiScO3-PbTiO3, Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3, (Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Zn0.5T0.5)O3-PbTiO3 are some interesting high-temperature piezoelectrics from the group of Bi(Me3+)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2) O3-PbTiO3 which shows superior piezoelectric properties at high temperatures. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 demands a special interest for further studies due to its plausible good piezoelectric property at elevated temperature.

Shinekumar, K.; Dutta, Soma

2014-12-01

255

High-Temperature Piezoelectrics with Large Piezoelectric Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature piezoelectric materials are of interest for sensors and actuators in various industrial applications in which the devices are exposed to high temperature. A lot of research has been conducted in this area to bring forth a suitable piezoelectric material having a high Curie temperature for suitable usage at a high temperature with good piezoelectric properties. This report is an attempt to review the state of the art in high-temperature piezoelectric materials, covering their issues and concerns at elevated temperatures. Among the non-ferroelectric crystal classes, langasite and oxyborate crystals retain their piezoelectricity up to a very high temperature, but their piezoelectric coefficient is much smaller compared to a standard piezoelectric material such as lead zirconate titanate. A similar trend has also been observed in ferroelectric crystal class which shows poor piezoelectricity but retains it until a high temperature. Recent studies on solid solutions of bismuth-based oxides and lead titanate with the chemical formulae Bi(Me3+) O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2)O3-PbTiO3 (Me3+ represents a trivalent cation and Me1 and Me2 are cations having a combined valency of 3) show a much application potential of these materials due to improved piezoelectric property and high Curie temperature. BiScO3-PbTiO3, Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3, (Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Zn0.5T0.5)O3-PbTiO3 are some interesting high-temperature piezoelectrics from the group of Bi(Me3+)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2) O3-PbTiO3 which shows superior piezoelectric properties at high temperatures. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 demands a special interest for further studies due to its plausible good piezoelectric property at elevated temperature.

Shinekumar, K.; Dutta, Soma

2015-02-01

256

Development of a piezoelectric induced-strain actuator with an innovative internal amplifying structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a novel piezoelectric induced-strain actuator possessing an innovative internal amplifying structure is presented in this paper. This actuator basically consists of a metal frame and two lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic patches. The metal frame is bent to form an open trapezoid, where its center part has a specially designed saddle-like unit and its slanting legs are attached with PZT patches. The saddle-like unit has an amplifying-lever mechanism at the corners to increase the displacement output of the whole actuator even its legs are mechanically clamped. When an electric field is applied across the thickness of the PZT patches, the patches induce deformations on the whole actuator through the piezoelectric d31 effect. The saddle-like unit can relax the constraints at the joints between the unit and the legs by stretching itself during bending. Piezoelectric finite element analysis is used to maximize the work output of displacement and blocked force of the actuator under different geometric parameters. The results are in good agreement with those obtained from quasi-static measurements, showing that the actuator has work output comparable to and larger than the existing induced-strain actuators (e.g., THUNDER) under fixed mounting conditions. Therefore, the actuator has great potential for use in various practical smart structures and integrated systems, including active-passive vibration isolation and micro-positioning.

Yung, Chung Sheung; Or, Siu Wing; Chan, Helen Lai Wa; Choy, Ping Kong; Liu, Peter Chou Kee

2005-05-01

257

Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than 5 increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d g coefficient with value of 59 000 10 15 m2 N 1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

Yan, Yongke [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Cho, Kyung-Hoon [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Maurya, Deepam [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Khachaturyan, Armen [State University of New Jersey, The; Priya, Shashank [ORNL

2013-01-01

258

Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than ˜5× increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d.g coefficient with value of 59 000 × 10-15 m2 N-1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Maurya, Deepam; Kumar, Amit; Kalinin, Sergei; Khachaturyan, Armen; Priya, Shashank

2013-01-01

259

Structure and electrical properties of (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x-y-z BaxSryCazTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x-y-xBax SryCazTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by a conventional mixed oxide method, and their structural and electrical properties have been studied. The results of x-ray diffraction reveal that Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a single-phase perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exists at x = 0.04-0.08, y = 0.015, z = 0.01. After the substitutions of Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+, the ceramics exhibit a lower coercive field Ec and a larger remanent polarization Pr, which facilitates the poling and leads to an improvement in the piezoelectric coefficient d33 and the planar electromechanical coupling factor kP. Also, the depolarization temperature Td decreases, showing a strong dependence on the substitution level of Ba2+. For the ceramics with the compositions near the MPB, Pr = 44 µC cm-2, d33 = 173 pC N-1, kP = 34% and Td = 120 °C. In addition, the ceramics exhibit a relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The results of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties at high temperatures suggest that the ceramics may contain both the polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above Td.

Lin, Dunmin; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. W. L.

2007-09-01

260

Structure, electrical properties and depolarization temperature of (Bi 0.5Na 0.5)TiO 3-BaTiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free ceramics (1 - x)Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3- xBaTiO 3 have been prepared by a conventional solid reaction method, and their structure, electrical properties and depolarization temperature have been studied. The results of X-ray diffraction reveal that Ba 2+ diffuse into the Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) exists at 0.06 < x < 0.10. The grain size decreases with x. After the introduction of BaTiO 3 into Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3, the ceramics exhibit a lower coercive field Ec and a larger remanent polarization Pr. Because of the strong ferroelectricity and MPB, the ceramics with x = 0.06 exhibit optimum piezoelectric properties: d33 = 155 pC/N and kP = 36.7%. The depolarization temperature Td shows a strong compositional dependence and gives a minimum value at MPB. In addition, the ceramics exhibit relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The results of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties at high temperatures may suggest that the ceramics may contain both the polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above Td.

Xu, Chenggang; Lin, Dunmin; Kwok, K. W.

2008-07-01

261

Computer modelling of barium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium titanate is an important material for both scientific and industrial applications. Much of the interest centres around its ferroelectric properties, since it is structurally the most simple in this class. In addition rare-earth doped ceramics are found to exhibit a very steep positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) above the Curie point. The theory of this PTCR effect is

G. V. Lewis; C. R. A. Catlow

1983-01-01

262

Variation of Piezoelectric properties and mechanisms across the relaxor-like/Ferroelectric continuum in BiFeO3- (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics.  

PubMed

1- x - y)BiFeO3-x(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-yPbTiO3 (BFKBT- PT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated across the compositional space and contrasted against the xBiFeO3- (1-x)(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (BF-KBT) system, whereby a range of relaxor-like/ferroelectric behavior was observed. Structural and piezoelectric properties were closely related to the PbTiO3 concentration; below a critical concentration, relaxor-like behavior was identified. The mechanisms governing the piezoelectric behavior were investigated with structural, electrical, and imaging techniques. X-ray diffraction established that longrange non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order was evident above a critical PbTiO3 concentration, y > 0.1125. Commensurate with the structural analysis, electric-field-induced strain responses showed electrostrictive behavior in the PbTiO3-reduced compositions, with increased piezoelectric switching in PbTiO3-rich compositions. Positive-up-negative-down (PUND) analysis was used to confirm electric-field-induced polarization measurements, elucidating that the addition of PbTiO3 increased the switchable polarization and ferroelectric ordering. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) of the BF-KBT-PT system exhibited typical domain patterns above a critical PbTiO3 threshold, with no ferroelectric domains observed in the BF-KBT system in the pseudocubic region. Doping of BiFeO3-PbTiO3 has been unsuccessful in the search for hightemperature materials that offer satisfactory piezoelectric properties; however, this system demonstrates that the partial substitution of alternative end-members can be an effective method. The partial substitution of PbTiO3 into BF-KBT enables long-range non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order, resulting in increased polar order and TC, compared with the pseudocubic region. The search for novel high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics can therefore exploit the accommodating nature of the perovskite family, which allows significant variance in chemical and physical characters in the exploration of new solid-solutions. PMID:25585388

Bennett, James; Shrout, Thomas; Zhang, Shujun; Owston, Heather; Stevenson, Tim; Esat, Faye; Bell, Andrew; Comyn, T

2015-01-01

263

Electrophoretic deposition of advanced ceramic actuator.  

E-print Network

??In recent years, remarkable developments have taken place in electromechanical system research. Among them, piezoelectric ceramics and their devices have drawn huge attention. Actuators utilizing… (more)

Chen, Yanhong.

2008-01-01

264

Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator.  

PubMed

A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC actuator as a fluid chamber, the large flexural actuation can be used to produce the displacement needed to eject fluid. By applying an appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric unimorphs, a drop-on-demand ejection of ink or water can be achieved. The efficiency of fluid ejection can be enhanced after installing a valve in the fluid chamber. With the simple PMC structure, the dispenser can be operated with a low driving voltage of 12-15 V. PMID:19655984

Lam, K H; Sun, C L; Kwok, K W; Chan, H L W

2009-07-01

265

Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC actuator as a fluid chamber, the large flexural actuation can be used to produce the displacement needed to eject fluid. By applying an appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric unimorphs, a drop-on-demand ejection of ink or water can be achieved. The efficiency of fluid ejection can be enhanced after installing a valve in the fluid chamber. With the simple PMC structure, the dispenser can be operated with a low driving voltage of 12-15 V.

Lam, K. H.; Sun, C. L.; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.

2009-07-01

266

Peristaltic micropump system with piezoelectric actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a driving system for a peristaltic micropump that is based on piezoelectric actuation. The effects of the\\u000a actuation sequence on pump performance are also considered. A valveless peristaltic micropump based on piezoelectric actuation\\u000a is designed and fabricated using microelectromechanical system technology. The pump has three parts––silicon, Pyrex glass\\u000a and commercially available bulk PZT (lead zirconate titanate) chips.

Ling-Sheng Jang; Yung-Chiang Yu

2008-01-01

267

Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 °C) and Curie temperature (TC of 234 °C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol. % BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling factor (k31) of T-5BT ceramic started to degrade from 75 °C while the random counterpart showed a very stable tendency up to 180 °C. This degradation was associated with the "interface region" formed in the vicinity of BT template. MnO2 doped PMN-PZT ceramics textured with 3 vol. % BT and subsequently poled at 140 °C (T-3BT140) exhibited very stable and high k31 (>0.53) in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 130 °C through reduction in the interface region volume. Further, the T-3BT140 ceramic exhibited excellent hard and soft combinatory piezoelectric properties of d33 = 720 pC/N, k31 = 0.53, Qm = 403, tan ? = 0.3% which are very promising for high power and magnetoelectric applications.

Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

2012-03-01

268

Investigation of a new lead-free Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramic  

PubMed Central

Lead-free piezoelectric compositions of the (1-x)Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-x(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 system (when x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) were fabricated using a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintered between 1,050°C and 1,175°C for 2 h. The effect of (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 [BST] content on phase, microstructure, and electrical properties was investigated. The optimum sintering temperature was 1,125°C at which all compositions had densities of at least 98% of their theoretical values. X-ray diffraction patterns that showed tetragonality were increased with the increasing BST. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BST was added. The addition of BST was also found to improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the BNKT ceramic. A large room-temperature dielectric constant, ?r (1,609), and piezoelectric coefficient, d33 (214 pC/N), were obtained at an optimal composition of x = 0.10. PMID:22221833

2012-01-01

269

High Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics Based on xPbTiO3-(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (Me = Zn, Mg) Ternary Perovskites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline xPbTiO3-(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (PT-BS-BMeT) ceramics, where Me = Mg (M) or Zn (Z), were studied for development of high temperature piezoelectrics. Ceramics were processed using standard mixed oxide procedure at various temperatures. X-ray diffraction at room temperature revealed that the tetragonality of PT-BS-BZT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.90 to 0.60 and tetragonality of PT-BS-BMT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.60 to 0.40. A transition was observed in PT-BS-BMT within compositions x = 0.42-0.50. Dielectric properties revealed permittivites up to ?r?20000 and transition temperatures up to 540 °C. Hysteresis measurements showed full saturation below 50 mol % PbTiO3 content with remanent polarization of Pr = 32.8 µC/cm2 and coercive field of 23.0 kV/cm. Converse piezoelectric coefficients (d33*) calculated from unipolar strain measurements revealed values between 240 and 313 pm/V. Depolarization temperatures were measured between 320 and 390 °C.

Ansell, Troy Y.; Nikkel, Jason; Cann, David P.; Sehirlioglu, Alp

2012-10-01

270

Piezoelectric Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

271

Piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials for transducers applications, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics discussed are as follows: Ceramic-Metal Composite Actuator; Effects of Surface Layers on the Physical Properties of Lanthanum Doped Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramic; The Influence of Surface Contamination on Electric Fatigue of Ferroelectrics; Fatigue Effects in High Strain Actuators; Acoustic Emission in Ferroelectric Lead Titanate Ceramics; Origin and Recombination of Microcracks; Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 System; Theory of Tetragonal Twin Structure in Ferroelectric Perovskites with a First-Order Phase Transition; The Extrinsic Nature of Nonlinear Behavior Observed in Lead Zirconate Titanate Ferroelectric Ceramic; Electromechanical Nonlinearity of Ferroelectric Ceramics and Related Non-180* Domain Wall Motions; Stress and Electric Displacement Distribution Near Griffith's Type III Crack Tips in Piezoceramics; Stress Induced Shift of the Curie Point in Epitaxial PbTiO3 Thin Films; and X-ray and Phenomenological Study of Lanthanum-Modified Lead Zirconate-Titanates in the Vicinity of the Relaxor Phase Transition Region.

Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Bhalla, A. S.; Dougherty, J. P.; Adair, J. H.; Varadan, V. K.; Varadan, V. V.

1992-01-01

272

Piezoelectric valve  

DOEpatents

A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

2013-01-15

273

Enhanced high-temperature piezoelectric properties of traditional Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics by a small amount substitution of KNbO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystal structure, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties were investigated on the (1-x)Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3-xKNbO3 system. The piezoelectric properties have been significantly improved by substituting a small amount of KNbO3. In the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.015), the compound not only shows enhanced piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 450 pC/N, which is two times larger than that of unmodified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (d33 = 223 pC/N), but also the Curie temperature (TC = ?380 °C) is still well maintained at a high level. This phenomenon challenges our general knowledge that in piezoelectric materials the Curie temperature and piezoelectric properties are mutually contradictory. It should be noted that a giant total strain as high as 0.73% is also observed. The high thermal depoling temperature more than 300 °C combined with the excellent piezoelectric properties suggest it as a potential candidate for high temperature actuators and sensors applications.

Pan, Zhao; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Rong, Yangchun; Zheng, Shaoying; Liu, Laijun; Fang, Liang; Xing, Xianran

2014-12-01

274

The effect of stress on the dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films  

E-print Network

The effect of stress on the dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films T. M Barium strontium titanate thin films are being developed as capacitors in dynamic random access memories to their large permittivities, barium strontium titan- ate BST bulk ceramics have long been used to make high

Suo, Zhigang

275

Perovskite ceramic nanoparticles in polymer composites for augmenting bone tissue regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing interest in the use of nanoparticles as fillers in polymer matrices to develop biomaterials which mimic the mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of bone tissue for orthopaedic applications. The objective of this study was to prepare poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites incorporating three different perovskite ceramic nanoparticles, namely, calcium titanate (CT), strontium titanate (ST) and barium titanate (BT). The tensile strength and modulus of the composites increased with the addition of nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that dispersion of the nanoparticles scaled with the density of the ceramics, which in turn played an important role in determining the enhancement in mechanical properties of the composite. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed improved permittivity and reduced losses in the composites when compared to neat PCL. Nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. Induction coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy indicated the release of small quantities of Ca+2, Sr+2, Ba+2 ions from the scaffolds. Piezo-force microscopy revealed that BT nanoparticles imparted piezoelectric properties to the scaffolds. In vitro studies revealed that all composites support osteoblast proliferation. Expression of osteogenic genes was enhanced on the nanocomposites in the following order: PCL/CT > PCL/ST > PCL/BT > PCL. This study demonstrates that the use of perovskite nanoparticles could be a promising technique to engineer better polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Bagchi, Amrit; Rama Krishna Meka, Sai; Narayana Rao, Badari; Chatterjee, Kaushik

2014-12-01

276

Piezoelectricity and local structural distortions in (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xSrxTiO3-Bi12TiO20 flexoelectric-type polar ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously described sintered Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-Bi12TiO20 composites as flexoelectric-type polar ceramics because they have a net macroscopic flexoelectric polarization. Here, we report on the universal existence of the macroscopic flexoelectric polarization in the (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xSrxTiO3-Bi12TiO20 system, in which enhanced piezoelectricity is observed. By combining Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques, we have identified the local flexoelectric polarization as distorted BiO5 polyhedra and TiO6 octahedra in the SrTiO3-Bi12TiO20 ceramic. The macroscopic polarization may be due to the partial alignment of these distorted units located within the grain boundary amorphous phases. Bi12TiO20 could have an important role in these flexoelectric-type polar ceramics.

Wang, L. H.; Zhao, M. L.; Wang, C. L.; Wang, J.; Kuai, W. J.; Tao, X. T.

2012-08-01

277

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of <001> fiber-textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.325PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.325PbTiO3 (PMN-32.5PT) ceramic composition (with 1 wt. % excess PbO) was fiber textured in the <001> direction by the templated grain growth process using 5 vol % oriented {001}-BaTiO3 platelet crystals as the templates. The templated ceramics annealed at 1150 °C for 5 h attained texture fractions as high as 0.9. The fiber-textured samples showed an increase in the piezoelectric, electromechanical coupling, and compliance coefficients when poled and measured in the <001>-textured direction. The low drive field (<5 kV/cm) d33 coefficients in the <001>, measured directly from unipolar strain-field measurements, were ˜1150 pC/N. This d33 coefficient is 1.2-1.5 times greater than randomly oriented samples. The poled ?max and ?rt for a 0.9-textured PMN-32.5PT ceramic were 21 500 and 2450, respectively. Factors limiting further property improvements are discussed.

Sabolsky, Edward M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Messing, Gary L.

2003-04-01

278

Amplifying transmission and compact suspension for a low-profile, large-displacement piezoelectric actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-profile, piezoelectrically driven microactuator is presented that achieves very large stroke lengths within size constraints suitable for certain endoscopic microscopy applications. The actuator utilizes a transmission consisting of lever arm and chevron-beam structures to amplify high-force, low-displacement motion of a ceramic lead-zirconate-titanate brick into large displacement of a translational platform. For ±120 V input, a full range of 486 µm of motion is achieved, with natural frequency greater than 500 Hz. This corresponds to the anticipated value found analytically and by simulation. In addition, the lateral translational platform is supported by a redesign of common folded silicon flexures to provide large transverse and vertical stiffness when the width of the actuator is limited.

Domke, J. F.; Rhee, C.-H.; Liu, Z.; Wang, T. D.; Oldham, K. R.

2011-06-01

279

High-authority telescoping actuators with single-crystal piezoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The displacement output of the telescoping actuators, as developed in the NRL, depend on the material properties. Recently developed relaxor ferroelectric materials, with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary and in single crystal forms, show high strain output capability and high coupling coefficients. These materials, when design into devices, would provide high performance, in terms of displacement output, and high transduction efficiency. We have utilized one of these single crystal materials, namely, lead zinc niobate-lead titanate, PZN-PT, for the construction of the NRL telescoping actuators. The evaluation of the piezoelectric performance of these single crystal-based telescoping actuators showed much higher displacement outputs than that for the ones previously made with polycrystalline PZT ceramics.

Wu, Carl C.; Lewis, David, III; Park, Seung Eek E.

2000-06-01

280

Electric-fieldtemperature phase diagram of the relaxor ferroelectric lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate  

E-print Network

Electric-field­temperature phase diagram of the relaxor ferroelectric lanthanum-modified lead in the electric-field­temperature phase diagram of 9/65/35 lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics ferroelectrics. S0163-1829 99 00233-7 I. INTRODUCTION Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics Pb1 x

Bobnar, Vid

281

Phase transition behavior and high piezoelectric properties in lead-free BaTiO3CaTiO3BaHfO3 ceramics  

E-print Network

ceramics Dali Wang · Zhaohua Jiang · Bin Yang · Shantao Zhang · Mingfu Zhang · Feifei Guo · Wenwu Cao of lead-free (1-x)Ba(Hf0.16Ti0.84)O3­x (Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 (BCHT) ceramics fabricated by the conventional been proposed based on their dielectric behavior. It is found that BHCT ceramics undergo a complicated

Cao, Wenwu

282

Structure and ferroelectric studies of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} (BCTZO) ceramic was synthesized by the ceramic method. • In situ XRD and Raman spectra showed the phase transition of BCTZO around 360 K. • The ceramics showed a tunability of 82% at 40 kV cm{sup ?1} electric field. • BCTZO exhibited good quality factor of 111 at microwave frequencies. • Piezoforce microscopy studies indicated the switchability of ferroelectric domains. - Abstract: We have synthesized and studied the structural and ferroelectric properties of lead-free 0.5(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3}–0.5Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} ceramics in the temperature region of its ferroelectric transition. The synthesized material showed high dielectric constant, low loss and good pyroelectric figure of merit. From the temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements, we determined the tricritical point to be in the temperature range of 303–400 K. The dielectric measurements indicate a diffuse ferroelectric phase transition (DPT) around 360 K in agreement with the X-ray measurements. We studied the evolution of Raman spectra with temperature to understand the nature of phase transition in BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) and the BCTZO. The results indicates that the transition of ferroelectric–paraelectric state is not sharp as in the case of BTO and the polar state persists through the paraelectric state. In general, our study indicates that there are ferroelectric domains of nanometer size beyond the commonly defined transition temperature. The observation of local piezoelectric hysteresis loop indicated the existence of intrinsic ferroelectric property of the ceramic at the nanoscale. The ceramics exhibited electric field tunable dielectric properties with a tunability of 82% at an applied DC field of 40 kV cm{sup ?1}, low dielectric loss of 0.001 and room temperature pyroelectric coefficient of 6 × 10{sup ?8} C cm{sup ?2} K{sup ?1} and the detectivity of 1.9 × 10{sup ?8} C cm{sup ?1} J{sup ?1}; larger than those reported for other BaTiO{sub 3}-based materials. Overall, our results indicate that BCTZO ceramics with coexistence of rhombohedral–tetragonal phases is a promising candidate for lead-free ferroelectric applications.

Venkata Ramana, E., E-mail: venkataramanaesk@rediffmail.com [I3N-Aveiro, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810 193 (Portugal); Mahajan, A. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810 193 (Portugal); Graça, M.P.F.; Mendiratta, S.K.; Monteiro, J.M.; Valente, M.A. [I3N-Aveiro, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810 193 (Portugal)

2013-10-15

283

Piezoelectric Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimorph piezoelectric elements show relative large axial displacements at moderate voltages. Their response to voltage variations is very fast. The re-produceability of the displacement is practically limited only by the mechanical and electrical supplementary equipment. In combination with a deflection mirror linear scans or two-dimensional scan pattern can be generated. Fast scanning with good linearity and repeatability is possible, either in a resonant mode or in a random acces mode. However, the hysteresis of the piezoelectric material and the large capacitance of the elements impose some constraints on the applicability of the piezoelectric scanners. In the first part of the paper the properties of piezoelectric elements are discussed in view of scanner application; in the second part an experimental single mirror two-axis piezoelectric scanner is described. Some suggestions for future applications of piezoelectric scanners are made.

Hohner, M.; Manhart, S.

1987-09-01

284

Analysis of cracked piezoelectric solids by a mixed three-dimensional BE approach  

E-print Network

isotropy. Piezoelectric ceramics are used for construction of sensors, transducers, actuators as well piezopolymers as the polyvinilidene fluoride (PVDF). Due to manufacturing and complex electromechanical loads

Ariza Moreno, Pilar

285

Processing and Microstructural Engineering ofProcessing and Microstructural Engineering of Advanced CeramicsAdvanced Ceramics  

E-print Network

CeramicsAdvanced Ceramics Dr. Gary L. MessingDr. Gary L. Messing (Top Row Left to Right): Mike Ruffin, Adam particles to make either highly textured piezoelectric ceramics or single crystals from a polycrystalline ceramic Grain oriented microstructure produced by templated grain growth (TGG) in a Sr2Nb2O7 matrix

Messing, Gary L.

286

Shear piezoelectric coefficients of PZT, LiNbO3 and PMN-PT at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric transducers are used to detect stress and to generate nanometer scale displacements but their piezoelectric coefficients decrease with temperature, limiting their performance in cryogenic applications. We have developed a capacitive technique and directly measured the temperature dependence of the shear coefficient d15 for ceramic lead zirconium titanate (PZT), 41° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and single crystal lead magnesium niobium-lead titanate (PMN-PT). In PZT, d15 decreases nearly linearly with temperature, dropping by factor of about 4 by 1.3 K. LiNbO3 has the smallest room temperature d15, but its value decreased by only 6% at the lowest temperatures. PMN-PT had the largest value of d15 at room temperature (2.9 × 10?9 m/V, about 45 times larger than for LiNbO3) but it decreased rapidly below 75 K; at 1.3 K, d15 was only about 8% of its room temperature value.

Bukhari, Syed; Islam, Md; Haziot, Ariel; Beamish, John

2014-12-01

287

New lead-free piezoelectric ceramics based on (K0.48Na0.52)(Nb0.95Ta0.05)O3-Bi0.5(Na0.7K0.2Li0.1)0.5ZrO3.  

PubMed

(1 - x)(K0.48Na0.52)(Nb0.95Ta0.05)O3-xBi0.5(Na0.7K0.2Li0.1)0.5ZrO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a new type of phase boundary have been designed and fabricated. This phase boundary lies in the compositional range of 0.04 ? x ? 0.05, and is formed by the coexistence of the rhombohedral, orthorhombic, and tetragonal phases. Interestingly, we found that the ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with compositions near the phase boundary are significantly enhanced. In particular, the ceramic with x = 0.045 shows the best piezoelectric behavior of d33 ? 290 pC/N and kp ? 0.42 among all the compositions studied in this work, and it also exhibits a good thermal stability at annealing temperatures of ?270 °C. All these results indicate that such a material system is a good candidate for lead-free piezoelectric applications in the future. PMID:24452129

Cheng, Xiaojing; Wu, Jiagang; Wang, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Binyu; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

2014-03-01

288

Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of [(Bi 0.98 La 0.02 Na 1? x Li x ) 0.5 ] 0.94 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 lead-free ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free ceramics [(Bi0.98La0.02Na1?x\\u000a Li\\u000a x\\u000a )0.5]0.94Ba0.06TiO3 have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique and their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties have been studied.\\u000a The results of X-ray diffraction reveal that Li+, Ba2+, and La3+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. The partial substitution of Li+ lowers the coercive field E

Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok

2009-01-01

289

Phase transition and temperature stability of piezoelectric properties in Mn-modified Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effect of two different Mn modifiers [MnO2 and Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3(PMnN)] on the of phase transitions in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 ceramics. The temperature dependence of polarization derived from measured pyroelectric current indicated change in nature of phase transition with MnO2 doping. This phenomenon was supported by the temperature evolution of the linear softening of low lying hard lattice mode as revealed by Raman analysis. The grain size was found to increase with MnO2 doping (5X) while decrease with PMnN modification (0.5X). Interestingly, the piezoelectric constant of MnO2 modified composition showed negligible degradation (<1%) even after heat treatment very close to the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature.

Yan, Yongke; Kumar, Ashok; Correa, Margarita; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Katiyar, R. S.; Priya, Shashank

2012-04-01

290

Large piezoelectric effect in Pb-free Ba(Ti,Sn)O3-x(Ba,Ca)TiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a Pb-free pseudo-binary system, Ba(Sn0.12Ti0.88)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)O3 (BTS-xBCT), characterized by a phase boundary starting from a tricritical triple point of a paraelectric cubic phase, ferroelectric rhombohedral, and tetragonal phases. The optimal composition BTS-30BCT exhibits a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 ˜ 530 pC/N at room temperature. In view of the recent report of high piezoelectricity in another Pb-free system BZT-BCT (Liu and Ren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 257602 (2009)), which possesses a similar tricritical triple point in the phase diagram, it seems that forming a suitable phase boundary starting from a tricritical triple point could be an effective way to develop high-performance Pb-free piezoelectrics.

Xue, Dezhen; Zhou, Yumei; Bao, Huixin; Gao, Jinghui; Zhou, Chao; Ren, Xiaobing

2011-09-01

291

Self-powered wireless sensor system using MEMS piezoelectric micro power generator (PMPG)  

E-print Network

A thin-film lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)03, MEMS Piezoelectric Micro Power Generator (PMPG) has been integrated with a commercial wireless sensor node (Telos), to demonstrate a self-powered RF temperature sensor ...

Xia, YuXin, M.B.A. Sloan School of Management.

2006-01-01

292

Structure, electrical properties and temperature characteristics of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1- x- y)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3- xBi0.5K0.5TiO3- yBi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique, and their structure, electrical properties, and temperature characteristics have been studied systematically. The ceramics can be well-sintered at 1050-1150 °C. The increase in K+ concentration decreases the grain-growth rate and promotes the formation of grains with a cubic shape, while the addition of Li+ decreases greatly the sintering temperature and assists in the densification of BNT-based ceramics. The results of XRD diffraction show that K+ and Li+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. As x increases from 0.05 to 0.50, the ceramics transform gradually from rhombohedral phase to tetragonal phase and consequently a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is formed at 0.15? x?0.25. The concentration y of Li+ has no obvious influence on the crystal structure of the ceramics. Compared with pure Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, the partial substitution of K+ and Li+ for Na+ lowers greatly the coercive field E c and increases the remanent polarization P r of the ceramics. Because of the MPB, lower E c and large P r, the piezoelectricity of the ceramics is improved significantly. For the ceramics with the compositions near the MPB ( x=0.15-0.25 and y=0.05-0.10), the piezoelectric properties become optimum: piezoelectric coefficient d 33=147-231 pC/N and planar electromechanical coupling factor k P=20.2-41.0%. In addition, the ceramics exhibit relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12-fold coordination sites. The depolarization temperature T d shows a strong dependence on the concentration x of K+ and reaches the lowest values at the MPB. The temperature dependences of the ferroelectric and dielectric properties at high temperatures may imply that the ceramics may contain both the polar and non-polar regions at temperatures above T d.

Lin, Dunmin; Zheng, Qiaoji; Xu, Chenggang; Kwok, K. W.

2008-11-01

293

Diffuse phase transition and electrical properties of lead-free piezoelectric (LixNa1-x)NbO3 (0.04 ? x ? 0.20) ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity of lead-free (LixNa1-x)NbO3 for nominal x = 0.04-0.20, prepared by solid state reaction followed by sintering, was studied to resolve often debated issue pertaining to exactness of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) location besides structural aspects and phase stability in the system near MPB. Interestingly, a diffuse phase transition has been observed in the dielectric permittivity peak arising from the disorder induced in A-site and structural frustration in the perovskite cell due to Li substitution. A partial phase diagram has been proposed based on temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity studies. The room temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated and the ceramics with x = 0.12 showed relatively good electrical properties (d33 = 28 pC/N, kp = 13.8%, Qm = 440, Pr = 12.5 ?C/cm2, Ec = 43.2 kV/cm, and Tm = 340 °C). These parameter values make this material suitable for piezoelectric resonator and filter applications. Moreover, a high dielectric permittivity (?'r = 2703) with broad diffuse peak near transition temperature, and low dielectric loss (<4%) over a wide temperature range (50-250 °C) found in this material may also have a potential application in high-temperature multilayer capacitors in automotive and aerospace related industries.

Mitra, S.; Kulkarni, A. R.; Prakash, Om

2013-08-01

294

Multiferroic Domain Dynamics in Strained Strontium Titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroicity can be induced in strontium titanate by applying biaxial strain. Using optical second harmonic generation, we report a transition from 4/mmm to the ferroelectric mm2 phase, followed by a transition to a ferroelastic-ferroelectric mm2 phase in a strontium titanate thin film. Piezoelectric force microscopy is used to study ferroelectric domain switching. Second harmonic generation, combined with phase-field modeling, is used to reveal the mechanism of coupled ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain wall motion. These studies have relevance to multiferroics with coupled polar and axial phenomena.

Vasudevarao, A.; Kumar, A.; Tian, L.; Haeni, J. H.; Li, Y. L.; Eklund, C.-J.; Jia, Q. X.; Uecker, R.; Reiche, P.; Rabe, K. M.; Chen, L. Q.; Schlom, D. G.; Gopalan, Venkatraman

2006-12-01

295

Effects of Fe2O3 addition on the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties of 0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3-0.01Bi(Y1- x Fe x )O3 ceramics for energy-harvesting devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3-0.01Bi(Y1- x Fe x )O3 [PZT-BYF(x)] (x = 0.0 - 0.6) piezoelectric ceramics have been synthesized by using a modified conventional solid-state method. Initially, the perovskite Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) and the cubic-phase Bi(Y1- x Fe x )O3 [BYF(x)] were presynthesized and mixed to prepare PZT-BYF(x) ceramic composites. The effects of BYF(x) addition on the phase formation, microstructure, and piezoelectric/dielectric properties were measured as functions of sintering temperature. In addition to these measurements, the piezoelectric voltage constant ( g 33) and the piezoelectric transduction coefficient ( d 33 × g 33) were measured in order to evaluate the essential criteria for an energy-harvesting material. For all the specimens, X-ray diffraction analyses showed a complete solid solution with co-existing tetragonal and rhombohedral perovskite phases. All the ceramics exhibited denser and finer microstructures, which produced a high relative density of ? 98%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that BYF(x) addition enhanced the sintering density through the formation of a liquid phase. The doping with BYF(x) in the PZT system was found to be effective for maintaining a high Curie temperature of around 377-390 °C. With increasing content of Fe2O3 in the BYF(x) system, the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties were significantly improved. At a sintering temperature of 1170 °C, the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties of PZT-BYF(x) ceramics showed desirable values; this resulted in a significantly higher transduction coefficient. The compositions of PZTBYF(0.1), PZT-BYF(0.2), and PZT-BYF(0.3) showed a considerably lower ? 33 T value, but higher d 33 and k p values. Therefore, within the concentration limit of x = 0.1 to 0.3 moles of Fe2O3, the g 33 and the d 33 × g 33 values were improved significantly ( g 33 > 53 × 10-3 Vm/N and d 33 × g 33 > 20000 m2/N). The maximum transduction coefficient of 20167 × 10-15 m2/N was obtained from the composition of PZT-BYF(0.3). The high values of g 33 and d 33 × g 33 make these piezoelectric ceramics potential candidates for applications in energy-harvesting devices.

Mahmud, Iqbal; Ur, Soon-Chul; Yoon, Man-Soon

2014-07-01

296

Pyroelectric and dielectric properties of ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferroelectric oxide ceramics have been investigated as possible alternatives to highly sensitive triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals for their use in room temperature infrared detectors. In this paper dielectric and pyroelectric properties of some ceramics based on modified lead titanate and others are presented. The figures-of-merit of these ceramics calculated using the measured dielectric and pyroelectric data are presented. The relative

A. K. Batra; Ryan Moxon; Padmaja Guggilla; M. D. Aggarwal; M. E. Edwards

2010-01-01

297

Dale Haracre Ceramics In a Patch Antenna  

E-print Network

Dale Haracre Ceramics In a Patch Antenna #12;Abstract A patch antenna is also known on a flat surface. Ceramic based patched antennas can be used for a wide range of applications.They can a ground plate.Typically dielectric materials are proposed such as Zinc titanate (ZnTiO3) based ceramics

Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.

298

Effect of composition on electrical properties of lead-free Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with the composition of (1-x)Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} or (1-x) BNKT-xBNdT (with x = 0-0.20 mol fraction) have been synthesized by a conventional mixed-oxide method. The compositional dependence of phase structure and electrical properties of the ceramics were systemically studied. The optimum sintering temperature of all BNKT-BNdT ceramics was found to be 1125 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that BNdT effectively diffused into BNKT lattice during sintering to form a solid solution with a perovskite structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BNdT was added. It was found that BNKT-0.10BNdT ceramic exhibited optimum electrical properties ({epsilon}{sub r} = 1716, tan{delta} = 0.0701, T{sub c} = 327 Degree-Sign C, and d{sub 33} = 211 pC/N), suggesting that this composition has a potential to be one of a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate for dielectric and piezoelectric applications.

Jaita, Pharatree [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

2013-07-14

299

Theoretical modeling for an electroactive polymer-ceramic-based micro hybrid actuation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new configuration of an electroactive polymer, ceramic-based micro hybrid actuation system (?HYBAS) is proposed in this paper. The ?HYBAS is a device concept to utilize different electroactive materials in a cooperative and efficient method for optimized electromechanical performance. A theoretical model has been developed, based on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the materials and on the configuration of the device. The ?HYBASs investigated use piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the electroactive polymer (EAP) element combined with the electroactive ceramic (EAC) elements, which are piezoelectric hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT), soft PZT, or Pb(Zn 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-4.5%PbTiO 3 single crystal (PZN-PT single crystal). The ?HYBAS demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by utilizing advantages of synergistic contributions of the electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer and an electroactive ceramic. The modeled results provide guidelines for future developments of high performance ?HYBASs to meet various applications.

Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji

2006-05-01

300

Piezoelectric Driver for Incremental Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vibrating device containing two piezoelectric ceramic slabs acts as mechanical driver. Eventually substitutes for small continuous or stepping electric motors of slow to moderate speeds. Piezoelectric driver simple in construction, requires no precise dimensions, inexpensive to make, and needs no lubrication. Not damaged by stalling or overloads and safe for use in explosive atmospheres; Motion controllable in micron-size increments, and holds position when power turned off. Potential applications as positioner or mover. Used to position instrument pointers, antennas, or solar panels; to focus lenses; or operate tuners, recording instruments, or valves.

Bruman, Joseph R.

1987-01-01

301

RMS Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Mr.taylor

2010-04-20

302

The Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Van Vooren, Ms.

2007-12-04

303

RMS TITANIC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Klooney

2010-04-20

304

Piezoelectric properties and thermal stability of Ca0.92(Li,Ce)0.04Bi2Nb2-x W x O9 high-temperature ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ca0.92(Li,Ce)0.04Bi2Nb2-x W x O9 (x = 0.01-0.06) high-temperature piezoceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state sintered method, and effects of W content on their piezoelectric properties were studied. All samples possess a pure Aurivillius-type structure, showing that Li, Ce, and W dopants have well diffused into the CaBi2Nb2O9 lattice to form a solid solution. The doping with W slightly decreases the Curie temperature (T C) of the ceramics. In addition, the excellent electrical properties (e.g., d 33 ~ 16.1 pC/N, k p ~ 9.58 %, Q m ~ 4,767) and a high Curie temperature (e.g., T c ~ 925 °C) are simultaneously obtained in the ceramics with x = 0.04, together with an enhanced thermal stability of <900 °C. As a result, the investigated material system provides the promising potential applications in ultra-high-temperature environments.

Wang, Yadan; Wu, Jiagang; Peng, Zhihang; Chen, Qiang; Xin, Deqiong; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

2015-01-01

305

High-pressure hydrogen materials compatibility of piezoelectric films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen is well known for materials compatibility issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals, which are challenges for its use as the next-generation "green" fuel. Beyond metals, hydrogen also degrades piezoelectric materials used as actuators used in direct injection hydrogen internal combustion engines. We present the materials compatibility studies of piezoelectric films in high-pressure hydrogen environments. Absorption of high-pressure hydrogen and composition changes were studied with an elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

Alvine, K. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, W. D.; Bonham, C. C.; Skorski, D.; Pitman, S. G.; Dahl, M. E.; Henager, C. H.

2010-11-01

306

Dielectric, piezoelectric and damping properties of novel 2-2 piezoelectric composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, a strip-shaped 2-2 cement/polymer-based piezoelectric composite was designed and fabricated. The dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling properties of the composite were investigated as well as the coupling effects between the thickness and lateral modes of the piezoelectric composites. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites can be greatly influenced by variations of the piezoelectric ceramic volume fraction and the structural dimensions of the composites. Excellent properties have been achieved for ultrasonic transducer applications in civil engineering monitoring fields, such as large piezoelectric voltage constants, high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficients and low acoustic impedance. The damping property of the composites was especially studied. The maximum damping loss factor of the composites is between 0.28–0.32, and the glass transition temperature is between 55°–66 °C.

Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Lei, Wang; Shifeng, Huang

2015-02-01

307

Effect of ZnO-B2O3 addition on the dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Na0.525K0.443Li0.037)(Nb0.883Sb0.08Ta0.037)O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Na0.525K0.443Li0.037)(Nb0.883Sb0.08Ta0.037)O3 + x wt% ZnO-B2O3 (NKLNST + x ZnO-B2O3) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction for various values of x = {0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2}; then, the dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of these ceramics were investigated. A pure perovskite structure and a small secondary phase were observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns. For the 0.3-wt% ZnO-B2O3 specimen, a density of ? = 4.537 g/cm3, an electromechanical coupling factor of k P = 0.432, a mechanical quality factor of Q m = 96, and piezoelectric constant of d 33 = 209 pC/N were found to be optimal. These results indicate that the material with this composition is a promising candidate for use in a lead-free piezoelectric device.

Kim, You-Seok; Yoo, Ju-Hyun

2014-12-01

308

Experimental measurements and finite element models of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric actuators have many applications including morphable wing technology and piezoelectric transformers. A Piezoelectric ceramic is a material that will move when a voltage is applied and conversely produces a charge when a pressure is applied. In our study, we examine THUNDER (Thin Layer Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor) actuators (Thunder TM is a trademark of FACE International Corporation.) Thunder

Gilberto Camargo; Gevale Ashford; Eris Naco; Tim Usher

2004-01-01

309

Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Sun, F. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kalkur, T. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Alpay, S. P., E-mail: p.alpay@ims.uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

2014-05-19

310

Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

2014-05-01

311

The finite element analysis of cylindrical overlapping piezoelectric transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cylindrical overlapping piezoelectric transducer is mainly composed of the three cylindrical piezoelectric ceramics, bracket, metal bolt, rubber, waterproof layer and output cable. The transducer model was established, separately in the air and water, with ANSYS to calculate the vibration frequency and conductance .The transmitting response and directivity in water were also calculated .The results showed that the overlapping structure

Tian-xiao Dong; Li-kun Wang; Lei Qin; Li Li; Wei-wei Wu; Gang Wang

2008-01-01

312

A piezoelectric droplet generator for use in wind tunnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a compact piezoelectric droplet generator. A unique feature of this instrument is the small size of its nozzle assembly which includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic transducer, an interchangeable orifice, a charging ring, and deflection plates. The nozzle assembly is housed in an acrylic tube, 19 mm in outside diameter and 150 mm in length, which can be

W. D. Warnica; M. Van Reenen; M. Renksizbulut; A. B. Strong

1991-01-01

313

Piezoelectric piggy-back microactuator for hard disk drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new piezoelectric piggy-back microactuator for high density hard disk drives was designed and fabricated to achieve more accurate positioning of the magnetic head and increasing servo bandwidth. The microactuator is made of stiff piezoelectric ceramic material to actuate the slider on which the head-element is formed. It is designed to amplify the actuating displacement. The basic mechanical performance of

Yoshikazu Soeno; Sliinji Ichikawa; Takamitsu Tsuna; Yoshikazu Sato; Isamu Sato

1999-01-01

314

Complex Electromechanical Coefficients of Piezoelectric Composites: Applications to Passive Vibration Damping.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified resonance technique was used to measure the complex electromechanical property coefficients of lossy 0-3 composite samples comprised of ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in different polymer matrices. An increase in the loss tangents of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric coefficients was observed near the glass transition temperatures of the polymer phases. In the case of a PZT-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite, it was possible to measure the electromechanical coefficients using 31 and thickness mode resonances over a range of temperatures spanning the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The principle of time-temperature superposition was used to explain the frequency and temperature dependences of the coefficients. The relaxation behavior of the properties of 0-3 composites, predicted theoretically by a simple cubes model representing the composite structure, was found to be in partial agreement with the experimental data. Due to electromechanical coupling, an imaginary part in a piezoelectric coefficient implies an imaginary part in a corresponding elastic coefficient which in turn implies lossy mechanical behavior. A dissipative mechanism like electrical conductivity in a piezoelectric material results in a mechanical loss tangent and associated dissipation of mechanical energy and damping of mechanical vibrations. This concept of passive piezoelectric damping was developed and the effect of internal conductivity simulated by connecting external resistors across poled piezoceramic elements with large piezoelectric coupling. The damping characteristics of a stack specimen comprised of several such elements were optimized. The properties measured using electrical resonance and mechanical vibration experiments agreed with predictions from theory. It was possible to obtain a large mechanical stiffness coefficient ( ~5 to 10 times 10 ^{10} N/m^2) along with a large mechanical loss tangent ( ~0.30). Such mechanical properties, not observed in conventional damping materials, are applicable in situations where mechanical vibrations of stiff structural elements are to be damped. Suggestions as to the utilization of the above damping effect have been made with respect to the design of ceramic-metal composites, inducing electrical conductivity in piezoceramics, use of active electronic circuits to enhance and obtain greater control over the damping properties and the possible use of magnetostrictive materials possessing large magnetomechanical coupling coefficients.

Ramachandran, A. R.

1992-01-01

315

The correlation between fatigue and material constants of PLZT ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations between the ferroelectric fatigue and variations in mechanical properties have been investigated by simultaneous measurement of the fatigue and the piezoelectric resonance of bar 8\\/65\\/35 PLZT ceramics. It was found that the fatigue reflects itself only in dielectric and piezoelectric properties. Namely, the remanent polarization, the complex dielectric and piezoelectric constants and the electromechanical coupling factor all start to

Adrijan Levstik; Vid Bobnar; Zdravko Kutnjak; Cene Filipi?; Marija Kosec

1999-01-01

316

Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter  

SciTech Connect

The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length of the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-07-02

317

Evaluation of piezoelectric paints as vibration and acoustic emission sensors  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric paints were prepared using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder as a pigment and epoxy resin as a binder. The obtained paints were coated on aluminum test specimens, and were cured at room temperature or at 150 C, thus forming the paint films having thicknesses of 25 to 300 {micro}m and a PZT volume fraction of 53%. These films were then poled at room temperature, and were evaluated with regard to the sensitivities as vibration and acoustic emission sensors in the frequency ranges of 0--25 Hz and 0--1.2 MHz, respectively. The paint film sensitivity obtained under a given poling field depends on the film thickness, the cure temperature, and the PZT/epoxy composition in the pigment paste (an intermediary product of the final paint). A good correlation is found between the sensitivity and the electrical conductivity for all the paint films studied, thus indicating that the actual poling field acting on the PZT particles dispersed in epoxy resin is determined by the electrical conductivity of the paint film.

Egusa, Shigenori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Iwasawa, Naozumi [Kansai Paint Co., Ltd., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). New Business Div.

1994-12-31

318

Analysis of Piezoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting Devices under High-g Vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the miniaturized energy harvesting devices (each volume within 0.3 cm3) fabricated by using three types of piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramic, macro fiber composite (MFC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer to investigate the capability of converting mechanical vibration into electricity under larger vibration amplitudes or accelerations conditions (? 1g, gravitational acceleration). All prototypes based on a bimorph cantilever structure with a proof mass were aimed to operate at a vibration frequency of 100 Hz. PZT-based device was optimized and fabricated by considering the resonant frequency, the output power density, and the maximum operating acceleration or safety factor. PVDF- and MFC-prototypes were designed to have same resonant frequency as well as same volume of the piezoelectric materials as the PZT prototype. All three devices were measured to determine if they could generate enough power density to provide electric energy to power a wireless sensor or a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device without device failure.

Shen, Dongna; Choe, Song-Yul; Kim, Dong-Joo

2007-10-01

319

Titanic Research Link  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome Aboard the Titanic Third Graders! Enjoy your trip into the history of a fatal night. Use the following websites to help answer your research questions: Encyclopedia Titanica Construction Construction Begins Iceberg Inside the RMS Titanic RMS Titanic Inc.-The ShipThe CollisionThe Lure and the LoveTitanic FAQs ...

Law, Miss

2012-01-17

320

Raman- and Brillouin-scattering studies on lead-free piezoelectric Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5- x TiO3 ceramics with A-site vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman and Brillouin spectra of lead-free piezoelectric Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5- x TiO3 ceramics with A-site vacancies were investigated for x = 0 ˜ 0.05. The Raman spectra measured at room temperature showed seven broad bands over the range of 50-1000 cm-1, reflecting strong anharmonicity, inherent A-site disorder and the resulting breakdown of the Raman selection rule. The splitting of the A1 mode near 270 cm-1 indicated that the tetragonal symmetry was maintained over the whole x range, consistent with the X-ray diffraction results. The Brillouin spectra exhibited distributed longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes, in addition to central peaks. The distributed acoustic modes were attributed to the scattering events at all scattering angles from 0 to 180° due to multiple reflections and refractions at the grain boundaries. The relaxation time obtained from fitting the broad central peak by using a Debye function exhibited a slowing-down behavior in the paraelectric phase. The formation of the central peak was attributed to the existence of nano-sized polar regions due to the anharmonic vibrations and the hopping motions of the A-site cations.

Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji; Ahn, Chang Won; Kim, Ill Won; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

2013-04-01

321

Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

1966-01-01

322

Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators: Static & Dynamic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators offer the advantage of large deformation (up to 8%) and large strokes. Because of a prestress applied to the piezo ceramics and an efficient mechanical amplifier, they can produce large strokes both in static and dynamic conditions including resonance. For these reasons, these actuators can be used for micro positioning, structure shaping, structure active damping, vibration generation,

Frank Claeyssen; R. Le Letty; F. Barillot; O. Sosnicki

2007-01-01

323

Pyroelectric response mechanism of barium strontium titanate ceramics in dielectric bolometer mode: The underlying essence of the enhancing effect of direct current bias field  

SciTech Connect

Pyroelectric response mechanism of Ba{sub 0.70}Sr{sub 0.30}TiO{sub 3} ceramics under dielectric bolometer (DB) mode was investigated by dielectric and pyroelectric properties measurement. The variations of total, intrinsic, and induced pyroelectric coefficients (p{sub tot}, p{sub int}, p{sub ind}) with temperatures and bias fields were analyzed. p{sub int} plays the dominant role to p{sub tot} through most of the temperature range and p{sub ind} will be slightly higher than p{sub int} above T{sub 0}. The essence of the enhancing effect of DC bias field on pyroelectric coefficient can be attributed to the high value of p{sub int}. This mechanism is useful for the pyroelectric materials (DB mode) applications.

Mao, Chaoliang; Cao, Sheng; Yan, Shiguang; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hu, Xu; Yang, Chunli [Kunming Institute of Physics, Kunming 650223 (China)] [Kunming Institute of Physics, Kunming 650223 (China)

2013-06-17

324

Piezoelectric transducer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transducer consists of a hybrid thin film and a piezoelectric transistor that acts as a stress-sensitive device with built-in gain. It provides a stress/strain transducer that incorporates a signal amplification stage and sensor in a single package.

Conragan, J.; Muller, R. S.

1970-01-01

325

Virtual Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recent historical and cinematic fascination with the Titanic proves that the allure of this most famous luxury liner remains unsinkable. The Discovery Channel Online has created a captivating site devoted to images, movies (IPIX, QuickTime), and text describing the ship and its demise. While the site contains historical photos and lithographs of the ship as well as underwater photos and movies from a 1985 submersible mission, the unique contribution of this site is its numerous virtual images of the interior and exterior of the Titanic as well as its movies of the collision and sinking. Developed by Andrew Nelson for a CD-ROM game, the movies include a flyby of the ship, a collision movie, a listing movie, and a three-part series of the sinking. Both flat and "bubble" views of such features as the first-class cabins, the wireless room, and the grand staircase are also included. A talk-back section discusses various theories surrounding the sinking and contains several related links.

326

Piezoelectric Properties of Bismuth Layer-Structured Ferroelectric Ceramics with a Preferred Orientation Processed by the Reactive Templated Grain Growth Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBT) and Na0.475Ca0.05Bi4.475Ti4O15 (NCBT) ceramics with a highly preferred {001} orientation were prepared by the reactive templated grain growth (RTGG) method. Plate-like Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) particles were synthesized by a molten salt technique and used as the reactive template. The template particles were mixed with other oxide and carbonate powders and aligned by tape-casting. During the sintering, oriented CBT

Tsuguto Takeuchi; Toshihiko Tani; Yasuyoshi Saito

1999-01-01

327

Nanowires: scalable synthesis of morphotropic phase boundary lead zirconium titanate nanowires for energy harvesting (adv. Mater. 45/2014).  

PubMed

Piezoelectric nanocomposites are mechanically robust and flexible, and can be utilized in harvesting energy from the environment and sensing at the nanoscale. On page 7547, H. A. Sodano and co-workers demonstrate a high-efficiency and low-cost hydrothermal method to grow piezoelectric lead zirconium titanate nanowires at the morphotropic phase boundary. These nanowires are an excellent candidate for energy-harvesting and sensing devices due to their increased performance over existing piezoelectric nanowires. PMID:25446414

Zhou, Zhi; Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A

2014-12-01

328

Process for Making a Ceramic Composition for Immobilization of Actinides  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Curtis, Paul G.; Hobson, Beverly F.; Farmer, Joseph; Herman, Connie Cicero; Herman, David Thomas

1999-06-22

329

Crack tip 90 domain switching in tetragonal lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate under an  

E-print Network

Crack tip 90° domain switching in tetragonal lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate under) Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics (Pb0.96La0.04)(Zr0.40Ti0.60)0.99O3 were revealed the residual domain switching in a trans- parent relaxor-type ferroelectric 9.4/65/35 lanthanum

Zhu, Ting

330

Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

2002-01-01

331

Ferroelastic Characterization of Piezoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic deformation behavior of an isotropic material is governed by Young's modulus Y and Poisson's ratio ?. Knowledge of the Young's modulus, for instance, is necessary to split the total deformation S i measured under load stress T i into elastic S {/i el} and "plastic" S {/i pl} strain contributions S_i = S_i^el + S_i^pl = {T_i over Y} + S_i^pl , where Y is not necessarily a constant, but may depend on the amount of nonelastic strains, as will be shown later. The methods for the determination of the Young's moduli, well-known from conventional ceramics and also applicable to unpoled piezoelectric materials, are much more complicated for nonisotropic materials due to the tensorial character of the modulus and the special electric boundary conditions [1]. The conditions of a constant electrical field, E z ? E 3 = const, or a constant dielectric displacement, D z ? E 3 = const, influence the elastic properties. This effect may be illustrated for a uniaxial stress state with T x ? T 1 ? 0 exclusively. In the case of a piezoelectric material, we are interested in the components D_3 = d_{31}T_1 + \\varepsilon_{33}^T E_3 .

Fett, T.

332

Electrical properties of lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 piezoelectric ceramics by optimizing sintering temperature  

PubMed Central

Lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 [0.98NKN-0.02BZT] ceramics were fabricated by the conventional mixed oxide method with sintering temperature at 1,080°C to 1,120°C. The results indicate that the sintering temperature obviously influences the structural and electrical properties of the sample. For the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,080°C to 1,120°C, the bulk density increased with increasing sintering temperature and showed a maximum value at a sintering temperature of 1,090°C. The dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant [d33], electromechanical coupling coefficient [kp], and remnant polarization [Pr] increased with increasing sintering temperature, which might be related to the increase in the relative density. However, the samples would be deteriorated when they are sintered above the optimum temperature. High piezoelectric properties of d33 = 217 pC/N, kp = 41%, dielectric constant = 1,951, and ferroelectric properties of Pr = 10.3 ?C/cm2 were obtained for the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,090°C for 4 h. PMID:22221445

2012-01-01

333

High thermal stability of piezoelectric properties in (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics for Na0.5K0.5NbO3 rich end of composition (x, y ? 0.04 mol. %). These compositions were found to exhibit significantly improved thermal stability of piezoresponse. Variation of dielectric constant as a function of temperature revealed that orthorhombic-tetragonal (To-t) and tetragonal-cubic (Tc) transition temperatures for these compositions were in the vicinity of 0 °C and 330 °C, respectively. Dynamic scaling and temperature dependent X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response explaining the temperature dependent behavior.

Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank

2013-01-01

334

Diffuse phase transition in Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The morphotropic phase boundary composition viz. lithium sodium niobate, Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3}, (LNN-12) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction and sintering route. The temperature dependent permittivity response near transition temperature showed a diffused phase transition (DPT). The degree of diffuseness, {gamma}, using the modified Curie-Weiss law, was found to be 1.92, indicative of almost-complete diffuse phase transition. The planar coupling constant k{sub p}, and mechanical quality factor Q{sub m}, measured by resonance-antiresonance method, were 0.17 and 413 respectively. These parameter values make LNN-12 ceramic an attractive candidate for transducers applications.

Mitra, Supratim; Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Prakash, Om [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2013-02-05

335

Measurement of elastic modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity by piezoelectric resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezoelectric ceramic resonator is used for the ‘electrical’ measurement of elastic properties, i.e. Young’s modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity in metallic materials. Piezoelectric response is precisely calculated for the piezoelectric ceramic ring fixed at the end of a metallic rod. The piezoelectric ring serves as both an actuator as well as a sensor. The experimental setup and method of measurement using higher overtones is explained in detail and practically demonstrated for a set of different metallic materials. Young’s moduli and ultrasonic wave velocities are measured within 3% relative error. The presented method is suitable for an advanced engineering class or physics laboratory training.

Erhart, Ji?í

2015-01-01

336

Study of Thermo-Electro-Mechnical Coupling in Functionally Graded Metal-Ceramic Composites  

E-print Network

presents analyses of thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric actuators having combinations of metal and ceramic constituents with through thickness gradual variations of the metal and ceramic compositions. This is done in order to achieve better...

Doshi, Sukanya 1988-

2012-12-10

337

www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 118 By Paul G. Evans and Rebecca J. Sichel-Tissot  

E-print Network

www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 118 By Paul G. Evans and Rebecca of piezoelectric ceramic thin films There has been rapid development in the precision with which ferroelectric mate,2 Ferroelectric thin-film materi- als belong to the broad category of electronic ceramics, and they find

Evans, Paul G.

338

Photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ceramic structure was simulated in a form that is more tractable to correlation between experiment and theory. Single crystals (of barium titanate) were fabricated in a simple corrugated structure in which the pedestals of the corrugation simulated the grain while the intervening cuts could be filled with materials simulating the grain boundaries. The observed photovoltages were extremely small (100 mv).

Epstein, D. J.; Linz, A.; Jenssen, H. P.

1982-01-01

339

Tides in Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tides raised in Titan by Saturn give rise to a static and a periodic deformation; both will be measured with Doppler tracking during the CASSINI Tour of the Saturnian System. The latter deformation is due to the significant eccentricity of Titan's orbit and has a frequency equal to the orbital angular velocity of Titan.

Rappaport, Nicole J.

1997-01-01

340

Rotational piezoelectric wind energy harvesting using impact-induced resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the output power of a rotational piezoelectric wind energy harvester, impact-induced resonance is proposed to enable effective excitation of the piezoelectric cantilevers' vibration modes and obtain optimum deformation, which enhances the mechanical/electrical energy transformation. The impact force is introduced by forming a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever polygon that is fixed at the circumference of the rotating fan's internal surface. Elastic balls are placed inside the polygon. When wind rotates the device, the balls strike the piezoelectric cantilevers, and thus electricity is generated by the piezoelectric effect. The impact point is carefully chosen to use the first bending mode as much as possible, and thus maximize the harvesting efficiency. The design enables each bimorph to be struck in a similar area and every bimorph is struck in that area at different moments. As a result, a relatively stable output frequency can be obtained. The output frequency can also be changed by choosing different bimorph dimensions, which will also make the device simpler and the costs lower. A prototype piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of twelve piezoelectric cantilevers was constructed. The piezoelectric cantilevers were made from phosphor bronze, the lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-based bimorph cantilever had dimensions of 47 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm, and the elastic balls were made from steel with a diameter of 10 mm. The optimal DC output power was 613 ?W across the 20 k? resistor at a rotation speed of 200 r/min with an inscribed circle diameter of 31 mm.

Yang, Ying; Shen, Qinlong; Jin, Jiamei; Wang, Yiping; Qian, Wangjie; Yuan, Dewang

2014-08-01

341

Solid freeform fabrication: novel manufacturing opportunities for electronic ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) methods offer unique opportunities for manufacturing electronic ceramics, specifically piezoelectric ceramics and ceramic\\/polymer composites (for sensing and actuating applications) free of constraints imposed by complexity of design or architecture. This is a direct result of the fact that these methods allow component manufacture without the need for hard tools\\/molds or costly machining. There are a number

S. C. Danforth; A. Safari

1996-01-01

342

Quantitative comparison between the degree of domain orientation and nonlinear properties of a PZT ceramic during electrical and mechanical loading  

SciTech Connect

The macroscopic electromechanical coupling properties of ferroelectric polycrystals are composed of linear and nonlinear contributions. The nonlinear contribution is typically associated with the extrinsic effects related to the creation and motion of domain walls. To quantitatively compare the macroscopic nonlinear properties of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic and the degree of domain orientation, in-situ neutron and high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments are performed and they provide the domain orientation density as a function of the external electric field and mechanical compression. Furthermore, the macroscopic strain under the application of external electrical and mechanical loads is measured and the nonlinear strain is calculated by means of the linear intrinsic piezoelectric effect and the linear intrinsic elasticity. The domain orientation density and the nonlinear strain show the same dependence on the external load. The scaling factor that relates to the two values is constant and is the same for both electrical and mechanical loadings.

Marsilius, Mie; Granzow, Torsten; Jones, Jacob L. (Florida); (Darmstadt)

2011-10-26

343

Structure, electrical properties and temperature characteristics of Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 TiO 3 –Bi 0.5 K 0.5 TiO 3 –Bi 0.5 Li 0.5 TiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1?x?y)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–xBi0.5K0.5TiO3– yBi0.5Li0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by an ordinary sintering technique, and their structure, electrical properties,\\u000a and temperature characteristics have been studied systematically. The ceramics can be well-sintered at 1050–1150?°C. The increase\\u000a in K+ concentration decreases the grain-growth rate and promotes the formation of grains with a cubic shape, while the addition\\u000a of Li+ decreases greatly the sintering

Dunmin Lin; Qiaoji Zheng; Chenggang Xu; K. W. Kwok

2008-01-01

344

Piezoelectric polymer foams: transducer mechanism and preparation as well as touch-sensor and ultrasonic-transducer properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different materials provide a mechanical-electrical energy conversion and are thus interesting candidates for piezoelectric sensors and actuators. Beside ferroelectric ceramics and polymers, also polymer foams, so-called ferroelectrets, are developed as piezoelectric active materials. Their piezoelectricity originates from optimized structural and elastic-foam properties accompanied with an optimized charge trapping at the polymer layers within the foam structure. The piezoelectric activity arises

M. Wegener

2010-01-01

345

Lead-free multilayer piezoelectric transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a multilayer piezoelectric transformer based on lead-free Mn-doped 0.94(Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics is presented. This piezoelectric transformer, with a multilayered construction in the thickness direction, is 8.3 mm long, 8.3 mm wide, and 2.3 mm thick. It operates in the second thickness extensional vibration mode. For a temperature rise of 20 °C, the transformer has an output power of

Mingsen Guo; X. P. Jiang; K. H. Lam; S. Wang; C. L. Sun; Helen L. W. Chan; X. Z. Zhao

2007-01-01

346

Intensive Titan exploration begins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Orbiter spacecraft first skimmed through the tenuous upper atmosphere of Titan on 26 October 2004. This moon of Saturn is unique in our solar system, with a dense nitrogen atmosphere that is cold enough in places to rain methane, the feedstock for the atmospheric chemistry that produces hydrocarbons, nitrile compounds, and Titan's orange haze. The data returned from this flyby supply new information on the magnetic field and plasma environment around Titan, expose new facets of the dynamics and chemistry of Titan's atmosphere, and provide the first glimpses of what appears to be a complex, fluid-processed, geologically young Titan surface.

Mahaffy, Paul R.

2005-01-01

347

Interior of Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General principles of Titan formation and evolution are addressed. Attention is focused on the volatile reservoir (defined as all constituents more volatile than water) of Titan's interior. Volatile poor models, in which Titan is like Granymede or Callisto with a thin (observed) volatile veneer are discussed and discarded. Volatile rich models in which the present Titan consists of a methane clathrate shell overlying a deep water ammonia ocean and solid ammonia hydrate are discussed. Titan has a central core of rock which is about one half of the total mass, and a superficial hydrocarbon 'ocean' stored in subsurface caverns and pore space.

Stevenson, David J.

1992-01-01

348

Piezoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students explore the piezoelectric effect, which is the conversion between electricity and mechanical motion. The model used in this activity shows this conversion and users can manipulate the model to change the voltage and observe changes to a crystal. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In these activities, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and central and key concepts.

2008-10-23

349

Effect of cement-polymer ratio on 1-3 piezoelectric composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-3 type piezoelectric composite was fabricated by cut-filling technique. The effects of cement-polymer ratio on piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites were analyzed. The results show that piezoelectric strain factor d33 and piezoelectric voltage factor g33 exhibit the trend of decrease initially and then increase with increasing cement-polymer ratio. With the increase of cement-polymer ratio, the dielectric factor ?r and dielectric loss tan? of the composites increase initially and then decrease. Comparing with pure piezoelectric ceramic, the mechanical quality factor Qm decreases obviously. Acoustic impedance Z is about 9 M raly, which is matching with concrete.

Guo, Lili; Xu, Dongyu; Huang, Shifeng

2009-07-01

350

Actuation Behavior of Multilayer Ceramic Actuator Induced by ElectroMechanical Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actuation behavior of multilayer ceramic actuators (MCA) using PMN-PZT ceramics was investigated under the combined high electromechanical loading. When electric field and compressive stress are simultaneously applied to the ceramics, the piezoceramics is expected to be different from that of ceramics induced by only one quantity, electric field or mechanical load. This property difference was estimated via piezoelectric equation.

Mun-Su Ha; Soon-Jong Jeong; Jung-Hyuk Koh; Jae-Sung Song; Yeon-Hak Jeong

2006-01-01

351

Finite Element Analyses for Radial Piezoelectric Mode Laminated Transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel laminated piezoelectric transducer was mainly composed of the piezoelectric ceramics, metal bolt, rubber gasket, copper electrode, waterproof layer and output cable. The transducer finite-element modeling was built, separately in the air and water, with ANSYS10.0 to calculate the resonance frequency, conductance, transmitting voltage response and directivity. The simulation showed that the laminated structure effectively improved the sensitivity of

Dong TianXiao; Wang LiKun; Qin Lei; Wu WeiWei; Wang Gang

2008-01-01

352

Electric and Elastic Coefficients of Lead Magnesium Niobate-Based Ceramics Under DC Bias for Active Smart Sensor Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, certain ceramics containing lead magnesium niobate rm (Pb(Mg_{1/3 }Nb_{2/3})O_3 or PMN) and lead titanate (PbTiO_3 or PT) were characterized as materials most suitable for active smart sensor applications. The selection of these active materials for use in smart systems which have "sensing," "actuating," and "intelligence" capabilities controlled by a DC bias field was based on earlier studies in which it was demonstrated that certain compositions of these materials under a weak DC bias field show a very strong induced piezoelectric effect. That is, these materials exhibit nonlinear strain-electric field characteristics in which an electric bias field can act as the controlling mechanism for the piezoelectric property of the material, which determines the sensing and indirectly determines the actuating capabilities of the material. Furthermore, with the goal of characterizing these PMN-based ceramics for active smart sensor applications, this thesis remarks on some of the effects that an externally applied DC bias field can have on a relaxor-type ferroelectric material like PMN. For the four compositions, (1 - x)PMN - (x)PT (x = 0.07 and x = 0.10), and (1 - x)PMN - (x)PT (x = 0.00 and x = 0.07) with 1 mole percent lanthanum the electric and elastic properties of the material were studied as a function of the DC bias over a range of conditions. For higher frequency applications, the complex material parameters (piezoelectric coefficient, elastic, and the dielectric constant) were measured as a function of bias at several temperatures using a modified resonance method. For lower frequency applications, the piezoelectric hydrostatic coefficient (d_{h}), and its DC field dependence, were evaluated from the relationship d_{h}=d_ {33}+2d_{31}, and measurements of d_{33} and d _{31} were made with an optical ultradilatometer. Finally, for a further understanding of the piezoelectric effect, the temperature dependence of the pyroelectric and dielectric response as a function of a selected DC bias field were investigated using the Byer-Roundy method and an LCR meter. In conclusion, this thesis provides the first truly comprehensive experimental study of PMN-based ceramics for device applications. In so doing it lays the groundwork for the development of active smart sensor applications.

Taylor, Deborah Jane

353

Modeling Time-dependent Responses of Piezoelectric Fiber Composite  

E-print Network

. There are some lead-free piezoceramics such as sodium potassium niobate (KNN) and bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3 ). Moreover, some polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyimide are also piezoelectric materials. The piezoelectric constant d of PVDF... varies between 1.5 to 32pC/N, which is much smaller than those of piezoelectric ceramics and the stiffness of PVDF is generally small, making it rather daunting for providing large actuation. PVDF is often used as sensor in smart composite. [1...

Li, Kuo-An

2011-02-22

354

Electrical Properties of Step-down Multilayer Piezoelectric Transformer for AC-DC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilayer piezoelectric transformers (MPT) were manufactured using PZN-PMN-PZT ceramics and their electrical properties were then investigated according to frequency and load resistance. The voltage step-up ratio of multilayer piezoelectric transformer showed the maximum value in the vicinity of 73 kHz and increased according to the increase of load resistance. When the output impedance coincided with the load resistance, the piezoelectric

Ju-Hyun Yoo; Kook-Jin Kim; Chang-Bae Lee; Dong-Soo Paik; Hyun-Sang Yoon; Jae-Il Hong

2006-01-01

355

Research on Temperature Property of Piezoelectric Vibration Accelerometer Based on Cymbal Transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new type of piezoelectric vibration accelerometer was studied, which sensitive element is cymbal piezocomposite transducer with 2-(0)-2 connectivity rather than conventional piezoelectric ceramic. The temperature property of output voltage of this new piezoelectric vibration accelerometer was investigated. Put the temperature sensor DS18B20 into the vibration accelerometer to detect the inner temperature properties of the vibration accelerometer. Using microcomputer to

Li Denghua; Gao Xiangyu; Zhang Zhixin; Zhou Feng

2010-01-01

356

Saturn Moons Explorer: Titan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Only now are we beginning to learn about Titan, one of Saturn's most intriguing and enigmatic moons. This particular site provides an overview of Titan, courtesy of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, located at the California Institute of Technology. After watching an introductory video segment about Titan, visitors can learn more in the "Quick Facts" section. The "Latest Images" area contains twelve of the latest images of Titan as captured by the Cassini spacecraft. Visitors should also not miss the "3D Globe" area, which contains an interactive rendering of Titan which allows visitors to visit a number of features on this moon, including an ice volcano, drainage channels, and "The Smile", the brightest spot on Titan's surface.

357

Design of Piezoelectric Actuators Using the Topology Optimization Based on Density Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flextensional Piezoelectric Actuator consists of a flexible structure actuated by piezoelectric ceramics. These actuators are applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), nanotechnology equipment, microsurgery equipment, etc. However, due to the fact these actuators essentially consist of a compliant me chanism their design is complex. The compliant structure behaves as a mechanical transform by amplifying and changing the direction of small output

Ronny Calixto Carbonari; Emílio Carlos; Nelli Silva

358

Piezoelectric actuation of crack growth along polymer-metal interfaces in adhesive bonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental technique for determining mechanical properties of polymer-metal interfaces was developed by replacing the conventional mechanical testing machine with a piezoelectric actuator. The actuator was made from a thin ferroelectric ceramic beam attached to a bilayer polymer-metal composite specimen. The trilayer specimen was loaded by applying ac electric fields on the piezoelectric actuator to drive crack growth along

Tianbao Du; Ming Liu; Steve Seghi; K. J. Hsia; J. Economy; J. K. Shang

2001-01-01

359

VOLTAGE-TUNABLE PIEZOELECTRICALLY-TRANSDUCED SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON RESONATORS ON SOI SUBSTRATE  

E-print Network

blocks for on-chip integrated filter and frequency references to replace bulky, off-chip ceramic and SAW. The resonating element is made out of the SCS device layer of a SOI wafer. In a unique manner, piezoelectric that combine the advantages of piezoelectric and capacitive resonators. The resonating element is substantially

Ayazi, Farrokh

360

Titanic: Discovery Channel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RMS Titanic raised a 23- by 14-foot section of the Titanic's outer hull this week, and the Discovery Channel, who helped sponsor the expedition, will be webcasting live from the interior of the Titanic via robot cameras August 16 at 8:00 and 10:00 p.m. (Eastern Time). In addition to their live webcase, the Discovery Channel site (discussed in the December 5, 1997 issue of the Scout Report) features virtual reality tours of sections of the Titanic before and after its crash, quicktime videos of the expeditions, a computer animated simulation of the crash, and more.

361

Subterahertz excitations and magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite-piezoelectric bilayers  

SciTech Connect

A frequency-agile hexaferrite-piezoelectric composite for potential device applications at subterahertz frequencies is studied. The bilayer is composed of aluminum substituted barium hexagonal ferrite (BaAl{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). A dc electric field applied to PZT results in mechanical deformation of the ferrite, leading to a frequency shift in ferromagnetic resonance. The bilayer demonstrates magnetoelectric interaction coefficient of about 0.37 Oe cm/kV.

Ustinov, Alexey B. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Srinivasan, G. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States)

2008-10-06

362

Ordered ferroelectric lead titanate nanocellular structure by conversion of anodic TiO 2 nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of a highly ordered and vertically aligned piezoelectric lead titanate perovskite nanocellulor structures has been demonstrated. The nanostructure provides promising perspectives for applications in solar cells, photocatalysis, catalysis and also in biomedical devices. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used for the structural characterization of the samples. Annealing at different temperatures in an oxygen flow was performed to convert

J. M. a Macak; C. b Zollfrank; B. J. c Rodriguez; H. d Tsuchiya; M. c Alexe; P. b Greil; P.a Schmuki

2009-01-01

363

Piezoelectric drive circuit  

DOEpatents

A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

Treu, Jr., Charles A. (Raymore, MO)

1999-08-31

364

Piezoelectrically Assisted Ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated the feasibility of using piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration to reduce membrane fouling and enhance the flux through ultrafiltration membranes. A preliminary economic evaluation, accounting for the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver and the extent of permeate flow rate enhancement, has also shown that piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration is cost effective and economically competitive in comparison with traditional separation

N. Ahner; D. Gottschlich; S. Narang; D. Roberts; S. Sharma; S. Ventura

1993-01-01

365

"Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

1994-01-01

366

ORNL debuts Titan supercomputer  

E-print Network

SCIENCE ORNL debuts Titan supercomputer ORNL has completed the installation of Titan, a supercomputer capable of churning through more than 20,000 trillion calculations each second--or 20 petaflops Jaguar predecessor while using only marginally more electricity. "One challenge in supercomputers today

Pennycook, Steve

367

Clash of the Titans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"…

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

2010-01-01

368

Titan Airship Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturn's moon Titan is considered to be one of the prime locations for understanding the origins of life due to its rich environment of organic chemicals. A unique combination of dense atmosphere (more than four times that of the Earth), low gravity (one-sixth of that on the Earth) and small temperature variations makes Titan well-suited for studies with buoyant robotic

Jeffery L. Hall; Viktor V. Kerzhanovich; J. A. Jones; J. A. Cutts; A. A. Yavrouian; A. Colozza; R. D. Lorenz

2002-01-01

369

Titan buoyant station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed mission concept evolves about one or more buoyant stations (balloons and/or airship) operating at varying altitudes in Titan's atmosphere. An orbiter of Titan provides communications link support and accomplishes remote sensing science experiments. The paper describes science objectives and payloads, the reference mission concept and various aspects of mission design analysis.

Friedlander, A. L.

1984-01-01

370

High Strain, /001S Textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O30.325PbTiO3 Ceramics: Templated Grain Growth and Piezoelectric Properties  

E-print Network

High Strain, /001S Textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3­0.325PbTiO3 Ceramics: Templated Grain Growth­ 0.325PbTiO3 (PMN­32.5PT) ceramics were textured (grain- oriented) in the /001S-crystallographic direction by the templated grain growth process. The textured PMN­32.5PT ceramics were produced by orienting

Messing, Gary L.

371

A high-temperature double-mode piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor (piezoelectric vibrator sizes: 4.7 × 13.5 × 2 mm3) has been studied for precise actuation at 200 °C high-temperature. This piezoelectric linear motor was made of (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramic with a high curie temperature (428 °C) and it was operated in first longitudinal and the second bending double-mode. Our experimental results showed that the linear motor moves smoothly at the temperature as high as 200 °C with a driving force of 0.35 N and a speed up to 42 mm/s.

Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

2012-08-01

372

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND POWER CONSIDERATIONS OF A PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric wafers for use in aeronautical applications such as active noise control in aircraft. Determination of capacitive behavior and power consumption is necessary to optimize the system configuration and to design efficient driving electronics. Empirical relations are developed from experimental data to predict the capacitance and loss tangent of a PZT5A ceramic as

T. Jordan; Z. Ounaies; J. Tripp; P. Tcheng

373

Bipolar piezoelectric fatigue of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 Pb-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric fatigue behavior of Pb-free ceramics based on solid solutions of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 was characterized at 50 kV/cm after 106 bipolar cycles. Ferroelectric compositions containing 2.5% Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 exhibited only minor losses in maximum strain (˜10%). In compositions with 5% Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 that exhibit large electric field-induced strains, the electromechanical strain actually increased 4%, exhibiting essentially fatigue free behavior. This finding demonstrates that these materials have excellent potential for demanding high cycle applications such as microelectromechanical systems actuators.

Patterson, Eric A.; Cann, David P.

2012-07-01

374

Temperature dependence of the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in BiFeO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution focuses on the use of modified Rayleigh law as a technique for determining the intrinsic and extrinsic (reversible/irreversible) contributions to the piezoelectric effect up to 150 °C across a broad compositional space, augmenting previous understanding of the BiFeO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 system. At room temperature, a mechanistic explanation of the correlation between crystal symmetry, i.e., tetragonal spontaneous strain, xs, and the Rayleigh relations using Landau theory is provided. The intrinsic response was found to be heavily dependent upon the tetragonal xs, whereby an optimisation between polarization and permittivity was elucidated, leading to enhanced piezoelectric charge coefficients. A c/a ratio of ˜1.041 was identified at which the room temperature intrinsic and extrinsic effects were at a maximum; a dinit of 183 × 10-12 m/V and Rayleigh coefficient of 59 × 10-18 m2/V2 were measured, resulting in the largest piezoelectric charge coefficients. The piezoelectric charge coefficient d33, intrinsic and extrinsic contributions of these materials were all found to increase up to 150 °C while adhering to the Rayleigh model. The reversible extrinsic component of the total reversible response, dinit, was calculated to be relatively minor, 4.9% at room temperature, increasing to 12.1% at 150 °C, signifying its increasing influence to the piezoelectric effect, as domain wall motion is thermally activated. Hence, the phenomenological interpretation provided here may be used as a roadmap to elucidate the origins of the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric effect.

Bennett, J.; Shrout, T. R.; Zhang, S. J.; Mandal, P.; Bell, A. J.; Stevenson, T. J.; Comyn, T. P.

2014-09-01

375

Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers  

PubMed Central

The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm the continuous high aspect ratio structure of barium titanate nanofibers after heat treatment. It is demonstrated that the CJS technique offers a highly efficient method for large-scale fabrication of ceramic nanofibers at production rates of up to 0.3 gram/minute. PMID:24563566

Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P.

2014-01-01

376

The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.

Not Available

1990-01-01

377

Titan's Lower Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn's largest moon, Titan, sports an atmosphere 10 times thicker than Earth's. Like Earth, the moon's atmosphere is N2 based and possesses a rich organic chemistry. In addition, similar to the terrestrial hydrological cycle, Titan has a methane cycle, with methane clouds, rain and seas. Presently, there is a revolution in our understanding of the moon, as data flows in and is analyzed from the NASA and ESA Cassini-Huygens mission. For example, seas were detected only this year. Here I will discuss the evolution of our understanding of Titan's atmosphere, its composition, chemistry, dynamics and origin. Current open questions will also be presented. Studies of Titan's atmosphere began and evolved to the present state in less time than that of a single scientist's career. This short interlude of activity demonstrates the rigors of the scientific method, and raises enticing questions about the workings and evolution of an atmosphere.

Griffith, Caitlin Ann

2007-09-01

378

A piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

Won, C. C.

1993-01-01

379

Lead zirconate titanate-based thick films for high-frequency focused ultrasound transducers prepared by electrophoretic deposition.  

PubMed

An electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process with high deposition rate was used to fabricate a curved piezoelectric thick film devoted to high-frequency transducers for medical imaging. Niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZTNb) powder was stabilized in ethanol to prepare a suspension with high zeta potential and low conductivity. A gold layer, pad-printed and fired on a curved porous PZT substrate, was used as the working electrode for the deposition of the PZTNb thick film. This substrate was chosen because it has the required properties (acoustic impedance and attenuation) to be used directly as a backing for the high-frequency transducer, leading to a simplified process for transducer assembly with this integrated structure. PZT-Nb thick films were also deposited by EPD on flat gold-coated alumina substrates as a reference. The thickness of the films was between 20 and 35 ?m, and their electromechanical performance was comparable to standard PZT bulk ceramics with a thickness coupling factor of 48%. For the curved thick film, the thickness coupling factor was slightly lower. The corresponding integrated structure was used to fabricate a transducer with a center frequency of 40 MHz and an f-number of 2.8. It was integrated into a realtime ultrasound scanner and used to image human forearm skin; the resulting images showed, for the first time, the efficacy of the EPD process for these imaging applications. PMID:24569258

Abellard, André-Pierre; Kuscer, Danjela; Grégoire, Jean-Marc; Lethiecq, Marc; Malic, Barbara; Levassort, Franck

2014-03-01

380

Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

2013-12-01

381

Impact craters on Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan’s surface imaged by Cassini’s high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions

Charles A. Wood; Ralph Lorenz; Randy Kirk; Rosaly Lopes; Karl Mitchell; Ellen Stofan

2010-01-01

382

Titan: some new results.  

PubMed

New analyses of Voyager spectra of Titan have led to improvements in the determination of abundances of minor constituents as a function of latitude and altitude. Ground-based microwave observations have extended the Voyager results for HCN, and have demonstrated that CO is mysteriously deficient in the stratosphere. The origin of the CH4, CO, and N2 in Titan's atmosphere is still unresolved. Both primordial and evolutionary sources are compatible with the available evidence. PMID:11537362

Owen, T; Gautier, D

1989-01-01

383

Structure and electrical properties of Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3–BaTiO 3–Bi 0.5Li 0.5TiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free ceramics (1–x–y)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–xBaTiO3–yBi0.5Li0.5TiO3 have been prepared by a conventional ceramic technique, and their structure and electrical properties have been studied. The results of XRD measurement show that Ba2+ and Li+ diffuse into the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. With x increasing from 0.02 to 0.12, the ceramics transform gradually from rhombohedral phase to

Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok; H. L. W. Chan

2008-01-01

384

Portfolio: Ceramics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

Hardy, Jane; And Others

1982-01-01

385

Spectral Characteristics of Titan's Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini/Huygens and ground-based measurements of Titan reveal an eroded surface, with lakes, dunes, and sinuous washes. These features, coupled with measurements of clouds and rain, indicate the transfer of methane between Titan’s surface and atmosphere. The presence of methane-damp lowlands suggests further that the atmospheric methane (which is continually depleted through photolysis) may be supplied by sub-surface reservoirs. The byproducts of methane photolysis condense onto the surface, leaving layers of organic sediments that record Titan’s past atmospheres.Thus knowledge of the source and history of Titan's atmosphere requires measurements of the large scale compositional makeup of Titan's surface, which is shrouded by a thick and hazy atmosphere. Towards this goal, we analyzed roughly 100,000 spectra recorded by Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Our study is confined to the latitude region (20S—20N) surrounding the landing site of the Huygens probe (at 10S, 192W), which supplied only measurement of the vertical profiles of the methane abundance and haze scattering characteristics. VIMS near-IR spectral images indicate subtle latitudinal and temporal variations in the haze characteristics in the tropics. We constrain these small changes with full radiative transfer analyses of each of the thousands of VIMS spectra, which were recorded of different terrains and at different lighting conditions. The resulting models of Titan’s atmosphere as a function of latitude and year indicate the seasonal migration of Titan’s tropical haze and enable the derivation of Titan’s surface albedo at 8 near-IR wavelength regions where Titan’s atmosphere is transparent enough to allow visibility to the surface. The resultant maps of Titan’s surface indicate a number of terrain types with distinct spectral characteristics that are suggestive of atmospheric and surficial processes, including the deposition of organic material, erosion of sediments and potential sources of methane.

Griffith, Caitlin A.; Turner, Jake D.; Penteado, Paulo; Khamsi, Tymon B.; Soderblom, Jason M.

2014-11-01

386

Dielectric and ferroelectric analysis of nanoparticle/nanocrystalline barium titanate and PLZT.  

SciTech Connect

Attractive for numerous technological applications, ferroelectronic oxides constitute an important class of multifunctional compounds. Intense experimental efforts have been made recently in synthesizing, processing and understanding ferroelectric nanostructures. This work will present the systematic characterization and optimization of barium titanate and lead lanthanum zirconate titanate nanoparticle based ceramics. The nanoparticles have been synthesized using several solution and pH-based synthesis processing routes and employed to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic and nanocomposite based components. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of these various components have been gauged by impedance analysis and electromechanical response and will be discussed.

DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William

2010-07-01

387

Ceramic actuators - Principles and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric and electrostrictive actuators for electromechanical work have applications that fall into the broad categories of positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. These ceramic actuators have displacements of up to several tens of microns, which can be controlled with a precision of +/- 10 microns, as well as response speeds of the order of 10 microsec and generative forces as large as 400 kgf/sq cm. Their driving power is typically an order of magnitude smaller than that of electromagnetic motors. Attention is given to the multilayer and bimorph types of ceramic actuators that are currently the most often used in applications of this technology.

Uchino, Kenji

1993-04-01

388

THE APPLICATION OF HIGH ENERGY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS TO PROCESS FLY ASH AND CERAMICS. MISA 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANSTO's development of waste forms for nuclear waste has lead to the development of equipment and methodologies that allow us to control the properties of materials like titanate ceramics. The complex compositions of waste streams in the nuclear industry have resulted in the design of a wide range of chemical compositions of ceramics, glass and glass- ceramics to immobilize specific

M. La Robina; J. Ferenczy

389

Performance evaluation of pyrochlore ceramic waste forms by single pass flow through testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanate-based ceramic waste forms for the disposal of nuclear wastes have been the subjects of numerous studies over the past decades. In order to assess the performance of this ceramic in a potential Yucca Mountain high-level waste (HLW) repository, it is necessary to understand the kinetics and mechanisms of corrosion of the ceramic under repository conditions. To this end, we are conducting single pass flow-through (SPFT) dissolution tests on ceramics relevant to Pu disposition.

Zhao, P.; Bourcier, W. L.; Esser, B. K.; Shaw, H. F.

2000-07-01

390

Optimizing Voided Piezoelectric Polymers For Acoustic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer piezoelectric materials offer lower density and more flexibility than piezoelectric ceramics for applications where rugged and lightweight acoustic sensors are required. This paper discusses constraints imposed by material stiffness and dielectric constants and aims to derive a generalized closed-form solution for optimizing charged foamed polymers. Optimized solutions are reached in the limits of very large and small void fraction and permittivity ratio. The permittivity ratio is the ratio of the dielectric constants of the polymer and the material that fills the voids. Demonstrations indicate that, in the oblique asymptote, the optimized void fraction becomes equivalent to the permittivity ratio. This effort was conducted under the auspices of the Undersea Warfare Business Area (UWBA) Independent Research & Development (IRAD) Board of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL).

Arvelo, Juan I.

2009-07-01

391

Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting in MEMS technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting made by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology can scavenge power from low-level ambient vibration sources. The developed cantilevers energy harvesting are featured with resonate frequency and power output in microwatt level, which is sufficient to the self-supportive sensors for in-service integrity monitoring of large social and environmental infrastructures at remote locations. In this paper, piezoelectric energy harvesting based on thick-film piezoelectric cantilevers is investigated to resonate at specific frequencies of an external vibration energy source, which creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. Our cantilever device has a multiple structure with a proof mass added to the end. The thick film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) coated on the top of Au/Cr/SiO2/Si substrates by sol-gel-spin method. The thickness of the PZT membrane was up to 2?m and the cantilevers substrates thickness 50?m, wideness 1.5mm, length 4mm. The Au/Ti top electrode is patterned on top of the sol-gel-spin coated PZT thick film in order to employ the d31 mode. The prototype energy generator has a measured performance of 0.74?W effective electrical power, and 4.93 DC output voltages to resistance load. The effect of proof mass, beam shape and damping on the power generating performance are modeled to provide a design guideline for maximum power harvesting from environmentally available low frequency vibrations. A multiple structure cantilever is designed to achieve compactness, low resonant frequency and minimum damping coefficient, simultaneously. This device is promising to support networks of ultra-low-power sensor.

Shang, Yingqi; Qiu, Chengjun; Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Xiaojie; Qu, Wei; Dou, Yanwei

2011-11-01

392

Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting in MEMS technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting made by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology can scavenge power from low-level ambient vibration sources. The developed cantilevers energy harvesting are featured with resonate frequency and power output in microwatt level, which is sufficient to the self-supportive sensors for in-service integrity monitoring of large social and environmental infrastructures at remote locations. In this paper, piezoelectric energy harvesting based on thick-film piezoelectric cantilevers is investigated to resonate at specific frequencies of an external vibration energy source, which creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. Our cantilever device has a multiple structure with a proof mass added to the end. The thick film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) coated on the top of Au/Cr/SiO2/Si substrates by sol-gel-spin method. The thickness of the PZT membrane was up to 2?m and the cantilevers substrates thickness 50?m, wideness 1.5mm, length 4mm. The Au/Ti top electrode is patterned on top of the sol-gel-spin coated PZT thick film in order to employ the d31 mode. The prototype energy generator has a measured performance of 0.74?W effective electrical power, and 4.93 DC output voltages to resistance load. The effect of proof mass, beam shape and damping on the power generating performance are modeled to provide a design guideline for maximum power harvesting from environmentally available low frequency vibrations. A multiple structure cantilever is designed to achieve compactness, low resonant frequency and minimum damping coefficient, simultaneously. This device is promising to support networks of ultra-low-power sensor.

Shang, Yingqi; Qiu, Chengjun; Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Xiaojie; Qu, Wei; Dou, Yanwei

2012-04-01

393

The environment of Titan, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the physical characteristics of Titan and atmospheric models necessary to support design and mission planning of spacecraft that are to orbit Titan, enter its atmosphere or land on its surface is given.

1976-01-01

394

Design and vibration analysis of a piezoelectric-actuated MEMS scanning mirror and its application to laser projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the design and analysis of a two-axis scanner driven by lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) ceramic. The proposed device consists of a silicon-based MEMS scanning mirror and a bulk-type piezoelectric actuator. The MEMS process involves three masks. The experimental results showed that the fast and slow frequencies at resonance are 29.6 kHz and 4.8 kHz, respectively. For the fast scan, the scanning angle is 46.9 degrees at a driving voltage of 10 V. For the slow scan, the scanning angle is 22.6 degrees at a driving voltage of 20 V. A multi-DOF vibration model was developed to analyze the scanning characteristics of the device. The numerical simulations, including the resonance frequency, scanning angle and the mode coupling phenomenon, were validated with the experimental observations. This study also develops a laser projection module integrated with the scanning device. The module can receive a video content with a resolution of 720 p and project a 16:9 image that is 19 inches in diagonal at a projection distance of 600 mm.

Chen, Chung-De; Lee, Yao-Hui; Yeh, Chien-Shien

2014-12-01

395

Titan's Nitrogen Budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destruction of nitrogen through photolysis and electron impact processes in Titan's upper atmosphere and through cosmic ray ionization in Titan's stratosphere results in the formation of nitrile molecules, which are transported into the stratosphere, and nitrogen-based ions, which populate Titan's upper and lower ionosphere. These compounds contribute to the possible formation of ion clusters and to the eventual incorporation of nitrogen into Titan haze, which has been investigated by laboratory studies and confirmed by observations from the Huygens Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) instrument [1]. However, the mechanisms by which these processes occur are still largely unknown. One of the barriers to our understanding is the fact that a significant portion of Titan's nitrogen budget goes into compounds for which there has been little study at low temperatures, compounds like methanimine (CH2NH) and the carbene imine ion (C3NH+). These imines, which exhibit the N-H functional group, may play a significant role in the nitrogen incorporation into haze as shown by the detection of the N-H functional group in the sample analyzed by the ACP instrument [1] and by laboratory studies. This poster will detail the current state of knowledge of Titan's nitrogen budget, as elucidated by the recent observations of the Cassini-Huygens mission, and this study will explore the potential role of these understudied compounds in the production of haze and possible formation of amino acids on or near the surface, the study of which having potential implications on future in-situ investigations of Titan. This research is supported by a grant from the NASA Outer Planets Program. [1] Israel, G., et al., Nature, 438, 796-799, 2005.

Wilson, Eric H.

2006-09-01

396

Oases on Titan?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan has clouds, rain and lakes, like Earth, but composed of methane rather than water. Unlike Earth, most of the condensible, the equivalent of 5m of methane globally averaged, lies in the atmosphere. That detected on the surface ( 2m) appears black in Cassini Radar images. These lakes reside only poleward of the 50 latitude circles, where their presence is expected, because Titan's circulation efficiently transports methane to the poles, thereby desiccating the tropics. Here we present an investigation of Titan's tropical surface, using VIMS data recorded within 20S and 20N latitude (Nature, 486, 327, 2012). With a radiative transfer calculation that reproduces the in situ measurements by the Huygens Probe, we can derive the surface albedos to within 2% at 5 of the 7 window wavelength regions that probe Titan's surface. Our analysis detects the presence of a 2,400 km^2 region where the surface is uniformly black at the 7 near-IR windows. These measurements indicate the presence of a ?1m deep tropical lake, which is long lasting, having existed since 2004. Also indicated is the existence of several shallow ponds with ankle level depths. Because liquid methane is unstable on Titan's tropical surface, this unexpected detection indicates a recent supply of methane from the subsurface. Our study poses the question of whether subsurface reservoirs supply Titan's atmospheric methane. Such a source would explain the methane and the abounding organic material in Titan's atmosphere, which is produced by the irreversible photolysis of methane. Unless resupplied, the current atmospheric methane inventory will be exhausted in 20 million years.

Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Lora, J. M.; Turner, J. D.; Penteado, P. F.; Brown, R. H.; Tomasko, M. G.; Doose, L.; See, C.

2012-10-01

397

Titan's impact history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts play a major role in the growth and evolution of planets, satellites, and other nameless things. Titan is no exception. This talk will address a subset of the following topics: (i) The modern impact rate is constrained by the population of Centaurs and the impact rate at Jupiter. (ii) Titan's thick atmosphere and volatile surface cause it to respond to major impacts in an Earth-like manner. The impact that made Menrva - the 440 km diameter impact basin sited near the current apex of Titan's motion - was big enough to raise the average global surface temperature above 273 K, which suggests that water rain was possible. This would have been followed by methane drizzles lasting for thousands of years. More modest impacts will generate crater lakes and will saturate the atmosphere with methane, the latter leading to hundreds of years of intermittent drizzle. (iii) Impact ejecta from Menrva will strike Hyperion and should saturate the latter with sesquinary craters. (iv) In any modern story of how Titan got its atmosphere, solar nebular condensates (comets) deliver the volatiles. A consequence of a cometogenic atmosphere is that the atmosphere is heavily processed by strong shocks. The high temperatures produce a wide range of chemical species that would not otherwise be abundant. Some of these will survive to mix into the atmosphere (e.g., CO) or freeze out to fall to the surface (e.g. CO2). (v) That Titan even has an atmosphere, when Callisto and Ganymede do not, is an excellent question. The leading explanation is that Titan alone was made from ammonia - and methane - rich stuff. But the competition between impact delivery and impact expulsion of volatiles can strongly favor Titan over Callisto. Stable isotopes as well as total volatile inventories provide constraints.

Zahnle, Kevin

2010-04-01

398

Fundamental understanding of wave generation and reception using d36 type piezoelectric transducers.  

PubMed

A new piezoelectric wafer made from a PMN-PT single crystal with dominant piezoelectric coefficient d36 is proposed to generate and detect guided waves on isotropic plates. The in-plane shear coupled with electric field arising from the piezoelectric coefficient is not usually present for conventional piezoelectric wafers, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The direct piezoelectric effect of coefficient d36 indicates that under external in-plane shear stress the charge is induced on a face perpendicular to the poled z-direction. On thin plates, this type of piezoelectric wafer will generate shear horizontal (SH) waves in two orthogonal wave propagation directions as well as two Lamb wave modes in other wave propagation directions. Finite element analyses are employed to explore the wave disturbance in terms of time-varying displacements excited by the d36 wafer in different directions of wave propagation to understand all the guided wave modes accurately. Experiments are conducted to examine the voltage responses received by this type of wafer, and also investigate results of tuning frequency and effects of d31 piezoelectric coefficient, which is intentionally ignored in the finite element analysis. All results demonstrate the main features and utility of proposed d36 piezoelectric wafer for guided wave generation and detection in structural health monitoring. PMID:25465107

Zhou, Wensong; Li, Hui; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

2014-11-15

399

Dielectric measurements of selected ceramics at microwave frequencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dielectric measurements of strontium titanate and lead titanate zirconate ceramics are conducted at microwave frequencies using a cylindrical resonant cavity in the TE(sub 011) mode. The perturbations of the electric field are recorded in terms of the frequency shift and Q-changes of the cavity signal. Slater's perturbation equations are used to calculate e' and e" of the dielectric constant as a function of temperature and frequency.

Dahiya, J. N.; Templeton, C. K.

1994-01-01

400

The Titan Graphics Supercomputer Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design criteria for the Titan are outlined, and the hardware, architecture, and implementation developed to meet them are examined. The key architectural elements in Titan are described, and the reasoning behind their selection is presented. Titan's processor subsystem is explored, focusing on how it reduces the cost and complexity of graphics-specific hardware. The design constraints and implementation of the

Tom Diede; Carl F. Hagenmaier; Glen S. Miranker; Jonathan J. Rubinstein; William S. Worley Jr.

1988-01-01

401

Destruction Mechanisms in Ceramic Multilayer Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destruction mechanisms were investigated in electrostrictor, piezoelectric and phase-change antiferroelectric ceramic multilayer actuators with an interdigital electrode configuration. Simultaneous observations were done by three different methods; visual observation with a charge coupled device (CCD) microscope, field-induced strain and acoustic emission (AE) measurements. During a cyclic electric field application, the crack was initiated from the edge of an internal electrode and

Hideaki Aburatani; Shuichi Harada; Kenji Uchino; Atsushi Furuta; Yoshiaki Fuda

1994-01-01

402

High displacement ceramic metal composite actuators (moonies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most common type of piezoelectric actuators are the multilayer actuator with internal electrodes and the cantilevered bimorph actuator. A new type of composite ceramic actuator is the multilayered multistacked moonie (multi-multi moonie). Normal multilayer actuators produce a large generative force, but only a small displacement. Conversely, bimorphs produce large displacements but the forces are very small. The moonie

Aydin Dogan; Qichang Xu; Katsuhiko Onitsuka; Shoko Yoshikawa; Kenji Uchino; Robert E. Newnham

1994-01-01

403

Intelligent Ceramic Materials: Issues of Brittle Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review the brittle fracture behavior of piezoelectric and electrostrictive ceramics of interest for intelligent material systems. Properties of importance, such as critical fracture toughness, strength, and susceptibility to moisture enhanced crack growth, are addressed, especially as they are affected by the material's microstructure and chemistry. Local strains and ferroelectric domains produced by phase transformations in these

Stephen W. Freiman; Grady S. White

1995-01-01

404

Uniaxial Compression Experiments on Lead Zirconate Titanate 95/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, ''Maximum Compressive Stress'' Criterion for Onset of the Ferroelectric - Antiferroelectric Polymorphic Transformation  

SciTech Connect

Some time ago we presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F{sub R1} {r_arrow} A{sub O} polymorphic transformation of unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb (PNZT) ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydro-static pressure at which the transformation otherwise took place. Recently we showed that this simple criterion did not apply to nonhydrostatically compressed, poled ceramic. However, unpoled ceramic is isotropic, whereas poled ceramic has a preferred crystallographic orientation and is mechanically anisotropic. If we further assume that the transformation depends not only on the magnitude of the compressive stress, but also its orientation relative to some feature(s) of PNZT's crystallography, then these disparate results can be qualitatively resolved. It has long been known that this transformation can be triggered in uniaxial compression. Our modified hypothesis makes two predictions for transformation of unpoled polycrystals under uniaxial stress: (i) the transformation should begin when the maximum compressive stress, {sigma}{sub 1}, equals the hydrostatic pressure for transformation, and (ii) a steadily increasing axial stress should be required to drive the transformation.

Zeuch, D.H.; Montgomery, S.T.; Holcomb, D.J.

1999-07-26

405

The Titan Aerosol Simulants Produced at Low Temperature in the Titan Haze Simulation Experiment at NASA Ames: A Closer Analog of Titan's Aerosols?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Titan Haze Simulation experiment simulates the first steps of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry at low temperature and produces aerosols that are simpler than other lab experiments’ and appear to be more representative of Titan’s aerosols.

Sciamma-O'Brien, E. M.; Upton, K. T.; Beauchamp, J. L.; Salama, F.

2014-02-01

406

Titan's methane cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is key to sustaining Titan's thick nitrogen atmosphere. However, methane is destroyed and converted to heavier hydrocarbons irreversibly on a relatively short timescale of approximately 10-100 million years. Without the warming provided by CH 4-generated hydrocarbon hazes in the stratosphere and the pressure induced opacity in the infrared, particularly by CH 4-N 2 and H 2-N 2 collisions in the troposphere, the atmosphere could be gradually reduced to as low as tens of millibar pressure. An understanding of the source-sink cycle of methane is thus crucial to the evolutionary history of Titan and its atmosphere. In this paper we propose that a complex photochemical-meteorological-hydrogeochemical cycle of methane operates on Titan. We further suggest that although photochemistry leads to the loss of methane from the atmosphere, conversion to a global ocean of ethane is unlikely. The behavior of methane in the troposphere and the surface, as measured by the Cassini-Huygens gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, together with evidence of cryovolcanism reported by the Cassini visual and infrared mapping spectrometer, represents a "methalogical" cycle on Titan, somewhat akin to the hydrological cycle on Earth. In the absence of net loss to the interior, it would represent a closed cycle. However, a source is still needed to replenish the methane lost to photolysis. A hydrogeochemical source deep in the interior of Titan holds promise. It is well known that in serpentinization, hydration of ultramafic silicates in terrestrial oceans produces H 2(aq), whose reaction with carbon grains or carbon dioxide in the crustal pores produces methane gas. Appropriate geological, thermal, and pressure conditions could have existed in and below Titan's purported water-ammonia ocean for "low-temperature" serpentinization to occur in Titan's accretionary heating phase. On the other hand, impacts could trigger the process at high temperatures. In either instance, storage of methane as a stable clathrate-hydrate in Titan's interior for later release to the atmosphere is quite plausible. There is also some likelihood that the production of methane on Titan by serpentinization is a gradual and continuous on-going process.

Atreya, Sushil K.; Adams, Elena Y.; Niemann, Hasso B.; Demick-Montelara, Jaime E.; Owen, Tobias C.; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Ferri, Francesca; Wilson, Eric H.

2006-10-01

407

Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

2001-01-01

408

Early History of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit models for the early history of Titan. Our models start a few My after the production of calcium- aluminum inclusions (CAIs), consistent with the dates required by our thermophysical-dynamical modeling of Saturn's medium-sized satellites. Depending on the time of formation with respect to CAIs, the accretion time scale, and the available accretional energy, models of Titan's interior after accretion are partially to fully differentiated. At one extreme of the models, Titan accretes incorporating a minimal amount of heat. This results in a relatively cold core that, over the long term, heats up and overturns, consistent with previous models of Titan. At the other extreme, accretional heat and heat fom the decay of short-lived radiogenic isotopes results in quick and complete differentiation. In this model there is no core overturn, and conditions soon develop for silicate serpentinization, and hydrothermal activity starts. We identify the periods during which conditions are suitable for hydrothermal geochemistry leading to the production of molecular nitrogen from ammonia decomposition and methane from the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Key questions include the availability of suitable metal catalysts and/or clay minerals, storage of the reactants and products in the interior of Titan, and mechanisms by which they are released to the atmosphere. Acknowledgements: This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Atreya, S.; Lunine, J. I.

2007-05-01

409

An investigation into active piezoelectric nanocomposites for distributed energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of monolithic piezoceramic materials in sensing and actuation applications has become quite common over the past decade. However, these materials have several properties that limit their application in practical systems. These materials are very brittle due to the ceramic nature of the monolithic material, making them vulnerable to accidental breakage during handling and bonding procedures. In addition, they have very poor ability to conform to curved surfaces and result in large add-on mass associated with using a typically lead-based ceramic. These limitations have motivated the development of alternative methods of applying the piezoceramic material, including piezoceramic fiber composites (PFCs), and piezoelectric paints. Piezoelectric paint is desirable because it can be spayed or painted on and can be used with abnormal surfaces. The ease at which the active composite can be applied allows for far larger surfaces to be used for energy harvesting than can be achieved with typical materials. Developments in piezoelectric nanocomposites for energy harvesting will also allow for the development of compliant materials with electromechanical coupling greater than available through existing piezoelectric polymers such as polyvinylidene floride (PVDF). Furthermore, the application of PVDF is limited to thin films due to the straining process required to obtain piezoelectric phase of the material. However, active nanocomposites can be molded into geometries that could not be obtained using currently available materials. The present study will characterize a variety of piezoelectric nanocomposite materials to determine how the properties of the polymer matrix and the piezoelectric inclusion affect the energy harvesting performance. The resulting active nanocomposites will be compared to existing piezo-polymers for power harvesting.

Liu, Yingtao; Sodano, Henry A.

2008-03-01

410

Effects of (LiCe) co-substitution on the structural and electrical properties of CaBi2Nb2O9 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the (LiCe) co-substituted calcium bismuth niobate (CaBi2Nb2O9, CBNO) are investigated. The piezoelectric properties of CBNO ceramics are significantly enhanced and the dielectric loss tan ? decreased. This makes poling using (LiCe) co-substitution easier. The ceramics (where ? represents A-site Ca2+ vacancies, possess a pure layered structure phase and no other phases can be found. The Ca0.88(LiCe)0.04?0.04Bi2Nb2O9 ceramics possess optimal piezoelectric properties, with piezoelectric coefficient (d33) and Curie temperature (TC) found to be 13.3 pC/N and 960 °C, respectively. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the (LiCe) co-substituted CBNO ceramics exhibit very stable temperature behaviours. This demonstrates that the CBNO ceramics are a promising candidate for ultrahigh temperature applications.

Tian, Xiao-Xia; Qu, Shao-Bo; Du, Hong-Liang; Li, Ye; Xu, Zhuo

2012-03-01

411

The tides of Titan.  

PubMed

We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k(2) = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k(2) = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2?). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan's interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth. PMID:22745254

Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J; Lunine, Jonathan I; Armstrong, John W; Asmar, Sami W; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J; Tortora, Paolo

2012-07-27

412

Microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 Ba(Ti 0.95 Zr 0.05 )O 3 lead-free ceramics with CuO sintering aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an ordinary ceramic fabrication technique, we fabricated lead-free (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBa(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3 ceramics with CuO sintering aid . Ba(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3 diffuses into (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 to form a new solid solution. The ceramics with perovskite structure possess orthorhombic phase at x?0.04 and become tetragonal\\u000a phase at x?0.06. Both the paraelectric cubic–ferroelectric tetragonal and the ferroelectric tetragonal–ferroelectric orthorhombic\\u000a phase transition temperatures decrease with increasing the concentration

D. Lin; K. W. Kwok; H. L. W. Chan

2007-01-01

413

Impact craters on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; Cassini Radar Team

2010-03-01

414

Impact craters on Titan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Wood, C.A.; Lorenz, R.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Mitchell, K.; Stofan, E.

2010-01-01

415

Impact craters on Titan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; Cassini RADAR Team

2010-01-01

416

Studies on Structural and Dielectric Properties of ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A Ba, Sr and Pb) Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Bismuth Titanate based electroceramics of layered perovskite structures are technologically important materials for high temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric applications, due to their high Curie temperature (675 deg. C), Stable piezoelectric response and excellent dielectric properties. The compounds ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A = Ba, Sr and Pb) belongs to Aurivillius family (n = 4) in which BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} crystallizes in tetragonal I4/mmm space group, Sr Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} and PbBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} crystallizes in orthorhombic space group A2{sub 1}am. In the present work ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A = Ba, Sr and Pb) ceramic samples are prepared through the solid state reaction by conventional mixed oxides by calcination at high temperature. Dielectric constant ({epsilon}'{sub r}) and Dielectric Loss (D) for all the compositions as a function of temperature measured from frequencies 100 Hz to 100 KHz using a HIOKI 3532-50 LCR meter. The dielectric constant increases gradually with an increase in temperature up to transition temperature (T{sub c,} K) and then decreases.

Reddy, T. Gopal; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba [Materials Research Lab, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur-515055, A.P. (India)

2010-12-01

417

Aboard the Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Maahs, Mrs.

2010-04-20

418

Titan's Winter Polar Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not been identified in Titan's atmosphere, so the decay of its polar vortex may be more gradual than on Earth. Observations from an extended Cassini mission into late northern spring should provide critical data indicating whether the vortex goes away with a bang or just fades away.

Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

2008-01-01

419

Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An adaptive algorithm implemented in digital or analog form is used in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier to compensate for the feedthrough capacitance of piezoelectric sensoriactuator. The mechanical response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator is resolved from the electrical response by adaptively altering the gain imposed on the electrical circuit used for compensation. For wideband, stochastic input disturbances, the feedthrough capacitance of the sensoriactuator can be identified on-line, providing a means of implementing direct-rate-feedback control in analog hardware. The device is capable of on-line system health monitoring since a quasi-stable dynamic capacitance is indicative of sustained health of the piezoelectric element.

Clark, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor); Vipperman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cole, Daniel G. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

420

Real-time calibration of open-loop piezoelectric actuators for interferometric applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper a piezoelectric actuator realized for interferometric applications is described, together with a numerical\\u000a model to simulate its electro-mechanical behavior. The actuator is an open-loop device made up of three piezoelectric ceramics\\u000a glued into a stainless steel case and connected directly to the parallel port of a personal computer by control electronics\\u000a developed on purpose. It consists

Luigi Bruno; Carmine Maletta

2008-01-01

421

Semiconducting barium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium titanate, which is well known as a basic ferroelectric material, is also of interest when doped because of the interaction between semiconductivity and ferroelectricity. The resistance of blocking layers at surfaces and grain-boundaries is governed mainly by the ferroelectric properties, so that a resistance jump of four decades is observed on heating above the Curie temperature. A survey of

W. Heywang

1971-01-01

422

Future Titan Mission Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration of Titan will remain a solar system science priority even (or especially) after Cassini. Not only does Titan offer an array of meteorological, oceanographical and geological phenomena richer than anywhere except Earth, but Titan's importance as an astrobiological target with a rich organic inventory has been long recognized. In-situ surface chemistry studies, meteorological and seismological monitoring and high-resolution geomorphological investigations are beyond Cassini's capabilities. Concepts for future missions involve a mobile airborne platform able to access sur- face materials at a number of locations, and an orbiter for communications support and survey observations. Detailed studies at JPL have evaluated mission options in- cluding a lander or a blimp (airship) supported by an orbiter, with launch in the 2010- 2015 timeframe, allowing early Cassini results to refine the mission science goals and implementation strategies. After a 10 year cruise and aerocapture, the mission would provide an enormous bounty of data from a 1-3 year tour of Titan. International col- laboration would broaden the scope of the mission and would build on the successful Cassini-Huygens experience.

Kakuda, R.; Spilker, T.; Baines, K.; Lorenz, R.

423

The lakes of Titan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

2007-01-01

424

Intelligence Analysis Using Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open source Titan Informatics Toolkit Project, which extends the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to include information visualization capabilities, is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with Kitware. The VAST Contest provided us with an opportunity to explore various ideas for constructing an analysis tool, while allowing us to exercise our architecture in the solution of a complex problem.

Patricia Crossno; Brian N. Wylie; Andrew Wilson; John Greenfield; Eric T. Stanton; Timothy M. Shead; Lisa Ice; Kenneth Moreland; Jeffrey Baumes; Berk Geveci

2007-01-01

425

Exploratory Study of the Acoustic Performance of Piezoelectric Actuators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed ducted fan engine has prompted the need for increasingly lightweight and efficient noise control devices. Exploratory tests at the NASA Langley Research Center were conducted to evaluate three piezoelectric specimens as possible control transducers: a Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) piezofilm sample and two composite samples of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) rods embedded in fiberglass. The tests measured the acoustic output efficiency and evaluated the noise control characteristics when interacting with a primary sound source. The results showed that a PZT sample could diminish the reflected acoustic waves. However, the PZT acoustic output must increase by several orders of magnitude to qualify as a control transducer for the ducted fan engine.

SantaMaria, O. S.; Thurlow, E. M.; Jones, M. G.

1989-01-01

426

Electromagneto-optical effect in ferromagnetic/piezoelectric structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagneto-optical (EMO) effect as a magneto-electric response for ferromagnetic/piezoelectric (yttrium iron garnets/lead zirconate titanate) structure by applying an external electrical field was registered by using an optical polarimetry method. EMO characterization ( ? EMO) was carried out as a function of the variable electric field, static electric field and static magnetic field, which were applied perpendicular to the sample plane. The EMO effect for the structure investigated went up by a factor of approximately ten compared to separate ferromagnetic phase.

Koronovskyy, V. E.; Kalenichenko, A. A.

2009-12-01

427

Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films  

PubMed Central

A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 ?m of static displacement, with 80–90 ?m displacements being typical, using four 920 ?m long by 70 ?m legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy. PMID:25506130

Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

2014-01-01

428

Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies such as Herceptin and Cetuximab. The PEMS displayed a limit of detection of 100 fg/mL, which was 100 times lower than the current methods of protein detection in serum, such as ELISA. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the PEMS device allows it to be capable of determining the dissociation constant, K d, of selective receptors such as antibodies. Using the dose response trials of Her2, Kd has been deduced for H3 scFv, and Herceptin, a commercial antibody specific for Her2.

Capobianco, Joseph A.

429

Piezoelectric Polymer Shock Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science and technology of piezoelectric materials has long been dominated by the availability of specific materials with particular properties. Piezoelectric PVDF (Poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer and copolymers of PVDF with trifluoroethylene have shown to have the potential for new shock-wave sensors. Since 1981 through 1995, the piezoelectric response of PVDF was studied in a cooperative effort with François Bauer of ISL, France, R.A. Graham of Sandia National Laboratories and L.M. Lee of Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque. Among the known piezoelectric polymers, the PVDF plays an important role in measuring mechanical and physical state of matter under shock loading. The present paper presents the history of the development of the PVDF gauge. After 24 years of research in this area, main relevant results and data obtained are summarized as well as some original applications of the PVDF gauges.

Bauer, F.

2006-07-01

430

Synthesis and electrical analysis of nano-crystalline barium titanate nanocomposites for use in high-energy density applications.  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic based nanocomposites have recently demonstrated the ability to provide enhanced permittivity, increased dielectric breakdown strength, and reduced electromechanical strain making them potential materials systems for high energy density applications. A systematic characterization and optimization of barium titanate and PLZT based nanoparticle composites employing a glass or polymer matrix to yield a high energy density component will be presented. This work will present the systematic characterization and optimization of barium titanate and lead lanthanum zirconate titanate nanoparticle based ceramics. The nanoparticles have been synthesized using solution and pH-based synthesis processing routes and employed to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic and nanocomposite based components. The dielectric/ferroelectric properties of these various components have been gauged by impedance analysis and electromechanical response and will be discussed.

DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Huber, Dale L.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William

2010-10-01

431

A high-temperature piezoelectric linear actuator operating in two orthogonal first bending modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventionally, piezoelectric ultrasonic linear actuators operate in longitudinal and bending combination (degenerate) modes for producing an elliptic motion which drives a slider moving linearly. With the increasing temperature, the degenerate mode will split into two separated modes again, resulting in piezoelectric actuators working to fail. Here, we report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear actuator made of Mn modified (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics operating in two orthogonal first bending modes (B1-B1). The B1-B1 mode linear actuator showed much better load and speed temperature stability than piezoelectric actuators operating in different combination mode in the investigated temperature range of room temperature to 200 °C.

Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Dong, Shuxiang

2013-02-01

432

Enhancing the piezoelectric performance of PVDF-TrFE thin films using zinc oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural health monitoring (SHM) is crucial for detecting sudden and progressive damage and for preventing catastrophic structural failure. Piezoelectric materials have been widely adopted for their use as sensors and as actuators. Piezoceramics (such as lead zirconate titanate) offer high piezoelectricity but are mechanically brittle. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) piezopolymers are conformable to complex structural surfaces but exhibit lower piezoelectricity. So as to achieve a combination of these desirable properties, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials are proposed for embedment in flexible polymer matrices during fabrication to yield high-performance piezoelectric nanocomposites. The main objective of this research is to characterize the piezoelectricity of nanocomposites formed by embedding ZnO nanoparticles in a PVDF-trifluoroethylene (TrFE) matrix. Film fabrication is performed by dispersing ZnO into a PVDFTrFE solution and then by spin coating the solution onto a rigid substrate. A high electric field is applied to each of the films for poling, and the films' remnant polarization is quantified by measuring their ferroelectric response using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Graphs of electric field compared to electric displacement can be obtained for determining the films' piezoelectricity. Finally, validation of their sensing performance is achieved by hammer impact testing.

Dodds, John S.; Meyers, Frederick N.; Loh, Kenneth J.

2012-04-01

433

Laminated piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

2006-01-01

434

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

2014-01-01

435

Piezoelectrically Enhanced Photocathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doping of photocathodes with materials that have large piezoelectric coefficients has been proposed as an alternative means of increasing the desired photoemission of electrons. Treating cathode materials to increase emission of electrons is called "activation" in the art. It has been common practice to activate photocathodes by depositing thin layers of suitable metals (usually, cesium). Because cesium is unstable in air, fabrication of cesiated photocathodes and devices that contain them must be performed in sealed tubes under vacuum. It is difficult and costly to perform fabrication processes in enclosed, evacuated spaces. The proposed piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes would have electron-emission properties similar to those of cesiated photocathodes but would be stable in air, and therefore could be fabricated more easily and at lower cost. Candidate photocathodes include nitrides of elements in column III of the periodic table . especially compounds of the general formula Al(x)Ga(1.x)N (where 0< or = x < or =.1). These compounds have high piezoelectric coefficients and are suitable for obtaining response to ultraviolet light. Fabrication of a photocathode according to the proposal would include inducement of strain in cathode layers during growth of the layers on a substrate. The strain would be induced by exploiting structural mismatches among the various constituent materials of the cathode. Because of the piezoelectric effect in this material, the strain would give rise to strong electric fields that, in turn, would give rise to a high concentration of charge near the surface. Examples of devices in which piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes could be used include microchannel plates, electron- bombarded charge-coupled devices, image tubes, and night-vision goggles. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode materials could also be used in making highly efficient monolithic photodetectors. Highly efficient and stable piezoelectrically enhanced, ultraviolet-sensitive photocathodes and photodetectors could be fabricated by use of novel techniques for growing piezoelectrically enhanced layers, in conjunction with thinning and dopant-selective etching techniques.

Beach, Robert A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, Lloyd Douglas; Strittmatter, Robert

2011-01-01

436

Electrical Properties and Power Considerations of a Piezoelectric Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper assesses the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric wafers for use in aeronautical applications such as active noise control in aircraft. Determination of capacitive behavior and power consumption is necessary to optimize the system configuration and to design efficient driving electronics. Empirical relations are developed from experimental data to predict the capacitance and loss tangent of a PZT5A ceramic as nonlinear functions of both applied peak voltage and driving frequency. Power consumed by the PZT is the rate of energy required to excite the piezoelectric system along with power dissipated due to dielectric loss and mechanical and structural damping. Overall power consumption is thus quantified as a function of peak applied voltage and driving frequency. It was demonstrated that by incorporating the variation of capacitance and power loss with voltage and frequency, satisfactory estimates of power requirements can be obtained. These relations allow general guidelines in selection and application of piezoelectric actuators and driving electronics for active control applications.

Jordan, T.; Ounaies, Z.; Tripp, J.; Tcheng, P.

1999-01-01

437

Endless fiber-to-fiber polarization controller based on ceramic programmable waveplates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we report a fast and endless polarization controller based on lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic programmable waveplates. A set of four volume electrodes placed in a cylindrical arrangement are drilled in an electrooptic ceramic plate. By using the Kerr effect, and taking advantage of the high electrooptic coefficient and fast response time of the PLZT, we

J. Bourderionnet; D. Dolfi; J.-P. Huignard; B. Ea-Kim; E. Corbel; D. Purer; A. Poudoulec; D. Gauden

2004-01-01

438

Piezoelectric and electrostrictive sensors and actuators for adaptive structures and smart materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in composite materials for piezoelectric sensors are briefly reviewed, and new systems using bias field control of the piezoelectric response in relaxor ferroelectric compositions in the PMN:PT and in the PLZT family materials are discussed. For actuator applications, multilayer actuator materials are evaluated, and possibilities for ultrahigh-strain materials are explored. Attention is also given to the composite systems incorporating both a sensor and a responder in the same material together with active solid state electronics. It is shown that a piezoelectric sensor/actuator system mimics an ultrasoft material for weak AC stress, maintaining the load-bearing capability of a stiff ceramic.

Cross, L. E.

439

New Development of High Performance Piezoelectric Materials by Nanodomain Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop high performance piezoelectric materials, a new method called at “nanodomain engineering” was proposed and investigated in this study. The nanodomain engineering means a method, which can produce high density nanodomain configurations by control of chemical composition, i.e., to develop an intermediate state between relaxor ferroelectrics and normal ferroelectrics. To confirm the concept, ternary system ceramics of BaTiO3-Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-BiFeO3(BT-BMT-BF) was prepared and characterized. As the results, a formation of nanodomain configurations was confirmed by a transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, for the ceramics with the nanodomain configurations, high apparent piezoelectric constants over 500 pC/N was clearly obtained, which suggested that the concept of “nanodomain engineering” might work good.

Wada, Satoshi

440

Time-Resolved, Electric-Field-Induced Domain Switching and Strain in Ferroelectric Ceramics and Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectric materials are used in a variety of applications including diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound, sonar, vibration and displacement sensors, and non-volatile random access memory. The electromechanical response in ferroelectric materials is comprised of both intrinsic (piezoelectric lattice strain) and extrinsic (e.g., domain wall motion) components that are expressed as characteristic changes in the diffraction pattern. By applying slow, step-wise changes in the electric field, prior quasi-dynamic diffraction measurements have demonstrated both lattice strains and non-180 ? domain switching at fields exceeding the macroscopically defined coercive field. However, the loading conditions which most replicate real device operation involve dynamic actuation with sub-coercive, cyclic electric fields. At these operating conditions, extrinsic irreversibilities lead to hysteresis, frequency dispersion and nonlinearity of macroscopic properties. Observation of strain and domain switching at these cyclic loading conditions is an area in which we have reported recent advances using stroboscopic techniques. This chapter highlights the electric-field-induced lattice strain and kinetics of domain switching in a number of materials including technologically-relevant lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics and relaxor single crystals. An outlook on the continuing use of time-resolved diffraction techniques in the characterization of ferroelectric materials is also discussed.

Jones, Jacob L.; Nino, Juan C.; Pramanick, Abhijit; Daniels, John E.

441

High-throughput evaluation of domain switching in piezoelectric ceramics and application to PbZr{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} doped with La and Fe  

SciTech Connect

A combinatorial material synthesis and characterization technique is introduced and demonstrated wherein the ferroelectric behavior of a compositionally graded bulk ceramic is investigated during electrical loading. Using combined high-energy x-ray microdiffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy, non-180 deg. domain wall motion of different compositions is measured and quantified as a function of composition across the gradation. The greatest amount of non-180 deg. domain wall motion is found in samples containing the highest measured fraction of La dopant (2 mol %)

Jones, Jacob L.; Pramanick, Abhijit [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Daniels, John E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38043 Grenoble (France)

2008-10-13

442

PTCa\\/PEKK piezo-composites for acoustic emission detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramic\\/polymer composites with mixed connectivity combine the high values of piezoelectric coefficients of the ferroelectric ceramics and the formability and flexibility of the polymer, making them suitable for in situ acoustic emission (AE) sensors. The present paper reports a study of the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the ceramic\\/polymer composite films composed of the calcium modified lead titanate (PTCa)

P. Marin-Franch; T. Martin; D. L. Tunnicliffe; D. K. Das-Gupta

2002-01-01

443

Ring-type electric current sensor based on ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite and Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramic  

SciTech Connect

A ring-type electric current sensor operated in vortex magnetic field detection mode is developed based on a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring bonded between two circumferentially magnetized epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite rings. The electric current sensitivity of the sensor was evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally. The sensor showed a high nonresonance sensitivity of {approx}12.6 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 1 Hz-30 kHz and a large resonance sensitivity of 92.2 mV/A at the fundamental shape resonance of 67 kHz, besides an excellent linear relationship between the input electric current and the output magnetoelectrically induced voltage. The power-free, bias-free, high-sensitive, and wide-bandwidth natures of the sensor make it great potential for real-time condition monitoring of engineering systems having electric current-carrying cables or conductors.

Leung, Chung Ming; Or, Siu Wing; Zhang, Shengyao; Ho, S. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-05-15

444

Properties of Semiconductive Barium Titanates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistivity of barium titanate which is usually of the order of 109˜1012 ohm-cm, may be remarkably reduced with suitable control in valency. The valency-controlled barium titanate, whose resistivity is of the order of 10˜104 ohm-cm at room temperature, shows anomalous positive character in the temperature dependency of the resistivity. For example, the resistivity of barium titanate containing 0.1 mol.

Osamu Saburi

1959-01-01

445

Structural Ceramics Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.