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1

Lead zirconate titanate-lead silicate piezoelectric glass-ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric glass-ceramics consisting of lead zirconate titanate in a lead silicate matrix have been developed. A small region of compositions in this system yield the desired combination of glass formability, densification and crystallization behavior, and piezoelectric properties. SiO2 is required for glass formability, while excess PbO allows low temperature processing. The amounts of these constitutes are limited by the optimization

B. Houng; M. J. Haun

1994-01-01

2

Effect of Ball Milling Time on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) is the first piezoelectric ceramic developed and most widely used though for few decades it has been replaced by better performed lead based materials like PZT, PLZT, etc. for piezoelectric applications. Recently, however, due to the environmental concern caused by lead based materials, researchers have been giving importance to this material and trying to improve its piezoelectric

A. K. Nath; Chongtham Jiten; K. Chandramani Singh; Radhapiyari Laishram; O. P. Thakur; D. K. Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

3

Nanodomains in morphotropic lead zirconate titanate ceramics: On the origin of the strong piezoelectric effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outstanding piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary of the quasibinary phase diagram of lead zirconate and lead titanate are still under debate. A combination of ex situ and in situ transmission electron microscopy and high resolution x-ray diffraction revealed that the extrinsic piezoelectric effect in morphotropic PZT is closely connected to the existence of nanodomains. The in situ transmission electron microscopy investigations with applied electric field show that mainly the nanodomains respond to the electric field while the microdomain structure does not change noticeably in our experiments.

Theissmann, Ralf; Schmitt, Ljubomira A.; Kling, Jens; Schierholz, Roland; Schnau, Kristin A.; Fuess, Hartmut; Knapp, Michael; Kungl, Hans; Hoffmann, Michael J.

2007-07-01

4

Acceleration of osteogenesis by using barium titanate piezoelectric ceramic as an implant material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As bone has piezoelectric properties, it is expected that activity of bone cells and bone formation can be accelerated by applying piezoelectric ceramics to implants. Since lead ions, included in ordinary piezoelectric ceramics, are harmful, a barium titanate (BTO) ceramic, which is a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic, was used in this study. The purpose of this study was to investigate piezoelectric effects of surface charge of BTO on cell differentiation under dynamic loading in vitro. Rat bone marrow cells seeded on surfaces of BTO ceramics were cultured in culture medium supplemented with dexamethasone, ?-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid while a dynamic load was applied to the BTO ceramics. After 10 days of cultivation, the cell layer and synthesized matrix on the BTO surfaces were scraped off, and then DNA content, alkaline phosphtase (ALP) activity and calcium content were measured, to evaluate osteogenic differentiation. ALP activity on the charged BTO surface was slightly higher than that on the non-charged BTO surface. The amount of calcium on the charged BTO surface was also higher than that on the non-charged BTO surface. These results showed that the electric charged BTO surface accelerated osteogenesis.

Furuya, K.; Morita, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Katayama, T.; Nakamachi, E.

2011-03-01

5

Large Piezoelectric Constant and High Curie Temperature of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Ternary System Based on Bismuth Sodium Titanate-Bismuth Potassium Titanate-Barium Titanate near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic ternary system based on bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3 (BNT) - bismuth potassium titanate (Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 (BKT) - barium titanate BaTiO3 (BT) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases has been investigated. In the case of a(Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-bBaTiO3-c(Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 [BNBK(100a\\/100b\\/100c)] solid solution ceramics, the highest piezoelectric constant d33=191 pC\\/N, Curie temperature, Tc=301C, electromechanical coupling factor,

Hajime Nagata; Masaki Yoshida; Yoichi Makiuchi; Tadashi Takenaka

2003-01-01

6

Effect of (Mn, F) and (Mg, F) co-doping on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of (Mn, F) and (Mg, F) dopants on the piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary is investigated. PZT ceramics are prepared by a chemical route based on co-precipitation of oxalates and hydroxides. The acceptor is incorporated into the B site of the materials and the fluorine ion is introduced into anionic sites. The d33 coefficient, the mechanical quality factor Qm and other properties are measured. Scanning electron microscopy is used to determine the grain size of the materials. Electron spin resonance is used to determine the valency state of Mn in fluorinated PZT ceramics. In Mn doped PZT, the introduction of a fluorine ion makes the poling process easier and increases the piezoelectric coefficients whereas the fluorination of Mg doped PZT constantly leads to hard materials with a lower piezoelectric response. This study shows that (Mn, F) co-doping produces semihard materials with high piezoelectric coefficients.

Boucher, E.; Guyomar, D.; Lebrun, L.; Guiffard, B.; Grange, G.

2002-11-01

7

Novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics in the solid solution (1-x) bismuth iron oxide-barium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric materials are widely used in many areas of science and technology due to their electromechanical properties. The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals and vice versa based on the piezoelectric effect has led to the development of sensor devices and piezoelectric actuators used in accelerometers, pressure and vibration meters, micropositioning devices, ultrasound generators, motors etc. The most technologically important piezoelectric material is lead zirconate titanate PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PZT), however, the commercial manufacture and application of PZT as a lead-based material represent serious health hazards. The need to reduce environmental contamination by lead-based substances has created the current drive to develop alternative lead-free piezoelectric materials. The present work describes a detailed investigation of the novel multifunctional ceramic material in a solid solution of bismuth iron oxide and barium titanate (1-x)BiFeO 3-xBaTiO3 (BFBT) with an emphasis on the room temperature piezoelectric properties and structural study. BFBT ceramics were prepared via the metal oxide solid-state preparation route. Addition of manganese oxide MnO2 increased the DC resistance by one to five orders of magnitude allowing high-field poling and piezoelectric strain measurements in Mn-modified BFBT ceramics. Piezoelectric d33 coefficients of 116 pC/N (low-field, Berlincourt) and 326 pC/N (effective, high-field) are reported for the compositions with x=0.25 and 0.33 respectively. Piezoelectric measurements using the Rayleigh law under applied large DC electric field indicated an increased low-field piezoelectric d33 coefficient to 150 pC/N (x=0.33). The DC bias is believed to stabilize the ferroclectric domain structure leading to stronger intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response in BFBT. Bright field TEM imaging confirmed formation of macroscopic domains following high field poling from initially frustrated domain state indicating the ability to induce long-range polarization order in BFBT ceramics. It is believed that the results of this work will contribute to the development of a family of lead-free piezoelectric materials based on BiFeO3-BaTiO3 system. KEYWORDS: Bismuth ferrite, Barium titanate, Lead-free, Piezoelectric ceramics, Crystal Structure

Leontsev, Serhiy

8

Large Piezoelectric Constant and High Curie Temperature of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Ternary System Based on Bismuth Sodium Titanate-Bismuth Potassium Titanate-Barium Titanate near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic ternary system based on bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 (BNT) - bismuth potassium titanate (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 (BKT) - barium titanate BaTiO3 (BT) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases has been investigated. In the case of a(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-bBaTiO3-c(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 [BNBK(100a/100b/100c)] solid solution ceramics, the highest piezoelectric constant d33=191 pC/N, Curie temperature, Tc=301C, electromechanical coupling factor, k33=0.56 and dielectric constant, {\\varepsilon33}T/\\varepsilon0=1141 are observed for the BNBK(85.2/2.8/12) composition which has a tetragonal phase near the MPB. The d33 value is the highest so far reported for all lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with Tc>300C. The BNT-BKT-BT ternary ceramics system sintered at 1200C for 2 h in air has a pure perovskite structure and a high density more than 95% of the theoretical density.

Nagata, Hajime; Yoshida, Masaki; Makiuchi, Yoichi; Takenaka, Tadashi

2003-12-01

9

Temperature behavior of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of samarium-doped lead titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric and electromechanical coupling properties of Sm-doped and Mn-doped PbTiO3 ceramics were investigated from 4.2 to 300 K. The upper and lower limits of the ceramic dielectric and piezoelectric properties were calculated by averaging the single-domain constants that were determined from a phenomenological theory. Comparisons of the measured and calculated properties were then made. The measured dielectric permittivity ?T33

J. N. Kim; MICHAEL J. HAUN; SEI JOO JANG; L. E. Cross; X. R. Xue

1989-01-01

10

Investigation of thermal and dielectric properties of tin-doped piezoelectric ceramics based on barium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependences of the permittivity and pyroelectric coefficient of BaTi1 - x Sn x O3 piezoelectric ceramics with a homogeneous composition and a tin concentration gradient have been studied. The thermal diffusion coefficient has been measured. The polarization profiles of the materials under study have been calculated by the thermal square wave method at a single frequency.

Malyshkina, O. V.; Movchikova, A. A.; Penzov, K. N.; Steinhausen, R.; Langhammer, H. T.; Beige, H.

2010-01-01

11

Thermal depoling process and piezoelectric properties of bismuth sodium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) ceramics were prepared by a conventional ceramic fabrication process. This study revealed that the high conductivity of BNT ceramics is associated with Bi vaporization during sintering. An x-ray study revealed that a tetragonal phase exists in the temperature range between 330 and 480 C in BNT ceramic as well as BNT single crystals. In addition, the depolarization temperature Td, rhombohedral-tetragonal phase transition temperature TR-T, and the temperature Tm of the maximum dielectric constant were determined to be 187, approximately 300, and 325 C, respectively, from the temperature dependences of dielectric properties using unpoled and poled specimens. The piezoelectric properties of all vibration modes and the temperature dependences of the piezoelectric properties were measured using fully poled BNT ceramics. It was also revealed that BNT ceramics exhibit three thermal depoling processes at Td, between Td and TR-T, and between TR-T and Tm from the effects of annealing on the field-induced strain, x-ray diffraction patterns, and dielectric constant of poled specimens.

Hiruma, Yuji; Nagata, Hajime; Takenaka, Tadashi

2009-04-01

12

Lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic composition which, based on total composition weight, consists essentially of a solid solution of lead zirconate and lead titanate in a PbZrO/sub 3/:PbTiO/sub 3/ ratio from about 0.505:0.495 to about 0.54:0.46; a halide salt selected from the group consisting of fluorides and chlorides of alkali metal and alkaline earth elements and mixtures thereof except for francium and radium in an amount from about 0.5 to 2 weight percent; and an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium, barium, scandium, aluminum, lanthanum, praesodynium, neodymium, samarium, and mixtures thereof in an amount from about 0.5 to about 6 weight percent, the relative amount of oxide being from about 1 to about 4 times that of the halide.

Walker, B.E. Jr.

1986-12-02

13

Uniaxial stress dependence of the piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric transducers are often used under compressive stress in smart structure and other applications and it is therefore important to know properties of these materials as a function of applied stress. We have developed an experiment that allows us to find the piezoelectric charge coefficient as a function of uniaxial stress in the poled direction . Both dynamic and static measurements were carried out and the corresponding values of the charge coefficient d33 were obtained as a function of applied stress. These coefficients differ from each other because of the different proportions of reversible and irreversible domain changes that contribute to them and each coefficient can be important in specific applications. Results on a range of PZT ceramics manufactured by EDO Corporation are presented; in general, they show a non- linear behavior with an initial increase in d33 as the stress increases followed by a significant decrease. The time dependence of the measurement has also been investigated.

Yang, G.; Liu, S. F.; Ren, W.; Mukherjee, Binu K.

2000-06-01

14

Processing and properties of bismuth sodium titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics for transducer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramics have been key materials for transducer applications. Most practical materials are developed from the binary and ternary systems of lead-based perovskite piezoceramics. The main drawbacks of these lead-based materials include processing of PbO and, also, PbO evaporation during sintering, leading to a serious pollution problem. The toxicity and volatility of lead oxide are critical environmental issues which cannot be overlooked. Through the concept of Smolenskii, it is possible to replace Pb with elements having similar electron configuration and still obtain a material exhibiting similar behavior in spontaneous polarization. The Bisb{0.5}Nasb{0.5}TiOsb3 (BNT) composition has a perovskite structure and presents ferroelectric behavior with a Curie temperature of 320spC. However, the random displacement between the Nasp+ and Bisp{3+} ions at elevated temperature results in the abnormal dielectric permittivity and loss as functions of temperature and frequency. Additionally, the high coercive field of this BNT composition (Esbc = 70 kV/cm) leads to a difficulty in successful poling. In this research, the structure-processing-properties relations of BNT and solid solutions of BNT with Pbsb{0.75}Casb{0.25}TiOsb3 were assessed. Based on the flexibility of the perovskite structure in allowing an incorporation of various cation sizes, isovalent and aliovalent substitutions were utilized in the compositional modification of BNT. These modified BNT compositions were formulated by the conventional mixed oxide method, following optimized powder processing, specimen fabrication, and sintering procedures. Two kinds of distortion from the ideal perovskite structure, the packing and off-center effects, were expected to be involved in this modification. A series of the modified BNT piezoceramics encompassing various dielectric and piezoelectric properties was prepared by the addition of three rare-earth ions, Lasp{3+}, Ndsp{3+}, and Smsp{3+}, and a pentavalent ion, Nbsp{5+}. These modified BNT compositions were calcined in the range of 800-900spC for 2-5 hrs and then sintered at 1050-1200spC for 1-4 hrs. Conventional poling was performed at 50spC with an applied field of 40-70 kV/cm for 5 minutes. A composition of the BNT with 0.5 at% La yielded a K value of 515, ksb{t} of 45%, dsb{33} of 100 pC/N, dsb{h} of 65 pC/N and ksb{t}/ksb{p} of 3.5, which is considerable promising for transducer applications.

Herabut, Aree

1997-11-01

15

Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic\\/polymer composites by injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic injection molding has been shown to be a viable process for fabricating both PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramics and piezoelectric ceramic\\/polymer transducers. The electrical properties of injection-molded PZT ceramics are comparable with those of ceramics prepared by conventional powder pressing, with no evidence of deleterious effects from metallic contamination and molding equipment. By using ceramic injection molding to fabricate

Leslie J. Bowen; Kenneth W. French

1992-01-01

16

Uniaxial stress dependence of the piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric transducers are often used under compressive stress in smart structure and other applications and it is therefore important to know properties of these materials as a function of applied stress. We have developed an experiment that allows us to find the piezoelectric charge coefficient as a function of uniaxial stress in the poled direction . Both dynamic and static

G. Yang; S. F. Liu; W. Ren; Binu K. Mukherjee

2000-01-01

17

Effects of rare earth metal substituents on the high power piezoelectric properties in lead zirconate titanate-lead (antimony,manganese)O(3) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved piezoelectric materials with higher vibrational velocities are needed to meet the demands of advanced high power electromechanical applications. In this thesis, the effects of the rare earth (RE) metal substituents on the vibrational velocity, the piezoelectric properties and polarization behavior of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Sb,Mn)O3 ceramics have been investigated. Under high drive levels, the mechanical quality factor and the vibrational velocity were both significantly improved by RE substitution. For a longitudinal vibrator, driven under the d31 mode, root mean square value (rms value) of vibration velocity as high as 0.9 m/s under an electric field of 10 kV/m (rms value) has been found for Yb-substituted specimens, which is 1.5 times higher than that of base Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Sb,Mn)O 3 ceramics. For most of rare earth substituents investigated in this system, regardless of the species ionic radii, the piezoelectric properties were observed to have combinative "hard" and "soft" characteristics. "Hard" piezoelectrics have higher Qm values, but lower k31 values. On the other hand, "soft" piezoelectrics have lower Qm values, but higher k31 values. The increased mechanical quality factor Qm (typical of "hard" piezoelectrics) and increased electromechanical coupling coefficient k31 (typical of "soft" ones) were both achieved by RE substitution. With increasing rare earth substituent ionic size, there was no absolute proportional relationship between k31/Qm and dopant ionic size observed. Polarization-electric field (P-E) measurements revealed a significant relaxational polarization similar to a "soft" piezoelectric, in addition to an internal dipolar field similar to a "hard" piezoelectric. A possible explanation for the combinative "hardening" and "softening" effects is the coexistence of randomly quenched and mobile defects. The time dependences after poling of the mechanical quality factor Q m, electromechanical coupling coefficient k31 and dielectric constant K have been investigated for both "soft" and "hard" lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. A significant increase of Qm with time was observed for "hard" PZTs, however "soft" ones did not exhibit any changes during the same time period. The aging rate after poling was found to be related to the degree of "hard" characteristics. Polarization versus electric field (P-E) measurements of "hard" PZTs revealed the development of a shift of the response along the E axis with time. It is believed that an internal dipolar field develops with time, due to a reorientation of defect dipoles along the direction of spontaneous polarization through oxygen diffusion. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gao, Yongkang

18

Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

Flinn, I.

1975-01-01

19

Elastic wave propagation in porous piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic wave propagation in piezoelectric ceramics with pore volume fractions up to 0.6 has been investigated. The samples have been prepared by tape casting starting from lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) powder with mean particle diameter 1.4 ?m. Sample analysis performed by intrusion mercury porosimeter revealed interconnected porosity with narrow size distribution. The samples were cleaned, silver metallized on two opposite

F. Craciun; G. Guidarelli; C. Galassi; E. Roncari

1998-01-01

20

Lead Zirconate Titanate (LZT) Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of producing homogeneous, fully reacted lead zirconate titanate powder, including additive elements, by reaction of the oxides of the constituent metals in a molten salt solvent was developed. Ceramics fired from different batches of powder made ...

J. H. Rosolowski R. H. Arendt J. W. Szymaszek

1979-01-01

21

Evolution of bias field and offset piezoelectric coefficient in bulk lead zirconate titanate with fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hysteresis loops of the piezoelectric coefficient, d33=f(E3), are measured on virgin and fatigued lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Four parameters are directly extracted from the measurements: internal bias field Eb, offset piezoelectric coefficient doffset, coercive field Ec, and remnant piezoelectric coefficient dr. The reduction in dr displays the decreasing switchable polarization with fatigue cycling. Eb and doffset are found to be

Yong Zhang; Ivan S. Baturin; Emil Aulbach; Doru C. Lupascu; Andrei L. Kholkin; Vladimir Ya. Shur; Jrgen Rdel

2005-01-01

22

Porous Piezoelectric Ceramic Transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous piezoelectric ceramics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3, (P-PZT), have been newly developed to apply to transducers in an echo sounder. The P-PZT was prepared from a mixture of PZT and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) powders. The piezoelectric characteristics of the P-PZT such as the dielectric constant (?), voltage output constant (g constant), acoustic impedance (Zc) and Q were evaluated. The P-PZT was employed in an echo sounder of 200 kHz, and its transmitting and receiving properties were measured in water. In these measurements, the P-PZT showed suitable characteristics for the echo sounder, which required high sensitivity, wide frequency bandwidth and high resolution. High sensitivity was realized by the large g constant and low Zc of P-PZT which made the impedance matching with water much easier. In the acoustic response to the burst wave, the rise and fall time were shortened to 1/3 that of the conventional PZT transducer.

Mizumura, Koichi; Kurihara, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Hiroshi; Kumamoto, Susumu; Okuno, Kiyonori

1991-09-01

23

Effects of rare earth metal substituents on the high power piezoelectric properties in lead zirconate titanate-lead (antimony,manganese)O(3) ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved piezoelectric materials with higher vibrational velocities are needed to meet the demands of advanced high power electromechanical applications. In this thesis, the effects of the rare earth (RE) metal substituents on the vibrational velocity, the piezoelectric properties and polarization behavior of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Sb,Mn)O3 ceramics have been investigated. Under high drive levels, the mechanical quality factor and the vibrational velocity were

Yongkang Gao

2003-01-01

24

Fabrication of Microdevices Using Bulk Ceramics of Lead Zirconate Titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric microdevices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) bulk ceramics are desired for use in actuators requiring a large driving force. We have designed a fabrication process for microdevices using PZT bulk ceramics together with Si single crystals. The key techniques of the process are the bonding of PZT bulk ceramics to Si single crystals, the thinning of bulk ceramics, and the micromachining of bulk ceramics. PZT ceramics were bonded to Si using a gold thin film as an intermediate layer. The tensile strength of the PZT-Si bonded wafers depended on the PZT poling process. A dicer or a KrF excimer laser was used to cut the PZT ceramics along the designed pattern. A PZT-Si diaphragm was fabricated as an example of a basic structure that can be used in a device such as a piezoelectric micropump.

Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Konishi, Takahiro; Ide, Masato; Meng, Zhicong; Sugiyama, Susumu

2005-09-01

25

Grain-oriented sodium bismuth titanate-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics prepared using the pulsed strong magnetic field and template grain growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (BNBT6) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared using the gelcasting technology. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of these ceramics have been investigated. The specimens were sintered at 1100-1200 C after grain-oriented under the pulsed strong magnetic field during the solidification of the green bodies. Compared with the BNBT6 samples without applying magnetic field, the ceramics textured by applying 5 T pulsed magnetic field has a coercive field with reduction of 400 V/mm, which makes the polarization process easier. Meanwhile, it is noted that the orientation degree increases with increasing sintering temperature, whereas the piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficients are improved. If SrTiO3 seed grain is introduced, the orientation degree can reach 0.70 and the relative density of the sintered ceramics is up to 96%. The dielectric properties are anisotropic in directions vertical and parallel to the applied magnetic field. At around 180 C, the dielectric constant in the direction vertical to the magnetic field is three times of that in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. And the dielectric loss in the direction vertical to the magnetic field is also higher than that in the direction parallel to the magnetic field.

Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fajun; Li, Wen; Li, Hui; Zhou, Dongxiang; Gong, Shuping; Hu, Yunxiang; Fu, Qiuyun

2010-10-01

26

Nonlinear behavior in piezoelectric ceramic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years intensive development efforts have been devoted to new piezoelectric high-power devices, such as ultrasonic motors, piezoelectric actuators, and piezoelectric transformers. Piezoelectric ceramic transducers used in these devices are usually driven at a high level of vibration stress in a resonant mode. To optimize the performance of such devices, it is essential to understand the nonlinear behavior which

S. Takahashi; Y. Sasaki; M. Umeda; K. Nakamura; S. Ueha

2000-01-01

27

Stress corrosion cracking of a PZT piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a leadzirconatetitanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramics in water, methanol and formamide has been investigated at constant load test using a single-edge notched tensile specimen. The result showed that SCC or static fatigue fracture could occur in the three solutions, and the normalized threshold stress intensity factor of SCC was KISCC\\/KIC=0.66 (in water), 0.73 (in methanol) and

Y. Wang; W. Y. Chu; Y. J. Su; L. J. Qiao

2003-01-01

28

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics and thin films.  

PubMed

Recent progress in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics and thin films with special emphasis on alkaline niobatebased and bismuth sodium titanate-based systems is reviewed concisely. Modifications of potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramics are presented and subsequent improvements in the electrical properties are summarized. Special attention is devoted to the phase diagram of the KNN system when a solid solution is formed with other perovskite niobates and titanates. Impact of A-site and B-site dopants on the electromechanical properties of KNN ceramics are distinguished in view of transition temperatures. It is shown that the addition of most A-site and B-site dopants reduces the transition temperatures and improves the piezoactivity at room temperature. This is attributed to the shift of polymorphic transition from tetragonal to orthorhombic phase in the vicinity of room temperature. In contrast, formation of a solid solution of KNN with 18 mol% AgNbO? revealed a significant enhancement of properties without a notable change in the transition temperatures. Also, a bismuth sodium titanate (BNT) composition is introduced with particular emphasis on its binary and ternary derivatives. Moderate piezoelectric properties reported at the morphotropic phase boundaries, formed in BNT-based solid solutions are also represented. Advances on thin films based on these two compositions are evaluated and challenges involved with development of stoichiometric thin films with low leakage current are discussed. PMID:20889401

Safari, Ahmad; Abazari, Maryam

2010-10-01

29

Electromechanical properties of A-site (LiCe)-modified sodium bismuth titanate (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 4.5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15}) piezoelectric ceramics at elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

The Aurivillius-type bismuth layer-structured (NaBi){sub 0.46}(LiCe){sub 0.04}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (NBT-LiCe) piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized using conventional solid-state processing. Phase analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction and microstructural morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics were investigated. The piezoelectric activities were found to be significantly enhanced compared to NBT ceramics, which can be attributed to the lattice distortion and the presence of bismuth vacancies. The dielectric and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics at elevated temperature were investigated in detail. The excellent piezoelectric, dielectric, and electromechanical properties, coupled with high Curie temperature (T{sub c}=660 deg. C), demonstrated that the NBT-LiCe ceramics are the promising candidates for high temperature applications.

Wang Chunming; Wang Jinfeng [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R. [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2009-05-01

30

Electromechanical properties of A-site (LiCe)-modified sodium bismuth titanate (Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15) piezoelectric ceramics at elevated temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aurivillius-type bismuth layer-structured (NaBi)0.46(LiCe)0.04Bi4Ti4O15 (NBT-LiCe) piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized using conventional solid-state processing. Phase analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction and microstructural morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics were investigated. The piezoelectric activities were found to be significantly enhanced compared to NBT ceramics, which can be attributed to the lattice distortion and the presence of bismuth vacancies. The dielectric and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics at elevated temperature were investigated in detail. The excellent piezoelectric, dielectric, and electromechanical properties, coupled with high Curie temperature (Tc=660 C), demonstrated that the NBT-LiCe ceramics are the promising candidates for high temperature applications.

Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

2009-05-01

31

Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.  

PubMed

Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 ? load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber. PMID:22129008

Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

2011-11-01

32

Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 ? load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber.

Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Prabaharan, T.; Shyam, A.

2011-11-01

33

COLD SPRAY ELECTRODING OF PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a piezoelectric material that is used in a wide range of applications from small actuators for the precise movement of lenses and mirrors to ultrasonic generators for the industrial mixing and emulsification of liquids. Conventional bonding of PZT involves the use of adhesives which dampen the movement of the element. This paper is a summary

P. C. King; S. H. Zahiri; M. Jahedi; J. Friend

34

Stress and frequency dependence of the direct piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that at weak alternating stress the relationship between the piezoelectrically induced charge and applied stress in ferroelectric ceramics has the same form as the Rayleigh law for magnetization versus magnetic field in ferromagnetic materials. Applicability of the Rayleigh law to the piezoelectric effect is demonstrated in detail for lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Experimental results indicate that the dominant mechanism responsible for piezoelectric hysteresis and the dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient on the applied ac stress is the pinning of non-180{degree} domain walls. The dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient on the frequency of the driving stress is examined and is shown to be due to the frequency dispersion of both reversible and irreversible components of domain-wall displacement. Analysis of the stress dependence of the piezoelectric phase angle reveals piezoelectric hysteresis contributions that are not necessarily due to Rayleigh-type displacement of domain walls. Piezoelectric properties of a modified lead titanate composition that exhibits non-Rayleigh type behavior are examined and compared with the properties of PZT ceramics. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Damjanovic, D. [Laboratory of Ceramics, Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratory of Ceramics, Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

1997-08-01

35

Templated Grain Growth of Textured Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallographic texturing of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics offers a means of achieving significant enhancements in the piezoelectric response. Templated grain growth (TGG) en- ables the fabrication of textured ceramics with single crystal-like properties, as well as single crystals. In TGG, nucleation and growth of the desired crystal on aligned single crystal template particles results in an increased fraction of oriented material

G. L. Messing; S. Trolier-McKinstry; E. M. Sabolsky; C. Duran; S. Kwon; B. Brahmaroutu; H. Yilmaz; P. W. Rehrig; K. B. Eitel; E. Suvaci; M. Seabaugh; K. S. Oh

2004-01-01

36

Evolution of bias field and offset piezoelectric coefficient in bulk lead zirconate titanate with fatigue  

SciTech Connect

Hysteresis loops of the piezoelectric coefficient, d{sub 33}=f(E{sub 3}), are measured on virgin and fatigued lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Four parameters are directly extracted from the measurements: internal bias field E{sub b}, offset piezoelectric coefficient d{sub offset}, coercive field E{sub c}, and remnant piezoelectric coefficient d{sub r}. The reduction in d{sub r} displays the decreasing switchable polarization with fatigue cycling. E{sub b} and d{sub offset} are found to be linearly related. After thermal annealing, both offsets disappear, while the increase in E{sub c} and the reduction in d{sub r} withstand annealing. The microscopic entities responsible for the offsets are less stable than those for reduced switching.

Zhang Yong; Baturin, Ivan S.; Aulbach, Emil; Lupascu, Doru C.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Roedel, Juergen [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

2005-01-03

37

Models and Characterization of Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected literature on the use of linearized constitutive equations and complex piezoelectric coefficients to develop models and characterize materials is presented in brief. One-dimensional models of simple piezoelectric ceramic components are derived using linearized constitutive equations and other fundamental relations to illustrate the procedure used to develop multi-dimensional models. Then, the procedure for building models of multi-layer devices using models of components is illustrated. Models are also used to characterize materials. A method to determine the errors when the ANSI/IEEE Standard method is used to determine real piezoelectric coefficients and methods to characterize non-Standard shapes often used in devices are also presented

Ebenezer, D. D.

2008-07-01

38

Lead Zirconate Titanate (LZT) Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of producing fully reacted, homogeneous lead zirconate titanate powders including all the technologically important property modifying additives is described. The method involves reacting mixture of powders of the components together with a eutec...

J. H. Rosolowski R. H. Arendt J. W. Szymaszek

1977-01-01

39

Elastic and Piezoelectric Coefficients of Single-Crystal Barium Titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical resonance and antiresonance frequencies were measured on barium titanate single-crystal elements maintained under electric dc bias from -50C to +150C. A complete set of elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of the tetragonal modification at 25C is obtained. The elastic compliances show substantial deviation from cubic symmetry. Measurements in the orthorhombic state show longitudinal compliance four times higher than in

Don Berlincourt; Hans Jaffe

1958-01-01

40

Embedded piezoelectric ceramic transducers in sandwiched beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface bonded piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) transducers are currently the most prominent area of research in structural health monitoring using electromechanical impedance methods. This paper presents a new embedded PZT patch and its interaction with the host sandwiched beam. Durability and protection from surface finish, vandalism and the environment are important features of the embedment. The paper also demonstrates the use

Venu Gopal Madhav Annamdas; Chee Kiong Soh

2006-01-01

41

Non-Linear Behaviour of Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By their ferroelectric nature, ferro-piezoelectric ceramics have a non-linear behaviour. This nature is reinforced by their\\u000a notably complex grain and domain structure, which leads to a less linear behaviour than is expected for a single crystal.

Alfons Albareda; Rafel Prez

2011-01-01

42

Crack deflection in piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack deflection can occur in a specimen subject to a stress gradient of high tensile stresses near the surface which decreases with increasing depth. Such a stress gradient can be induced by strain incompatibilities. These can for example arise under electric fields between the electroded and external regions of a piezoelectric material. Such incompatibilities have been realized in thin rectangular

H.-A. Bahr; V.-B. Pham; D. C. Lupascu; H. Balke; J. Rdel; U. Bahr

2003-01-01

43

Impact Shock on Piezoelectric Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Life expectancy tests performed on ceramic rings of compositions EC-55, EC-64, EC-65 and EC-69 have resulted in extensive data regarding the effects of impact shocks on the physical and electrical characteristics of the ceramic rings. The results have ind...

C. W. Skinner W. T. Kiyota R. C. Lowrie

1967-01-01

44

Numerical characterization of soft piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of piezoelectric ceramics can give detailed information about their static and dynamic behaviours. Resonance frequencies, mechanical displacements and other values of interest can be obtained using well known techniques, such as Finite Element Method (FEM). However, the predictions of such methods are strongly limited by the accuracy of the parameters in the piezoceramic model. Assuming a linear behaviour, five elastic constants, three piezoelectric constants, two dielectric constants and the mass density are needed to simulate piezoceramics belonging to the 6-mm symmetry class. In a recent work, our research group presents a novel methodology to obtain the parameters of piezoelectric ceramic disks based on FEM simulations in a set of ten hard PZT ceramics. In this work, the proposed methodology is applied for the characterization of two soft PZT ceramics (Pz27 from Ferroperm and APC850 from APC International) typically used in ultrasound applications. To provide the error bound two different thicknesses (frequencies of 1 MHz and 2 MHz) and three different diameters (10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm) are used in the characterization, the mean value over this set is used to characterize the material itself. A set of ten samples belonging to a single fabrication batch is used to estimate the error bound for identical samples. The results adjust the impedance curves over a wide band of frequencies, including the radial modes, the thickness mode and other coupled modes.

Prez, Nicols; Buiochi, Flavio; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Adamowski, Julio C.

2012-05-01

45

Laser Deflection by a Torsionally Resonant Horn Loaded Piezoelectric Ceramic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ultrasonic laser deflector employing a torsionally oscillating piezoelectric transducer and mechanical transformer is described. A half-wave piezoelectric ceramic is cemented to a half-wave stepped horn to magnify the small amplitude torsional vibratio...

R. J. Klaiber

1967-01-01

46

Lead Zirconate Titanate (LZT) Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests of batch-to-batch reproducibility of LZT powders made by molten salt synthesis were carried out by measuring the properties of ceramics fired from them. Individual post-poling dielectric constants and planar coupling coefficients lay within plus or ...

J. H. Rosolowski R. H. Arendt J. W. Szymaszek

1978-01-01

47

Investigation of piezoelectric softening mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate using diffraction and property measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a well-known piezoelectric ceramic of commercial and scientific importance. Typically, PZT is used in its doped form as doping allows its properties to be tailored for specific applications. Donor doping turns PZT into a "soft" ferroelectric. One of the characteristics of soft ferroelectrics is an increase in their longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient. Softening is currently attributed to an increase in the concentration of lead vacancies and the associated effect on the behavior of ferroelectric domain walls. However, the exact mechanism by which donor doping enhances the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient is still not understood. In this work, the crystallographic response of donor-doped PZT is studied in situ during the application of electric fields in order to deduce the strain mechanisms which contribute to ferroelectric softening. X-ray diffraction from a synchrotron source is employed for this investigation. It was found that the use of different donor dopants results in distinctive, characteristic strain mechanisms that soften PZT. Sm and Nd aid in the softening of PZT solely by enhancing 90 domain wall mobility. However, La and Nb doping results in a material with coexisting ferroelectric phases. It was further found that Nb doping results in at least two additional strain mechanisms including interphase boundary motion and a large strain in the (200) rhombohedral lattice plane. As piezoelectrics are also used in high temperature applications, the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient in soft doped PZT was also investigated. It was found that Sm doping leads to a high temperature (?300C) piezoelectric coefficient that is substantially greater than that found in La and Nb-doped PZT. In some cases, the coefficient in Sm-doped PZT is greater than that of La and Nd-doped PZT by a factor of two. Conventionally, the largest piezoelectric coefficient values are obtained in soft doped PZT by using a Zr:Ti ratio close to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). It is shown that in Sm-doped PZT, enhanced high temperature piezoelectric coefficients can also be obtained at compositions far from the MPB due to the presence of a mixed tetragonal and cubic phase. The mixed phase is hypothesized to enable a larger extrinsic piezoelectric response in Sm doped PZT due to enhanced strain accommodation in the coexisting polymorphic phases. In summary, it is presented that dopants yield signature, qualitative softening mechanisms, contributing differently to high piezoelectricity in PZT. The results suggest that in contrast to prior-held assumptions, an increase in Pb vacancies is not a necessary criterion for softening.

Seshadri, Shruti B.

48

Poling Field Dependence of Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Velocities, Young's Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio in Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longitudinal and transverse wave velocities in lead zirconate titanate (PZT), lead titanate, and lead-free ceramics vs DC poling fields were measured using an ultrasonic precision thickness gauge with high-frequency pulse oscillation to evaluate elastic constants, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. With the enhancement of domain alignment with the increase in poling field, the longitudinal wave velocity increased and the transverse wave velocity decreased independently of the ceramic composition. It was found that there was an important factor for obtaining a high piezoelectricity regarding Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, that is, the low Young's modulus and high Poisson's ratio in the cases of PZT, alkali bismuth titanate, and alkali bismuth barium titanate with morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs), and alkali niobate without MPBs. Furthermore, the increase in planar coupling factor corresponds to the increase in Poisson's ratio at all compositions including lead-containing and lead-free ceramic compositions. It was possible to divide the ceramics on the basis of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities into three groups, namely, PZT and lead titanate modified by 2.5 mol % lanthanum, alkali bismuth titanate and lead titanate modified by 10 mol % lanthanum, and alkali niobate.

Ogawa, Toshio; Ishii, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Nishina, Takayuki

2012-09-01

49

Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of barium titanate nanoparticles for multi layered ceramic capacitor applications.  

PubMed

Barium titanate is a common ferroelectric electro-ceramic material having high dielectric constant, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. In this research work, nano-scale barium titanate powders were synthesized by microwave assisted mechano-chemical route. Suitable precursors were ball milled for 20 hours. TGA studies were performed to study the thermal stability of the powders. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX Analysis. Microwave and Conventional heating were performed at 1000 degrees C. The overall heating schedule was reduced by 8 hours in microwave heating thereby reducing the energy and time requirement. The nano-scale, impurity-free and defect-free microstructure was clearly evident from the SEM micrograph and EDX patterns. LCR meter was used to measure the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values at various frequencies. Microwave heated powders showed superior dielectric constant value with low dielectric loss which is highly essential for the fabrication of Multi Layered Ceramic Capacitors. PMID:24427875

Thirumalai, Sundararajan; Shanmugavel, Balasivanandha Prabu

2011-01-01

50

Origin of high piezoelectric activity in perovskite ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense (1-x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-BTx%, x = 3, 5, 6, and 7) ceramics exhibit large piezoelectricity for electrical poling below coercive fields. In particular, the piezoelectric activity and permittivity frequency dispersion have been found to be closely related. The significantly increased piezoelectric constant and sharply decreased permittivity frequency dispersion are observed to occur for poled ceramics under the critical poling electrical fields. These results suggest that the high piezoelectric response stems from poling electrical fields-induced-ordered nanodomains.

Zeng, Weidong; Zhou, Xiujuan; Chen, Jun; Liao, Jiayi; Zhou, Changrong; Cen, Zhenyong; Yang, Tao; Yang, Huabin; Zhou, Qin; Chen, Guohua; Yuan, Changlai

2014-06-01

51

Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide reliable stress sensing under dynamic loadings.

Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

2011-11-01

52

Embedded piezoelectric ceramic transducers in sandwiched beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface bonded piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) transducers are currently the most prominent area of research in structural health monitoring using electromechanical impedance methods. This paper presents a new embedded PZT patch and its interaction with the host sandwiched beam. Durability and protection from surface finish, vandalism and the environment are important features of the embedment. The paper also demonstrates the use of thickness vibration of the PZT patch in electromechanical admittance formulations. This embedded PZT-structure interaction model is based on the new concept of 'average sum impedance'. The formulations used for this model can be conveniently employed to extract the mechanical impedance of any 'unknown' PZT patch embeddable plane structure. The mechanical impedance of the structure is obtained from the admittance signatures of the embedded PZT patch. The proposed model is experimentally verified on sandwiched beams.

Gopal Madhav Annamdas, Venu; Kiong Soh, Chee

2006-04-01

53

High-Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramic Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active combustion control of spatial and temporal variations in the local fuel-to-air ratio is of considerable interest for suppressing combustion instabilities in lean gas turbine combustors and, thereby, achieving lower NOx levels. The actuator for fuel modulation in gas turbine combustors must meet several requirements: (1) bandwidth capability of 1000 Hz, (2) operating temperature compatible with the fuel temperature, which is in the vicinity of 400 F, (3) stroke of approximately 4 mils (100 m), and (4) force of 300 lb-force. Piezoelectric actuators offer the fastest response time (microsecond time constants) and can generate forces in excess of 2000 lb-force. The state-of-the-art piezoceramic material in industry today is Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, called PZT. This class of piezoelectric ceramic is currently used in diesel fuel injectors and in the development of high-response fuel modulation valves. PZT materials are generally limited to operating temperatures of 250 F, which is 150 F lower than the desired operating temperature for gas turbine combustor fuel-modulation injection valves. Thus, there is a clear need to increase the operating temperature range of piezoceramic devices for active combustion control in gas turbine engines.

Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.; Dynys, Frederick W.

2005-01-01

54

Measurement Methods for Investigating Degradation in Piezoelectric Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for testing the fatigue induced degradation of piezoelectric ceramics have been investigated. Measurements under cyclic electrical loading have proven difficult due to dielectric losses leading to sample heating, but several methods to overcome th...

M. Stewart

1996-01-01

55

Domain evolution in lead-free thin film piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to environmental and health concerns lead-free piezoelectric systems are currently being evaluated for use as replacements for lead-based ceramics. Sodium Bismuth Titanate, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO 3 (NBT) - based materials offer possible alternatives. NBT is a perovskite-type, ABO3, compound and is ferroelectric at room temperature. It has a relatively high Curie temperature, a large remnant polarization, and a high coercive field at room temperature. NBT can be modified by additives, such as BaTiO3 (BT), to improve its properties further. NBT-xBT was originally reported to have a morphotropic phase boundary which lies at x = 0.06. The structure transforms from rhombohedral for x < 0.06 to tetragonal for x > 0.06. However, recent studies have shown that for some compositions NBT-xBT develop a relaxor phase at room temperature. NBT xBT materials in the compositional range between 0.05 ? x ? 0.11have been shown to contain nanodomains embedded in a non-polar cubic matrix. The fluctuations of these nanodomains give rise to the relaxor behavior which in some cases is referred to as "relaxor antiferroelectric". In contrast to ferroelectric materials, in relaxor ferroelectrics thermal fluctuations can cause the poled nanodomains to relax to an unpoled state. It is necessary to understand local structure effects on the piezoelectric response at the grain level in order to develop materials with improved performance. Using Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM), this study examines the domain motion within individual grains and domain evolution over time under locally applied electric fields as well as single-point hysteresis loop measurements in thin film NBT and NBT-xBT. These experiments provide an understanding of the domain behavior that cannot be acquired through bulk, macroscopic measurements. Thin films are fabricated using hydrothermal deposition and pulsed laser deposition. The films are highly oriented and exhibit relaxor behavior at room temperature.

Dubelman, Meredith Elissa

56

(Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3-BaTiO3 system for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))TiO3 (BNT)-based solid solutions, Ba-modified bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi(1/2)Na(1/2))(1-x)Ba(x)TiO3 (BNBT), is studied for its dielectric and piezoelectric properties as a new group of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. A rhombohedral (F sub alpha)-tetragonal (F sub beta) morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is shown to exist at x = 0.06-0.07 by X-ray data, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties. BNBT ceramics with the MPB composition are superior as piezoelectric ceramics in high-frequency ultrasonic applications or as piezoelectric actuator materials because of a lower free permittivity, and a high electromechanical coupling factor, along with high mechanical strength.

Takenaka, Tadashi; Maruyama, Kei-Ichi; Sakata, Koichiro

1991-09-01

57

Measurement of high piezoelectric response of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films using a nanoindenter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) is reported to have a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33) in the range of 200-600 pm/V, when in the form of ceramic disks or pellets. This article reports piezoelectric response results for PSZT thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering on gold-coated silicon substrates. The compositions of the deposited thin films have been found to be uniform with depth, using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The surfaces of the deposited thin films have been studied using an atomic force microscope and observed to be regular and nanostructured in nature. The piezoelectric response of the thin films, using the inverse piezoelectric effect, has been measured using a nanoindenter. Values of thin film d33 up to 608 pm/V were obtained, which is much higher than previously reported values of d33 for any thin film. The high values can be attributed to optimized deposition conditions and the low stress measured for the thin film arrangement on the substrate. The technique has been verified by obtaining a null response for silicon dioxide and by measuring d33 values of similar magnitude for PSZT thin films using an atomic force microscope in the same testing arrangement. The piezoelectric response has been mapped to study variations across the thin film and with distance from the top electrode.

Sriram, S.; Bhaskaran, M.; Holland, A. S.; Short, K. T.; Latella, B. A.

2007-05-01

58

Sintering and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics doped with KZT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of K1.94 Zn1.06Ta5.19O15 (KZT) addition on the sintering behavior and piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN). The apparent density of sintered KNN ceramics was increased with KZT addition, and a relative density of above 96.3% was obtained with the doping of over 0.5 mol% KZT. The maximum dielectric and piezoelectric properties of

Jungho Ryu; Jong-Jin Choi; Byung-Dong Hahn; Dong-Soo Park; Woon-Ha Yoon; Kun-Young Kim

2007-01-01

59

An in vitro study of electrically active hydroxyapatite-barium titanate ceramics using Saos-2 cells.  

PubMed

Electrically active ceramics are of interest as bone graft substitute materials. This study investigated the ferroelectric properties of hydroxyapatite-barium titanate (HABT) composites and the behaviour of osteoblast-like cells seeded on their surfaces. A piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) of 57.8 pCN(-1) was observed in HABT discs prepared for cell culture. The attachment, proliferation, viability, morphology and metabolic activity of cells cultured on unpoled HABT were comparable to those observed on commercially available hydroxyapatite at all time points. No indication of the cytotoxicity of HABT was detected. At one day after seeding, cell attachment was modified on both the positive and negative surfaces of poled HABT. After longer incubations, all parameters observed were comparable on poled and unpoled ceramics. The results indicate that HABT ceramics are biocompatible in the short term in vitro and that further investigation of cell responses to these materials under mechanical load and at longer incubation times is warranted. PMID:19308338

Baxter, Frances R; Turner, Irene G; Bowen, Christopher R; Gittings, Jonathan P; Chaudhuri, Julian B

2009-08-01

60

Passive Vibration Damping Materials: Piezoelectric Ceramic Composites for Vibration Damping Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of passive piezoelectric damping using PZT ceramics has been demonstrated in theory and the number of experiments. The effort was multifaceted. For application of the shunted passive piezoelectric damping of structural composites, piezoelectric ce...

S. Yoshikawa R. Meyer J. Witham S. Y. Agadda G. Lesieutre

1995-01-01

61

Biomedical instrumentation based on piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New sensors and actuators based on emerging transducer technologies can play a crucial role in the field of biomedical instrumentation and rehabilitation technologies. Piezoelectricity and transducers based on the piezoelectric effect might lead to the adoption of compact sensor and actuator solutions in this field. This paper addresses a review of piezoelectric and piezoresistive transducer applications in the field of

J. L. Pons; E. Rocon; A. Forner-Cordero; J. Moreno

2007-01-01

62

Loss Factor Characterization Methodology for Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key factor for the miniaturization of piezoelectric devices is power density, which is limited by the heat generation or loss mechanisms. There are three loss components for piezoelectric vibrators, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric losses. The mechanical quality factor, determined by these three factors, is the figure of merit in the sense of loss or heat generation. In this

Yuan Zhuang; Seyit O. Ural; Kenji Uchino

2011-01-01

63

PTCR-NTCR composite behavior of bismuth titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the synthesis of bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12, BiT) ceramics by solid state reaction method. Structural and electrical properties were studied for phase and temperature coefficient of resistance, respectively. A single phase orthorhombic structure of bismuth titanate was observed. Sample shows mixed temperature coefficient of resistance behavior, exhibiting negative TCR (NTCR) in the beginning and later positive TCR (PTCR). This kind of unusual (?-T) behavior was accounted for core-shell microstructure. The result of TGA-DSC showed the crystallization temperature of these ceramic samples.

Sharanappa, Nagbasavanna; Madolappa, Shivanand; Sagar, Raghavendra; Raibagkar, R. L.

2013-06-01

64

Highly Efficient Low-frequency Energy Harvester Using Bulk Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new way of manufacturing efficient vibration energy harvesters using thick films of piezoelectrics. The presented fabrication process is based on the thinning of high-density bulk Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic substrates, which enables the realization of thick layers (10-100 ?m). Using this fabrication approach, we prepared two types of cantilever-based vibration energy scavengers (unimorph and bimorph) operating at very low frequency (~15 Hz) with a 50 ?m PZT final thickness. Given that under a harmonic 10 mg vibration the harvested mean power was 1.3 ?W and 3 ?W respectively, these devices rank among the best ever-reported vibration energy scavengers according to commonly accepted figures of merit. The presented fabrication approach is therefore believed to be a good candidate for the manufacturing of highly efficient piezoelectric energy scavengers operating at very low frequency.

Colin, M.; Basrour, S.; Rufer, L.; Bantignies, C.; Nguyen-Dinh, A.

2013-12-01

65

Thickness profiles through fatigued bulk ceramic lead zirconate titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wedge-cut samples of fatigued ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramics were investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy in conjunction with conventional electrical hysteresis measurements. The local clamping of domains is monitored at different depths in the sample. The coercive fields in grains near the electrodes differ for different materials and preparation methods of the electrodes. For silver, fatigue consistently generates a space

Nina Balke; Doru C. Lupascu; Thomas Blair; Alexei Gruverman

2006-01-01

66

Effects of uniaxial stress on the piezoelectric, dielectric, and mechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramics are often used under compressive stress. It is therefore important to know the properties of these materials as a function of applied stress. We have developed an experiment that allows us to find the piezoelectric charge coefficient d33, elastic compliance S 33, and dielectric constant ? 33 as a function of uniaxial stress in the poled direction. Both

G. Yang; S. F. Liu; W. Ren; B. K. Mukherjee

2001-01-01

67

Experiments to demonstrate piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature change. The direct piezoelectric effect is demonstrated by the electric charge generated from the bending of the piezoelectric ceramic membrane or from the gas igniter. The converse piezoelectric effect is presented in the experiments by the deflection of the bending piezoelectric element (piezoelectric bimorph).

Erhart, Ji?

2013-07-01

68

Field-induced strain behavior for potassium sodium bismuth titanate ceramics.  

PubMed

Data are reported for the dielectric, piezoelectric, electrostrictive, and ferroelectric properties of potassium-substituted sodium bismuth titanate, [(K(x)Na(1-x))(0.5)Bi(0.5)]TiO3. For the morphotropic phase boundary composition x = 0.2, relaxor-type behavior was observed at room temperature with piezoelectric (effective d(333) = 325 x 10(-12) m/V) and ferroelectric properties (P(R) = 25 microC/cm(2), E(C) = 30 kV/cm). A transition to a relatively frequency-independent, diffuse phase transformation region occurred with increasing temperature, with no remanent strain or coercive field. Above the transition temperature, the field-induced strain was consistent with contributions from electrostriction and field induced piezoelectricity (M(3333) = 1.9 x 10(-16) m2/V2 and d333 = 81 x 10(-12) m/V at 100 degrees C). Information is given for the temperature dependence of properties, e.g., 0.14% strain induced at 50 kV/cm at 200 degrees C. Higher potassium content x = 0.6 stabilized the ferroelectric piezoelectric region to temperatures above 200 degrees C, with a relatively stable d(333) = 150-145 x 10-12 m/V between 25 degrees C and 200 degrees C. Pb-free KNBT ceramics appear competitive with PZT, especially for higher temperature electromechanical applications. PMID:18276548

Carroll, James F; Payne, David A; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

2007-12-01

69

Development of optical phase shifter based on piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase shifter is necessary in the optical phase-shifting measurement. At present the phase shifter commonly used is approximately divided into the penetrance-type and the reflection-type. In this paper, a reflection-type phase shifter made of piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble is developed. The assemble are constituted of the flat piezoelectric ceramic with parallel connection circuit and inline structure. The communication between the computer and MCU is by RS232. The D/A converter controlled by the MCU outputs 0~10V voltage. Then the voltage is amplified to 0~400V DC voltage by the designed linear DC amplifier. When this voltage loads on the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the assemble will axially extend 0~5mm. In this paper, the connecting types for the mechanical construction and circuit of the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the driving power and the DC amplifier with high linearity are all introduced. The whole system developed is standardized by using phase-interfering Michelson. The standardization and the practical application indicates that this system has excellent linearity and precision repeatability.

Yu, Fusheng; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yao, Chunjuan; Leng, Changlin

2005-02-01

70

STABILIZED BARIUM TITANATE CERAMICS FOR CAPACITOR DIELECTRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of additions of LaO and LaO--; 3TiO on the electronic properties of barium titanate were investigated. ; It was found that small additions of the components markedly increase the ; lifetime of the material subjected to d-c fields of 50 v per mil at 200 l ; C. (auth);

J. B. MacChesney; P. K. Gallagher; F. V. DiMarcello

1963-01-01

71

Electrical modeling of Piezoelectric ceramics for analysis and evaluation of sensory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectricity is an ability of some materials to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. Piezoelectric ceramics are often used for sensory systems to monitor mechanical characteristics of structures through an electrical signal. Thus, to support system level analysis and evaluation of sensory systems, understanding and estimating the electrical behavior of piezoelectric ceramics with a minimum effort

Jina Kim; Benjamin L. Grisso; Jeong K. Kim; Dong Sam Ha; Daniel J. Inman

2008-01-01

72

Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties and Tunability of Lead-Free Ceramics Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium-doped barium titanate Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 lead-free ceramics (hereinafter referred to as BZT) were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method by adopting the high-energy ball milling technique. Nanosized BZT powders resulted from high-energy ball milling, which in turn enhanced the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. A single-phase perovskite structure free from secondary phase peaks was observed for sintered BZT samples, and a relative density of 94% of the theoretical density was achieved. The electric-field-induced polarization-current data indicate the ferroelectric nature of the samples. Unipolar strain as high as 0.12% was realized for the ceramics sintered at 1350C, indicating their potential for use in actuator applications. Very high tunability of >70% for these ceramics is also reported.

Mahesh, M. L. V.; Bhanuprasad, V. V.; James, A. R.

2013-12-01

73

The effect of high energy mechanochemical processing on the microstructure, piezoelectric, ferroelectric and mechanical properties of PLZT ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics were synthesized using a high energy mechanochemical processing technique, using tungsten carbide grinding vials and balls. The ceramic powders were prepared using the constituent oxide powders, which were subjected to high energy milling, without the use of any excess PbO in the starting composition. TEM studies revealed the formation of very fine particles of the order of 30 nm, due to the milling effect. Highly dense ceramics could be prepared via sintering which resulted in ultra-high strains in these piezoelectric samples of up to 0.25%, a value which has not been reported hitherto by any other known process. The effect of the reduction in particle size on the microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of PLZT ceramics were studied and are discussed herein.

James, A. R.; Rao, B. S. S. Chandra; Pathak, Mohan; Kamat, S. V.; Subrahmanyam, J.

2008-05-01

74

The effect of high energy mechanochemical processing on the microstructure, piezoelectric, ferroelectric and mechanical properties of PLZT ceramics.  

PubMed

Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics were synthesized using a high energy mechanochemical processing technique, using tungsten carbide grinding vials and balls. The ceramic powders were prepared using the constituent oxide powders, which were subjected to high energy milling, without the use of any excess PbO in the starting composition. TEM studies revealed the formation of very fine particles of the order of 30nm, due to the milling effect. Highly dense ceramics could be prepared via sintering which resulted in ultra-high strains in these piezoelectric samples of up to 0.25%, a value which has not been reported hitherto by any other known process. The effect of the reduction in particle size on the microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of PLZT ceramics were studied and are discussed herein. PMID:21825708

James, A R; Chandra Rao, B S S; Pathak, Mohan; Kamat, S V; Subrahmanyam, J

2008-05-14

75

Ferroelectric domain structure of lanthanum-modified lead titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ferroelectric domain configurations in lanthanum-modified lead titanate ceramics have been studied by transmission electron microscopy in conventional, analytical, and high-resolution modes. Results indicate a preponderance of {l brace}101{r brace}, twin-related 90° domains of equilibrium width 50 to 100 nm. These values are consistent with those derived from consideration of elastic strain energy. Below a critical grain size of approximately

Brain G. Demczyk; Raghaw S. Rai; Gareth Thomas

1990-01-01

76

Nonlinear dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1?xTiO3) ceramics, obvious tunabilities of both dielectric permittivity and loss tangent under external DC bias field were observed. The temperature and frequency dependences of nonlinear dielectric properties were studied. Polarizing process was carried out to evaluate the influence of domain reorientation on dielectric nonlinearity in the ferroelectric polycrystalline samples. The nonlinear variation of dielectric properties under

Xiaoyong Wei; Xi Yao

2003-01-01

77

Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1-xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba2+ ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba2+ ion in SBT lattice.

Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

2014-04-01

78

Piezoelectric Properties of a Porous PZT Ceramic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A porous PZT material from a Japanese source was characterized for its piezoelectric properties. Initial values of 82 pC/N for the hydrostatic d constant and 0.046 Vm/N for the hydrostatic g constant were observed. The material also showed no pressure hys...

R. Y. Ting

1985-01-01

79

Passive Vibration Damping Materials: Piezoelectric Ceramics Composites for Vibration Damping Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For application of the shunted passive piezoelectric damping of structural composites, piezoelectric ceramic fibers (PZT and its family) of several tens of micron diameter were made using sol-gel spinning process. Both acetate and acetylacetonate processe...

S. Yoshikawa S. K. Kurtz

1993-01-01

80

Cross-poling textures in a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric material  

SciTech Connect

Tetragonal ferroelectric materials are polarized to induce the anisotropy necessary for the piezoelectric effect. This poling of the material is inherently an orientation process. Pole figure texture measurements of poling and cross-poling in a lead zirconate titanate Navy VI material show domain motion. The resulting axisymmetric and three-dimensional textures demonstrate the contribution of 90 degree sign domain motion to piezoelectricity. Cross-poling results in strong orientations with lower applied fields than in the initial poling steps. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society.

Wan, Shan [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Bowman, Keith J. [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2000-06-01

81

Compact piezoelectric micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advance of micro/nanotechnology promotes the development of micromotors in recent years. In this article, a compact piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator is proposed. A traveling wave is generated by superposition of bending modes with 90 phase difference excited by d15 inverse piezoelectric effects. The operating principle simplifies the system structure significantly, and provides a miniaturization solution. A research prototype with the size of 0.75 0.751.55 mm is developed. It can produce start-up torque of 0.27?Nmand maximum speed of 2760 r/min at 14RMS.

Yan, Liang; Lan, Hua; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

2013-04-01

82

Phase diagram and enhanced piezoelectricity in the strontium titanate doped potassium-sodium niobate solid solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of the (1-x)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xSrTiO3 ceramics, densified by the Spark-Plasma-Sintering method, have been studied. A phase diagram was established from the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. A tetragonal-orthorhombic morpho-tropic phase boundary (MPB) was found at x 0.05. Around the MPB, piezoelectric properties were greatly improved. The origin for the enhanced piezoelectricity has been proposed.

Ruiping Wang; Rong-Jun Xie; Kotaro Hanada; Kunio Matsusaki; Hiroshi Bando; Mitsuru Itoh

2005-01-01

83

Quality factor of micro cantilevers transduced by piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality factors (Q-factor) of micro cantilevers transduced by piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film under atmospheric pressure conditions\\u000a were investigated and discussed. It was found that Q-factors increased with thicker PZT film. Due to air damping, shorter cantilevers resulted in preferred larger Q-factors. The Q-factor was found to be as high as 450 for a 150-?m long PZT cantilever

Jian Lu; Tsuyoshi Ikehara; Takeshi Kobayashi; Ryutaro Maeda; Takashi Mihara

2007-01-01

84

Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 KNbO3 1/2(Bi2O3Sc2O3) System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 (BNT)-based solid solution, a(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 bKNbO3 c1/2(Bi2O3Sc2O3) (a+b+c=1), [KTNS(100a/100b/100c)], was studied for its dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties, as a new group of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Electrical measurements such as dielectric and piezoelectric properties show that the KTNS(100a/100b/100c) ceramics near the BNT side have a relatively high electromechanical coupling factor, k33 (=0.47). On particular, the amount of modified Bi ions has an effect on k33. These ceramics seem to be a candidate for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Nagata, Hajime; Takenaka, Tadashi

1998-09-01

85

Structural integrity of composites with embedded piezoelectric ceramic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine the strength reduction due to the embedment of a piezoelectric ceramic transducer in a composite. The composite was made from carbon\\/epoxy prepreg with a cross-ply lay-up. The transducer was embedded in the mid-plane of the composite material. The specimens were tested in tensile and compressive static loading. It was found that the

Christophe A. Paget; Klas Levin

1999-01-01

86

Investigation of energy absorption capabilities of piezoelectric ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation into the damping characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic PZT-5H. The material is subjected to cyclic uniaxial compressive stress (up to 200 MPa) at a constant electric field bias (from 0 to 2 MV\\/m). The experiments are conducted at 25 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, and 50 degree(s)C. Fraction of energy absorbed (a specific damping capacity_ and elastic

Pavel M. Chaplya; Gregory P. Carman

2001-01-01

87

Development of lead-free (Bi 1/2 Na 1/2)BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics for clinical applications.  

PubMed

The present paper provides a method for the manufacture of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, based on Bismuth-Sodium Titanate (Bi 1/2 Na 1/2)BaTiO3 commonly abbreviated as BNBT. Also, this paper shows the characterization of this piezoceramics, like the Curie temperature, the dielectric constant, resonant frequency, etc. This piezoceramics can be used in medical application where a high frequency transducer is needed as well as ultrasound. PMID:18002432

Rodrguez-Ruiz, R; Suaste-Gmez, E

2007-01-01

88

Structural, Dielectric, Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Characterization of NBT-BT Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead free piezoelectric 0.94(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics were synthesized in MPB composition by conventional solid state reaction method. The crystalline nature of NBT-BT ceramic was studied by XRD and the size of the grains are determined by SEM. The X- ray diffraction results reveal that Ba2+ diffuse into the Na0.5 Bi0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. Because of the strong ferroelectricity and MPB, the ceramics exhibit high piezoelectric properties: d33 = 206 pC/N. Td (depolarization temperature) and Tm (temperature at with the dielectric constant epsilonr reaches a maximum) were observed through the phase transition in dielectric studies. In addition, the prepared ceramic exhibits relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12fold coordination sites. Pr and Ec of the prepared ceramics were determined from the P-E hysteresis loop.

Shanmuga Sundari, S.; Kumar, Binay; Dhanasekaran, R.

2013-05-01

89

Microstructure, electrical conductivity, and piezoelectric properties of bismuth titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the effects of microstructure, atmosphere, and several dopants on the electrical conductivity of bismuth titanate (BiTiO, BIT). Increased grain size increased the conductivity in undoped BIT as did acceptor dopants that substituted for either Bi (Ca and Sr) or Ti(Fe). A donor dopant (Nb) decreased the conductivity in BIT by as much as 3 orders

Holly S. Shulman; Martin Testorf; Dragan Damjanovic; Nava Setter

1996-01-01

90

Aligned porous barium titanate/hydroxyapatite composites with high piezoelectric coefficients for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

It was proposed that the piezoelectric effect played an important physiological role in bone growth, remodelling and fracture healing. An aligned porous piezoelectric composite scaffold was fabricated by freeze casting hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (HA/BT) suspensions. The highest compressive strength and lowest porosity of 14.5MPa and 57.4% with the best parallelism of the pore channels were achieved in the HA10/BT90 composite. HA30/BT70 and HA10/BT90 composites exhibited piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 1.2 and 2.8pC/N, respectively, both of which were higher than the piezoelectric coefficient of natural bone. Increase of the solid loading of the suspension and solidification velocity led to the improvement of piezoelectric coefficient d33. Meanwhile, double-templates resulted in the coexistence of lamellar pores and aligned macro-pores, exhibiting the ability to produce an oriented long-range ordered architecture. The manipulation flexibility of this method indicated the potential for customized needs in the application of bone substitute. An MTT assay indicated that the obtained scaffolds had no cytotoxic effects on L929 cells. PMID:24863210

Zhang, Yan; Chen, Liangjian; Zeng, Jing; Zhou, Kechao; Zhang, Dou

2014-06-01

91

Mechanisms in damping of mechanical vibration by piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piezoelectric ceramic (piezoceramic) component of a polymer-piezoelectric ceramic composite converts mechanical energy\\u000a into electrical energy and this electrical energy is dissipated as heat in a load resistance, R\\u000a x, simulated by a shunted resistance, but provided in practice by a conductive polymer composite matrix. The composite therefore\\u000a dissipates the input mechanical energy via the damping mechanism provided by piezoelectric

H. H. Law; P. L. Rossiter; L. L. Koss; G. P. Simon

1995-01-01

92

Measurement of Micro Vibration of Car by Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there are various accidents and crimes related to the car. In some cases, the accidents and the crimes can be prevented if it is possible to detect a human who is in the car. For example, we can prevent a baby who is left in a car under the hot weather from dehydration or death occurred by heat inside disease. In another case, it is estimated that the United States currently has as many as 12 million illegal immigrants. In order to prevent further influx of illegal immigrants, the police are physically searching incoming vehicles at national boundaries aiming at finding those who are hiding inside. However, the physical inspections require much manpower cost and time. An inspection method to see inside the vehicles through X-ray images has also been used for this end. But the cost and the installation places are the problems of the large-scale X-ray system. Proposed in this paper is a piezoelectric ceramic system to handily measure the micro vibrations of motor vehicles. And applying the algorithm of Support Vector Machine (SVM), the existence of human body inside vehicles can be detected. The experiment was carried out using four types of vehicles: a mini car; an auto mobile; a van; and a truck weighing 1.5 tons. As the results, the correct determination ratio was 91.2% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 97.0% under the rear wheels, when the vehicle used for the examination had also been used together with other three types of vehicles to obtain SVM training data. When the vehicle used for the examination had not been used together with the other three to obtain SVM training data, on the other hand, the correct determination ratio was 93.7% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 95.7% under the rear wheels.

Kurihara, Yosuke; Masuyama, Kosuke; Nakamura, Testuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kajiro

93

The Investigation of PMS-PNW-PZT Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb0.95Sr0.05[(Mn1\\/3Sb2\\/3)0.06(Ni1\\/2W1\\/2)x(Zr0.49Ti0.51)1-x-0.06]O3 (PMS-PNW-PZT) (x = 0.01?0.04) were prepared by using traditional technique with solid reaction process. The effects of PNW contents and sintering temperatures on microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of PMS-PNW-PZT ceramics were investigated. When the amount of doping content was about 2mol% and the sintering temperature was 1250C, the optimum values of buck density, mechanical quality factor, dielectric loss,

Zhang Dong; Ma Weibing; Sun Qingchi; Gao Hongye; Zhang Yong

2010-01-01

94

Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector  

SciTech Connect

A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared.

Takechi, Seiji; Onishi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Shigeyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nogami, Ken-ichi [Department of Physics, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Ohashi, Hideo [Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Sasaki, Sho [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Iwai, Takeo [Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Aichi 441-3193 (Japan)

2008-04-15

95

Evaluation of Piezoelectric Properties of Bi4Ti3O12Based Ceramics at High Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays many industries as aeronautic, aerospace, etc, are claiming for new sensors and actuators that can operate in hostile environments. PZT ceramics are the common materials used in piezoelectric devices, however their low Curie temperature prevents their use at high temperatures. Bi4Ti3O12-based ceramics show a great potential for high temperature applications. Although piezoelectric parameters of BIT ceramics are well described

Marina Villegas; Amador C. Caballero; Teresa Jardiel; Carmen Arag; Jon Maudes; Iaki Caro

2009-01-01

96

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics of (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-BaTiO3-BiFeO3 system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3 (BNT)-based solid solution, a(Bi1\\/2Nal\\/2)TiO3-bBaTiO3-cBiFeO3, [BNBTF(100a\\/100b\\/100c)], was studied for its dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties, as a new group of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Curie temperatures, Tc. of the BNBTF ceramics shift to the higher temperature with an increasing amount of modified Bi ion, and temperature dependence of the resonance frequencies, fr is smaller with increasing amount of

Hajime Nagata; Nobuhiro Koizumi; Nobuhisa Kuroda; Isao Igarashi; Tadashi Takenaka

1999-01-01

97

Multiscale energy release rates in fracture of piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliable use of piezoelectric ceramics as actuators in smart structures hinges on a fundamental understanding of the fracture process in these materials. However, despite the success of fracture mechanics theories in explaining the cracking behavior of a wide range of engineering materials, the extension of these accepted criteria to piezoelectrics fails to predict even qualitatively their response to combined electrical and mechanical loads. A new fracture criterion is presented here, in which a multiscale point of view is adopted in order to account for a zone of combined mechanical brittleness and electrical ductility near the crack tip. As a starting point for the investigations, we assume that the region of electrical nonlinearity is confined to aline segment ahead of the crack, analogous to the Dugdatle zone of plasticity in metals. This mathematical simplification represents the physical situation in which a distribution of excess electric dipoles is aligned on a finite segment in an otherwise linear piezoelectric solid. By applying this model to both insulated and conducting cracks subjected to far-field loading, we obtain local-scale energy release rates whose dependence on applied tractions and electric fields agrees with the trends observed experimentally. One important feature of the analytical expressions for crack driving force is that they are independent of the strength and size of the nonlinear zone.

Gao, Huajian; Fulton, Chandler C.; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Tong, Pin; Barnett, David M.

1997-06-01

98

Study on the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is studied. The transducer consists of front and back metal masses, and coaxially segmented, thickness polarized piezoelectric ceramic thin rings. For this kind of sandwich piezoelectric transducers in thickness vibration, it is required that the lateral dimension of the transducer is sufficiently large compared with its longitudinal dimension so that no lateral displacements in the transducer can occur (laterally clamped). In this paper, the thickness vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic stack consisting of a number of identical piezoelectric ceramic thin rings is analysed and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. The resonance frequency equation for the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is derived. Based on the frequency equation, two sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers are designed and manufactured, and their resonance frequencies are measured. It is shown that the measured resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results. This kind of sandwich piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is expected to be used in megasonic ultrasonic cleaning and sonochemistry where high power and high frequency ultrasound is needed.

Lin, Shuyu; Tian, Hua

2008-02-01

99

Direct writing of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric structures by electrohydrodynamic atomisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct writing, consisting of the directed deposition of individual droplets of ceramic suspension using ink jet printing\\u000a can be used to produce piezoelectric structures with feature sizes in excess of 100?m. This work presents an alternative\\u000a direct writing technique, consisting of directed individual droplets produced by electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA), where\\u000a feature sizes an order of magnitude smaller can be achieved.

S. A. Rocks; D. Wang; D. Sun; S. N. Jayasinghe; M. J. Edirisinghe; R. A. Dorey

2007-01-01

100

Low- and high-frequency properties of electronic ceramics from titanate materials  

SciTech Connect

The electrical losses (tan {delta}) and equivalent series resistance of selected ceramic dielectrics were measured at frequencies of up to 2 GHz. Magnesium-titanate dielectrics have very low losses compared to BaTiO{sub 3}. Mixed titanate-zirconates have intermediate losses at low frequencies and uniquely affect the series resistance (R{sub s}) at high frequencies.

West, P.R. (Dielectric Labs. Inc., Cazenovia, NY (USA))

1987-01-01

101

Structures of 90(degrees) domain walls in ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ferroelectric domain walls in tetragonal ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics are studied by means of electron microscopy. SEM and TEM observations are consistent with domain configuration already proposed. Conventional TEM measurements on SADP agree ve...

L. Normand A. Thorel R. Kilaas

1995-01-01

102

Study of the structure of ferroelectric domain walls in barium titanate ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Structure of 90(degree) ferroelectric domain boundaries in barium titanate ceramics has been studied by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy and High Resolution TEM. Tilts of specific fringes across domain walls are measured on HREM images and Select...

L. Normand A. Thorel R. Kilaas Y. Montardi

1995-01-01

103

Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic composite approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric-field-induced strain response mechanism in a polycrystalline ceramic/ceramic composite of relaxor and ferroelectric materials has been studied using in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction. The addition of ferroelectric phase material in the relaxor matrix has produced a system where a small volume fraction behaves independently of the bulk under an applied electric field. Inter- and intra-grain models of the strain mechanism in the composite material consistent with the diffraction data have been proposed. The results show that such ceramic/ceramic composite microstructure has the potential for tailoring properties of future piezoelectric materials over a wider range than is possible in uniform compositions.

Khansur, Neamul H.; Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook; Reinhard, Christina; Kimpton, Justin A.; Webber, Kyle G.; Daniels, John E.

2014-03-01

104

Intragrain compositional gradient barium strontium titanate ceramics fabricated by a sol-assisted sintering technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous researches show that (Ba,Sr)TiO3(BST) ceramics with intragrain compositional gradients possess increased temperature stability, and a sol-assisted sintering technique can significantly reduce the sintering temperature and this favors the further improvement of the ceramic properties. Before sintering, preforms consisting of the mixture of barium titanate (BT) and strontium titanate (ST) powders were infiltrated with a BT sol. In this

Tingting Wang; Dengren Jin; Jinrong Cheng; Juan Li

2010-01-01

105

Residual stress development and effect on the piezoelectric performance of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectric thin films have higher energy densities, larger strain capabilities and more rapid response times than their bulk counterparts. Typical applications include micro-actuators, micro-sensors and ultrasonic motors for MEMs applications, as well as, nonvolatile computer memories and switching capacitors for integrated circuitry. The electro-mechanical performance of ceramic thin films is greatly influenced by many factors, including grain size, orientation, film thickness, and residual stress level. Residual stresses which arise during the various processing phases of thin film manufacturing can be quite high due to substantial mismatches in substrate-film thermal properties, intrinsic sources (such as grain boundary interactions, etc.), and other external factors. This dissertation examines the relationship between field-induced displacement response and residual stress level for lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films. The film piezoelectric properties are characterized via interferometric measurements for two different loading cases, while the residual stress is determined experimentally from wafer curvature measurements. Additionally two patterning methods, traditional chemical wet-etching and a novel soft lithographic technique, are explored as a means to reduce residual stress within film features. For the soft lithographic technique, film features are created by selective film cracking, a result of poor substrate adhesion promoted by a mediated, self-assembled monolayer. Wafer curvature stress measurements and DIC-based strain measurements of mediated monolayer patterned features reveal that the in-plane stress/strain development is reduced compared to the blanket film case. Critical in-plane strains at crack initiation are also measured using a new digital image correlation technique, in which fluorescent nanoparticles (c.a. 140 nm) provide the speckle pattern. A corresponding increase in the field induced displacements is observed for the film features with reduced residual stress. Overall, the piezoelectric performance of the films is highly dependent on the residual stress in the films and can be enhanced significantly by a reduction in this stress through film patterning.

Berfield, Thomas A.

106

Characterization of phase assemblage and distribution in titanate ceramics with SEM\\/EDS and x-ray mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanate ceramics have been selected for the immobilization of excess plutonium. The baseline ceramic formulation leads to a multi-phase assemblage, which consists of a majority pyrochlore phase plus secondary phases. The phase distribution depends on processing conditions and impurity loading. In this paper, we report on the characterization of the phase assemblage and distribution in titanate ceramics using scanning electron

Luo

1999-01-01

107

Active Optical Fiber Alignment with a Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motor Integrated Into Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of this research was to integrate an ultrasonic motor into a ceramic package for an active optical fiber alignment. Two degrees of freedom ultrasonic motor was successfully cofired with commercial low temperature cofired ceramic green tapes as well as with silver electrodes without encountering serious delamination, camber, and inter diffusion issues. High-power piezoelectric ceramics that can be

Seung-Ho Park; Amanda Baker; Richard E. Eitel; Clive A. Randall; Kenji Uchino

2010-01-01

108

Electrical properties of niobium doped barium bismuth-titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Pure and doped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. ? The grain size was suppressed in Nb-doped samples. ? The diffuseness of the dielectric peak increased with dopant concentration. ? Niobium affected on relaxor behavior of barium bismuth titanate ceramics. ? The conductivity change was noticed in doped samples. -- Abstract: BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 45/4x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 15} (BBNTx, x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30) ceramics have been prepared by solid state method. XRD data indicate the formation of single-phase-layered perovskites for all compositions. SEM micrographs suggest that the grain size decreases with Nb doping. The effect of niobium doping on the dielectric and relaxor behavior of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics was investigated in a wide range of temperatures (20777 C) and frequencies (1.21 kHz to 1 MHz). Nb doping influences T{sub c} decrease as well as the decrease of dielectric permittivity at Curie temperature. At room temperature, undoped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} exhibits dielectric constant of ?204 at 100 kHz, that slightly increases with Nb doping. The conductivity of BBNT5 ceramics is found to be lower than that of other investigated compositions. The value of activation energy of ?{sub DC} was found to be 0.89 eV, 1.01 eV, 0.93 eV and 0.71 eV for BBT, BBNT5, BBNT15 and BBNT30, respectively.

Bobi?, J.D., E-mail: jelenabobic@yahoo.com [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Vijatovi? Petrovi?, M.M. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia)] [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Banys, J. [Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, 9 Sauletekio Str., Vilnius (Lithuania)] [Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, 9 Sauletekio Str., Vilnius (Lithuania); Stojanovi?, B.D. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia)] [Institute for Multidisciplinary Researches, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia)

2012-08-15

109

Three-dimensional ceramic molding process based on microstereolithography for the production of piezoelectric energy harvesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional (3-D) molding process using a master polymer mold produced by microstereolithography has been developed for the production of piezoelectric ceramic elements. In this method, ceramic slurry is injected into a 3-D polymer mold via a centrifugal casting process. The polymer master mold is thermally decomposed so that complex 3-D piezoelectric ceramic elements can be produced. As an example of 3-D piezoelectric ceramic elements, we produced a spiral piezoelectric element that can convert multidirectional loads into a voltage. It was confirmed that a prototype of the spiral piezoelectric element could generate a voltage by applying a load in both parallel and lateral directions in relation to the helical axis. The power output of 123 pW was obtained by applying the maximum load of 2.8N at 2 Hz along the helical axis. In addition, to improve the performance of power generation, we utilized a two-step sintering process to obtain dense piezoelectric elements. As a result, we obtained a sintering body with relative density of 92.8%. Piezoelectric constant d31 of the sintered body attained to -40.0 pC/N. Furthermore we analyzed the open-circuit voltage of the spiral piezoelectric element using COMSOL multiphysics. As a result, it was found that use of patterned electrodes according to the surface potential distribution of the spiral piezoelectric element had a potential to provide high output voltage that was 20 times larger than that of uniform electrodes.

Maruo, Shoji; Sugiyama, Kenji; Daicho, Yuya; Monri, Kensaku

2014-03-01

110

Study of BNT-BKT-BT lead-free piezoelectric ceramics and their application in piezoelectric devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, 0.90Bi0.5Na 0.5TiO3-0.05Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.05BaTiO 3 (BNKBT-5), have been fabricated by a solid-state reaction method. The dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics have been measured and the microstructures studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM. In the ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurements, Pr 28.5 muC\\/cm2 and Ec 3.5 MV\\/m have been observed. The electromechanical coupling coefficients kp and kt

Siu Hong Choy

2007-01-01

111

Investigation of energy absorption capabilities of piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental investigation into the damping characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic PZT-5H. The material is subjected to cyclic uniaxial compressive stress (up to 200 MPa) at a constant electric field bias (from 0 to 2 MV/m). The experiments are conducted at 25 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, and 50 degree(s)C. Fraction of energy absorbed (a specific damping capacity_ and elastic modulus are evaluated as a function of bias electric field. For investigated stress amplitudes, the specific damping capacity increases with increasing bias field, reaches a maximum (28-33%) at the optimum field level, and then decreases. The optimum electric field values increase as the stress amplitude increases because the positive electric field and the compressive stress counteract each other in terms of domain wall motion. The damping properties are stable in the investigated temperature range. The piezoceramic is found to have superior damping properties compared to common structural methods.

Chaplya, Pavel M.; Carman, Gregory P.

2001-07-01

112

Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

Bryant, Robert G.

2007-01-01

113

Domain evolution in lead-free thin film piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to environmental and health concerns lead-free piezoelectric systems are currently being evaluated for use as replacements for lead-based ceramics. (1-x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 - xBaTiO3 (NBT-xBT) is a promising alternative. In order to develop materials with improved performance, it is necessary to understand local structure effects on the piezoelectric response at the grain level. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we have studied the domain evolution under locally applied electric fields. Using pulsed laser deposition thin films are deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at a temperature of 650 C in a 150 mTorr O2 environment. In NBT-0.05BT films, domains are clearly visible after the application of a bias field and they relax after a period of time. After the films are exposed to ambient conditions for several weeks, they must be annealed before domains are again visible with PFM. Domain images after poling indicate that the polarization direction is rotating in the plane of the sample.

Rogers, Meredith E.; Fancher, Chris M.; Blendell, John E.

2012-09-01

114

Nonlinear Theory for a Thin-Walled Piezoelectric Ceramic Ring Excited in the Radial Breathing Mode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nonlinear differential equation governing a thin-walled piezoelectric ceramic ring excited in the radial breathing mode is derived from the field equation of motion for an elastic continuum, the expanded nonlinear constitutive equations, and the appro...

R. W. Dunham

1975-01-01

115

Shear-horizontal surface waves in a layered structure of piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

A new existence condition for shear-horizontal (SH) surface waves in a layered structure of piezoelectric ceramics is give. The discussed SH surface wave is not a stiffened Love wave, but a new type surface wave. PMID:18263171

Hanhua, F; Xingjiao, L

1993-01-01

116

Electrically driven cracks in piezoelectric ceramics: experiments and fracture mechanics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric systems like multilayer actuators are susceptible to damage by crack propagation induced by strain incompatibilities. These can arise under electric fields for example between the electroded and external regions. Such incompatibilities have been realised in thin rectangular model specimens from PZT-piezoelectric ceramics with top and bottom electrodes only close to one edge. Under an electric field, controlled crack propagation

H.-A. Bahr; V.-B. Pham; D. C. Lupascu; H. Balke; J. Rdel; U. Bahr

2002-01-01

117

Effect of cyclic loading on the parameters of elastic wave propagation in piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.Diagnostic methods based on elastic waves can be used for estimating fatigue changes in piezoelectric ceramics.2.The degree of fatigue damage in piezoelectric ceramic specimens can be determined with respect to the extent of elastic wave damping.3.The method of estimating the damage based on surface waves is more promising, since it allows recording of fatigue damage of lesser magnitude in

V. K. Khaustov; V. P. Leshchikov; G. G. Pisarenko

1987-01-01

118

Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured the low-frequency (''unclamped'') electrooptic and piezoelectric coefficients in undoped BaTiO/sub 3/ and Sr/sub x/Ba/sub 1-x/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (chi - 0.61) crystals using interferometric techniques. The contribution of the piezoelectric effect to the Pockels measurement is discussed. For an applied ac electric field in the range 0.1-200 V/cm, the electrooptic and piezoelectric effects are linear in the magnitude of of the applied field and independent of its frequency in the range of 10 Hz-100 kHz. The unclamped electrooptic coefficients of poled BaTiO/sub 3/ single crystals are r/sub 13/ = 19.5 +- 1 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 97 +- 7 pm/V, and for strontium barium niobate are r/sub 13/ = 47 +- 5 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 235 +- 21 pm/V, all measured at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and at T = 23/sup 0/C. For the barium titanate samples the measured Pockels coefficient r/sub c/ identical to r/sub 33/ - (n/sub 1//n/sub 3/)/sup 3/r/sub 13/ = 79 +- 6 pm/V in good agreement with the value r/sub c/ = 76 +- 7 pm/V computed from the above values of r/sub 13/ and r/sub 33/, where n/sub 1/ and n/sub 3/ are the ordinary and extraordinary indexes of refraction, respectively. The measured piezoelectric coefficient is d/sub 23/ = +28.7 +- 2 pm/V for barium titanate, and is d/sub 23/ = +24.6 +- 2 pm/V for strontium barium niobate. They also measured the photoreflective coupling of two optical beams in the crystals, and they show that the dependence of the coupling strength on beam polarization is in fair agreement with the measured values of the Pockels coefficients.

Ducharme, S.; Feinberg, J.; Neurgaonkar, R.R.

1987-12-01

119

Constraint-induced crack initiation at electrode edges in piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain incompatibility arises between the electrically active and inactive parts of a partially electroded piezoelectric material. This leads to cracking perpendicular to the electrode edge. Symmetric partial electrodes of different widths were applied to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) plates to study the development of these cracks. Different cracking patterns appeared upon application of an electric field, depending on the

S. L dos Santos e Lucato; D. C Lupascu; M Kamlah; J Rdel; C. S Lynch

2001-01-01

120

Piezoelectric and Dielectric Performance of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electric Cyclic Fatigue  

SciTech Connect

Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Their responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. Mechanical strain and charge density or polarization loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled to more than 10^8 cycles. Important quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, coercive field have been characterized accordingly under corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement condition also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications to the application of interest have been discussed.

Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Mottern, Alexander M [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

2012-01-01

121

Electrical Characteristics of Ultrasonic Nozzle Using Multilayer Ring-Type Piezoelectric Ceramics for Light Oil Spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, ultrasonic nozzle and its driving circuit were manufactured. And then, their electrical properties were investigated. Ultrasonic nozzle using multilayer ring-type piezoelectric ceramics was fabricated by Pb[(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)0.02(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)0.12(Zr0.50Ti0.50)0.86]O3 (abbreviated as PMN-PNN-PZT) composition which have excellent piezoelectric characteristics. The multilayer ring-type piezoelectric ceramics using pure Ag inner electrode was sintered at 900C low temperatures. In order to drive ultrasonic nozzle,

Jinhee Kang; Yuhyong Lee; Larkhoon Hwang; Juhyun Yoo; Jaeil Hong

2010-01-01

122

Electromechanical coupling and temperature-dependent polarization reversal in piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

Electrostriction plays a central role in describing the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric materials, including widely used piezoelectric ceramics. The piezoelectric properties are closely related to the underlying electrostriction. Small-field piezoelectric properties can be described as electrostriction offset by the remanent polarization which characterizes the ferroelectric state. Indeed, even large-field piezoelectric effects are accurately accounted for by quadratic electrostriction. However, the electromechanical properties deviate from this simple electrostrictive description at electric fields near the coercive field. This is particularly important for actuator applications, for which very high electromechanical coupling can be obtained in this region. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric ceramics at electric field strengths close to the coercive field, and the effects of temperature on electromechanical processes during polarization reversal. The roles of intrinsic ferroelectric strain coupling and extrinsic domain processes and their temperature dependence in determining the electromechanical response are discussed. PMID:21937304

Weaver, Paul M; Cain, Markys G; Correia, Tatiana M; Stewart, Mark

2011-09-01

123

Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate by Fluid Flow in Intravascular Oxygenator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the enhancement in oxygen transfer rate in hollow-fiber-membrane (HFM) modules using a plumbum piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator and a piezoelectric poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor. We developed a vibrating intravascular lung assist device (VIVLAD) for patients having chronic respiratory problems and performed experiments on hydrodynamic flow through a bundle of sinusoidal vibrating hollow fibers. These modules were used to provide some insight into how wall vibrations might enhance the performance of an intravascular lung assist device. The experimental design and procedure are then applied to the fabrication of a device used to assess the effectiveness of membrane vibrations. The test section was a cylindrical duct with an inner diameter of 30 mm. The flow rate was controlled by a pump and monitored by a built-in flowmeter. The vibration apparatus was composed of a piezovibrator, a function generator, and a power amplifier. The direction of vibration was radial to the fluid flow. Gas flow rates of up to 6 L/min through 120-cm-long hollow fibers were achieved by exciting the piezovibrator. The time and frequency responses of PVDF sensors were investigated through various frequencies in VIVLAD. In these devices, the flow of blood and the source of oxygen were separated by a semipermeable membrane that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse into and out of the fluid, respectively. Results of the experiments have shown that a vibrating intravascular lung assist device performs effectively.

Kim, Gi?Beum; Hong, Chul?Un; Kwon, Tae?Kyu

2006-04-01

124

Lead zirconate titanate thin films for piezoelectric actuation and sensing of MEMS resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is focused on examining the potential benefits and limitations of applying sol-gel lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin films to on-chip piezoelectrically driven RF microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonators in the low frequency (LF) to very high frequency (VHF) frequency range. MEMS fabrication methods are presented for fabricating PZT-based MEMS resonator structures along with investigations into the resultant thin film residual stresses and material properties, and their impact on resonator frequency, beam curvature, and resonant mode shape. The PZT, silicon dioxide (SiO2), platinum (Pt), and silicon nitride (Si3N4) thin film material properties are characterized and validated by wafer bow, cantilever resonance, cantilever thermal-induced tip deflection and finite element modeling (FEM) techniques. The performance of the fabricated PZT-based MEMS resonators are presented and compared to previously demonstrated zinc oxide (ZnO) based resonators as well as to electrostatically based MEMS resonator designs. Resonators with frequency response peaks of greater than 25 dB, quality factors up to 4700, and resonant frequencies up to 10 MHz are demonstrated along with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages for use as MEMS resonators. Nonlinear resonator response is also investigated in relation to the onset of classic Duffing behavior, beam buckling and mode coupling. Fabrication techniques, operating conditions, and design rules are presented to minimize or eliminate nonlinear resonator response.

Piekarski, Brett Harold

125

Dissolution Kinetics of Titanate-Based Ceramic Waste Forms: Results from Single-Pass Flow Tests on Radiation Damaged Specimens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, we summarize the results of our single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests on titanate ceramics at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These titanate ceramics are candidate disposal forms for excess weapons plutonium that is obligated by tre...

J. P. Icenhower D. M. Strachan M. M. Lindberg E. A. Rodriguez J. L. Steele

2003-01-01

126

Using Piezoelectric Ceramics for Dust Mitigation of Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The particles that make up moon dust and Mars soil can be hazardous to an astronaut s health if not handled properly. In the near future, while exploring outer space, astronauts plan to wander the surfaces of unknown planets. During these explorations, dust and soil will cling to their space suits and become imbedded in the fabric. The astronauts will track moon dust and mars soil back into their living quarters. This not only will create a mess with millions of tiny air-born particles floating around, but will also be dangerous in the case that the fine particles are breathed in and become trapped in an astronaut s lungs. research center are investigating ways to remove these particles from space suits. This problem is very difficult due to the nature of the particles: They are extremely small and have jagged edges which can easily latch onto the fibers of the fabric. For the past summer, I have been involved in researching the potential problems, investigating ways to remove the particles, and conducting experiments to validate the techniques. The current technique under investigation uses piezoelectric ceramics imbedded in the fabric that vibrate and shake the particles free. The particles will be left on the planet s surface or collected a vacuum to be disposed of later. The ceramics vibrate when connected to an AC voltage supply and create a small scale motion similar to what people use at the beach to shake sand off of a beach towel. Because the particles are so small, similar to volcanic ash, caution must be taken to make sure that this technique does not further inbed them in the fabric and make removal more difficult. Only a very precise range of frequency and voltage will produce a suitable vibration. My summer project involved many experiments to determine the correct range. Analysis involved hands on experience with oscilloscopes, amplifiers, piezoelectrics, a high speed camera, microscopes and computers. perfect this technology. Someday, vibration to remove dust may a vital component to the space exploration program. In order to mitigate this problem, engineers and scientists at the NASA-Glenn Further research and experiments are planned to better understand and ultimately

Angel, Heather K.

2004-01-01

127

Strong piezoelectricity exhibited by large-grained BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good understanding of the strong piezoelectric mechanism of BaTiO3 ceramics is very important from both scientific and technological viewpoints. This Letter reports an unusual piezoelectric phenomenon observed in a group of large-grained dense BaTiO3 ceramics with average grain sizes ranging from 5.1 to 16.3 ?m, which are prepared with a hydrothermally synthesized BaTiO3 fine powder by hot-press sintering. Among these BaTiO3 ceramics, the one possessing an average grain size of 5.6 ?m exhibits a particularly prominent piezoelectricity with piezoelectric constants d33 = 485 pC/N and d33* = 725 pm/V at room temperature and a peak d33 value of 574 pC/N around 8.5 C. This ceramic is further investigated from the aspects of domain patterns and polarization versus electric field (P-E) loops and compared with a conventionally sintered BaTiO3 ceramic prepared using a solid-state reaction method. The investigation shows that it has the domain patterns of simple parallel stripes inside the grains and the square-like P-E loops and differs significantly from the conventionally sintered ceramic, and indicates that the observed strong piezoelectricity is strongly related to the large remanent polarization.

Zhang, J. L.; Ji, P. F.; Wu, Y. Q.; Zhao, X.; Tan, Y. Q.; Wang, C. L.

2014-06-01

128

Study on the equivalent circuit and coupled vibration for the longitudinally polarized piezoelectric ceramic hollow cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinally polarized piezoelectric ceramic disks with central holes have been the most commonly used elements in underwater acoustics and ultrasonics. For very thin piezoelectric ceramic disks, its vibration can be regarded as one-dimensional thickness extensional vibration, or plane radial vibration, and the coupling between these two different vibrational modes is neglected. However, for practical piezoelectric ceramic disks with central holes, the geometrical dimensions do not satisfy the requirements for the thin ring, and the coupling must be considered. In this paper, the coupled vibration of the longitudinally polarized piezoelectric ceramic disks with central holes is studied using an approximate analytical method. When the mechanical coupling coefficient is introduced and the shearing strain is ignored, the coupled vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic hollow cylinder is divided into two equivalent vibrations. One is the equivalent longitudinal extensional vibration, and the other is the equivalent radial vibration. These two equivalent vibrations are not independent; they are correlated together by the mechanical coupling coefficient. The equivalent circuit for the piezoelectric ceramic hollow cylinders in coupled vibration is derived, and the resonance frequency equations are obtained. Based on the coupled frequency equations, the longitudinal and radial resonance frequencies can be obtained when the dimensions and the material parameters are given. Compared with one-dimensional theory, the computed resonance frequencies in this paper are in good agreement with the measured results. Compared with the numerical methods, the analytic method presented in this paper is simple in computing the longitudinal and radial resonance frequencies and in analyzing the coupled vibrational modes of the piezoelectric ceramic disks with central holes.

Lin, Shuyu

2004-08-01

129

Neodymium-Strontium Titanate: A New Ceramic for an Old Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High density ceramics based on neodymium-calcium titanate (RE0.6II0.1TiO3) where RE = Nd, Pr, Sm and II = Ca, Sr, were prepared by the mixed oxide route. All products exhibited low thermal conductivity due to the presence of A-site vacancies assisting strong phonon scattering. The moderate electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient resulted in the highest thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT) in neodymium-strontium titanate (NT-ST) ceramic with a value of 0.03 at 900 K. The temperature stable ZT behavior of NT-ST is promising for device applications.

Jackson, Samuel S.; Azough, Feridoon; Freer, Robert

2014-06-01

130

Preparation and dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate glass-ceramics sintered from solgel-derived powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous barium strontium titanate (BST) glass-ceramic has been successfully prepared by solgel process. Experimental results showed that perovskite barium strontium titanate phase formed at 700C. Much smaller sized BST grains are obtained and the grain boundaries are not distinct in the sintered glass-ceramic systems. The grain grown with the sintering temperature increased. The glass-ceramic samples were sintered at lower temperatures

Jiangying Wang; Xi Yao; Liangying Zhang

2004-01-01

131

Ferroelectric/ferroelastic behavior and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation  

SciTech Connect

The electromechanical response of pure lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Mn-doped PZT thin ferroelectric films under nanoindentation forces of up to 500 mN was investigated. The stress-induced current transients were measured as a function of the externally applied load on films of different thicknesses using a spherical WC-Co cermet indenter of 500 {mu}m nominal radius. It was found that the quasi-static current generated through the direct piezoelectric effect is superimposed with a contribution from irreversible domain processes during the loading/unloading cycle. The film thickness dependency of the electrical transients and an asymmetry of the current-force curves are attributed to the in-plane clamping stress in the films produced by a dissimilar substrate. Analysis of corresponding charge-force hysteresis loops revealed a significant role for the residual stress state on the polarization switching in thin films. By the application of an indentation force, a portion of Barkhausen jumps was empirically estimated to increase as a consequence of reduction of the clamping effect on domains. The Rayleigh hysteretic charge-force curves showed recovery of the charge released during the load-unload stress cycle. For the thicker 700 nm films, the total charge released during loading was fully recovered with weak hysteresis. In contrast, strong in-plane clamping stresses in the 70 nm thick films are suggested to be reponsible for incomplete recovery upon unloading. A considerable domain-wall contribution to the electromechanical response was demonstrated by an enhanced polarization state, which was shown by an increase of the effective piezoelectric coefficient d{sub eff} of about 35% of its initial value for the thin films at a maximum force of 500 mN.

Koval, V.; Reece, M.J.; Bushby, A.J. [Department of Materials, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2005-04-01

132

Ferroelectric/ferroelastic behavior and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromechanical response of pure lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Mn-doped PZT thin ferroelectric films under nanoindentation forces of up to 500 mN was investigated. The stress-induced current transients were measured as a function of the externally applied load on films of different thicknesses using a spherical WC-Co cermet indenter of 500 ?m nominal radius. It was found that the quasi-static current generated through the direct piezoelectric effect is superimposed with a contribution from irreversible domain processes during the loading/unloading cycle. The film thickness dependency of the electrical transients and an asymmetry of the current-force curves are attributed to the in-plane clamping stress in the films produced by a dissimilar substrate. Analysis of corresponding charge-force hysteresis loops revealed a significant role for the residual stress state on the polarization switching in thin films. By the application of an indentation force, a portion of Barkhausen jumps was empirically estimated to increase as a consequence of reduction of the clamping effect on domains. The Rayleigh hysteretic charge-force curves showed recovery of the charge released during the load-unload stress cycle. For the thicker 700 nm films, the total charge released during loading was fully recovered with weak hysteresis. In contrast, strong in-plane clamping stresses in the 70 nm thick films are suggested to be reponsible for incomplete recovery upon unloading. A considerable domain-wall contribution to the electromechanical response was demonstrated by an enhanced polarization state, which was shown by an increase of the effective piezoelectric coefficient deff of about 35% of its initial value for the thin films at a maximum force of 500 mN.

Koval, V.; Reece, M. J.; Bushby, A. J.

2005-04-01

133

Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic Passive Composite Damper by Use of Piezoelectric Polymer\\/Ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the passive damping of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cantilever beams is examined using (1) interleaving of viscoelastic thermoplastic films, (2) piezoelectric polymer (PVDF) film interlayers and (3) surface-bonded piezoelectric ceramics. Introducing polyethylene-based film interlayers between composite plies resulted in a significant increase in the vibration loss factor. It is also shown that the vibration damping of CFRP

Toshio Tanimoto

2002-01-01

134

Experimental search for high Curie temperature piezoelectric ceramics with combinatorial approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature piezoelectric materials are needed for actuation and sensing applications in harsh environments such as engine health monitoring and space exploration. Ferroelectric ceramics are widely used in piezoelectric devices but their high temperature application is limited by the ferroelectric-to-nonferroelectric transition at the Curie temperature.\\u000aThe BiFeO3-PbTiO3 (BF-PT) solid solution system is peculiar for its high Curie temperature and thus

Wei Hu

2011-01-01

135

Ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films and ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films and ceramics are reviewed with the aim of providing an insight into different processes which may affect the behaviour of ferroelectric devices, such as ferroelectric memories and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Taking into consideration recent advances in this field, topics such as polarization switching, polarization fatigue, effects of defects, depletion layers, and depolarization fields on hysteresis loop behaviour, and contributions of domain-wall displacement to dielectric and piezoelectric properties are discussed. An introduction into dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of ferroelectric materials, symmetry considerations, coupling of electro-mechanical and thermal properties, and definitions of relevant ferroelectric phenomena are provided.

Damjanovic, Dragan

1998-09-01

136

Passive vibration damping materials: Piezoelectric ceramics composites for vibration damping applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For application of the shunted passive piezoelectric damping of structural composites, piezoelectric ceramic fibers (PZT and its family) of several tens of micron diameter were made using sol-gel spinning process. Both acetate and acetylacetonate processes were examined as lead sources. Using the properly chosen spinneret and fiber drawing apparatus, PZT and modified PZT fibers of 10 to l00 micrometers diameter have been successfully produced. Different heat treatments gave different microstructure. Modeling analysis was also performed to estimate achievable damping levels for the composites. The results indicate high damping potential for shunted piezoelectric passive damping composites.

Yoshikawa, Shoko; Kurtz, S. K.

1993-02-01

137

Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic micro-actuator and its reliability for hard disk drives.  

PubMed

A new U-type micro-actuator for precisely positioning a magnetic head in high-density hard disk drives was proposed and developed. The micro-actuator is composed of a U-type stainless steel substrate and two piezoelectric ceramic elements. Using a high-d31 piezoelectric coefficient PMN-PZT ceramic plate and adopting reactive ion etching process fabricate the piezoelectric elements. Reliability against temperature was investigated to ensure the practical application to the drive products. The U-type substrate attached to each side via piezoelectric elements also was simulated by the finite-element method and practically measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer in order to testify the driving mechanics of it. The micro-actuator coupled with two piezoelectric elements featured large displacement of 0.875 microm and high-resonance frequency over 22 kHz. The novel piezoelectric micro-actuators then possess a useful compromise performance to displacement, resonance frequency, and generative force. The results reveal that the new design concept provides a valuable alternative for multilayer piezoelectric micro-actuators. PMID:15600092

Jing, Yang; Luo, Jianbin; Yang, Wenyan; Ju, Guoxian

2004-11-01

138

Softening of bulk modulus and negative Poisson ratio in barium titanate ceramic near the Curie point  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial softening in the bulk modulus (a factor of five) and a negative Poisson ratio (?0.25) have been observed via broadband viscoelastic spectroscopy in the vicinity of the Curie point of a barium titanate ceramic. These effects were observed under electrical short-circuit conditions at low deformation frequencies. Softening was less in an electric open circuit or at higher frequencies. Softening

Liang Dong; Donald S. Stone; Roderic S. Lakes

2010-01-01

139

Thickness dependence of structure and piezoelectric properties at nanoscale of polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.50Ti0.50)O3 (PZT) thin films were deposited by a polymeric chemical method on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates to understand the mechanisms of phase transformations and the effect of film thickness on the structure, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties in these films. PZT films pyrolyzed at temperatures higher than 350 C present a coexistence of pyrochlore and perovskite phases, while only perovskite phase grows in films pyrolyzed at temperatures lower than 300 C. For pyrochlore-free PZT thin films, a small (100)-orientation tendency near the film-substrate interface was observed. Finally, we demonstrate the existence of a self-polarization effect in the studied PZT thin films. The increase of self-polarization with the film thickness increasing from 200 nm to 710 nm suggests that Schottky barriers and/or mechanical coupling near the film-substrate interface are not primarily responsible for the observed self-polarization effect in our films.

Arajo, E. B.; Lima, E. C.; Bdikin, I. K.; Kholkin, A. L.

2013-05-01

140

Ferroelectric mesocrystals of bismuth sodium titanate: formation mechanism, nanostructure, and application to piezoelectric materials.  

PubMed

Ferroelectric mesocrystals of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) with [100]-crystal-axis orientation were successfully prepared using a topotactic structural transformation process from a layered titanate H1.07Ti1.73O4nH2O (HTO). The formation reactions of BNT mesocrystals in HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 and HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction systems and their nanostructures were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, SAED, and EDS, and the reaction mechanisms were given. The BNT mesocrystals are formed by a topotactic structural transformation mechanism in the HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system and by a combination mechanism of the topotactic structural transformation and epitaxial crystal growth in the HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system, respectively. The BNT mesocrystals prepared by these methods are constructed from [100]-oriented BNT nanocrystals. Furthermore, these reaction systems were successfully applied to the fabrication of [100]-oriented BNT ferroelectric ceramic materials. A BNT ceramic material with a high degree of orientation, high relative density, and small grain size was achieved. PMID:23978153

Hu, Dengwei; Kong, Xingang; Mori, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shinagawa, Kazunari; Feng, Qi

2013-09-16

141

Electromechanical properties and dielectric behavior of (Bi 1/2Na 1/2) (1-1.5 x) Bi xTiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth doped bismuth sodium titanate ceramics [(Bi 1/2Na 1/2) (1-1.5 x) Bi xTiO 3, x=0 to 0.06] were prepared, and the resulting effects on the microstructure and dielectric properties were examined. All of the Bi-doped ceramics exhibited a single phase of perovskite structure with rhombohedral symmetry. The poling leakage current was significantly reduced by the doping of Bi, facilitating the poling process of the ceramics. The doping with Bi enhances the piezoelectric properties and increases the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the ceramics. At 2 mol% Bi-doping level, the ceramics exhibit a large remanent polarization of 47 ?C/cm 2 and a relatively low coercive field of 71 kV/cm, while their d 33 and kp reach a maximum value of 95 pC/N and 21%, respectively.

Wang, X. X.; Kwok, K. W.; Tang, X. G.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.

2004-02-01

142

Passive Vibration Damping Materials: Piezoelectric Ceramic Composites for Vibration Damping Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study to produce ultra-fine (less than 50 micrometers in diameter) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic fibers for passive damping application has been carried out under several aspects. Sol-gel chemistry was undertaken to produce stable spinnable so...

S. Yoshikawa

1994-01-01

143

Study of methods for automated crack inspection of electrically poled piezoelectric ceramics.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to identify a viable, non-destructive methodology for the detection of cracks in electrically poled piezoelectric ceramics used in neutron generator power supply units. The following methods were investigated: Impedance Spectroscopy, Scanning Acoustic Microscopy, Lock-in Thermography, Photo-acoustic Microscopy, and Scanned Vicinal Light. In addition to the exploration of these techniques for crack detection, special consideration was given to the feasibility of integrating these approaches to the Automatic Visual Inspection System (AVIS) that was developed for mapping defects such as chips, pits and voids in piezoelectric ceramic components. Scanned Vicinal Light was shown to be the most effective method of automatically detecting and quantifying cracks in ceramic components. This method is also very effective for crack detection in other translucent ceramics.

Yang, Pin; Hwang, Stephen C.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Burns, George Robert

2004-06-01

144

Piezoelectric/photoluminescence effects in rare-earth doped lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we report the environmentally-friendly multifunctional effectspiezoelectric/photoluminescence effects, which originated from the combination of the electromechanical properties and the photoluminescence effect through introducing the rare-earth elements (Pr and Eu) into the (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 ceramics with the composition around the morphotropic phase boundary. Compared to the pure piezoelectric ceramic, the proposed system simultaneously exhibited enhanced ferroelectric, piezoelectric, dielectric properties along with strong photoluminescence effects, which exhibited potential applications in sensor, and electro-mechano-optical integration. In addition, the present work also provides a promising path for us to fabricate multifunctional composites.

Yao, Qirong; Wang, Feifei; Jin, Chengchao; Tang, Yanxue; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

2013-10-01

145

Combinatorial and High Throughput Discovery of High Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has developed a statistical learning approach to identify potential new high temperature ferroelectric piezoelectric perovskite compounds. Our predictions of the Curie temperature (Tc) ranging from 700C- 1100C are the highest reported in eith...

K. Rajan X. Tan

2011-01-01

146

Finite-element analysis of vibrational modes in piezoelectric ceramic disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural vibrational modes of axially symmetric piezoelectric ceramic disks have been calculated by the finite-element method. The disks are of the type used as active elements in compressional wave ultrasonic transducers, and are electrically polarized in thickness with full electrodes on the disk's major faces. To optimize disk geometry for ultrasonic transducer application, the dependence of the vibrational modes

H. A. Kunkel; S. Locke; B. Pikeroen

1990-01-01

147

Evaluation of Piezoelectric Ceramic Substrates for Ultrasonic Bulk Wave Filters and Resonators Using Pulse Interference Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, market demand has creared a need for high reproducibility in the frequency characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic filters and resonators that use the thickness extension mode. In order to increase this reproducibility, it is necessary mainly to improve accuracy in controlling the substrate thickness, and to reduce variations in elastic properties of substrate materials prior to the completion

Takeshi Kitamura; Michio Kadota; Toru Kasanami; Jun-ichi Kushibiki; Noriyoshi Chubachi

1994-01-01

148

Crystal chemistry of uranium (V) and plutonium (IV) in a titanate ceramic for disposition of surplus fissile material  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra for the plutonium LIII and uranium LIII edges in titanate pyrochlore ceramic. The titanate ceramics studied are of the type proposed to serve as a matrix for the immobilization of surplus fissile materials. The samples studied contain approximately 10 wt% fissile plutonium and 20 wt% natural

J. A. Fortner; A. J. Kropf; R. J. Finch; A. J. Bakel; M. C. Hash; D. B. Chamberlain

2002-01-01

149

Polarization Behavior in the Two Stage Sintered Lead Titanate Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization behavior in lead titanate, prepared by the two stage sintering approach, is determined by using the dilatometer thermal expansion data. We report the temperature-dependent measurements of the strain, the magnitude of polarization, ?PS , deduced from the sets of data gathered from the thermal expansion values. The calculated values of the electric polarization, PS, on the two stage sintered

R. WONGMANEERUNG; R. YIMNIRUN; S. ANANTA; R. GUO; A. S. BHALLA

2006-01-01

150

Intra-grain composition nonuniform barium strontium calcium titanate ceramics by sol-gel pervasion techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ferroelectric ceramics in microwave devices requires that they possess low-loss, frequency-stable and highly tunable properties. The problems of traditional barium strontium calcium titanate ceramics are higher loss and inappropriate work temperature dependence. In this work, a conventional mixed oxide route was used to prepare BaTiO3, SrTiO3 and CaTiO3 precursor powders. The BaTiO3, SrTiO3 and CaTiO3 powders were thoroughly ball mill mixed. They were then added to 5 wt% polyvinyl alcohol and pressed under a uni-axial pressure of 220 MPa into discs of 12 mm diameter. We introduced nano-grains of barium strontium titanate (BST) into the BSCT ceramic by nano-grain pervasion techniques to fabricate compositionally nonuniform BSCT ceramic samples. The nano-particles of BST are prepared with the sol-gel method. The sol-gel was subjected to ultrasonic irradiation and then vacuum methods in order to easily introduce nanoparticles into bulky BSCT. The ceramics do not show a sharp change in the dielectric constant and have a wide range of Curie temperature distribution. This is attributed to the presence of a compositionally nonuniform micro-area in the samples. Compared with uniform-composition BSCT, compositionally nonuniform BSCT has favourable dielectric properties. These results suggest that the compositionally nonuniform BSCT ceramics are promising candidates as tunable microwave elements.

Xu, Honghai; Jin, Dengren; Wu, Wenbiao; Cheng, Jinrong

2009-03-01

151

Lead-free KNLNT Piezoelectric Ceramics for High-frequency Ultrasonic Transducer Application  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the latest development of a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic and its application to transducers suitable for high-frequency ultrasonic imaging. A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with formula of (K0.5Na0.5)0.97Li0.03(Nb0.9 Ta0.1)O3 (abbreviated as KNLNT-0.03/0.10) was fabricated and characterized. The material was found to have a clamped dielectric constant ?33S = ?0 = 890, piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 245 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factor kt = 0.42 and Curie temperature Tc > 300 C. High-frequency (40 MHz) ultrasound transducers were successfully fabricated with the lead-free material. A representative lead-free transducer had a bandwidth of 45%, two-way insertion loss of ?18 dB. This performance is comparable to reported performances of popular lead-based transducers. The comparison results suggest that the lead-free piezoelectric material may serve as an alternative to lead-based piezoelectric materials for high-frequency ultrasonic transducer applications.

Wu, D. W.; Chen, R. M.; Zhou, Q. F.; Shung, K. K.; Lin, D.M.; Chan, H. L. W.

2010-01-01

152

Ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain structures in piezoelectric ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion of the results of conventional and high-resolution high-voltage electron microscopic studies of two ferroelectrics, barium sodium niobate and lead zirconium titanate is presented. It is shown that a rich variety of information such as ferroel...

L. A. Bursill Julin Peng

1990-01-01

153

Enhanced piezoelectric performance of composite sol-gel thick films evaluated using piezoresponse force microscopy  

PubMed Central

Conventional composite sol-gel method has been modified to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ceramic thick films. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead magnesium niobatelead titanate (PMN-PT) thick films were fabricated using the modified sol-gel method for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this work, piezoresponse force microscopy was employed to evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics of PZT and PMN-PT composite sol-gel thick films. The images of the piezoelectric response and the strain-electric field hysteresis loop behavior were measured. The effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33,eff) of the films was determined from the measured loop data. It was found that the effective local piezoelectric coefficient of both PZT and PMN-PT composite films is comparable to that of their bulk ceramics. The promising results suggest that the modified composite sol-gel method is a promising way to prepare the high-quality, crack-free ceramic thick films.

Liu, Yuanming; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kirk Shung, K.; Li, Jiangyu; Zhou, Qifa

2013-01-01

154

Grain-oriented fabrication of bismuth titanate ceramics and its electrical properties.  

PubMed

The concept of grain-oriented fabrication in ceramics, which utilizes anisotropy either in morphology or some specific property of the particle, is reviewed. A fabrication method, which maximizes the grain orientation, is described for Bi(4)Ti(3)O(12 ). The process utilized plate-like morphology of Bi(4)Ti (3)O(12) particles and yielded a ceramic with an X-ray density of 95.4% and an unprecedented value of 100% for Lotgering's orientation factor in the direction of orientation. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of this ceramic are described and compared to single crystal values. Complex impedance analysis of the ceramics was used to explain the dielectric relaxations at elevated temperatures. The use of grain-oriented fabrication as a practical technique for making polycrystalline ceramics with electrical properties close to those of single crystals (in the direction of orientation) is emphasized. The use of grain-oriented Bi(4)Ti(3)O(12) ceramics as a high-temperature piezoelectric transducer is suggested. PMID:18284948

Seth, V K; Schulze, W A

1989-01-01

155

Some Dielectric Properties of Barium-Strontium Titanate Ceramics at 3000 Megacycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric constant &egr;?&egr;0 and loss tangent tan? of barium-strontium titanate ceramics were measured as a function of temperature and static electric field at frequencies of 10 kc, 500 kc, and 3000 Mc. No frequency dependence of &egr;?&egr;0 was apparent at temperatures above the Curie point. An increase in tan? was observed in going from the low frequencies to 3000

Luther Davis Jr.; Lawrence G. Rubin

1953-01-01

156

Influence of processing parameters on the structure and properties of barium strontium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium strontium titanate (BST) with the molar formula (Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3) has been prepared by two different processing methods: mixed-oxide (BST-MO) and reaction-sintering (BST-RS). X-ray powder diffraction study shows differences in grain size and crystal symmetry for both these ceramics. The former shows a tetragonal symmetry while the latter presents a cubic symmetry. The occurrence of polar micro-regions associated with the higher

Sining Yun; Xiaoli Wang; Delong Xu

2008-01-01

157

Reconfigurable unit cell for reflectarray antenna based on barium-strontium-titanate thick-film ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconfigurable unit cells based on the ferroelectric thick-film ceramic of Barium-Strontium-Titanate (BST) are presented in this paper, which enable the realization of low-profile, cost-effective and fast steerable reflectarray antennas in X-band. A microstrip patch antenna partitioned into two halves is patterned on top of a screen printed BST thick-film. By applying a variable DC bias voltage between the halves, the

Mohsen Sazegar; Andre Giere; Yuliang Zheng; Holger Maune; Alexander Moessinger; Rolf Jakoby

2009-01-01

158

Glass-ceramics of barium strontium titanate for high energy density capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium strontium titanate glass-ceramics were successfully produced with one major crystalline phase when Al2O3 was added to the melt. A dielectric constant of 1000 and a breakdown strength of 800kV\\/cm was achieved; however the energy\\u000a density was only measured to be 0.30.9J\\/cm3. These energy density values were lower than anticipated due to the presence of dendrites and pores in the

E. P. Gorzkowski; M.-J. Pan; B. Bender; C. C. M. Wu

2007-01-01

159

Transitions of barium strontium titanate ferroelectric ceramics for different strontium content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic based barium strontium titanate (BST) solid solutions with the formula Ba1?xSrxTiO3 are very important candidates for a wide range of device applications. Several doped (Mn and Mg) and undoped samples were prepared by standard solid-state reaction. Special emphasis was put on compositions with x=0.35 and 0.60, with high potential for applications. The samples were sintered at temperatures in the

A. Ioachim; M. I. Toacsan; M. G. Banciu; L. Nedelcu; A. Dutu; S. Antohe; C. Berbecaru; L. Georgescu; G. Stoica; H. V. Alexandru

2007-01-01

160

Effects of MnO 2 concentration on dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase development, microstructural evolution and dielectric properties of manganese-doped barium strontium titanate glass ceramics have been studied. The specimens with (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) as the major crystalline phase were prepared by bulk crystallization process. The results show that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss measured at room temperature pass through a maximum with increasing MnO2 concentration. This MnO2 concentration

Xiang-Rong Wang; Yong Zhang; Tao Ma; Chang-Sheng Deng; Xia-Ming Dai

161

Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba1-xSm2x/3Zr0.05Ti0.95O3 [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x?0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

Badapanda, T.; Sarangi, S.; Behera, B.; Anwar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

2014-04-01

162

Modified cofiring behaviors between PMN-PNN-PZT piezoelectric ceramics and PZT-doped 70Ag30Pd alloy metallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cofiring behaviors between PMN-PNN-PZT piezoelectric ceramics and 70Ag30Pd electrode paste were investigated in view of sintering densification behavior, thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) and interfacial physical integrity. The results showed that mismatched cofiring characteristics have greatly affected the reliability of multilayer piezoelectric ceramic devices. The application of a PZT additive to 70Ag30Pd electrode technology has markedly improved the above-mentioned cofiring

Ruzhong Zuo; Longtu Li; Zhilun Gui

2002-01-01

163

Research on High Power Transducer Ceramics. Stress Sensitivity of Piezoelectric Ceramics: Part One: Sensitivity to Compressive Stress Parallel to the Polar Axis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of changes in permittivity, tan delta and D33 as function of compressive stress parallel to the polar axis are presented for lead zirconate-lead titanate transducer ceramics. The hard ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8) suitable for high power applica...

H. H. A. Krueger

1967-01-01

164

Properties of PZT-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics Between -150 and 250 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of three PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and one PLZT electrostrictive ceramic were measured as a function of temperature. In this work, the dielectric, ferroelectric polarization versus electric field, and piezoelectric properties of PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PLZT-9/65/35 were measured over a temperature range of -150 to 250 C. In addition to these measurements, the relative thermal expansion of each composition was measured from 25 to 600 C and the modulus of rupture of each material was measured at room temperature. This report describes the experimental results and compares and contrasts the properties of these materials with respect to their applicability to intelligent aerospace systems.

Hooker, Matthew W.

1998-01-01

165

Synthesis and electrical properties of SrBi4Ti4O15 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBiT) ceramics have been synthesized by a sol-gel method. These ceramics were structurally characterized by powder x-ay diffraction studies (XRD), Rietveld analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern of SBiT crystallized into an orthorhombic structure with A21 am as space group. The lattice parameters were calculated by Rietveld refinement. SEM images of SBiT show plate-like grains with random orientation of plate faces. Dielectric properties as a function of temperature at different frequencies are reported for this ceramic. Poling experiments were carried out to determine the piezoelectric coefficients. The conductivity of sintered ceramic was studied using impedance spectroscopy. Cole-Cole plots show the presence of two semicircular arcs, suggesting the existence of grain and grain boundary effects.

Mamatha, B.; Suresh, M. B.; James, A. R.; Vithal, M.; Sarah, P.

2011-11-01

166

Textured-Ba(Zr,Ti)O 3 piezoelectric ceramics fabricated by templated grain growth (TGG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ba(Zr0.085Ti0.915)O3 (BZT) ceramics were grain-oriented (textured) in the -orientation using the Templated Grain Growth (TGG) process. The\\u000a piezoelectric response of the textured samples was enhanced when poled and measured in the -textured direction. The d33-coefficients for samples measured with a low drive field (33-coefficients were at least three times greater than randomly-oriented BZT ceramics and equally greater than many lead-free

Edward M. Sabolsky; Libeth Maldonado; Matthew M. Seabaugh; Scott L. Swartz

2010-01-01

167

Near electrode fatigue in lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue in ferroelectric materials is partly due to a complex interplay of ferroelectric ceramic and electrode material. Different types of silver electrodes were tested for their effect on fatigue. Material damage mostly occurs in the near-electrode volume. Removal of material to different depths from the electrode yields different degrees of recovery of device properties depending on electrode material and cycle

Y. Zhang; D. C. Lupascu; N. Balke; J. Rdel

2005-01-01

168

Changes in ferroelectric properties of barium titanate ceramic with compressive stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, barium titanate (BT) ceramic was prepared using a conventional mixed oxide method. The effect of uniaxial compressive stress on the ferroelectric properties of BT ceramics were investigated. The changes in ferroelectric properties were observed at stress up to 60 MPa using a compressometer in conjunction with a modified Sawyer-Tower circuit. The results showed that applied stress had a significant influence on the ferroelectric properties of BT ceramics. Ferroelectric characteristics, i.e. the area of the ferroelectric hysteresis (P-E) loop, the saturation polarization (Psat), the remanent polarization (Pr) and the loop squareness (Rsq), decreased with increasing compressive stress, while the coercive field (Ec) remained constant. Stress-induced domain wall motion suppression and non-180 ferroelectric domain switching processes are responsible for the changes observed.

Chaisan, Wanwilai; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Ananta, Supon

2007-12-01

169

Structural and electrical characteristics of dysprosium-doped barium stannate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Effects of dysprosium (Dy) amphoteric doping on the structural, dielectric and electric properties of barium stannate titanate (BTS) ceramics have been studied. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that all Dy-doped BTS ceramics exhibit cubic perovskite structure until to 1 mol%. Dy doping at the A site shows lower solubility than that at the B site. SEM surface morphologies display that the Dy B site doping is beneficial for the compact and homogeneous grain distribution. The dielectric constant and loss tangent are reduced with increase of the doping levels. Impedance spectroscopy investigation demonstrates that all samples are insulating at room temperature. Doping alters the full resistive regions of pure BTS ceramics to Doped BTS with insulating grain boundaries and semiconducting bulk regions, but the doping contents has little effect on changing the electric structures.

Wang, Shijie; Tan, Tai Aik; Lai, Man On [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Lu, Li, E-mail: luli@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2010-03-15

170

Nature of the semiconducting properties of ceramic barium titanate  

SciTech Connect

The compound BaTiO/sub 3/ is a dielectric but can be put into the semiconducting state by means of heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere or by doping with a small (0.1-0.5 mole %) amount of oxides of group-III or group-V elements (so-called donor dopants). The effect of dopants on the properties of barium titanate cannot be explained by means of quasi-chemical reactions. The chemical and crystal-chemical properties of dopant oxides and the phase relations in multicomponent BaTiO/sub 3/-dopant oxides systems make it possible correctly to estimate and predict the dependence of the properties of barium titantate on the dopant oxides.

Kvantov, M.A.; Kostikov, Yu.P.; Leikina, B.B.

1988-03-01

171

Heterogeneity of fatigue in bulk lead zirconate titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial heterogeneity of fatigue in commercial ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramics was experimentally investigated. All parameters measured on fatigued samples are spatially highly heterogeneous including large signal polarisation and strain hysteresis loops (remnant polarisation Pr, coercive field Ec, bias field Ebias, and strain asymmetry ?) as well as the small signal parameters determined from field dependent converse piezoelectric measurements

Yong Zhang; Doru C. Lupascu; Emil Aulbach; Ivan Baturin; Andrew Bell; Jrgen Rdel

2005-01-01

172

Study of the characteristics of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate radiation detector using a pulsed xenon source  

SciTech Connect

The detector characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were studied by directly irradiating a multilayered PZT detector with 400 MeV/n xenon ions. An extracted beam was processed with a rotating slit. Thus, passed through {approx}10{sup 3} xenon ions were available for 50 to 250 {mu}s. The effect of polarization on the output signal was discussed, and the optimal electrode configuration was determined. The output signal appeared as an isolated pulse whose amplitude was qualitatively understood by the Bethe-Bloch formula. However, the calculated and the observed values differed depending on the rotation speed of the slit. A process that can explain the differences is presented here. The output signal appearing beyond the range of 400 MeV/n xenon ion beam was discussed. The sensitivity was compared with that obtained with hypervelocity collision of dust.

Miyachi, Takashi [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Okudaira, Osamu [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takechi, Seiji; Kurozumi, Atsuma; Morinaga, Shinya; Uno, Takefumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka-City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto-University, Kyoto-606-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masanori [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co. Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan)

2010-05-15

173

Structural, Electrical, and Optical Behavior of Strontium Bismuth Titanate Ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we present the structural, electrical, and optical study of layer-structured SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBT) ceramic prepared by solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement studies show a single-phase orthorhombic structure with space group A21am. The scanning electron micrograph shows plate-like grains. The various Raman peaks originated due to the TiO6 octahedron confirm the orthorhombic structure. The temperature-dependent dielectric study shows a normal ferroelectric phase transition with a transition temperature at 813 K (540 C). Impedance studies show a non-Debye-type relaxation and relaxation frequency shift to higher side with increase in temperature. The Nyquist plot shows overlapping semicircles which results the existence of both for grain and grain boundary effect in SBT ceramic. The frequency-dependent AC conductivity at different temperatures indicates that the conduction process is thermally activated and the spectra follow the universal power law. The variation of DC conductivity confirms that the SBT ceramic exhibits negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior. The Ferroelectric behavior is studied by hysteresis loop. The optical band gap is found to be 2.93 eV from the UV-Visible spectroscopy study. The room-temperature photoluminescence study shows a strong red emission.

Nayak, Priyambada; Badapanda, Tanmaya; Pattanayak, Ranjit; Mishra, Avinna; Anwar, Shahid; Sahoo, Pratap; Panigrahi, Simanchalo

2014-04-01

174

Microstructures and Piezoelectric Properties of Knnlst Doping Bczt Lead-Free Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Na0.52K0.44Li0.04)(Nb0.88Sb0.08Ta0.04)O3-doped 0.52Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.48(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3(BCZT-xKNNLST) are investigated. The effects of the KNNLST addition on the microstructures and the electrical properties of the ceramics sintered at the temperature as low as 1350C are studied. The X-ray diffraction data show that the addition of KNNLST could diffuse into BCZT lattice and a pure perovskite phase is formed. With the increase of KNNLST addition, the average grain size is first increased and afterwards decreased. The ceramics with x = 0.005 exhibit a good piezoelectric behavior of d33 464 pC/N and kp 0.44 after three month's aging, which indicates the BCZT-xKNNLST ceramics could be promising for lead-free practical applications.

Xu, Wei; Li, Yang; Feng, Jian-Min; Dai, Ye-Jing

2012-12-01

175

The long-term corrosion behavior of titanate ceramics for Pu disposition : rate-controlling processes.  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of a titanate ceramic was investigated with the aim of describing the rate-controlling process or processes. These titanate ceramics are similar to SYNROC and are proposed as immobilization materials for surplus Pu. The corrosion behavior was described with results from MCC-I and PCT-B static dissolution tests. Three important observations were made: (a) Ca is released at a constant rate [6x10{sup -5}g/(m{sup 2} day)] in PCT-B tests for up to two years, (b) all of the test leachates are oversaturated with respect to rutile and anatase, and (c) the release rates for Pu and Gd increase with time (up to two years) in PCT-B tests. The first observation suggests that the ceramics continue to corrode at a low rate for at least 2 years in PCT-B tests. The second observation shows that the rate of the corrosion reaction is not affected by the concentration of Ti in solution, suggesting that the approach to saturation with respect to either rutile or anatase is not a rate-limiting process. The third observation shows that the rate of Pu and Gd release increases with time in these tests. While this observation cannot be fully explained at this point, two possible explanations, alteration phase formation and grain boundary corrosion, are forwarded.

Bakel, A. J.; Mertz, C. J.; Hash, M. C.; Chamberlain, D. C.

1999-12-02

176

High-temperature piezoelectric film ultrasonic transducers by a sol-gel spray technique and their application to process monitoring of polymer injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick-film (90 ?m) piezoelectric ceramic high-temperature ultrasonic transducers (HTUTs) have been successfully deposited on metallic substrates by a sol-gel spray technique. The gel is composed of fine powders of bismuth titanate dispersed in a lead-zirconate-titanate solution. The films with desired thickness have been obtained through multilayer coating approach. Piezoelectricity is achieved using the corona discharge poling method. The center frequencies

Makiko Kobayashi; Yuu Ono; Cheng-Kuei Jen; Chin-Chi Cheng

2006-01-01

177

Grain oriented growth and properties of ultra-high temperature CaBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

CaBi2Nb2O9(CBNO) ceramics was prepared at 1050 C using regular flake-like CBNO powders as the precursor, and synthesized by the molten\\u000a salts synthesis method. The tropism degree and microstructure of the ceramics were analyzed, and the dielectric, ferroelectric\\u000a and piezoelectric properties were characterized. Compared with conventional methods, the properties of CBNO ceramics by the\\u000a new preparation method were found to be

XiaoXia Tian; ShaoBo Qu; BinKe Wang; WuSen Zhang; JianFeng Zhao

178

Variational principles for the equations of porous piezoelectric ceramics.  

PubMed

The governing equations of a porous piezoelectric continuum are presented in variational form, though they were well established in differential form. Hamilton's principle is applied to the motions of a regular region of the continuum, and a three-field variational principle is obtained with some constraint conditions. By removing the constraint conditions that are usually undesirable in computation through an involutory transformation, a unified variational principle is presented for the region with a fixed internal surface of discontinuity. The unified principle leads, as its Euler-Lagrange equations, to all the governing equations of the region, including the jump conditions but excluding the initial conditions. Certain special cases and reciprocal variational principles are recorded, and they are shown to recover some of the earlier ones. PMID:16422425

Altay, Glay; Dkmeci, M Cengiz

2005-11-01

179

Study of the structure of ferroelectric domain walls in barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Structure of 90{degree} ferroelectric domain boundaries in barium titanate ceramics has been studied by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy and High Resolution TEM. Tilts of specific fringes across domain walls are measured on HREM images and Selected Area Diffraction Patterns. They are in a good agreement with the twin model admitted for these domain boundaries. A computerized method has been developed to give access to quantitative information about atomic displacements across these ferroelectric domain walls. The so calculated displacement field is then compared with Landau-Ginzburg based theoretical predictions.

Normand, L.; Thorel, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Evry cedex (France) ; Kilaas, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Montardi, Y. [Rhone-Poulenc, CRA, Aubervilliers (France)

1995-02-01

180

Structural, microstructural and impedance spectroscopy study of functional ferroelectric ceramic materials based on barium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differences between the physical properties of barium titanate BaTiO3 and newly obtained BaHfxTi1-xO3 were identified. These ceramics were prepared by solid-phase reaction from simple oxides and carbonates using the conventional method. The structure and morphology of investigated samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The application of impedance spectroscopy made possible to characterize of these materials in the terms of electrical properties.

Garbarz-Glos, B.; Bak, W.; Antonova, M.; Pawlik, M.

2013-12-01

181

??????????????????????????????????????????????????-????????????????????? MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE-BISMUTH LANTHANUM TITANATE COMPOSITE CERAMICS ?????? ?????, ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

???? (1-x)PZT-xBLT ????? x ???????????? 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 ??? 1.0 ?????????????????? ????? ????? ????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????? Abstract: This research studied mechanical properties of composite ceramics with formula (1-x)Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-x(Bi3.25La0.75)Ti3O12 or (1-x)PZT-xBLT (when x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.0 weight fraction) using a non-destructive indentation technique. The results showed

Navavan Thongmee; Anucha Watcharapasorn; Sukanda Jiansirisomboon

182

Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic Passive Composite Damper by Use of Piezoelectric Polymer/Ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the passive damping of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cantilever beams is examined using (1) interleaving of viscoelastic thermoplastic films, (2) piezoelectric polymer (PVDF) film interlayers and (3) surface-bonded piezoelectric ceramics. Introducing polyethylene-based film interlayers between composite plies resulted in a significant increase in the vibration loss factor. It is also shown that the vibration damping of CFRP laminates can be improved passively by means of PVDF film interlayers and resistively shunted, surface-bonded piezoelectric ceramic, PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PZT) sheets. This paper also discusses the enhanced vibration damping of CFRP laminates with dispersed PZT particle interlayers. All these damping methods, interleaving of thermoplastic films, interlayers of PVDF films or dispersed PZT particles between composite plies, and resistively shunted, surface-bonded PZT sheets, can be jointly used to improve the damping of CFRP laminates/structures. The use of CFRP beams in combination with several damping concepts discussed here is promising for application in structures where light weight and improved vibration damping are desired.

Tanimoto, Toshio

2002-11-01

183

Study of BNT-BKT-BT lead-free piezoelectric ceramics and their application in piezoelectric devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, 0.90Bi0.5Na 0.5TiO3-0.05Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.05BaTiO 3 (BNKBT-5), have been fabricated by a solid-state reaction method. The dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics have been measured and the microstructures studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM. In the ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurements, Pr 28.5 muC/cm2 and Ec 3.5 MV/m have been observed. The electromechanical coupling coefficients kp and kt are 0.31 and 0.46, respectively. Those properties are comparable to that of lead-based ceramics such as PZT. Three different compounds, including CeO2, Ca2Fe 2O5 and (Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3, have been used as additives/dopants to improve the properties of BNKBT-5. All the samples with different compositions have been characterized. The measured properties are compared with that of BNKBT-5. It has been found that the BNKBT-5 doped with 1.5 mol% of (Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3, namely BNKLBT-1.5, has the best performance. It can enhance kp, kt, Qm, Pr, and can reduce tandelta but do not lower the depolarization temperature. Two different types of devices have been fabricated using BNKBT-5 and BNKLBT-1.5 ceramic rings. The first device is compressive-type accelerometers. A PZT accelerometer with similar structure has also been fabricated for comparison. The accelerometers are calibrated using a back-to-back calibration method against a standard reference accelerometer. Within the +/-2.5% tolerance, the mean sensitivity of PZT, BNKBT and BNKLBT accelerometer is 4.34 pC/ms -2 (50 Hz to 8.24 kHz), 2.24 pC/ms-2 (50 Hz to 10.1 kHz) and 2.97 pC/ms-2 (50 Hz to 12.45 kHz), respectively. The BNKLBT-1.5 accelerometer has a reasonably high sensitivity and the broadest sensing frequency range which would be the most preferable choice for structural health monitoring applications. The second device is ultrasonic wirebonding transducers for microelectronic packaging. It has been found that if titanium is used as the metal parts in the transducer, the BNKLBT-1.5 transducer has similar axial displacement (1.6 mum) to that of PZT/stainless steel (state-of-the-art transducer) transducer presumably because the lead-free ceramic has an acoustic impedance close to that of titanium metal. The lateral displacement of the BNKLBT-1.5 is much smaller than that of PZT transducer thus can improve the bonding quality. It shows that lead-free ceramics has the potential to replace PZT in certain transducer designs.

Choy, Siu Hong

184

Electric and elastic behaviors of a piezoelectric ceramic with a charged surface electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies on electric and elastic behaviors induced by internal or surface electrodes in a piezoelectric ceramic are mainly concentrated on a two-dimensional analysis. However, most sensors and actuators are related to a three-dimensional piezoelectric body with electrodes. This paper is concerned with the electroelastic analysis of a penny-shaped thin electrode coating on the surface of a hexagonal piezoelectric half-space. The Hankel transform technique is employed to reduce the mixed boundary value problem to an Abel integral equation. Solving the resulting equation analytically, a solution is obtained in a closed form. Explicit expressions for the complete electric and elastic behaviors in any position in the entire piezoelectric half-space are determined in terms of elementary functions. The results indicate that the vertical surface displacement reaches a maximum at the entire electrode region, while the radial surface displacement reaches a peak only at the electrode edge. Moreover, in addition to electric displacement and electric field, elastic stresses exhibit singular behavior near the electrode edge.

Li, Xian-Fang; Lee, Kang Yong

2004-04-01

185

High-power piezoelectric characteristics of manganese-modified BiScO3-PbTiO3 high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard piezoelectric ceramics of manganese (Mn)-modified 0.36BiScO3-0.64PbTiO3 (0.36BS-0.64PTM) with a high Curie temperature were prepared using the traditional solid-state reaction method. The effects of different concentrations of Mn on the structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the 0.36BS-0.64PTM ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the 0.36BS-0.64PTM ceramics showed a single perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry and the c/a ratio decreased slightly with increasing Mn content. The grain sizes of the 0.36BS-0.64PTM ceramics were enlarged by Mn addition, and their distributions were uniform. The dielectric loss tan?? decreased clearly with the increase in Mn content, and the mechanical quality factor Qm and vibration velocity v0 were improved significantly at the same time. The Curie temperature Tc, the planar electromechanical coupling factor kp, dielectric loss tan??, mechanical quality factor Qm and vibration velocity v0 of the 0.36BS-0.64PTM ceramics with 3 mol% Mn were about 431 C, 0.57, 0.007, 134 and 1.05 m s-1, respectively. The maximum vibration velocity v0 of the 0.36BS-0.64PTM ceramics is much superior to those of PZT (0.4 m s-1) ceramics and PZT-PZM (0.72 m s-1). These results indicated that the 0.36BS-0.64PTM ceramics are promising candidates for high-temperature and high-power piezoelectric applications.

Chen, Jianguo; Hu, Zhongqiang; Shi, Huaduo; Li, Meiya; Dong, Shuxiang

2012-11-01

186

Structures of 90{degrees} domain walls in ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Ferroelectric domain walls in tetragonal ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics are studied by means of electron microscopy. SEM and TEM observations are consistent with domain configuration already proposed. Conventional TEM measurements on SADP agree very well with twin-related model currently admitted for ferroelectric domains. In spite of the very small lattice parameter variation during cooling (involving a small spontaneous strain) of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics, displacements of specific features associated with atomic column positions are measured across domain walls on high resolution images. Using a dedicated image analysis software, these displacements are calculated with a high precision. 2D vector-maps of the atomic displacements show different kinds of atomistic structure for different domain walls.

Normand, L.; Thorel, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Evry (France); Kilaas, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-03-01

187

Influence of processing parameters on the structure and properties of barium strontium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Barium strontium titanate (BST) with the molar formula (Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3}) has been prepared by two different processing methods: mixed-oxide (BST-MO) and reaction-sintering (BST-RS). X-ray powder diffraction study shows differences in grain size and crystal symmetry for both these ceramics. The former shows a tetragonal symmetry while the latter presents a cubic symmetry. The occurrence of polar micro-regions associated with the higher chemical non-homogeneous distribution of ion defects from the influence of the processing parameters is the main reason for the higher peak dielectric constant (K{sub m}), the higher remanent polarization (P{sub r}), the higher coercive field (E{sub c}), the higher peak current density (J{sub m}), and the lower temperature of peak dielectric constant (T{sub m}) in BST-MO ceramics.

Yun Sining [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055 (China); Department of Materials Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)], E-mail: alexsyun1974@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaoli [Department of Materials Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Xu Delong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055 (China)

2008-08-04

188

Fabrication and modeling of bismuth titanate-PZT ceramic transducers for high temperature applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of a spray-on deposition technique of ferroelectric bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) composites has a competitive advantage to standard ultrasonic transducers. These can conform to curved surfaces, can operate at high temperature (Curie-Weiss temperature 685 C) and are mechanically well-coupled to a substrate. However, an issue with many high temperature transducers such as bismuth titanate ceramics is that they have relatively low transduction efficiency, i.e. d33 is about 12-14 pC/F in Bi4Ti3O12 versus 650 pC/F in PZT-5H. It is a common conception that high-temperature capability comes at the cost of electro-mechanical coupling. It will be shown that the high temperature capability of bismuth-titanate-PZT composite transducers using the spray-on deposition technique previously developed, improves the electro-mechanical coupling while maintaining the high temperature performance and mechanical coupling. This material could provide advantages in harsh environments where high signal-to-noise ratios are needed.

Reinhardt, B.; Searfass, C.; Cyphers, R.; Sinding, K.; Pheil, C.; Tittmann, B.

2013-01-01

189

Design and characterization of a carbon-nanotube-reinforced adhesive coating for piezoelectric ceramic discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silver paste electrode of piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic discs has been shown to produce a weak interface bond between a bare PZT and its paste coating under a peeling force. In this work, an investigation was conducted to reinforce the bond with a high density array of oriented carbon nanotube nano-electrodes (CNTs-NEA), between a bare PZT ceramic and a metal substrate. The ensuing design and fabrication of a carbon-nanotube-coated piezoelectric disc (CPZT) is presented along with a study of the bondline integrity of a CPZT mounted on a hosting structure. The CPZT has its electrode silver paste coating replaced with a high density array of CNTs-NEA. Mechanical tests were performed to characterize the shear strength of the bondline between CPZT discs and the substrate. The test results were compared with shear strengths of the bondlines made of pure non-conductive adhesive and adhesive with randomly mixed CNTs. The comparison showed the oriented CNT coating on PZTs could significantly enhance the interfacial shear strength. Through the microscopic examination, it was evident that the ratio between the CNT length (Lc) and the bond thickness (H) significantly influenced the bond strength of CPZT discs. Three major interface microstructure types and their corresponding failure modes for specific Lc/H values were identified. The study also showed that failure did not occur along the interface between the PZT ceramic element and the CNT coating.

Lanzara, G.; Chang, F.-K.

2009-12-01

190

Piezoelectric behavior of pre-stressed curved actuators under load  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-stressed curved actuators typically consist of a piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate or PZT) laminated between various layered materials. In one configuration, THUNDER, the bottom layer is stainless steel and the top layer is aluminum; the metallic layers are attached to the PZT ceramic using a polymeric adhesive. In another configuration, Lipca-C2, the layers comprise a glass\\/epoxy composite and a

Karla Mossi; Justin Costley; Zoubeida Ounaies; Robert Bryant

2004-01-01

191

Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a launch in December 2001, Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) can observe Titan in the interval after Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) but before the onset of observations by Cassini. By virtue of its broad spectral coverage in the thermal infrared, 10-180 micron, its moderately high spectral resolution, approaching lambda/delta lambda=600 over part of this wavelength range, and the very high sensitivity of its helium- cooled detectors, the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) and MIPS on SIRTF can address several issues raised through earlier observations by the Voyager IRIS experiment and by ISO. These include, for example, a better characterization of the vertical distribution of water in Titan's middle and upper atmospheres and the discovery of new compounds, such as allene or proprionitrile. This talk will address the temperature- and composition-sounding capabilities of SIRTF, particularly in the context of how they will complement Cassini observations and aid in their planning.

Flasar, F. M.

1999-01-01

192

Zirconium titanate ceramic pigments: Crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and technological properties  

SciTech Connect

Srilankite-type zirconium titanate, a promising structure for ceramic pigments, was synthesized at 1400 deg. C following three main doping strategies: (a) ZrTi{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 4} (b) ZrTi{sub 1-x-y}A{sub x}B{sub y}O{sub 4} and (c) Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub x}TiO{sub 4} where A=Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni or V (chromophores), B=Sb or W (counterions) and C=Pr (chromophore); x=y=0.05. Powders were characterized by XRD with Rietveld refinements and DRS in the UV-visible-NIR range; technological properties were appraised in several ceramic matrices (frits, glazes and body). Zirconium titanate can be usefully coloured with first row transition elements, giving green and greenish yellow (Co and Ni); orange-buff (Cr and V); tan-brown hues (Mn and Fe). In industrial-like synthesis conditions, a disordered structure as (Zr,Ti)O{sub 2}, with both Zr and Ti randomly distributed in the octahedral site, is achieved. Doping with chromophores and counterions induces unit cell dimensions variation and causes an oversaturation in zirconium oxide. Optical spectroscopy reveals the occurrence of Co{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, V{sup 3+} and V{sup 4+}. The zirconium titanate pigments fulfil current technological requirements for low-temperature applications, but exhibit a limited chemico-physical stability for higher firing temperature and in chemically aggressive media.

Dondi, M. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC-CNR), Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (Italy); Matteucci, F. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC-CNR), Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (Italy)]. E-mail: matteucci@istec.cnr.it; Cruciani, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Via Saragat 1, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

2006-01-15

193

Investigation of the additive induced doping effects in gelcast soft lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Due to the high sensitivity of the electrical properties of electronic ceramics to various factors, knowledge about the possible influence of the processing procedure on their electrical performance is critical for applying a new technique to the fabrication of the materials. In this study, various electrical parameters, complex impedance spectra, ferroelectric hysteresis loops, and microstructures of soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics formed by the gelcasting technique from suspensions with various dispersants were investigated in comparison with those of the conventional dry pressed ones. We found that the sodium ion, which is the main cation in many commercial surfactants, exhibited obvious hard doping effects; thus causing deteriorated performance of the gelcast PZT ceramics. While a certain impurity ion introduced by a dispersant was also found to induce soft doping characteristics and improve the electrical performance of the materials. The results suggest that the doping effects of the metal ions or impurities introduced by the dispersants, or other additives, should be generally considered for applying a wet processing technique to forming multicomponent electronic ceramics.

Guo Dong; Cai Kai; Li Longtu; Gui Zhilun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-09-01

194

Effect of Yttrium Doping in Barium Zirconium Titanate Ceramics: A Structural, Impedance, and Modulus Spectroscopy Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current article, we studied the effect of yttrium [Y3+] ions' substitution on the structure and electric behavior of barium zirconate titanate (BZT) ceramics with a general formula [Ba1- x Y2 x/3](Zr0.25Ti0.75)O3 (BYZT) with [ x = 0, 0.025, and 0.05] which were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that these ceramics have a single phase with a perovskite-type cubic structure. Rietveld refinement data confirmed [BaO12], [ZrO6], [TiO6], and [YO6] clusters in the cubic lattice. The Y3+ ions' effects on the electric conductivity behavior of BZT ceramics as a function of temperature and frequency are described, which are based on impedance spectroscopy analyses. The complex impedance plots display a double semicircle which highlights the influences of grain and grain boundary on the ceramics. Impedance analyses showed that the resistance decreased with the increasing temperature and resulted in a negative temperature coefficient of the resistance property in all compositions. Modulus plots represent a non-Debye-type dielectric relaxation which is related to the grain and grain boundary as well as temperature-dependent electric relaxation phenomenon and an enhancement in the mobility barrier by Y3+ ions. Moreover, the electric conductivity increases with the replacement of Ba2+ by Y3+ ions may be due to the rise in oxygen vacancies.

Badapanda, Tanmaya; Cavalcante, Lacio Santos; da Luz, Geraldo Eduardo; Batista, Nouga Cardoso; Anwar, Shahid; Longo, Elson

2013-09-01

195

Fabrication and characterization of potassiumsodium niobate piezoelectric ceramics by spark-plasma-sintering method  

Microsoft Academic Search

High density (Na1?xKx)NbO3 (x = 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7) ceramics were successfully prepared by spark-plasma-sintering (SPS) method. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the SPS samples were investigated and compared to that of hot-pressed samples. It is found that, the SPS-sintered (Na1?xKx)NbO3 samples show higher room temperature dielectric constant, higher coercive fields, lower remnant polarizations and lower electromechanical coefficients than

Ruiping Wang; Rongjun Xie; Tadashi Sekiya; Yoshiro Shimojo

2004-01-01

196

Incident-angle dependence of the phase conjugate reflectivity by nonlinear piezoelectric interaction in PZT ceramics.  

PubMed

The reflectivity of an acoustic phase conjugator by nonlinear piezoelectric interaction in PZT ceramics was measured as a function of the incident angle. The phase conjugator was designed as a solid block with a flat surface for the acoustic incidence from water. The phase conjugate reflectivity showed incident angle dependence, which is mainly determined by the transmissivity of the acoustic waves, together with some effects of anisotropy. The field-reconstructing ability of this phase conjugator was simulated for focused incident beams. PMID:11775657

Ohno, M; Tittmann, B R; Kokubo, A; Takagi, K

2001-10-01

197

Fatigue-induced evolution of domain structure in ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramics investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the domain structure in lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the course of polarization fatigue is investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy. It is found that fatigue results in a strong modification of the domain structure. The domain patterns initially consisting of mainly 180 domains split into fine ferroelastic domains to relieve the mechanical stresses arising due to the

V. V. Shvartsman; A. L. Kholkin; C. Verdier; D. C. Lupascu

2005-01-01

198

A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (< 10(exp 4) pC/N). For instance, more than 80% of PEHT related papers are on transverse "31" mode cantilever beam type PEHTs (CBPEHTs) having piezoelectric coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting for the PZT-Stack is established. The modeled results matched well with experimental measurements. This study demonstrated that high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures enable PEHTs to harvest more electrical energy from mechanical vibrations or motions, suggesting an effective design for high-performance low-footprint PEHTs with potential applications in military, aerospace, and portable electronics. In addition, this study provides a route for using piezoelectric multilayer stacks for active or semi-active adaptive control to damp, harvest or transform unwanted dynamic vibrations into useful electrical energy.

Xu, Tian-Bing; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Tang, Xiudong; Jiang, Xiaoning

2011-01-01

199

An in situ diffraction study of domain wall motion contributions to the frequency dispersion of the piezoelectric coefficient in lead zirconate titanate  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall displacement to the frequency dependence of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient has been determined experimentally in lead zirconate titanate using time-resolved, in situ neutron diffraction. Under subcoercive electric fields of low frequencies, approximately 3% to 4% of the volume fraction of non-180 Degree-Sign domains parallel to the field experienced polarization reorientation. This subtle non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall motion directly contributes to 64% to 75% of the magnitude of the piezoelectric coefficient. Moreover, part of the 33 pm/V decrease in piezoelectric coefficient across 2 orders of magnitude in frequency is quantitatively attributed to non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall motion effects.

Seshadri, Shruti B.; Prewitt, Anderson D.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Studer, Andrew J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)] [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Damjanovic, Dragan [Laboratory of Ceramics, Institute of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratory of Ceramics, Institute of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2013-01-28

200

Power generation and shunt damping performance of a single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate unimorph: Analysis and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter investigates the power generation and shunt damping performance of the single crystal piezoelectric ceramic lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT) analytically and experimentally. PMN-PZT is a recently developed interface for energy harvesting and shunt damping with its large piezoelectric constant (-2252 pm\\/V) and coupling coefficient (0.95) for the transverse piezoelectric mode. A unimorph PMN-PZT cantilever with an aluminum

A. Erturk; O. Bilgen; D. J. Inman

2008-01-01

201

Characterization of piezoelectric ceramics and 1-3 composites for high power transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high power characteristics of various piezoelectric ceramics and 1-3 composites were investigated. In contrast to ``hard'' Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, modified (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 based ceramics were found to show a relatively linear electromechanical response under high drive conditions due to their high stability of mechanical quality factor. The effects of high drive field and duty cycle on the behavior of 1-3 composites were analyzed by varying active and passive components. Improved high power characteristics of 1-3 composites were achieved by selection of optimized composite components, with enhanced electromechanical efficiency and thermal stability under high drive conditions.

Jae Lee, Hyeong; Zhang, Shujun; Meyer, Richard J.; Sherlock, Nevin P.; Shrout, Thomas R.

2012-07-01

202

Characterization of piezoelectric ceramics and 1-3 composites for high power transducers  

PubMed Central

The high power characteristics of various piezoelectric ceramics and 1-3 composites were investigated. In contrast to hard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, modified (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 based ceramics were found to show a relatively linear electromechanical response under high drive conditions due to their high stability of mechanical quality factor. The effects of high drive field and duty cycle on the behavior of 1-3 composites were analyzed by varying active and passive components. Improved high power characteristics of 1-3 composites were achieved by selection of optimized composite components, with enhanced electromechanical efficiency and thermal stability under high drive conditions.

Jae Lee, Hyeong; Zhang, Shujun; Meyer, Richard J.; Sherlock, Nevin P.; Shrout, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

203

Negative stiffness and negative Poisson's ratio in barium titanate based ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anelastic properties of barium titanate ceramics have been studied via broadband viscoelastic spectroscopy. Laudau's theory predicts a negative stiffness in the vicinity of the Curie point in ferroelastic system. Softening in bulk modulus and negative Poisson's ratio have been observed in the vicinity of the Curie point of BaTiO3 ceramics. Effects are prominent under electrical short-circuit conditions at low deformation frequencies and excitation strain. Damping curve shows a peak near the Curie point, which magnitude is proportional to thermal rate and inverse of frequency. Anelastic anomalies (sharp variations in modulus and damping with temperature) were observed in tetragonal BaTiO3 under small excitation strain (< 10 -5) after enough aging was performed below the Curie point. Anomalies disappeared if enough aging is performed above the Curie point. Sharp low frequency dissipative effects (damping peaks sharper than Debye peaks) were also observed in tetragonal phase of BaTiO3 after aging was performed below the Curie point, but disappeared if aging was performed above the Curie point. Relaxational model cannot account for the anelastic anomalies observed in either temperature domain or frequency domain. Heterogeneity of negative stiffness is considered as a cause, attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism. Viscoelastic, thermal, dielectric properties of doped barium titanate ceramics have been studied. The Curie point has shifted to lower temperature. Softening in bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio are much weaker than in pure BaTiO3. Heterogeneity in composition originated from the so called "core-shell" structure is considered as a cause.

Dong, Liang

204

Derivation of Piezoelectric Losses from Admittance Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power density piezoelectrics are required to miniaturize devices such as ultrasonic motors, transformers, and sound projectors. The power density is limited by the heat generation in piezoelectrics, therefore, clarification of the loss mechanisms is necessary. This paper provides a methodology to determine the electromechanical losses, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric loss factors in piezoelectrics by means of a detailed analysis of the admittance/impedance spectra. This method was applied to determine the piezoelectric losses for lead zirconate titanate ceramics and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals. The analytical solution provides a new method for obtaining the piezoelectric loss factor, which is usually neglected in practice by transducer designers. Finite element simulation demonstrated the importance of piezoelectric losses to yield a more accurate fitting to the experimental data. A phenomenological model based on two phase-shifts and the Devonshire theory of a polarizable-deformable insulator is developed to interpret the experimentally observed magnitudes of the mechanical quality factor at resonance and anti-resonance.

Zhuang, Yuan; Ural, Seyit O.; Rajapurkar, Aditya; Tuncdemir, Safakcan; Amin, Ahmed; Uchino, Kenji

2009-04-01

205

The effect of composition on microstructure and properties of PNWPMSPZT ceramics for high-power piezoelectric transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Pb0.95Sr0.05)[(Mn1\\/3Sb2\\/3)x(Ni1\\/2W1\\/2)y(Zr1\\/2Ti1\\/2)z]O3 piezoelectric ceramics (abbreviated as PNWPMSPZT) with 1mol% excess PbO, 0.25wt% CeO2 and 0.2wt% MnO2were synthesized by traditional ceramics process. The effect of Pb(Mn1\\/3Sb2\\/3)O3 (abbreviated as PMS) and Pb(Ni1\\/2W1\\/2)O3 (abbreviated as PNW) on phase structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties was investigated in detail. The content of perovskite phase of all ceramics specimens is 100%, the phase structure of PNWPMSPZT ceramics

Hong-liang Du; Shao-bo Qu; Jun Che; Zhi-yi Liu; Xiao-yong Wei; Zhi-bin Pei

2005-01-01

206

On the mechanism of high piezoelectric anisotropy in lead titanate-based ferroelectrics  

SciTech Connect

The physical causes for the high anisotropy of piezoelectric moduli d{sub 33}{sup *}/{vert_bar}d{sub 31}{sup *}{vert_bar} in polycrystalline ferroelectrics (Pb{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x})TiO{sub 3} with M = Ca, Sr, and Ba at 0.10 {le} x {le} 0.33, and Pb(Zr{sub 1{minus}y}Ti{sub y})O{sub 3} at 0.6 {le} y {le} 1 are analyzed. The physical parameters of the corresponding single-domain crystals are estimated. The features of the concentration dependences of piezoelectric moduli d{sub ij}{sup *} and their anisotropy are determined. These features are related to the behavior of the dielectric constants, electrostriction coefficients, and unit-cell parameters for single-domain crystals and to the domain structure of separate crystallites. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Topolov, V.Y.; Turik, A.V.; Chernobabov, A.I. [Rostov State Univ., Rostov-na-Donu (Russian Federation)

1994-09-01

207

Piezoelectric Paper Fabricated via Nanostructured Barium Titanate Functionalization of Wood Cellulose Fibers.  

PubMed

We have successfully developed hybrid piezoelectric paper through fiber functionalization that involves anchoring nanostructured BaTiO3 into a stable matrix with wood cellulose fibers prior to the process of making paper sheets. This is realized by alternating immersion of wood fibers in a solution of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) PDDA (+), followed by poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) PSS (-), and once again in PDDA (+), resulting in the creation of a positively charged surface on the wood fibers. The treated wood fibers are then immersed in a BaTiO3 suspension, resulting in the attachment of BaTiO3 nanoparticles to the wood fibers due to a strong electrostatic interaction. Zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction, and microscopic and spectroscopic analysis imply successful functionalization of wood fibers with BaTiO3 nanoparticles without altering the hydrogen bonding and crystal structure of the wood fibers. The paper has the largest piezoelectric coefficient, d33 = 4.8 0.4 pC N(-1), at the highest nanoparticle loading of 48 wt % BaTiO3. This newly developed piezoelectric hybrid paper is promising as a low-cost substrate to build sensing devices. PMID:24766163

Mahadeva, Suresha K; Walus, Konrad; Stoeber, Boris

2014-05-28

208

Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors  

PubMed Central

We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 ?m long and 850-485 ?m wide constructed from 8 ?m thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100?l, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation.

Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

2011-01-01

209

Resonant magnetoelectric coupling in trilayers of ferromagnetic alloys and piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate: The influence of bias magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first data and theory for the bias magnetic field dependence of magnetoelectric coupling in the electromechanical resonance (EMR) region for ferromagnetic-piezoelectric heterostructures. Trilayers of Permendur, a Co-Fe-V alloy, and lead zirconate titanate were studied. Measurements of the magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient ?E indicate a strong ME coupling in the low-frequency range and a giant ME effect due to EMR at 200-300kHz for radial modes and at 2.7MHz for thickness modes. Data were obtained for the bias field H dependence of two key parameters, the EMR frequency fr and the ME coefficient ?E,R at resonance. With increasing H , an increase in fr and a rapid rise and fall in ?E,R are measured. In our model we consider two mechanisms for the magnetic field influence on ME interactions: (i) a shift in the EMR frequency due to changes in compliance coefficients ( ?E effect) and (ii) variation in the piezomagnetic coefficient that manifests as a change in ?E,R . Theoretical profiles of ?E vs frequency and estimates of frequency shift based on the ?E effect are in excellent agreement with the data.

Srinivasan, G.; de Vreugd, C. P.; Laletin, V. M.; Paddubnaya, N.; Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Filippov, D. A.

2005-05-01

210

Phase transitional behavior and electrical properties of lead-free (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.96-xTaxSb0.04)O3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.96-xTaxSb0.04)O3 piezoelectric ceramics have been synthesized by conventional solid state sintering process. Two morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) respectively corresponding to the orthorhombic to tetragonal and tetragonal to pseudocubic phases are observed with increasing x. The ceramics with x=0.20 between the two MPBs show significantly enhanced electrical properties, which are as follows: piezoelectric constant d33=252 pC/N, planar coupling coefficient kp=0.42, dielectric constant ?r=1503, and dielectric loss tan ?=0.025, and they show good stability. Lead-free superthin buzzer disks have been prepared by using piezoceramic membrane with x=0.20. (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.96-xTaxSb0.04)O3 ceramics are very promising as lead-free replacements for lead zirconate titanate.

Yang, Zupei; Chang, Yunfei; Wei, Lingling

2007-01-01

211

Structure, electrical properties of Bi(Fe, Co)O3-BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics with improved Curie temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense (1-y)BiFe1-xCoxO3-yBaTiO3 (BFC-BTx, y=0.29, x=0-0.012) high-temperature lead-free ceramics were prepared by the conventional oxide-mixed method and the effects of BiCoO3 modification on microstructural, electrical properties and their Curie temperatures were investigated. The solid solutions show a single phase perovskite structure, and the content of BiCoO3 has a significant effect on the microstructure of ceramics. The BFC-BTx ceramics exhibit improved Curie temperature Tc, together with increased piezoelectric properties. In particular, x=0.6% BFC-BTx ceramics, with a Curie temperature, Tc, of ?488 C, show optimum piezoelectric properties of d33=167 pC/N, kp=0.32. The combination of good piezoelectric properties and high Tc makes these ceramics suitable for elevated temperature piezoelectric devices.

Zhou, Changrong; Cen, Zhenyong; Yang, Huabin; Zhou, Qin; Li, Weizhou; Yuan, Changlai; Wang, Hua

2013-02-01

212

Electric field induced phase transition of antiferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The electric field induced phase transition behavior of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate (PLZTS) ceramics was investigated. PLZTS undergoes a tetragonal antiferroelectric (AFE{sub Tet}) to rhombohedral ferroelectric (FE{sub Rh}) phase transition with the application of an electric field. The volume increase associated with this antiferroelectric (AFE){endash}ferroelectric (FE) phase transition plays an important role with respect to actuator applications. This volume increase involves an increase in both transverse and longitudinal strains. The E field at which the transverse strain increases is accompanied by an abrupt jump in polarization. The longitudinal strain, however, lags behind this polarization jump exhibiting a slight decrease at the onset of phase switching. This decoupling was related to the preferentially oriented AFE domain configuration, with its tetragonal c-axis perpendicular to the applied electric field. It is suggested that phase switching involves multiple steps involving both structural transformation and domain reorientation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Park, S.; Pan, M.; Markowski, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Cross, L.E. [Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

1997-08-01

213

Influence of particle size on the sintering behavior and high-power piezoelectric properties of PMnNPZT ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sintering behaviors and high-power piezoelectric properties of four kinds of powders of Pb(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 (PMnNPZT) ceramics have been investigated. These powders are derived from ball milling and stirring milling, respectively. The results reveal that long time milling shrinks the powder particle size distributions and tends to decrease the sintering temperatures of the ceramic. The high-power properties of the ceramics are

Baoshan Li; Guorong Li; WangZhong Zhang; AiLi Ding

2005-01-01

214

Temperature dependence of a PZT piezoelectric sensor for Mercury Dust Monitor up to 150 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing a cosmic dust detector for BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission, called Mercury Dust Monitor (MDM). The MDM uses piezoelectric sensors made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics for estimation of dust flux and momentum of incident particles. The PZT sensors of MDM, installed on the surface of a side panel of the MMO without a sunshade, will

Takeo Iwai

2008-01-01

215

Fabrication and properties of PYNPMNPZT quaternary piezoelectric ceramics for high-power, high-temperature applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

xPb(Yb1\\/2Nb1\\/2)O30.05Pb(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3(0.95x)Pb(Zr0.48Ti0.52)O3 (PYNPMNPZT) quaternary piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by a traditional ceramics process. The effects of Pb(Yb1\\/2Nb1\\/2)O3 (PYN) content on the phase structure, electrical properties and Curie temperature of the quaternary system were investigated in detail. The phase structure of PYNPMNPZT ceramics changed from tetragonal to rhombohedral with increasing PYN content. The piezoelectric coefficient (d33), the electromechanical coupling factor (Kp) and

Haiyan Chen; Chunhua Fan

2010-01-01

216

Fabrication of Lead-Free Piezoelectric KNbO3 Ceramics by Modified Solid State Reaction Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium niobate (KNbO3) fine powder has been successfully synthesized at a low temperature of 500 C through a modified solid state reaction, in which urea [CO(NH2)2] plays an important role. High-density KNbO3 ceramics can be obtained by the conventional sintering of the synthesized KNbO3 fine powder with the addition of 1 mol % Co3O4, which is a sintering additive. Their crystal structure, microstructure, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties were characterized. The KNbO3 ceramics show a comparatively saturated P-E hysteresis loop. The remnant polarization and coercive field are 14 ?C/cm2 and 16 kV/cm, respectively. The KNbO3 ceramics also show piezoelectricity with a planar electromechanical coupling factor, kp, of 16%.

Wada, Takahiro; Suzuki, Akito; Saito, Takehisa

2006-09-01

217

Ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and impedance spectroscopy of Bi2O3-doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bi2O3-doped barium zirconate titanate ceramics, Ba1-xBix(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3, have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and dielectric properties have been investigated in detail. By XRD analysis, it is suggested that up to x = 0.04, Bi3+ substitutes A-site ion, and thereafter with higher Bi3+ content, it enters the B-site sub lattice. Substitution of Bi3+ ions induces ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and the degree of relaxation behaviour increases with bismuth concentration. The remanent polarization and strain behaviour show a slight increase with the substitution level. The degree of hysteresis (strain versus electric field) also reduces from 21.4% to 4.6% with bismuth substitution. Impedance measurements were made on the prepared sample over a wide range of temperatures (300-723 K) and frequencies (40 Hz-1 MHz), which show the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities determined from impedance study indicate the Arrhenius-type thermally activated process. Impedance spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient method capable of detecting the contributions of the resistances of grains and grain boundaries to the complex impedance of a ceramic system, accurately estimating its electrical conductivity as well as its corresponding activation energies and drawing conclusions on its structural properties.

Mahajan, Sandeep; Thakur, O P; Bhattacharya, D K; Sreenivas, K

2009-03-01

218

Miniature cryogenic valves for a Titan Lake sampling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini mission has revealed Titan to be one of the most Earthlike worlds in the Solar System complete with many of the same surface features including lakes, river channels, basins, and dunes. But unlike Earth, the materials and fluids on Titan are composed of cryogenic organic compounds with lakes of liquid methane and ethane. One of the potential mission concepts to explore Titan is to land a floating platform on one of the Titan Lakes and determine the local lake chemistry. In order to accomplish this within the expected mass volume and power budgets there is a need to pursue the development for a low power lightweight cryogenic valves which can be used along with vacuum lines to sample lake liquid and to distribute to various instruments aboard the Lander. To meet this need we have initiated the development of low power cryogenic valves and actuators based on a single crystal piezoelectric flextensional stacks produced by TRS ceramics Inc. Since the origin of such high electromechanical properties of Relaxor-PT single crystals is due to the polarization rotation effect, (i.e., intrinsic contributions), the strain per volt decrease at cryogenic temperatures is much lower than in standard Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics. This makes them promising candidates for cryogenic actuators with regards to the stroke for a given voltage. This paper will present our Titan Lake Sampling and Sample Handling system design and the development of small cryogenic piezoelectric valves developed to meet the system specifications.

Sherrit, Stewart; Zimmerman, Wayne; Takano, Nobuyuki; Avellar, Louisa

2014-04-01

219

Robust solder joint attachment of coaxial cable leads to piezoelectric ceramic electrodes.  

PubMed

A technique was developed for the solder attachment of coaxial cable leads to silver-bearing thick-film electrodes on piezoelectric ceramics. Soldering the cable leads directly to the thick film caused bonds with low mechanical strength due to poor solder joint geometry. A barrier coating of 1.5 mum Cu/1.5 mum Ni/1.0 mum Sn deposited on the thick-film layer improved the strength of the solder joints by eliminating the adsorption of Ag from the thick film, which was responsible for the improper solder joint geometry. The procedure does not require special preparation of the electrode surface and is cost effective due to the use of nonprecious metal films and the batch processing capabilities of the electron beam deposition technique. PMID:18263219

Vianco, P T

1993-01-01

220

Detection of indentation induced Fe-to-Afe phase transformation in lead zirconate titanate.  

SciTech Connect

Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

Baddorf, Arthur P. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Shin, Junsoo (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Gogotsi, Yury G. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA); Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Watson, Chad Samuel; Kalinin, Sergei (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Juliano, Thomas F. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA)

2005-08-01

221

Detection of Indentation Induced FE-to-AFE Phase Transformation in Lead Zirconate Titanate  

SciTech Connect

Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Juliano, Thomas F. [Drexel University; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University; Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Watson, Chad S. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2006-01-01

222

Liquid-phase sintering of PZT ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead zirconate titanate (abbreviated as PZT) ceramics are of considerable commercial importance for a host of piezoelectric and pyroelectric applications. Conventionally, many PZT ceramics are sintered at temperatures above 1250C. Such extreme temperatures are undesirable due to the increased energy consumption, limitation of electrode material and evaporation of volatile components. A liquid-phase sintering aid incorporating Cu2O and PbO is presented

D. L Corker; R. W Whatmore; E Ringgaard; W. W Wolny

2000-01-01

223

Identification and elimination of organic contaminants on the surface of PLZT ceramic wafers. [Pb La zirconate-titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface contamination of PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate-titanate) hot-pressed ferroelectric ceramics being used as the electrooptic wafers in thermal\\/flash protective goggles has caused ''mottling'' on the surface of the wafers adversely affecting the performance of the goggles. Mottling describes the nonuniform appearance of the goggle lens in the transmitting (open) and protective (closed) states. Experiments were devised to identify the contaminant

1978-01-01

224

Effect of heating rate on the properties of Sb and Mn-doped barium strontium titanate PTCR ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony and manganese-doped barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics, containing silica and titania sintering additives, were prepared using various heating rates between 120 C\\/min. Crystalline secondary phases of Ba6Ti17O40 and Ba2TiSi2O8, formed due to the sintering additives, were found in all samples. The amount of these secondary phases depended on the heating rate. The density of samples reached a maximum value

P. Bomlai; N. Sirikulrat; T. Tunkasiri

2005-01-01

225

The role of interfaces on an apparent grain size effect on the dielectric properties for ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the effect of interfaces (and thus internal surface area effects) on the value of dielectric constant (K?) calculated from capacitance and geometry data for sub-micron barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics prepared with decreasing grain size (and grain volumes). A series model is proposed to explain the decreasing values of apparent K? obtained for grain sizes below 0.5 ?m. A

M. H. Frey; Z. Xu; P. Han; D. A. Payne

1998-01-01

226

Enhanced piezoelectric and mechanical properties of AlN-modified BaTiO3 composite ceramics.  

PubMed

BaTiO3-xAlN (BT-xAlN) composite ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction sintering. The effects of the AlN content on the crystalline structures, densities, and electrical and mechanical properties of the BT ceramics were investigated. The BT-1.5%AlN ceramic exhibits a good piezoelectric constant of 305 pC N(-1) and an improved Vickers hardness of 5.9 GPa. The enhanced piezoelectricity originates from interactions between defect dipoles and spontaneous polarization inside the domains due to the occurrence of local symmetry, caused by the preferential distribution of the Al(3+)-N(3-) pairs vertical to the c axis. The hardening of the material is attributed to the improved density, and particle and grain boundary strengthening. Our work indicates that if a suitable doping ion pair is designed, lead-free ceramic systems prepared from ordinary raw materials by a conventional sintering method have a high probability of exhibiting good piezoelectric and mechanical properties simultaneously. PMID:24852079

Xu, Dan; Wang, Lidong; Li, Weili; Wang, Wei; Hou, Yafei; Cao, Wenping; Feng, Yu; Fei, Weidong

2014-07-14

227

Theoretical and experimental investigation of traveling wave propagation on a several- millimeter-long cylindrical pipe driven by piezoelectric ceramic tubes.  

PubMed

A novel method is presented for investigation of the traveling wave propagation generated on a thin film pipe with a short length of several millimeters. As a bridge to connect two piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) tubes, a thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe is fabricated by a new technique of rotating magnetron sputtering. The vibrator combines the vibration of the axial mode of the PZT tube and the radial mode of the TFMG pipe. Theoretical analyses of the TFMG pipe and PZT tube, with a comparison of the finite element modeling, clarify the vibration characteristics so that the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions, and driving voltage signals are designed. In the experiment, the designed vibrator was fabricated and the vibration characteristics were measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer system. The pure traveling wave propagation obtained theoretically and experimentally demonstrates the validity of this work. This study shows a new way to achieve a pure traveling wave on a short cylindrical pipe driven by PZT tubes. PMID:20639154

Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Hata, Seiichi; Sakurai, Junpei; Shimokohbe, Akira

2010-07-01

228

Mechanical, Dynamic Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Conductive Carbon Black\\/Piezoelectric Ceramic\\/Chlorobutyl Rubber Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composites based on conductive carbon black (CCB) and piezoelectric ceramic particles, PMN, and chlorobutyl rubber (CCB\\/PMN\\/IIR) were prepared by compounding and vulcanizing process. Microstructure, mechanical, dynamic mechanical and electrical properties of CCB\\/PMN\\/IIR with various CCB and PMN loading were measured by SEM, mechanical tests, and electrical analysis. The results show tensile properties decrease with increasing PMN loading, while showed

Yanbing Wang; Hao Yan; Zhixiong Huang; Tao Zhang

2012-01-01

229

Piezoelectric properties of (Li, Ag) modified (Na 0.50K 0.50)NbO 3 lead-free ceramics with high Curie temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1?x)[(Na0.4725K0.4725)Li0.055]NbO3x(Ag0.5Li0.5)NbO3 [(1?x)KNNLxALN] have been prepared by the conventional mixed oxide method. The ceramics show good piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. Effect of the amount of (Ag0.5Li0.5)NbO3 (ALN) on the phase structure, microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (1?x)KNNLxALN ceramics were systematically investigated. It is found that the samples with 1mol% ALN exhibit good piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties, and

Yuanyu Wang; Jiagang Wu; Dingquan Xiao; Jianguo Zhu; Ping Yu; Lang Wu; Xiang Li

2008-01-01

230

Crystal structure and electrical properties of bismuth sodium titanate zirconate ceramics.  

PubMed

Lead-free bismuth sodium titanate zirconate (Bi0.5Na0.5Ti1-xZrxO3 where x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.80 mole fraction) [BNTZ] ceramics were successfully prepared using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The samples were sintered for 2 h at temperatures lower than 1,000C. The density of the BNTZ samples was at least 95% of the theoretical values. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that small grains were embedded between large grains, causing a relatively wide grain size distribution. The density and grain size increased with increasing Zr concentration. A peak shift in X-ray diffraction patterns as well as the disappearance of several hkl reflections indicated some significant crystal-structure changes in these materials. Preliminary crystal-structure analysis indicated the existence of phase transition from a rhombohedral to an orthorhombic structure. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also found to correlate well with the observed phase transition. PMID:22221595

Rachakom, Ampika; Jaiban, Panupong; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda; Watcharapasorn, Anucha

2012-01-01

231

Crystal structure and electrical properties of bismuth sodium titanate zirconate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free bismuth sodium titanate zirconate (Bi0.5Na0.5Ti1-xZrxO3 where x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.80 mole fraction) [BNTZ] ceramics were successfully prepared using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The samples were sintered for 2 h at temperatures lower than 1,000C. The density of the BNTZ samples was at least 95% of the theoretical values. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that small grains were embedded between large grains, causing a relatively wide grain size distribution. The density and grain size increased with increasing Zr concentration. A peak shift in X-ray diffraction patterns as well as the disappearance of several hkl reflections indicated some significant crystal-structure changes in these materials. Preliminary crystal-structure analysis indicated the existence of phase transition from a rhombohedral to an orthorhombic structure. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also found to correlate well with the observed phase transition.

Rachakom, Ampika; Jaiban, Panupong; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda; Watcharapasorn, Anucha

2012-01-01

232

Development of silvermetal oxide reactive air braze alloys for electroding PZT ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing multi-layer devices using lead-based piezoelectric ceramics utilize an internal electrode that does not bond the\\u000a ceramic layers. Improvements in device performance and processing could be gained if the electrode also acted as a bond between\\u000a the ceramic layers. In the current work, the feasibility of brazing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) in ambient conditions utilizing\\u000a silver-based alloys containing low melting

E. J. Pavlina; A. M. Meier; P. Monteleone; J. D. Weigner

2007-01-01

233

Field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase switching behavior in lead strontium zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials are used widely as transducers and actuators in a variety of applications. The phase diagram of PbZrO 3-PbTiO3-SrTiO3-SrZrO3 system (called PSZT) shows a long AFE-FE phase boundary suitable for field-induced phase transition study. Initially, the phase transitions in PSZT ceramics are studied to assist in understanding the effects of compositional modification on the relative stabilities of the AFE and FE phases. This yielded modified AFE-FE phase boundary for the PSZT family based on the polarization and structural information. The stabilization of the AFE phase by increasing Sr2+ and Zr 4+ content produced increased AFE-FE transition field and decreased polarization. Phase transitions with respect to temperature are investigated by means of polarization hysteresis and dielectric properties measurements. These observations are discussed in terms of Goldschmidt's tolerance factor and soft-mode theory. The entropy difference (DeltaS) during AFE-FE phase switching is calculated using a modified Clausius-Clapeyron approach. The dependence of the switching field on temperature (dE/dT) is found to be greater for the reverse switching than for forward phase transition. An explanation is provided in terms of the relative coupling strength of the domains. The longitudinal field-induced strain in the PSZT systems is in the range of 0.2%--0.5% indicating possibilities for creating large strain actuators using selected compositions. However, PSZT ceramics displayed degradation in polarization and field-induced strain with increasing number of the switching cycles. In order to increase the field-induced strain and reduce the remnant strain, composition PSZT 15/80/20 is doped with various amounts of La 3+ or Nd3+ (1--3 atom%). The stabilization of the AFE structure by La3+ or Nd3+ doping resulted in increased AFE FE phase transition field and decreased temperature of the maximum dielectric constant. The induced strain is maximized at 2 atom% La 3+ or Nd3+ doping with negligible remnant strain. Using innovative in situ x-ray diffraction technique, direct observations of the unit cell parameters of the AFE phase and subsequent electric field-induced FE phase of selected PSZT ceramics are preformed. This volume increase accounts for most of the large field-induced longitudinal strain during AFE-FE phase transition.

Yu, Yongjian

2000-11-01

234

Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO3-PbTiO3-Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(0.95-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3-0.05Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d33 = 505pC/N, kp = 55.9%, kt = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and Pr = 39.7 ?C/cm2. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature Tc was found to increase from 371 C to 414 C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

Zhao, Tian-Long; Chen, Jianguo; Wang, Chun-Ming; Yu, Yang; Dong, Shuxiang

2013-07-01

235

Synthesis of lead-free piezoelectric powders by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method and properties of sintered (K0.48Na0.52)NBO3 ceramics.  

PubMed

(K,Na)NbO3 ceramics have attracted much attention as lead-free piezoelectric materials with high piezoelectric properties. High-quality (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics can be sintered using KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders synthesized by a hydrothermal method. In this study, to enhance the quality factor of the ceramics, high-power ultrasonic irradiation was employed during the hydrothermal method, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the resultant powders. PMID:24474129

Isobe, Gaku; Maeda, Takafumi; Bornmann, Peter; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

2014-02-01

236

Production of continuous piezoelectric ceramic fibers for smart materials and active control devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Cerametrics Inc. has conceived of and developed the Viscous-Suspension-Spinning Process (VSSP) to produce continuous fine filaments of nearly any powdered ceramic materials. VSSP lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber tows with 100 and 790 filaments have been spun in continuous lengths exceeding 1700 meters. Sintered PZT filaments typically are 10 - 25 microns in diameter and have moderate flexibility. Prior to carrier burnout and sintering, VSSP PZT fibers can be formed into 2D and 3D shapes using conventional textile and composite forming processes. While the extension of PZT is on the order of 20 microns per linear inch, a woven, wound or braided structure can contain very long lengths of PZT fiber and generate comparatively large output strokes from relatively small volumes. These structures are intended for applications such as bipolar actuators for fiber optic assembly and repair, vibration and noise damping for aircraft, rotorcraft, automobiles and home applications, vibration generators and ultrasonic transducers for medical and industrial imaging. Fiber and component cost savings over current technologies, such as the `dice-and-fill' method for transducer production, and the range of unique structures possible with continuous VSSP PZT fiber are discussed. Recent results have yielded 1-3 type composites (25 vol% PZT) with d33 equals 340 pC/N, K equals 470, and g33 equals 80 mV/N, kt equals 0.54, kp equals 0.19, dh equals 50.1pC/N and gh equals 13 mV/N.

French, Jonathan D.; Weitz, Gregory E.; Luke, John E.; Cass, Richard B.; Jadidian, Bahram; Bhargava, Parag; Safari, Ahmad

1997-05-01

237

A generalized rule for large piezoelectric response in perovskite oxide ceramics and its application for design of lead-free compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general rule for the perovskite oxide ceramics: ``A large piezoelectric constant in ABO3 perovskite ceramics can be obtained by tuning the weight ratio of A and B sites, WA/WB or WB/WA, to 3. Piezoelectric constant decreases significantly when WA/WB or WB/WA is in the range of 0.5-2.0, termed as forbidden zone.'' A comparative analysis was conducted for broad range of materials demonstrating the applicability of proposed rule. Further based on this rule optimized compositions in BaTiO3 and alkali niobate based systems were developed. Polycrystalline ceramics in modified BaTiO3 system were found to exhibit longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of 330 pC/N, while alkali niobate ceramics showed d33 of 294 pC/N.

Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Maurya, Deepam; Park, Chee-Sung; Nahm, Sahn; Priya, Shashank

2009-06-01

238

Effect of Excess Lead and Bismuth Content on the Electrical Properties of High-Temperature Bismuth Scandium Lead Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautic and aerospace applications require piezoelectric materials that can operate at high temperatures. The air-breathing aeronautic engines can use piezoelectric actuators for active combustion control for fuel modulation to mitigate thermo-acoustic instabilities and/or gas flow control to improve efficiency. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is their limitation for upper use temperature and this limitation is due low Curie temperature and increasing conductivity. We investigated processing, microstructure and property relationship of (1-x)BiScO3-(x)PbTiO3 (BS-PT) composition as a promising high temperature piezoelectric. The effect of excess Pb and Bi and their partitioning in grain boundaries were studied using impedance spectroscopy, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric measurement techniques. Excess Pb addition increased the grain boundary conduction and the grain boundary area (average grain size was 24.8 m, and 1.3 m for compositions with 0at.% and 5at.% excess Pb, respectively) resulting in ceramics with higher AC conductivity (tan d= 0.9 and 1.7 for 0at.% and 5at.% excess Pb at 350 C and at 10kHz) that were not resistive enough to pole. Excess Bi addition increased the resistivity (rho= 4.1x10(exp 10) Omega cm and 19.6 x10(exp 10) Omega.cm for compositions with 0at.% and 5at.% excess Bi, respectively), improved poling, and increased the piezoelectric coefficient from 137 to 197 pC/N for 5at.% excess Bi addition. In addition, loss tangent decreased more than one order of magnitude at elevated temperatures (greater than 300 C). For all compositions the activation energy of the conducting species was similar (approximately equal to 0.35-0.40 eV) and indicated electronic conduction.

Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali

2008-01-01

239

Self-sensing tunable vibration absorber incorporating piezoelectric ceramic-magnetostrictive composite sensoriactuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel self-sensing tunable vibration absorber (SSTVA) is developed for active absorption of vibrations in vibrating structures. The SSTVA consists of a piezoelectric ceramic-magnetostrictive composite sensoriactuator suspended in a mounting frame by two flexible beams connected to the axial ends of the sensoriactuator. The sensoriactuator serves to produce an axial force for tuning of the natural frequency of the SSTVA, to gather the signals associated with structural vibrations and to provide a lumped damped mass for the SSTVA. By monitoring the sensoriactuator output voltage while adjusting its input magnetic field (or electric current), the natural frequency of the SSTVA is tuned to the targeted resonance frequency of a structure. In this paper, the working principle, design prototype and operating performance of a 62.5 Hz SSTVA are reported. A high tunability of the natural frequency of 20% and a good sensing capability of vibrations comparable to a commercial accelerometer are obtained, together with a high absorbability of vibrations of ~ 4 dB in a steel-plate-neoprene resilient mount structure.

Duan, Yuan-Feng; Wing Or, Siu

2011-08-01

240

Compression of PZT-5H piezoelectric ceramic at constant electric field: investigation of energy absorption mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation into the mechanical behavior of PZT-5H piezoelectric ceramic. The materia is subjected to cyclic uniaxial compressive stress at a constant electric field bias. The damping characteristics such as fraction of energy absorbed and elastic modulus are evaluated as a function of bias electric field. Increasing the positive electric field increases the specific damping and decreases the elastic modulus. The trend is reversed when the electric field becomes sufficiently high to inhibit the domain wall motion by the mechanical stresses. Measured specific damping values vary form 0.18 to 0.46 depending on the stress amplitude and bias electric field. The corresponding secant modulus varies from 79 to 24 Gpz. The optimum electric field values increase as the stress amplitude increases because the positive electric field and the compressive stress counteract each other in terms of domain wall motion. An analytical model shows that the material's response is proportional to the volume fraction of the domains available for switching and the domain wall pressure difference between positive electric field and compressive stress.

Chaplya, Pavel M.; Carman, Gregory P.

2002-07-01

241

Recurrent fuzzy neural network control for piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor drive.  

PubMed

In this study, a recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) controller is proposed to control a piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor (LUSM) drive system to track periodic reference trajectories with robust control performance. First, the structure and operating principle of the LUSM are described in detail. Second, because the dynamic characteristics of the LUSM are nonlinear and the precise dynamic model is difficult to obtain, a RFNN is proposed to control the position of the moving table of the LUSM to achieve high precision position control with robustness. The back propagation algorithm is used to train the RFNN on-line. Moreover, to guarantee the convergence of tracking error for periodic commands tracking, analytical methods based on a discrete-type Lyapunov function are proposed to determine the varied learning rates of the RFNN. Then, the RFNN is implemented in a PC-based computer control system, and the LUSM is driven by a unipolar switching full bridge voltage source inverter using LC resonant technique. Finally, the effectiveness of the RFNN-controlled LUSM drive system is demonstrated by some experimental results. Accurate tracking response and superior dynamic performance can be obtained because of the powerful on-line learning capability of the RFNN controller. Furthermore, the RFNN control system is robust with regard to parameter variations and external disturbances. PMID:11477782

Lin, F J; Wai, R J; Shyu, K K; Liu, T M

2001-07-01

242

Pyrochlore-structured titanate ceramics for immobilisation of actinides: Hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and stainless steel/waste form interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pyrochlore-structured titanate ceramic has been studied in respect of its overall feasibility for immobilisation of impure actinide-rich radioactive wastes through the hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) technique. The resultant waste form contains mainly pyrochlore (70%), rutile (14%) as well as perovskite (12%), hollandite (2%) and brannerite (1%). Optical spectroscopy confirms that uranium (used to simulate Pu) exists mainly in the stable pyrochlore-structured phase as tetravalent ions as designed. The stainless steel/waste form interactions under HIPing conditions (1280 C/100 MPa/3 h) do not seem to change the actinide-bearing phases and therefore should have no detrimental effect on the waste form.

Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Huijun; Moricca, Sam

2008-07-01

243

Thickness-induced resonance-based complex permittivity measurement technique for barium strontium titanate ceramics at microwave frequency.  

PubMed

Thickness-induced resonance would be the major factor of uncertainty for complex permittivity measurement by using transmission/reflection method when the thickness of sample is several integer multiples of the half wavelength. A new technique for complex permittivity measurement was presented in this paper using the thickness-induced resonance for barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics at microwave frequency. Simulated and experimental results show that there are some resonance peaks on the transmittance versus frequency curve and the complex permittivity can be calculated from the resonance. PMID:19947747

Xia, Song; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong

2009-11-01

244

Enhanced Photovoltaic Response in Lead Lanthanum Zirconate-Titanate Ceramics with A-Site Deficient Composition for Photostrictor Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of (Pb0.97, La0.03)(Zr0.52, Ti0.48)1-0.03/4O3 (PLZT) ceramics with and without an A-site deficient composition of 1 mol% in ABO3 perovskite structures have been prepared by sintering at 1200C for 2 h to investigate the photovoltaic response upon UV illumination, as well as the ferroelectric and piezoelectric parameters such as the polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis curve, strain constant, and dielectric constant. Results confirmed that the A-site deficient composition generates a photovoltaic current twofold higher than that in the sample without the deficient composition. In the ferroelectric and piezoelectric parameters, no significant difference was measured between the two samples. These results indicate that the photostrictor response is mostly determined by the photovoltaic properties and that the overall response speed of photostriction can be markedly improved by enhanced photovoltaic current.

Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Morito; Xu, Chao-Nan; Hagio, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Masahiro; Takase, Akira

2000-09-01

245

Enhanced piezoelectricity and nature of electric-field induced structural phase transformation in textured lead-free piezoelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter provides a comparative description of the properties of textured and randomly oriented poly-crystalline lead-free piezoelectric 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)-0.07BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics. A high longitudinal piezoelectric constant of (d33) ~ 322 pC/N was obtained in (001)PC textured NBT-7BT ceramics, which is almost ~2 times the d33 coefficient reported for randomly oriented ceramics of the same composition. In situ neutron diffraction experiments revealed that characteristically different structural responses are induced in textured and randomly oriented NBT-BT ceramics upon application of electric fields (E), which are likely related to the varying coherence lengths of polar nanoregions and internal stresses induced by domain switching.

Maurya, Deepam; Pramanick, Abhijit; An, Ke; Priya, Shashank

2012-04-01

246

Synthesis of mesoporous zirconium titanates using alkycarboxylate surfactants and their transformation to dense ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous zirconium titanates with Ti\\/Zr ratios of two have been prepared through the controlled hydrolysis of mixtures of zirconium and titanium alkoxides and long chain carboxylates (lauric, palmitic or stearic acids) in the absence of solvent. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and gas adsorption measurements indicate that the zirconium titanate mesophases consist of a disordered arrangement of uniform pores. The

Vittorio Luca; Willem K. Bertram; Jonathan Widjaja; David R. G. Mitchell; Christopher S. Griffith; Elizabeth Drabarek

2007-01-01

247

Nonlinear Behavior and High-Power Properties of (Bi,Na,Ba)TiO3 and (Sr,Ca)2NaNb5O15 Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear behaviors and high-power properties of two lead-free piezoelectric ceramics --- (Bi1/2Na1/2)0.85Ba0.15Ti0.98Mn0.02O3 (BNBTM) and Sr1.9Ca0.1NaNb5O15 (SCNN) --- were clarified by comparison of their mechanical characteristics using the continuous driving method. BNBTM ceramics exhibited jump phenomena with constant-voltage driving that were similar to those found in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based (PZT) ceramics. The jump phenomena of SCNN ceramics produced mirror-reversed images relative to those of BNBTM ceramics. Their nonlinear behaviors were caused by the soft-spring effect and hard-spring effect, respectively. Among the piezoelectric materials, SCNN ceramics possess notable elastic properties. With increasing vibration velocity, their rise in temperature was lower than that of PZT ceramics; in particular, the temperature of SCNN ceramics was lower than that of BNBTM ceramics. The quality factor of BNBTM ceramics gradually decreased and that of SCNN ceramics showed a broad peak. The degradation of the quality factor was thus limited, resulting in a gradual increase in the equivalent mechanical resistance.

Doshida, Yutaka; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youich; Itoh, Keita; Hirose, Seiji; Tamura, Hideki

2011-09-01

248

Polymorphic structure evolution and large piezoelectric response of lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymorphic structure evolution of (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3 piezoelectric ceramics was investigated by analysis of the in situ X-ray diffraction and dielectric spectra. The results indicated that a confined orthorhombic (O) phase region induced by the approach of the rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases existed in an extremely narrow temperature range of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 composition. The electric properties near the O-T phase boundaries of (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3 and (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 were compared. The results suggested that the confined O phase region is an important factor that contributes to the extremely large piezoelectric response.

Tian, Ye; Chao, Xiaolian; Jin, Li; Wei, Lingling; Liang, Pengfei; Yang, Zupei

2014-03-01

249

[alpha]-Decay damage effects in curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-free high-level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

A polyphase titanate ceramic incorporating sodium-free simulated high-level nuclear waste was doped with 0.91 wt% of [sup 224]Cm to accelerate the effects of long-term self-irradiation arising from [alpha] decays. The ceramic included three main constituent minerals: hollandite, perovskite, and zirconolite, with some minor phases. Although hollandite showed the broadening of its X-ray diffraction lines and small lattice parameter changes during damage in growth, the unit cell was substantially unaltered. Perovskite and zirconolite, which are the primary hosts of curium, showed 2.7% and 2.6% expansions, respectively, of their unit cell volumes after a dose of 12 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1]. Volume swelling due to damage in growth caused an exponential (almost linear) decrease in density, which reached 1.7% after a dose of 12.4 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1]. Leach tests on samples that had incurred doses of 2.0 [times] 10[sup 17] and 4.5 [times] 10[sup 17] [alpha] decays[center dot]g[sup [minus]1] showed that the rates of dissolution of cesium and barium were similar to analogous leach rates from the equivalent cold ceramic, while strontium and calcium leach rates were 2--15 times higher. Although the cerium, molybdenum, strontium, and calcium leach rates in the present material were similar to those in the curium-doped sodium-bearing titanate ceramic reported previously, the cesium leach rate was 3--8 times lower.

Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Tsuboi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Togashi, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)); Stewart, M.W.A.; Vance, E.R.; Hart, K.P.; Ball, C.J. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales (Australia). Lucas Heights Research Labs.); White, T.J.

1994-09-01

250

Enhanced Photovoltaic Response in Lead Lanthanum Zirconate-Titanate Ceramics with A-Site Deficient Composition for Photostrictor Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of (Pb0.97, La0.03)(Zr0.52, Ti0.48)1-0.03\\/4O3 (PLZT) ceramics with and without an A-site deficient composition of 1 mol% in ABO3 perovskite structures have been prepared by sintering at 1200C for 2 h to investigate the photovoltaic response upon UV illumination, as well as the ferroelectric and piezoelectric parameters such as the polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis curve, strain constant, and dielectric constant.

Kazuhiro Nonaka; Morito Akiyama; Chao-Nan Xu; Tsuyoshi Hagio; Masahiro Komatsu; Akira Takase

2000-01-01

251

Self-irradiation damage of a curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich high level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the polyphase titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich simulated high-level nuclear waste doped with 0.69 wt% of {sup 244}Cm to accelerate long-term self-irradiation due to {alpha} decays. {alpha} autoradiography showed that {alpha} emissions were almost uniformly distributed throughout the curium-doped samples on a {gt} 20{mu}m scale although micropore surfaces and titanium oxide agglomerates were free of {alpha} emitting nuclides. The phase assemblage of the curium-doped titanate ceramic included freudenbergite and loveringite in addition to the more abundant oxide phases: hollandite, perovskite, and zirconolite. Accumulation of {alpha} decays was accompanied by a gradual decrease in density. The increment of density was {minus}1% after an equivalent age of 5000 yr. Leach tests showed a slight rend toward higher total release of curium with equivalent age. The release of soluble nonradioactive elements (e.g., Na, Cs, Sr, and Ca) in the oldest specimens (equivalent age, 2000 yr) varied from specimen to specimen but, on average, were higher than specimens that had suffered a lower radiation dose.

Miyazaki, T. (Second Dept. of Nuclear Business, Ibaraki Center, Chiyoda Maintenance Ltd., Asahi, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-14 (JP)); White, T.J. (Electron Microscope Centre, Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane 4067 (AU)); Mitamura, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Nukaga, K.; Togashi, Y.; Sagawa, T.; Tashiro, S. (Dept. of Environmental Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-11 (JP)); Levins, D.M. (Environmental Science Program, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights Research Lab., Lucas Heights, New South Wales (AU)); Kikuchi, A. (Dept. of Reactor Fuel Examination, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-11 (JP))

1990-11-01

252

Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.[4pt] Reference: J. Morvan, E. Buyuktanir, J.L. West, A. Jkli, ``Highly-piezoelectric Biocompatible and Soft Composite Fiber Mats,'' Appl. Phys. Lett., 100, 063901-1-4 (2012)

Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

2013-03-01

253

A phenomenological model for pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterize the hysteretic characteristics between the output displacement and applied voltage of pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators (PCSAs), this paper considers that a linear force and a hysteretic force will be generated by a linear extension and a hysteretic extension, respectively, due to the applied voltage to a pre-stressed PCSA and the total force will result in the forced vibration of the single-degree-of-freedom (DOF) system composed of the mass of the pre-stressed PCSA and the equivalent spring and damper of the pre-stressed mechanism, which lets the PCSA be pre-stressed to endure enough tension. On this basis, the phenomenological model to characterize the hysteretic behavior of the pre-stressed PCSA is put forward by using the Bouc-Wen hysteresis operator to model the hysteretic extension. The parameter identification method in a least-squares sense is established by identifying the parameters for the linear and hysteretic components separately with the step and periodic responses of the pre-stressed PCSA, respectively. The performance of the proposed phenomenological model with the corresponding parameter identification method is experimentally verified by the established experimental set-up. The research results show that the phenomenological model for the pre-stressed PCSA with the corresponding parameter identification method can accurately portray the hysteretic characteristics of the pre-stressed PCSA. In addition, the phenomenological model for PCSAs can be deduced from the phenomenological model for pre-stressed PCSAs by removing the terms related to the pre-stressed mechanisms.

Wang, D. H.; Zhu, W.

2011-03-01

254

Effect of grain size on domain structures, dielectric and thermal depoling of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microscopic origin of the grain size effects on the dielectric, piezoelectric, and thermal depoling properties of Aurivillius phase Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 was investigated. Using atomic force microscopy, domain walls were observed in micrometer grain size ceramics, but gradually disappeared with reducing grain size and were not found in ceramics with 90 nm grain size. In strain-electric field butterfly loops, the strain decreased with decreasing grain size indicating a decreasing contribution of non-180 domain walls switching to the strain. Lattice distortion (a-b)/b decreased with decreasing grain size. The thermal depoling resistance decreased with decreasing grain size, due to increasing internal mechanical stresses.

Viola, Giuseppe; Boon Chong, Kok; Eriksson, Mirva; Shen, Zhijian; Zeng, Jiangtao; Yin, Qingrui; Kan, Yanmei; Wang, Peiling; Ning, Huanpo; Zhang, Hongtao; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.; Reece, Michael J.; Yan, Haixue

2013-10-01

255

The impact of brannerite on the release of plutonium and gadolinium during the corrosion of zirconolite-rich titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Titanate ceramics have been selected as the preferred waste form for the immobilization of excess plutonium. Corrosion tests are underway to try to understand the long-term behavior of this material. In this paper, results from PCT-B static dissolution tests are used to provide an explanation of the observed corrosion behavior of a zirconolite-based ceramic. Two important observations are made. First, Ca is released at a constant rate [7 x 10{sup {minus}5} g/(m{sup 2} day)] in PCT-B tests for up to two years. Second, the release rates for Pu and Gd increase with time (up to two years) in PCT-B tests. The first observation suggests that the ceramics continue to corrode at a low rate for at least two years in PCT-B tests. The second observation suggests that the release rates of Pu and Gd are controlled by some process or processes that do not affect the release rate of other elements. Evidence indicates that this is due to the preferential dissolution of brannerite from the ceramic.

Chamberlain, D. B.; Hash, M. C.; Basco, J. K.; Bakel, A. J.; Metz, C. J.; Wolf, S. F.; Buck, E. C.; Nole, M. K.

2000-03-14

256

Nonlinear Behavior and High-Power Properties of (Bi,Na,Ba)TiO3 and (Sr,Ca)2NaNb5O15 Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonlinear behaviors and high-power properties of two lead-free piezoelectric ceramics --- (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)0.85Ba0.15Ti0.98Mn0.02O3 (BNBTM) and Sr1.9Ca0.1NaNb5O15 (SCNN) --- were clarified by comparison of their mechanical characteristics using the continuous driving method. BNBTM ceramics exhibited jump phenomena with constant-voltage driving that were similar to those found in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based (PZT) ceramics. The jump phenomena of SCNN ceramics produced mirror-reversed images relative to

Yutaka Doshida; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Youich Mizuno; Keita Itoh; Seiji Hirose; Hideki Tamura

2011-01-01

257

Lead-free BNBT-6 piezoelectric ceramic fibre/epoxy 1-3 composites for ultrasonic transducer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium-modified bismuth sodium titanate, 0.94 (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (BNBT-6), fine-scale piezoelectric fibres were fabricated using a viscous suspension spinning process (VSSP). The sintered BNBT-6 fibres with diameters of 300 ?m were fabricated into 1-3 composites with fibre volume fraction vf of 0.2-0.5. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the 1-3 composites were measured. The electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of a vf=0.40 composite is 0.52. Properties of the VSSP fibres were calculated using the measured properties of the 1-3 composites. A vf=0.40 composite was thinned down to 213-?m thickness and constructed into an ultrasonic transducer. The pulse-echo response, bandwidth and insertion loss of the transducers were studied. The VSSP fibre composite transducer with vf=0.40 has a centre frequency of 7 MHz with a bandwidth of 88%. The good performance indicated that the BNBT-6/epoxy 1-3 fibre composite transducer has potential for medical imaging applications.

Wang, D. Y.; Li, K.; Chan, H. L. W.

2005-04-01

258

High piezoelectric d33 coefficient in Li-modified lead-free (Na,K)NbO3 ceramics sintered at optimal temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiNbO3-doped (Na,K)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by normal sintering, and the electrical properties were investigated with a special emphasis on the influence of sintering temperature. The ceramics synthesized at 1020-1080 C showed a phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal symmetry, which is similar to the morphtropic phase boundary (MPB). Because of such MPB-like behavior, a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 (314 pC/N) was obtained in the nominal composition 0.058LiNbO3-0.942[(Na0.535K0.480)NbO3] ceramic sintered at 1060 C however, this high d33 value was reported previously only in the Li-modified (Na,K)NbO3-based ceramics with codopants of Ta and Sb to B site.

Zhao, Pei; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Li, Jing-Feng

2007-06-01

259

Improved stability for piezoelectric crystals grown in the lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher coercive fields (EC) and depoling temperatures (TR/T) were obtained for crystals in the Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary system. Data are given for a crystal boule with starting composition 0.24PIN-0.44PMN-0.32PT, and with chemical distributions along the growth direction. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties were determined. Similar to binary PMN-PT, ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals have outstanding piezoelectric properties (e.g., d33~900-1900 pm/V, k33~0.83-0.92). In addition, PIN stabilizes piezoelectric performance by doubling EC (~6 kV/cm) and increasing TR/T by ~20 C. These improvements are advantageous for acoustic transducers used in high-drive applications.

Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Huang, Xinling; Pan, Huixin; Carroll, James F.; Payne, David A.

2007-11-01

260

Enhanced High Temperature Piezoelectrics Based on BiScO3-PbTiO3 Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-temperature piezoelectrics are a key technology for aeronautics and aerospace applications such as fuel modulation to increase the engine efficiency and decrease emissions. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is the limitation on upper use temperature which is due to low Curie-Temperature (TC) and increasing electrical conductivity. BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BS-PT) system is a promising candidate for improving the operating temperature for piezoelectric actuators due to its high TC (greater than 400 C). Bi2O3 was shown to be a good sintering aid for liquid phase sintering resulting in reduced grain size and increased resistivity. Zr doped and liquid phase sintered BS-PT ceramics exhibited saturated and square hysteresis loops with enhanced remenant polarization (37 microC per square centimeter) and coercive field (14 kV/cm). BS-PT doped with Mn showed enhanced field induced strain (0.27% at 50kV/cm). All the numbers indicated in parenthesis were collected at 100 C.

Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Fred

2009-01-01

261

Microstructure-properties relationships in samarium modified lead titanate piezoceramicsII. Dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the microstructural parameters on the extrinsic contributions to the electromechanical behavior of samarium modified lead titanate piezoceramics is studied. A complete structural, compositional and microstructural characterization has been carried out to this purpose.The electromechanical coupling factors kp and k31 show strong dependence on the microstructure. There is not any important microstructural dependence of the electromechanical properties related

J. Ricote; C. Alemany; L. Pardo; C. E. Millar

1996-01-01

262

Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3}-Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

(0.95-x)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.05Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d{sub 33} = 505pC/N, k{sub p} = 55.9%, k{sub t} = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and P{sub r} = 39.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature T{sub c} was found to increase from 371 Degree-Sign C to 414 Degree-Sign C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

Zhao Tianlong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen Jianguo; Dong Shuxiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Chunming [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu Yang [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

2013-07-14

263

Synthesis and characterization of Pb(Yb1/2Nb1/2)O3-based high-Curie temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

xPb(Yb1/2Nb1/2)O3-(1 - x)Pb(Zr0.36Ti0.64)O3 (xPYN-(1 - x)PZT) piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the conventional ceramic processing via a B-site oxide mixing route. The synthesized xPYN-(1 - x)PZT ceramics exhibit majority of perovskite structure with slight content of impurity, which exhibit typical tetragonal structure with slight orthorhombic distortion depending on compositions. All the xPYN-(1 - x)PZT ceramics exhibit high Curie temperature (TC/Tm), higher than 380 C, and their dielectric behavior above TC/Tm can be fitted well by the Curie-Weiss law. The xPYN-(1 - x)PZT ceramics exhibit large resistivity, and excellent ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties, which provide promising for the high-power and high-temperature piezoelectric applications. However, electric energy density of the xPYN-(1 - x)PZT ceramics is small due to their nearly rectangular shape of polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop and early electric displacement saturation, which is not suitable for high energy and power storage applications.

Zheng, Jianfeng; Chen, Zhihui; Fang, Bijun; Ding, Jianning; Zhao, Xiangyong; Xu, Haiqing; Luo, Haosu

2014-06-01

264

Barium strontium titanate and non-ferroelectric oxide ceramic composites for use in phased array antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ceramic ferroelectric phase shifting device has been demonstrated using Ba1?xSrxTiO3 (BSTO) ceramics. As part of an effort to optimize the device performance, various composites of BSTO and other nonelectrically active oxide ceramics have been formulated. In general the composites have reduced dielectric constants, ??, where ? = ??-i?? and reduced loss tangents, tan ?, compared to BSTO. The low

L. C. Sengupta; S. Stowell; E. Ngo; M. E. Oday; R. Lancto

1995-01-01

265

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi2O3 added (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O3 ceramics sintered at low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, in order to develop low temperature sintering ceramics for a thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer, (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O3 ceramics were fabricated using Na2CO3, Li2CO3, MnO2, and Bi2O3 as sintering aids at 870, 900, and 930 C. Their respective dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of Bi2O3 addition. At the sintering temperature of 900 C, the optimum value was shown for the density of 6.94 g/cm3, thickness vibration mode electromechanical coupling factor (henceforth, kt) of 0.497, thickness vibration mode mechanical quality factor (henceforth, Qmt) of 3162, and dielectric constant (henceforth, ?r) of 209 for thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer application.

Kim, Dohyung; Yoo, Juhyun; Kim, Insung; Song, Jaesung

2009-03-01

266

Passive Vibration Damping Materials: Piezoelectric Ceramic Composites for Vibration Damping Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the theory and experiments developed in the first year's research work, the use of piezoelectric composites has been explored for application as large area structural composite material with built-in damping. Two parallel efforts have been carrie...

S. Yoshikawa S. K. Kurtz

1992-01-01

267

Preparation and piezoelectric properties of CeO2-added (Na0.475K0.475Li0.05) (Nb0.92Ta0.05Sb0.03)O3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Na0.475K0.475Li0.05)(Nb0.92Ta0.05Sb0.03)O3 containing different amounts of CeO2 have been prepared by a conventional mixed-oxide method. After the addition of CeO2, the sintering performance of the ceramics is improved. The ceramics can be well sintered at a higher temperature. The ceramics become dense and have better dielectric and piezoelectric properties. For the ceramic added with 0.4 wt% CeO2, the piezoelectric and dielectric properties become optimum, giving a piezoelectric coefficient of 246 pC N-1 and a planar-mode electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.50.

Lee, Tact; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.

2008-08-01

268

Ca and La-Modified Lead Titanate Sol-Gel Thin Films by UV-Assisted Processing for Piezoelectric Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diol-based sol-gel method was used to prepare UV sensitive precursor solutions in the processing of modified lead titanate ferroelectric thin films. Films were deposited by spin-coating onto platinized Si-based substrates. A <111> preferential orientation was promoted by appropriated choice of the substrate and multiple deposition and crystallization steps. Processing under UV radiation was carried out in a novel RTP

L. Pardo; R. Poyato; A. Gonzlez; M. L. Calzada; E. Lynch; S. OBrien; P. V. Kelly; Igor Stolichnov; H. Guillon

2002-01-01

269

Grain growth kinetics and electrical properties of lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (9/65/35) based ferroelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the microstructural characteristics on the dielectric and electrical properties has been investigated for Nd{sup 3+} doped lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics, obtained by the conventional solid-state reaction method, by taking into account different sintering conditions. The grain growth mechanism has been investigated and a cubic-type grain growth law was observed for samples with grain size varying from 1.00 up to 2.35 {mu}m. The porosity and grain size dependences of the phase transition parameters, such as the maximum dielectric permittivity and its corresponding temperature ({epsilon}{sub m} and T{sub m}, respectively) were also investigated. The ac conductivity analyses followed the universal Jonscher law. The behavior of the frequency exponent (s) was analyzed through the correlated barrier hopping model. Both ac and dc conductivity results have been correlated with the observed microstructural features.

Roca, R. Alvarez; Guerrero, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, UFSCar, Rod. Washington Luis, Km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Botero, E. R.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A. [Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Ceramicas Ferroeletricas, UFSCar, Rod. Washington Luis, Km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Guerra, J. D. S. [Grupo de Ferroeletricos e Materiais Multifuncionais, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400-902 Uberlandia, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2009-01-01

270

Piezoelectric thin-film unimorph actuator for optical fibre alignment applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility of a piezoelectric unimorph thin-film actuator for optical fibre alignment was investigated. The main interest was focused on the fabrication, and electrical and mechanical characterization of a low-voltage driven component which was small-sized, efficient and suitable for integration into the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) environment. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was chosen as ferroelectric thin-film material due to its excellent

Jarkko Tuominen; Jyrki Lappalainen; Jussi Hiltunen; Jyrki Ollila; Vilho Lantto

2006-01-01

271

Development of piezoelectric skin friction force vector transducer for a hypersonic wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A surface shear force transducer for use in impulse type hypersonic tunnels is described. Sensors are constructed of lead zirconate titanate composition piezoelectric ceramic materials. The diameter of the sensing diaphragm is 0.75 inches and overall transducer dimensions are 1.0 inch diameter and 0.625 inch height. Analysis of the tranducer is made to help design criteria and fabrication techniques. Discussions on design and fabrication techniques are presented as well as performance of transducers delivered.

Kahng, S. K.

1972-01-01

272

Local ferroelectric properties in polyvinylidene fluoride/barium lead zirconate titanate nanocomposites: Interface effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric composites consisting of P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer matrix with barium lead zirconate titanate ceramic inclusions were addressed both experimentally using piezoresponse force microscopy technique and theoretically applying the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire formalism. A transient region with a width of approximately 40 nm has been found at the interface between the two constituents. It is shown that the piezoresponse in the vicinity of the interface is strongly affected by inhomogeneous stresses originating from an incompatibility of thermal expansion coefficients of PVDF and lead zirconate titanate.

Silibin, M. V.; Solnyshkin, A. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Malinkovich, M. D.; Lupascu, D. C.; Shvartsman, V. V.

2013-10-01

273

Structure and electrical properties of K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO-LiSbO lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1-x)K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO-xLiSbO have been fabricated by a conventional ceramic sintering technique. The results of x-ray diffraction suggest that Li{sup +} and Sb{sup 5+} diffuse into the K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO lattices to form a solid solution with a perovskite structure. The ceramics can be well sintered at 1070-1110 degree sign C. The introduction of LiSbO into the

Dunmin Lin; K. W. Kwok; K. H. Lam; H. L. W. Chan

2007-01-01

274

Effects of high energy x ray and proton irradiation on lead zirconate titanate thin films' dielectric and piezoelectric response  

SciTech Connect

The effects of irradiation by X rays and protons on the dielectric and piezoelectric response of highly (100)-textured polycrystalline Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films have been studied. Low-field dielectric permittivity, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric d{sub 33,f} response all degraded with exposure to radiation, for doses higher than 300 krad. At first approximation, the degradation increased at higher radiation doses, and was stronger in samples exposed to X rays, compared to the proton-irradiated ones. Nonlinear and high-field dielectric characterization suggest a radiation-induced reduction of the extrinsic contributions to the response, attributed to increased pinning of the domain walls by the radiation-induced point defects.

Bastani, Y.; Cortes-Pena, A. Y.; Wilson, A. D. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Gerardin, S.; Bagatin, M.; Paccagnella, A. [DEI-Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova 35131 (Italy)] [DEI-Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova 35131 (Italy); Bassiri-Gharb, N. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States) [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2013-05-13

275

Processing Effects on the Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) ferroelectric thick films have been investigated as potential candidates for use in frequency agile microwave circuit devices. Powder processing techniques such as screen-printing have been used to make BST thick films. However, due to the interactions between the BST and substrates such as alumina, the sintering temperatures for the BST thick films are limited and the

B. Su; J. E. Holmes; B. L. Cheng; T. W. Button

2002-01-01

276

Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end

Huidong Li; Zhiqun Deng; Thomas J. Carlson

2012-01-01

277

Dielectric and strain effects of core-shell\\/barrier layer structures in modified barium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current advanced technologies which increasingly require high dielectric constant for miniaturization of electronics and strain properties for actuator applications has motivated many investigations of ferroelectric BaTiO 3 (BT) ceramics. A new type of BT ceramic with core-shell matrix microstructure and barrier layer structure, therefore, was recently developed with simple one-step processing of BT ceramics, modified by isovalent ZrO2 and donor

2002-01-01

278

Microstructure and piezoelectric properties of the CuO-added (Na0.5K0.5)(Nb0.97Sb0.03)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of the Sb5+ ion increased the piezoelectric properties of the (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) ceramics by enhancing the poling state as identified by the increased phase angle (?). The increased ? value was explained by the increased ferroelectricity due to the large electronegativity of the Sb5+ ion and the increased off centering of the cation due to the small ionic size of the Sb5+ ion. The (Na0.5K0.5)(Nb0.97Sb0.03)O3[NK(N0.97S0.03)] ceramics containing CuO were well sintered even at 960 C. A small amount of the Cu2+ ions was incorporated into the matrix of the NK(N0.97S0.03) ceramic and behaved as a hardener. The kp, Qm, d33, and ?3T/V0 values of the CuO-added NK(N0.97S0.03) ceramics were much higher than those of the CuO-added NKN ceramics due to the Sb5+ ion's enhancement of the piezoelectric properties by increasing the poling state of the specimens. The high piezoelectric properties of kp=0.41, Qm=1333, d33=111 pC/N, and V3T/V0=324 were obtained from the 2.0 mol % CuO-added NK(N0.97S0.03) ceramics sintered at 960 C for 8 h.

Park, Hwi-Yeol; Seo, In-Tae; Choi, Min-Kyu; Nahm, Sahn; Lee, Hyeung-Gyu; Kang, Hyung-Won; Choi, Byung-Hyun

2008-08-01

279

Evaluation of polarization of embedded piezoelectrics by the thermal wave method.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the benefit of the thermal wave method for the evaluation of the polarization state of embedded piezoelectrics. Two types of samples were investigated: A low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)/lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor-actuator and a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator. At modulation frequencies below 10 Hz, the pyroelectric response was governed by thermal losses to the embedding layers. Here, the sample behavior was described by a harmonically heated piezoelectric plate exhibiting heat losses to the environment characterized by a single thermal relaxation time. PMID:23007766

Suchaneck, Gunnar; Eydam, Agnes; Hu, Wenguo; Kranz, Burkhart; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Gerlach, Gerald

2012-09-01

280

Manufacture and Cytotoxicity of a Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramic as a Bone Substitute--Consolidation of Porous Lithium Sodium Potassium Niobate by Cold Isostatic Pressing  

PubMed Central

Aim The piezoelectric properties and cytotoxicity of a porous lead-free piezoelectric ceramic for use as a direct bone substitute were investigated. Methodology Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was applied to fabricate porous lithium sodium potassium niobate (Li0.06Na0.5K0.44) NbO3 specimens using a pore-forming method. The morphologies of the CIP-processed specimens were characterized and compared to those of specimens made by from conventional pressing procedures. The effects of the ceramic on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts isolated from the cranium of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were examined by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Results The results showed that CIP enhanced piezoelectricity and biological performance of the niobate specimen, and also promoted an extracellular matrix-like topography of it. In vitro studies showed that the CIP-enhanced material had positive effects on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts. Conclusion Niobate ceramic generated by CIP shows a promise for being a piezoelectric composite bone substitute.

Wang, Qi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Wu; Khoie, Roxanne; Li, Yi-ming; Zhu, Jian-guo; Chen, Zhi-qing

2009-01-01

281

Determination of metal impurities in advanced lead zirconate titanate ceramics by axial view mode inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry quantification method for the determination of Al, Ca, Cr Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni, Zn, Ba, K, In and Co in lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) ceramics, modified with strontium and chromium, was developed. Total digestion of ceramics was achieved with a HNO(3), H(2)O(2) and HF (ac) mixture by using a microwave furnace. The sensitivity of the net signal intensity respect to radiofrequency power (P) and nebulizer argon flow (F(N)) variations was strongly dependent of the total excitation energy of line (TEE). For lines with TEE near metastable atoms and ions of argon, an increment of the sensitivities to P and F(N) variation was observed. At robust plasma conditions the matrix effect was reduced for all matrices and analytes considered. The precision of analysis ranged from 3 to 13%, whereas the analytes recoveries in the spiked samples varied, mostly, from 90 to 110%. The detection limits of studied elements were from 0.004 to 10 mg kg(-1). PMID:22608413

Villanueva Tagle, M E; Larrea Marn, M T; Martin Gaviln, O; Durruthy Rodrguez, M D; Caldern Piar, F; Pomares Alfonso, M S

2012-05-30

282

A novel technique for preparation of grain oriented BLSF piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain oriented bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics (BLSFs) ceramics CaBi4Ti3.95V0.05O15 were prepared by screen-printing method. The particle size of starting materials is a very important factor for the grain\\u000a orientation annealed ceramics. Highly textured ceramics can only be obtained by using nanosized TiO2 and the mechanism for grain orientation was proposed. The electrical properties of the textured ceramics showed strongly\\u000a anisotropic. The

Yongxiang Li; Jiangtao Zeng; Xuezhen Jing; Qingrui Yin

2008-01-01

283

Longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient measurement for bulk ceramics and thin films using pneumatic pressure rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pneumatic pressure rig was designed to measure the effective d33 coefficient of thin film piezoelectrics by applying a known stress and monitoring the induced charge. It was found that the stress state imposed included components both perpendicular and parallel to the film plane. The later were due to friction and could largely be relieved through sliding of the O-rings

F. Xu; F. Chu; S. Trolier-McKinstry

1999-01-01

284

Simple model for piezoelectric ceramic\\/polymer 1-3 composites used in ultrasonic transducer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is presented for combining parameters of 1-3 ultrasonic composite materials in order to predict ultrasonic characteristics such as velocity, acoustic impedance, electromechanical coupling factor, and piezoelectric coefficients. Hence, the model allows the estimation of resonance frequencies of 1-3 composite transducers. This model has been extended to cover more material parameters, and they are compared to experimental results

H. L. W. Chan; JOSEPH UNSWORTH

1989-01-01

285

A poly vinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric film based accelerometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an accelerometer built by means of a piezoelectric film, poly vinylidene fluoride-PVF2. The piezoelectric effect of this is explored and shown to have better mechanical sensitivity than piezoelectric ceramics due to the short thickness of the film. The design is based on a typical piezoelectric ceramic seismic system, which uses the sensitiveness of the piezoelectric element through

R. F. M. Marcal; J. L. Kovaleski; A. A. Suzim

1997-01-01

286

Effect of bismuth addition on sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of zinc titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of Bi2O3 addition on the sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of ZnO-TiO2 ceramics were investigated. ZnO-TiO2 ceramics were prepared with conventional solid-state method and sintered at temperatures from 950C to 1,100C. The sintering\\u000a temperature of ZnO-TiO2 ceramics with Bi2O3 addition could be effectively reduced to 1,000C due to the liquidphase effects resulting from the additives. A proper

Hsun-Chin Chen; Ming-Hang Weng; Jui-Hong Horng; Mau-Phon Houng; Yeong-Her Wang

2005-01-01

287

Critical thickness for extrinsic contributions to the dielectric and piezoelectric response in lead zirconate titanate ultrathin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly (100)-textured Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 films (Lotgering factors >=90%) with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 260 nm were grown on platinized Si substrates using sol-gel deposition. Ferroelectric hysteresis, low field dielectric permittivity, and nonlinear dielectric response as well as converse longitudinal piezoelectric response (d33,f) of the ultrathin films were studied at 1 kHz. The measurements revealed the existence of a critical film thickness, ~50 nm, below which the extrinsic contributions to the dielectric response are almost completely suppressed. Piezoelectric response of the films also showed a significant (~50%) drop at the same critical thickness. Due to the columnar microstructure of these films the critical dimension of the ferroelectric is represented by the thickness rather than the lateral grain size, where the latter is invariant across the samples. The critical thickness led also to a deviation of the thickness dependence of the dielectric permittivity from the in-series capacitors model frequently representing ``interfacial dead layers.'' The critical size is attributed to significant reduction in domain wall population and/or mobility in films thinner than ~50 nm.

Bastani, Yaser; Schmitz-Kempen, Thorsten; Roelofs, Andreas; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

2011-01-01

288

Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Al2O3 containing lead titanate based glass-ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass Samples were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. These glass samples were converted to glass-ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The density, dielectric constant and volume fraction of PbTiO3 in glass-ceramic samples have been observed to increase with Al2O3 addition. The observed increase in the above properties has been attributed to formation of tetragonal PbTiO3 phase in the glass-ceramics. All the glassceramic samples exhibited the ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The value of remnant polarization was observed to increase with Al2O3 addition. The enhancement in the values of remnant polarization may be attributed to increase in the volume fraction of PbTiO3 phase in glass-ceramics.

Rahangdale, V. U.; Gala, D. K.; Acharya, R. M.; Deshpande, V. K.

2014-04-01

289

Frequency and field dependence of magnetoelectric interactions in layered ferromagnetic transition metal-piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at 10 Hz-3 MHz has been measured in trilayers of Fe, Co, or Ni and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The strongest ME coupling is measured for trilayers with Ni and the weakest in Co. Data on ME voltage coefficient ?E versus bias magnetic field H for Fe-PZT-Fe show unique features including zero crossing and sign reversal. Measurements of frequency dependence of ?E reveal a giant ME coupling due to the electromechanical resonance at 200-300 kHz for radial modes and at ~2.7 MHz for thickness modes. Theoretical estimates of field and frequency dependence of ?E are in very good agreement with the data.

Laletin, V. M.; Paddubnaya, N.; Srinivasan, G.; de Vreugd, C. P.; Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Filippov, D. A.

2005-11-01

290

Polarization and Piezoelectric Properties of High Performance Bismuth Sodium Titanate Single Crystals Grown by High-Oxygen-Pressure Flux Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) single crystals were grown by flux method at a high oxygen pressure (PO2) of 1 MPa, and their polarization and piezoelectric properties were investigated. BNT single crystals exhibited a saturated polarization hysteresis with remanent polarizations (Pr) of 31 ?C/cm2 along [100]c, 44 ?C/cm2 along [110]c and 54 ?C/cm2 along [111]c. These results show that spontaneous polarization of BNT is approximately 55 ?C/cm2 or larger. Strain measurements of rhombohedral BNT crystals suggest that the polarization reversal along [111]c is achieved by non-180 Ps rotation whereas that along [100]c is accomplished by 180 Ps switching.

Suzuki, Muneyasu; Morishita, Akifumi; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

2010-09-01

291

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CeO2-added nonstoichiometric (Na0.5K0.5)0.97(Nb0.96Sb0.04)O3 ceramics for piezoelectric energy harvesting device applications.  

PubMed

In this study, nonstoichiometric (Na(0.5)K(0.5))(0.97)(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3) ceramics were fabricated and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the CeO(2) addition. In this ceramic composition, CeO(2) addition improved sinterability, electromechanical coupling factor k(p), mechanical quality factor Q(m), piezoelectric constant d(33), and g(33). At the sintering temperature of 1100C, for the 0.2wt% CeO(2) added specimen, the optimum values of density = 4.359 g/cm(3), k(p) = 0.443, Q(m) = 588, ?(r) = 444, d(33) = 159 pC/N, and g(33) = 35 10(-3) Vm/N, were obtained. A piezoelectric energy harvesting device using 0.2 wt% CeO(2)- added lead-free (K(0.5)Na(0.5))(0.97)(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3) ceramics and a rectifying circuit for energy harvesting were fabricated and their electrical characteristics were investigated. Under an external vibration acceleration of 0.7 g, when the mass, the frequency of vibration generator, and matching load resistance were 2.4 g, 70 Hz, and 721 ?, respectively, output voltage and power of piezoelectric harvesting device indicated the optimum values of 24.6 mV(rms) and 0.839 ?W, respectively-suitable for application as the electric power source of a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) sensor node. PMID:21937318

Oh, Youngkwang; Noh, Jungrae; Yoo, Juhyun; Kang, Jinhee; Hwang, Larkhoon; Hong, Jaeil

2011-09-01

292

High piezoelectricity due to multiphase coexistence in low-temperature sintered (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3-CuOx ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrahigh piezoelectric constant (d33 = 683 pC/N) and converse piezoelectric coefficient (dS/dE = 1257 pm/V) were observed in CuO-doped lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 ceramics at an optimal composition fabricated by a conventional sintering method at a low temperature 1250 C. Since all samples showed a pure perovskite structure with coexisting multiphases including cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, and rhombohedral phases around two converged triple points, a good compositional stability of high piezoelectricity along with a high d33 and dS/dE over 600 pC/N and 1000 pm/V was achieved within a wide compositional region (1.0 <= x <= 3.0) regardless of the CuO content (x).

Zhou, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Kun; Zhu, Li-Feng; Cheng, Li-Qian; Li, Jing-Feng

2013-10-01

293

Dielectric properties of rare earth (Sm and La) substituted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we are reporting the studies on dielectric properties of Lanthanum (La) and Samarium (Sm) substituted Lead Zirconate Titanate with compositional formula Pb(1.02-x)SmxZr0.55Ti0.45O3 and Pb(1.02-x)LaxZr0.55Ti0.45O3 with x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03. The materials were synthesized by solid state reaction route. XRD analysis shows that all the samples be in single phase with tetragonal structure. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature.

Dipti; Singh, Sangeeta; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

2013-06-01

294

Thermally stimulated processes in samarium-modified lead titanate ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermally stimulated processes in a samarium-modified lead titanate ferroelectric system are analyzed from the thermally stimulated depolarization discharge current. The discharge due to the space charge injected during the poling process, the pyroelectric response and a conduction process related to oxygen vacancies are evaluated considering a theoretical decomposition by using a numerical method. The pyroelectric response is separated from other components to evaluate the polarization behavior and some pyroelectric parameters. High remanent polarization, pyroelectric coefficient and merit figure values are obtained at room temperature.

Peliz-Barranco, A.; Garca-Wong, A. C.; Gonzlez-Abreu, Y.; Gagou, Y.; Saint-Grgoire, P.

2013-08-01

295

Preparation of antiferroelectric lead zirconate titanate stannate ceramics by high-energy ball milling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead zirconate titanate stannate powders doped with lanthanum and niobium, namely [Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.85Sn0.13Ti0.02)0.98O3, or PNZST) and (Pb0.9La0.02(Zr0.65Sn0.31Ti0.04)O3, or PLZST], were synthesized by a high-energy ball milling technique from their corresponding oxide mixtures. The milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analysis techniques. The sintering behaviors of the milled powders were investigated by a

L. B. Kong; J. Ma; T. S. Zhang; W. Zhu; O. K. Tan

2002-01-01

296

The strong influence of iron additions on the lead-lanthanum-titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, phase transitions and electrical characteristics of iron and lanthanum substituted lead titanate are reported. Structural analysis of the prepared samples was carried out to confirm the formation of the compounds in the proper phase. The average grain size was estimated using Scherrer's equation. Dielectric properties of the samples have been studied as functions of temperature and frequency. Variations of the dielectric constant (?r) as function of temperature show a diffuse ferro-paraelectric phase transition. The diffusivity and the relaxation strength were estimated using the modified Uchino-law, and the relaxation time of these materials satisfies the Vogel-Fulcher equation.

Omari, Lhaj el Hachemi; Sayouri, Salaheddine

2013-11-01

297

Study of impedance parameters of cerium modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature solid-state reaction technique was used to prepare the polycrystalline samples of cerium (Ce) modified lead zirconate titanate with Zr\\/Ti ratio 65:35 (i.e., Pb(Zr0.65-xCexTi0.35)O3 (PZCT)). Preliminary X-ray structural analysis exhibits the formation of the new compositions of PZT. In order to study the compositional effects on the electrical properties (complex impedance Z*, complex modulus M*, electrical conductivity and relaxation

Balgovind Tiwari; R. N. P. Choudhary

2010-01-01

298

HP001: Piezoelectric ceramics for explosively-driven high voltage RF pulse generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 doped with varying levels of BaTiO3 (BT) was synthesized. Remnant polarization, coercive field, d33, permittivity and grain size were measured. Output voltage generated under fast impact was measured. The piezoelectric doped with 4 mol.% BT generated the highest output voltage and was selected for explosive impact testing. Results showed that it generated an output voltage twice that of the

B. A. Bender; E. P. Gorzkowski; M.-J. Pan

2008-01-01

299

Piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3-PbTiO3 ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline (1-x)BiFeO3-(x)PbTiO3 ceramics (where x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) doped with low concentrations of Sb have been produced via a mixed oxide route. Ceramic disks were thinned and electroded and the high electric field resistivity measured at 100 and 150C in order to mimic poling conditions. It was found that the high field resistivity was sensitive to composition in undoped materials,

T. P. Comyn; T. Stevenson; A. J. Bell

2004-01-01

300

Fundamental limitation to the magnitude of piezoelectric response of (001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic  

SciTech Connect

(001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic was found to exhibit a 65% improvement in the longitudinal piezoelectric response as compared to its random counterpart. Piezoresponse force microscopy study revealed the existence of larger 180 and non-180 domains for textured ceramic as compared to that of the random ceramic. Improvement in piezoresponse by the development of (001)pc texture is discussed in terms of the crystallographic nature of KNN and domain morphology. A comparative analysis performed with a rhombohedral composition suggested that the improvement in longitudinal piezoresponse of polycrystalline ceramics by the development of (001)pc texture is limited by the crystal structure.

Gupta, Shashaank [ORNL] [ORNL; Belianinov, Alex [ORNL] [ORNL; Okatan, Mahmut B [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL; Priya, Shashaank [Virginia Tech] [Virginia Tech

2014-01-01

301

Phase structure and piezoelectric properties of high Curie temperature BiYbO 3PbTiO 3BaTiO 3 ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perovskite (1?x)(0.1BiYbO30.9PbTiO3)xBaTiO3 (BYPT-BT) ceramics were prepared by the conventional processing. The effect of BaTiO3 on the microstructure and piezoelectric properties was investigated. The results show that the perovskite phase and the Yb2Ti2O7 pyrochlore phase are coexisting in the BYPT-BT ceramics. BaTiO3 influences the lattice structure and Ba2+ will replace A-site ions of perovskite, which decreases the lattice constant ratio c\\/a,

Gao Feng; Hong Rongzi; Liu Jiaji; Li Zhen; Cheng Lihong; Tian Changsheng

2009-01-01

302

Analysis of a bi-piezoelectric ceramic layer with an interfacial crack subjected to anti-plane shear and in-plane electric loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of a bi-piezoelectric ceramic layer with a centre interfacial crack subjected to anti-plane shear and in-plane electric loading has been studied. The dislocation density functions and the Fourier integral transform method have been employed to eliminate the problem of singular integral equations. The normalized energy release rate, stress and electrical displacement intensity factors, G\\/G0,KIII\\/KIII0 and KD\\/KD0, respectively, were

Ai Kah Soh; Dai-Ning Fang; Kwok Lun Lee

2000-01-01

303

Effects of Vibration Stress and Temperature on the Characteristics of Piezoelectric Ceramics under High Vibration Amplitude Levels Measured by Electrical Transient Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a characteristic evaluation of piezoelectric ceramics at high vibration amplitude levels of resonance, based on the electrical transient response technique. Low-Q and high-Q materials are measured, and the effect of vibration stress is obtained without affecting temperature. It is revealed that for low-Q materials an increase of loss is caused mainly by the vibration stress, while for

Mikio Umeda; Kentaro Nakamura; Sadayuki Ueha

1999-01-01

304

Fabrication of Pb(Nb,Ni)O3Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Piezoelectric Ceramic Fibers by Extrusion of a Sol-Powder Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the fabrication of Pb(Nb,Ni)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PNN-PZT) piezoelectric ceramic fibers by extrusion of a powder-sol mixture is presented. The process using extrusion of a powder-sol mixture was first applied to the fabrication of PZT fibers and its advantages were discussed in the former study. In this study, the process is applied to the fabrication of PNN-PZT fibers, and the

Jinhao Qiu; Junji Tani; Naoki Yanada; Yoshimasa Kobayashi; Hirofumi Takahashi

2004-01-01

305

Enhanced dielectric and piezoelectric properties of xBaZrO3-(1-x)BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

xBaZrO3-(1-x)BaTiO3 solid solutions (x = 0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.18) synthesized via conventional solid state reaction method exhibit piezoelectric coefficients comparable to those of ``hard'' PZT-8, PZT-4, and even ``soft'' PZT-5 A. Doping also improves the poling efficiency of xBaZrO3-(1-x)BaTiO3 ceramics. Study of temperature dependence of the dielectric and piezoelectric properties reveal the following. Doping lowered the Curie point but raised the temperatures of the other two transformations. The diffused phase transition behavior has been enhanced with increasing content of BaZrO3, but x <= 0.18 is not enough to show a relaxor behavior. Piezoelectric responses show peaks at transformation temperatures and exhibit the best stability in the orthorhombic phase. Significant improvement in room temperature piezoelectric and electromechanical responses (d33 = 420pC/N, d31 = -138pC/N, and kp = 49%) comparable to PZT-5 A is achieved at a composition of x = 0.06 (1400 C 100 h sintered), which brings the rhombohedral-orthorhombic transition to the ambient temperature. Enhanced piezoelectric properties are mainly attributed to a series of microscopic phase transformations due to the presence of internal structural gradient. Other possible contributions such as domain structures and constrained negative stiffness effect have also been discussed.

Dong, Liang; Stone, Donald S.; Lakes, Roderic S.

2012-04-01

306

Microstructural modifications of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramics due to bipolar electric fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue in ferroelectric ceramics is the result of an intricate interplay of electrical, mechanical and electrochemical processes, each of which has been claimed responsible for fatigue. We present experimental results interrelating the different scales of the fatigue mechanism showing that all forms of fatigue occur. Electrochemical mechanisms lead to point defect agglomeration. The agglomerates are rendered visible as etch grooves

Jrgen Nuffer; Doru C. Lupascu; Alexandre Glazounov; Hans-Joachim Kleebe; Jrgen Rdel

2002-01-01

307

Piezoelectric Properties of Triglycine-Sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since triglycine sulphate crystal is centrosymmetric above the Curie point, the piezoelectricity in the ferroelectric phase is expected to be an ``induced'' one as in the case of barium titanate, distinct from an ``intrinsic'' piezoelectricity of rochelle salt. Temperature dependences of piezoelectric constants are measured by using various cuts of crystal, and some experiments on electrostrictive effect above the Curie

Takuro Ikeda; Yoichi Tanaka; Hiroo Toyoda

1962-01-01

308

Aging effects on curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-bearing high-level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich high-level nuclear waste showed a gradual decrease in density up to a dose of 8.5 {times} 10{sup 17} {alpha} decays {center dot} g{sup {minus}1}. After that, the rate of density change increased apparently because of crack formation. Optical microscopy showed cracks {gt}0.1 mm long and {gt}1 {mu}m wide after a dose of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 17} {alpha} decays {center dot} g{sup {minus}1}. Leach tests suggested that the dissolution-control phases for sodium and cesium changed from freudenbergite and hollandite, respectively, to intergranular phases after significant cracking. Aging also enhanced strontium losses, relative to calcium, indicating that strontium may also be partitioned to the intergranular phases. After the fresh surfaces produced by cracking were exposed to leachant, and the dissolution of soluble intergranular surfaces was complete, the leaching of nonradioactive elements from the samples having a dose of 12.3 {times} 10{sup 17} {alpha} decays {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} was limited by the following dissolution-control phases: freudenbergite (Na), hollandite (Cs and Ba), perovskite and/or zirconolite (Sr and Ca), and alloys (Mo).

Mitamura, H. (Dept. of Environmental Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (JP)); Matsumoto, S.; Tamuro, Y.; Togashi, Y. (Dept. of Hot Lab., Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (JP)); Hart, K.P.; Vance, E.R. (Advanced Materials Program, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights Research Lab., Lucas Heights, N.S.W. (AU)); Miyazaki, T. (Chiyoda Maintenance Ltd. (JP)); White, T.J. (Univ. of Queensland (AU))

1992-02-01

309

Selective substitution and tetragonality by Co-doping of dysprosium and thulium on dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics co-doped with rare-earth elements were investigated in terms of selective substitution and tetragonality. The dielectrics were designed by addition of various Dy2O3 and Tm2O3 contents, for a total of 1 mol. % concentration, and analyzed in a temperature range from -55C to 150C. The dielectric constant of the 0.7 mol. % Dy2O3 and the 0.3 mol. % Tm2O3 co-doped BaTiO3 was 2250, which was about 27% higher than those of specimens doped with 1 mol. % Tm2O3 and 1 mol. % Dy2O3 at room temperature. The tendency of dielectric properties was verified through the changes of lattice parameters and binding energy. The substitution of Dy3+ led to a decrease of tetragonality and grain growth; however, amphoteric substitution caused by the co-doping of Dy2O3 and Tm2O3 compensated for those adverse effects. It can be concluded that the improvement of dielectric properties originated from the increase of the site substitution rate of Dy3+ and Tm3+ ions according to the ionic size the in rare-earth doped BaTiO3 system.

Kim, Jungdae; Kim, Dowan; Kim, Jinseong; Kim, Yong-Nam; Hui, K. N.; Lee, Heesoo

2011-06-01

310

Enhanced piezoelectric performance of (0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

(0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BSI-PT-PZN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by traditional solid-state reaction method. Combining X-ray diffraction results with piezoelectric data, it was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) occurred at x = 0.575. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33}, curie temperature T{sub c}, and electromechanical coupling factor k{sub p} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics with MPB composition were 427 pC/N, 412 Degree-Sign C, and 0.51, respectively. Furthermore, the strain of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics reached up to 0.25% under the electric field of 40 kV/cm. Temperature-dependent electromechanical coupling coefficient for MPB composition was stable from room temperature up to 350 Degree-Sign C. The piezoelectric properties of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were comparable to that of 0.36BiScO{sub 3}-0.64PbTiO{sub 3} (BS-PT) ceramics, and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics was about twice that of our previous reported 0.4Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-0.6PbTiO{sub 3} (BSI-PT) ceramics. The reduction in the expensive Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and comparable piezoelectric properties with BS-PT ceramics indicated that BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were promising for commercial applications as high temperature actuators and sensors.

Chen Jianguo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road No. 149, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhao Tianlong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng Jinrong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road No. 149, Shanghai 200072 (China); Dong Shuxiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Yiheyuan Road No.5, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-04-14

311

Enhanced piezoelectric performance of (0.98-x)Bi(Sc3/4In1/4)O3-xPbTiO3-0.02Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(0.98-x)Bi(Sc3/4In1/4)O3-xPbTiO3-0.02Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BSI-PT-PZN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by traditional solid-state reaction method. Combining X-ray diffraction results with piezoelectric data, it was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) occurred at x = 0.575. The piezoelectric constant d33, curie temperature Tc, and electromechanical coupling factor kp of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics with MPB composition were 427 pC/N, 412 C, and 0.51, respectively. Furthermore, the strain of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics reached up to 0.25% under the electric field of 40 kV/cm. Temperature-dependent electromechanical coupling coefficient for MPB composition was stable from room temperature up to 350 C. The piezoelectric properties of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were comparable to that of 0.36BiScO3-0.64PbTiO3 (BS-PT) ceramics, and the piezoelectric constant d33 of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics was about twice that of our previous reported 0.4Bi(Sc3/4In1/4)O3-0.6PbTiO3 (BSI-PT) ceramics. The reduction in the expensive Sc2O3 content and comparable piezoelectric properties with BS-PT ceramics indicated that BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were promising for commercial applications as high temperature actuators and sensors.

Chen, Jianguo; Zhao, Tianlong; Cheng, Jinrong; Dong, Shuxiang

2013-04-01

312

Processing Techniques Developed to Fabricate Lanthanum Titanate Piezoceramic Material for High-Temperature Smart Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezoelectric ceramic materials are potential candidates for use as actuators and sensors in intelligent gas turbine engines. For piezoceramics to be applied in gas turbine engines, they will have to be able to function in temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2500 F. However, the maximum use temperature for state-of-the-art piezoceramic materials is on the order of 300 to 400 F. Research activities have been initiated to develop high-temperature piezoceramic materials for gas turbine engine applications. Lanthanum titanate has been shown to have high-temperature piezoelectric properties with Curie temperatures of T(sub c) = 1500 C and use temperatures greater than 1000 C. However, the fabrication of lanthanum titanate poses serious challenges because of the very high sintering temperatures required for densification. Two different techniques have been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to fabricate dense lanthanum titanate piezoceramic material. In one approach, lower sintering temperatures were achieved by adding yttrium oxide to commercially available lanthanum titanate powder. Addition of only 0.1 mol% yttrium oxide lowered the sintering temperature by as much as 300 C, to just 1100 C, and dense lanthanum titanate was produced by pressure-assisted sintering. The second approach utilized the same commercially available powders but used an innovative sintering approach called differential sintering, which did not require any additive.

Goldsby, Jon C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

2004-01-01

313

Incorporation of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 fibers into ceramic/polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, or PZT, fiber and fiber/polymer composites for transducer applications is discussed. Green PZT fibers, 80 to 100 micrometers in diameter, were formed at Advanced Cerametrics, Inc., using the Viscous Suspension Spinning Process (VSSP). In this process, fine PZT powder is intimately mixed with polymer precursor by high shear mixing. The powder and precursor mixture is spun through a spinneret into a coagulation bath to form fibers. The fibers are washed, dried, and collected on a spool. Yarns containing between 10 and 500 individual fibers were collimated by applying a polymeric sizing to the yarns, and passing the yarns through sizing dies. Yarn bundle tightness and flexibility were controlled by the sizing chemistry. Continuous green yarns were cut to short lengths, or woven in different architectures to create composites with novel microstructures. The short yarns were fired to product PZT straight rods for `pick and place' piezoelectric composites. The woven structures were heat treated and backfilled with polymer to create composites with 1-3, 2-3, and 3-3 connectivity. After heat treatment, the diameter of the individual PZT fibers was 10 to 20 micrometers . Electromechanical characteristics of a number of composites were determined, and will be reported. The PZT VSSP fibers can be used to form fine-scale, large area piezoelectric fiber/polymer composites for use in hydrophones, transducers for medical ultrasonic imaging and non-destructive evaluation, and as sensors and actuators in vibration and noise control.

Safari, Ahmad; Janas, Victor; Jadidian, Bahram; French, Jonathan D.; Weitz, Gregory E.; Luke, John E.; Cass, Bud

1996-05-01

314

Investigation of ferroelectric phase transition for barium strontium titanate ceramics by in situ Raman scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the change in ferroelectric properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST60) ceramics near Curie temperature due to the application of an electric field was investigated by using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The results showed that different structural responses were induced upon electric fields (E). The relative intensity ratio between the vibrating modes of A1(TO3) and E(TO4) was attributed to the structural phase transitions induced by the electric field E. The increase in degree of structural distortion with increasing E was in a good agreement with the gradual shift in Curie point to higher temperature. These electric-field-induced structural effects contributed significantly to the tunability of the BST60 ceramics. These conclusion should be also applicable to other ferroelectric materials.

Zhang, Qiwei; Zhai, Jiwei; Kong, Lingbing; Yao, Xi

2012-12-01

315

Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramic Films Prepared by Aerosol Deposition Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaTiO3 (BTO) thick films were deposited by an aerosol deposition (AD) method and their physical and electrical properties were investigated. The films were deposited on Pt/Ti/Al2O3 and Pt/Ti/ZrO2 (YSZ) ceramic substrates at a thickness of approximately 2 ?m. Two powders were selected for this investigation. The primary BTO powders have a perovskite structure with average particle diameters of 0.1 and 0.5 ?m, respectively, and are commercially available as raw powders (BT01 and BT05). These powders were heat-treated for 1 h at 1000 C in a furnace prior to deposition. The particle size was not changed by the heat treatment while a large aggregate with a size of 10-50 ?m was observed in the heat-treated BT01 powder. As-deposition films showed a relative dielectric constant (\\varepsilonr) of approximately 100 regardless of the powder and the substrates used. A post-deposition heat treatment at 1000 C for 1 h was carried out for the BTO thick films. After annealing, the \\varepsilonr was improved. The BTO thick films prepared from BT01 heat-treated powders on the Pt/Ti/YSZ ceramic substrates showed an \\varepsilonr at room temperature of 1120 which is higher than that of 910 of the films deposited on Pt/Ti/Al2O3. The BTO films fabricated from BT05 heat-treated powders on Pt/Ti/Al2O3 ceramic substrates have an \\varepsilonr of 650, larger than that for the films deposited on Pt/Ti/YSZ. Control of powder aggregation by heat treatment along with the use of AD as the method of film fabrication and appropriate substrate selection are demonstrated to be important parameters to obtain BTO ceramic films with a high \\varepsilonr.

Suzuki, Muneyasu; Akedo, Jun

2010-09-01

316

Growth and characterization of barium tantalate-based microwave ceramics and barium and strontium titanate ferroelectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, we explore the growth and properties of electronic ceramics used in microwave resonator and energy storage. Their applications require high dielectric constants, which do not vary significantly with temperature and loss dissipation loss. Single-phase Ba(Cd1\\/3 Ta2\\/3)O3 powder is produced using conventional solid state reaction methods. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations show that the covalent nature of the directional

Shaojun Liu

2005-01-01

317

Combinatorial bulk ceramic magnetoelectric composite libraries of strontium hexaferrite and barium titanate.  

PubMed

Bulk ceramic combinatorial libraries were produced via a novel, high-throughput (HT) process, in the form of polycrystalline strips with a gradient composition along the length of the library. Step gradient ceramic composite libraries with 10 mol % steps of SrFe12O19-BaTiO3 (SrM-BT) were made and characterized using HT methods, as a proof of principle of the combinatorial bulk ceramic process, and sintered via HT thermal processing. It was found that the SrM-BT libraries sintered at 1175 C had the optimum morphology and density. The compositional, electrical and magnetic properties of this library were analyzed, and it was found that the SrM and BT phases did not react and remained discrete. The combinatorial synthesis method produced a relatively linear variation in composition. The magnetization of the library followed the measured compositions very well, as did the low frequency permittivity values of most compositions in the library. However, with high SrM content of ?80 mol %, the samples became increasingly conductive, and no reliable dielectric measurements could be made. Such conductivity would also greatly inhibit any ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling with these composites with high levels of the SrM hexagonal ferrite. PMID:22676556

Pullar, Robert C

2012-07-01

318

Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Er{sup 3+} doped CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er{sup 3+} doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

Peng Dengfeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Chaonan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao'an Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

2012-05-15

319

Response of intergrown microstructure to an electric field and its consequences in the lead-free piezoelectric bismuth sodium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the R3c average structure and micro-structure of the ceramic Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) in situ under applied electric fields using diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction implies the presence of significant octahedral tilt twin disorder, corresponding to the existence of a fine scale intergrown microstructural (IGMS) 'phase' within the R3c rhombohedral average structure matrix. A careful neutron refinement suggests not only that the off-centre displacements of the cations relative to the oxygens in the R3c regions increases systematically on application of an electric field but also that the phase fraction of the IGMS regions increases systematically. The latter change in phase fraction on application of the electric field enhances the polar displacement of the cations relative to the oxygen anions and affects the overall strain response. These IGMS regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another, resulting in polarisation relaxation and strain behaviour observed in BNT-containing materials.

Liu, Yun; Norn, Lasse; Studer, Andrew J.; Withers, Ray L.; Guo, Yiping; Li, Yongxiang; Yang, Hui; Wang, Jian

2012-03-01

320

Dielectric dispersion of ferroelectric ceramics and single crystals by sound generation in piezoelectric domains  

SciTech Connect

Periodic domain configurations with alternating 180{degree} and 90{degree} domains are not completely mechanically clamped up to microwave frequencies. Above the acoustic resonance of the ferroelectric sample, therefore, the dielectric constant comprises contributions which can be attributed to the free dielectric constant. Up to microwave frequencies the domains are piezoelectrically active; they emit longitudinal and shear thickness waves into the surroundings which cause dielectric loss in the sample. The dielectric step from the free condition to the clamped condition at the relaxation frequency is on the order of {Delta}{var_epsilon} {approx} 10--100. This step is much smaller than the step caused by the emission of shear waves from 90{degree} domain walls.

Arlt, G.; Boettger, U.; Witte, S. [Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik

1995-04-01

321

Biocompatible evaluation of barium titanate foamed ceramic structures for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

The potential of barium titanate (BT) to be electrically active makes it a material of interest in regenerative medicine. To enhance the understanding of this material for orthopedic applications, the in vitro biocompatibility of porous BT fabricated using a direct foaming technique was investigated. Characterization of the resultant foams yielded an overall porosity between 50 and 70% with average pore size in excess of 30 m in diameter. A mouse osteoblast (7F2) cell line was cultured with the BT to determine the extent of the foams' toxicity using a LDH assay. After 72 h, BT foams showed a comparable cytotoxicity of 6.4??0.8% to the 8.4??1.5% of porous 45S5 Bioglass. The in vitro inflammatory response elicited from porous BT was measured as a function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) secreted from a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Results indicate that the BT foams do not cause a significant inflammatory response, eliciting a 9.4??1.3 pg of TNF-? per mL of media compared with 20.2??2.3 pg/mL from untreated cells. These results indicate that porous BT does not exhibit short term cytotoxicity and has potential for orthopedic tissue engineering applications. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2089-2095, 2014. PMID:23894063

Ball, Jordan P; Mound, Brittnee A; Nino, Juan C; Allen, Josephine B

2014-07-01

322

Correlation between dielectric breakdown strength and interface polarization in barium strontium titanate glass ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The correlation between the dielectric breakdown performance and interface polarization was studied by the measurements of the dielectric breakdown strength and impedance spectroscopy as a function of sintering temperatures in a BaO-SrO-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass ceramic system. It was found that dielectric breakdown strength strongly depends on the interface polarization. The sintering temperature dependence of breakdown strength is attributed to the variation in interfacial polarization based on the results of complex impedance analysis.

Huang Jiajia; Zhang Yong; Ma Tao [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Hongtao; Zhang Linwen [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Sichuan 621900 (China)

2010-01-25

323

Influence of nanocrystalline phases on the electrical properties of lithium titanate phosphate glass ceramics mixed with Ga2O3 nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several glass ceramic compositions dispersed with Ga2O3 nanocrystals, in the series samples (100???x)[0.4Li2O0.1TiO20.5P2O5]?+?xGa2O3 with x?=?0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10?mol% of Ga2O3 were synthesized via high-energy ball milling technique and labeled as lithium gallium titanate phosphate glass (LTPGx) (x is the mol% of Ga2O3 nanocrystals). The compositions have been selected on the basis of thermal stability data obtained from

Ch. Krishna Kishore Reddy; Balaji Rao Ravuri; Ch. V. Koti Reddy; K. Veerabhadra Rao

2011-01-01

324

Influence of nanocrystalline phases on the electrical properties of lithium titanate phosphate glass ceramics mixed with Ga2O3 nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several glass ceramic compositions dispersed with Ga2O3 nanocrystals, in the series samples (100???x)[0.4Li2O0.1TiO20.5P2O5]?+?xGa2O3 with x?=?0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10?mol% of Ga2O3 were synthesized via high-energy ball milling technique and labeled as lithium gallium titanate phosphate glass (LTPGx) (x is the mol% of Ga2O3 nanocrystals). The compositions have been selected on the basis of thermal stability data obtained from

Ch. Krishna Kishore Reddy; Balaji Rao Ravuri; Ch. V. Koti Reddy; K. Veerabhadra Rao

2012-01-01

325

Piezoelectric Loss Performance in Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbTiO3 Single Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystals are a suitable replacement over conventional PZT-based ceramics in transducer applications because of their large electromechanical coupling factors (k > 0.90) and piezoelectric constants (d > 1000 pC\\/N). For single crystals, it is possible to modify the performance by suitable selection of the orientation, and appropriate composition changes or doping can be utilized

Aditya Rajapurkar; Seyit O. Ural; Yuan Zhuang; Ho-Yong Lee; Ahmed Amin; Kenji Uchino

2010-01-01

326

Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ~ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ~ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jkli, A.

2013-04-01

327

Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain ?{111} and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{200} in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the ?{111}-cos2 ? plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{200}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

2013-07-01

328

Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2013-07-14

329

Remarkably high-temperature stable piezoelectric properties of Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense (1-y)BiFe1-x(Mg0.5Ti0.5)xO3 - yBaTiO3 (BFMT-BT, y = 0.29, x = 0-0.12) ceramics with a pseudocubic perovskite crystal structure exhibit remarkably high-temperature stable piezoelectric properties. In particular, x = 0.03 BFMT-BT ceramics, with a Curie temperature, Tc, of ~425 C, show a stable piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of ~155 pC/N up to a depolarization temperature, Td, of ~400 C. This Td is higher than Tc for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, therefore suggesting BFMT-BT ceramics to be promising high-temperature Pb-free piezoelectric materials.

Zhou, Changrong; Feteira, Antonio; Shan, Xu; Yang, Huabin; Zhou, Qin; Cheng, Jun; Li, Weizhou; Wang, Hua

2012-07-01

330

Effect of material constants on power output in piezoelectric vibration-based generators.  

PubMed

A possible power output estimation based on material constants in piezoelectric vibration-based generators is proposed. A modified equivalent circuit model of the generator was built and was validated by the measurement results in the generator fabricated using potassium sodium niobate-based and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Subsequently, generators with the same structure using other PZT-based and bismuth-layered structure ferroelectrics ceramics were fabricated and tested. The power outputs of these generators were expressed as a linear functions of the term composed of electromechanical coupling coefficients k(sys)(2) and mechanical quality factors Q*(m) of the generator. The relationship between device constants (k(sys)(2) and Q*(m)) and material constants (k(31)(2) and Q(m)) was clarified. Estimation of the power output using material constants is demonstrated and the appropriate piezoelectric material for the generator is suggested. PMID:21937317

Takeda, Hiroaki; Mihara, Kensuke; Yoshimura, Tomohiro; Hoshina, Takuya; Tsurumi, Takaaki

2011-09-01

331

Dielectric properties in lead-free piezoelectric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3BaTiO3 single crystals and ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO30.07BaTiO3 (BNB7T) piezoelectric single crystals and ceramics have been grown respectively by using the self-flux and solid-state-reaction methods. The real (??) and imaginary (??) parts of the dielectric permittivity of BNB7T crystals and ceramics were investigated with and without an electric (E) poling as functions of temperature and frequency. The BNB7T crystal shows a stronger dielectric maximum at Tm~240 C than the ceramic at Tm~300 C. The dielectric permittivity of BNB7T ceramic shows an extra peak after poling at an electric field E=40 kV/cm in the region of 80100 C designated as the depolarization temperature (Td). A wide-range dielectric thermal hysteresis was observed in BNB7T crystal and ceramic, suggesting a first-order-like phase transition. The dielectric permittivity ?? obeys the CurieWeiss equation, ??=C/(T?To), above 500 C, which is considered as the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop and attenuate dielectric responses.

Chen, C.-S.; Tu, C. S.; Chen, P.-Y.; Ting, Y.; Chiu, S.-J.; Hung, C. M.; Lee, H.-Y.; Wang, S.-F.; Anthoninappen, J.; Schmidt, V. H.; Chien, R. R.

2014-05-01

332

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of SrBi 4- xHo xTi 4O 15 ( x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of SrBi 4- xHo xTi 4O 15 ( x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) ceramics were investigated. SrBi 4- xHo xTi 4O 15 ( x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06; SBHT- x) ceramics were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction sintering method. An X-ray diffraction measurement indicated that a single phase layered perovskite was obtained for all compositions. Studies of dielectric properties with temperature at different frequencies and piezoelectric properties have been carried out.

Mamatha, B.; James, A. R.; Sarah, P.

2010-12-01

333

Piezoelectric, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of Sm 2O 3-doped (Bi 0.5Na 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 lead-free ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sm2O3 (00.7wt.%)-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 (abbreviated as BNBT6) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid-state processes. The effects of Sm2O3 on the microstructure, dielectric properties and piezoelectric properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that 0.10.7wt.% of Sm2O3 can diffuse into the lattice of BNBT6 ceramics forming pure perovskite phase. The SEM images indicate that the microstructure can be affected

Peng Fu; Zhijun Xu; Ruiqing Chu; Wei Li; Guozhong Zang; Jigong Hao

2010-01-01

334

Effect of Dy 2O 3 on the structure and electrical properties of (Bi 0.5Na 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dy2O3 (00.8wt.%)-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 (abbreviated as BNBT6) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid-state processes. The compositional dependence of phase structure and electrical properties of the ceramics was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data shows that 0.20.8wt.% Dy2O3 can diffuse into the lattice of BNBT6 ceramics and forms a pure perovskite phase. SEM images indicate that all the modified ceramics have

Peng Fu; Zhijun Xu; Ruiqing Chu; Wei Li; Qian Xie; Yanjie Zhang; Qian Chen

2010-01-01

335

Relationship between the evolutions of the microstructure and semiconductor properties of yttrium-doped barium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intricate connections among the microstructural effect, semiconducting tendency and charge compensation behaviour of yttrium (Y3+) dopants in near-stoichiometric barium titanate (BaTiO3; Ba/Ti atomic ratio = 0.999) ceramics sintered at 1460 C in air are examined. It is found that with increasing Y3+ doping up to 2.0 mol%, the microstructure of BaTiO3 evolves from a liquid-phase-assisted dense-sintered microstructure to a highly porous microstructure characterized by connected pores and loose lattices of fused submicrometre grains. During such evolution, a transitional microstructure characterized by large distinctive pores and grains with abnormal morphology is also identified. When Y3+ doping is increased progressively from 0.02 to 0.2 mol%, the (negative) majority carrier concentration and conductivity are increased substantially by 8 orders of magnitude. This increase in n-type semiconductor characteristics is contributed not only by the increasing substitution of Y3+ for Ba2+ in host BaTiO3, but also by the formation of yttrium-rich and/or oxygen-deficient precipitates at the grain boundaries. The grain boundary phases would therefore stabilize the mechanism of free electron compensation and enable the transportation of electrons through the grain boundaries. The measured Hall effect data indicate the shift from the n-type to p-type semiconductor properties with increasing Y3+ doping. The carrier mobilities of 1.0 and 2.0 mol% Y-doped BaTiO3 are high; this is attributed to their highly porous microstructures which provide easy diffusion paths for the charge carriers. Through a combined interpretation of the diffractometry, microscopy, mass spectrometry and Hall effect data, Y3+ doping at 1.0 mol% is found to be the critical doping amount separating different site-occupying behaviours of Y3+ in the BaTiO3 cation sites, which eventually lead to different charge compensation mechanisms and semiconductor properties.

Huang, C. M.; Lin, C. Y.; Shieh, J.

2011-08-01

336

Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of grain-orientated Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

By dynamic forging during Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), grain-orientated ferroelectric Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BLT) ceramics were prepared. Their ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties are anisotropic. The textured ceramics parallel and perpendicular to the shear flow directions have similar thermal depoling behaviors. The d{sub 33} piezoelectric coefficient of BLT ceramics gradually reduces up to 350 deg. C; it then drops rapidly. The broadness of the dielectric constant and loss peaks and the existence of d{sub 33} above the permittivity peak, T{sub m}, show that the BLT ceramic has relaxor-like behavior.

Liu Jing; Shen Zhijian; Yan Haixue; Reece, Michael J.; Kan Yanmei; Wang Peiling [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Materials, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2007-11-15

337

The Effects of Ta Substitution and K/Na Ratio Variation on the Microstructure and Properties of (K,Na)NbO3-Based Lead Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[(Na0.5+ y K0.5- y )0.94Li0.06][(Nb0.94Sb0.06)1- x Ta x ]O3 + 0.08 mol% MnO2 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated successfully by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of Ta5+ substitution and K/Na ratio variation on the microstructure and properties of the ceramics have been systematically investigated. With the increasing of Ta5+ substitution content, the orthorhombic-tetragonal transition temperature T o-t presents obvious "V" type variation while the Curie temperature T c decreases monotonically. The ceramics properties were further enhanced by adjusting the Na/K ratio of the A-site. Under systematical optimization of the A-site and B-site elements, good overall electrical properties of d 33 = 276 pC/N, k p = 44.5%, ? {33/ T }/ ? 0 = 1,175, tan ? = 0.027, T c = 309 C, P r = 21.0 ?C/cm2, and E c = 1.14 kV/mm were obtained for ceramics with Ta5+ content x of 0.05 and Na/K ratio of 57/43 ( y = 0.07).

Shang, Xunzhong; Guo, Jinming; Xiao, Wanping; Lu, Yinmei; Chang, Gang; Zhou, Taosheng; He, Yunbin

2014-05-01

338

Piezoelectric properties of lead-free submicron-structured (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 ceramics from nanopowders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submicron-structured (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 (BNBT6) ceramics were obtained from nanometric powder synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion at 500 C. Hot-pressing at low temperatures and a combination of this with recrystallization, still moderate in order to reduce the loss of volatile elements, have been tested. Material properties, including all losses, were determined at the resonances of thin discs using Alemany et al software. Ceramics hot-pressed at 700-800 C for 2 h have a pseudo-cubic structure, a grain size of a few hundred nanometers and are homogeneous. Both their crystal structure and the lack of sintering prevent their poling. For ceramics hot-pressed at 950 C for 3 h, Bi or Bi0.5Na0.5 loss, together with low piezoelectric properties (d33 = 60 pC N - 1, kp = 8.3% and kt = 9.5%), was observed. Recrystallization at 1000 C-1 h of ceramics hot-pressed at 700 and 800 C for 2 h keeps the submicron structure, reduces porosity and prevents off-stoichiometry. Mechanical and piezoelectric losses are also reduced and coupling factors increased (kp = 24.6%, kt = 36.4%). The best piezoelectric coefficient obtained in these ceramics (d33 = 143 pC N - 1) is comparable with those reported for coarse-grained ceramics.

Pardo, Lorena; Garca, Alvaro; Brebl, Klaus; Mercadelli, Elisa; Galassi, Carmen

2010-11-01

339

Light-Intensity-Induced Characterization of Elastic Constants and d33 Piezoelectric Coefficient of PLZT Single Fiber Based Transducers  

PubMed Central

Enhanced functionality of electro-optic devices by implementing piezoelectric micro fibers into their construction is proposed. Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics are known to exhibit high light transparency, desirable electro-optic properties and fast response. In this study PLZT fibers with a diameter of around 300 microns were produced by a thermoplastic processing method and their light-induced impedance and piezoelectric coefficient were investigated at relatively low light intensity (below 50 mW/cm2). The authors experimentally proved higher performance of light controlled microfiber transducers in comparison to their bulk form. The advantage of the high surface area to volume ratio is shown to be an excellent technique to design high quality light sensors by using fibrous materials. The UV absorption induced change in elastic constants of 3% and 4% for the piezoelectric coefficient d33.

Kozielski, Lucjan; Erhart, Jiri; Clemens, Frank Jorg

2013-01-01

340

Effect of Y-doping on the piezoelectric properties of (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1-x)Bi(Sc1-yYy)O3-xPbTiO3 (BSYPTx\\/y) ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide method. It was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal phase of BSYPTx\\/y system was moved to the lower PT content with increasing of BiYO3 content. The Curie temperature (TC) near MPB of BSYPTx\\/y ceramics was found to increase with increasing of BiYO3 content. However, the

Qishou Li; Wei Shi; Yuzhi Jiang; Ying Pei; Qiang Chen; Xi Yue; Dingquan Xiao; Jianguo Zhu

2009-01-01

341

Mechanical and dielectric characterization of lead zirconate titanate(PZT)/polyurethane(PU) thin film composite for energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lead Zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic is known by its piezoelectric feature, but also by its stiffness, the use of a composite based on a polyurethane (PU) matrix charged by a piezoelectric material, enable to generate a large deformation of the material, therefore harvesting more energy. This new material will provide a competitive alternative and low cost manufacturing technology of autonomous systems (smart clothes, car seat, boat sail, flag ...). A thin film of the PZT/PU composite was prepared using up to 80 vol. % of ceramic. Due to the dielectric nature of the PZT, inclusions of this one in a PU matrix raises the permittivity of the composite, on other hand this latter seems to decline at high frequencies.

Aboubakr, S.; Rguiti, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Eddiai, A.; Courtois, C.; d'Astorg, S.

2014-04-01

342

Temperature dependence and quantum efficiency of ultrabroad NIR photoluminescence from Ni2+ centers in nanocrystalline Ba-Al titanate glass ceramics.  

PubMed

Ultrabroad near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence from Ni2+-centers in nanocrystalline Ba-Al titanate glass ceramics was studied by temperature-dependent static and dynamic photoluminescence spectroscopy in the regime of 10 to 300 K. Photoluminescence covers the spectral range of about 1100 nm to >1600 nm with a typical bandwidth (FWHM) greater than 300 nm. For UV-LED excitation at 352 nm, an internal quantum efficiency of 65% is obtained. The excited state lifetime ? at room temperature is 39 ?s. The stimulated emission cross section ?(em) is 8.510(-20) cm2, resulting in a practical figure of merit, ?(em) * ?, of 3.310(-24) cm2 s at room temperature. These properties suggest suitability as a broadband gain medium for tunable lasers and optical amplifiers. PMID:22466183

Gao, Guojun; Peng, Mingying; Wondraczek, Lothar

2012-04-01

343

Phase Transition and Dielectric Properties of Lead Free (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3- Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics of (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3? x(Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3; x = 0.000.30 were prepared via the two?stage mixed oxide fabrication technique. The crystal structure and ferroelectric phase transitions were studied by means of x-ray diffraction and thermal measurements. XRD results showed that a single-phase perovskite structurewas formed in the ceramics with x ? 0.25. For the ceramics with x = 0.30, a small

Manoon Sutapun; Naratip Vittayakorn

2009-01-01

344

Effects of sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} on piezoelectric and dielectric properties of sodium potassium niobate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: NKN ceramics with a sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CT) doping increased the mechanical quality factor (Q{sub m}) and electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} was developed to dope into NKN ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dense NKN ceramics were obtained as CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} compound doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find the soluble limit of CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} compound incorporated into NKN ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum Q{sub m} and k{sub p} values were more than 1500 and 42%, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} compound is a better sintering aid compared with K{sub 5.3}Cu{sub 1.3}Ta{sub 10}O{sub 29}. -- Abstract: In this study, the effects of a sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CT) on (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} (NKN) ceramics were investigated. The diffracted angles in XRD profiles decreased because the Nb-sites were replaced by Cu and Ta ions, causing the expansion of lattice volume. SEM images showed smaller grain sizes at a low concentration of CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, and grain sizes increased as the concentration of CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} doping increased because of a liquid phase formed. When CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} dopants were doped into NKN ceramics, the T{sub O-T} and T{sub c} phase transitions decreased because the replacement of Ta{sup 5+} ions in the B-site. A high bulk density (4.595 g/cm{sup 3}) and electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}, k{sub t}) were enhanced when CT dopants were doped into NKN ceramics. Moreover, the mechanical quality factor (Q{sub m}) also increased from 67 to 1550. NKN ceramics with sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} doping showed excellent piezoelectric properties: k{sub p}: 42.5%; k{sub t}: 49.1%; Q{sub m}: 1550; and d{sub 33}: 96 pC/N.

Yang, Song-Ling [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Tung-Fang Design University, Kaohsiung 82941, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Tung-Fang Design University, Kaohsiung 82941, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung County 824, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung County 824, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-04-15

345

RMS Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RMS Titanic raised a 23- by 14-foot section of the Titanic's outer hull this week. RMS, which has exclusive rights to photograph the Titanic and to possess any items recovered from the wreck, doesn't miss an opportunity to market Titanic-oriented merchandise on their site. Nonetheless, visitors wanting to know more about the Titanic will be interested in the expedition calendar and background information on the Titanic's voyage and the exploration of its remains.

2000-01-01

346

Formation of Morphotropic Phase Boundary in (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3--BaZrO3--(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the development of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, which have a tetragonal--rhombohedral morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), 0.90(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3--xBaZrO3--(0.10 - x)(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3 ceramics have been synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method. A phase diagram was summarized from the X-ray diffraction pattern and the dielectric measurements. It is found that 0.90(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3--xBaZrO3--(0.10 - x)(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3 ceramics have an MPB between x = 0.07 and 0.08. In the vicinity of the MPB, it was observed that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were enhanced.

Zushi, Junta; Ariizumi, Takuma; Kojima, Seiji; Wang, Ruiping; Bando, Hiroshi

2013-07-01

347

Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The working principle of Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer was studied in this paper. PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramic disk was used as piezoelectric phase and brass foil was used as end cap electrode of the Cymbal transducer. The silicon rubber was used as the insulated proof layer of the underwater acoustic transducer. The properties of this transducer used as hydrophone,

Denghua Li; Min Wu; Peixi Oyang; Xiaofei Xu

2006-01-01

348

Enhanced piezoelectric properties of (Na0.5+y+zK0.5-y)(Nb1-xTax)O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A- and B-site ratios in (Na0.5+y+zK0.5-y)(Nb1-xTax)O3 ceramics with ABO3 structure were investigated to differentiate the effects of polymorphic phase transition (PPT), morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), and Na nonstoichiometry on piezoelectric coefficient (d33). MPB was intrinsically determined by the ratio between Na and K, whereas PPT was extrinsically controlled by Ta substitution. PPT temperature between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (TO-T) was reduced to room temperature at x = 0.45. d33 was increased to 310 pC/N at y = 0.03 and z = 0 by the combined effects of PPT and MPB and was further enhanced to 333 pC/N by the Na nonstoichiometry at z = 0.015 with improved density.

Sung, Y. S.; Baik, S.; Lee, J. H.; Ryu, G. H.; Do, D.; Song, T. K.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, W. J.

2012-07-01

349

Linking large piezoelectric coefficients to highly flexible polarization of lead free BaTiO3-CaTiO3-BaZrO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a large d31 piezoelectric coefficient and corresponding electromechanical coupling factor, Kp, of 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCTZ50) and 0.68Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.32(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCTZ32) lead-free piezoceramics. The piezoelectric coefficient, d31, reaches a high value of 200 pC/N for BCTZ50 at room temperature which is comparable to the one of the soft PZT. This confirms the previously reported d33 for the same material. A useful way to achieve such performances at the expense of a smaller thermal budget is suggested, enabling better control of the ceramics composition and microstructure. Based on pyroelectric and ferroelectric hysteresis loops measurements, we show that such outstanding properties are likely due to the high flexibility of polarization under thermal and electric stresses.

Benabdallah, F.; Simon, A.; Khemakhem, H.; Elissalde, C.; Maglione, M.

2011-06-01

350

Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZTionomer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramicpolymer composites with 03 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZTZn ionomer and PZTEMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZTZn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZTEMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZTZn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

2014-05-01

351

Microstructure and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (1-x)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xCaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structure of (1-x)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-xCaTiO3 ceramics began to change from orthorhombic to tetragonal at x>=0.03, then became a morphotropic phase boundary in which both the orthogonal and tetragonal phases coexisted at 0.03=0.07. The Curie temperature decreased with increasing x and the specimen became a relaxor at x>=0.03. A dense microstructure with large grains was developed at 0.04piezoelectric properties of the specimens. High piezoelectric properties of d33=241, kp=0.41, and ?3T/Vo=1316 were obtained from the 0.95NKN-0.05CT ceramics sintered at 1050 C for 2 h, indicating that the 0.95NKN-0.05 ceramic is a good candidate material for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Park, Hwi-Yeol; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Paik, Dong-Soo; Nahm, Sahn; Lee, Hyeung-Gyu; Kim, Duk-Hee

2007-12-01

352

Power generation and shunt damping performance of a single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate unimorph: Analysis and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter investigates the power generation and shunt damping performance of the single crystal piezoelectric ceramic lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT) analytically and experimentally. PMN-PZT is a recently developed interface for energy harvesting and shunt damping with its large piezoelectric constant (-2252 pm/V) and coupling coefficient (0.95) for the transverse piezoelectric mode. A unimorph PMN-PZT cantilever with an aluminum substrate is tested under base excitation and its electromechanical response is predicted with a coupled distributed parameter model. The power generation performance of the device is 138 ?W/(g2 cm3) at 1744 Hz, causing 84% tip vibration attenuation due to the resistive shunt damping effect.

Erturk, A.; Bilgen, O.; Inman, D. J.

2008-12-01

353

Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

2002-01-01

354

Active piezoelectric diaphragms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes (ICE). When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis, rather than the expected in-plane direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M., Jr.; Covington, Ed W., III

2002-07-01

355

UHV piezoelectric translator  

SciTech Connect

A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

1985-01-01

356

Array lead zirconate titanate/glass piezoelectric microcantilevers for real-time detection of Bacillus anthracis with 10 spores/ml sensitivity and 1/1000 selectivity in bacterial mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three identical piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMSs) consisting of a lead zirconate titanate layer bonded to a glass layer was fabricated and examined for simultaneous, in situ, real-time, all-electrical detection of Bacillus anthracis (BA) spores in an aqueous suspension using the first longitudinal extension mode of resonance. With anti-BA antibody immobilized on the sensor surfaces all three PEMS exhibited identical BA detection resonance frequency shifts at all tested concentrations, 10-107 spores/ml with a standard deviation of less than 10%. The detection concentration limit of 10 spores/ml was about two orders of magnitude lower than would be permitted by flexural peaks. In blinded-sample testing, the array PEMS detected BA in three samples containing BA: (1) 3.3103 spores/ml, (2) a mixture of 3.3103 spores/ml and 3.3105 S. aureus (SA) and P. aeruginosa (PA) per ml, and (3) a mixture of 3.3103 spores/ml with 3.3106 SA+PA/ml. There was no response to a sample containing only 3.3106 SA+PA/ml. These results illustrate the sensitivity, specificity, reusability, and reliability of array PEMS for in situ, real-time detection of BA spores.

McGovern, John-Paul; Shih, Wei-Heng; Rest, Richard F.; Purohit, Mitali; Mattiucci, Mark; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Onaral, Banu; Shih, Wan Y.

2009-12-01

357

Engineering of fine structured 2-2 and 2-0-2 piezoelectric ceramic\\/polymer composites by tape casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process of forming piezoelectric composites using tape cast sheets is reported. Composites with 2-2 and 2-0-2 connectivity were formed using sintered tape cast sheets of PZT-5H. The third phase in the form of powder included zirconia, alumina, or hollow and solid glass spheres. Electromechanical properties including d33, dh , K, ringdown time, and kt were evaluated. The 2-0-2

R. P. Schaeffer; V. F. Janas; A. Safari

1996-01-01

358

Domain Reorientation Effects on the Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties in Pb(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbTiO3-PbZrO3 Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the PZN-PT-PZ ceramic system, the difference in the temperature characteristics of piezoelectric properties between the tetragonal phase and the rhombohedral one was studied from the viewpoint of a domain reorientation mechanism. From the measurement of thermal expansion and the change of high-temperature X-ray diffraction patterns for two phases, it is considered that the more stable temperature characteristics of the

Sung-Kwon Wi; Ho-Gi Kim

1992-01-01

359

EFFECT OF BiFeO3 DOPING ON FERROELECTRIC AND PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 AND BaTiO3 CERAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of BiFeO3 (BF) doping on the phase transition temperatures especially of lead-free piezoelectric materials were studied. Up to 20 mole% of BFO was doped in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) and BaTiO3 (BT) ceramics synthesized by solid state reactions. In BNT, ferroelectric transition temperature (TC) increased with doping but depolarization temperature (Td) was almost independent of BF contents. In BT, however,

K. H. RYU; T. K. SONG; M.-H. KIM; S. H. LEE; Y. S. SEONG; S. J. JEONG; J. S. SONG

2006-01-01

360

Processing, characterization and device development of iron titanate-iron(III) oxide ceramic and film for high temperature electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

FeTiO3-Fe2O3 has been identified to be an important material for applications in high temperature electronics because of its wide bandgap and self-compensating semiconductor nature. The objectives of this work are the growth, processing, and characterization of FeTiO3-Fe2O3 thin film and ceramic, and the development of varistor and p-n junction devices. Ceramics of (1-x)FeTiO3xFe2O3 with x = 0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.27,

Feng Zhou

2000-01-01

361

PHASE TRANSITION, DIELECTRIC AND PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF NaNbO3-Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 LEAD-FREE CERAMICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new lead-free solid solution of (1-x)NaNbO3-xBa0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 was prepared by a traditional sintering method and its phase transition, dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 diffuses into NaNbO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with perovskite structure. The addition of Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3(x?0.025) transforms NaNbO3 from antiferroelectric to ferroelectric. The diffusive ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition is induced in the ceramics with high concentration of Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3. The ceramics with x = 0.05-0.125 possess large Pr values of 18.6-25.5 ?C/cm2. A morphotropic phase boundary between tetragonal and orthorhombic phases is formed at 0.05 < x < 0.15, leading to a significant enhancement of piezoelectric properties. The ceramic with x = 0.125 situated near the morphotropic phase boundary exhibits the optimum piezoelectric properties: d33 = 151 pC/N and kp = 31.6%.

Lei, Yuqing; Wu, Hong; Lin, Dunmin; Zheng, Qiaoji; Wu, Xiaochun; Fan, Ximing

2012-09-01

362

Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-based piezoelectric and electrostrictive ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics based on Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 (PZN) with perovskite structure were prepared by a modification of La(Ni(1/2)Ti(1/2))O3 (LNT) or La(Co(1/2)Ti(1/2))O3 (LCT), and the effects of the suppression of the pyrochlore phase on the dielectric and electrostrictive properties were investigated. Results showed that PZN-based ceramics with LNT or LCT modification are suitable for use as electrostrictive materials with little hysteresis and adequate temperature stability in the vicinity of room temperature.

Kanegae, Toshio; Sakata, Koichiro; Takenaka, Tadashi

1991-09-01

363

Bending Behavior of Monolithic Ba(Ti,Sn)O3-Ceramics with a Functionally Gradient of the Piezoelectric Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally Gradient Materials are suitable for bending devices due to reduced internal mechanical stresses and lower production costs. Monolithic BaTi(sub l-x)Sn(sub x)O(sub 3) (BTS) ceramics with a gradient of the Sn-content (0.075 less than or equal x...

R. Steinhausen A. Kouvatov C. Pientsclilce W. Seifert H. Beige

2003-01-01

364

Multiferroic Domain Dynamics in Strained Strontium Titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiferroicity can be induced in strontium titanate by applying biaxial strain. Using optical second harmonic generation, we report a transition from 4\\/mmm to the ferroelectric mm2 phase, followed by a transition to a ferroelastic-ferroelectric mm2 phase in a strontium titanate thin film. Piezoelectric force microscopy is used to study ferroelectric domain switching. Second harmonic generation, combined with phase-field modeling, is

A. Vasudevarao; A. Kumar; L. Tian; J. H. Haeni; Y. L. Li; C.-J. Eklund; Q. X. Jia; R. Uecker; P. Reiche; K. M. Rabe; L. Q. Chen; D. G. Schlom; Venkatraman Gopalan

2006-01-01

365

Effect of annealing treatments on positive temperature coefficient of resistance properties of barium titanate ceramics and a new model for the positive temperature coefficient of resistance effect  

SciTech Connect

Alternating current impedance has shown the presence of three electrical components in a semiconducting barium titanate ceramic that has been processed to give a positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) effect. Two of the component resistances, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}, each present a PTCR effect and, from the temperature dependence of their capacitances, they are attributed to different regions, nonferroelectric and ferroelectric, respectively, at the surfaces of individual grains or in the region of inter-grain contacts. The influence of isothermal annealing in air at 1000, 1100, and 1200{degree}C on these PTCR effects was investigated. At the resistance maxima, R{sub max} and T{sub max}, two types of dependence were found for both R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. At short times, R{sub max} decreased and T{sub max} shifted to higher temperatures; at long times, the reverse occurred and R{sub max} increased while T{sub max} shifted to lower temperature. Capacitance values for both regions were constant at short times but decreased at long times, indicating a thickening of the regions responsible for R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} at long times. The room temperature resistance R{sub 25} was constant at short times but increased dramatically at long times, leading to a decrease in the magnitude of the PTCR effect. A model to account for the observed changes is proposed. Freshly fired ceramics are oxygen deficient and semiconducting; grain surfaces are Ti rich. Oxidative annealing creates an oxidized surface layer and an electron depletion layer just inside the grain surfaces. Counter diffusion through these layers of Ba{sup 2+} and O{sup 2{minus}} ions then occurs so as to partially restore electroneutrality; consequently, the concentration of surface acceptor states, N{sub s}, decreases initially. On prolonged annealing, further oxidation occurs: oxide ions diffuse into the grain cores, with counter diffusion of electrons to the grain surfaces where they are trapped by additional absorbed oxygens leading to an increase in N{sub s}. An explanation is given as to how both ferroelectric and nonferroelectric regions of the ceramics exhibit a PTCR effect. The key parameter that controls the activation barrier to conduction appears to be the polarization of the lattice associated with dipolar fluctuations and ferroelectric domains rather than with the polarizability of the different regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Gallego, Marina Martinez; West, Anthony R.

2001-07-01

366

Lead zirconate titanate nanoscale patterning by ultraviolet-based lithography lift-off technique for nano-electromechanical system applications.  

PubMed

The advantage of using lead zirconate titanate (PbZr(0.54)Ti(0.46)O(3)) ceramics as an active material in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) comes from its relatively high piezoelectric coefficients. However, its integration within a technological process is limited by the difficulty of structuring this material with submicrometer resolution at the wafer scale. In this work, we develop a specific patterning method based on optical lithography coupled with a dual-layer resist process. The main objective is to obtain sub-micrometer features by lifting off a 100-nm-thick PZT layer while preserving the material's piezoelectric properties. A subsequent result of the developed method is the ability to stack several layers with a lateral resolution of few tens of nanometers, which is mandatory for the fabrication of NEMS with integrated actuation and read-out capabilities. PMID:23007767

Guillon, Samuel; Saya, Daisuke; Mazenq, Laurent; Costecalde, Jean; Rmiens, Denis; Soyer, Caroline; Nicu, Liviu

2012-09-01

367

Performance of lead-free piezoelectric materials in cantilever-based energy harvesting devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy harvesting is one of the emerging applications of piezoelectric materials. In order to replace conventional lead-based materials with lead-free materials, it is important to evaluate their performance for such applications. In the present study, finite element method-based simulation shows mean power density produced from (K0.475Na0.475Li0.05)(Nb0.92Ta0.05Sb0.03)O3 add with 0.4 wt.% CeO2 and 0.4 wt.% MnO2 (KNLNTS) bimorph is 96.64% of lead zirconate titanate (Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3) (PZT) ceramics. Load resistance (R), length of proof mass (Lm) and thickness of host layer (th) are optimized (using genetic algorithm) for maximum power density and tuning the operating frequency range which is near to natural frequency of the structure. The lead-free piezoelectric material KNLNTS has comparable results to that of PZT for piezoelectric energy harvester in the ambient frequency range of 90 Hz to 110 Hz. Results show that KNLNTS ceramics can be potentially used in energy harvesting devices.

Kumar, Anuruddh; Kumar, Rajeev; Chauhan, Vishal S.; Vaish, Rahul

2014-05-01

368

Advanced piezoelectric materials for medical ultrasound transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of materials have recently been developed specifically for advanced ultrasound applications. These are high-density ceramics, fine grain ceramics, high dielectric constant ceramics, and single crystal piezoelectrics. Improvements in properties resulting from these materials range from greater strength and improved machinability to increased transducer element capacitance and coupling. The resulting transducer advances include high frequency arrays (?20MHz), high sensitivity

Wesley Hackenberger; Paul W. Rehrig; Timothy Ritter; Thomas Shrout

2001-01-01

369

Comparison of the frequency and physical nature of the lowest order parasitic mode in single crystal and ceramic 2-2 and 1-3 piezoelectric composite transducers.  

PubMed

This work describes an investigation into the first order parasitic mode (i.e., that closest to the fundamental thickness mode) that can occur in 2-2 and 1-3 thickness drive piezoelectric composite transducers. Specifically, the authors compare the performance of piezoceramic and piezocrystal composites with a common passive phase. A local Lamb wave approach is used to describe the generation of such modes, and the validity of this theory is investigated over the entire volume fraction range. It is shown that, when the parasitic mode is primarily generated by Lamb wave activity in the passive phase, both active materials demonstrate similar behavior. However, at higher volume fractions, the first order mode is related to the lateral resonance of the active material, and quite different behavior may be observed between the two sets of devices. The phase velocity of the parasitic modes in each device configuration was investigated by a combination of experimental measurement on a number of transducers along with simulations using the finite-element code PZFlex. Both 2-2 and 1-3 composites made from the single crystal materials pzn-4.5%pt, pzn-8%pt, and pmn-30%pt were investigated along with composites made from pzt5h ceramic. The PZFlex results are compared with experimental impedance analysis and laser scanning of surface displacement, with good agreement demonstrated. By comparing two very different active materials, additional insight into parasitic resonant activity within composite devices is demonstrated. PMID:16921903

Robertson, David; Hayward, Gordon; Gachagan, Anthony; Murray, Victor

2006-08-01

370

Phase transition and piezoelectric properties of (Pb, La) (Zr, Ti)O3 ceramics prepared from spray-dried powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLZT ceramic with compositions having molecular formulas (Pb,1-3x\\/2)La?x\\/2)(ZryTi1-3)O3 with O ltm I ltm 0.1 and 0.5 ltm y ltm 0.6 were prepared by cold compaction and sintering of chemically prepared powders. These powders were obtained by spray dried nitrates. Ferroelectric tetragonal, ferroelectric rhombohedral and paraelectric cubic phases of the compositions were identified and morphotropic phase boundary having <1 at.% transition

Ramji Lal; S. C. Sharma; Rajiv Dayal

1993-01-01

371

PIEZOELECTRIC MICRO POWER GENERATOR FOR ENERGY HARVESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), power generating device is developed. It is designed to resonate at specific vibrational frequencies from an ambient, vibrational energy source, thereby creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. The energy harvesting device uses the piezoelectric d33 mode and is fabricated with three mask steps. Our cantilever device was designed to have a

R. Sood; Y. B. Jeon; S. G. Kim

372

LATERAL LAMINATION APPROACH FOR MULTILAYER PIEZOELECTRIC MICROACTUATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a simple lateral lamination scheme for the fabrication of multilayer piezoelectric actuators. The fabrication scheme consists of dicing of a high-d 33 piezoelectric coefficient lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, photolithographic high- aspect-ratio SU-8 definition of electrical isolation, and micromolding of conductive polymer electrodes. Backside and inclined UV exposure has been exploited to secure the 1mm-thick SU-8 pillar

Xiaosong Wu; Guang Yuan; Seong-O Choi; Yanzhu Zhao; Seong-Hyok Kim; Yong-Kyu Yoon; Mark G. Allen

373

High Power Piezoelectric Transformers with Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3--PbTiO3 Single Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate-shaped piezoelectric transformers were designed and manufactured with Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3--PbTiO3 single crystals (PMN-PT). Theoretical analysis was performed using Mason's equivalent circuit model and finite element method (FEM) simulations. In the experiment, transformer performances, especially the power density, were compared among different materials, including lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, undoped PMN-PT, and manganese-doped PMN-PT (Mn-PMN-PT). High power density of 38 W\\/cm3 was

Yuan Zhuang; Seyit O. Ural; Rohan Gosain; Safakcan Tuncdemir; Ahmed Amin; Kenji Uchino

2009-01-01

374

Influence of Sintering Conditions on Doped PZT Ceramics for Base-Metal Electrode Multilayer Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of sintering atmosphere and copper addition on the microstructural and piezoelectric properties of Mn-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT) was investigated. This ceramic powder densifies below 1000C, enabling the use of copper inner electrodes for a multilayer actuator setup. To simulate the influence of oxidized inner electrodes during sintering, different CuO contents (0 and 1 mol.%) were mixed to the precalcined Mn-doped PZT powder. Ceramic discs were sintered at 950C in air and analogously in N2, or in steam containing N2 (25 vol.% water vapor content). The electrical characterization of the discs showed that the piezoelectric properties are influenced by the CuO addition as well as by the sintering atmospheres. The large signal piezoelectric constant d33* shows an improvement of at least 20% when CuO is added. CuO acts as a sintering aid, and especially when the ceramics are fired in steam-containing N2, anomalous grain growth occurs.

Denneler, Stefan; Schuh, Carsten; Benkert, Katrin; Moos, Ralf

2012-09-01

375

Solid state NMR as a new approach for the structural characterization of rare-earth doped lead lanthanum zirconate titanate laser ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate the design of laser host materials with optimized emission properties, detailed structural information at the atomic level is essential, regarding the local bonding environment of the active ions (distribution over distinct lattice sites) and their extent of local clustering as well as their population distribution over separate micro- or nanophases. The present study explores the potential of solid state NMR spectroscopy to provide such understanding for rare-earth doped lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics. As the NMR signals of the paramagnetic dopant species cannot be observed directly, two complementary approaches are utilized: (1) direct observation of diamagnetic mimics using 45Sc NMR and (2) study of the paramagnetic interaction of the constituent host lattice nuclei with the rare-earth dopant, using 207Pb NMR lineshape analysis. 45Sc MAS NMR spectra of scandium-doped PLZT samples unambiguously reveal scandium to be six-coordinated, suggesting that this rare-earth ion substitutes in the B site. Static 207Pb spin echo NMR spectra of a series of Tm-doped PLZT samples reveal a clear influence of paramagnetic rare-earth dopant concentration on the NMR lineshape. In the latter case high-fidelity spectra can be obtained by spin echo mapping under systematic incrementation of the excitation frequency, benefiting from the signal-to-noise enhancement afforded by spin echo train Fourier transforms. Consistent with XRD data, the 207Pb NMR lineshape analysis suggests that statistical incorporation into the PLZT lattice occurs at dopant levels of up to 1 wt.% Tm 3+, while at higher levels the solubility limit is reached.

Mohr, Daniel; de Camargo, Andrea S. S.; Schneider, Jos F.; Queiroz, Thiago B.; Eckert, Hellmut; Botero, riton R.; Garcia, Ducinei; Eiras, Jos A.

2008-10-01

376

Abnormal electronic transition variations of lanthanum-modified lead zironate stannate titanate ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary: A spectroscopic evidence  

SciTech Connect

The structure-related optical response of (Pb{sub 1-1.5x}La{sub x})(Zr{sub 0.42}Sn{sub 0.40}Ti{sub 0.18})O{sub 3} (100x/42/40/18) ceramics with different compositions has been investigated. Based on x-ray diffraction, the phase transition from rhombohedral to tetragonal structure is revealed between compositions of x = 2.6% and 2.8% near morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Correspondingly, abnormal spectral response in the photon energy from 1.4 to 6.1 eV is observed near MPB. Furthermore, the blue shift of the two critical points related parameters, which is obtained from fitting the reflectance spectra, indicates that the variation of electronic band structure near MPB is responsible for the anomalous behavior.

Chen, X.; Jiang, K.; Hu, Z. G.; Chu, J. H. [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chen, X. F.; Wang, G. S.; Dong, X. L. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2012-07-02

377

Development of piezoelectric composites for transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past decade and a half, many different types of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been developed intended for transducer applications. These diphasic composites are prepared from non-active polymer, such as epoxy, and piezoelectric ceramic, such as PZT, in the form of filler powders, elongated fibers, multilayer and more complex three-dimensional structures. For the last four years, most of the efforts have been given to producing large area and fine scale PZT fiber composites. In this paper, processing of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with various connectivity patterns are reviewed. Development of fine scale piezoelectric composites by lost mold, injection molding and the relic method are described. Research activities of different groups for preparing large area piezocomposites for hydrophone and actuator applications are briefly reviewed. Initial development of electrostrictive ceramics and composites are also

Safari, A.

1994-07-01

378

Effects of excess lead-oxide and bismuth-oxide content on the electrical properties of high-temperature bismuth scandium lead titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeronautic and aerospace applications require piezoelectric materials that can operate at high temperatures. The air-breathing aeronautic engines can use piezoelectric actuators for active combustion control for fuel modulation to mitigate thermo-acoustic instabilities and\\/or for gas flow control to improve efficiency. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is their limitation for upper use temperature and this limitation is

A. Sehirlioglu; A. Sayir

2008-01-01

379

Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than 5 increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d g coefficient with value of 59 000 10 15 m2 N 1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

Yan, Yongke [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Cho, Kyung-Hoon [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Maurya, Deepam [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Khachaturyan, Armen [State University of New Jersey, The; Priya, Shashank [ORNL

2013-01-01

380

Computer modelling of barium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium titanate is an important material for both scientific and industrial applications. Much of the interest centres around its ferroelectric properties, since it is structurally the most simple in this class. In addition rare-earth doped ceramics are found to exhibit a very steep positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) above the Curie point. The theory of this PTCR effect is

G. V. Lewis; C. R. A. Catlow

1983-01-01

381

Feature of morphotropic phase boundary of yBiGaO{sub 3}-(1-x-y)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

yBiGaO{sub 3}-(1-x-y)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (BGSPT) ternary piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by using conventional mixed oxide ceramic processing. It was found that the introduction of BiGaO{sub 3} into BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} system would cause a shift of morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs), from x=0.64, y=0 to x=0.56, y=0.155; and an increase of Curie temperature (T{sub C}) near MPB, from 450 up to 494 deg. C, respectively. BGSPT ceramics possessed higher T{sub C} ({approx}494 deg. C) and high piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}{approx}180 pC/N), and showed the different rule of the Curie temperature near MPB versus the end member tolerance factor (t). The mechanism of higher T{sub C} in BGSPT system was also proposed.

Jiang Yihang; Qin Baoquan; Yue Xi; Zhao Yi; Jiang Yuzhi; Xiao Dingquan; Zhu Jianguo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2008-04-01

382

Piezoelectric valve  

DOEpatents

A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

2013-01-15

383

Flexoelectric sensing using a multilayered barium strontium titanate structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flexoelectric effect has been recently explored for its promise in electromechanical sensing. However, the relatively low flexoelectric coefficients of ferroelectrics inhibit the potential to develop flexoelectric sensing devices. In this paper, a multilayered structure using flexoelectric barium strontium titanate (Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 or BST) ceramic was fabricated in an attempt to enhance the effective flexoelectric coefficients using its inherent scale effect, and hence to improve the flexoelectric sensitivity. The performances of piezoelectric and flexoelectric cantilevers with the same dimensions and under the same conditions were compared. Owing to the flexoelectric scaling effect, under the same force input, the BST flexoelectric structure generated a higher charge output than its piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) and PMN-30PT counterparts when its thickness was less than 73.1 ?m and 1.43 ?m, respectively. Also, amplification of the charge output using the multilayered structure was then experimentally verified. The prototyped structure consisted of three layers of 350 ?m-thick BST plates with a parallel electric connection. The charge output was approximately 287% of that obtained using a single-layer structure with the same total thickness of the multilayered structure under the same end deflection input, which suggests high sensitivity sensing can be achieved using multilayer flexoelectric structures.

Kwon, S. R.; Huang, W. B.; Zhang, S. J.; Yuan, F. G.; Jiang, X. N.

2013-11-01

384

Structural refinement and optical band gap studies of manganese-doped modified sodium potassium lithium niobate lead piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li-doped NKLN ceramic (Na0.5 K0.5)0.935Li0.065NbO3 (NKLN935) in pure and MnO2 doped compositions have been revisited to carry out a detailed analysis of the structural and optical properties. Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the system to be tetragonal (space group P4mm). UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and an equivalent Kubelka-Munk function is used to obtain the optical band gap values. It is reported that with increasing Mn doping, the band gap values decreases, which has been analyzed and understood in terms of the tetragonal structure and is found to be consistent with dielectric properties.

Mishra, S. K.; Mishra, R. K.; Brajesh, Kumar; Ray, Rajyavardhan; Himanshu, A. K.; Pandey, H. K.; Singh, N. K.

2014-05-01

385

Doping effects of CuO additives on the properties of low-temperature-sintered PMnN-PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and their applications on surface acoustic wave devices.  

PubMed

To develop the anisotropic ceramic substrate with low sintering temperature for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications, the low cost and feasible material with moderate piezoelectric properties, good dielectric properties, and higher Curie temperature were explored. The piezoelectric ceramics with compositions of Pb[(Mn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0.06-) (Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))0.94] O(3) (PMnN-PZT) + 0.5 wt.% PbO + x wt.% CuO (0.05 = x = 0.3) had been prepared by the conventional mixed-oxides method. CuO dopants were used as the sintering aid to improve the bulk density under low sintering temperature (i.e., 980-1040 degrees C). The phase structures, microstructures, frequency behavior of dielectric properties (up to 50 MHz), piezoelectric properties, ferroelectric properties, and temperature stability with the amount of CuO additive were systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that the sintering temperature could be lowered down to 1020 degrees C and still keep reasonably good piezoelectric activity (i.e., high electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)), (k(t)) and dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The preferable composition, obtained at x = 0.1, presented the values of the electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)) (k(t)), mechanical quality factor (Q(m)), piezoelectric charge constant (d(33)), dielectric constant, dielectric loss, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCF(B)), and Curie point (T(c)) of 0.54, 0.48, 850, 238 pc/N, 1450, 0.0023, 1.1 kV/mm, 26 coul/cm(2), -150 ppm/ degrees C, and 348 degrees C. Using this developed low-temperature-sintered material to make the piezoelectric substrate, the SAW filter was fabricated and its properties were measured. Results showed that this device possessed very high value of k(2)(7.13%) with a good TCF (-40.15 ppm/ degrees C), and a surface wave velocity (V(P)) of 2196 m/s. PMID:19411224

Tsai, Cheng-Che; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Chun-Hsien

2009-03-01

386

Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of (Na0.44K0.52)Nb0.84O3-Li0.04(Sb0.06Ta0.1)O3 ceramics with sintering temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (Na0.44K0.52)Nb0.84O3-Li0.04(Sb0.06Ta0.1)O3 (NKN-LST) ceramics were fabricated by the conventional mixed oxide method at various sintering temperatures. The results indicate that the sintering temperature significantly influences the sinterbility, microstructure, phase transition, and electrical properties of the NKNLST ceramics. For the NKN-LST ceramics sintered at 1060C to 1100C, the bulk density increased with increasing sintering temperature and showed a maximum value at a sintering temperature of 1080C. The Curie temperature of the NKN-LST ceramics slightly decreased with increasing sintering temperature. The dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant, and electromechanical coupling factor increased with increasing sintering temperature, which might be due to the increase in density. However, a high d33 of 175 ?C/N, k p of 39.3%, and ? of 4614 were obtained for the NKN-LST ceramics sintered at 1080C for 4 h.

Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Young-Hie

2011-09-01

387

Electron microscopy study of ferroelectric domains and microstructural defects in Bi and Zn-modified Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferroelectric domain configurations and microstructural defects in the Bi- and Zn-modified Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction. In the samples with tetragonal symmetry, labyrinthic domain configurations with 90deg a-c domains were observed besides the herringbone-like configuration, parallel band-shaped and\\/or wedge-shaped domains. Polar nanodomains with local random contrast were observed in the

X. H. Zhu; Y. Song; J. M. Zhu; S. H. Zhou; Z. G. Liu

2009-01-01

388

Piezoelectric properties of (1 ? x)Pb(Zr 1\\/2Ti 1\\/2)O 3 xPb(Zn 1\\/3Nb 2\\/3)O 3 ceramics prepared by the columbite(wolframite) precursor method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid solutions of the perovskite structure, (1?x)Pb(Zr1\\/2Ti1\\/2)O3xPb(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3 with x=0.10.5, were synthesized via the columbite(wolframite) precursor method. The phase development of calcined powder precursors was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Phase-pure perovskite of PZNPZT ceramics was obtained over a wide compositional range. The microstructure and piezoelectric properties were characterrized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), d33 measurements and impedance analysis. It

N. Vittayakorn; C. Puchmark; G. Rujijanagul; X. Tan; D. P. Cann

2006-01-01

389

Enhanced magnetoelectric effects in composite of piezoelectric ceramics, rare-earth iron alloys, and shape-optimized nanocrystalline alloys.  

PubMed

An enhancement for magnetoelectric (ME) effects is studied in a three-phase ME architecture consisting of two magnetostrictive Terfenol-D (Tb(0.3)Dy(0.7)Fe(1.92)) plates, a piezoelectric PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3) plate, and a pair of shape-optimized FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline alloys. By modifying the conventional shape of the magnetic flux concentrator, the shape-optimized flux concentrator has an improved effective permeability (?(eff)) due to the shape-induced demagnetizing effect at its end surface. The flux concentrator concentrates and amplifies the external magnetic flux into Terfenol-D plate by means of changing its internal flux concentrating manner. Consequently, more flux lines can be uniformly concentrated into Terfenol-D plates. The effective piezomagnetic coefficients (d(33m)) of Terfenol-D plate and the ME voltage coefficients (?(ME)) can be further improved under a lower magnetic bias field. The dynamic magneto-elastic properties and the effective magnetic induction of Terfenol-D are taken into account to derive the enhanced effective ME voltage coefficients (?(ME,eff)), the consistency of experimental results and theoretical analyses verifies this enhancement. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum d(33m) in our proposed architecture achieves 22.48?nm/A under a bias of 114 Oe. The maximum ?(ME) in the bias magnetic range 0-900 Oe reaches 84.73 mV/Oe under the low frequency of 1 kHz, and 2.996 V/Oe under the resonance frequency of 102.3 kHz, respectively. It exhibits a 1.43 times larger piezomagnetic coefficient and a 1.87 times higher ME voltage coefficient under a smaller magnetic bias of 82 Oe than those of a conventional Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D composite. These shape-induced magnetoelectric behaviors provide the possibility of using this ME architecture in ultra-sensitive magnetic sensors. PMID:24689597

Zhang, Jitao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; He, Wei; Yang, Aichao; Lu, Caijiang

2014-03-01

390

Piezoelectric scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimorph piezoelectric elements show relative large axial displacements at moderate voltages. Their response to voltage variations is very fast. The reproducibility of the displacement is practically limited only by the mechanical and electrical supplementary equipment. In combination with a deflection mirror linear scans or two-dimensional scan pattern can be generated. Fast scanning with good linearity and repeatability is possible, either in a resonant mode or in a random access mode. However, the hysteresis of the piezoelectric material and the large capacitance of the elements impose some constraints on the applicability of the piezoelectric scanners. In the first part of the paper the properties of piezoelectric elements are discussed in view of scanner application; in the second part an experimental single mirror two-axis piezoelectric scanner is described. Some suggestions for future applications of piezoelectric scanners are made.

Hohner, M.; Manhart, S.

1987-03-01

391

Investigation of a new lead-free Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric compositions of the (1- x)Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3- x(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 system (when x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) were fabricated using a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintered between 1,050C and 1,175C for 2 h. The effect of (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 [BST] content on phase, microstructure, and electrical properties was investigated. The optimum sintering temperature was 1,125C at which all compositions had densities of at least 98% of their theoretical values. X-ray diffraction patterns that showed tetragonality were increased with the increasing BST. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BST was added. The addition of BST was also found to improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the BNKT ceramic. A large room-temperature dielectric constant, ? r (1,609), and piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 (214 pC/N), were obtained at an optimal composition of x = 0.10.

Jaita, Pharatree; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

2012-01-01

392

Investigation of a new lead-free Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramic  

PubMed Central

Lead-free piezoelectric compositions of the (1-x)Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-x(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 system (when x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) were fabricated using a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintered between 1,050C and 1,175C for 2 h. The effect of (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 [BST] content on phase, microstructure, and electrical properties was investigated. The optimum sintering temperature was 1,125C at which all compositions had densities of at least 98% of their theoretical values. X-ray diffraction patterns that showed tetragonality were increased with the increasing BST. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BST was added. The addition of BST was also found to improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the BNKT ceramic. A large room-temperature dielectric constant, ?r (1,609), and piezoelectric coefficient, d33 (214 pC/N), were obtained at an optimal composition of x = 0.10.

2012-01-01

393

High Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics Based on xPbTiO3--(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (Me = Zn, Mg) Ternary Perovskites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline xPbTiO3--(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (PT--BS--BMeT) ceramics, where Me = Mg (M) or Zn (Z), were studied for development of high temperature piezoelectrics. Ceramics were processed using standard mixed oxide procedure at various temperatures. X-ray diffraction at room temperature revealed that the tetragonality of PT--BS--BZT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.90 to 0.60 and tetragonality of PT--BS--BMT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.60 to 0.40. A transition was observed in PT--BS--BMT within compositions x = 0.42{--}0.50. Dielectric properties revealed permittivites up to \\varepsilonr? 20000 and transition temperatures up to 540 C. Hysteresis measurements showed full saturation below 50 mol % PbTiO3 content with remanent polarization of Pr = 32.8 ?C/cm2 and coercive field of 23.0 kV/cm. Converse piezoelectric coefficients (d33{}*) calculated from unipolar strain measurements revealed values between 240 and 313 pm/V. Depolarization temperatures were measured between 320 and 390 C.

Ansell, Troy Y.; Nikkel, Jason; Cann, David P.; Sehirlioglu, Alp

2012-10-01

394

Design and fabrication of piezoelectric nanocomposite structures for microdevice applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new group of piezoelectric nanocomposite thin films based on integrating piezoelectric material poly(vinylidene fluoride) and nanoparticles of barium titanate in a matrix of an organic polymer poly(methyl methacrylate). Implementation of piezoelectric properties in designed new nanocomposites allows us not only to increase the sensitivity and functionality of the overall system, where this material is used, but also to expand the application fields in sensing and actuating systems. Results implied that new nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprint lithography exhibit good piezoelectric, surface, and mechanical properties and allow independent control of tribological properties. Formed nanocomposite systems were integrated in designing optical components employed in medicine for sensing applications.

Palevicius, Arvydas; Ponelyte, Sigita; Guobiene, Asta; Prosycevas, Igoris; Puiso, Judita; Sakalys, Rokas

2013-10-01

395

Voltage generation of piezoelectric cantilevers by laser heating  

PubMed Central

Converting ambient thermal energy into electricity is of great interest in harvesting energy from the environment. Piezoelectric cantilevers have previously been shown to be an effective biosensor and a tool for elasticity mapping. Here we show that a single piezoelectric (lead-zirconate titanate (PZT)) layer cantilever can be used to convert heat to electricity through pyroelectric effect. Furthermore, piezoelectric-metal (PZT-Ti) bi-layer cantilever showed an enhanced induced voltage over the single PZT layer alone due to the additional piezoelectric effect. This type of device can be a way for converting heat energy into electricity.

Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Liu, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.; Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng

2012-01-01

396

Voltage generation of piezoelectric cantilevers by laser heating.  

PubMed

Converting ambient thermal energy into electricity is of great interest in harvesting energy from the environment. Piezoelectric cantilevers have previously been shown to be an effective biosensor and a tool for elasticity mapping. Here we show that a single piezoelectric (lead-zirconate titanate (PZT)) layer cantilever can be used to convert heat to electricity through pyroelectric effect. Furthermore, piezoelectric-metal (PZT-Ti) bi-layer cantilever showed an enhanced induced voltage over the single PZT layer alone due to the additional piezoelectric effect. This type of device can be a way for converting heat energy into electricity. PMID:23258941

Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Liu, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y; Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng

2012-11-15

397

Amplifying transmission and compact suspension for a low-profile, large-displacement piezoelectric actuator  

PubMed Central

A low-profile, piezoelectrically-driven microactuator is presented that achieves very large stroke lengths within size constraints suitable for certain endoscopic microscopy applications. The actuator utilizes a transmission consisting of lever arm and chevron-beam structures to amplify high-force, low-displacement motion of a ceramic lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) brick into large displacement of a translational platform. For 120 V input, a full range of 486 ?m of motion is achieved, with natural frequency greater than 500 Hz. This corresponds to an anticipated In addition, the lateral translational platform is supported by a redesign of common folded silicon flexures to provide large transverse and vertical stiffness when the width of the actuator is limited.

Domke, J F; Rhee, C-H; Liu, Z; Wang, T D; Oldham, K R

2012-01-01

398

High precise control method for a new type of piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve system was proposed. And then multilayer piezoelectric actuator\\u000a based on new piezoelectric ceramic material was used as the electricity-machine converter of the proposed piezoelectric electro-hydraulic\\u000a servo valve. The proposed piezoelectric electro-hydraulic servo valve has ascendant performance compared with conventional\\u000a ones. But the system is of high nonlinearity and uncertainty, it cannot achieve

Miao-Lei Zhou; Yan-tao Tian; Wei Gao; Zhi-gang Yang

2007-01-01

399

2.8 and 1.55 ?m emission from diode-pumped Er3+-doped and Yb3+ co-doped lead lanthanum zirconate titanate transparent ferroelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the observation of intense emissions at 2.8 and 1.55 ?m from optical quality diode-pumped Er3+-doped lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) transparent ferroelectric ceramic. Radiative properties were calculated using the Judd Ofelt theory, and the respective values of ?=0.09 and ?=0.94 were obtained. The effect of ytterbium co-doping the PLZT: Er3+ samples was investigated in an attempt to increase intensities. It was found that Yb3+-->Er3+ energy transfer processes, that favor Er3+ upconversion, are detrimental to the efficiency of midinfrared emissions. Even so, the advantageous spectroscopic characteristics of PLZT: Er3+ associated with its excellent thermal and mechanical properties, indicate it is a potential cost-effective laser active media.

de Camargo, A. S. S.; Botero, . R.; Andreeta, . R. M.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.; Nunes, L. A. O.

2005-06-01

400

Multiferroic Domain Dynamics in Strained Strontium Titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroicity can be induced in strontium titanate by applying biaxial strain. Using optical second harmonic generation, we report a transition from 4/mmm to the ferroelectric mm2 phase, followed by a transition to a ferroelastic-ferroelectric mm2 phase in a strontium titanate thin film. Piezoelectric force microscopy is used to study ferroelectric domain switching. Second harmonic generation, combined with phase-field modeling, is used to reveal the mechanism of coupled ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain wall motion. These studies have relevance to multiferroics with coupled polar and axial phenomena.

Vasudevarao, A.; Kumar, A.; Tian, L.; Haeni, J. H.; Li, Y. L.; Eklund, C.-J.; Jia, Q. X.; Uecker, R.; Reiche, P.; Rabe, K. M.; Chen, L. Q.; Schlom, D. G.; Gopalan, Venkatraman

2006-12-01

401

Piezoelectricity and local structural distortions in (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xSrxTiO3-Bi12TiO20 flexoelectric-type polar ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously described sintered Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-Bi12TiO20 composites as flexoelectric-type polar ceramics because they have a net macroscopic flexoelectric polarization. Here, we report on the universal existence of the macroscopic flexoelectric polarization in the (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xSrxTiO3-Bi12TiO20 system, in which enhanced piezoelectricity is observed. By combining Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques, we have identified the local flexoelectric polarization as distorted BiO5 polyhedra and TiO6 octahedra in the SrTiO3-Bi12TiO20 ceramic. The macroscopic polarization may be due to the partial alignment of these distorted units located within the grain boundary amorphous phases. Bi12TiO20 could have an important role in these flexoelectric-type polar ceramics.

Wang, L. H.; Zhao, M. L.; Wang, C. L.; Wang, J.; Kuai, W. J.; Tao, X. T.

2012-08-01

402

Piezoelectric slotted ring transducer.  

PubMed

Analytical treatment of a slotted piezoelectric ceramic ring transducer vibrating in flexure is presented. The mode shape of the slotted ring vibration is determined, and parameters of the equivalent electromechanical circuit of the transducer are calculated. Possibilities to optimize the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer by combining active and passive materials are considered. Acoustic loading for typical projectors made from slotted rings is estimated. Challenges in implementing the slotted ring transducers in terms of depth limitation and radiated power are discussed. PMID:23742342

Aronov, Boris S

2013-06-01

403

Photovoltaic Effect in Ferroelectric Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ceramic structure was simulated in a form that is more tractable to correlation between experiment and theory. Single crystals (of barium titanate) were fabricated in a simple corrugated structure in which the pedestals of the corrugation simulated th...

D. J. Epstein A. Linz H. P. Jenssen

1982-01-01

404

Piezoelectric Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

Garrison, Steve

1992-01-01

405

RMS Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Mr.taylor

2010-04-20

406

RMS TITANIC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Klooney

2010-04-20

407

The Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Van Vooren, Ms.

2007-12-04

408

Piezoelectric properties of micro-machined cantilever PLZT thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cantilever actuator of piezoelectric thin films was fabricated on Si wafer for micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) devices such as micro mirror array and accelerometer. The piezoelectric thin films, La doped lead zirconate titanate. (PLZT) were prepared on Pt\\/Ti\\/SiO2\\/Si-wafer by the sol-gel technique. Geometrically flat cantilevers were obtained using a stress balance layer. Electrical properties, dielectric constants and breakdown fields, of PLZT

Chih-Hsing Cheng; Yuhuan Xu; Hilary B. Cherry; Justine Tseng; Greg Um; Weijia Wen; John D. Mackenzie

1999-01-01

409

Strain Rate Self-Sensing of a Piezoelectric Material with the Phase Delay Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analytical modeling, and the experimental verification of the strain rate self-sensing mechanism for a cantilevered piezoelectric beam. The piezoelectric beam consists of two laminated lead zirconium titanates (PZT) on a metal shim. A mathematical model of this beam dynamics is derived by the Hamilton's principle. It turns out that a method using an adaptive filter

Yoonsu Nam; Juno Yoon; Minoru Sasaki

2002-01-01

410

Piezoelectric bimorph-based scanner in the tip-scan mode for high speed atomic force microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezoelectric bimorph-based scanner operating in tip-scan mode for high speed atomic force microscope (AFM) is first presented. The free end of the bimorph is used for fixing an AFM cantilever probe and the other one is mounted on the AFM head. The sample is placed on the top of a piezoelectric tube scanner. High speed scan is performed with the bimorph that vibrates at the resonant frequency, while slow scanning is carried out by the tube scanner. The design and performance of the scanner is discussed and given in detailed. Combined with a commercially available data acquisition system, a high speed AFM has been built successfully. By real-time observing the deformation of the pores on the surface of a commercial piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5) ceramics under electric field, the dynamic imaging capability of the AFM is demonstrated. The results show that the notable advantage of the AFM is that dynamic process of the sample with large dimensions can be easily investigated. In addition, this design could provide a way to study a sample in real time under the given experimental condition, such as under an external electric field, on a heating stage, or in a liquid cell.

Zhao, Jianyong; Gong, Weitao; Cai, Wei; Shang, Guangyi

2013-08-01

411

Piezoelectric properties of new ternary Bi1/2(Na, Li)1/2TiO3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

0.852[Bi1/2(Na1- x Li x )1/2]TiO3-0.110(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-0.038Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 (BNLT-BKT-BCTZ- x) new ternary piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by the conventional solid-state method, and their piezoelectric properties as a function of the Li content were mainly investigated. A stable solid solution with a single perovskite structure has been formed, and the depolarization temperature ( T d) of these ceramics was identified by using the temperature dependence of the dielectric loss. The T d value of these ceramics gradually decreases, while the T m value increases with increasing the Li content. The dielectric constant increases and the dielectric loss decreases with increasing the Li content, and an enhanced piezoelectric behavior of d 33223 pC/N and k p35.2 % has been demonstrated in these ceramics with x=0.06.

Wu, Jiagang; Qiao, Sha; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan

2012-11-01

412

Interior of Titan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General principles of Titan formation and evolution are addressed. Attention is focused on the volatile reservoir (defined as all constituents more volatile than water) of Titan's interior. Volatile poor models, in which Titan is like Granymede or Callist...

D. J. Stevenson

1992-01-01

413

Power harvesting using PZT ceramics embedded in orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

Battery lifetime has been the stumbling block for many power-critical or maintenance-free real-time embedded applications, such as wireless sensors and orthopedic implants. Thus a piezoelectric material that could convert human motion into electrical energy provides a very attractive solution for clinical implants. In this work, we analyze the power generation characteristics of stiff lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics and the equivalent circuit through extensive experiments. Our experimental framework allows us to explore many important design considerations of such a PZT-based power generator. Overall we can achieve a PZT element volume of 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.8 cm, which is considerably smaller than the results reported so far. Finally, we outline the application of our PZT elements in a total knee replacement (TKR) implant. PMID:19812004

Chen, Hong; Liu, Ming; Jia, Chen; Wang, Zihua

2009-09-01

414

Piezoelectric cantilever beams actuated by PZT sol-gel thin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical response of piezoelectric cantilever beams actuated by sol-gel-derived lead zirconium titanate (PZT) thin film is reported. Small multilayered beams are used to analyse the converse piezoelectric effect and to measure the mechanical deflection of the beams with a standard interferometry method. Interferometric displacement measurements, electrical measurements and finite-element simulations are reported to determine the piezoelectric coefficient d31 of

Ph Luginbuhl; G.-A Racine; Ph Lerch; B Romanowicz; K. G Brooks; N. F de Rooij; Ph Renaud; N Setter

1996-01-01

415

Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Batteryless Switch Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated a piezoelectric energy-harvesting system for a mechanical switch device. Piezoelectric ceramics of 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3--0.25PbZrO3--0.35PbTiO3 were prepared by using a conventional solid-state reaction method. Li2O, Bi2O3, and CuO additions were used as sintering aids to develop piezoelectric ceramics for low-temperature sintering. Multilayer piezoelectric ceramics with 10 10 3 mm3 sizes and with Ag--Pd inner electrodes were manufactured by using the conventional tape-casting method with the prepared powder. A prototype of a piezoelectric batteryless switch device using the multilayer ceramics was produced. It showed an output peak-to-peak voltage of 3.8 V and an output power per strike of 18 ?W. The performance of the device was good enough for practical use.

Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Sung-Chan; Kim, Sin-Woong; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, In-Sung; Song, Jaesung

2013-10-01

416

Rectifier-less piezoelectric micro power generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thin film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) MEMS energy harvesting device is designed and developed for powering autonomous wireless sensors. It is designed to harvest energy from parasitic vibrational energy sources and convert it to electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. The new pie-shaped design for the harvester is about a size of a nickel and has a

Arman Hajati; Sang-Gook Kim

2008-01-01

417

Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

2014-05-01

418

3K-1 Integrated and Flexible Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick (>40 mum) ceramic films as piezoelectric and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) have been successfully deposited on metallic and non-metallic substrates by a spray technique. In the film fabrication a composite consisting of piezoelectric powders well mixed with solution of high dielectric constant is directly sprayed onto the substrate. It is then dried, fired or annealed by heat. Multiple coating is

M. Kobayashi; C.-K. Jen

2006-01-01

419

Processing of Piezoelectric (Li,Na,K)NbO3 Porous Ceramics and (Li,Na,K)NbO3\\/KNbO3 Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous Li0.06(Na0.5K0.5)0.94NbO3 (LNKN-6) ceramics with different pore volumes have been prepared using preceramic powder and phenol resin fiber (KynolTM) as a pore former. It was confirmed that the porous ceramics synthesized by the ``two-stage firing method'' suppressed the loss of alkali elements from the porous body during heat treatment. The porous LNKN-6 ceramics were then converted to LNKN-6\\/KNbO3 composites through

Ken-ichi Kakimoto; Tomoya Imura; Yasuchika Fukui; Masami Kuno; Katsuya Yamagiwa; Takeshi Mitsuoka; Kazushige Ohbayashi

2007-01-01

420

Complex Electromechanical Coefficients of Piezoelectric Composites: Applications to Passive Vibration Damping.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified resonance technique was used to measure the complex electromechanical property coefficients of lossy 0-3 composite samples comprised of ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in different polymer matrices. An increase in the loss tangents of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric coefficients was observed near the glass transition temperatures of the polymer phases. In the case of a PZT-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite, it was possible to measure the electromechanical coefficients using 31 and thickness mode resonances over a range of temperatures spanning the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The principle of time-temperature superposition was used to explain the frequency and temperature dependences of the coefficients. The relaxation behavior of the properties of 0-3 composites, predicted theoretically by a simple cubes model representing the composite structure, was found to be in partial agreement with the experimental data. Due to electromechanical coupling, an imaginary part in a piezoelectric coefficient implies an imaginary part in a corresponding elastic coefficient which in turn implies lossy mechanical behavior. A dissipative mechanism like electrical conductivity in a piezoelectric material results in a mechanical loss tangent and associated dissipation of mechanical energy and damping of mechanical vibrations. This concept of passive piezoelectric damping was developed and the effect of internal conductivity simulated by connecting external resistors across poled piezoceramic elements with large piezoelectric coupling. The damping characteristics of a stack specimen comprised of several such elements were optimized. The properties measured using electrical resonance and mechanical vibration experiments agreed with predictions from theory. It was possible to obtain a large mechanical stiffness coefficient ( ~5 to 10 times 10 ^{10} N/m^2) along with a large mechanical loss tangent ( ~0.30). Such mechanical properties, not observed in conventional damping materials, are applicable in situations where mechanical vibrations of stiff structural elements are to be damped. Suggestions as to the utilization of the above damping effect have been made with respect to the design of ceramic-metal composites, inducing electrical conductivity in piezoceramics, use of active electronic circuits to enhance and obtain greater control over the damping properties and the possible use of magnetostrictive materials possessing large magnetomechanical coupling coefficients.

Ramachandran, A. R.

1992-01-01

421

Radially sandwiched cylindrical piezoelectric transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of radially sandwiched piezoelectric short cylindrical transducer is developed and its radial vibration is studied. The transducer is composed of a solid metal disk, a radially polarized piezoelectric ceramic short tube and a metal tube. The radial vibrations of the solid metal disk, the radially polarized piezoelectric tube and the metal tube are analyzed and their electromechanical equivalent circuits are introduced. Based on the mechanical boundary conditions among the metal disk, the piezoelectric tube and the metal tube, a three-port electromechanical equivalent circuit for the radially sandwiched transducer is obtained and the frequency equation is given. The theoretical relationship of the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies and the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient with the geometrical dimensions is analyzed. The radial vibration of the sandwiched transducer is simulated by using two different numerical methods. It is shown that the analytical resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the numerically simulated results. The transducer is expected to be used in piezoelectric resonators, actuators and ultrasonic radiators in ultrasonic and underwater sound applications.

Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yong; Hu, Jing

2013-01-01

422

Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric studies on BaTi0.95(Ni1/3Nb2/3)0.05O3 ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to study dielectric, ferroelectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric proprieties of BaTi0.95(Ni1/3Nb2/3)0.05O3. From dielectric experiments, a single ferroelectric transition temperature of about 300K was found. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops were recorded versus temperature evidencing a saturation polarisation of about 4?C/cm2 and a coercive field of 0.97kV/cm at the lowest temperature. The most promising result for BaTi0.95(Ni1/3Nb2/3)0.05O3 is its effective piezoelectric coefficient d31which reaches 55pCN-1 at room temperature.

Boujelben, F.; Bouzid, H.; Bahri, F.; Maalej, A.; Khemakhem, H.; Simon, A.; Maglione, M.

2010-11-01

423

Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of K 0.5Na 0.5NbO 3 ceramics synthesized by spray drying method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassiumsodium niobate was synthesized at 800C for 1h using dried precursors in a powder form obtained by the spray drying method. Different samples were sintered from 1060 to 1120C for 2h reaching a relative density as high as 96% of the theoretical value. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were studied for these samples and some of the most prominent results are:

Rigoberto Lpez; Federico Gonzlez; M. P. Cruz; M. E. Villafuerte-Castrejon

424

Theoretical modeling for an electroactive polymer-ceramic-based micro hybrid actuation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new configuration of an electroactive polymer, ceramic-based micro hybrid actuation system (?HYBAS) is proposed in this paper. The ?HYBAS is a device concept to utilize different electroactive materials in a cooperative and efficient method for optimized electromechanical performance. A theoretical model has been developed, based on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the materials and on the configuration of the device. The ?HYBASs investigated use piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the electroactive polymer (EAP) element combined with the electroactive ceramic (EAC) elements, which are piezoelectric hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT), soft PZT, or Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-4.5%PbTiO3 single crystal (PZN-PT single crystal). The ?HYBAS demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by utilizing advantages of synergistic contributions of the electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer and an electroactive ceramic. The modeled results provide guidelines for future developments of high performance ?HYBASs to meet various applications.

Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji

2006-06-01

425

Study of BNKLBT-1.5 lead-free ceramic/epoxy 1-3 composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth sodium titanate based lead-free ceramic fiber with the chemical formula of 0.885(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.05(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-0.015(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3, BNKLBT-1.5, has been fabricated by a powder-based extrusion method. The ceramic fibers with 400 ?m diameter were well crystallized after being calcined at 800 C and sintered at 1170 C. The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the single fiber were found to be 155 pC/N and ~34.5 ?C/cm2, respectively, which is comparable with that in bulk sample. 1-3 ceramic/polymer composites were fabricated by two routes, including dice and filled method and fiber pick-and-place method. Theoretical models were used to calculate the piezoelectric properties of the composites and compared with experimental results.

Choy, S. H.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. K.; Lam, K. H.; Chan, H. L. W.

2007-12-01

426

Diffusion phase transition and dielectric characteristics of Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3-Ba(Hf,Ti)O 3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free ceramics based on bismuth sodium titanate (Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3, BNT)-barium hafnate titanate (Ba(Hf 0.05,Ti 0.95)O 3, BHT5) were prepared by a two-step sintering process. The BNT-BHT5 ceramics sintered at 1180 ?C for 2 h in air showed a pure perovskite structure. The results show that the phase transition temperature (Tm) is suppressed dramatically with a small amount of BHT5 content and then decreased gradually with more BHT5 in the compounds. The diffusion of the phase transition is more distinct for the samples around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of BNT-BHT5 system. In the (1- x)BNT- xBHT5 system, high piezoelectric constants were obtained at x=0.08, which is a tetragonal phase near the MPB region. The BNT-BHT5 system is expected to be a new and promising candidate for lead-free dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics.

Tian, H. Y.; Wang, D. Y.; Lin, D. M.; Zeng, J. T.; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.

2007-04-01

427

Piezoelectric properties of (Pb\\/sub 1-x\\/Ba\\/sub x\\/)NaNbO ceramic under pressure along the polarization direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors use x-ray diffraction to study polarization and depolarization under a pressure of 380 MPa in the title ceramic where the value of x falls between 0.1 and 0.6. They establish that the irreversible and reversible changes in the piezomodulus, due to pressure along the direction of polarization, are determined by the phase composition of the ceramic. The greatest

S. S. Lopatin; B. S. Medvedev; Yu. N. Biyatenko; N. I. Basenko

1987-01-01

428

Phase formation and characterization of high Curie temperature xBiYbO 3(1 ? x)PbTiO 3 piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel perovskite xBiYbO3(1?x)PbTiO3 (BYPT) crystalline solutions were prepared by conventional ceramic processing. The effect of BiYbO3 on the microstructure and electrical properties was investigated, and the reaction mechanism of phase formation was discussed. The results show that the proper calcining temperature is 860C and the optimum sintering temperature is 1140C. It is difficult for BYPT ceramics to obtain phase-pure perovskite

Gao Feng; Hong Rongzi; Liu Jiaji; Li Zhen; Cheng Lihong; Tian Changsheng

2009-01-01

429

Processing, texture quality, and piezoelectric properties of <001>C textured (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)TiO3 - xPbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the link between texture quality and electromechanical properties for <001>C textured, 0.03(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 - 0.97[0.715Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)TiO3 - 0.285PbTiO3] (0.03NBT-0.97[PMN-28.5PT]) ceramics with and without Mn-doping. Here, the subscript C denotes pseudocubic indices. Textured ceramics were prepared by templated grain growth of PMN-25PT on platelet-shaped 0.4(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.6PbTiO3 (NBT-0.6PT) templates. Texture fractions of f = 0.92 (for undoped (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)TiO3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT)) and f = 0.49 (for Mn-doped PMN-PT) were determined by fitting 002C XRD pole figures to the March-Dollase model, which was modified to account for symmetry-related 200C and 020C reflections. Using resonance methods, the elastic constants cij, sij, piezoelectric constants dij, eij, gij, hij, dielectric constants ?ij, and coupling coefficients kij of textured PMN-PT ceramics were characterized. It was found that the properties of textured PMN-PT approach the single crystal values along the texture axis (<001>C, also the poling axis), but not in transverse directions. In particular, the elastic compliance sE11 (perpendicular to <001>C) approaches an average of the single crystal sE11 and sE11(45) coefficients, resulting in anomalous -sE12/sE11 ratios of - 0.01 and 0.04 in pure and Mn-doped textured PMN-PT, respectively. The 33-mode properties as measured by resonance-antiresonance methods were d33 = 852 pC/N, k33 = 0.83, ?33 = 3500, and mechanical quality factor Qm = 94 for undoped textured ceramics and d33 = 515, k33 = 0.76, V33 = 2200, and Qm = 714 for Mn-doped textured ceramics.

Poterala, Stephen F.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Meyer, Richard J.; Messing, Gary L.

2011-07-01

430

Additive Processes for Piezoelectric Materials: Piezoelectric MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Piezoelectricity has been underutilized in the MEMS world. Fabrication process compatibility, complexity, and the limited\\u000a availability of repeatable and reliable piezoelectric thin films have limited the incorporation of piezoelectric thin films\\u000a in MEMS. Advances in materials processing and a move toward system-in-package (SIP) concepts have pushed piezoelectric thin\\u000a film devices toward mainstream acceptance. The advances in piezoelectric aluminum (AlN) thin

Ronald G. Polcawich; Jeffrey S. Pulskamp

431

Local piezoelectric behavior in PZT-based thin films for ultrasound transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are currently used in inkjet printers and precision resonators; numerous additional applications are being investigated for sensors, low-voltage actuators, and transducers. This work was aimed at improving piezoelectric MEMS by taking two approaches: 1) identifying factors affecting the piezoelectric response of ferroelectric thin films and 2) demonstrating integration of these films into a high frequency array transducer. It was found that there are several key factors influencing the piezoelectric response of thin films for a given material composition. First, large grain size improves the piezoelectric response. This was demonstrated using chemical solution deposited lead nickel niobate -- lead zirconate titanate (0.3)Pb(Ni 0.33Nb0.67)O3 - (0.7)Pb(Zr0.45Ti 0.55O3), (PNN-PZT) ferroelectric thin films. It was shown that this composition allows greater microstructural control than does PZT. Dielectric permittivities ranging from 1350 to 1520 and a transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f as high as -- 9.7 C/m 2 were observed for films of about 0.25 mum in thickness. The permittivity and piezoelectric response as well as extrinsic contributions to the dielectric constant increased by 14 and 12 % respectively for samples with grain sizes ranging from 110 to 270 nm. A second factor influencing the piezoelectric response is film composition with respect to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The composition dependence of the dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities was characterized in epitaxially grown (0.3)Pb(Ni0.33Nb0.67)O3-(0.7)Pb(Zr xTi1-xO3) thin films deposited on SrTiO 3 to minimize the influence of large-angle grain boundaries. Tetragonal, MPB and rhombohedral films were prepared by changing the Zr/Ti ratio. The largest dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities were observed for the rhombohedral sample; this resulted from a higher domain wall mobility due to a smaller ferroelectric distortion and superior crystal quality. Thirdly, changes in the mechanical boundary conditions experienced by a ferroelectric thin film were found to influence both the properties and the length scale for correlated motion of domain walls. Microfabrication was employed to release the PZT films from the Si substrate. Nonlinear piezoelectric maps, by band excitation piezoforce microscopy, showed formation of clusters of higher nonlinear activities of similar size for clamped PZT films with different microstructures. However PZT films that had been released from the Si substrate showed a distinct increase in the correlation length associated with coupled domain wall motion, suggesting that the local mechanical boundary conditions, more than microstructure or composition govern the domain wall dynamics. Release of both the local and the global stress states in films produced dielectric nonlinearities comparable to those of bulk ceramics. The second research direction was targeted at demonstrating the functionality of a one dimensional transducer array. A diaphragm geometry was used for the transducer arrays in order to benefit from the unimorph-type displacement of the PZT-SiO2 layers. For this purpose, the PZT and remaining films in the stack were patterned using reactive ion etching and partially released from the underlying silicon substrate by XeF2 etching from the top. Admittance measurements on the fabricated structures showed resonance frequencies at 40 MHz for a 80 mum diameter-wide diaphragms with a PZT thickness of 1.74 mum. In-water transmit and receive functionalities were demonstrated. A bandwidth on receive of 80 % centered at 40 MHz was determined during pitch-mode tests.

Griggio, Flavio

432

Effect of simultaneous substitution of magnesium and niobium on dielectric properties and phase transition temperature of bismuth sodium barium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Bi1/2 Na1/2)0.94Ba0.06Ti1- x (Mg1/3Nb2/3) x O3 ceramic samples with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15, 0.20 were synthesized by solid state method. Microstructure, dielectric properties, impedance and conductivity of the ceramics were studied. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Co-doping of the ceramics with Mg and Nb at x = 0.01 raised the dielectric constant from 6510 to 8225 at the frequency of 1 KHz. Further increase in (Mg1/3Nb2/3)4+ concentration up to 0.15 increased the transition temperature from 275 C to 339 C and lowered the dielectric constant. The ac impedance measurements showed a linear response with frequency at lower temperature indicating insulating behavior and a single semicircular arc with spike at higher temperature.

Zereffa, E. A.; Prasad Rao, A. V.

2013-04-01

433

Colloidal processing of polymer ceramic nanocomposites for integral capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer ceramic composites form a suitable material system for low temperature fabrication of embedded capacitors appropriate for MCM-L technology. Improved electrical properties such as permittivity can be achieved by efficient filling of polymers with high dielectric constant ceramic powders such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNPT) and barium titanate (BT). Photodefinable epoxies as the matrix polymer allow fine feature definition

Hitesh Windlass; P. Markondeya Raj; Devarajan Balaraman; Swapan K. Bhattacharya; Rao R Tummala

2001-01-01

434

A shear-bending mode high temperature piezoelectric actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single ring-shape ceramic plate piezoelectric actuator operated in shear-bending mode was proposed for high-temperature operation. The actuator was formed from BiScO3-PbTiO3 ceramic and polarized in the radial direction. A large bending displacement at the center of the actuator was piezoelectrically generated under an applied voltage in the thickness direction due to axial-symmetric shear strain of the ring-shape configuration. The displacement obtained at 200 C was about 20 ?m, 11-14 times that of a normal piezoelectric plate of identical size.

Chen, Jianguo; Li, Xiaotian; Liu, Guoxi; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

2012-07-01

435

Microstructure of BaTiO3--Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3--BiFeO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of (1-x)(0.33BaTiO3--0.67BiFeO3)--xBi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) on Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 content x associated with microstructural changes is studied. From the behaviour of electric field-induced polarization and strain, polarization switching and depolarizing become easier as Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 content x increases. Remanent polarization and dielectric constant decrease, while polarization saturation field increases with increasing x. Microstructural observation reveals that Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 addition enhances the compositional fluctuation of BaTiO3/BiFeO3 ratio, which probably creates a nanometre-sized domain region with slightly BaTiO3-rich composition. Since this nanometre-sized domain may cause relatively large responses of polarization and strain to the applied electric field, an appropriate amount of Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 enhances the electric field-induced strain, resulting in the largest piezoelectric response at x = 0.05. However, excessive Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 degrades polarization and strain characteristics, because a number of Ba(Fe1-xMgx/2Tix/2)12O19 grains are created as a secondary phase and cause the segregation of excess bismuth oxide phases with low dielectric constant into the boundaries of the ferroelectric/piezoelectric grains.

Yabuta, Hisato; Shimada, Mikio; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hayashi, Jumpei; Kubota, Makoto; Miura, Kaoru; Fukui, Tetsuro; Fujii, Ichiro; Wada, Satoshi

2012-09-01

436

Piezoelectric Properties of Spark-Plasma-Sintered (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-PbTiO3 Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for high-performance piezoelectrics, (1-y)(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-yPbTiO3 (y<= 0.50) solid solution has been prepared using the spark-plasma-sintering method. Dielectric investigation reveals that both the ferroelectric phase transition temperatures and the peak value of the dielectric constant are strongly suppressed in the low y range. However, improved electromechanical coupling constants are observed at the same y range. These properties are explained

Ruiping Wang; Rongjun Xie; Tadashi Sekiya; Yoshiro Shimojo; Yoshio Akimune; Naoto Hirosaki; Mitsuru Itoh

2002-01-01

437

Structural Health Monitoring Using Smart Piezoelectric Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the electromechanical impedance method to detect the presence of damage and monitor its progression in concrete structures is investigated using finite element analysis. The piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) patch bonded to concrete structures serves as both an actuator and a sensor in high frequency. The various health states of the structure are assessed using the root mean square

Kevin K Tseng; Liangsheng Wang

438

Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

1966-01-01

439

Bulk Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric PMN-PT Crystals Using Gradient Freeze Technique for Improved SHM Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a growing interest in recent years in lead based perovskite ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions because of their excellent dielectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties that make them very attractive for various sensing, actuating and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We are interested in the development of highly sensitive and efficient PMN-PT sensors based on large single crystals for the structural health monitoring of composite materials that may be used in future spacecrafts. Highly sensitive sensors are needed for detection of defects in these materials because they often tend to fail by distributed and interacting damage modes and much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate and not detectable by visual inspection. Research is being carried out for various combinations of solid solutions for PMN-PT piezoelectric materials and bigger size crystals are being sought for improved sensor applications. Single crystals of this material are of interest for sensor applications because of their high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 greater than 1700 pC/N) and electromechanical coefficients (k33 greater than 0.90). For comparison, the commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has a d33 of about 600 pC/N and electromechanical coefficients k33 of about 0.75. At the present time, these piezoelectric relaxor crystals are grown by high temperature flux growth method and the size of these crystals are rather small (3x4x5 mm(exp 3). In the present paper, we have attempted to grow bulk single crystals of PMN-PT in a 2 inch diameter platinum crucible and successfully grown a large size crystal of 67%PMN-33%PT using the vertical gradient freeze technique with no flux. Piezoelectric properties of the grown crystals are investigated. PMN-PT plates show excellent piezoelectric properties. Samples were poled under an applied electric field of 5 kV/cm. Dielectric properties at a frequency of 1 kHz are examined. The grown PMN-PT crystals show typical relaxor dielectric properties. Additionally, the thermal properties of the sample are tested. The results are in good agreement with those found in the literature and some are reported for the first time.

Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Kochary, F.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

2007-01-01

440

Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator  

SciTech Connect

The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 {mu}g/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process.

Verkouteren, R. Michael; G