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1

Hydrostatic piezoelectric effect in lead titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The hydrostatic piezoelectric characteristics of Pb{sub 0.955-x}Sm{sub 2x/3}Bi{sub 0.03}Ti{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} ceramics were studied. Within the range of at least 25 to 70 degrees C and at high hydrostaic and uniaxial pressures of 0.1-60 MPa, a high stability of the no-load piezoelectric voltage coefficient for the material with x=0.09-0.15 was found.

Lopatin, S.S.; Lupeiko, T.G.; Zvyagintsev, B.I. [Rostov State Univ. (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-10-01

2

Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Calcium and Samarium Modified Lead Titanate Ceramics for Hydroacoustic Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Piezoelectric lead titanate ceramics are promising materials for applications in underwater acoustics as well as ultrasound technology. These materials are highly anisotropic and possess high sensitivity to hydroacoustic signals applied under hydrostatic ...

K. M. Rittenmyer R. Y. Ting

1990-01-01

3

Microstructure Control of Barium Titanate Grain-oriented Ceramics and Their Piezoelectric Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) [110] grain-oriented ceramics along [110] direction were prepared by a templated grain growth (TGG) method. The [110] oriented BT platelike particles (t-BT) were used as template particles. The relationship between poling treatment program and piezoelectric constant was investigated. The change in the poling conditions did not greatly influence domain size and the piezoelectric constant. The relationship between piezoelectric properties and domain size in BT grain-oriented ceramics was investigated. The smaller domain size was required to increase the piezoelectric constant.

Mori, Rintaro; Nakashima, Koichi; Fujii, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Nagamori, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Wada, Satoshi

2011-10-01

4

Effect of gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of barium stannate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tin doped barium titanate ceramics has been obtained by solid state reaction method followed by high energy ball milling. The effect of heavy dose gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the synthesized barium stannate titanate ceramics has been observed. It has been found that on irradiation the ferroelectric property decreases with decreasing values of Pr and Ec. The piezoelectric properties including d33, electrostrictive strain and electromechanical coupling coefficient (Kp) also decrease following the same trend of Pr and Ec. Grain size decreases and grain patterns become irregular after irradiation as observed from SEM micrographs. The Thermoluminescence (TL) property of the barium stannate titanate ceramics has also been investigated and reported.

Nath, A. K.; Medhi, Nirmali

2013-10-01

5

Gamma Ray Irradiation Effects on the Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of heavy dose gamma ray irradiation on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics has been investigated. It is found that on irradiation the ferroelectric property decreases and polarization behavior shows double loop hysteresis. The piezoelectric properties including piezoelectric charge constant ( d 33), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( K p), and electrostrictive strain also decreases. The most probable reason for decreased ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties may be the occurrence of random local strain upon irradiation. The phase transition temperature from ferroelectric to paraelectric decreases and degree of diffuseness increases on irradiation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve showed a peak at 226 C showing that irradiated BaTiO3 has TL properties. Presence of TL clearly indicates that gamma ray irradiation causes trapped holes and electrons and these trapped charges are released at temperature higher than 226 C. The creation of trapped holes and electrons effected the microstrain of BaTiO3 ceramic leading to change in the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramic.

Medhi, Nirmali; Nath, A. K.

2013-09-01

6

Low temperature sintering of lead magnesium nickel niobate zirconate titanate (PMN-PNN-PZT) piezoelectric ceramic, with high performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature sintering of quarternary system lead magnesium nickel niobate zirconate titanate (PMN-PNN-PZT) piezoelectric ceramics has been investigated. This ceramic with proper additives could be sintered at about 900C and exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties: Kp = 0.610.65, Qm ? 1000, ?T\\/33\\/?0 = 23002800, d33 = 430465 10 C\\/N, tg? ? 50 10, ? = 7.98.01 g\\/cm. The microstructure

Gui Zhilun; Li Longtu; Lin Hongqing; Zhang Xiaowen

1990-01-01

7

Large Piezoelectric Constant and High Curie Temperature of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Ternary System Based on Bismuth Sodium Titanate-Bismuth Potassium Titanate-Barium Titanate near the Morphotropic Phase Boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic ternary system based on bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3 (BNT) - bismuth potassium titanate (Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 (BKT) - barium titanate BaTiO3 (BT) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases has been investigated. In the case of a(Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-bBaTiO3-c(Bi1\\/2K1\\/2)TiO3 [BNBK(100a\\/100b\\/100c)] solid solution ceramics, the highest piezoelectric constant d33=191 pC\\/N, Curie temperature, Tc=301C, electromechanical coupling factor,

Hajime Nagata; Masaki Yoshida; Yoichi Makiuchi; Tadashi Takenaka

2003-01-01

8

High performance Aurivillius phase sodium-potassium bismuth titanate lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with lithium and cerium modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric properties of the lithium and cerium modified A-site vacancies sodium-potassium bismuth titanate (NKBT) lead-free piezoceramics are investigated. The piezoelectric activity of NKBT ceramics is significantly improved by the modification of lithium and cerium. The Curie temperature TC, piezoelectric coefficient d33, and mechanical quality factor Qm for the NKBT ceramics modified with 0.10 mol % (LiCe) are found to be 660 C, 25 pC/N, and 3135, respectively. The Curie temperature gradually decreases from 675 to 650 C with the increase of (LiCe) modification. The dielectric spectroscopy shows that all the samples possess stable piezoelectric properties, demonstrating that the (LiCe) modified NKBT-based ceramics are the promising candidates for high temperature applications.

Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jin-Feng

2006-11-01

9

Effect of (Mn, F) and (Mg, F) co-doping on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of (Mn, F) and (Mg, F) dopants on the piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary is investigated. PZT ceramics are prepared by a chemical route based on co-precipitation of oxalates and hydroxides. The acceptor is incorporated into the B site of the materials and the fluorine ion is introduced into anionic sites. The d33 coefficient, the mechanical quality factor Qm and other properties are measured. Scanning electron microscopy is used to determine the grain size of the materials. Electron spin resonance is used to determine the valency state of Mn in fluorinated PZT ceramics. In Mn doped PZT, the introduction of a fluorine ion makes the poling process easier and increases the piezoelectric coefficients whereas the fluorination of Mg doped PZT constantly leads to hard materials with a lower piezoelectric response. This study shows that (Mn, F) co-doping produces semihard materials with high piezoelectric coefficients.

Boucher, E.; Guyomar, D.; Lebrun, L.; Guiffard, B.; Grange, G.

2002-11-01

10

Temperature behavior of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of samarium-doped lead titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric and electromechanical coupling properties of Sm-doped and Mn-doped PbTiO3 ceramics were investigated from 4.2 to 300 K. The upper and lower limits of the ceramic dielectric and piezoelectric properties were calculated by averaging the single-domain constants that were determined from a phenomenological theory. Comparisons of the measured and calculated properties were then made. The measured dielectric permittivity ?T33

J. N. Kim; MICHAEL J. HAUN; SEI JOO JANG; L. E. Cross; X. R. Xue

1989-01-01

11

Lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic composition which, based on total composition weight, consists essentially of a solid solution of lead zirconate and lead titanate in a PbZrO/sub 3/:PbTiO/sub 3/ ratio from about 0.505:0.495 to about 0.54:0.46; a halide salt selected from the group consisting of fluorides and chlorides of alkali metal and alkaline earth elements and mixtures thereof except for francium and radium in an amount from about 0.5 to 2 weight percent; and an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium, barium, scandium, aluminum, lanthanum, praesodynium, neodymium, samarium, and mixtures thereof in an amount from about 0.5 to about 6 weight percent, the relative amount of oxide being from about 1 to about 4 times that of the halide.

Walker, B.E. Jr.

1986-12-02

12

Piezoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline Lead Titanate Zirconate Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed data are given for the piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric properties of lead titanate zirconate ceramic compositions near the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary. These compositions have markedly higher electromechanical coupling factors, remanent ferroelectric charge, and coercive field, than ceramic barium titanate. Another interesting feature is a pronounced change in the free permittivity 33T by the poling process; this change is in

D. A. Berlincourt; C. Cmolik; H. Jaffe

1960-01-01

13

Piezoelectric moduli of piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The effective piezoelectric moduli of polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics are calculated using a straightforward averaging method (a Voigt average) and a more rigorous effective-medium theory recently developed for piezocomposites. The effects of polarization orientation within each crystallographic domain and the shape of the domain on the effective piezoelectric moduli are presented. The effective-medium theory, which includes full coupling of the elastic and dielectric interactions, gives results in reasonable agreement with experimental ones.

Nan, C.W.; Clarke, D.R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

1996-10-01

14

Processing and properties of bismuth sodium titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics for transducer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramics have been key materials for transducer applications. Most practical materials are developed from the binary and ternary systems of lead-based perovskite piezoceramics. The main drawbacks of these lead-based materials include processing of PbO and, also, PbO evaporation during sintering, leading to a serious pollution problem. The toxicity and volatility of lead oxide are critical environmental issues which cannot be overlooked. Through the concept of Smolenskii, it is possible to replace Pb with elements having similar electron configuration and still obtain a material exhibiting similar behavior in spontaneous polarization. The Bisb{0.5}Nasb{0.5}TiOsb3 (BNT) composition has a perovskite structure and presents ferroelectric behavior with a Curie temperature of 320spC. However, the random displacement between the Nasp+ and Bisp{3+} ions at elevated temperature results in the abnormal dielectric permittivity and loss as functions of temperature and frequency. Additionally, the high coercive field of this BNT composition (Esbc = 70 kV/cm) leads to a difficulty in successful poling. In this research, the structure-processing-properties relations of BNT and solid solutions of BNT with Pbsb{0.75}Casb{0.25}TiOsb3 were assessed. Based on the flexibility of the perovskite structure in allowing an incorporation of various cation sizes, isovalent and aliovalent substitutions were utilized in the compositional modification of BNT. These modified BNT compositions were formulated by the conventional mixed oxide method, following optimized powder processing, specimen fabrication, and sintering procedures. Two kinds of distortion from the ideal perovskite structure, the packing and off-center effects, were expected to be involved in this modification. A series of the modified BNT piezoceramics encompassing various dielectric and piezoelectric properties was prepared by the addition of three rare-earth ions, Lasp{3+}, Ndsp{3+}, and Smsp{3+}, and a pentavalent ion, Nbsp{5+}. These modified BNT compositions were calcined in the range of 800-900spC for 2-5 hrs and then sintered at 1050-1200spC for 1-4 hrs. Conventional poling was performed at 50spC with an applied field of 40-70 kV/cm for 5 minutes. A composition of the BNT with 0.5 at% La yielded a K value of 515, ksb{t} of 45%, dsb{33} of 100 pC/N, dsb{h} of 65 pC/N and ksb{t}/ksb{p} of 3.5, which is considerable promising for transducer applications.

Herabut, Aree

1997-11-01

15

Effects of rare earth metal substituents on the high power piezoelectric properties in lead zirconate titanate-lead (antimony,manganese)O(3) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved piezoelectric materials with higher vibrational velocities are needed to meet the demands of advanced high power electromechanical applications. In this thesis, the effects of the rare earth (RE) metal substituents on the vibrational velocity, the piezoelectric properties and polarization behavior of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Sb,Mn)O3 ceramics have been investigated. Under high drive levels, the mechanical quality factor and the vibrational velocity were both significantly improved by RE substitution. For a longitudinal vibrator, driven under the d31 mode, root mean square value (rms value) of vibration velocity as high as 0.9 m/s under an electric field of 10 kV/m (rms value) has been found for Yb-substituted specimens, which is 1.5 times higher than that of base Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Sb,Mn)O 3 ceramics. For most of rare earth substituents investigated in this system, regardless of the species ionic radii, the piezoelectric properties were observed to have combinative "hard" and "soft" characteristics. "Hard" piezoelectrics have higher Qm values, but lower k31 values. On the other hand, "soft" piezoelectrics have lower Qm values, but higher k31 values. The increased mechanical quality factor Qm (typical of "hard" piezoelectrics) and increased electromechanical coupling coefficient k31 (typical of "soft" ones) were both achieved by RE substitution. With increasing rare earth substituent ionic size, there was no absolute proportional relationship between k31/Qm and dopant ionic size observed. Polarization-electric field (P-E) measurements revealed a significant relaxational polarization similar to a "soft" piezoelectric, in addition to an internal dipolar field similar to a "hard" piezoelectric. A possible explanation for the combinative "hardening" and "softening" effects is the coexistence of randomly quenched and mobile defects. The time dependences after poling of the mechanical quality factor Q m, electromechanical coupling coefficient k31 and dielectric constant K have been investigated for both "soft" and "hard" lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. A significant increase of Qm with time was observed for "hard" PZTs, however "soft" ones did not exhibit any changes during the same time period. The aging rate after poling was found to be related to the degree of "hard" characteristics. Polarization versus electric field (P-E) measurements of "hard" PZTs revealed the development of a shift of the response along the E axis with time. It is believed that an internal dipolar field develops with time, due to a reorientation of defect dipoles along the direction of spontaneous polarization through oxygen diffusion. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gao, Yongkang

16

Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)|

Flinn, I.

1975-01-01

17

Piezoelectric measurements on ceramic multilayer capacitors  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric measurements are reported for a series of commercial multilayer capacitors which had been previously tested and sold for high-reliability applications. The capacitors conformed to BX specifications and were fabricated from various combinations of barium titanate based dielectric compositions with different electrode materials. Dielectric properties are reported, including distributions in capacitance values and variations in Curie-Weiss behavior. Piezoelectric measurements were made of the d/sub 13/ and d/sub 33/ coefficients; and data are reported for their distribution in values, and temperature and voltage dependencies. Significant piezoelectric coefficients were detected for capacitors in their as-received conditions. In certain cases the piezoelectric coefficients approached 1000 pC/N. The results are discussed in the context of what effects life-testing conditions may have on dielectric quality. Experiments are also reported for the electric-poling and thermal-depoling of multilayer ceramic capacitors. Concern is expressed for the over-testing of thin layer ceramic devices. Calculations indicate the strain deformation can exceed the elastic limit in certain conditions, resulting in mechanical failure. In addition, the generation of electric charge or potential by mechanical vibration contributes a significant noise to circuit applications. Voltage levels were in the millivoltage range. The study indicates that significant problems may arise in commercial ceramic multilayer capacitors due to a generally unrecognized piezoelectric effect. 5 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

Suchicital, C.T.A.; Payne, D.A.

1985-06-01

18

Utilisation of smart polymers and ceramic based piezoelectric materials for scavenging wasted energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric smart polymer and ceramic materials can be deployed as a mechanism to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power portable devices. This paper focuses on the development and comparison of a micropower based harvesting generator using piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membrane and PP (polypropylene) foam polymer with

I. Patel; E. Siores; T. Shah

2010-01-01

19

Fabrication of lead zirconate titanate ceramic fibers by gelation of sodium alginate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ceramic fiber processing method by gelation of Na-alginate, a natural innoxious polymer, is reported. The ion exchange reaction between Na and Ca, and associated gelation process is utilized to fabricate lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramic fibers using a Na-alginate based ceramic suspension. Effects of solid loading, viscosity of the starting sodium alginate and its amount in the slurry,

Sedat Alkoy; Hakan Yanik; Bengu Yapar

2007-01-01

20

Effect of lead content on the structure and piezoelectric properties of hard type lead titanatezirconate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation we studied the effect of lead content on a hard type ceramics starting from lack to excess PbO. Specimens of Pbx(Mn0.017Sb0.033Zr0.48Ti0.47)O3 with 0.96?x?1.06 were prepared by conventional oxide mixing technique and sintered at temperatures between 1280 and 1350C. In samples with lower Pb concentration the pyrochlore phase appeared, while in those with higher Pb an excess

C. Miclea; C. Tanasoiu; L. Amarande; A. Gheorghiu; I. Spanulescu; C. Plavitu; C. T. Miclea; M. C. Cioangher; L. Trupina; A. Iuga

2007-01-01

21

Piezoelectricity in lead zirconate titanate nanowires: A theoretical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric coefficients for lead zirconate titanate (PZT) being an order of magnitude higher than the piezoelectric semiconductors, it is expected that this piezoceramic would be very promising for mechanical energy harvesting. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the piezoelectric potential generated in charge-free PZT nanowires upon application of mechanical strain in different directions. Similar to wurtzite semiconductor nanowires, in case of PZT wires of rocksalt crystal structure, it is found that the stretching modes generate higher potential than the bending mode. However, in spite of high piezoelectric coefficients, the piezoelectric potential generated from these piezoceramic wires is much lower than the semiconductor nanowires because of their high dielectric constant.

Sen, Banani; Stroscio, Michael; Dutta, Mitra

2012-07-01

22

Piezoelectric properties of lithium borosilicate glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass ceramics in the system Li2O-SiO2-B2O3 with oriented crystallites were prepared by crystallizing the glasses in a temperature gradient. Piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of the glass ceramics are reported. Some of the compositions exhibit low temperature coefficient of resonance, comparable to LiTaO3 single crystals. Advantages of fabricating glass-ceramic piezoelectric resonators are described and the possibility of using them in surface

A. Halliyal; A. S. Bhalla; R. E. Newnham; L. E. Cross

1982-01-01

23

Electromechanical properties of A-site (LiCe)-modified sodium bismuth titanate (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 4.5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15}) piezoelectric ceramics at elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

The Aurivillius-type bismuth layer-structured (NaBi){sub 0.46}(LiCe){sub 0.04}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (NBT-LiCe) piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized using conventional solid-state processing. Phase analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction and microstructural morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics were investigated. The piezoelectric activities were found to be significantly enhanced compared to NBT ceramics, which can be attributed to the lattice distortion and the presence of bismuth vacancies. The dielectric and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics at elevated temperature were investigated in detail. The excellent piezoelectric, dielectric, and electromechanical properties, coupled with high Curie temperature (T{sub c}=660 deg. C), demonstrated that the NBT-LiCe ceramics are the promising candidates for high temperature applications.

Wang Chunming; Wang Jinfeng [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R. [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2009-05-01

24

Electromechanical properties of A-site (LiCe)-modified sodium bismuth titanate (Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15) piezoelectric ceramics at elevated temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aurivillius-type bismuth layer-structured (NaBi)0.46(LiCe)0.04Bi4Ti4O15 (NBT-LiCe) piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized using conventional solid-state processing. Phase analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction and microstructural morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics were investigated. The piezoelectric activities were found to be significantly enhanced compared to NBT ceramics, which can be attributed to the lattice distortion and the presence of bismuth vacancies. The dielectric and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics at elevated temperature were investigated in detail. The excellent piezoelectric, dielectric, and electromechanical properties, coupled with high Curie temperature (Tc=660 C), demonstrated that the NBT-LiCe ceramics are the promising candidates for high temperature applications.

Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

2009-05-01

25

Thermal expansion of ceramics containing aluminum titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions The investigation of the thermal expansion hysteresis facilitates, by relatively simple and available means, the obtaining of information about the presence in the ceramic material of active microcracks, that is, those capable of reverse collapse, and about their behavior during thermal cycling of the specimen. The presence of the expansion hysteresis in ceramics containing aluminum titanate exerts a considerable

V. D. Tkachenko; E. P. Garmash; B. K. Lupin; E. S. Lugovskaya

1988-01-01

26

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Barium Titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric constant and loss of barium titanate and barium-strontium titanate have been measured at biasing field strengths from 0 to 5 megavolts per meter, at temperatures from -50C to +135C and at frequencies from 0.1 to 25 megacycles. The measurements versus temperature indicate the expected agreement with the Curie-Weiss law at temperatures above the Curie point. Measurements versus field

Shepard Roberts

1947-01-01

27

Direct measurement of the domain switching contribution to the dynamic piezoelectric response in ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic piezoelectric response of ferroelectric ceramics is comprised of both intrinsic (piezoelectric lattice strain) and extrinsic (non-180 domain wall motion) components. Here the authors report direct measurements of non-180 domain wall motion in ceramic lead zirconate titanate during application of subcoercive cyclic driving electric fields using an in situ stroboscopic neutron diffraction technique. During unipolar cycling at 1 Hz and half of the coercive field, non-180 domain switching gives rise to approximately 34% of the measured d33 coefficient of 400 pm/V.

Jones, Jacob L.; Hoffman, Mark; Daniels, John E.; Studer, Andrew J.

2006-08-01

28

Lead Zirconate Titanate (LZT) Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of producing fully reacted, homogeneous lead zirconate titanate powders including all the technologically important property modifying additives is described. The method involves reacting mixture of powders of the components together with a eutec...

J. H. Rosolowski R. H. Arendt J. W. Szymaszek

1977-01-01

29

Elastic and Piezoelectric Coefficients of Single-Crystal Barium Titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical resonance and antiresonance frequencies were measured on barium titanate single-crystal elements maintained under electric dc bias from -50C to +150C. A complete set of elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of the tetragonal modification at 25C is obtained. The elastic compliances show substantial deviation from cubic symmetry. Measurements in the orthorhombic state show longitudinal compliance four times higher than in

Don Berlincourt; Hans Jaffe

1958-01-01

30

Continuum damage mechanics in piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuum damage mechanics approach is used to predict the failure of piezoelectric ceramics which are widely used as actuators and sensors in smart structures. A continuum damage model is developed for piezoelectric ceramics, and the model is used to investigate the degradation of effective properties of the material due to damage growth. Effective properties of the material are obtained by extending the Mori-Tanaka method to piezoelectric materials. A damage evolution law is proposed to predict the growth of damage with respect to time, and the involved material parameters in the damage evolution law are obtained from the experiments of Tanimoto and Okazaki. The results are obtained assuming all the effective properties of the material degrade as the damage grow, and the degradation is independent of the load history. This degradation should be taken into account to calibrate the sensors, actuators and controllers for the better reliability, maintainability and controllability of smart structures. The effective properties of the material is related to some measurable electrical quantity such as capacitance. Therefore, the state of damage can be predicted just by measuring the capacitance of the embedded piezoelectric ceramics.

Jain, Adesh K.; Sirkis, James S.

1995-05-01

31

High-strain piezoelectric ceramics and applications to actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

PZT-based solid solutions are very attractive piezoelectric ceramics, because they exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties such as large piezoelectric constant. In this paper we describe the relationship between piezoelectric properties and compositions, and sintering behavior of PbNiNbTiO3PbTiO3PbZrO3 (PNNPTPZ) ceramics and applications to the microactuators for magnetic disk drives. The MPB composition was determined by the temperature dependence of the relative permittivity

Kazuaki Kurihara; Masao Kondo

2008-01-01

32

Ferroelectric properties of nanocrystalline barium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics with the average grain size of 20 nm obtained by spark plasma sintering were investigated. The dielectric data show a ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition with a maximum permittivity of ~930 at 115 C and at 1 kHz. The polarization-reversal characteristics and the local ferroelectric switching behavior were measured; the typical piezoelectric hysteresis loops were recorded. The present results provide experimental evidence, indicating that if a critical grain size exists for ferroelectricity it is less than 20 nm for polycrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics.

Deng, Xiangyun; Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Hai; Chen, Liangliang; Chen, Lei; Li, Longtu

2006-06-01

33

Interdiffusion reaction in the PZT\\/PNN functionally gradient piezoelectric ceramic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interfacial diffusion reaction between lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead nickel niobate (PbNi1\\/3Nb2\\/3O3:PNN) phases in the PZT\\/PNN functionally gradient piezoelectric ceramics were investigated as a function of the diffusion temperature and time, respectively. The ionic composition distribution profiles in the interdiffusion region were examined by electron probe microbeam analysis (EPMA). Based on a diffusion model of the overlapped diffusion

XINHUA ZHU; JIE XU; ZHONGYAN MENG

1998-01-01

34

Effect of surface modification of lead zirconate titanate particles on the properties of piezoelectric composite sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric composite sensors which consist of a ferroelectric ceramic phase and a polymer binder have been the center of interest for offering a distributed sensing mechanism in many industrial applications. This study investigates the effect of PZT surface modification on the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of PZT/epoxy composite sensors. Lead zirconate titanate ceramic powder (PZT-5H) was surface modified to prepare a high PZT content (0-3) piezoelectric composite sensor. Functional groups of the modifiers grafted onto the PZT particle surface served as a bridge into the epoxy matrix, thus creating strong bonds between the matrix and PZT particles. This noticeably improved the dispersion of the PZT phase, allowing the use of large fractions of piezoactive component in the composite. It is demonstrated that the produced piezo-film shows an enhanced poling behavior in that it can be poled with lower voltages under reduced poling times. This is caused by greater levels of microstructural homogeneity in the modified films as well as alteration of interfacial charge characteristics using modifiers' functional groups.

Saber, Nasser; Ma, Jun; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Lee, Sang-Heon; Marney, Donavan

2013-08-01

35

High temperature thickness measurements using a bismuth titanate piezoelectric transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 was prepared through a sol-gel process, characterised and built as a high temperature ultrasound transducer. Platinum electrodes and wires were used throughout for high temperature stability and Pyrogel 100 used as couplant. The piezoelectric coefficient was found to be stable to 550C. Repeatable thickness measurements were made up to 250C on aluminium and steel test samples using a pulse-echo technique and the efficiency of the transducer studied under thermal cycling.

Burrows, S. E.; McAughey, K. L.; Edwards, R. S.; Dixon, S.

2012-05-01

36

Piezoelectric response of compressive loaded multilayer ceramic actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-linear piezoelectricity of multilayer ceramic actuators (MCA) using PMNPZT ceramics was investigated under the combined loading of electric field and compressive stress. These piezoelectric actuators present the non-linear ferroelectric behaviors. When electric field and compressive stress are simultaneously applied to the ceramics, the ferroelectricity is expected to be different from that of ceramics induced by only one quantity, electric

Mun-Su Ha; Soon-Jong Jeong; Jung-Hyuk Koh; Hyeong-Bong Choi; Jae-Sung Song

2006-01-01

37

Microstructures of the monomorph piezoelectric ceramic actuators with functional gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a monolithic ceramic bar with a gradient of piezoelectric activity across its thickness is introduced, which is fabricated by interdiffusion between a high piezoelectric and dielectric compositions. The microstructures of the interdiffusion layer have great effects on the electric field-induced displacement characteristics and interfacial strength of the monomorph piezoelectric actuator. The compositional profiles, phase distributions, and short-range

Xinhua Zhu; Jianmin Zhu; Shunhua Zhou; Qi Li; Zhiguo Liu

1999-01-01

38

Antiwindup controller design for piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor drive#  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic motor (USM) is known to be with time-varying and highly nonlinear characteristics. Also it has saturation in the input voltage. In this study, a new antiwindup controller is proposed to control a piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor (LUSM) drive system to reduce the influence of nonlinear saturation of the input constraint. First, this study gives theoretical approach

Kuo-Kai Shyu; Cheng-Yuan Chang

2003-01-01

39

Development of highly textured piezoelectric ceramics via templated grain growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textured polycrystalline piezoelectric materials are expected to provide improved properties compared to untextured ceramics, and low processing costs compared to single crystals. NexTech Materials is developing textured polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics via Templated Grain Growth (TGG). In the TGG process, a number of large anisotropic template particles are oriented in a fine particle matrix in the green state, and grow during

M. M. Seabaugh; G. L. Cheney; K. Hasinska; W. J. Dawson; S. L. Swartz

2000-01-01

40

Fabrication of low firing piezoelectric ceramics and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low-firing PZT, PNN-PZT, PMN-PNN-PZT systems piezoelectric ceramics with high performance have been studied systematically. By doping suitable additives and optimizing processing, excellent piezoelectric properties could be obtained: Kp=0.50?0.74, d33=(300?705)10C\\/N, ?33 \\/?0 =800?4100, tan?=(40?250)10. The microstructure and the mechanism of transition liquid phase sintering were also investigated. The low firing piezoelectric ceramics have been used for multilayer piezoelectric transformers, ultrasonic

Longtu Li; Zhilun Gui

2001-01-01

41

Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide reliable stress sensing under dynamic loadings.

Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

2011-11-01

42

Microdisplacement characteristics and microstructures of functionally graded piezoelectric ceramic actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report a functionally gradient piezoelectric ceramic actuator with sandwiched structure prepared by the powder metallurgical method. The functional gradients of piezoelectric activity and dielectric activity vary inversely across the thickness of the actuator. Such functional gradients are obtained by interdiffusion reaction between a high piezoelectric composition [Pb(Zr,Ti)O3\\/PZT] and a high dielectric composition (PbNi1\\/3Nb2\\/3O3\\/PNN). The bending displacement

Xinhua Zhu; Jie Xu; Zhongyan Meng; Jianming Zhu; Shunhua Zhou; Qi Li; Zhiguo Liu; Naiben Ming

2000-01-01

43

Migration and redistribution of oxygen vacancy in barium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of barium titanate based multilayer capacitor mainly results from migration and redistribution of oxygen vacancy. For barium titanate ceramics, the authors observe an internal friction relaxation peak around 70 C due to oxygen vacancy, and its relaxation strength differs greatly for specimen aged at 85 C for 120 h and at 150 C for 5 h. Two possible explanations are proposed, one based on symmetry-conforming short-range order while the other on the interaction between oxygen vacancy and domain wall during aging process. In any case, relaxation thermodynamics is a powerful tool to investigate the migration and redistribution of oxygen vacancy in barium titanate ceramics.

Chen, L.; Xiong, X. M.; Meng, H.; Lv, P.; Zhang, J. X.

2006-08-01

44

Behavior of soft piezoelectric ceramics under high sinusoidal electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic characteristics of soft piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics was investigated under sinusoidal electric field E applied along the poling direction and under mechanical stress-free conditions for a frequency range 10 Hz-10 kHz. Electrical displacement D3 along the poling direction, mechanical strain S1 in the direction perpendicular to the poling direction, and the resonant frequency ?r of electromechanically uncoupled bending vibrations of polarized plates were measured. Commercial ceramics PZT5H, 3203HD, and PKI550 with chemical composition near the morphotropic phase boundary were used in the study. It was found that the amplitude and phase of the first harmonic of the relative strain S1(1)/Em and of the relative electrical displacement D3(1)/Em increase similarly with increasing amplitude Em of the electric field if the amplitude is less than coercive field. The corresponding increase in the square of the resonant frequency is more moderate. The dependencies are described well by linear functions except for low electric fields. The functions S1m(1)/Em and D3m(1)/Em demonstrate frequency dispersion as well. Relative amplitude of the second harmonic of the electrical displacement, D3m(2)/D3m(1), which is polar, also increases almost linearly with increasing Em. The relative third harmonic D3m(3)/D3m(1) demonstrates saturationlike behavior. By means of the electric pulse technique, it was found that irreversible changes in the remnant polarization take place even at electric fields much smaller that the coercive field. A mathematical model of a hysteretic transducer, describing the electric field dependence of electromechanical properties of soft piezoelectric PZT ceramics, was suggested. According to this approach, the response depends not only on the instantaneous magnitude of the input signal (e.g., electric field) but also on its past extreme values. It was shown that the experimental Rayleigh law is a particular case of the suggested approach. The model relates directly electric field dependencies of complex piezoelectric coefficient d31(Em) and S1(1)/Em, of complex dielectric permittivity ?33T(Em) and D3(1)/Em, and of the amplitude of elastic compliance s11E(Em) and ?r2. Application of the model to experimental data showed that the model describes well the first three complex harmonics of D3 and the irreversible change in the remnant polarization. Physical causes of the observed behavior were analyzed. As an alternative to the model based on the 90 polarization reorientation and tetragonal/rhombohedral phase boundary motion, a new approach was suggested. In this model, the observed hysteretic changes in the electromechanical properties are assumed to be caused by the electric field dependency of the mechanical stress acting at interdomain boundaries in the partly constrained crystallites of these ceramics.

Kugel, V. D.; Cross, L. E.

1998-09-01

45

Development of novel piezoelectric ceramics and composites for transducer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, several methods were utilized to develop novel piezoelectric ceramic\\/polymer composites for transducer applications. Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is one of the methods that have been emphasized recently. SFF techniques have been used to fabricate polymer, metal or ceramic structures on a fixtureless platform, directly from a computer aided design file. During design verification or the product

Ahmad Safari; Stephen C. Danforth

1998-01-01

46

Piezoelectric ceramics with high dielectric constants for ultrasonic medical transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex system ceramics Pb(Sc12\\/Nb12\\/)O3-Pb(Mg13\\/Nb23\\/)O3-Pb(Ni12\\/Nb$ d12\\/)O3-(Pb0.965,Sr0.035) (Zr,Ti)O3 (PSN-PMN-PNN-PSZT abbreviated PSMNZT) have been synthesized by the conventional technique, and dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics have been investigated for ultrasonic medical transducers. High capacitances of the transducers are desired in order to match the electrical impedance between the transducers and the coaxial cable in array probes. Although piezoelectric ceramics that have

Yasuharu Hosono; Yohachi Yamashita

2005-01-01

47

Novel piezoelectric ceramics and composites for sensor and actuator applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel piezoelectric ceramic, and ceramic \\/polymer composite structures were fabricated by solid freeform fabrication (SFF)\\u000a for sensor and actuator applications. SFF techniques including: Fused Deposition of Ceramics (FDC), and Sanders Prototyping\\u000a (SP) were utilized to fabricate a variety of complex structures directly from a computer aided design (CAD) file. Many novel\\u000a and complex composite structures including volume fraction gradients (VFG),

Ahmad Safari

1999-01-01

48

Study on the equivalent circuit and coupled vibration for the longitudinally polarized piezoelectric ceramic hollow cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinally polarized piezoelectric ceramic disks with central holes have been the most commonly used elements in underwater acoustics and ultrasonics. For very thin piezoelectric ceramic disks, its vibration can be regarded as one-dimensional thickness extensional vibration, or plane radial vibration, and the coupling between these two different vibrational modes is neglected. However, for practical piezoelectric ceramic disks with central holes,

Shuyu Lin

2004-01-01

49

Preparation and thermomechanical characterisation of aluminum titanate flexible ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible ceramics may be useful, for example to process refractory materials with an improved resistance to thermal shocks.\\u000a A natural flexible sandstone, itacolumite, is mainly constituted of interlocked quartz grains and contains microcracks. Its\\u000a microstructure allows some free motion between grains that induces its flexibility. The aim of this study is to prepare and\\u000a characterize flexible aluminum titanate ceramics by

C. Babelot; A. Guignard; M. Huger; C. Gault; T. Chotard; T. Ota; N. Adachi

2011-01-01

50

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of microwave processed Sm substituted PCT ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of samarium substitution on the structural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead calcium titanate ceramics was investigated. Dense ceramics with nominal composition Pb0.76-3x/2SmxCa0.24Ti0.98Mn0.02O3 (x = 0-0.08) were fabricated by a novel, simple, energy and time efficient, and environment friendly microwave sintering process. The samples were sintered at 1100C for 30 min. All the compositions show single phase with tetragonal structure. Tetragonality decreases and relative density increases with increase in samarium substitution. The variation of the dielectric constant with temperature shows a ferroelectric phase transition and the transition temperature decreases with increase in the amount of samarium. Diffusivity increases with samarium substitution. All the compositions show well-defined ferroelectric behaviour. The electromechanical thickness coupling coefficient (kt) and piezoelectric longitudinal coefficient (d33) showed an increasing trend whereas the electromechanical planar coupling coefficient (kp) and the magnitude of the piezoelectric transverse longitudinal coefficient (d31) showed a decreasing trend with increase in samarium substitution level, which in turn results in an increase in electromechanical anisotropy.

Singh, Sarabjit; Thakur, O. P.; Prakash, Chandra

2005-05-01

51

Current Developments and Prospective of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of perovskite ferroelectric and bismuth layered-structured ferroelectric (BLSF) ceramics are described being superior candidates for lead-free piezoelectric materials to reduce environmental damage. Perovskite-type ceramics seem to be suitable for actuator and high-power applications that require a large piezoelectric constant, d33, and a high Curie temperature, Tc, or a depolarization temperature, Td (>200 C). For BaTiO3-based solid solutions, (1-x)BaTiO3-x(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 (BT-BKT100x) ceramics, Tc increases with increasing amount of x. The BT-BKT20 + MnCO3 (0.1 wt %) ceramic shows a high Tc greater than 200 C and an electromechanical coupling factor of k33 =0.35. In the case of a(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-b(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-cBaTiO3 [BNBK (100a/100b/100c)] solid solution ceramics, d33 is 191 pC/N for BNBK (85.2/2.8/12). KNbO3 (KN)-based ceramics are also a candidate for lead-free piezoelectrics. In Mn-doped KN ceramics, a higher k33 of 0.507 is obtained for KN + MnCO3 (0.1 wt %). On the other hand, BLSF ceramics seem to be excellent candidates as piezoelectric sensors for high temperatures and ceramic resonators with a high mechanical quality factor, Qm, and a low temperature coefficient of resonance frequency, TC-f. The k33 value of the donor (Nb)-doped and grain-oriented (HF) Bi4Ti3-xNbxO12 (BITN-x) ceramic is 0.39 for x=0.08 and is able to keep the same stable value up to 350 C. Nd(0.01) and V(0.75) co-doped Bi4Ti3O12 ceramics, BNTV(0.01, 0.75), show a relatively low TC-f. Bi3TiTaO9 (BTT)-based solid solution, Srx-1Bi4-xTi2-xTaxO9 [SBTT2(x)] (1?q x?q 2), displays the high Qm value (=13500) in (p)-mode at x=1.25. For resonator applications, (Sr1-xCax)2Bi4Ti5O18 (SCBT) (0?q x?q 0.5) ceramics are suitable.

Takenaka, Tadashi; Nagata, Hajime; Hiruma, Yuji

2008-05-01

52

Study of nickel inner electrode lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramic with nickel inner electrodes was successfully fabricated by co-firing in a reducing atmosphere. We studied the compositional modification of KNN in order to increase reducing resistance in the sintering process, and obtained a good composition by using a solid solution with CaZrO3. A multilayer ceramic specimen had a ratio between the strain and induced

S. Kawada; M. Kimura; H. Hayashi; K. Ogiso; T. Konoike; H. Takagi

2011-01-01

53

Laboratory calibration measurements of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate cosmic dust detector at low velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cosmic dust monitor for use onboard a spacecraft is currently being developed using a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate element (PZT). Its characteristics of the PZT sensor is studied by ground-based laboratory impact experiments using hypervelocity particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. The output signals obtained from the sensor just after the impact appeared to have a waveform

S. Takechi; K. Nogami; T. Miyachi; M. Fujii; N. Hasebe; T. Iwai; S. Sasaki; H. Ohashi; H. Shibata; E. Grn; R. Srama; N. Okada

2009-01-01

54

A Study of Acoustic Emission in Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramic Actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic emission (AE) in multilayer ceramic actuators (MCA) has been studied. It was observed that AE signals could be concealed by sample's mechanical vibrations under usual MCA driving conditions. These vibrations were caused by an electrical coupling between the sample's piezoelectricity and the power supply's feedback. The AE was observed around the coercive field under bipolar driving. On the contrary,

Hideaki Aburatani; Shoko Yoshikawa; Kenji Uchino; J. W. C. de Vries

1998-01-01

55

Role of Additives on Low Fired High Performance Piezoelectric Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of additives on low temperature sintering high performance PMN-PNN-PZT piezoelectric ceramics was studied. ZnO and Li2CO3 can be used as dopants to replace the toxic addition CdCO3. They can reduce the sintering temperature and improve the piezoe...

Z. Gui H. Hu L. Li

1994-01-01

56

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of 10% KF-Doped BaTiO3 Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

10% KF-doped barium titanate powders, Ba0.9K0.1TiO2.9F0.1, were synthesized through a sol-gel process. The powders, calcined at 650 C, consist of cubic crystalline particles of 70 nm in length; the particle size increases to 200 nm as the firing temperature increases to ca. 800 C, above which F2 begins to evaporate. Dense ceramics were fabricated by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method; the average grain size is 2 ?m in lengths. The ceramics, well annealed at 1,000 C in an O2 gas flow, have good dielectric and piezoelectric properties; the piezoelectric d33 value is 230 pC/N at room temperature. At the ferroelectric Curie temperature TC = 47 C, the dielectric constant and loss \\tan? are 10,000 and <5% at 10 kHz, respectively. The Curie-Weiss relation holds in the fully disordered cubic and ordered rhombohedral phases, showing the second order 1:2 relation. Below 10 kHz, large dielectric dispersion caused by a domain-wall motion appears at the temperature range of -50 to 107 C. Some discussions are made for these dielectric properties of the ceramics.

Akishige, Yukikuni; Hiraki, Yuuta; Tsukada, Shinya; Xu, Jun; Morito, Shigekazu; Ohba, Takuya; Lee Walker, Ezekiel; Neogi, Arup

2010-08-01

57

Research on micro-displacement driving technology based on piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramic driving power is one critical technology of achieving the piezoelectric ceramic nano-precision positioning, which has been widely used in precision manufacturing, optical instruments, aerospace and other fields. In this paper, piezoelectric ceramic driving power will be summarized on micro-displacement driving technical development and research. The domestic and overseas piezoelectric-driven ways will be compared and control model algorithms will be discussed. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric ceramic driving power in a different driving and control model, and then show the scope of application of driving power.

Hu, Bo; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Yan, Wei; Hu, Zhicheng

2012-10-01

58

Piezoelectric ceramics with high dielectric constants for ultrasonic medical transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex system ceramics Pb(Sc12\\/Nb12\\/)O3-Pb(Mg13\\/Nb23\\/)O3-Pb(Ni12\\/Nb$ d12\\/)O3-(Pb0.965,Sr0.035)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PSMNZT) have been synthesized by the conventional technique and the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics have been investigated for ultrasonic medical transducers. High capacitances of the transducers are desired in order to match the electrical impedance between the transducers and the coaxial cable in array probes with composite transducers. Although high-K ceramics that

Y. Hosono; Y. Yamashita

2004-01-01

59

The effect of high energy mechanochemical processing on the microstructure, piezoelectric, ferroelectric and mechanical properties of PLZT ceramics.  

PubMed

Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics were synthesized using a high energy mechanochemical processing technique, using tungsten carbide grinding vials and balls. The ceramic powders were prepared using the constituent oxide powders, which were subjected to high energy milling, without the use of any excess PbO in the starting composition. TEM studies revealed the formation of very fine particles of the order of 30nm, due to the milling effect. Highly dense ceramics could be prepared via sintering which resulted in ultra-high strains in these piezoelectric samples of up to 0.25%, a value which has not been reported hitherto by any other known process. The effect of the reduction in particle size on the microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of PLZT ceramics were studied and are discussed herein. PMID:21825708

James, A R; Chandra Rao, B S S; Pathak, Mohan; Kamat, S V; Subrahmanyam, J

2008-04-07

60

STABILIZED BARIUM TITANATE CERAMICS FOR CAPACITOR DIELECTRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of additions of LaO and LaO--; 3TiO on the electronic properties of barium titanate were investigated. ; It was found that small additions of the components markedly increase the ; lifetime of the material subjected to d-c fields of 50 v per mil at 200 l ; C. (auth);

J. B. MacChesney; P. K. Gallagher; F. V. DiMarcello

1963-01-01

61

Development of High Drive, Stable Piezoelectric Ceramic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead zirconate titanate compositions with zirconia to titania ratios of 51/49 to 57/43 were studied. Lead substitutions with barium, cadmium and strontium were made plus doping with LaFeO3, NaSbO3, MnO2, Fe2O3, U2O8 and Cr2O3. Materials were prepared by h...

J. C. Kyonka

1973-01-01

62

High-Sensitivity Accelerometer Using Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high sensitivity accelerometer using multilayer piezoelectric ceramics including internal electrodes has been developed. The sensitivity of this accelerometer is about 900 pC/G at the frequency range from 0.01 to 10 Hz. Because the circuit was structed to cancel pyroelectric voltages, the output voltage changes of this accelerometer were decreased to 1/10 compared with the case of a noncanceling circuit.

Ohtsuki, Yasunori; Fuda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Tetsuo

1993-09-01

63

Intelligent motion control for linear piezoelectric ceramic motor drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the dynamic characteristics of a linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM) are highly nonlinear and time varying, it is difficult to design a suitable motor drive and position controller that realizes accurate position control at all time. This study investigates a double-inductance double-capacitance (LLCC) resonant driving circuit and a sliding-mode fuzzy-neural-network control (SMFNNC) system for the motion control of an

Rong-jong Wai; Jeng-dao Lee

2004-01-01

64

Structural, Dielectric, Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Characterization of NBT-BT Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead free piezoelectric 0.94(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics were synthesized in MPB composition by conventional solid state reaction method. The crystalline nature of NBT-BT ceramic was studied by XRD and the size of the grains are determined by SEM. The X- ray diffraction results reveal that Ba2+ diffuse into the Na0.5 Bi0.5TiO3 lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. Because of the strong ferroelectricity and MPB, the ceramics exhibit high piezoelectric properties: d33 = 206 pC/N. Td (depolarization temperature) and Tm (temperature at with the dielectric constant epsilonr reaches a maximum) were observed through the phase transition in dielectric studies. In addition, the prepared ceramic exhibits relaxor characteristic, which probably results from the cation disordering in the 12fold coordination sites. Pr and Ec of the prepared ceramics were determined from the P-E hysteresis loop.

Shanmuga Sundari, S.; Kumar, Binay; Dhanasekaran, R.

2013-05-01

65

Domain switching anisotropy in textured bismuth titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a poled ferroelectric ceramic, the probability of crystallographic poles oriented in any given specimen direction is the multiple of both the initial crystallographic texture and the domain switching fraction. In this paper, the non-180 domain switching fraction is shown to be dependent on the initial crystallographic texture and poling direction in tape cast Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 ceramics. The domain switching fraction is 0.18 out of a maximum of 0.50 when poled in a direction in which most of the possible ferroelastic structural distortions are oriented (tape casting plane) whereas no non-180 domain switching is discernable when poled in a less-preferred direction. The mechanism for domain switching anisotropy in textured bismuth titanate ceramics is suggested to be the synergistic alignment of ferroelastic structural distortions, analogous to the mechanical clamping conditions in poling ferroelastic thin films.

Jones, Jacob L.; Slamovich, Elliott B.; Bowman, Keith J.; Lupascu, Doru C.

2005-11-01

66

Hydrostatic piezoelectric property of composite PbTiO3-P(VDF\\/TeFE) for hydrophone applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve hydrostatic piezoelectric sensitivity of flexible piezoelectric composites, Lead Titanate (PbTiO3) piezoelectric ceramics is incorporated because of its greater piezoelectric anisotropy. The composites are prepared by embedding ceramic PbTiO3 particles in a copolymer matrix poly(vinylidene fluoride\\/tetrafluoroethylene) (P(VDF\\/TeFE)). The preparation of these composites and their dielectric and hydrostatic piezoelectric properties are reported in this paper. Their hydrophone applications

Xiaoping Zou; Liangying Zhang; Xi Yao; Likun Wang; Fuxue Zhang

1996-01-01

67

Mn and Sm doped lead titanate ceramic fibers and fiber/epoxy 13 composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese and samarium doped lead titanate [Pb0.85Sm0.10(Ti0.98Mn0.02)O3, PSmT] fibers were prepared by sol-gel method. The micrographs obtained using scanning electron microscope show that PSmT ceramic fibers are round and dense. The diameter of the fibers was in the range of 30-35 ?m. The crystalline grains size is ~2.5 ?m. The micrographs obtained using transmission electron microscope also unveiled the layer-by-layer 90 domains in the grains. X-ray diffraction patterns of the fibers show that PSmT ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The c/a ratio of the unit cell was 1.04. The PSmT fiber/epoxy 1-3 composites were fabricated by filling the ceramic fiber bundle with epoxy. The dielectric permittivity ?, electromechanical coefficient kt, and the piezoelectric constant d33 of PSmT fiber/epoxy 1-3 composites with 68% fiber loading were 118, 0.51, and 48 pC/N, respectively. The hysteresis loop of the composites was measured by the Sawyer-Tower method. It was also found that the composites could withstand an electric field of 15 kV/mm at room temperature.

Li, Kun; Pang, Geoffrey; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Choy, Chung Loong; Li, Jin-Hua

2004-05-01

68

Microstructure, electrical conductivity, and piezoelectric properties of bismuth titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the effects of microstructure, atmosphere, and several dopants on the electrical conductivity of bismuth titanate (BiTiO, BIT). Increased grain size increased the conductivity in undoped BIT as did acceptor dopants that substituted for either Bi (Ca and Sr) or Ti(Fe). A donor dopant (Nb) decreased the conductivity in BIT by as much as 3 orders

Holly S. Shulman; Martin Testorf; Dragan Damjanovic; Nava Setter

1996-01-01

69

Tunability and ferroelectric relaxor properties of bismuth strontium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systemic study was performed on bismuth strontium titanate (Sr1-1.5xBixTiO3, 0.04<=x<=0.25) ceramics. Dielectric properties were measured from 83 to 373 K at different frequencies. A transformation from relaxor ferroelectrics to relaxor behavior was observed when x>0.10. Both diffuseness and relaxation degree increase as x rises. Tunability was found to increase with increasing x value until 0.07, and then decrease when Bi3+ content increases. Meanwhile, their figures of merit (defined as tunability/loss) shows a maximum at x=0.12. The change from relaxor ferroelectrics into relaxor behavior has a positive impact on the tunability of bismuth strontium titanate system.

Chen, Wei; Yao, Xi; Wei, Xiaoyong

2007-04-01

70

Large piezoelectric effect in Pb-free ceramics.  

PubMed

We report a non-Pb piezoelectric ceramic system Ba(Ti(0.8)Zr(0.2))O(3)-(Ba(0.7)Ca(0.3))TiO(3) which shows a surprisingly high piezoelectric coefficient of d(33) approximately 620 pC/N at optimal composition. Its phase diagram shows a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) starting from a tricritical triple point of a cubic paraelectric phase (C), ferroelectric rhombohedral (R), and tetragonal (T) phases. The high piezoelectricity of the MPB compositions stems from the composition proximity of the MPB to the tricritical triple point, which leads to a nearly vanishing polarization anisotropy and thus facilitates polarization rotation between 001T and 111R states. We predict that the single-crystal form of the MPB composition of the present system may reach a giant d(33) = 1500-2000 pC/N. Our work may provide a new recipe for designing highly piezoelectric materials (both Pb-free and Pb-containing) by searching MPBs starting from a TCP. PMID:20366285

Liu, Wenfeng; Ren, Xiaobing

2009-12-15

71

An investigation of the development of novel piezoelectric actuator designs by fused deposition of ceramics (FDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramic materials are widely used in numerous applications for both sensing mechanical force and producing actuation under an applied electric field. In some applications such as manufacturing of optical instruments and semiconductor chips, a displacement of a few hundred microns with a precision positioning of 0.1 mum is required. Piezoelectric ceramics are well suited for such a positioning accuracy,

Farhad Mohammadi

2001-01-01

72

Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic micro-actuator and its reliability for hard disk drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new U-type micro-actuator for precisely positioning a magnetic head in high-density hard disk drives was proposed and developed. The micro-actuator is composed of a U-type stainless steel substrate and two piezoelectric ceramic elements. Using a high-d31 piezoelectric coefficient PMN-PZT ceramic plate and adopting reactive ion etching process fabricate the piezoelectric elements. Reliability against temperature was investigated to ensure the

Yang Jing; Jianbin Luo; Wenyan Yang; Guoxian Ju

2004-01-01

73

Measurement of Micro Vibration of Car by Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there are various accidents and crimes related to the car. In some cases, the accidents and the crimes can be prevented if it is possible to detect a human who is in the car. For example, we can prevent a baby who is left in a car under the hot weather from dehydration or death occurred by heat inside disease. In another case, it is estimated that the United States currently has as many as 12 million illegal immigrants. In order to prevent further influx of illegal immigrants, the police are physically searching incoming vehicles at national boundaries aiming at finding those who are hiding inside. However, the physical inspections require much manpower cost and time. An inspection method to see inside the vehicles through X-ray images has also been used for this end. But the cost and the installation places are the problems of the large-scale X-ray system. Proposed in this paper is a piezoelectric ceramic system to handily measure the micro vibrations of motor vehicles. And applying the algorithm of Support Vector Machine (SVM), the existence of human body inside vehicles can be detected. The experiment was carried out using four types of vehicles: a mini car; an auto mobile; a van; and a truck weighing 1.5 tons. As the results, the correct determination ratio was 91.2% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 97.0% under the rear wheels, when the vehicle used for the examination had also been used together with other three types of vehicles to obtain SVM training data. When the vehicle used for the examination had not been used together with the other three to obtain SVM training data, on the other hand, the correct determination ratio was 93.7% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 95.7% under the rear wheels.

Kurihara, Yosuke; Masuyama, Kosuke; Nakamura, Testuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kajiro

74

Piezoelectric properties of a ferroelectric ceramic  

SciTech Connect

The Michelson interferometer is used for precision measurements of the piezoconstants of a piezoceramic, characterizing the magnitude of the inverse piezoeffect. The authors conclude that the Michelson interferometer has a resolving power of 30 A and ensures an error no greater than 0.05% for the measurement of quasistatic strains, which makes it possible to use the interferometer to study the physiomechanical properties of low-ductility ceramics. Cyclic loading of 3 x 10 x 100 mm specimens of piezoceramics TsTBS-3 at a frequency of about 20 kHz for 60 sec increases the piezoconstant of the material by 8-48% within the range of cyclic-stress amplitudes from 27 to 47 MPa.

Kuz'menko, V.A.; Khavstov, V.K.; Nishchenets, V.N.; Pisarenko, G.G.

1985-08-01

75

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics of (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3-BaTiO3-BiFeO3 system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bismuth sodium titanate, (Bi1\\/2Na1\\/2)TiO3 (BNT)-based solid solution, a(Bi1\\/2Nal\\/2)TiO3-bBaTiO3-cBiFeO3, [BNBTF(100a\\/100b\\/100c)], was studied for its dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties, as a new group of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Curie temperatures, Tc. of the BNBTF ceramics shift to the higher temperature with an increasing amount of modified Bi ion, and temperature dependence of the resonance frequencies, fr is smaller with increasing amount of

Hajime Nagata; Nobuhiro Koizumi; Nobuhisa Kuroda; Isao Igarashi; Tadashi Takenaka

1999-01-01

76

Detection of high-energy heavy ions using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of a radiation detector fabricated with stacks of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) elements were studied by irradiating it with a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam for various beam pulse durations. This detector is referred to as the multilayered detector (MD). To understand the production mechanism behind the output voltage obtained from the MD, measurement of the spatial distribution of the output signals generated in the MD was attempted. It was found that the amplitude observed was dependent on the number of Xe ions per unit time and the amount of ionization loss energy of Xe ions in PZT.

Takechi, Seiji; Morinaga, Shin-ya; Kurozumi, Atsuma [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Aichi 441-3193 (Japan)

2009-04-15

77

Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector  

SciTech Connect

A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared.

Takechi, Seiji; Onishi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Shigeyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nogami, Ken-ichi [Department of Physics, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Ohashi, Hideo [Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Sasaki, Sho [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Iwai, Takeo [Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co., Ltd., Aichi 441-3193 (Japan)

2008-04-15

78

Position-Dependent Behavior of Piezoelectric Lead--Zirconate--Titanate Cosmic Dust Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible position dependence of the signal amplitudes generated by a piezoelectric lead--zirconate--titanate (PZT) detector was studied by bombarding the PZT element with hypervelocity microparticles. The detector was equipped with a set of asymmetrically arranged electrodes. The characteristic features of the element were analyzed using the amplitudes of the fundamental resonant component caused by collisions. As a result, the sensitivity of the element measured with direct collisions onto the collector was found to be one order of magnitude greater than that in the external area of the collector.

Hattori, Maki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Miyachi, Takashi; Takechi, Seiji; Okudaira, Osamu; Iwai, Takeo; Sugita, Seiji

2012-09-01

79

Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector.  

PubMed

A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared. PMID:18447524

Takechi, Seiji; Onishi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Shigeyuki; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nogami, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho; Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Grn, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Okada, Nagaya

2008-04-01

80

Study on the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is studied. The transducer consists of front and back metal masses, and coaxially segmented, thickness polarized piezoelectric ceramic thin rings. For this kind of sandwich piezoelectric transducers in thickness vibration, it is required that the lateral dimension of the transducer is sufficiently large compared with its longitudinal dimension so that no lateral displacements in the transducer can occur (laterally clamped). In this paper, the thickness vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic stack consisting of a number of identical piezoelectric ceramic thin rings is analysed and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. The resonance frequency equation for the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is derived. Based on the frequency equation, two sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers are designed and manufactured, and their resonance frequencies are measured. It is shown that the measured resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results. This kind of sandwich piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is expected to be used in megasonic ultrasonic cleaning and sonochemistry where high power and high frequency ultrasound is needed.

Lin, Shuyu; Tian, Hua

2008-02-01

81

Structure, microstructure, and piezoelectric properties of ytterbium-doped potassium sodium niobate lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure, microstructure, and piezoelectric properties of conventionally sintered Yb-doped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) lead-free ceramics were investigated. Doping the KNN ceramics with Yb2O3 was effective in inhibiting the grain growth in the KNN ceramics and in densifying the ceramics. The 1.0 wt. % Yb-doped KNN ceramics showed the maximum density, about 96.8% of the theoretical density. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that a small number of Yb3+ ions could be incorporated into the matrix of the ceramicsto occupythe ?- or ?-sites in the crystal lattice, thereby significantly affecting the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. Enhanced piezoelectric properties ( i.e., d 33= 135 pC/N, k p = 34.5%, and Q m = 80.2) were obtained for the 0.50 wt. % Yb-doped KNN ceramics.

Li, Huan; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Tian, Hao

2013-09-01

82

Electrical properties of lanthanum doped barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Pure and lanthanum doped barium titanate (BT) ceramics were prepared by sintering pellets at 1300 deg. C for 8 h, obtained from nanopowders synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. XRD results showed formation of a tetragonal structure. The presence of dopants changed the tetragonal structure to pseudo-cubic. The polygonal grain size was reduced up to 300 nm with addition of lanthanum as a donor dopant. Determined dielectric properties revealed that lanthanum modified BT ceramics possessed a diffused ferroelectric character in comparison with pure BT that is a classical ferroelectric material. In doped BT phase transition temperatures were shifted to lower temperatures and dielectric constant values were much higher than in pure BT. A modified Currie Weiss law was used to explore the connection between the doping level and degree of diffuseness of phase transitions. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were carried out at different temperatures in order to investigate electrical resistivity of materials and appearance of a PTCR effect. - Highlights: {yields} Pure and lanthanum doped BaTiO{sub 3} were prepared by polymeric precursors method. {yields} Change of structure from tetragonal to pseudo-cubic. {yields} Lanthanum as a donor dopant influenced on change of ferro-para phase transition. {yields} The diffuseness factor indicated the formation of diffuse ferroelectric material. {yields} Lanthanum affected on PTCR effect appearance in BT ceramics.

Vijatovic Petrovic, M.M., E-mail: miravijat@yahoo.com [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Bobic, J.D. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia); Ramoska, T.; Banys, J. [Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, Vilnius (Lithuania); Stojanovic, B.D. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, Belgrade (Serbia)

2011-10-15

83

Solvothermal preparation of potassium niobate/barium titanate nanocomplex ceramics with three dimensional network-configuration of structure-gradient region and their dielectric properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve dielectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT)-based ceramics, the BT/potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) nanocomplex ceramics were designed to expect the formation of a three dimensional network-configuration of a structure-gradient region (SGR), where the polar vector can easily rotate. The KN epitaxial nanolayers were formed on BT compacts with a necking structure by a solvothermal method and the maximal dielectric constant of 1450 and the relatively large apparent piezoelectric constant d33* of 318 pm/V were recorded for the KN/BT nanocomplex ceramics. The experimental facts suggest that the configuration of the SGR, in addition to the relative density, is one of the important factors to enhance the dielectric properties of the KN/BT nanocomplex ceramics.

Ueno, S.; Kawashima, H.; Nakashima, K.; Kumada, N.; Magome, E.; Moriyoshi, C.; Kuroiwa, Y.; Fujikawa, Y.; Tanaka, D.; Furukawa, M.; Wada, S.

2013-08-01

84

A study of electromechanical properties of PMN-PT ceramics and analysis of the effects of loss on frequency response of piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two areas of piezoelectric ceramic research are discussed. First, a study of structure-property relations in PMN-PT is presented. Then, results of a study of effects of various loss mechanisms in ceramic resonators are given. Ceramic lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate ((1-x)PMN-xPT) of different compositions was prepared by the columbite precursor method. This study covers compositions ranging from 0.94PMN-0.06PT to 0.60PMN-0.40PT, focusing on two areas of the (1-x)PMN-xPT system: compositions that exhibit electrostrictive behavior and those that show piezoelectric behavior. Optimal electromechanical properties are obtained with the composition 0.82PMN-0.18PT, measured at T=Tsb{m}=80spC and with a DC bias of 5 kV/cm. Under these conditions the dielectric constant is 32000 and the planar coupling coefficient is 0.55. X-ray diffraction is used to study crystal structure of the (1-x)PMN-xPT system near the morphotrophic phase boundary (MPB). In this study, it is shown that the (1-x)PMN-xPT system has a compositionally wide two-phase region surrounding the MPB. The compositions 0.72PMN-0.28PT and 0.60PMN-0.40PT correspond to the rhombohedral and tetragonal single phase boundaries of the two-phase region, respectively, and 0.655PMN-0.345PT is the MPB composition. Electromechanical property evaluation shows that the optimal piezoelectric properties (dsb{33}=720 pC/N, K = 5400, ksb{p} = 62%, and ksb{t} = 46%) are obtained at the MPB composition. A review of work involving loss in ceramic resonators represented via complex material constants and equivalent circuits from past literature is presented. The concept of a complex electromechanical coupling coefficient is presented, and its connection to complex material constants is discussed. The complex electromechanical coupling coefficient results directly from the complex material constants from which it is comprised. As a consequence of the complex electromechanical coupling coefficient, complex resonance frequencies arise and are presented. This means that the natural resonance frequencies of a lossy piezoelectric material are in complex frequency space and, if stimulated near a complex frequency, will exhibit typical piezoelectric frequency response profiles. An example, using computer simulation, is presented using the MPB composition of PMN-PT to show its complex resonance frequency and behavior when subject to excitation by complex frequencies. When excited with a complex frequency voltage source, the measured current response attains a maximum value at the natural (complex) resonance frequency.

Kelly, Joseph Martin

85

Domain evolution in lead-free thin film piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to environmental and health concerns lead-free piezoelectric systems are currently being evaluated for use as replacements for lead-based ceramics. (1-x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 - xBaTiO3 (NBT-xBT) is a promising alternative. In order to develop materials with improved performance, it is necessary to understand local structure effects on the piezoelectric response at the grain level. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we have studied the domain evolution under locally applied electric fields. Using pulsed laser deposition thin films are deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at a temperature of 650 C in a 150 mTorr O2 environment. In NBT-0.05BT films, domains are clearly visible after the application of a bias field and they relax after a period of time. After the films are exposed to ambient conditions for several weeks, they must be annealed before domains are again visible with PFM. Domain images after poling indicate that the polarization direction is rotating in the plane of the sample.

Rogers, Meredith E.; Fancher, Chris M.; Blendell, John E.

2012-09-01

86

Third order longitudinal mode piezoelectric ceramic transformer and its application to high-voltage power inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color liquid crystal displays (LCD) require low-profile, miniaturized and highly efficient power inverters, replacing conventional electromagnetic transformers, to light up their backlights, which include cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL). The object of this study is to actualize the power inverter, to which a novel multilayered piezoelectric ceramic transformer operating in the third order longitudinal mode is applied. The piezoelectric transformer

S. Kawashima; O. Ohnishi; H. Hakamata; S. Tagami; A. Fukuoka; T. Inoue; S. Hirose

1994-01-01

87

Sodium potassium niobate-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics: Bulk and freestanding thick films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the toxicity of lead, there is an urgent need to develop lead-free alternatives to replace the currently dominant lead-based piezoelectrics such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). (Na0.5K0.5)NbO 3 (NKN)-based piezoelectrics are promising because of their relatively high Curie temperatures and piezoelectric coefficients among the non-lead piezoelectrics. However, it is difficult to sinter. In this thesis study, a colloidal coating method was developed to improve the sintering of NKN. With this coating method, NKN with good piezoelectric properties can be produced without cold isostatic pressing. To improve the piezoelectric performance of NKN, we performed antimony (Sb) doping studies for a NKN-LN solid solution using the coating approach. It was found that Sb doping greatly improved the density and the piezoelectric properties of the NKN-LiNbO3 solid solution and optimized performance was found at 4%Sb. The reasons for the improved piezoelectric properties and density were discussed. Recently, a large enhancement in the piezoelectric performance under electric fields was discovered in polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) when the material was made into freestanding film geometry. Here, for the first time, we show a similar effect was also observed in a lead-free system, (Na0.5K0.5)0.945Li0.055Nb 0.96Sb0.04O3. At 6-8 kV/cm, a giant --d 31 value of 1700 pm/V was achieved, 20 times higher than the value of bulk counterpart. The enhancement was found to result from the ease of domain motion imparted by the freestanding film geometry, and the magnitude of the enhancement can be affected by the electrode layer (a non-piezoelectric) thickness. The freestanding geometry provides a new approach to greatly improve the piezoelectric performance of the current lead-free systems.

Li, Huidong

88

A novel approach to electrochromism in WO3 thin film using piezoelectric ceramics for power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochromism was newly realized in a WO3Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) system which utilized the piezoelectric property of PZT ceramics for power supply. The electric power produced by Mn-doped PZT ceramics enabled the WO3 film to color blue. High piezoelectricity with a peak voltage of 35 V and peak current of 1.2 mA on a 30 k? circuit was observed at a pressure

C. N. Xu; M. Akiyama; P. Sun; T. Watanabe

1997-01-01

89

Electrical properties and sensing ability of novel piezoelectric ceramic fibers with Pt core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional sintering method was used to sinter the pure and Fe2O3 doped 0.55Pb(Ni0.33Nb0.67)O3-0.45Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 (abbreviate as PNN-PZT and PFNN-PZT, respectively) ceramics. The addition of Fe2O3 significantly improved the microstructure and electrical properties. Compared with pure PNN-PZT ceramics, higher dielectric and piezoelectric properties of d31~-390 pC/N, ? r ~6298 were obtained for the PFNN-PZT sample sintered at 1175C for 2 h. Hence, the PFNN-PZT ceramics sample was selected to fabricate piezoelectric ceramic fibers with Pt core (PFC). Both the green fibers and bulk ceramics were sintered at 1150-1225C for 2 h in a closed crucible, respectively. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and electrical properties of the PFNN-PZT fibers was investigated. The optimal piezoelectric properties are obtained for the sample sintered at 1175C for 2 h. The relative dielectric constant and piezoelectric constant show peak values of ? r~3683, d31~-197.4 pC/N, respectively. The PFC is a new type piezoelectric device, which can be used for sensors or actuators. The results of sensing experiment show that the piezoelectric ceramic fiber with Pt core has high sensitivity for the Lamb waves.

Du, Jianzhou; Qiu, Jinhao; Zhu, Kongjun; Ji, Hongli; Zhao, Huayun

2012-03-01

90

Electrical Characteristics of Ultrasonic Nozzle Using Multilayer Ring-Type Piezoelectric Ceramics for Light Oil Spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, ultrasonic nozzle and its driving circuit were manufactured. And then, their electrical properties were investigated. Ultrasonic nozzle using multilayer ring-type piezoelectric ceramics was fabricated by Pb[(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)0.02(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)0.12(Zr0.50Ti0.50)0.86]O3 (abbreviated as PMN-PNN-PZT) composition which have excellent piezoelectric characteristics. The multilayer ring-type piezoelectric ceramics using pure Ag inner electrode was sintered at 900C low temperatures. In order to drive ultrasonic nozzle,

Jinhee Kang; Yuhyong Lee; Larkhoon Hwang; Juhyun Yoo; Jaeil Hong

2010-01-01

91

Highly piezoelectric Biocompatible and Soft Composite Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the fabrication of highly piezoelectric biocompatible soft fibers containing Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramic particles dispersed in electrospun poly lactic acid (PLA). These fibers form mats that have two orders of magnitude larger piezoelectric constant per weight than single crystal barium titanate films. We demonstrate that the observed super-piezoelectricity results from the electrospinning induced polar alignment of the ferroelectric particles and the increased surface area compared to single crystal films. Due to the biocompatibility of PLA that encases the ferroelectric particles, these mats can be applied even in biological applications such as bio-sensors, artificial muscles and energy harvesting devices.

Jakli, Antal; Morvan, Jason; Buyuktanir, Ebru; West, John

2012-02-01

92

Highly piezoelectric biocompatible and soft composite fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the fabrication of highly piezoelectric biocompatible soft fibers containing barium titanate ferroelectric ceramic particles dispersed in electrospun poly lactic acid (PLA). These fibers form mats that have two orders of magnitude larger piezoelectric constant per weight than single crystal barium titanate films. We propose that the observed apparent piezoelectricity results from the electrospinning induced polar alignment of the ferroelectric particles that pole the fibers similar to ferroelectret polymer foams that are poled by corona discharge. Due to the biocompatibility of PLA that encases the ferroelectric particles, these mats can be used in biological applications such as bio-sensors, artificial muscles, and energy harvesting devices.

Morvan, J.; Buyuktanir, E.; West, J. L.; Jkli, A.

2012-02-01

93

Piezoelectric properties of Li- and Ta-modified (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Lead-free, potassium sodium niobate piezoelectric ceramics substituted with lithium (K{sub 0.5-x/2},Na{sub 0.5-x/2},Li{sub x})NbO{sub 3} or lithium and tantalum (K{sub 0.5-x/2},Na{sub 0.5-x/2},Li{sub x})(Nb{sub 1-y},Ta{sub y})O{sub 3} have been synthesized by traditional solid state sintering. The compositions chosen are among those recently reported to show high piezoelectric properties [Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, Nature (London) 42, 84 (2004); Y. Guo, K. Kakimoto, and H. Ohsato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4121 (2004); Mater. Lett. 59, 241 (2005)]. We show that high densities and piezoelectric properties can be obtained for all compositions by pressureless sintering in air, without cold isostatic pressing, and without any sintering aid or special powder treatment. Resonance and converse piezoelectric (strain-field) measurements show a thickness coupling coefficient k{sub t} of 53% and converse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} around 200 pm/V for the Li-substituted ceramics, and a k{sub t} of 52% and d{sub 33} over 300 pm/V for the Li- and Ta-modified samples. The unipolar strain-field hysteresis is small and comparable to that measured under similar conditions in hard Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3}. A peak of piezoelectric properties can be noted close to the morphotropic phase boundary. These ceramics look very promising as possible, practicable, lead-free replacements for lead zirconate titanate.

Hollenstein, Evelyn; Davis, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dragan; Setter, Nava [Ceramics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne-EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2005-10-31

94

Estimating the impact parameters of cosmic dust particles using a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmic dust detector for installation on a satellite is currently being developed using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT), which can possess both functions of the collector and the transducer. The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. The front surface of the detector used in this study was covered with a white paint to reduce any increase in the temperature due to the solar radiation. There was a linear relationship between the rise time of the signal produced by the detector and the particle's velocities, which were above 10 km/s on impact. This implies that individual particle velocities on impact can be inferred through the empirical formula derived from the data obtained from the PZT detector.

Takechi, S.; Miyachi, T.; Fujii, M.; Hasebe, N.; Nogami, K.; Ohashi, H.; Sasaki, S.; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T.; Grn, E.; Srama, R.; Okada, N.

2009-02-01

95

Piezoelectric and Dielectric Performance of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electric Cyclic Fatigue  

SciTech Connect

Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Their responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. Mechanical strain and charge density or polarization loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled to more than 10^8 cycles. Important quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, coercive field have been characterized accordingly under corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement condition also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications to the application of interest have been discussed.

Wang, Hong [ORNL; Matsunaga, Tadashi [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Mottern, Alexander M [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

2012-01-01

96

Effects of one-dimensional compressive stress on the properties of multilayer piezoelectric ceramic actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical characteristics of the multilayer piezoelectric ceramic actuator (MPCA) are discussed, especially the relation between one-dimensional stress and strain. The samples were rectangular solids made of PZT system ceramics. The polarized samples to which the constant electric field was applied were loaded with one-dimensional stress by a universal testing machine and the displacement was measured. The samples to which

M. Kondo; K. Ohya; S. Shimizu

1990-01-01

97

Design and characterization of a carbon-nanotube-reinforced adhesive coating for piezoelectric ceramic discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silver paste electrode of piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic discs has been shown to produce a weak interface bond between a bare PZT and its paste coating under a peeling force. In this work, an investigation was conducted to reinforce the bond with a high density array of oriented carbon nanotube nano-electrodes (CNTs-NEA), between a bare PZT ceramic and a metal

G. Lanzara; F.-K. Chang

2009-01-01

98

The development of lead zirconate titanate thin films for piezoelectric microactuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric actuation of a thin film is one means used for electrical-mechanical transduction in Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Currently, the most commonly employed piezoelectric thin-film material is ZnO. Replacing ZnO with certain compositions of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) should improve the performance of many MEMS devices due to the significantly greater piezoelectric coefficients of PZT (20 times greater than ZnO). In this dissertation I investigate the growth and properties---particularly piezoelectric properties---of PZT thin films. I also fabricate a PZT-based MEMS structure, a flexural plate wave (FPW) pump, and compare its performance with similar ZnO-based devices. PZT films of two compositions, Pb(Zr0.7Ti0.3)O 3 and Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3, were grown using reactive, multi-target, RF-magnetron sputtering on Pt-coated silicon wafers. Films were deposited at temperatures from 200C to 400C and rapid thermally annealed between 450C and 700C to crystallize perovskite PZT. The effects of as-deposited lead excess and deficiency on perovskite phase formation and film properties were studied. Films of composition Pb(Zr 0.5Ti0.5)O3, with relative dielectric constants of 1000, remanent polarizations of 20C/cm2, coercive fields of 60 kV/cm, and effective piezoelectric d33 coefficients of 50 pm/V were obtained. These films show promise for use in MEMS. PZT films also were grown on a series of substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Epitaxial (100) films were obtained on LaAlO3 single crystal substrates, and randomly oriented films were obtained on Pt-coated silicon wafers. A conducting oxide electrode, (La0.5Sr0.5 )CoO3, was used for these films. Good structural and ferroelectric properties were obtained, however these films have limitations for use in MEMS. An FPW pump was fabricated using a sol-gel PZT thin film. Measured wave amplitudes were significantly higher than those of a similar ZnO-based device at the same driving voltage---250 A on a 5-finger pair PZT device as compared to 145 A on a 25-finger pair ZnO device. Estimations of pumping speed indicate that the PZT device should have a pumping speed more than an order of magnitude greater than the ZnO device.

Nickles, Annabel Susan

99

Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate by Fluid Flow in Intravascular Oxygenator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the enhancement in oxygen transfer rate in hollow-fiber-membrane (HFM) modules using a plumbum piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator and a piezoelectric poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor. We developed a vibrating intravascular lung assist device (VIVLAD) for patients having chronic respiratory problems and performed experiments on hydrodynamic flow through a bundle of sinusoidal vibrating hollow fibers. These modules were used to provide some insight into how wall vibrations might enhance the performance of an intravascular lung assist device. The experimental design and procedure are then applied to the fabrication of a device used to assess the effectiveness of membrane vibrations. The test section was a cylindrical duct with an inner diameter of 30 mm. The flow rate was controlled by a pump and monitored by a built-in flowmeter. The vibration apparatus was composed of a piezovibrator, a function generator, and a power amplifier. The direction of vibration was radial to the fluid flow. Gas flow rates of up to 6 L/min through 120-cm-long hollow fibers were achieved by exciting the piezovibrator. The time and frequency responses of PVDF sensors were investigated through various frequencies in VIVLAD. In these devices, the flow of blood and the source of oxygen were separated by a semipermeable membrane that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse into and out of the fluid, respectively. Results of the experiments have shown that a vibrating intravascular lung assist device performs effectively.

Kim, Gi?Beum; Hong, Chul?Un; Kwon, Tae?Kyu

2006-04-01

100

Piezoelectric Properties of V and Ba Substituted SrBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric properties of vanadium and barium-substituted strontium bismuth niobate, Sr1?xBaxBi2Nb2?yVyO9 [SBBNV-x (x = 0.0?0.2, y = 0.05)] ceramics synthesized by a low-temperature ceramic fabrication process were investigated. Grain orientation effects on their piezoelectric properties were also investigated using a hot-forging (HF) method. SBBNV-x ceramics were sintered at 950?1050C. This sintering temperature is about 200C lower than that of non-V-substituted SBBN-x.

Shinya Inai; Jyunpei Sato; Rintaro Aoyagi; Yuji Hiruma; Muneyasu Suzuki; Hajime Nagata; Tadashi Takenaka

2007-01-01

101

Piezoelectric nonlinearity and frequency dispersion of the direct piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the frequency and stress dependence of the direct piezoelectric d33 coefficient in BiFeO3 ceramics. The measurements reveal considerable piezoelectric nonlinearity, i.e., dependence of d33 on the amplitude of the dynamic stress. The nonlinear response suggests a large irreversible contribution of non-180 domain walls to the piezoelectric response of the ferrite, which, at present measurement conditions, reached a maximum of 38% of the total measured d33. In agreement with this interpretation, both types of non-180 domain walls, characteristic for the rhombohedral BiFeO3, i.e., 71 and 109, were identified in the poled ceramics using transmission electron microscopy. In support to the link between nonlinearity and non-180 domain-wall contribution, we found a correlation between nonlinearity and processes leading to depinning of domain walls from defects, such as quenching from above the Curie temperature and high-temperature sintering. In addition, the nonlinear piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 showed a frequency dependence that is qualitatively different from that measured in other nonlinear ferroelectric ceramics, such as ``soft'' (donor-doped) Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), i.e., in the case of the BiFeO3 large nonlinearities were observed only at low field frequencies (<0.1 Hz) possible origins of this dispersion are discussed. Finally, we show that, once released from pinning centers, the domain walls can contribute extensively to the electromechanical response of BiFeO3; in fact, the extrinsic domain-wall contribution is relatively as large as in Pb-based ferroelectric ceramics with morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition, such as PZT. This finding might be important in the search of new lead-free MPB compositions based on BiFeO3 as it suggests that such compositions might also exhibit large extrinsic domain-wall contribution to the piezoelectric response.

Rojac, Tadej; Bencan, Andreja; Drazic, Goran; Kosec, Marija; Damjanovic, Dragan

2012-09-01

102

Investigation of high Curie temperature (1-x)BiSc1-yFeyO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramics around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the (1-x)BiSc1-yFeyO3-xPbTiO3 solid solution were fabricated. For y=0.5, ceramics were single phase, and piezoelectric coefficients (d33) and electromechanical coupling coefficients (kp) for MPB compositions were 300 pC/N and 0.49, respectively; a level of piezoelectric activity similar to that of hard, lead zirconate titanate compositions but with TC~60 C higher at ~440 C. For ceramics with y>=0.7, dielectric measurements in combination with diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of two ferroelectric phases for most PbTiO3 contents studied. The presence of two ferroelectric phases was associated with a decrease in piezoelectric activity and although raw materials costs for y=0.7 and 0.8 with respect to y=0 were significantly lower (less Sc2O3) and TC greater (~500 C), d33 (~100 pC/N) and kp (0.18) were too low to be commercially useful for actuator applications.

Sterianou, I.; Sinclair, D. C.; Reaney, I. M.; Comyn, T. P.; Bell, A. J.

2009-10-01

103

First-principles calculations of piezoelectricity and polarization rotation in lead zirconate titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental and theoretical work indicates that polarization rotation via a monoclinic phase at the morphotropic phase boundary in PZT is responsible for its large piezoelectric response. We performed Linearized augmented plane wave with the local orbital extension (LAPW+LO) method within local density approximation (LDA) on B-site [001]1:1 ordered Pb(Zr 0.5Ti0.5)O3 (PZT 50/50). We use a tetragonal super-cell and constrain it with monoclinic Cm space group. Atomic forces following the formulation of Yu et al. are calculated, and the conjugate gradient method is implemented to optimize the internal coordinates. Both the tetragonal (P4mm) and monoclinic (Cm) phases are reproduced, when we strain the system while keeping the volume fixed at experimental value. Bulk spontaneous polarization, Born effective charges (Z*) and piezoelectric coefficients are computed from the Berry's phase approach. The polarization rotates between the pseudo-cubic [001] and [nunu1] directions, where nu = 1.27 in the (110) mirror plane. The piezoelectric coefficients are enhanced when polarization rotation is permitted, namely e33 = 12.6 C/m2, e15 = 10.9 C/m 2, and giant absolute values of e13 = -33 C/m 2 and e'11 = 36 C/m2, where e'11, is defined as 0.5 (e11 + e12). It gives an explanation to the big piezoelectric response measured in ceramic PZT 50/50. Furthermore, the calculated internal coordinates of monoclinic phase of PZT 50/50 at experimental value of c/a are in good agreement with the experimental data of Pb(Zr0.52Ti 0.48)O3.

Wu, Zhigang

104

Simulation and calculation of the piezoelectric modulus of a lead zirconate-titanate thin film in a test microstructure  

SciTech Connect

Results of simulation of stresses in the test structure of a silicon beam and analytical calculation of piezoelectric modulus d{sub 31} of a lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film arranged in the region of an elastic element are presented. The characteristics of the sensitive element of acceleration are calculated based on a PZT thin film with an inertial mass made of silicon.

Amelichev, V. V., E-mail: V.Amelichev@tcen.ru [Moscow State Institute of Electronic Engineering, NPK Technological Center (Russian Federation); Saikin, D. A.; Roshchin, V. M.; Silibin, M. V. [Moscow State Institute of Electronic Engineering (Technical University) (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

105

Cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites for sensor applications in civil engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this thesis are to develop and apply a new smart composite for the sensing and actuation application of civil engineering. Piezoelectric ceramic powder is incorporated into cement-based composite to achieve the sensing and actuation capability. The research investigates microstructure, polarization and aging, material properties and performance of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites both theoretically and experimentally. A hydrogen bonding is found at the interface of piezoelectric ceramic powder and cement phase by IR (Infrared Ray), XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy). It largely affects the material properties of composites. A simple first order model is introduced to explain the poling mechanism of composites and the dependency of polarization is discussed using electromechanical coupling coefficient kt. The mechanisms acting on the aging effect is explored in detail. Dielectrical, piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites are studied by experiment and theoretical calculation based on modified cube model (n=1) with chemical bonding . A complex circuit model is proposed to explain the unique feature of impedance spectra and the instinct of high-loss of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite. The sensing ability of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite has been evaluated by using step wave, sine wave, and random wave. It shows that the output of the composite can reflects the nature and characteristics of mechanical input. The work in this thesis opens a new direction for the current actuation/sensing technology in civil engineering. The materials and techniques, developed in this work, have a great potential in application of health monitoring of buildings and infrastructures.

Dong, Biqin

106

Piezo-, pyro-, ferro-, and dielectric properties of ceramic/polymer composites obtained from two modifications of lead titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two modifications of lead titanate ceramic and the polyetherketoneketone polymer (PEKK) have been used to obtain two polymer/ceramic composites. The piezo-, pyro-, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties were studied. The calcium modified lead titanate/polyetherketoneketone (PTCa/PEKK) composite shows better piezo- and pyro-electric properties than that of the samarium and manganese modified lead titanate/polyetherketoneketone (PSTM/PEKK) composite. Also, a lower dielectric permittivity and remanent polarization values with a higher coercive field are obtained. The results are discussed considering the modifications made in the ceramic phases of each composite. The presented properties for both composites are still substantially lower than those in bulk ceramics.

Peliz-Barranco, A.; Marin-Franch, P.

2005-02-01

107

Temperature dependences of piezoelectric properties of vanadium substituted SrBi 2Nb 2O 9 ceramics with grain orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of the piezoelectric properties of vanadium substituted strontium bismuth niobate, SrBi2Nb1.95V0.05O9 (SBNV) ceramics, were investigated in various vibration modes. The effects of grain orientation in SBNV ceramics on the piezoelectric properties were also studied by the hot-forging (HF) method. The anisotropy of the piezoelectric properties of each vibration mode was confirmed by observing the grain orientation. In

Shinya Inai; Yuji Hiruma; Muneyasu Suzuki; Hajime Nagata; Tadashi Takenaka

2008-01-01

108

Effect of silver dopant on electrical properties of PMNPNNPZT piezoelectric ceramics by complex impedance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver migration has been extensively identified during the preparation of multilayer piezoelectric transformers with silverpalladium inner electrodes. This paper reported on the AC impedance characteristic of silver-doped PMNPNNPZT piezoelectric ceramics. The experimental results showed that a small amount of silver addition changed the electrically conductive process of PMNPNNPZT piezoelectric ceramics from nearly complete grain conductivity to grain and grain boundary

Ruzhong Zuo; Longtu Li; Xiaobing Hu; Zhilun Gui

2002-01-01

109

Ferroelectric/ferroelastic behavior and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromechanical response of pure lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Mn-doped PZT thin ferroelectric films under nanoindentation forces of up to 500 mN was investigated. The stress-induced current transients were measured as a function of the externally applied load on films of different thicknesses using a spherical WC-Co cermet indenter of 500 ?m nominal radius. It was found that the quasi-static current generated through the direct piezoelectric effect is superimposed with a contribution from irreversible domain processes during the loading/unloading cycle. The film thickness dependency of the electrical transients and an asymmetry of the current-force curves are attributed to the in-plane clamping stress in the films produced by a dissimilar substrate. Analysis of corresponding charge-force hysteresis loops revealed a significant role for the residual stress state on the polarization switching in thin films. By the application of an indentation force, a portion of Barkhausen jumps was empirically estimated to increase as a consequence of reduction of the clamping effect on domains. The Rayleigh hysteretic charge-force curves showed recovery of the charge released during the load-unload stress cycle. For the thicker 700 nm films, the total charge released during loading was fully recovered with weak hysteresis. In contrast, strong in-plane clamping stresses in the 70 nm thick films are suggested to be reponsible for incomplete recovery upon unloading. A considerable domain-wall contribution to the electromechanical response was demonstrated by an enhanced polarization state, which was shown by an increase of the effective piezoelectric coefficient deff of about 35% of its initial value for the thin films at a maximum force of 500 mN.

Koval, V.; Reece, M. J.; Bushby, A. J.

2005-04-01

110

Realization of high-energy density polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter reports a high energy density piezoelectric material in the system given as: Pb[(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3]1-x[(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3]x+yMnCO3, where x=0.1 and y varies from 0.5 to 0.9 wt %. A piezoelectric material with high energy density is characterized by a high product of piezoelectric voltage constant (g) and piezoelectric strain constant (d). The condition for obtaining large magnitude of g constant was derived

Rashed Adnan Islam; Shashank Priya

2006-01-01

111

Piezoelectric properties of x/65/35 PLZT ceramics depended of the lanthanum (x) ions contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many years the PLZT ceramics have been known as a ferroelectric material which has various electro-optic and piezoelectric properties. The aim of this work was to study how the lanthanum dopant (x) influences on the piezoelectric properties of x/65/35 PLZT ceramics. All samples were sintered by the hot uniaxial pressing method, from the sol-gel derived powders. The measurements enclose the complex of electric parameters, such as: \\varepsilon , tg? , k{p}, k31, d31, SE11, g31, VR. The domain structures of unpoled and poled samples were conducted on the FESEM HITACHI S-4700.

P?o?ska, M.; Surowiak, Z.

2006-11-01

112

Field forced antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric switching in modified lead zirconate titanate stannate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-field-forced antiferroelectric- to-ferroelectric phase transitions in several compositions of modified lead zirconate titanate stannate antiferroelectric ceramics are studied for ultra-high-field-induced strain actuator applications. Two types of fatigue effects are observed in these ceramic compositions. In one, the fatigue effects only proceed to a limited extent and the properties may be restored by annealing above the Curie temperature, while in the

Wuyi Pan; Qiming Zhang; Amar Bhalla; Leslie E. Cross

1989-01-01

113

Size Effect and Domain-Wall Contribution of Barium Titanate Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics with various grain sizes from 0.7 to 13 ?m were prepared by a conventional sintering method and a two-step sintering method. The permittivity of the BaTiO3 ceramics with an average grain size of 1.1 ?m exhibited a maximum around 8,000. By ultrawide range dielectric spectroscopy, the domain-wall contribution to the permittivity was investigated. For the BaTiO3

Takuya Hoshina; Yoichi Kigoshi; Saki Hatta; Takashi Teranishi; Hiroaki Takeda; Takaaki Tsurumi

2010-01-01

114

In situ cell detection using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate-stainless steel cantilevers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-stainless steel cantilevers as real-time in-water cell detectors using yeast cells as a model system. Earlier studies have shown that mass changes of a cantilever can be detected by monitoring the resonance frequency shift. In this study, two PZT-stainless steel cantilevers with different sensitivities were used to detect the presence of yeast cells in a suspension. The stainless steel cantilever tip was coated with poly-L-lysine that attracted yeast cells from the suspension, and immobilized them on the cantilever surface. After immersing the poly-L-lysine coated tip in a yeast suspension, the flexural resonance frequency of the cantilever was monitored with time. The flexural resonance frequency decreased with time in agreement with the optical micrographs that showed increasing amount of adsorbed yeast cells with time. The resonance frequency shifts are further shown to be consistent with both the mass of immobilized cells on the poly-L-lysine coated stainless steel surface and that deduced from the optical micrographs. Furthermore, under the present experimental conditions where the cell diffusion distance is smaller than the linear dimension of the adsorption area, it is shown that the rate of resonance frequency shift is linear with the cell concentration and the rate of resonance frequency shift can be used to quantify the cell concentration.

Yi, Jeong W.; Shih, Wan Y.; Mutharasan, R.; Shih, Wei-Heng

2003-01-01

115

Ferroelectric mesocrystals of bismuth sodium titanate: formation mechanism, nanostructure, and application to piezoelectric materials.  

PubMed

Ferroelectric mesocrystals of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) with [100]-crystal-axis orientation were successfully prepared using a topotactic structural transformation process from a layered titanate H1.07Ti1.73O4nH2O (HTO). The formation reactions of BNT mesocrystals in HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 and HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction systems and their nanostructures were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, SAED, and EDS, and the reaction mechanisms were given. The BNT mesocrystals are formed by a topotactic structural transformation mechanism in the HTO-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system and by a combination mechanism of the topotactic structural transformation and epitaxial crystal growth in the HTO-TiO2-Bi2O3-Na2CO3 reaction system, respectively. The BNT mesocrystals prepared by these methods are constructed from [100]-oriented BNT nanocrystals. Furthermore, these reaction systems were successfully applied to the fabrication of [100]-oriented BNT ferroelectric ceramic materials. A BNT ceramic material with a high degree of orientation, high relative density, and small grain size was achieved. PMID:23978153

Hu, Dengwei; Kong, Xingang; Mori, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shinagawa, Kazunari; Feng, Qi

2013-08-26

116

Influence of the Niobium or Fluorine Dopant Concentration on the Properties of Mn-Doped Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on the effect of donor addition (Nb5+ or F-) on the electrical and piezoelectric properties and crystallographic characteristics of Mn-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Samples were prepared chemically by coprecipitation of oxalates and hydroxides. The niobium ion was incorporated in the B site whereas the fluorine ion was introduced in the anionic site. Structural analysis (XRD) and measurement of electrical properties were carried out. Electron spin resonance was used to determined the valency states of manganese in PZT ceramics. From the experimental results, the F-O substitution decreases the amount of oxygen vacancies in the Mn-doped PZT, and the valency states remain unchanged. However, a small number of oxygen vacancies may exist in PZT doped with 1 at.% manganese and 2 at.% fluorine. In the (Mn,Nb) co-doping case, the valency states vary from 4+ to 2+ and the number of oxygen vacancies is lower or even almost equal to zero. Thus the electroneutrality is achieved by lead vacancies.

Boucher, Eric; Guiffard, Benoit; Lebrun, Laurent; Guyomar, Daniel

2004-08-01

117

Titanate ceramics for the immobilization of sodium-bearing high-level nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase chemistries and microstructures of titanate-based ceramics containing simulated high-level nuclear waste with varying sodium contents were compared. Incorporation of relatively low sodium levels resulted in more complex phase assemblages. The principal hosts for sodium were hibonite and freudenbergite, and, when iron and sodium were present in combination, loveringite was also stabilized. During fabrication, oxygen potential was controlled by

WILLIAM J. BUYKX; KATE HAWKINS; DESMOND M. LEVINS; HISAYOSHI MITAMURA; ROGER St. C. SMART; GEOFFRY T. STEVENS; KENNETH G. WATSON; DAVID WEEDON; TIMOTHY J. WHITE

1988-01-01

118

Passive Vibration Damping Materials: Piezoelectric Ceramic Composites for Vibration Damping Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study to produce ultra-fine (less than 50 micrometers in diameter) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic fibers for passive damping application has been carried out under several aspects. Sol-gel chemistry was undertaken to produce stable spinnable so...

S. Yoshikawa

1994-01-01

119

Influences of compressive stress and aging on dielectric properties of sodium bismuth titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of compressive stress and aging on dielectric properties of undoped and Fe-doped sodium bismuth titanate (NBT) ceramics were investigated. The dielectric properties were decreased significantly with the compressive stress applied parallel to the electric field direction, while the changes were reversed with the stress applied perpendicularly. In addition, lower changes of the dielectric properties with stress were observed in Fe-NBT ceramics, likely caused by an enhanced relaxor characteristic with the acceptor doping, which also reduced the aging rate in the ceramics. Finally, the aging behavior of the NBT and Fe-NBT ceramics followed the slightly stretched exponential law, and the aging rate in both ceramics was found to decrease with frequency, a result of the pinning of the polarization components. These observations clearly confirmed the role of the acceptor dopant in enhancing the relaxor ferroelectric characteristics in the NBT-based ceramics.

Sareein, T.; Unruan, M.; Ngamjarurojana, A.; Jiansirisomboon, S.; Watcharapasorn, A.; Yimnirun, R.

2009-04-01

120

Recurrent fuzzy neural network control for piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) controller is proposed to control a piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor (LUSM) drive system to track periodic reference trajectories with robust control performance. First, the structure and operating principle of the LUSM are described in detail. Second, because the dynamic characteristics of the LUSM are nonlinear and the precise dynamic model

Faa-Jeng Lin; Rong-Jong Wai; Kuo-Kai Shyu; Tsih-Ming Liu

2001-01-01

121

A VME Board Prototype of High Voltage Power Supply Incorporating Piezoelectric Ceramic Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high voltage power supply channel produces a stabilized direct current high voltage, utilizing a piezoelectric ceramic transformer to generate high voltage. With the intention of developing a 16-channel VME board, a single channel VME board was prototyped, where a high voltage power supply was implemented on a VME board so that a computer could control the power supply. The

Masatosi Imori; Takashi Taniguchi; Toshiyuki Kimura; Satoru Imada

122

Supervisory control for linear piezoelectric ceramic motor drive using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a supervisory genetic algorithm (SGA) control system for a linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM) driven by a two-inductance two-capacitance resonant driving circuit. First, the motor configuration and driving circuit of an LPCM are introduced, and its hypothetical dynamic model is described briefly. Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the LPCM are highly nonlinear and time

Rong-Jong Wai; Kuo-Ho Su

2006-01-01

123

Transducer Performance for Leaky Wave in Layered Structure of Piezoelectric Ceramic Thin Plate and Acryl Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leaky wave transducer in the combination of a piezoelectric ceramic thin plate and an acryl plate is described, which functions as a transducer for underwater ultrasound. The operation performance of an interdigital transducer in the layered structure is described from the viewpoint of phase velocity, electromechanical coupling constant, mode conversion efficiency and transducer efficiency. The leaky wave transducer has

Kohji Toda; Yasuhiko Akutsu

1994-01-01

124

Electro-elastic properties of porous piezoelectric ceramics obtained by tape casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electro-elastic properties of porous piezoelectric ceramics obtained by tape casting have been investigated and related with sample microstructure. The samples obtained by tape casting show very narrow pore size distribution for all porosities up to 60%. Reproducible properties and regular dependence of electro-elastic constants on porosity are consequently obtained. It was found that some material properties are improved with

F. Craciun; C. Galassi; E. Roncari; A. Filippi; G. Guidarelli

1998-01-01

125

Operational principle, fabrication and displacement characteristics of a functionally gradient piezoelectric ceramic actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the theoretical relationship between the bending displacement at the free end of a functionally gradient material (FGM) actuator and the FGM coefficient of the sandwich has been derived from the structure of an FGM actuator. FGM actuators based on PNN-PZT piezoelectric ceramics have been developed by the powder mould stacking press method and their displacement characteristics have

Xinhua Zhu; Zhongyan Meng

1995-01-01

126

Molten-Salt Synthesis of Bismuth Titanate and Fabrication of PbTiO3-based Textured Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain-oriented ceramics, in which the grains are aligned around a preferred crystallographic axis, are of interest for increasing the figure of merit of piezoelectric ceramics. Templated grain growth (TGG), in which a fine matrix is recrystallised upon oriented seed crystals, is one of the more successful techniques for preparing ceramics with such crystallographic texture. Seeds are usually required to exhibit

Jingyan He; T. P. Comyn; T. Skidmore; S. J. Milne; A. J. Bell

2006-01-01

127

Bending strength of piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals for multifunctional load-bearing applications.  

PubMed

The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads. PMID:22711404

Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel

2012-06-01

128

Microstructures and Dielectric Characteristics of Ultrafine-Grained Barium Titanate-Based Ceramics for Base-Metal-Electrode Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine-grained ceramics based on barium titanate for base-metal-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (BME-MLCCs) applications have been prepared. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to identify the phase compositions of the ceramics. The microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of different dopant contents on the crystal structures, grain growth, microstructures, and dielectric characteristics of the ceramics

Tian Wang; Xiaohui Wang; Tae-Ho Song; Longtu Li

2007-01-01

129

High temperature piezoelectric drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460C), high pressure (~9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

2009-03-01

130

Intra-grain composition nonuniform barium strontium calcium titanate ceramics by sol-gel pervasion techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ferroelectric ceramics in microwave devices requires that they possess low-loss, frequency-stable and highly tunable properties. The problems of traditional barium strontium calcium titanate ceramics are higher loss and inappropriate work temperature dependence. In this work, a conventional mixed oxide route was used to prepare BaTiO3, SrTiO3 and CaTiO3 precursor powders. The BaTiO3, SrTiO3 and CaTiO3 powders were thoroughly ball mill mixed. They were then added to 5 wt% polyvinyl alcohol and pressed under a uni-axial pressure of 220 MPa into discs of 12 mm diameter. We introduced nano-grains of barium strontium titanate (BST) into the BSCT ceramic by nano-grain pervasion techniques to fabricate compositionally nonuniform BSCT ceramic samples. The nano-particles of BST are prepared with the sol-gel method. The sol-gel was subjected to ultrasonic irradiation and then vacuum methods in order to easily introduce nanoparticles into bulky BSCT. The ceramics do not show a sharp change in the dielectric constant and have a wide range of Curie temperature distribution. This is attributed to the presence of a compositionally nonuniform micro-area in the samples. Compared with uniform-composition BSCT, compositionally nonuniform BSCT has favourable dielectric properties. These results suggest that the compositionally nonuniform BSCT ceramics are promising candidates as tunable microwave elements.

Xu, Honghai; Jin, Dengren; Wu, Wenbiao; Cheng, Jinrong

2009-03-01

131

Study on piezoelectric ceramic\\/metal composite thin plate of driving stator for travelling-wave motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the solution of general problems of the bending vibration of the thin piezoelectric ceramic\\/metal composite plate of a driving stator for a travelling-wave motor was analysed. Considering the electromechanical coupling effect, the concepts of generalized stress and strain and generalized piezoelectric equations were introduced. The relation of generalized stress and strain, satisfying the differential motion equation of

Shuxiang Dong; Longtu Li; Xiaowen Zhang

1994-01-01

132

Low temperature sintering and high piezoelectric properties of strontium doped PNZTPNN ceramics processed via the columbite route  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the influence of strontium doping on both the sintering behavior and the piezoelectric properties of PNZTPNN ceramics. The piezoelectric ceramics was produced by solid state reaction between metallic oxides, strontium carbonates (SrCO3) and oxides precursors. NiNb2O6 precursors were mixed with the oxides to avoid the large-scale formation of pyrochlore phases during the sintering process and to favor

Franois Bamire; Katrin Benkert; Morgane Radanielina; Carsten Schuh; Michael J. Hoffmann

2007-01-01

133

Modified cofiring behaviors between PMN-PNN-PZT piezoelectric ceramics and PZT-doped 70Ag30Pd alloy metallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cofiring behaviors between PMN-PNN-PZT piezoelectric ceramics and 70Ag30Pd electrode paste were investigated in view of sintering densification behavior, thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) and interfacial physical integrity. The results showed that mismatched cofiring characteristics have greatly affected the reliability of multilayer piezoelectric ceramic devices. The application of a PZT additive to 70Ag30Pd electrode technology has markedly improved the above-mentioned cofiring

Ruzhong Zuo; Longtu Li; Zhilun Gui

2002-01-01

134

A three-phase magnetoelectric composite of piezoelectric ceramics, rare-earth iron alloys, and polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of multiferroic, three-phase particulate composites of Tb-Dy-Fe alloy, lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT), and polymer are investigated, in which a small volume fraction f of Tb-Dy-Fe alloy particles are dispersed in a PZT/polymer mixture. The measured dielectric, piezoelectric, and magnetoelectric properties demonstrate that a percolation transition occurs at f~0.12 in the composites. When f is low (e.g., f<0.07), the composites exhibit piezoelectric and increasing magnetoelectric response. In the critical f range of 0.07

Nan, C.-W.; Liu, L.; Cai, N.; Zhai, J.; Ye, Y.; Lin, Y. H.; Dong, L. J.; Xiong, C. X.

2002-11-01

135

A stress-sensing ceramic device based on PTCR barium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) barium titanate is used as the base material for a ceramic sensor which employs piezoresistivity to detect changes in applied stress. Tape-cast sheets of undoped (insulating) and PTCR (semiconducting) BaTiO3 are laminated to produce a three-layer trilaminate-a sintered structure which has two PTCR layers separated by an insulating layer. The trilaminate is exposed to

Joseph S. Capurso; Walter A. Schulze

1994-01-01

136

Influence of processing parameters on the structure and properties of barium strontium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium strontium titanate (BST) with the molar formula (Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3) has been prepared by two different processing methods: mixed-oxide (BST-MO) and reaction-sintering (BST-RS). X-ray powder diffraction study shows differences in grain size and crystal symmetry for both these ceramics. The former shows a tetragonal symmetry while the latter presents a cubic symmetry. The occurrence of polar micro-regions associated with the higher

Sining Yun; Xiaoli Wang; Delong Xu

2008-01-01

137

Transitions of barium strontium titanate ferroelectric ceramics for different strontium content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic based barium strontium titanate (BST) solid solutions with the formula Ba1?xSrxTiO3 are very important candidates for a wide range of device applications. Several doped (Mn and Mg) and undoped samples were prepared by standard solid-state reaction. Special emphasis was put on compositions with x=0.35 and 0.60, with high potential for applications. The samples were sintered at temperatures in the

A. Ioachim; M. I. Toacsan; M. G. Banciu; L. Nedelcu; A. Dutu; S. Antohe; C. Berbecaru; L. Georgescu; G. Stoica; H. V. Alexandru

2007-01-01

138

Lanthanum titanate ceramics: Electrical characterizations in large temperature and frequency ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramics of the La2O3TiO2 system have very good dielectric properties, which make La2Ti2O7 a good candidate for microwave applications. Using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, we have deposited LaTiOxNy oxynitride thin films on (001) strontium titanate and glass substrates, starting from a homemade oxide target. The microwave dielectric properties of La2Ti2O7 ceramic have been investigated in the 100Hz to 10GHz range in

D. Fasquelle; J. C. Carru; L. Le Gendre; C. Le Paven; J. Pinel; F. Chevir; F. Tessier; R. Marchand

2005-01-01

139

Field forced antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric switching in modified lead zirconate titanate stannate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Electric-field-forced antiferroelectric- to-ferroelectric phase transitions in several compositions of modified lead zirconate titanate stannate antiferroelectric ceramics are studied for ultra-high-field-induced strain actuator applications. Two types of fatigue effects are observed in these ceramic compositions. In one, the fatigue effects only proceed to a limited extent and the properties may be restored by annealing above the Curie temperature, while in the other, the fatigue effects proceed to a large extent and the properties cannot be restored completely by heat treatment.

Pan, W.; Zhang, Q.; Bhalla, A.; Cross, L.E. (Materials Research Lab., Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (US))

1989-04-01

140

Electrical properties and electric field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in Nd3+-doped lead strontium zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and 1-3 at. % Nd3+-doped lead strontium zirconate titanate ceramics, which were located near the tetragonal antiferroelectric (AFE) and rhombohedral ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary, were prepared by tape casting and sintering. The influence of the electric field-induced AFE to FE phase transition on the piezoelectric and strain behavior was studied. Attempts were made to increase the field-induced strain by Nd3+ doping and its effect on the dielectric properties. Room temperature resistivity was also measured and explained by the defects produced. An in situ x-ray diffraction technique was developed for direct observation of the unit cell dimensions associated with the field-induced AFE to FE phase transition. The results indicated that a change in unit cell volume was responsible for the large field-induced strain associated with the AFE-FE phase transition.

Yu, Yongjian; Singh, Raj N.

2003-12-01

141

High-field and high-Tc piezoelectric ceramics based on Bi(Ga,Fe)O3-PbTiO3 crystalline solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gallium-modified bismuth ferrite-lead titanate compositions of 0.4Bi(Ga0.4Fe0.6)O3-0.6PbTiO3 (0.4BGF-0.6PT), has been investigated for the potential as a high-field and high-temperature piezoelectric ceramic. The crystalline solutions of 0.4BGF-0.6PT were fabricated by using the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that 0.4BGF-0.6PT has a tetragonal perovskite structure. The Curie temperature Tc of 0.4BGF-0.6PT was determined to be 540 C. Our 0.4BGF-0.6PT

Jinrong Cheng; Zhongyan Meng; L. Eric Cross

2005-01-01

142

Dissolution Kinetics of Titanate-Based Ceramic Waste Forms: Results from Single-Pass Flow Tests on Radiation Damaged Specimens  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary report in which the data from the single-pass flow-through test on resintered 238Pu-bearing ceramics are reported. These results show that radiation damage has litte effect on the dissolution kinetics of candidate titanate ceramics for plutonium immobilization.

Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.

2003-05-01

143

Characterization of lead zirconate titanate ceramics for use in miniature high-frequency (20-80 MHz) transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics for operation in the thickness mode at frequencies as high as 80 MHz are reported. Each of the ceramics tested showed a reduction in k t with increasing frequency. In a fine-grained PZT, values of kt as high as 0.44 were measured at 80 MHz. The effects of grain size were

F. Stuart Foster; Linda K. Ryan; Daniel H. Turnbull

1991-01-01

144

Preparation of lead free KNLNTS piezoelectric ceramics by molten salt synthesis and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0.04)O3 (KNLNTS) piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the NaCl-KCl (NaCl\\/KCl=1\\/1) molten salt synthesis (MSS) method. The KNLNTS ceramics was fabricated successfully by sintering at 1100degC to 1200degC. The results show that the KNLNTS powder particle size increased form 50 nm to 200 nm and the shape changed from cubic structure to plated-like structure with time increasing. Compared to the

Xiang-cheng Chu; Jun-fei Wu; Long-tu Li; Liang Zhong; Shi-xi Zhao

2008-01-01

145

Adaptive hybrid control for linear piezoelectric ceramic motor drive using diagonal recurrent CMAC network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an adaptive hybrid control system using a diagonal recurrent cerebellar-model-articulation-computer (DRCMAC) network to control a linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM) driven by a two-inductance two-capacitance (LLCC) resonant inverter. Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the LPCM are highly nonlinear and time varying, an adaptive hybrid control system is therefore designed based on a hypothetical dynamic

Rong-Jong Wai; Chih-Min Lin; Ya-Fu Peng

2004-01-01

146

Study on controller designs for high-precisely linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is an observation of PID, fuzzy, sliding mode (SM) and fuzzy-sliding mode (FSM) controllers for high-precisely linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM). By understanding the characteristics of each single controller, one of the advantages is well-knowledge, when those controllers will be used, and what drawbacks they have. This paper exhibit a comparison of their error-reduction performance.

Hendro Nurhadi; Whei-Ming Kuo; Yeong-Shin Tarng

2010-01-01

147

Effects of static electric field on the fracture behavior of piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an overview on experimental observations of the failure behavior of electrically insulating and conducting\\u000a cracks in piezoelectric ceramics. The experiments include the indentation fracture test, the bending test on smooth samples,\\u000a and the fracture test on pre-notched (or pre-cracked) compact tension samples. For electrically insulating cracks, the experimental\\u000a results show a complicated fracture behavior under electrical and

Tong-Yi Zhang

2002-01-01

148

Analysis of Thin-Shell Piezoelectric Ceramics with Engineered Resonance Characteristics and Vibration Modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramic transducers with hollow thin shell forms (cylinder, tube, and cone) were fabricated by slip casting method. Characteristic vibration modes of the thin-shell structures were identified using finite element analysis method. Various vibration modes, such as length extension, radial expansion were obtained from the thin-shell transducers at 50-200 kHz frequencies. The resonance frequencies of these modes were engineered by

Sedat Alkoy

2006-01-01

149

Characterization of phase assemblage and distribution in titanate ceramics with SEM/EDS and x-ray mapping.  

SciTech Connect

Titanate ceramics have been selected for the immobilization of excess plutonium. The baseline ceramic formulation leads to a multi-phase assemblage, which consists of a majority pyrochlore phase plus secondary phases. The phase distribution depends on processing conditions and impurity loading. In this paper, we report on the characterization of the phase assemblage and distribution in titanate ceramics using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray dot mapping. Two titanate ceramics were studied a baseline ceramic and a ceramic with impurities. In the baseline ceramic, the secondary phases that were observed include zirconolite, brannerite, and rutile. Additional phases, such as perovskite, an Al-Ti-Ca phase, and a silicate phase, formed in the impurity ceramic. The distribution of these phases was characterized with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging, except for zirconolite. While the zirconolite exhibited weak contrasts in BSE images and could not be easily distinguished from the pyrochlore matrix, its distribution was effectively characterized with x-ray mapping. Quantitative analyses of BSE images and x-ray maps reveal that the impurity ceramic contains less brannerite, rutile, and pores than the baseline ceramic.

Luo, J. S.

1999-06-16

150

Nonlinear dielectric response in piezoelectric materials for underwater transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SONAR transducers based on single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) have demonstrated improvements over conventional lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Compositional modifications to PMNT have combined the high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 2000 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factor (k33 > 0.90) with the low mechanical losses (QM > 1000) of ``hard'' piezoelectric ceramics. The dielectric losses of single crystal PMNT have not been investigated as extensively as the mechanical losses but may significantly affect the performance of a device when water loaded. In this work, nonlinearities in the dielectric permittivity and losses have been investigated as a function of applied electric field, measurement frequency, and temperature. It is shown that electromechanically ``hard'' single crystals offer greater stability of the dielectric properties while maintaining a high permittivity with respect to conventional lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

Sherlock, N. P.; Garten, L. M.; Zhang, S. J.; Shrout, T. R.; Meyer, R. J.

2012-12-01

151

Research on key technique of microscopy three-dimensional image reconstruction based on piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the limited depth of focus of microscope objective, a series of images taken from different sections and directions are needed to reconstruct 3D microscopy image. In this paper, we present a novel method which utilizes piezoelectric actuator, high magnification microscopy system without mirror and single CCD to observe micro-objects and reconstruct its three-dimensional image. Inverse piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric ceramics have some superior characteristics, such as high positioning resolution, high positioning accuracy, etc. And piezoelectric actuator possess the advantage of small-size, strong-power and easy- to-integrated as well. Based on these points, we designed a 360 rotation and tilt positioning platform. In this platform, Piezoelectric actuator is employed to ensure the positioning accuracy at axis-Z direction. At the same time, Motion of 360 rotation and tilt can be controlled precisely using stepping motor controlling technology. Furthermore, finite element methods (FEM) analyze software--ANSYS is used to analyze the rigidity, stress and structure optimization of the platform. This rotation and tilt mechanical positioning platform can help the single CCD to get clear, complete-view two dimensional images. This method paves the way for three-dimensional reconstruction of micro objects. Experiments demonstrate that this 360 rotation and tilt positioning stage is structure-simple and high-accurate. It can be widely used in micro-structure observing and three-dimensional image reconstruction among mechanics, materials and biology, etc.

Wang, Jianhua; Xiao, Zexin

2011-11-01

152

Spray drying of metal alkoxide sol for strontium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Conditions for obtaining a stable sol in an isopropyl alcohol-water medium containing titanium isopropoxide and strontium nitrate, and acetic acid as a modifier, have been described. Spray drying of the sol results in submicrometer spherical agglomerates which on further thermal decomposition yield submicrometer particles of strontium titanate at temperatures as low as 500 C. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the spray-dried precursor and the development of strontium titanate phase have been discussed. Calcined precursor powder possesses a specific surface area of 12 m{sup 2}/g, a compaction density of 57%, and a sintered density of > 98%. The optimum sintering temperature of such a powder was 1450 C, which resulted in a sintered grain size around 1.5 {mu}m. Further, such a sintered sample had a dielectric constant of 260 and a loss factor of 0.008 at 1 kHz. This method appears to be very convenient with respect to handling of stable sols and thus avoids the usual difficulties regarding extended gelation as well as inhomogeneous precipitation.

Varma, H.K.; Pillai, P.K.; Mani, T.V.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Damodaran, A.D. [Regional Research Lab., Trivandrum (India)

1994-01-01

153

Electrical power generation characteristics of PZT piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical power generation characteristics of Mn-doped PZT ceramics responding to slow mechanical stress as well as to impact stress have been investigated. Although both the slow and impact stresses induce a reversible electrical response, the generation properties are distinctly different. Slow stress releases two output current peaks with opposite directions, responding to the increasing and decreasing part of the

Chao-Nan Xu; Morito Akiyama; Kazuhiro Nonaka; Tadahiko Watanabe

1998-01-01

154

Robust control for LLCC resonant linear piezoelectric ceramic motor drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a robust control system for a linear ceramic motor (LCM) that is driven by a high-frequency voltage source inverter using LLCC resonant technique. Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the LCM are nonlinear and time varying, a robust control system is designed based on the hypothetical dynamic model to achieve high-precision position control. The presentation

Rong-Jong Wai; Rou-Yong Duan; Kuan-Yun Hsieh; Jeng-Dao Lee

2001-01-01

155

Zirconium titanate ceramic pigments: Crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and technological properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Srilankite-type zirconium titanate, a promising structure for ceramic pigments, was synthesized at 1400 C following three main doping strategies: (a) ZrTi1-xAxO4, (b) ZrTi1-x-yAxByO4 and (c) Zr1-xCxTiO4 where A=Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni or V (chromophores), B=Sb or W (counterions) and C=Pr (chromophore); x=y=0.05. Powders were characterized by XRD with Rietveld refinements and DRS in the UV visible NIR range; technological properties were appraised in several ceramic matrices (frits, glazes and body). Zirconium titanate can be usefully coloured with first row transition elements, giving green and greenish yellow (Co and Ni); orange-buff (Cr and V); tan-brown hues (Mn and Fe). In industrial-like synthesis conditions, a disordered structure as (Zr,Ti)O2, with both Zr and Ti randomly distributed in the octahedral site, is achieved. Doping with chromophores and counterions induces unit cell dimensions variation and causes an oversaturation in zirconium oxide. Optical spectroscopy reveals the occurrence of Co2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Mn3+, Ni2+, V3+ and V4+. The zirconium titanate pigments fulfil current technological requirements for low-temperature applications, but exhibit a limited chemico-physical stability for higher firing temperature and in chemically aggressive media.

Dondi, M.; Matteucci, F.; Cruciani, G.

2006-01-01

156

Grain Oriented Perovskite Layer Structure Ceramics for High-Temperature Piezoelectric Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perovskite layer structure (PLS) compounds have the general formula (A^{2+}) _2(B^{5+})_2 O_7, or (A^ {3+})_2(B^{4+ })_2O_7, and crystallize in a very anisotropic layered structure consisting of parallel slabs made up of perovskite units. Several of these compounds possess the highest Curie temperatures (T_{rm c} ) of any known ferroelectrics. Two examples are Sr_2Nb_2O _7 with T_{rm c} of 1342^circC, and La_2Ti_2O _7 with T_{rm c} of 1500^circC. This thesis is an investigation of PLS ceramics and their feasibility as a high temperature transducer material. Piezoelectricity in single crystals has been measured, but the containerless float zone apparatus necessary to grow high quality crystals of these refractory compounds is expensive and limited to a small number of research groups. Previous attempts to pole polycrystalline Sr_2Nb _2O_7 have failed, and to this point piezoelectricity has been absent. The initiative taken in this research was to investigate PLS ceramics by way of composition and processing schemes such that polycrystalline bodies could be electrically poled. The ultimate objective then was to demonstrate piezoelectricity in PLS ceramics, especially at high temperatures. Donor-doping of both La_2Ti _2O_7 and Sr_2Nb_2O _7 was found to increase volume resistivities at elevated temperatures, an important parameter to consider during the poling process. Sr_2Ta _2O_7 (T _{rm c} = -107 ^circC) was used to make solid solution compositions with moderately high Curie temperatures, of about 850^circC, and lower coercive fields. A hot-forging technique was employed to produce ceramics with high density (>99% of theoretical) and high degree of grain orientation (>90%). Texturing was characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy. Considerable anisotropy was observed in physical and electrical properties, including thermal expansion, resistivity, dielectric constant, and polarization. The direction perpendicular to the forging axis proved to be the ferroelectric "easy" direction, indicating that the polar axis lies in the plane of the plate-like grains. Hot-forged samples were poled at 40 to 50 KV/cm at 200^circC. Several compounds in the La_2Ti_2O _7-Sr_2Nb _2O_7-Sr _2Ta_2O_7 ternary system were shown to be piezoelectric. From appropriately oriented cuts, the dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric coefficients were determined by the resonance method. Relative to commercial piezoelectric ceramics such as Pb(ZrTi)O_3, hot-forged PLS ceramics were found to have high frequency constants, low compliance, low electromechanical coupling, low piezoelectric coefficients, and high mechanical quality factors. For Sr_2(Nb_{0.5 }Ta_{0.5})_2 O_7, N_{32 } = 2216 Hz-m, s_{32} = 8.37 times 10^ {-12} m^2/N, k _{32} = 3.60%, d _{32} = 2.40 pC/N, and Q _{rm m} = 5290. This material was also shown to resist depoling when exposed to temperatures as high as 650^circC. Hot-forged PLS compounds offer a new family of ferroelectric ceramics that may prove to be useful as high temperature materials for electronic transducers or filters.

Fuierer, Paul Anton

157

Study of the characteristics of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate radiation detector using a pulsed xenon source  

SciTech Connect

The detector characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were studied by directly irradiating a multilayered PZT detector with 400 MeV/n xenon ions. An extracted beam was processed with a rotating slit. Thus, passed through {approx}10{sup 3} xenon ions were available for 50 to 250 {mu}s. The effect of polarization on the output signal was discussed, and the optimal electrode configuration was determined. The output signal appeared as an isolated pulse whose amplitude was qualitatively understood by the Bethe-Bloch formula. However, the calculated and the observed values differed depending on the rotation speed of the slit. A process that can explain the differences is presented here. The output signal appearing beyond the range of 400 MeV/n xenon ion beam was discussed. The sensitivity was compared with that obtained with hypervelocity collision of dust.

Miyachi, Takashi [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Okudaira, Osamu [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takechi, Seiji; Kurozumi, Atsuma; Morinaga, Shinya; Uno, Takefumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka-City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto-University, Kyoto-606-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masanori [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okada, Nagaya [Honda Electronics Co. Ltd., Toyohashi, Aichi 441-3193 (Japan)

2010-05-15

158

Electrode size dependence of piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films measured by double beam laser interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrode size dependence of the effective large signal piezoelectric response coefficient (d33,f) of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films is investigated by using double beam laser interferometer measurements and finite element modeling. The experimentally observed electrode size dependence is shown to arise from a contribution from the substrate. The intrinsic PZT contribution to d33,f is independent of electrode size and is equal to the theoretical value derived assuming a rigid substrate. The substrate contribution is strongly dependent on the relative size of the electrode with respect to the substrate thickness. For electrode sizes larger than the substrate thickness, the substrate contribution is positive and for electrode sizes smaller than the substrate thickness, the substrate contribution is negative. In the case of silicon substrates, if the electrode size is equal to the substrate thickness, the substrate contribution vanishes, and the measured value of d33,f is equal to the theoretical value under the rigid substrate assumption.

Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Mardilovich, P.; Mason, A.; Roelofs, A.; Schmitz-Kempen, T.; Tiedke, S.

2013-09-01

159

Investigation of high Curie temperature (1-x)BiSc{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the (1-x)BiSc{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} solid solution were fabricated. For y=0.5, ceramics were single phase, and piezoelectric coefficients (d{sub 33}) and electromechanical coupling coefficients (k{sub p}) for MPB compositions were 300 pC/N and 0.49, respectively; a level of piezoelectric activity similar to that of hard, lead zirconate titanate compositions but with T{sub C}approx60 deg. C higher at approx440 deg. C. For ceramics with y>=0.7, dielectric measurements in combination with diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of two ferroelectric phases for most PbTiO{sub 3} contents studied. The presence of two ferroelectric phases was associated with a decrease in piezoelectric activity and although raw materials costs for y=0.7 and 0.8 with respect to y=0 were significantly lower (less Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and T{sub C} greater (approx500 deg. C), d{sub 33} (approx100 pC/N) and k{sub p} (0.18) were too low to be commercially useful for actuator applications.

Sterianou, I.; Sinclair, D. C.; Reaney, I. M. [Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P.; Bell, A. J. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

160

Molten salt synthesis of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramic powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (Pb0.95La0.03)(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PLZT) was synthesized by one step molten salt method with the starting materials of PbC2O4, La2O3, ZrO(NO3)22H2O and TiO2 in the NaClKCl eutectic mixtures in the temperature range of 7001000C. The single phase of (Pb0.95La0.03)(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 powders was prepared at a temperature as low as 850C for 5h. The effects of process parameters, such as soaking

Zongying Cai; Xianran Xing; Lu Li; Yeming Xu

2008-01-01

161

Piezoelectric Ceramics with Zero Temperature Coefficients of Radial Mode Resonance Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramics with zero temperature coefficients of radial mode resonance frequencies were developed. The chemical formula of these ceramics is (Pb0.91(La1-?Nd?)0.08)(Ti0.92Mn0.02In0.06)O3. In the ceramic system, the temperature coefficient varies from -25 10-6/C to +40 10-6/C as the molar ratio of Nd changes from 0 to 1. When ?{=}0.5, the temperature coefficient is less than 1 10-6/C over the temperature range -10 to +50C. The electromechanical coupling factor of radial mode is 0.1; mechanical qualityfactor is 1400; and dielectric constant \\varepsilon33T is 225.

Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Yukio; Nagatsuma, Kazuyuki; Jyomura, Shigeru; Ashida, Sakichi

1980-08-01

162

Design and characterization of a carbon-nanotube-reinforced adhesive coating for piezoelectric ceramic discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silver paste electrode of piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic discs has been shown to produce a weak interface bond between a bare PZT and its paste coating under a peeling force. In this work, an investigation was conducted to reinforce the bond with a high density array of oriented carbon nanotube nano-electrodes (CNTs-NEA), between a bare PZT ceramic and a metal substrate. The ensuing design and fabrication of a carbon-nanotube-coated piezoelectric disc (CPZT) is presented along with a study of the bondline integrity of a CPZT mounted on a hosting structure. The CPZT has its electrode silver paste coating replaced with a high density array of CNTs-NEA. Mechanical tests were performed to characterize the shear strength of the bondline between CPZT discs and the substrate. The test results were compared with shear strengths of the bondlines made of pure non-conductive adhesive and adhesive with randomly mixed CNTs. The comparison showed the oriented CNT coating on PZTs could significantly enhance the interfacial shear strength. Through the microscopic examination, it was evident that the ratio between the CNT length (Lc) and the bond thickness (H) significantly influenced the bond strength of CPZT discs. Three major interface microstructure types and their corresponding failure modes for specific Lc/H values were identified. The study also showed that failure did not occur along the interface between the PZT ceramic element and the CNT coating.

Lanzara, G.; Chang, F.-K.

2009-12-01

163

Design of Translation Rotary Ultrasonic Motor with Slanted Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and manufactured a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDoF) ultrasonic motor (USM) by using a single actuator. Although there have been numerous MDoF USMs reported in the literature, only a few of them cover the combined rotary and translational motions in a cylindrical-joint type configuration. Combining these two motions in one joint and controlling this combined motion through a novel USM is the main aim of this work. Here, we use smooth impact drive method (SIDM) with two distinct modes obtained at two distinct frequencies by the help of slanted ceramics and uneven square shaped excitation signals. The translational-rotary dual-mode motor can be driven by single source. The prototype of the motor (5 mm diameter, 25 mm total length) has 5 mm/s translational and 3 rad/s rotary speed under 4 mN blocking force, when the input signal is 20 Vp--p square wave.

Tuncdemir, Safakcan; Ural, Seyit O.; Koc, Burhanettin; Uchino, Kenji

2011-02-01

164

Transducer Performance for Leaky Wave in Layered Structure of Piezoelectric Ceramic Thin Plate and Acryl Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A leaky wave transducer in the combination of a piezoelectric ceramic thin plate and an acryl plate is described, which functions as a transducer for underwater ultrasound. The operation performance of an interdigital transducer in the layered structure is described from the viewpoint of phase velocity, electromechanical coupling constant, mode conversion efficiency and transducer efficiency. The leaky wave transducer has multiple modes with velocity dispersion. Using the second-order anti-symmetrical mode with high transducer efficiency value, a liquid-delay line oscillation is demonstrated.

Toda, Kohji; Akutsu, Yasuhiko

1994-09-01

165

Impedance-spectroscopy analysis and piezoelectric properties of Pb 2KNb 5O 15 ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation, dielectric, piezoelectric, hysteresis, impedance spectroscopy and AC conductivity studies in the Pb0.8K0.4Nb2O6 ferroelectric ceramic have been presented. The Pb1?xK2xNb2O6 (PKN) characterized for ferroelectric and impedance spectroscopy studies from room temperature to 600C. The sample shows a single phase with orthorhombic structure from X-ray diffraction studies. The ColeCole plots and electric modulus plots at different temperatures are drawn. The results

K. Sambasiva Rao; P. Murali Krishna; T. Swarna Latha; D. Madhava Prasad

2006-01-01

166

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics and transducers in potassium sodium niobate-solid solution system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramic of (K0.44Na0.52Li 0.04)(Nb0.84Ta0.1Sb0.06)O 3; (KNN-LT-LS) was prepared by two processing routes, namely "Perovskite" and "Mixed oxide". The sensitivity of raw materials to relative humidity of laboratory environment indicated that the powders batching/handling had to be carried out in a controlled atmosphere (e.g. Ar). The electromechanical properties of bulk samples in which batching carried out in Ar atmosphere were significantly higher than those ceramics prepared in the laboratory environment. The electromechanical properties of ceramics were also very sensitive to the oxygen flow rate during sintering. It was realized that oxygen vacancies could be formed in low oxygen flow rate and deteriorate piezoelectric properties of such ceramics. Reduction in oxygen vacancies facilitated domain wall switching and led to higher remnant polarization with lower coercive field. The highest longitudinal coupling (k33) and piezoelectric charge (d33 ) coefficients for perovskite routes at optimized oxygen flow rate of 180cm3/min were 65% and 315pC/N, respectively. The substitution of Ba2+ (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mol%) ion as an A-site donor dopant to this system improved the relative permittivity, longitudinal coupling and piezoelectric charge coefficients. Increase in remnant polarization along with the decline of coercive field indicated that the addition of Ba2+ gave rise to soft characteristics in this ternary system. The effect of 0-2 mol% of copper oxide (CuO) addition to the base composition was increased the grain size and changed the morphology and growth behavior of the grains. Mechanical quality factor was remarkably improved (Qm = 350) upon addition of 2 mol% Cu2+ with dramatic decrease in amount of energy for switching the dipole moments. Single element air-backed transducers made of undoped and 1.0 mol% Ba 2+-KNN-LT-LS, and PZT-4 showed a measured -6dB fractional bandwidth of 36%, 50.4%, and 53.5%, respectively. High frequency lead-free transducer of KNN-LT-LS were also fabricated that showed the fractional bandwidth (-6dB) of 55.3% at center frequency of 23.5 MHz. This close acoustic performance of studied lead-free transducer in regards to PZT-4 transducer showed that the lead-free system could be a good candidate used for imaging and HIFU (High Focused Ultrasound) therapeutic applications.

Marandian-Hagh, Nader

167

Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of PMN-PNN-PZT Ceramics with the Variation of High Energy Ball Milling Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop the composition ceramics for low temperature sintering multilayer piezoelectric actuator, Pb(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3?Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3? Pb(Zr0.48Ti0.51)O3 (abbreviated as PMN-PNN-PZT) ceramics were fabricated using Li2CO3, Na2CO3 and ZnO as sintering aids and according to the Ball milling time. And also, their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. At the High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) time of 9 h

Yu Hyong Lee; Ju Hyun Yoo

2010-01-01

168

Dielectric, ferroelectric and mechanical Properties of Microwave Sintered Bi based High temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sintering of advanced ceramics requires fast heating in order to avoid both grain growth and inter diffusion. In this context, the microwave sintering is a powerful method since it enables sintering in a short time. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of Strontium Bismuth Titanate (SBTi) system. The material powder was prepared by solid state route and sintering was carried out by both conventional and microwave furnaces. Morphological, dielectric, ferroelectric and mechanical properties were studied for both samples. The dielectric constant and loss tangent of the conventional and microwave sintered samples have ranged between (185-195) & (0.005-0.007) and (195-220) & (0.004-0.006) respectively when measured at 1MHz frequency. The microwave sintering of the SBTi ceramics leads to higher densification (97% of the theoretical density), fine microstructure, and good mechanical and ferroelectric properties in much shorter duration of time compared to that of the conventional sintering process.

Angalakurthi, Rambabu; Raju, K. C. James

2011-10-01

169

Enhanced thermoelectric properties of Nb-doped SrTiO 3 polycrystalline ceramic by titanate nanotube addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of titanate nanotube (TNT) addition on the thermoelectric properties of Nb-doped SrTiO3 polycrystalline ceramic are discussed. Nb-doped SrTiO3 ceramic composite with TNT addition was fabricated by the pressure-less sintering method in an Ar atmosphere. TNT addition significantly enhanced the ratio of the electrical conductivity to thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, the Seebeck coefficient was almost independent of TNT addition, thus,

Ning Wang; Hongcai He; Xiao Li; Li Han; Chunqiu Zhang

2010-01-01

170

Piezoelectric textures based on poly(vinyl chloride) filled with dispersed lead zirconate titanate (PZT-19)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the results in investigations into the properties of piezoelectric textured materials that are formed through technological treatment of a mixture of components of dispersed poly(vinyl chloride) and a ferroelectric powder with the application of an external mechanical shear stress and an electric field.

Luchnikov, A. P.; Sigov, A. S.

2009-07-01

171

Characterization of piezoelectric ceramics and 1-3 composites for high power transducers  

PubMed Central

The high power characteristics of various piezoelectric ceramics and 1-3 composites were investigated. In contrast to hard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, modified (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 based ceramics were found to show a relatively linear electromechanical response under high drive conditions due to their high stability of mechanical quality factor. The effects of high drive field and duty cycle on the behavior of 1-3 composites were analyzed by varying active and passive components. Improved high power characteristics of 1-3 composites were achieved by selection of optimized composite components, with enhanced electromechanical efficiency and thermal stability under high drive conditions.

Jae Lee, Hyeong; Zhang, Shujun; Meyer, Richard J.; Sherlock, Nevin P.; Shrout, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

172

Size effect of barium titanate and computer-aided design of multilayered ceramic capacitors.  

PubMed

The size effect of BaTiO3 (BTO) is the most important issue to design multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with high capacitance. In the size effect of BTO particles, the size dependence of dielectric permittivity related with the complex structure in BTO nano-particles. The grain size dependence of dielectric permittivity in BTO ceramics was due to the domain wall contribution. The core-shell structure played an important role in the size effect of dielectric layers in X7R-MLCCs. Computer simulation technique was developed to predict the limit of capacitance density of MLCCs produced by the current technology. Dielectric properties of MLCCs with different particle size of BTO were measured, and the data were analyzed using B-SPLINE fitting to predict dielectric permittivity at arbitrary temperatures and AC-fields. The dielectric properties of barium titanate grains smaller than 100 nm were predicted using least squares fitting of the B-SPLINE coefficients. It was found from the simulation that the use of barium titanate grains smaller than 80 nm did not give an advantage to increase the capacitance density as well as temperature stability of the MLCCs. The maximum capacitance was predicted for the 1608 (mm) chip size. PMID:19686965

Tsurumi, Takaaki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Youichi; Chazono, Hirokazu

2009-08-01

173

Zirconium titanate ceramic pigments: Crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and technological properties  

SciTech Connect

Srilankite-type zirconium titanate, a promising structure for ceramic pigments, was synthesized at 1400 deg. C following three main doping strategies: (a) ZrTi{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 4} (b) ZrTi{sub 1-x-y}A{sub x}B{sub y}O{sub 4} and (c) Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub x}TiO{sub 4} where A=Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni or V (chromophores), B=Sb or W (counterions) and C=Pr (chromophore); x=y=0.05. Powders were characterized by XRD with Rietveld refinements and DRS in the UV-visible-NIR range; technological properties were appraised in several ceramic matrices (frits, glazes and body). Zirconium titanate can be usefully coloured with first row transition elements, giving green and greenish yellow (Co and Ni); orange-buff (Cr and V); tan-brown hues (Mn and Fe). In industrial-like synthesis conditions, a disordered structure as (Zr,Ti)O{sub 2}, with both Zr and Ti randomly distributed in the octahedral site, is achieved. Doping with chromophores and counterions induces unit cell dimensions variation and causes an oversaturation in zirconium oxide. Optical spectroscopy reveals the occurrence of Co{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, V{sup 3+} and V{sup 4+}. The zirconium titanate pigments fulfil current technological requirements for low-temperature applications, but exhibit a limited chemico-physical stability for higher firing temperature and in chemically aggressive media.

Dondi, M. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC-CNR), Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (Italy); Matteucci, F. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC-CNR), Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (Italy)]. E-mail: matteucci@istec.cnr.it; Cruciani, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Via Saragat 1, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

2006-01-15

174

Supercritical extraction of binder containing poly(vinyl butyral) and dioctyl phthalate from barium titanateplatinum multilayer ceramic capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical extraction using carbon dioxide was examined for the removal of binder from multilayer ceramic capacitors. The binder contained poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), and the dielectric and metal electrode materials were barium titanate and platinum, respectively. At 40 MPa of carbon dioxide at 95 C, approximately 55 wt % of the binder could be removed, and this

Rajesh V. Shende; Daniel S. Krueger; Stephen J. Lombardo

2001-01-01

175

Dust detector using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate with current-to-voltage converting amplifier for functional advancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the concept of a dust monitor using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with a large detection area. Its potential as a dust detector is experimentally demonstrated. The dust monitor has a small volume compared to an impact ionization detector with the same detection area, due to the PZT sensor. The PZT sensor, as a traditional device for the in-situ observation of hypervelocity dust particles, has been used for momentum measurement. The hypervelocity impact signals of PZT sensors are typically read by charge-sensitive amplifiers. Instead, we suggest a new method that a current-to-voltage converting amplifier is useful for interpreting the impact signal of a PZT sensor arising from dust particles down to 0.5 ?m in radius. We propose that datasets of dust impacts can be obtained with a higher statistical accuracy, if the new method is applied to instruments on forthcoming interplanetary-space-cruising spacecrafts.

Kobayashi, M.; Miyachi, T.; Hattori, M.; Sugita, S.; Takechi, S.; Okada, N.

2013-03-01

176

Response of Piezoelectric Lead-Zirconate-Titanate to Hypervelocity Silver Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) element was studied by bombarding silver particles in the mass range from 1 to 100 pg, and the velocity from 2 to 6 km\\/s. Output signals were uniquely identified on impact and characterized by Fourier analysis. It was found that incident energies above 100 nJ were uniquely determined by a single PZT element. We discussed its potential

Takashi Miyachi; Nobuyuki Hasebe; Hiroshi Ito; Takahiro Masumura; Hiroyuki Okada; Hideki Yoshioka; Masato Higuchi; Tadayoshi Matsuyama; Ken-ichi Nogami; Takeo Iwai; Hiromi Shibata; Yoshimi Hamabe; Sho Sasaki; Seiji Sugita; Hideo Ohashi; Sunao Hasegawa; Hajime Yano; Masanori Sato; Tonshaku Tou

2003-01-01

177

Ferroelectric\\/ferroelastic behavior and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromechanical response of pure lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Mn-doped PZT thin ferroelectric films under nanoindentation forces of up to 500 mN was investigated. The stress-induced current transients were measured as a function of the externally applied load on films of different thicknesses using a spherical WCCo cermet indenter of 500 ?m nominal radius. It was found that the

V. Koval; M. J. Reece; A. J. Bushby

2005-01-01

178

Ferroelectric\\/ferroelastic behavior and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromechanical response of pure lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Mn-doped PZT thin ferroelectric films under nanoindentation forces of up to 500 mN was investigated. The stress-induced current transients were measured as a function of the externally applied load on films of different thicknesses using a spherical WC-Co cermet indenter of 500 mum nominal radius. It was found that the

V. Koval; M. J. Reece; A. J. Bushby

2005-01-01

179

Structural, dielectric relaxation and piezoelectric characterization of Sr2+ substituted modified PMS-PZT ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrochlore phase free [Pb0.94Sr0.06] [(Mn1/3Sb2/3)0.05(Zr0.53Ti0.47)0.95] O3 ceramics has been synthesized with pure Perovskite phase by semi-wet route using the columbite precursor method. The field dependences of the dielectric response and the conductivity have been measured in a frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in a temperature range from 303 K to 773 K. An analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity with frequency has been performed, assuming a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behavior of the dielectric loss spectra suggests that the distribution of the relaxation times is temperature independent. The SEM photographs of the sintered specimens present the homogenous structures and well-grown grains with a sharp grain boundary. The material exhibits tetragonal structure. When measured at frequency (100 Hz), the polarization shows a strong field dependence. Different piezoelectric figures of merit (kp, d33 and Qm) of the material have also been measured obtaining their values as 0.53, 271 pC/N and 1115, respectively, which are even higher than those of pure PZT with morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition. Thus the present ceramics have the optimal overall performance and are promising candidates for the various high power piezoelectric applications.

Brajesh, Kumar; Himanshu, A. K.; Sharma, Himanshu; Kumari, Kiran; Ranjan, Rajeev; Bandhopadhyay, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.

2012-02-01

180

Negative stiffness and negative Poisson's ratio in barium titanate based ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anelastic properties of barium titanate ceramics have been studied via broadband viscoelastic spectroscopy. Laudau's theory predicts a negative stiffness in the vicinity of the Curie point in ferroelastic system. Softening in bulk modulus and negative Poisson's ratio have been observed in the vicinity of the Curie point of BaTiO3 ceramics. Effects are prominent under electrical short-circuit conditions at low deformation frequencies and excitation strain. Damping curve shows a peak near the Curie point, which magnitude is proportional to thermal rate and inverse of frequency. Anelastic anomalies (sharp variations in modulus and damping with temperature) were observed in tetragonal BaTiO3 under small excitation strain (< 10 -5) after enough aging was performed below the Curie point. Anomalies disappeared if enough aging is performed above the Curie point. Sharp low frequency dissipative effects (damping peaks sharper than Debye peaks) were also observed in tetragonal phase of BaTiO3 after aging was performed below the Curie point, but disappeared if aging was performed above the Curie point. Relaxational model cannot account for the anelastic anomalies observed in either temperature domain or frequency domain. Heterogeneity of negative stiffness is considered as a cause, attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism. Viscoelastic, thermal, dielectric properties of doped barium titanate ceramics have been studied. The Curie point has shifted to lower temperature. Softening in bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio are much weaker than in pure BaTiO3. Heterogeneity in composition originated from the so called "core-shell" structure is considered as a cause.

Dong, Liang

181

Impact of critical point on piezoelectric and electrocaloric response in barium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction that the piezoelectric tensor is diverging at the critical point is verified for BaTiO3 (BTO), which is the oldest perovskite structured ferroelectric material with an extremely long and eventful research history. Here we investigate experimentally by dielectric and calorimetric measurements the existence and the position of the critical point in the electric-field-temperature (E-T) phase diagram of BTO in the vicinity of the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition. Measurements of the piezoelectric coefficient d31 as a function of the temperature and the electric field applied along the [001] direction show a critical enhancement of the piezoelectric response in the vicinity of the critical point, in agreement with recent calculations by Porta [J. Phys.: Condens. MatterJCOMEL0953-898410.1088/0953-8984/22/34/345902 22, 345902 (2010)]. The electrocaloric responsivity is found to be enhanced due to the latent heat on the paraelectric to ferroelectric transition locus below the critical point.

Novak, Nikola; Pirc, Raa; Kutnjak, Zdravko

2013-03-01

182

Ultrasound radiation into water by a Lamb wave device using a piezoelectric ceramic plate with spatially varying thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of a Lamb wave device, using an interdigital transducer and a piezoelectric ceramic plate with spatially varying thickness, is investigated both theoretically and experimentally to understand the characteristics of ultrasound radiation into water that accompanies Lamb wave propagation. A new calculation model for Lamb wave propagation in a water-loaded inhomogeneous plate is established and the Lamb wave velocities

Kenji Motegi

1999-01-01

183

Preparation and characterization of Grain-Oriented Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Electrophoresis Deposition Method under A High Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium titanate (BaTiO3) grain-oriented ceramics were prepared using electrophoresis deposition (EPD) method under high magnetic field of 12 T. First, BaTiO3 nanoparticles with high c/a ratio of 1.008 and size of 84 nm were prepared by two-step thermal decomposition method with barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. Using the BaTiO3 slurry, BaTiO3 nanoparticle accumulations were prepared by EPD method under high magnetic field. After binder burnout, the accumulations were sintered and BaTiO3 grain-oriented ceramics were prepared. Moreover, dielectric properties of their ceramics were investigated

Kita, T.; Kondo, S.; Takei, T.; Kumada, N.; Nakashima, K.; Fujii, I.; Wada, S.; Suzuki, T. S.; Uchikoshi, T.; Sakka, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kawada, S.; Kimura, M.

2011-10-01

184

Complex Electromechanical Coefficients of Piezoelectric Composites: Applications to Passive Vibration Damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified resonance technique was used to measure the complex electromechanical property coefficients of lossy 0-3 composite samples comprised of ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in different polymer matrices. An increase in the loss tangents of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric coefficients was observed near the glass transition temperatures of the polymer phases. In the case of a

A. R. Ramachandran

1992-01-01

185

Temperature dependence of a PZT piezoelectric sensor for Mercury Dust Monitor up to 150 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing a cosmic dust detector for BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission, called Mercury Dust Monitor (MDM). The MDM uses piezoelectric sensors made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics for estimation of dust flux and momentum of incident particles. The PZT sensors of MDM, installed on the surface of a side panel of the MMO without a sunshade, will

Takeo Iwai

2008-01-01

186

High temperature (NaBi)0.48?0.04Bi2Nb2O9-based piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of (LiCe) substitution for A site on the properties of (NaBi)0.48?0.04Bi2Nb2O9 (NB?N)-based ceramics was investigated. The coercive fields (EC) of NB?N)-based ceramics were significantly decreased from 61.0 to 32.5 kV/cm and the Curie temperature (TC) gradually decreases from 820 to 803 C with increasing the (LiCe) modification. The piezoelectric coefficient d33, planar coupling factor kp, and mechanical quality factor Q of (NaBi)0.38(LiCe)0.05?0.14Bi2Nb2O9 ceramic were found to be 27 pC/N, 11.2%, and 2600, respectively, together with the high TC (~809 C) and stable piezoelectric properties, demonstrating that the (LiCe) modified NB?N-based material a promising candidate for high temperature applications.

Gai, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhao, Ming-Lei; Wang, Chun-Ming; Zang, Guo-Zhong; Ming, Bao-Quan; Qi, Peng; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

2006-07-01

187

Phase transition and high piezoelectricity in (Ba,Ca)(Ti1-xSnx)O3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase structure in the (Ba,Ca)(Ti1-xSnx)O3 lead-free ceramics was evolved from inceptive orthorhombic (O) at 0 <= x <= 0.04 to a two-phase coexistence of pseudocubic-orthorhombic (PC-O) at 0.06 <= x <= 0.10 and further to a multiphase coexistence of rhombohedral-pseudocubic-orthorhombic (R-PC-O) at x = 0.11. Due to the multiphase coexistence of R-PC-O at room temperature proved by X-ray diffraction, dielectric constant ?r and differential scanning calorimetry, an ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 670 pC/N and electrostrain 0.061% were achieved. The high d33 over 520 pC/N was stabilized in a wide compositional range of 0.07 <= x <= 0.11, suggesting that (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 ceramics are a promising candidate for the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Zhu, Li-Feng; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Kun; Zhao, Lei; Yao, Fang-Zhou; Han, Xi; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Li, Jing-Feng

2013-08-01

188

Energy conversion with Zr-rich lead zirconate/titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The conversion efficiency and power output to convert thermal energy to electrical energy by means of a ferroelectric{endash}ferroelectric phase transition has been investigated. The material used was the ceramic mixed system lead zirconate/titanate (PZT) with a very Zr-enriched composition (Zr/Ti=97/3{percent}). We have studied the performance dependence on sample thickness and working frequency, the main relevant parameters for a given PZT composition. The observed optimum values of efficiency and power output are analyzed in terms of the two main characteristic relaxation times of the process, the thermal time (sample thickness dependent) and the electric time (thickness independent). Possible ways of improving the overall performance are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Duan, N.; Cereceda, N.; Noheda, B.; Raul Fernandez-del-Castillo, J.; Gonzalo, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

1997-09-01

189

Electric field induced phase transition of antiferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The electric field induced phase transition behavior of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate (PLZTS) ceramics was investigated. PLZTS undergoes a tetragonal antiferroelectric (AFE{sub Tet}) to rhombohedral ferroelectric (FE{sub Rh}) phase transition with the application of an electric field. The volume increase associated with this antiferroelectric (AFE){endash}ferroelectric (FE) phase transition plays an important role with respect to actuator applications. This volume increase involves an increase in both transverse and longitudinal strains. The E field at which the transverse strain increases is accompanied by an abrupt jump in polarization. The longitudinal strain, however, lags behind this polarization jump exhibiting a slight decrease at the onset of phase switching. This decoupling was related to the preferentially oriented AFE domain configuration, with its tetragonal c-axis perpendicular to the applied electric field. It is suggested that phase switching involves multiple steps involving both structural transformation and domain reorientation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Park, S.; Pan, M.; Markowski, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Cross, L.E. [Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

1997-08-01

190

Pressure-temperature phase diagram for a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.  

SciTech Connect

Structural phase transformations between ferroelectric (FE), antiferroelectric (AFE), and paraelectric (FE) phases are frequently observed in the zirconia-rich phase region on the lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) phase diagram. Since the free energy difference among these phases is small, phase transformation can be easily induced by temperature, pressure and electric field. These induced transformation characteristics have been used for many practical applications. This study focuses on a hydrostatic pressure induced FE-to-AFE phase transformation in a tin modified PZT ceramic (PSZT). The relative phase stability between FE and AFE phases is determined by the dielectric permittivity measurement as a function of temperature from -60 C to 125 C. A pressure-temperature phase diagram for the PSZT system will be presented.

Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

2010-06-01

191

Domain structure-property relations in lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The domain structure and dielectric properties as a function of lanthanum concentration and Zr/Ti ratio have been investigated in rhombohedral and tetragonal lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, with increasing lanthanum concentration and Zr/Ti ratio, the long-range-ordered domains (macrodomains) reduced in width, initially being fine scale (20 nm) striations, but eventually forming a {open_quote}{open_quote}mottled{close_quote}{close_quote} contrast (5 nm), characteristic of a relaxor. Relative permittivity measurements as a function of temperature revealed a correlation between broadening of the dielectric maxima and the onset of relaxor-type behavior with the appearance of the striations and mottled (relaxor) contrast, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

Akbas, M.A.; Reaney, I.M.; Lee, W.E. [Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

1996-09-01

192

Feasibility study of shape control with zero applied voltage utilizing hysteresis in strain-electric field relationship of piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To keep a shape of a smart structure controlled by piezoelectric actuators attached to it, electric voltage must be also continued to be applied. To reduce amount of electricity usage, a new control method is proposed. In this method strains of the piezoelectric actuators generated by pulses of voltages are kept with zero/less applied voltage by utilizing the hysteresis in strain versus electric field relationship effectively. In this paper to examine feasibility of this control method residual strains of piezoelectric ceramic plates are measured for combinations of amplitude and period of the applied pulse of voltages. Moreover, a cantilever beam on which a piezoelectric ceramic plate is bonded is made as a simple example of applications to the smart structures, and its deformation behavior after a pulse of voltage is observed. The result shows that the present control method is useful from viewpoint of applied energy, although the strain generated by the piezoelectric actuator is less than the conventional control method where the electric voltage is continued to be applied.

Ikeda, T.; Takahashi, T.

2013-04-01

193

Investigation on piezoelectric ceramics with high d33, d 31 for a new type of rotational stepper motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quarternary system ceramic with high piezoelectric constants, particularly a high d31 and high d33, was studied. The composition of the materials is PMN-PNN-PZT doped with oxides of Sr, Bi, Sn and La etc. The properties of the materials are as follow: d33=(600-750)10-12C\\/N, d31=(-300-398)10-12C\\/N, Kp=0.68-0.75. By using this material, a new type of rotational stepper motor, a piezoelectric electro-rheological motor

Zhilun Gui; Wei Zhong; Shuxiang Dong; Longtu Li; Xiaowen Zhang

1994-01-01

194

Dielectric, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties of lead zirconate-lead zinc niobate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on piezoelectric and pyroelectric ceramics consisting of antiferroelectric lead zirconate (PZ) and relaxor ferroelectric lead zinc niobate (PZN) studied from an application viewpoint of the field-induced antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition. An antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition. An antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase boundary exists in PbZr{sub x}(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 1 {minus} x}O{sub 3}(PZZN-1000x) close to x = 0.93 to 0.94 at room temperature. A new ferroelectric rhombohedral phase change, F{alpha}-F'{alpha} at low temperature is found and studied by the temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient. Electrical poling in these ceramics is easy, and the coercive field E{sub c} {approx} 8 to 10 kV/cm is rather low. Samples with compositions in the range PZZN-86 to PZZN-92 have a large electromechanical coupling constant, k (k, and k {sub 15} {approx} 50% to 60%), and a low dielectric constant, {epsilon}{sub s}, ({epsilon}{sup T}{sub 33}/{epsilon}{sub 0} = 260 to 320, {epsilon}{sup T}{sub 11} {epsilon}{sub 0} = 380). PZZN ceramics appear to be potential candidates for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers used in the thickness shear mode. The pyroelectric figure of merit (F{sub v}) of these ceramics is comparable to the values published for the PZT-based or PbTiO{sub 3}-based materials.

Takenaka, T. (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Bhalla, A.S.; Cross, L.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.); Sakata, K. (Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

1989-06-01

195

Piezoelectric Properties of Low Loss and Low Temperature sintering PMN-PNN-PZT Ceramics According to the Amount of MnO2 Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop the composition ceramics for low loss and low temperature sintering multilayer piezoelectric actuator, PMN-PNN-PZT ceramics were fabricated using Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 as sintering aids, and their piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics were investigated according to the amount of MnO2 addition. At the sintering temperature of 900 , density and mechanical quality factor (Qm) of

Juhyun Yoo; Sangho Lee; Lakhoon Hwang; Yeongho Jeong

2006-01-01

196

Interdependence of phase chemistry, microstructure, and oxygen fugacity in titanate nuclear waste ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Titanate ceramic waste forms were prepared using several combinations of calcination atmosphere (N{sub 2}, N{sub 2} {minus} 3.5% H{sub 2},h{sub 2}) and metallic redox buffers (Ni,Fe,Ti,Al) to examine the dependence of microstructure and durability upon oxygen activity. It was found that the microstructures and phase assemblages were mostly insensitive to the fabrication method, although in detail systematic changes were recognized. The correlation of aqueous durability with oxygen fugacity was not straightforward because of density variations in the hot-pressed ceramics. These fluctuations in density dominated the dissolution characteristics of the waste forms and sometimes obscured the more subtle changes associated with redox potential. It is concluded that although the best durability is achieved at lower fugacities (i.e., Ti metal buffer and H{sub 2} calcination atmosphere), a satisfactory product can be produced using any of the preparative routes examined, provided the material is completely densified.

Buykx, W.J.; Levins, D.M.; Smith, K.L.; Stevens, G.T.; Watson, K.G.; White, T.J. (Advanced Materials Program, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (AU)); Smart, R. (School of Chemical Technology, South Australian Institute of Technology, Ingle Farm, South Australia 5098 (AU)); Weedon, D. (Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067 (AU))

1990-05-01

197

Prototyping of radially oriented piezoelectric ceramic-polymer tube composites using fused deposition and lost mold processing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric tube composite hydrophones of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed using Fused Deposition (FD) and lost mold processing (LMP). In this work, a new series of thermoplastic binder formulations, named the ECG series, were developed for the FD process. The ECG-9 formulation exhibits mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties suitable for the Fused Deposition of functional lead zirconate titanate ceramic devices. This binder consists of 100 parts (by weight) Vestoplast 408, 20 parts Escorez 2520, 15 parts Vestowax A-227, and 5 parts Indopol H-1500. Oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, stearic acid, and stearyl alcohol (in toluene) were tested for use as a dispersant in the PZT/ECG-9 system. It was found that stearic acid adsorbs the most onto PZT powder, adsorbing 8.1 mg/m2. Using stearic acid, solutions of increasing concentration (5.0--50.0 g/l) were measured for adsorption. It was found that 30.0 g/l is the minimum concentration necessary for optimum surface coverage. The surfactant-coated powder was compounded with ECG-9 binder to create a 54 vol.% mix. The mix was extruded using a single screw extrusion apparatus into continuous lengths (>30 m) of 1.78 mm diameter filament. Fused Deposition was used to create composite designs of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity. After sintering, samples exhibit a sintered density greater than 97%. Sanders Prototyping (SPI) was used to manufacture molds for use with LMP techniques. Molds of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed. The molds were infiltrated with a 55 vol.% aqueous based PZT slurry. The parts were subjected to a binder decomposition cycle, followed by sintering. Resultant samples were highly variable due to random macro-pores present in the samples after sintering. The resultant preforms were embedded in epoxy, and polished to dimensions of 8.0 mm inside diameter (ID), 14.0 mm outside diameter (OD), and 10.0 mm length (l) the OD and l dimensions are accurate to +/--2%, while the ID is accurate to +/--5%. Samples were corona poled, and the electromechanical properties were evaluated. Dielectric constant (K), hydrostatic charge coefficients (dh), and radial displacements (ur) were measured. Of the seven composite types studied, the FD-based composites with 3-2 connectivity exhibited the highest average dh of 42.4 pCN. The same 3-2 composites exhibited the highest dhgh (FOM) of 140 fm2/N.

McNulty, Thomas Francis

198

The role of interfaces on an apparent grain size effect on the dielectric properties for ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the effect of interfaces (and thus internal surface area effects) on the value of dielectric constant (K?) calculated from capacitance and geometry data for sub-micron barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics prepared with decreasing grain size (and grain volumes). A series model is proposed to explain the decreasing values of apparent K? obtained for grain sizes below 0.5 ?m. A

M. H. Frey; Z. Xu; P. Han; D. A. Payne

1998-01-01

199

The low-frequency Young modulus and internal friction in Pb-Ca and Pb-Zr titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the elastic moduli of Ca-modified lead titanate ceramics, as a function of temperature, have been made for frequencies in the range 0.2-20 Hz and for poling fields in the range 0022-3727\\/31\\/1\\/016\\/img5, using the three-point bending method. The results indicate that there are extrinsic contributions to the elastic modulus due to microstructure and polarization processes in the samples, with

B. Jimnez; J. M. Vicente

1998-01-01

200

Raman spectroscopy investigation of the phase transition sequence in lanthanum-modified high zirconium -content lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase-transition sequence in lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics with between 0 and 4 at.% lanthanum and a Zr\\/Ti ratio of 92\\/8, (PLZT 100\\/92\\/8), has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. An antiferroelectric (AFE)-two ferroelectric (FR(LT)) and (FR(HT)) and paraelectric (Pc) phase sequence was confirmed for x<1 at.% La. For x>1%, the coexistence of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric

G. Kugel; H. Hassan; J. Handerek; Z. Ujma

1996-01-01

201

Self-irradiation damage of a curium-doped titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich high level nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the polyphase titanate ceramic containing sodium-rich simulated high-level nuclear waste doped with 0.69 wt% of ²⁴⁴Cm to accelerate long-term self-irradiation due to α decays. α autoradiography showed that α emissions were almost uniformly distributed throughout the curium-doped samples on a < 20μm scale although micropore surfaces and titanium oxide agglomerates were free of α emitting nuclides.

T. Miyazaki; T. J. White; H. Mitamura; S. Matsumoto; Kiyoshi Nukaga; Yoshihiro Togashi; Tamio Sagawa; Shingo Tashiro; Desmond M. Levins; Akira Kikuchi

1990-01-01

202

High-load resistors of doped titanate ceramics showing PTCR behavior in the entire temperature range of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic high-load resistors of donor-doped strontium titanate were manufactured and successfully tested. The samples do not only withstand short high-load pulses (10ms) with a power loss of ?1MW, but also show a PTCR behavior in the entire temperature range of operation. Compared to the common BaTiO3-PTCR devices, the samples do not exhibit a grain-boundary controlled resistance, that results in thermo-mechanical

Ralf Moos; Marco Fandel; Wolfgang Schfer

1999-01-01

203

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Size Effects in Fine-Grained Morphotropic-Phase-Boundary Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing, electromechanical properties, and micro- structure of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics over the grain-size range of 0.1-10 m were studied. Using measure- ments over a large temperature range (15-600 K), the rela- tive role of extrinsic contribution (i.e., domain-wall motion) was deduced to be influenced strongly by the grain size, particularly for donor-doped PZT. Analytical transmission electron microscopy

Clive A. Randall; Namchul Kim; John-Paul Kucera; Wenwu Cao; Thomas R. Shrout

2005-01-01

204

Fracture mechanisms in ferroelectric-ferroelastic lead zirconate titanate (Zr:Ti = 0. 54:0. 46) ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture toughness, {ital K}{sub IC}, of a single-phase commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic of tetragonal structure was measured using the single edge notched beam method above and below the Curie temperature. Domain switching (poling) under electrical and mechanical loading was examined using x-ray diffraction. Surface grinding, electrical poling, and mechanical poling caused crystallographic texture. Similar texture, indicative of domain

Karun Mehta; Anil V. Virkar

1990-01-01

205

Influence of lanthanum doping on the dielectric, ferroelectric and relaxor behaviour of barium bismuth titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium lanthanum bismuth titanate (Ba1-(3/2)xLaxBi4Ti4O15, x = 0-0.4) ceramics were fabricated using the powders synthesized via the solid-state reaction route. X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the above compositions to be monophasic and belonged to the m = 4 member of the Aurivillius family of oxides. The effect of the partial presence of La3+ on Ba2+ sites on the microstructure, dielectric and relaxor behaviour of BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT) ceramics was investigated. For the compositions pertaining to x <= 0.1, the dielectric constant at both room temperature and in the vicinity of the temperature of the dielectric maximum (Tm) of the parent phase (BBT) increased significantly with an increase in x while Tm remained almost constant. Tm shifted towards lower temperatures accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of the dielectric maximum (?m) with an increase in the lanthanum content (0.1 < x <= 0.4). The dielectric relaxation was modelled using the Vogel-Fulcher relation and a decrease in the activation energy for frequency dispersion with increasing x was observed. The frequency dispersion of Tm was found to decrease with an increase in lanthanum doping, and for compositions corresponding to x >= 0.3, Tm was frequency independent. Well-developed P(polarization)-E(electric field) hysteresis loops were observed at 150 C for all the samples and the remanent polarization (2Pr) was improved from 6.3 C cm-2 for pure BBT to 13.4 C cm-2 for Ba0.7La0.2Bi4Ti4O15 ceramics. Dc conductivities and associated activation energies were evaluated using impedance spectroscopy.

Kumar, Sunil; Varma, K. B. R.

2009-04-01

206

EPMA and TEM investigations on the interdiffusion layer of the PNN\\/PZT functionally gradient piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compositional profile, distribution of the phases and the ordering behavior in the interdiffusion layer of the PNN\\/PZT functionally gradient piezoelectric ceramics have been investigated by electron probe microbeam analyses (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. The results show that the thickness of the interdiffusion layers (d) for Ni2+, Nb5+, Ti4+ and Zr4+ ions are ordered as dNi2+ >

Xinhua Zhu; Jianmin Zhu; Shunhua Zhou; Qi Li; Zhiguo Liu; Naiben Ming; Zhongyan Meng

2000-01-01

207

Effects of the Calcining Temperature on the Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of 0.55PNN-0.45PZT Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 0.55Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O30.45Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 (0.55PNN-0.45PZT) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reactions. The effects of calcining temperature on the particle size and piezoelectric properties of 0.55PNN-0.45PZT piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. The particle size and crystallinity of 0.55PNN-0.45PZT ceramic powders are influenced by calcining temperature, and therefore the microstructure and final piezoelectric properties of 0.55PNN-0.45PZT are different. The highest piezoelectric properties (d33

Jun Luo; Jinhao Qiu; Kongjun Zhu; Jianzhou Du; Xuming Pang; Hongli Ji

2011-01-01

208

Poling characteristics of PZT\\/epoxy piezoelectric paints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric paints were prepared using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder as a pigment and epoxy resin as a binder. The PZT\\/epoxy composition was adjusted to 92\\/8 or 96\\/4 by weight in the pigment paste (an intermediary product of the final paint), while in the final paint the composition was adjusted to 88\\/12 by weight (53\\/47 by volume) for both

Shigenori Egusa; Naozumi Iwasawa

1993-01-01

209

Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ?32?MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.

2012-08-28

210

Hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ~32 MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

Alvine, K. J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, M. E.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Pitman, S. G.

2012-08-01

211

Crack tip process zone domain switching in a soft lead zirconate titanate ceramics.  

SciTech Connect

Non-180{sup o} domain switching leads to fracture toughness enhancement in ferroelastic materials. Using a high-energy synchrotron X-ray source and a two-dimensional detector in transmission geometry, non-180{sup o} domain switching and crystallographic lattice strains were measured in situ around a crack tip in a soft tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramic. At K{sub 1} = 0.71 MPa m{sup 1/2} and below the initiation toughness, the process zone size, spatial distribution of preferred domain orientations, and lattice strains near the crack tip are a strong function of direction within the plane of the compact tension specimen. Deviatoric stresses and strains calculated using a finite element model and projected to the same directions measured in diffraction correlate with the measured spatial distributions and directional dependencies. Some preferred orientations remain in the crack wake after the crack has propagated; within the crack wake, the tetragonal 0 0 1 axis has a preferred orientation both perpendicular to the crack face and toward the crack front.

Jones, J. L.; Motahari, S. M.; Varlioglu, M.; Lienert, U.; Bernier, J. V.; Hoffman, M.; Ustundag, E.; Univ. of Florida; Iowa State Univ.; The Univ. of New South Wales

2007-09-01

212

Strongly enhanced incorporation of oxygen into barium titanate based multilayer ceramic capacitors using water vapor  

SciTech Connect

The reoxidation of sintered BaTiO{sub 3}-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is currently an empirically determined, but poorly understood, procedure. In this work, the incorporation of oxygen into BaTiO{sub 3}-based MLCCs has been studied by means of isotope exchange annealing ({sup 18}O{sub 2}/{sup 16}O{sub 2}, {sup 1}H{sub 2}{sup 18}O/{sup 1}H{sub 2}{sup 16}O or {sup 2}H{sub 2}{sup 16}O/{sup 1}H{sub 2}{sup 16}O) and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Oxygen isotope profiles in the barium titanate dielectric can be described by a bulk diffusion coefficient D* and a surface exchange coefficient k*. The values obtained for k* indicate that oxygen incorporation from H{sub 2}O is much faster than from dry O{sub 2}; it thus plays the key role in the reoxidation process.

Kessel, M.; De Souza, R. A.; Martin, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Yoo, H.-I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-12

213

Effects of compositional modification in lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate ceramics on electric energy storage properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of compositional modifications on the antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) transition of lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate, (Pb1-3x/2Lax)(Zr1-v-zSnvTiz)O3 ceramics were used to optimize this material for energy storage. The experimental results show that an increase of Sn4+ respect to Ti4+ increases the coercive field of AFE-FE transition and keeps the hysteresis at the minimal level. This increases both the energy density of material and energy efficiency relative to a linear dielectric. Another advantage of Sn4+ addition was a polarization increase at the switching field. The substitution of Zn4+ for Sn4+ at fixed Ti4+ concentration of 0.1 was, however, undesirable for energy storage applications since this decreased the forward switching field and increased the hysteresis. This lowered both the energy density of the material and energy efficiency. Finally, addition of La3+ was performed and slim hysteresis loops were obtained resulting in energy efficiency of 80.1%. However, the slanted hysteresis behavior with La3+ results in a lower value of the maximum stored energy.

Jo, Hwan R.; Lynch, Christopher S.

2013-04-01

214

Influence of sintering temperature on piezoelectric properties of (K 0.4425 Na 0.52 Li 0.0375 )(Nb 0.8925 Sb 0.07 Ta 0.0375 )O 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructure characteristics, phase transition, and electrical properties of (K0.4425Na0.52Li0.0375) (Nb0.8925Sb0.07Ta0.0375)O3 (KNLNST) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics prepared by normal sintering were investigated with an emphasis on the influence\\u000a of sintering temperature. The microstructure and piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties were investigated,\\u000a with a special emphasis on the influence of sintering temperature from 1,100 to 1,140C. Orthorhombic phases mainly exist\\u000a in the ceramics

Xuming Pang; Jinhao Qiu; Kongjun Zhu; Bin Shao

215

Recurrent fuzzy neural network control for piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor drive.  

PubMed

In this study, a recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) controller is proposed to control a piezoelectric ceramic linear ultrasonic motor (LUSM) drive system to track periodic reference trajectories with robust control performance. First, the structure and operating principle of the LUSM are described in detail. Second, because the dynamic characteristics of the LUSM are nonlinear and the precise dynamic model is difficult to obtain, a RFNN is proposed to control the position of the moving table of the LUSM to achieve high precision position control with robustness. The back propagation algorithm is used to train the RFNN on-line. Moreover, to guarantee the convergence of tracking error for periodic commands tracking, analytical methods based on a discrete-type Lyapunov function are proposed to determine the varied learning rates of the RFNN. Then, the RFNN is implemented in a PC-based computer control system, and the LUSM is driven by a unipolar switching full bridge voltage source inverter using LC resonant technique. Finally, the effectiveness of the RFNN-controlled LUSM drive system is demonstrated by some experimental results. Accurate tracking response and superior dynamic performance can be obtained because of the powerful on-line learning capability of the RFNN controller. Furthermore, the RFNN control system is robust with regard to parameter variations and external disturbances. PMID:11477782

Lin, F J; Wai, R J; Shyu, K K; Liu, T M

2001-07-01

216

High magnetoelectric effect in laminated composites of giant magnetostrictive alloy and lead-free piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composites with all phases environmentally friendly were prepared by sandwiching one layer of thickness-polarized (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramic disk between two layers of thickness-magnetized Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 giant magnetostrictive alloy disk along the thickness direction. The composites exhibited the maximum ME voltage coefficient of 40.7 mV/Oe with a flat response in the measured frequency range of 0.1-20 kHz under a dc magnetic bias of 5 kOe. The induced ME voltage showed an extremely linear relationship to the applied ac magnetic field with amplitude varying from 310-5 to 10 Oe over a broad range of dc magnetic bias of 0-5.5 kOe. The high ME effect was analyzed and found to be comparable to most major lead-based ME composites. The present study opens up possibilities for developing green ME devices.

Jia, Yanmin; Or, Siu Wing; Wang, Jie; Chan, Helen Lai Wa; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

2007-05-01

217

Piezoresponse of Nb-Doped PZT Ceramic and its Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, modified lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramics with a composition Zr\\/Ti=53\\/47 containing 1 mole% Nb were prepared by conventional ceramic technology sintering powder compacts. Modified ceramics were explored as a function of firing temperature to acquire exceedingly good piezoelectric characterizations. Under the processing conditions, calcined at 850degC for 2 h, and then sintered at 1250degC for 2 h,

Bing Huei Chen; Long Wu; Yuan Bin Chen

2007-01-01

218

Synthesis of Anisotropic Lead Titanate Powders for Templated Grain Growth of Textured Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Needle-shaped PbTiO3 (PT) template particles were successfully synthesized using two different types of approaches, molten salt synthesis (MSS) and thermal synthesis method. In eutectic NaCl-KCl molten salt system, homogeneous and nonagglomerated needle-shaped PT particles were produced from PbO and needle-like TiO2 compound heated at 800-850C for 2 h. The effect of heating temperature on the morphology of formed powders was studied in order to identify the optimum processing parameters. The template formation mechanism is discussed. Using thermal synthesis method, comparable needle-shaped PT crystalline particles were also obtained in one step. Plate-shaped PT powders were derived via flux synthesis. The effect of additives such as MnCl2 and LiF on the morphology of derived PT was studied. Adding a certain amount of MnCl2 led to the formation of well-defined plate-shaped PT particles. The structure and morphology of synthesized powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).

Ma, S.; Fuh, J. Y. H.; Zhang, Y. F.; Lu, L.

219

Study of global and local crystallography at the domain boundaries of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable automated orientation mapping of 90 domains in a tetragonal perovskite has been achieved for the first time using both EBSD and TEM-Kikuchi pattern analysis. This has been used to compare local measurements of c/a ratios in PZT with global measurements by X-ray diffraction. The local c/a rations are in broad agreement with the global measurements, but further work is needed to determine whether the small discrepancies are real local variations or are caused by experimental factors.

Farooq, M. U.; Villaurrutia, R.; MacLaren, I.; Kungl, H.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Fundenberger, J.-J.; Bouzy, E.

2008-08-01

220

Enhanced piezoelectricity and nature of electric-field induced structural phase transformation in textured lead-free piezoelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter provides a comparative description of the properties of textured and randomly oriented poly-crystalline lead-free piezoelectric 0.93(Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)-0.07BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) ceramics. A high longitudinal piezoelectric constant of (d33) ~ 322 pC/N was obtained in (001)PC textured NBT-7BT ceramics, which is almost ~2 times the d33 coefficient reported for randomly oriented ceramics of the same composition. In situ neutron diffraction experiments revealed that characteristically different structural responses are induced in textured and randomly oriented NBT-BT ceramics upon application of electric fields (E), which are likely related to the varying coherence lengths of polar nanoregions and internal stresses induced by domain switching.

Maurya, Deepam; Pramanick, Abhijit; An, Ke; Priya, Shashank

2012-04-01

221

The effects of porosity, electrode and barrier materials on the conductivity of piezoelectric ceramics in high humidity and dc electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolonged operation of piezoelectric ceramic devices under high dc electric fields promotes leakage currents between the electrodes. This paper investigates the effects of ceramic porosity, edge conduction and electrode materials and geometry in the development of low resistance conduction paths through the ceramic. Localized changes in the ceramic structure and corresponding microscopic breakdown sites are shown to be associated with leakage currents and breakdown processes resulting from prolonged operation in harsh environments. The role of barrier coatings in mitigating the effects of humidity is studied, and results are presented on improved performance using composite diamond-like carbon/polymer coatings. In contrast to the changes in the electrical properties of the ceramic, the measurements of the piezoelectric properties showed no significant effect of humidity.

Weaver, P. M.; Cain, M. G.; Stewart, M.; Anson, A.; Franks, J.; Lipscomb, I. P.; McBride, J. W.; Zheng, D.; Swingler, J.

2012-04-01

222

High piezoelectric properties and domain configuration in BaTiO3 ceramics obtained through the solid-state reaction route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaTiO3 ceramics with a high piezoelectric coefficient have been successfully obtained through the conventional solid-state reaction route starting from ordinary BaCO3 and TiO2 powders. The ceramics sintered at 1210 C exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties of d33 = 419 pC N-1 and kp = 0.453 with tan ? = 1.36% at room temperature. The crystallographic structure, the microstructure and the domain pattern were investigated. It has been revealed that d33 increases and the average domain width in the poled BaTiO3 ceramics remains approximately constant at around 240 nm with the decrease in the average grain size from 9.5 to 2.0 m. From the analysis, we suggest that the largeness of the domain wall is an important factor, which significantly influences the piezoelectric properties.

Shao, Shoufu; Zhang, Jialiang; Zhang, Zong; Zheng, Peng; Zhao, Minglei; Li, Jichao; Wang, Chunlei

2008-06-01

223

Piezoelectric Properties of LiSbO3-Modified (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric (1-x)(K0.48Na0.52)NbO3-xLiSbO3 [(1-x)KNN-xLS] ceramics were prepared by conventional sintering. A morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases was identified in the composition range of 0.04ceramics near the MPB exhibit a strong compositional dependence, and good piezoelectric properties, temperature stability, and aging characteristics. It was found that the samples with 5 mol % LS exhibited enhanced electrical properties (d33 262 pC/N, kp 46%, Tc 373 C, To--t 60 C). These results show that (1-x)KNN-xLS ceramic is a promising lead-free piezoelectric material.

Wu, Jiagang; Wang, Yuanyu; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Ping; Wu, Lang; Wu, Wenjuan

2007-11-01

224

Piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics of low temperature sintering Pb(Ni 1\\/3 Nb 2\\/3 )O 3 Pb(Mn 1\\/3 Nb 2\\/3 )O 3 Pb(Zr 1\\/2 Ti 1\\/2 )O 3 ceramics for multilayer piezoelectric actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop the composition ceramics for multilayer piezoelectric actuator, PNN substituted PMN-PZT\\u000a ceramics were fabricated using Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 as sintering aids, and their piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics were investigated. With the increase of the amount\\u000a of PNN substitution, dielectric constant (?r), electromechanical coupling factor (k\\u000a p), and piezoelectric constant (d\\u000a 33) of specimens showed

Juhyun Yoo; Jungmin Hwang; Sangho Lee; Kwanghyun Chung; Hyunggyu Lee

2006-01-01

225

A phenomenological model for pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterize the hysteretic characteristics between the output displacement and applied voltage of pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators (PCSAs), this paper considers that a linear force and a hysteretic force will be generated by a linear extension and a hysteretic extension, respectively, due to the applied voltage to a pre-stressed PCSA and the total force will result in the forced vibration of the single-degree-of-freedom (DOF) system composed of the mass of the pre-stressed PCSA and the equivalent spring and damper of the pre-stressed mechanism, which lets the PCSA be pre-stressed to endure enough tension. On this basis, the phenomenological model to characterize the hysteretic behavior of the pre-stressed PCSA is put forward by using the Bouc-Wen hysteresis operator to model the hysteretic extension. The parameter identification method in a least-squares sense is established by identifying the parameters for the linear and hysteretic components separately with the step and periodic responses of the pre-stressed PCSA, respectively. The performance of the proposed phenomenological model with the corresponding parameter identification method is experimentally verified by the established experimental set-up. The research results show that the phenomenological model for the pre-stressed PCSA with the corresponding parameter identification method can accurately portray the hysteretic characteristics of the pre-stressed PCSA. In addition, the phenomenological model for PCSAs can be deduced from the phenomenological model for pre-stressed PCSAs by removing the terms related to the pre-stressed mechanisms.

Wang, D. H.; Zhu, W.

2011-03-01

226

Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites for weigh-in-motion sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric materials produce a voltage proportional to an applied pressure. Using this phenomenon, piezoelectric polymer sensors are already being used for collecting traffic data including weight-in-motion, measuring speeds and counting axles. The polymer sensors are usually in the form of a long tape or cable embedded within long blocks of elastomeric material. These sensor assemblies are then installed into grooves,

Rajesh K. Panda; Patrick J. Szary; Ali Maher; Ahmad Safari

1998-01-01

227

Lead Free Piezoelectric Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead oxide based ferroelectrics, represented by lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3) or PZT) are the most widely used materials for piezoelectric actuators, sensors and transducers due to their excellent piezoelectric properties. Considering lead toxicity, there is interest in developing piezoelectric materials that are biocompatible and environmentally friendlier. The low density of non-lead based materials can also be an advantage in

M. Demartin Maeder; D. Damjanovic; N. Setter

2004-01-01

228

Thickness dependence of the poling and current-voltage characteristics of paint films made up of lead zirconate titanate ceramic powder and epoxy resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially prepared paint made up of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder and epoxy resin was coated on an aluminum plate and was cured at room temperature, thus forming the paint film of 25300 ?m thickness with a PZT volume fraction of 53%. The paint film was then poled at room temperature, and the poling behavior was determined by

Shigenori Egusa; Naozumi Iwasawa

1995-01-01

229

Plate-like structure health monitoring based on ultrasonic guided wave technology by using bonded piezoelectric ceramic wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric ceramic wafers are applied for the excitation and detection of ultrasonic guided waves to determine the health state of plate-like structures. Two PZT wafers, whose diameter is 11mm and thickness is 0.4mm respectively, are bonded permanently on the surface of a 1mm thick aluminum plate. One of these wafers is actuated by sinusoidal tone burst at various frequencies ranging from 100kHz to 500kHz, the other one is used as a receiver for acquiring ultrasonic guided wave signals. According to the amplitudes and shapes of these received signals, guided wave modes and their proper frequency range by using these wafers are determined. For the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, the Daubechies wavelet of order 40 is used for signal denoising as the mother wavelet. Furthermore, the detection of an artificial cylindrical through-hole defect is achieved by using S0 at 300kHz. Experimental results show that it is feasible and effective to detect defects in plate-like structures based on ultrasonic guided wave technology by using bonded piezoelectric ceramic wafers.

Liu, Zenghua; Zhao, Jichen; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

2008-11-01

230

Piezoelectric activity of relaxor-PbTiO(3) based single crystals and polycrystalline ceramics at cryogenic temperatures: Intrinsic and extrinsic contributions.  

PubMed

The piezoelectric activity in [001] poled Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) crystals was investigated as a function of composition and temperature. The level of intrinsic andor extrinsic contribution to the total piezoelectric activity was analyzed using Rayleigh method. The results revealed that though 95% of the observed piezoelectric activity in rhombohedral crystals was intrinsic (lattice), the properties decreased significantly with decreasing temperature. At -150 degrees C, the piezoelectric response decreased by 40%-55% for the compositions close to a morphotropic phase boundary (rhombohedral-monoclinic or monoclinic-tetragonal), while decreasing only 20%-30% for the compositions in the rhombohedral region. The piezoelectric properties of Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) polycrystalline ceramics were found to decrease by 75%, showing both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions play important role in the reduction in piezoelectricity at cryogenic temperatures for ceramics. PMID:20531980

Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R

2010-05-13

231

A comparative study of viscous polymer processed ceramics based on aqueous and non-aqueous binder systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is an important piezoelectric material which has wide range of applications as sensors, actuators and transducers. Various forms are required for different devices applications. In this work, extrusion and press forming of PZT ceramic rods and thick films produced via a viscous polymer processing (VPP) route have been investigated. The relationships between the rheology, microstructure and

B. Su; T. W. Button

2009-01-01

232

Microstructure-properties relationships in samarium modified lead titanate piezoceramicsII. Dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the microstructural parameters on the extrinsic contributions to the electromechanical behavior of samarium modified lead titanate piezoceramics is studied. A complete structural, compositional and microstructural characterization has been carried out to this purpose.The electromechanical coupling factors kp and k31 show strong dependence on the microstructure. There is not any important microstructural dependence of the electromechanical properties related

J. Ricote; C. Alemany; L. Pardo; C. E. Millar

1996-01-01

233

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi2O3 added (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O3 ceramics sintered at low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, in order to develop low temperature sintering ceramics for a thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer, (Pb,Ca,Sr)(Ti,Mn,Sb)O3 ceramics were fabricated using Na2CO3, Li2CO3, MnO2, and Bi2O3 as sintering aids at 870, 900, and 930 C. Their respective dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of Bi2O3 addition. At the sintering temperature of 900 C, the optimum value was shown for the density of 6.94 g/cm3, thickness vibration mode electromechanical coupling factor (henceforth, kt) of 0.497, thickness vibration mode mechanical quality factor (henceforth, Qmt) of 3162, and dielectric constant (henceforth, ?r) of 209 for thickness mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer application.

Kim, Dohyung; Yoo, Juhyun; Kim, Insung; Song, Jaesung

2009-03-01

234

Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of Pb(Ni13\\/Nb23\\/)O3 Pb(Mn13\\/Nb23\\/)O3Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics for piezoelectric transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the structural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Pb[(Ni13\\/Nb23\\/)x - (Mn13\\/Nb23\\/)0.09-x (Zr0.505Ti0.495)0.91]O3 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05) system ceramics were investigated to develop the composition for piezoelectric transformers. All the specimens were sintered at 1250C and their physical properties were measured, and the results are as follows; With increasing PNN substitution for PMN-PZT system, the

S. M. Hwang; J. H. Yoo; L. H. Hwang; J. I. Hong; S. R. Ryu; S. I. Lee; M. S. Lee

2002-01-01

235

Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Low-Temperature-Sintering Pb(Mg1\\/2W1\\/2)O3Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Ceramics for Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop low-temperature-sintering ceramics for a multilayer piezoelectric actuator, Pb(Mg1\\/2W1\\/2)O3-Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMW-PNN-PZT) ceramics were fabricated using Li2CO3 and CaCO3 as sintering aids and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated in relation to the amount of Bi substitution. Piezoelectric actuators require both a high piezoelectric constant (d33) and a high electromechanical coupling factor (kp). Accordingly, in

Juhyun Yoo; Kyungjin Yoo; Hyunseok Lee; Sangho Lee; Kwanghyun Chung; Hyeunggyu Lee; Hyungwon Kang

2005-01-01

236

Effects of electric field and biaxial flexure on the failure of poled lead zirconate titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable design of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezo stack actuators demands that several issues, including electromechanical coupling and ceramic strength-size scaling, be scrutinized. This study addresses those through the use of ball-on-ring (BoR) biaxial flexure strength tests of a PZT piezoelectric material that is concurrently subjected to an electric field. The Weibull strength distributions and fracture surfaces were examined. The

Hong Wang; Andrew A Wereszczak

2008-01-01

237

Local ferroelectric properties in polyvinylidene fluoride/barium lead zirconate titanate nanocomposites: Interface effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric composites consisting of P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer matrix with barium lead zirconate titanate ceramic inclusions were addressed both experimentally using piezoresponse force microscopy technique and theoretically applying the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire formalism. A transient region with a width of approximately 40 nm has been found at the interface between the two constituents. It is shown that the piezoresponse in the vicinity of the interface is strongly affected by inhomogeneous stresses originating from an incompatibility of thermal expansion coefficients of PVDF and lead zirconate titanate.

Silibin, M. V.; Solnyshkin, A. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Malinkovich, M. D.; Lupascu, D. C.; Shvartsman, V. V.

2013-10-01

238

Use of sol-gels in the application of ceramic oxide thin films. [Ba titanate; Li niobate; Li tantalate  

SciTech Connect

Single components sols were characterized and used to make thin films on silicon wafers. The empirical equation, d = (2000 log(..mu..) + 350)(w)/sup -0.5/, was obtained, which adequately describes the thickness of the sintered films, independent of the ceramic oxide, solvent, concentration, sol age, and reaction conditions. The single component sols were used to make binary oxide sols - barium titanate, lithium niobate, and lithium tantalate. A barium solution can be added to the titania sol to produce a barium titanate compound of the desired composition, including Ba/sub 2/Ti/sub 9/O/sub 20/ and BaTi/sub 5/O/sub 11/. Mixing a lithium solution into either a niobia or a tantala sol yielded the desired compound along with a heavy metal oxide (either lithium niobate with niobium oxide or lithium tantalate with tantalum oxide). However, dissolving lithium methoxide with the ethoxide of niobium or tantalum in ethanol, prior to hyrolysis, did produce the desired binary oxide (lithium niobate or lithium tantalate) without any uncombined metal oxide. By altering the stoichiometric ratios of the constituent cations, different compounds were produced for dielectric characterization with an AC bridge circuit. In the case of the barium titanates, these calculated constants ranged from a high of 26.0 for TiO/sub 2/, to a low of 11.9 for BaTi/sub 5/O/sub 11/. The range for lithium tantalate was from a high of 21.6 for a stoichimetry of Li/sub 7/TaO/sub 6/, to a low at 8.4 for LiTaO/sub 3/. Lithium niobate ranged from a high at 21.1 for Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/, to a low at 8.9 for Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/ at a stoichimetry of Li/sub 2/Nb/sub 32/O/sub 81/.

Paulson, B.A.

1987-08-01

239

In situ neutron diffraction studies of a commercial, soft lead zirconate titanate ceramic: response to electric fields and mechanical stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural changes in commercial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics (EC-65) under the application of electric fields and mechanical stress were measured using neutron diffraction instruments at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural changes during electric-field application were measured on the WOMBAT beamline at ANSTO and include non-180 domain switching, lattice strains and field-induced phase transformations. Using time-resolved data acquisition capabilities, lattice strains were measured under cyclic electric fields at times as short as 30 ?s. Structural changes including the (002) and (200) lattice strains and non-180 domain switching were measured during uniaxial mechanical compression on the NRSF2 instrument at ORNL. Contraction of the crystallographic polarization axis, (002), and reorientation of non-180 domains occur at lowest stresses, followed by (200) elastic strains at higher stresses.

Pramanick, Abhijit; Prewitt, Anderson D.; Cottrell, Michelle A.; Lee, Wayne; Studer, Andrew J.; An, Ke; Hubbard, Camden R.; Jones, Jacob L.

2010-06-01

240

Manufacture and Cytotoxicity of a Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramic as a Bone Substitute--Consolidation of Porous Lithium Sodium Potassium Niobate by Cold Isostatic Pressing  

PubMed Central

Aim The piezoelectric properties and cytotoxicity of a porous lead-free piezoelectric ceramic for use as a direct bone substitute were investigated. Methodology Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was applied to fabricate porous lithium sodium potassium niobate (Li0.06Na0.5K0.44) NbO3 specimens using a pore-forming method. The morphologies of the CIP-processed specimens were characterized and compared to those of specimens made by from conventional pressing procedures. The effects of the ceramic on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts isolated from the cranium of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were examined by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Results The results showed that CIP enhanced piezoelectricity and biological performance of the niobate specimen, and also promoted an extracellular matrix-like topography of it. In vitro studies showed that the CIP-enhanced material had positive effects on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts. Conclusion Niobate ceramic generated by CIP shows a promise for being a piezoelectric composite bone substitute.

Wang, Qi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Wu; Khoie, Roxanne; Li, Yi-ming; Zhu, Jian-guo; Chen, Zhi-qing

2009-01-01

241

Accurate Characterization And Modeling of Piezoelectric And Electrostrictive Ceramics And Single Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing need for large actuation and a continually increasing variety of applications has seen the use of piezoelectric materials under a growing range of conditions. These include large applied AC fields, DC bias fields, applied stresses as well as a wider range of frequencies and temperatures. Under these conditions the behaviour of the materials becomes non-linear and is not described well by the small signal parameters supplied by material manufacturers. It is therefore necessary to know and understand the behaviour of piezoelectric materials under these conditions. This presentation reviews the work that has been carried out at the Laboratory for Ferroelectric Materials in the Royal Military College of Canada where we have been studying the non-linear properties of piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials by observing their strain, dielectric and elastic behaviour under the various conditions mentioned above.

Mukherjee, Binu

2008-07-01

242

Piezoelectric properties of nonstoichiometric Sr1-xBi2+2x/3Ta2O9 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of poling on the structural, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties has been investigated for sol-gel-derived strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) [Sr1-xBi2+2x/3Ta2O9] ceramics with x=0.0,0.15,0.30,0.45. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties are found to improve with increase in x up to 0.3. Beyond x>0.3 the properties are found to degrade due to the limited solid solubility and the presence of a mixed phase of bismuth tantalate (BiTaO4) is detected with x=0.45. Poling treatment reduces the dielectric dispersion and dielectric loss in the frequency range (0.1-100 kHz). The resonance and antiresonance frequencies increase with increase in x (x=0-0.30), and the corresponding minimum impedance decreases. The measured coupling coefficients (kp) are small (0.0967-0.1) for x=0-0.30, and the electromechanical quality factor (Qm=915) is a maximum for the Sr0.7Bi2.2Ta2O9 composition (x=0.30). The estimated piezoelectric charge coefficient (d31) and piezoelectric voltage coefficient (g31) are 5.2 pC/N and 5.810-3 V m/N, respectively. The positive values of d31 and g31 and the low dielectric permittivity of SBT yield a high value for the hydrostatic coefficients, despite the low charge coefficient of d33=24 pC/N. The maximum values of charge coefficient (dh=34 pC/N) and voltage coefficient (gh=3910-3 V m/N) are obtained for Sr0.7Bi2.2Ta2O9 composition, and the estimated hydrostatic figure of merit (dhgh10-15=1215 m2/N) is high.

Jain, Rajni; Chauhan, Arun Kumar Singh; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.

2005-06-01

243

Acoustical Imaging Using a Leaky Wave Transducer Composed of a Piezoelectric Ceramic Plate and an Acryl Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdigital transducer (IDT) for leaky waves in a layered substrate composed of a piezoelectric ceramic thin plate and an acryl plate is incorporated into a C-mode acoustical imaging system. The transducer performance in the layered structure is described from the viewpoint of ultrasound radiation at an interface between an acryl plate and a water layer. The leaky wave transducer has frequency-dependent radiation angles, corresponding to the leaky wave velocity, under multiple operation modes. The bulk wave direction in a test sample via the longitudinal wave in the water layer is easily controlled by frequency change. A reflection type C-mode acoustical imaging system is successfully demonstrated for nondestructive testing.

Toda, Kohji; Motegi, Kenji

1995-05-01

244

Research on the displacement function and equivalent circuit of circular flexural vibration mode piezoelectric ceramic composite transducers.  

PubMed

Flexural vibration mode piezoelectric ceramic transducers can be used in many application fields because of their ability to develop large displacement at low levels of electrical excitation, or conversely, to generate high output from sources of low mechanical impedance. Many flexural transducers are very thin, and their behavior can be analyzed and predicted accurately by the current theory based on thin-plate assumptions. However, for those flexural transducers with moderate thickness, the thin-plate assumptions are no longer valid. To analyze and predict the behaviors of the flexural transducers with moderate thickness, we must establish a new theory. In this paper, by introducing Mindlin's assumptions and theory, the displacement function and equivalent circuit for circular flexural composite transducers with moderate thickness are derived. Through the displacement function and the equivalent circuit, the vibration characteristics and the electrical impedance of circular flexural composite transducers with moderate thickness can be predicted directly. PMID:23287927

Yihua, Huang; Wenjin, Huang

2013-01-01

245

On the origin of the semiconductivity of ceramic barium-bismuth titanate (IV) doped with iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable change in the electric conductivity of barium-bismuth titanate (IV) when doped with ferric oxide has been observed. In order to explain the origin of its semiconductive properties a substitution model is presented. This model assumes the entrance of Fe3+ ions into the crystalline lattice in three subsequent stages which mutually differ in the lattice position of the introduced

J. Schwarzbach

1967-01-01

246

Effects of ZnO\\/Li 2O codoping on microstructure and piezoelectric properties of low-temperature sintered PMNPNNPZT ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Zr1\\/2Ti1\\/2)O3 (designated as PMNT) piezoelectric ceramics codoping with Zn2+\\/Li+ were prepared and the effects of ZnO\\/Li2O (Z\\/L) additive on microstructure, piezoelectric and dielectric properties were investigated. The results show that the pure perovskite phase is formed and the phase structure changes from tetragonal to rhombohedral with different Z\\/L weight ratios. The Curie temperature Tc, dielectric constant ?, electromechanical coupling factor

Gao Feng; Hong Rongzi; Liu Jiaji; Li Zhen; Tian Chang-sheng

2009-01-01

247

Piezoelectric properties of sol-gel-derived ferroelectric and antiferroelectric thin layers  

SciTech Connect

The piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric thin layers were investigated by interferometry as a function of frequency and dc electric bias. Materials included: a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) with a Zr/Ti ratio of 53/47; a relaxor ferroelectric La-modified PZT with a Zr/Ti ratio of 70/30 and a La content of 7.8 at. %; and antiferroelectric lead zirconate. The hysteretic behavior of the piezoelectric coefficient due to polarization reversal was also studied. The layers were prepared by a sol-gel method, and were found to have properties similar to bulk ceramics. Significant strain levels could be achieved in the materials due to the relatively high electric strengths supported in thin-layer form. Polarization was found to be completely switchable between forward and reverse directions; however, the strain levels generated by switching were found to be inequivalent. In addition, pronounced piezoelectric relaxations and strong piezoelectric losses were observed.

Li, J.; Viehland, D.D.; Tani, T.; Lakeman, C.D.E.; Payne, D.A. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Laboratory and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1994-01-01

248

Influence of a Polyimide Surface Layer on the Piezoelectric Response of Lead--Zirconate--Titanate Cosmic Dust Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of a thermal reflector on the sensitivity of a lead--zirconate--titanate element is studied by bombarding the element with hypervelocity microparticles. The reflector is a 60-?m-thick layer made of polyimide resin that coats the surface of the element. By applying the fast Fourier transform method to data analysis, impact information is obtained through the fundamental resonant component. As a result, the sensitivity of the element is considerably reduced by the reflector. In addition, it is found that the sensitivity is substantially position-independent.

Hattori, Maki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Miyachi, Takashi; Takechi, Seiji; Okudaira, Osamu; Iwai, Takeo; Okada, Nagaya; Sugita, Seiji

2013-02-01

249

Piezoelectric ceramic bimorph coupled to thin metal plate as cooling fan for electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of piezoelectric fans for cooling electronic devices were constructed and tested at 60 Hz, 110 V and 220 V, respectively. The aim of the work is to investigate the possibility of replacing the rotary type of fan in some noise-sensitive electronic devices. Different vibrating metal plates were tested and analyzed theoretically. It is found that the resonant frequency

Ju Hyun Yoo; Jae Il Hong; Wenwn Cao

2000-01-01

250

Simple model for piezoelectric ceramic\\/polymer 1-3 composites used in ultrasonic transducer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is presented for combining parameters of 1-3 ultrasonic composite materials in order to predict ultrasonic characteristics such as velocity, acoustic impedance, electromechanical coupling factor, and piezoelectric coefficients. Hence, the model allows the estimation of resonance frequencies of 1-3 composite transducers. This model has been extended to cover more material parameters, and they are compared to experimental results

H. L. W. Chan; JOSEPH UNSWORTH

1989-01-01

251

Determination of metal impurities in advanced lead zirconate titanate ceramics by axial view mode inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry quantification method for the determination of Al, Ca, Cr Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni, Zn, Ba, K, In and Co in lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) ceramics, modified with strontium and chromium, was developed. Total digestion of ceramics was achieved with a HNO(3), H(2)O(2) and HF (ac) mixture by using a microwave furnace. The sensitivity of the net signal intensity respect to radiofrequency power (P) and nebulizer argon flow (F(N)) variations was strongly dependent of the total excitation energy of line (TEE). For lines with TEE near metastable atoms and ions of argon, an increment of the sensitivities to P and F(N) variation was observed. At robust plasma conditions the matrix effect was reduced for all matrices and analytes considered. The precision of analysis ranged from 3 to 13%, whereas the analytes recoveries in the spiked samples varied, mostly, from 90 to 110%. The detection limits of studied elements were from 0.004 to 10 mg kg(-1). PMID:22608413

Villanueva Tagle, M E; Larrea Marn, M T; Martin Gaviln, O; Durruthy Rodrguez, M D; Caldern Piar, F; Pomares Alfonso, M S

2012-03-01

252

Bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric-phase lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently discovered photostorage effect in antiferroelectric-phase (AFE-phase) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) compositions appears to be particularly applicable to binary optical information storage. The basis for bistable optical information storage is that exposure to near-UV or visible light shifts the electric field threshold of the phase transition between the field-induced ferroelectric (FE) phase and the stable AFE phase in

CECIL E. LAND

1988-01-01

253

Internal friction study on low-temperature phase transitions in lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a bulk thermodynamics and microstructure study of lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 is performed through internal friction, Young's modulus, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electron diffraction measurements. Two internal friction peaks are observed near 261 and 225 K. The former correlates with an enthalpy change revealed by DSC data and is ascribable to a first-order tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase

Y. R. Dai; P. Bao; H. M. Shen; D. Su; J. S. Zhu; Y. N. Wang; Y. P. Zhu

2003-01-01

254

Correlation between Phase Transitions and Piezoelectric Properties in Lead-Free (K,Na,Li)NbO3-BaTiO3 Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this manuscript, we report the polymorphic phase transitions, structural changes and piezoelectric properties of alkali niobate based lead-free ceramics. The phase transitions were characterized as a function of alkali niobate content at room temperature. The results clearly demonstrate that in this system high piezoelectric properties are achieved for a specific fraction of ferroelectric orthorhombic (O) and tetragonal (T) phases. Using Rietveld and powder diffraction analysis, a correlation was established among the piezoelectric response, the fraction of O and T phases, and KNN ratio for three different systems of (K,Na)NbO3-BaTiO3 (KNN-BT), KNN-LiNbO3 (LN), and (K,Na,Li)NbO3 (KNLN)-BT.

Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Park, Chee-Sung; Viehland, Dwight; Nahm, Sahn; Kang, Dong-Heon; Bae, Kyoo-Sik; Priya, Shashank

2008-12-01

255

Development of tube actuators by fused deposition of ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fused Deposition of Ceramic (FDC) technique has been employed to fabricate piezoelectric tube arrays, based on the lead zirconate titanate system directly from a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) file. Extruded filaments with a diameter of 1.75 mm and 52.5 to 60 vol.% PZT loaded were used as feed material. Single tubes and tube arrays of up to 25 elements with the

A. M. Umarji; A. L. Kholkin; T. F. McNulty; S. C. Danforth; A. Safari

1998-01-01

256

Texture and anisotropy of ferroelectric bismuth titanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectric bismuth titanate, Na0.5Bi4.5 Ti4O15, is a piezoelectric ceramic used as an electromechanical sensor in high temperature environments (T < 655C). However, the piezoelectric constant, d33, is relatively low in randomly oriented ceramics. Crystallographic texturing is often employed to increase the piezoelectric constant because the spontaneous polarization axes of the grains are better aligned. This research distinguishes between the crystallographic texture induced to the grains from tape casting and crystallographic texture induced to the ferroelectric domains from electrical poling. Novel quantitative approaches describe texture of both types independently using conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources as well as time-of-flight neutron diffraction with multiple detectors. Furthermore, methods are developed to describe the combined effect of a ferroelectric texture superimposed on a paraelectric texture. Texture of the paraelectric crystallographic axes was induced by novel processing approaches. An alternative to using plate-shaped template particles was developed utilizing calcined powder. Paraelectric texture develops from particle settling and strong surface energy anisotropy during sintering. The 00l textures induced from this process are on the order of two to four multiples of a random distribution. These textures create property anisotropies between the casting plane and normal directions of 6.4 and 5.7 in piezoelectric d33 constant and remanent polarization, respectively. Texture of the ferroelectric crystallographic axes was induced by electrical poling at different temperatures and in different orientations. Ceramics with an initial paraelectric texture can exhibit greater change in the domain volume fractions during electrical poling than randomly oriented ceramics. This is demonstrated by applying novel quantitative approaches to reflection X-ray spectra from many sample directions. Because orthorhombic Na0.5Bi 4.5Ti4O15 has two ferroelectric domains that can be resolved by diffraction, the maximum possible fraction of non-180 domains switched during poling (eta200) is 0.5. Textured ceramics poled in a direction in which most of the possible polarization directions are oriented exhibit nearly half of this value in some directions, eta 200 = 0.23, whereas randomly oriented ceramics exhibit only a quarter of the maximum possible, eta200 = 0.13. In other words, textured ceramics can be poled to a larger degree than randomly oriented ceramics.

Jones, Jacob Leo

257

Effective properties analysis of a piezoelectric composite including conducting phase using a numerical homogenization approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric composites find increasing applications in the field of smart materials, mainly as sensors and transducer. However, accurately predicting its performance is still a challenging task. In this paper, we analyzed the electromechanical properties of a three-phase piezoelectric composite with titanate piezoelectric ceramics powders (PZT-5H) and carbon black embedded in an epoxy matrix by a finite element numerical method. A homogenizing micromechanical model is applied, which is capable to provide various property parameters of the piezoelectric composite, such as dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant. The calculation verifies that the electric network formed by the conducting-phase carbon black(CB) can effectively improve the electromechanical performance of the piezoelectric composites. The effect of different content of the carbon black is also taken in consideration in the simulation. A good fit between the calculation and the experimental results clearly shows that the homogenizing modeling is able to accurately predict the electromechanical properties of the three-phase piezoelectric composite. This work will contribute to optimize the material function design and analyze the effect of conduct phase on the piezoelectric composites.

Zhang, Hongming; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Rongguo; Hao, Lifeng

2011-11-01

258

Lead free (K,Na)NbO3-based piezoelectric ceramics and transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in (K,Na)NbO3-based ferroelectrics is reviewed, with special emphasis on the (K,Na)NbO3-LiTaO3-LiSbO3 system. Processing issues are elaborated on. The importance of precursor purity, moisture sensitivity and oxygen content on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties will be shown. Properties of prototype transducers are given and it will be shown that high performance metrics reminiscent to PZT-4 based transducers can be

K. Kerman; M. Abazari; N. Marandian-Hagh; E. K. Akdogan; A. Safari

2008-01-01

259

Inharmonic Overtone Spurious Mode Suppression by Partial Mass-Loading onto the Electrode for Energy-Trapped-Type Thickness-Extensional-Mode Piezoelectric Ceramic Resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies have been performed on the suppression of the inharmonic overtone responses for realizing piezoelectric ceramic resonators with low resonance impedance compatible with a wide-area electrode(>phi15lambda). The circumferential mass-loading onto the electrode is effective for the fabrication of an oscillator with a low oscillation startup voltage, without any jump to spurious frequencies. In addition, this technique results in a

Yoshinari Yamashita; Yasunobu Oikawa; Masanobu Sugimoto

1998-01-01

260

Unusual pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O8) single crystal and polar glass-ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2Os) single crystal and polar glass-ceramics were studied in the temperature range - 150 to 200C. The sign of pyroelectric coefficient is positive at room temperature and becomes negative at 190C. The dielectric constant, pyroelectric coefficient and planar coupling coefficient show a maximum value at 160C and the frequency constant shows a

A. Halliyal; A. S. Bhalla; S. A. Markgraf; L. E. Cross; R. E. Newnham

1985-01-01

261

Dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of Sr 2 TiSi 2 O 8 polar glass-ceramic: A new polar material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar Sr2TiSi2O8 glass-ceramics were prepared by recrystallizing glasses in a steep temperature gradient. The dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties were studied as a function of temperature in the temperature range -150 to 200 C. The sign of the pyroelectric coefficient is positive at room temperature and is attributed to the dominance of the secondary pyroelectric effect over the primary effect.

A. Halliyal; A. S. Bhalla; L. E. Cross; R. E. Newnham

1985-01-01

262

Fabrication of Pb(Nb,Ni)O3Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Piezoelectric Ceramic Fibers by Extrusion of a Sol-Powder Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the fabrication of Pb(Nb,Ni)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PNN-PZT) piezoelectric ceramic fibers by extrusion of a powder-sol mixture is presented. The process using extrusion of a powder-sol mixture was first applied to the fabrication of PZT fibers and its advantages were discussed in the former study. In this study, the process is applied to the fabrication of PNN-PZT fibers, and the

Jinhao Qiu; Junji Tani; Naoki Yanada; Yoshimasa Kobayashi; Hirofumi Takahashi

2004-01-01

263

Preparation of antiferroelectric lead zirconate titanate stannate ceramics by high-energy ball milling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead zirconate titanate stannate powders doped with lanthanum and niobium, namely [Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.85Sn0.13Ti0.02)0.98O3, or PNZST) and (Pb0.9La0.02(Zr0.65Sn0.31Ti0.04)O3, or PLZST], were synthesized by a high-energy ball milling technique from their corresponding oxide mixtures. The milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analysis techniques. The sintering behaviors of the milled powders were investigated by a

L. B. Kong; J. Ma; T. S. Zhang; W. Zhu; O. K. Tan

2002-01-01

264

Bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric-phase lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

A recently discovered photostorage effect in antiferroelectric-phase (AFE-phase) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) compositions appears to be particularly applicable to binary optical information storage. The basis for bistable optical information storage is that exposure to near-UV or visible light shifts the electric field threshold of the phase transition between the field-induced ferroelectric (FE) phase and the stable AFE phase in the direction of the initial AFE /yields/ FE phase transition. Properties of this photoactivated shift of the FE /yields/ AFE phase transition, including preliminary photosensitivity measurements and photostorage mechanisms, are presented. Photosensitivity enhancement by ion implantation is also discussed.

Land, C.E.

1988-11-01

265

Dielectric properties of rare earth (Sm and La) substituted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we are reporting the studies on dielectric properties of Lanthanum (La) and Samarium (Sm) substituted Lead Zirconate Titanate with compositional formula Pb(1.02-x)SmxZr0.55Ti0.45O3 and Pb(1.02-x)LaxZr0.55Ti0.45O3 with x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03. The materials were synthesized by solid state reaction route. XRD analysis shows that all the samples be in single phase with tetragonal structure. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature.

Dipti; Singh, Sangeeta; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

2013-06-01

266

Deaging of heat-treated iron-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Doping strongly influences the properties of ferroelectric perovskite materials. One striking difference between donor- and acceptor-doped materials is the transition from 'soft' to 'hard' ferroelectric behavior. The physical reasons for this phenomenon are still unclear. The authors present measurements of the ferroelectric hysteresis and deaging behavior of iron-doped lead zirconate titanate after adjusting the defect structure by heat treatment in an oxygen-depleted atmosphere. Contrary to expectations, the introduction of extra oxygen vacancies makes the material 'softer' .This effect, which is discussed based on a model of defect dipoles, sheds new light on the unsolved problem of hardening and aging.

Granzow, T.; Suvaci, E.; Kungl, H.; Hoffmann, M. J. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Institute for Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering, Karlsruhe University, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2006-12-25

267

Grain size effect on the nonlinear dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The nonlinear dielectric properties of dense BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics with grain size of 1 {mu}m-90 nm were investigated. In the finest ceramics, the permittivity reduces below 1000 and a remarkable nonhysteretic linear dc-tunability [{epsilon}(E)] is obtained at high field, above 40 kV/cm. The observed behavior was explained by considering the nanostructured ceramic as a composite formed by ferroelectric grains, whose nonlinearity is reducing, and by low-permittivity nonferroelectric grain boundaries, whose volume fraction increases when decreasing the grain size. Reducing the grain size in ferroelectric dense materials is an alternative route to accomplish the application requirements: nonhysteretic tunability and permittivity below 1000.

Curecheriu, Lavinia; Mitoseriu, Liliana [Department of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Bv. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Buscaglia, Maria Teresa; Buscaglia, Vincenzo [Institute of Energetics and Interphases (IENI)-CNR, Via De Marini No. 6, I-16149 Genoa (Italy); Zhao, Zhe [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, University of Stockholm, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-12-13

268

Dielectric Properties of Sol-Gel Derived Barium Strontium Titanate and Microwave Sintering of Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis consists of two areas of research: (1) sol-gel processing of Ba_{rm 1-x}Sr_{rm x} TiO_3 ceramics and their dielectric properties measurement; and (2) microwave versus conventional sintering of ceramics such as Al_2 O_3, Ba_{ rm 1-x}Sr_{rm x}TiO_3, Sb-doped SnO _2 and YBa_2Cu _3O_7. Sol-gel powders of BaTiO_3, SrTiO_3, and their solid solutions were synthesized by the hydrolysis of titanium

Fathi A. Selmi

1991-01-01

269

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.95(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.05CaTiO3 ceramics with Ag2O contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-Free ceramics 0.95(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.05CaTiO3- x mol. % Ag2O have been fabricated as a function of the amount of Ag2O content. NKN-CT ceramics showed the highest piezoelectric properties and ferroelectric properties at the 0.5 mol. %Ag2O content. The NKN-CT-Ag2O0.5 mol. % ceramics show a good performance with piezoelectric constant d 33 = 221 ?C/N, k p = 0.38%, respectively. The corresponding Curie temperature and remnant polarization reached 370C and 22.5 C/cm2, respectively. These results appear that NKN-CTAg2O ceramics are promising candidate materials for lead-free piezoelectric application.

Lee, Seung-Hwan; Baek, Sang-Don; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Young-Hie; Nam, Sung-Pill; Lee, Ku-Tak

2012-12-01

270

Incorporation of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 fibers into ceramic/polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, or PZT, fiber and fiber/polymer composites for transducer applications is discussed. Green PZT fibers, 80 to 100 micrometers in diameter, were formed at Advanced Cerametrics, Inc., using the Viscous Suspension Spinning Process (VSSP). In this process, fine PZT powder is intimately mixed with polymer precursor by high shear mixing. The powder and precursor mixture is spun through a spinneret into a coagulation bath to form fibers. The fibers are washed, dried, and collected on a spool. Yarns containing between 10 and 500 individual fibers were collimated by applying a polymeric sizing to the yarns, and passing the yarns through sizing dies. Yarn bundle tightness and flexibility were controlled by the sizing chemistry. Continuous green yarns were cut to short lengths, or woven in different architectures to create composites with novel microstructures. The short yarns were fired to product PZT straight rods for `pick and place' piezoelectric composites. The woven structures were heat treated and backfilled with polymer to create composites with 1-3, 2-3, and 3-3 connectivity. After heat treatment, the diameter of the individual PZT fibers was 10 to 20 micrometers . Electromechanical characteristics of a number of composites were determined, and will be reported. The PZT VSSP fibers can be used to form fine-scale, large area piezoelectric fiber/polymer composites for use in hydrophones, transducers for medical ultrasonic imaging and non-destructive evaluation, and as sensors and actuators in vibration and noise control.

Safari, Ahmad; Janas, Victor; Jadidian, Bahram; French, Jonathan; Weitz, Greg; Luke, John; Cass, Bud

1996-05-01

271

Machining piezoelectric (PZT) ceramics using an electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machining of advanced engineering materials such as composites and ceramics is important but it is very difficult and uneconomical to do so by conventional methods of machining. A need for new techniques for machining these advanced engineering materials cannot be over-emphasized. In this study, the authors have attempted to explore the feasibility of using an electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process

Y. P. Singh; Vijay K. Jain; Prashant Kumar; D. C. Agrawal

1996-01-01

272

The use of the ultrasonic compaction method for the PZT piezoelectric ceramics fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of ultrasonic (US) compaction for the fabrication of Pb(ZrTi)O3 PZT piezoceramics was approved. The values of density, granularity, shrinkage of ceramic samples, sintered from the compacts compacted by traditional uniaxial pressing and by ultrasound action are compared. It is shown that US compaction contributes to sintering temperature lowering and to PZT piezoceramics granularity reduction

O. L. Khasanov; J. S. Lee; Yu. P. Pokholkov; V. M. Sokolov; E. S. Dvilis; M. S. Kim; B. G. An

1999-01-01

273

Ceramic of Lead Titanate Doped with Eu and Mn Used in Ultrasonic Transducers for Biomedical Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the Pb0.88Eu0.08Ti0.98Mn0.02O3 piezoceramics are studied in order to be used in the development of ultrasonic transducer in biomedical applications.The mechanical quality factor Q, resonance frequency, as well as, the electromechanical coupling factors (Kp and Kt) are elements to have in mind when an ultrasonic transducer is designed. The optimum condition of operation exists when there is an ultrahigh value of mechanical anisotropy ratio, Kt/Kp --> or Kp --> 0. This condition exists when the Eu partially substitutes the Pb.The preparation of the samples was performed in the laboratory using the oxide-mixing technique method. The Curie temperature (TC) was determined measuring the capacitance of the ceramics. The evaluation of the experimental Q of the ceramics in air and matched with tissues was realized with instrumental resonance method. Finally the designed transducers were excited using a high voltage pulse.

Gonzlez B., Rubn; Suaste G., Ernesto

2004-09-01

274

Enhanced active piezoelectric 0-3 nanocomposites fabricated through electrospun nanowires  

SciTech Connect

The use of monolithic piezoceramic materials in sensing and actuation applications has become quite common over the past decade. However, these materials have several properties that limit their application in practical systems. These materials are very brittle due to the ceramic nature of the monolithic material, making them vulnerable to accidental breakage during handling and bonding procedures. In addition, they have very poor ability to conform to curved surfaces and result in large add-on mass associated with using a typically lead-based ceramic. These limitations have motivated the development of alternative methods of applying the piezoceramic material, including piezoceramic fiber composites and piezoelectric 0-3 composites (also known as piezoelectric paint). Piezoelectric paint is desirable because it can be spayed or painted on and can be used with abnormal surfaces. However, the piezoelectric paint developed in prior studies has resulted in low coupling, limiting its application. In order to increase the coupling of the piezoelectric paint, this effort has investigated the use of piezoelectric nanowires rather than spherical piezoelectric particle, which are difficult to strain when embedded in a polymer matrix. The piezoceramic wires were electrospun from a barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) sol gel to produce fibers with 500-1000 nm diameters and subsequently calcinated to acquire perovskite BaTiO{sub 3}. An active nanocomposite paint was formed using the resulting piezoelectric wires and was compared to the same paint with piezoelectric nanoparticles. The results show that the piezoceramic wires produce 0-3 nanocomposites with as high as 300% increase in electromechanical coupling.

Feenstra, Joel [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Sodano, Henry A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States)

2008-06-15

275

Effects of SiC nanofibers addition on microstructure and dielectric properties of lead titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense perovskite ferroelectric PbTiO3 (or PT) ceramics reinforced with SiC nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple solid-state mixed oxide and conventional sintering method. Phase formation, densification, microstructure and dielectric properties of the composites were investigated as a function of SiC content. Addition of SiC nanofibers to a PT matrix did not result in unexpected reaction phase. Microstructural observations

R. Wongmaneerung; P. Singjai; R. Yimnirun; S. Ananta

2009-01-01

276

The piezoelectric properties of low-temperature sintered PNN-PZT-based ceramics and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

0.25Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O30. 75Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PNN-PZT) piezoceramics, doped and undoped with BiFeO3 and Ba(Cu0.5W0.5)O3 oxides, were prepared by conventional mixed-oxide technique, using sintering temperature at 850C-950C. Microstructural and compositional analyses of these low-temperature sintered PNN-PZT-Based ceramics have been carried out using XRD and SEM. The effects of dopants on the sintering temperature and dielectric properties of the PNN-PZT ceramics have been investigated. In

Sheng-Yuan Chu; Cheng-Shung Hsieh

1999-01-01

277

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of PNN-PZN-PZT ceramics for actuator application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fields of optics, precision machinery and semiconductor processing, microposition actuators are required for the control of position in the submicron range. In this paper, 0.5PNN-(0.5-x)PZN-xPZT(x:0.0~0.5) ceramics were fabricated with various mole ratios of the PZT powders prepared by a molten-salt synthesis method and PNN, PZN powders prepared by a columbite precursor method. The formation rate of perovskite phase

Su-Ho Lee; Han-Geun Kim; Hun-Il Choi; Geon Sa-Gong

1997-01-01

278

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ZnO and SnO2 co-doping K0.5Na0.5Nbo3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of (1-x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3-x(ZnO and SnO2) ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction method and their structures, dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. All samples show pure perovskite phase with typical orthorhombic symmetry at x?0.6%. However, a trace amount of ZnSnO3 was detected at x?0.8%, in addition to the ZnSnO3, some Zn2SnO4 and SnO2 were presented at x?1.0%. The phase transition temperature of orthorhombic-tetragonal (TO-T) and tetragonal-cubic (Tc), the remnant polarization (Pr) and the coercive field (Ec) decreased with increasing x. The dielectric constant (?r), piezoelectric constant (d33) and electromechanical coupling factor (kp) increased with increasing x until x=0.8%, and then decreased with further increasing x. And the optimum piezoelectric properties of ?r=503, d33=124 pC/N and kp=0.398 were obtained. The increase in piezoelectric properties might be due to the increase in density and ZnSnO3 doping.

Li, Z.; Xu, G.; Li, Y.; Sun, A.; Duan, L.; Jiang, J.; Cui, P.

2010-01-01

279

Polarization switching of and electron emission from lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on understanding the influence of material properties on the complicated ferroelectric (FE) emission process. Three different compositions in the lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) system were chosen for study, based on their widely different dielectric and ferroelectric properties: antiferroelectric (AFE) 2/95/5, normal ferroelectric 8/65/35, and nonferroelectric 15/65/35. Repeatable emission was obtained from the 2/95/5 composition, which could also be modulated at high frequency (200 kHz). The fast AFE {r_reversible} FE phase transition is responsible for the FE emission properties of this material, which is supported by the relationship between the switching current and the emission current. Comparatively, FE emission from the 8/65/35 composition degraded rapidly, which was attributed to decreases in the remanent polarization. No emission signal was detected from the 15/65/35 composition, because no switching activity occurs, which can be interpreted as additional evidence that electron emission from the previously mentioned two compositions was indeed a FE emission process.

Zhang, W.; Huebner, W. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Ceramic Engineering; Sampayan, S.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Krogh, M.L. [Allied Signal Federal Mfg. and Technologies, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1999-03-01

280

Molten salt synthesis of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate powders and ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powders and ceramics with a composition (Pb0.97La0.02) (Zr0.66Sn0.27Ti0.07)O3 were prepared by the molten salt synthesis (MSS) method, using Li2SO4Na2SO4 and NaClKCl eutectic mixtures as the flux. The influences of processing parameters, such as temperature, time, and type of molten salts, on the formation and sinterability of PLZST were investigated. XRD and SEM were used for characterization of the as-prepared powders

Shixi Zhao; Qiang Li; Lin Wang; Yiling Zhang

2006-01-01

281

Correlation between dielectric breakdown strength and interface polarization in barium strontium titanate glass ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The correlation between the dielectric breakdown performance and interface polarization was studied by the measurements of the dielectric breakdown strength and impedance spectroscopy as a function of sintering temperatures in a BaO-SrO-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass ceramic system. It was found that dielectric breakdown strength strongly depends on the interface polarization. The sintering temperature dependence of breakdown strength is attributed to the variation in interfacial polarization based on the results of complex impedance analysis.

Huang Jiajia; Zhang Yong; Ma Tao [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Hongtao; Zhang Linwen [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Sichuan 621900 (China)

2010-01-25

282

The history of ceramic filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly,

Satoru Fujishima

2000-01-01

283

The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of zirconium titanate ceramics in the solid solution system ZrTiO4Zr5Ti7O24  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium titanate (ZT) ceramics having compositions in the range of ZrTiO4-Zr5Ti7O24 were prepared via the mixed oxide route,\\u000a using ZnO and CuO as sintering aids and Y2O3 as stabilizer. Specimens were sintered at 1450C for 4 h and then cooled at 6C\\u000a h-1, 120C h-1 or air-quenched. All products exhibited densities exceeding 95% of the theoretical values. The amount of

C. L. WANG; H. Y LEE; F AZOUGH; R FREER

1997-01-01

284

Polar nanodomains and local ferroelectric phenomena in relaxor lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Transparent Pb{sub 0.9125}La{sub 0.0975}(Zr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}){sub 0.976}O{sub 3} ceramics (conventionally abbreviated as PLZT 9.75/65/35) is a typical relaxor characterized by the absence of the ferroelectric order at the macroscopic scale. In this letter, we report on the observation of complex polar structures on the surface of this material via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The irregular polarization patterns are associated with the formation of a glassy state, where random electric fields destroy the long-range ferroelectric order. The measure of the disorder, the correlation length of {approx}50 nm, was directly deduced from the PFM images. Local poling of relaxor ceramics resulted in the formation of a stable micron-size domain that could be continuously switched under varying dc bias (local relaxor-ferroelectric phase transition). Fractal analysis was applied to analyze the origin of local order in PLZT.

Shvartsman, V.V.; Kholkin, A.L.; Orlova, A.; Kiselev, D.; Bogomolov, A.A.; Sternberg, A. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering and Center for Research in Ceramic and Composite Materials (CICECO), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Physics, Tver State University, 170000 Tver (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia)

2005-05-16

285

Improved Process for Hydrothermal Lead-Free Piezoelectric Powders and Performances of Sintered (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we report some improvements in a hydrothermal method for lead-free piezoelectric powders and the performance of the sintered (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 ceramics. To increase the obtained powder weight per source solution volume, the hydrothermal reaction conditions were modified. This improvement is important for mass production; however, it resulted in a larger particle size dispersion. Therefore, we examined to introduced the ball milling process that is useful for dense (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 ceramics. When a large amount of powder was obtained, it took a long time to eliminate the residual alkaline ions in the hydrothermal powders by a washing process. Therefore, a neutralization was conducted in the powder washing process. Using this powder, a solid solution of (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics was synthesized. The relative density was successfully increased. Concerning the electrical properties, the relative permittivity was improved, and the piezoelectric constant d33 was also increased from 114 to 130 pC/N.

Maeda, Takafumi; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

2011-07-01

286

Origin of temperature independent piezoelectric coefficient in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-BaTiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of piezoelectric resonance frequency, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of (65-x)[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-xBaTiO3-35PbTiO3 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3) ceramics has been investigated. Sample compositions with x = 2 and 3 were found to exhibit a large piezoelectric response. Particularly, d31 value was nearly a constant over a temperature range from 150 to 325 K. A broad ferroelectric phase transition tuned by BaTiO3 ratio in the sample was deduced from the dielectric constant, piezoelectric resonance frequency, and Raman spectra. The temperature dependence of the Raman modes wavenumber positions and intensities provides a clear evidence for the occurrence of the phase transition. The temperature-stable piezoelectric response was attributed to the counter-balance of contributions from the dielectric and elastic responses.

Huang, Lizhu; Bulou, Alain; Kassiba, Abdelhadi; Zeng, Jiangtao; Fu, Desheng; Errien, Nicolas; Zheng, Liaoying; Li, Guorong

2013-08-01

287

Dielectric relaxation and conductivity behavior in modified lead titanate ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency and temperature dielectric response and the electrical conductivity behavior around the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature are studied in the ferroelectric ceramic system (Pb0.88Sm0.08)(Ti1-xMnx)O3, with x = 0,1,3 at.%. The contribution of the conductive processes to the dielectric relaxation for the studied frequency range is discussed considering the oxygen vacancies as the most mobile ionic defects in perovskites, whose concentration seems to increase with the manganese content. The relaxation processes below the transition temperature are associated with the decay of the polarization in the oxygen-defect-related dipoles due to their hopping conduction. Above the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature, the electrical conduction is governed by the thermal excitation of carriers from oxygen vacancies; the relaxation processes are associated with ionic dipoles distorted by the oxygen vacancies.

Peliz-Barranco, A.; Gonzlez Abreu, Y.; Lpez-Noda, R.

2008-12-01

288

Polarization Characteristics of High Valence Ion Doped Bismuth Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi3.25La0.75Ti3?3xNb3xO12 (BLTN) and Bi3.25La0.75Ti3?3xV3xO12 (BLTV) ceramics (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) were prepared by a solid state reaction method. For all BLTN and BLTV compositions, bismuth-layered perovskite structures were confirmed using X-ray diffraction. The remanent polarization increases and reaches to the maximum value at x = 0.05 for BLTN and at x = 0.010.03 for BLTV

JIN SOO KIM; HAI JOON LEE; SUN HEE KANG; SUN YOUNG LEE; ILL WON KIM

2004-01-01

289

Study of reoxidation in heavily La-doped barium titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ceramic samples of (1-x)BaTiO3+1/2xLa2O3+(2+x)mol%TiO2 (0.003<=x<=0.15) were prepared by sintering in reducing atmosphere of H2, subsequently reoxidized in air. The effect of heavily La dopant on the resistivity and microstructure of the reoxidized samples were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and electric properties testing. The results show that the critical concentration of La-doped samples increased obviously compared with the samples sintered in air. The grain size decreased with the increase of La-donor content. The positive temperature coefficient resistivity effect of the sample increased when a change reoxidizing temperature range of 600C ~1200C. The maximum of ?max/?min ratio was ~700 at the reoxidizing temperature of 1100C when x=0.8mol%.

Wenhu, Yang; Yongping, P. U.; Xiaolong, Chen; Jinfei, Wang

2009-03-01

290

Study of incommensurate phases in Lanthanum-doped zirconium-rich Lead Zirconate Titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and nanostructure of zirconium-rich Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics doped with small amounts of La which are right at transition between the ferroelectric (FE) and antiferroelectric (AFE) orderings has been examined using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging and diffraction. In this region, the La doping frustrates the formation of simple FE or AFE phases and promotes long period ordered phases (2-3 nm) with ordering along <110> with unit cells incommensurate with the primitive cubic unit cell. We show that the domain structure in these materials is closely related to that previously observed in AFE PbZrO3. Moreover, precision measurements of crystallographic tilts at domain boundaries using Kikuchi diffraction methods also confirms the close relationship to PbZrO3. The domains also contain a nanostructure perpendicular to the long-period ordering direction, but the reasons for the appearance of this nanostructure remain unclear.

Villaurrutia, R.; MacLaren, I.; Peliz-Barranco, A.

2010-07-01

291

Effect of dc bias and hydrostatic pressure on the ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transformation in a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.  

SciTech Connect

Phase transformation between the ferroelectric (FE) and the antiferroelectric (AFE) phases in tin modified lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) ceramics can be influenced by pressure and electric field. Increasing the pressure has the tendency to favor the AFE phase while electric field favors the FE phase. In this study, these phase transformations are studied as functions of external pressure, temperature, and dc bias. The shifting of transformation temperature and the relative phase stability between FE and AFE with respect to these external parameters will be presented. Results will be compared to a pressure-induced depoling behavior (or FE-to-AFE phase transformation) for the PSZT ceramic. Fundamental issues relates to the relative phase stability will be discussed from the perspective of lattice dynamics theory.

Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

2010-06-01

292

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of SrBi4-xHoxTi4O15 (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of SrBi4-xHoxTi4O15 (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) ceramics were investigated. SrBi4-xHoxTi4O15 (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06; SBHT-x) ceramics were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction sintering method. An X-ray diffraction measurement indicated that a single phase layered perovskite was obtained for all compositions. Studies of dielectric properties with temperature at different frequencies and piezoelectric properties have been carried out.

Mamatha, B.; James, A. R.; Sarah, P.

2010-12-01

293

Electrical property evaluation of manganese-fluorine codoping of lead zirconate titanate thin films: Compatibility between hard material and piezoelectric activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some microelectromechanical system (MEMS) applications, the conditions of operation, high temperature, high stress, etc., can be very severe. Under these conditions the piezoelectric performance of polar material can decrease due to a partial (or a total) depoling induced by external excitations. So, it is important to have a piezoelectric active material that presents a good stability versus external parameters

M. Detalle; D. Rmiens; L. Lebrun; D. Guyomar

2006-01-01

294

Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)0.5(Ti0.7Zr0.3)0.5O3 Ceramics Fabricated by Tape-Casting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)0.5(Ti0.7Zr0.3)0.5O3 (PNN-PZT) ceramic powders were pre-calcined by solid-state reaction method. PNN-PZT piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by tape-casting process. The effects of sintering temperature on physical and electrical properties of the PNN-PZT ceramics were studied. The results show that the ceramics sintered at 1225C have the best overall properties, d33 = 780 pC\\/N, ?r = 6.18 10, kp = 0.6,

Hui Wang; Kongjun Zhu; Jinhao Qiu; Jun Luo; Hongli Ji

2010-01-01

295

The effects of nonhydrostatic compression and applied electric field on the electromechanical behavior of poled lead zirconate titanate 95\\/5-2Nb ceramic during the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric polymorphic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted hydrostatic compression and constant-stress-difference experiments, with and without an applied electric field, on poled, niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The objective was to quantify the effects of nonhydrostatic stress and electric field bias on electromechanical behavior of the ceramic during the ferroelectric, rhombohedral antiferroelectric, orthorhombic phase transformation. Increasing stress difference (shear stress) decreases the mean stress at which

D. M. Zeuch; D. J. Holcomb

1999-01-01

296

Sound velocity variation as function of polarization state in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several ultrasonic techniques to measure the sound velocity, for example, the pulse-echo method. In such method, the size of transducer used to measure the sound velocity must be in the same order of the sample size. If not, the incompatibility of sizes becomes an error source of the sound velocity measurement. In this work, the Laser Induced Pressure Pulse (LIPP) method is used as ultrasonic method. This method has been very useful for studying the spatial distribution of charges and polarization in dielectrics. We take advantage of the fact that the method allows the sound velocity measurement, to study its variation as function of polarization state in (PZT) ceramics. In a sample with a known thickness e, the sound velocity ? is deduced from the measurement of the transit time T. The sound velocity depends on the elastic constants which in turn they depend on poling conditions. Thus, the variation of the sound velocity is related to the direction and the amplitude of the polarization.

Essolaani, W.; Farhat, N.

2012-02-01

297

Modeling of material properties of piezoelectric ceramics taking into account damage development under static compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out static compression tests in the poling direction for PZT ceramics and evaluated the material properties by measuring the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies and electrostatic capacity at regular intervals. Then the variation in the material properties up to fracture was clarified. Also, the development of internal damage was also clarified quantitatively by evaluating a damage variable on the basis of the continuum damage mechanics. The damage variable was calculated from the ratio of the elastic coefficient to its initial value. In the present paper, the development of internal damage was formulated as an evolution equation of the damage variable. In the formulation, a threshold stress leading to the onset of damage was considered. Moreover, the variation in material properties was related to the damage variable and formulated as material functions of the damage variable. The development of internal damage and the variation in material properties were simulated by the equations proposed in the present paper and the validity of the equations was verified by comparing the predictions with experimental results.

Mizuno, M.; Nishikata, T.; Okayasu, M.

2013-10-01

298

Study of Constant Torsion Assembly Method of Piezoelectric Transducer Based on PC Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piezoelectric transducer plays a key role in the ultrasonic equipment. In the assembly process of piezoelectric transducer with traditional method, the torsion and the pressure have some fluctuations, and as a result, in the process of using the piezoelectric transducer, the electric-acoustic transformation efficiency of the piezoelectric transducer gets lower, the temperature of the piezoelectric transducer rises, piezoelectric ceramic

Zhang Yundian; Yu Fang; Chen Yan; Zhang Zhixiao

2006-01-01

299

Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-07-07

300

Electrical properties of piezoelectric sodium-potassium niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric material is one of the most important components of the micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS). Most piezoelectrics have useful multi-functions for MEMS, e.g. sensor, actuator and transducer. An AFM cantilever, scanning mirror device and pumping system for a micro-chamber, are the typical applications of piezoelectric material on MEMS. Lead-based materials, e.g. lead zirconate titanate and lead lanthanum zirconate titanate, have

M. Ichiki; L. Zhang; M. Tanaka; R. Maeda

2004-01-01

301

Light-Intensity-Induced Characterization of Elastic Constants and d33 Piezoelectric Coefficient of PLZT Single Fiber Based Transducers  

PubMed Central

Enhanced functionality of electro-optic devices by implementing piezoelectric micro fibers into their construction is proposed. Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics are known to exhibit high light transparency, desirable electro-optic properties and fast response. In this study PLZT fibers with a diameter of around 300 microns were produced by a thermoplastic processing method and their light-induced impedance and piezoelectric coefficient were investigated at relatively low light intensity (below 50 mW/cm2). The authors experimentally proved higher performance of light controlled microfiber transducers in comparison to their bulk form. The advantage of the high surface area to volume ratio is shown to be an excellent technique to design high quality light sensors by using fibrous materials. The UV absorption induced change in elastic constants of 3% and 4% for the piezoelectric coefficient d33.

Kozielski, Lucjan; Erhart, Jiri; Clemens, Frank Jorg

2013-01-01

302

Properties of non-stoichiometric 0.935(K0.5+xNa0.5+x)NbO3-0.065LiSbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

0.935(K0.5+xNa0.5+x)NbO3-0.065LiSbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by normal sintering, and their piezoelectric and dielectric properties were investigated by varying the compensating amount x of alkaline elements (Na and K) addition. It was found that the crystal structure changed from tetragonal to orthorhombic with increasing x from -0.010 to 0.010. An MPB was tailored by optimizing the alkaline elements contents. Enhanced electrical and electromechanical responses of d33=253 pC/N, kp=0.47, kt=0.45 and tan?=0.027 were obtained in the ceramics with x=0.005. These excellent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties indicate that this system may be an attractive lead-free material for a wide range of electro-mechanical transducer applications.

Du, Juan; Zang, Guo-Zhong; Xiu-Jie, Yi; Wei, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yue-Fang

2012-02-01

303

Initial experience of manufacture and property measurements on piezoelectric cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal sheathed piezoelectric cable were made with copper conductors and sheaths using lead-zirconate-titanate piezoelectric material. Assemblies were also made with stainless steel outer sheaths. Poling produced piezoelectric behavior such that the cables formed high sensitivity load and stress monitors. Moderate pressure sensitivity was obtained and interdevice transmission through nonconducting fluid observed. Under some conditions anomalous charge rise and fall times

G. H. Broomfield

1981-01-01

304

Understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectricity describes the behavior of a class of materials which exhibit a relationship between mechanical strain and electrical field. Piezoelectric materials can be crystals (e.g. quartz), ceramic (e.g. lead-zirconate-titanate---PZT---the primary focus of the present research), or polymers (e.g. polyvinylidine-fluoride - PVDF). Piezopolymers and piezoceramics offer a significant improvement in piezoelectric properties over naturally occurring piezoelectrics like quartz. In the last five years, research in piezoelectrics has begun to change focus from the more traditional sensor/actuator applications to utilizing piezoelectric materials in energy harvesting applications. The present research will explore the very low frequency response of piezoelectrics, including several energy harvesting applications, as well as the interactions between thermal, mechanical and electrical energy in a thermally driven piezoelectric energy generation system. In Chapter 1, the history of piezoelectric research and development is given, along with an overview of piezoelectricity for those readers who are not familiar with the topic. In Chapter 2, current investigations in piezoelectric energy harvesting research are summarized. The present research, namely understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials is also summarized. In addition, two applications: thermal management in a satellite and energy harvesting from a vibrating highway bridge are detailed as motivators for the present research. Chapter 3 gives a summary of the relevant piezoelectric theory. In addition, electrical circuit theory and thermodynamic heat capacity/heat energy considerations required to complete the present research are given. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the experimental testing completed during the course of the present research. Significant testing, including determination of the PZT/Aluminum substrate sample time constants, thermal calibration testing and quantification of the voltage resulting from the PZT/Aluminum substrate samples, is detailed and summarized. In Chapter 5 the research analysis, including variance of the PZT element capacitance with loading condition, is presented. Novel piezoelectric theory associated with the thermally induced planar strain loading condition, along with corroborating test results, are also presented. Chapter 6 notes the significant results, conclusions and recommendations for future research resulting from the present research, including a system level summary of the 'satellite' and 'bridge' applications.

Ganley, Jeffrey Mark

305

Topics in electronic ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four topics in the field of electronic ceramics are reviewed: multilayer ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric ceramics, electrooptic ceramics, and ferroelectric thin films. They all are related to ferroelectric ceramic materials. The scope of this review is limited to oxide compounds, because oxide ferroelectrics, for the most part, exhibit the most useful properties and have found the most applications. The underlying physical

S. L. Swartz

1990-01-01

306

Piezoelectric Properties of Lead-Free Na0.5K0.5NbO3 Ceramics Co-Doped with NiO and CuO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free Na0.5K0.5NbO3 + 0.5 mol% NiO+y mol% CuO (y = 0?3) piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by conventional solid state reaction technique. The crystal structure and microstructure were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the co-doping of NiO and CuO was very effective in densification of ceramics. The KNN ceramics co-doped with 0.5mol%

Weon-Pil Tai; Young-Hyeok Kim; Yun-Po Ok; Han-Na Ji; Sang-Kyu Kang; Jae-Shin Lee

2010-01-01

307

Formation of Morphotropic Phase Boundary in (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3--BaZrO3--(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the development of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, which have a tetragonal--rhombohedral morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), 0.90(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3--xBaZrO3--(0.10 - x)(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3 ceramics have been synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method. A phase diagram was summarized from the X-ray diffraction pattern and the dielectric measurements. It is found that 0.90(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3--xBaZrO3--(0.10 - x)(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3 ceramics have an MPB between x = 0.07 and 0.08. In the vicinity of the MPB, it was observed that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were enhanced.

Zushi, Junta; Ariizumi, Takuma; Kojima, Seiji; Wang, Ruiping; Bando, Hiroshi

2013-07-01

308

Rapid Prototyping of Novel Piezoelectric Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been conceptualized, prototyped, fabricated by rapid prototyping in order to surpass those fabricated with traditional processing methods in novelty as well as performance. Rapid prototyping offers unmatched design and fabrication flexibility in achieving structural complexity and hierarchy in developing piezoelectric composites. A detailed account of all salient aspects of Fused Deposition of Ceramics (FDC) and Fused

A. Safari; E. K. Akdogan

2006-01-01

309

RMS Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RMS Titanic raised a 23- by 14-foot section of the Titanic's outer hull this week. RMS, which has exclusive rights to photograph the Titanic and to possess any items recovered from the wreck, doesn't miss an opportunity to market Titanic-oriented merchandise on their site. Nonetheless, visitors wanting to know more about the Titanic will be interested in the expedition calendar and background information on the Titanic's voyage and the exploration of its remains.

2000-01-01

310

Enhanced piezoelectric properties of (Na0.5+y+zK0.5-y)(Nb1-xTax)O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A- and B-site ratios in (Na0.5+y+zK0.5-y)(Nb1-xTax)O3 ceramics with ABO3 structure were investigated to differentiate the effects of polymorphic phase transition (PPT), morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), and Na nonstoichiometry on piezoelectric coefficient (d33). MPB was intrinsically determined by the ratio between Na and K, whereas PPT was extrinsically controlled by Ta substitution. PPT temperature between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (TO-T) was reduced to room temperature at x = 0.45. d33 was increased to 310 pC/N at y = 0.03 and z = 0 by the combined effects of PPT and MPB and was further enhanced to 333 pC/N by the Na nonstoichiometry at z = 0.015 with improved density.

Sung, Y. S.; Baik, S.; Lee, J. H.; Ryu, G. H.; Do, D.; Song, T. K.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, W. J.

2012-07-01

311

Detection and suppression for mechanical resonance in hard disk drives with built-in piezoelectric sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many components in hard disk drives (HDDs), when in operation, are subjected to vibration due to out of balance of rotating components, inertial impacts under servo driving and dynamic interactions between components. These vibrations have been found to have significant effect upon the servo performance of drive systems. In order to improve the servo performance by reducing the effect of mechanical resonance in HDDs, this paper seeks to detect and suppress mechanical resonance of the head actuator using smart sensors and multi-sensing control techniques. In this regard, sensitive and miniature piezoelectric elements from the polymer-based piezoelectric materials PVDF (polyvinylindin fluoride) or the ceramic-based piezoelectric materials PZT 9lead zircornate titanate) are built in the head actuator for sensing the mechanical vibration. In the experiment, the multi-sensing signals by the piezoelectric sensors and the laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) are transferred into a voice coil motor (VCM) through a feedback controller so as to actively suppress structural resonance. Numerical simulation and experimental results indicate that the piezoelectric sensors provide an effective way in monitoring the HDD actuator resonance, and the active vibration control strategy is capable of suppressing main mechanical resonance in the head actuator effectively.

Gao, Peng; Lou, Yaolong; Okada, Kanzo

2002-07-01

312

Piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, and crystal structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

By visualizing polar crystals as a network of permanent dipole moments, the piezo- and ferroelectric properties of dielectrics may be derived from the standpoint of molecular symmetry. This approach is used to clarify the relation between the sphalerite and wurtzite structures, the ferroelectric feedback effect in barium titanate, aspects of domain formation, and the interrelationship between ferro and piezoelectricity.

A. von Hippel

1952-01-01

313

Manufacture and characterization of high activity piezoelectric fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric fibres are finding increasing application in a variety of piezoelectric composites, including active fibre composites (AFCs). This paper describes the manufacture and characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibres manufactured by viscous plastic processing (VPP). The manufacturing method will be described along with a systematic characterization of the macrostructure, microstructure, phase composition and low and high field piezoelectric properties. A comparison with other available PZT fibres will be made, which demonstrates that the VPP PZT fibres display high piezoelectric coefficients.

Bowen, C. R.; Stevens, R.; Nelson, L. J.; Dent, A. C.; Dolman, G.; Su, B.; Button, T. W.; Cain, M. G.; Stewart, M.

2006-04-01

314

Electrical Properties and Depolarization Temperature of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric properties of a solid solution of the binary system, x(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(1-x)(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 [BNKT100x; x=0.50--0.98] were investigated, focusing on depolarization temperature, Td. Fine piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were obtained near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition between the rhombohedral and tetragonal structures, and the highest electromechanical coupling factor, k33, and piezoelectric constant, d33, were 0.56 for BNKT84 and 157 pC/N for BNKT80, respectively. However, the Td of BNKT80 was low (174 C). The Td of the MPB composition was low, and the Td near the MPB composition was sharply decreased. It is thought that BNKT70 is a candidate composition for lead-free actuator applications owing to its relatively large piezoelectric constant, d33 (126 pC/N), dynamic d33 (214 pm/V), and high depolarization temperature, Td (206 C). In this study, we determined depolarization temperature, Td, from the temperature dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric properties.

Yoshii, Kazushige; Hiruma, Yuji; Nagata, Hajime; Takenaka, Tadashi

2006-05-01

315

EFFECT OF CALCINATION TEMPERATURE ON THE PIEZOELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF Pb(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb (Zr0.50Ti0.50)O3 CERAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PMN-PNN-PZT ceramics doped with sintering aids such as Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 were fabricated using two-stage calcination method and their structural and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the 1 calcination temperature in order to develop ceramic composition for low loss and low temperature sintering multilayer piezoelectric actuator. The coulombite phase was successfully synthesized at 1050C, resulting in increase of perovskite

Juhyun Yoo; Dohyung Kim; Hyunsun Song; Dong Soo Paik; Dong Heon Kang

2008-01-01

316

EFFECT OF CALCINATION TEMPERATURE ON THE PIEZOELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF Pb(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Zr0.50Ti0.50)O3 CERAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PMN-PNN-PZT ceramics doped with sintering aids such as Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 were fabricated using two-stage calcination method and their structural and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the 1st calcination temperature in order to develop ceramic composition for low loss and low temperature sintering multilayer piezoelectric actuator. The coulombite phase was successfully synthesized at 1050C, resulting in increase of perovskite

JUHYUN YOO; DOHYUNG KIM; HYUNSUN SONG; DONG SOO PAIK; DONG HEON KANG

2007-01-01

317

Properties of Miniature Cantilever-Type Ultrasonic Motor Using Lead-Free Array-Type Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramics of (Sr,Ca)2NaNb5O15 under High Input Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of miniature cantilever-type ultrasonic motors using lead-free array-type multilayer piezoelectric ceramics of (Sr,Ca)2NaNb5O15 (SCNN) developed using the design rule were investigated under high input power by comparison with the high-power properties of SCNN ceramics. The frequency dependence of the revolution speed reflected the nonlinear behavior of SCNN ceramics with the hard-spring effect and showed a mirror-reversed image relative to that of the motor of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics. The output power increased linearly with increasing input power up to 110 mW without heat generation, and the driving properties were almost the same as the expectations under low input power. The output power density characteristics of the motors were high in comparison with those of the commercialized motors of PZT ceramics. It appeared that the motors have a high potential as an environmental friendly piezoelectric device with excellent properties, reflecting the high-power properties of SCNN ceramics.

Doshida, Yutaka; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youich; Tamura, Hideki

2012-07-01

318

Characterisation of a PdCl 2/SnCl 2 electroless plating catalyst system adsorbed on barium titanate-based electroactive ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A PdCl 2/SnCl 2 metallisation catalyst system, of the type used to activate non-conducting surfaces for electroless metal deposition, has been characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The substrate is a barium titanate (BaTiO 3)-based electroactive ceramic of the type used in the fabrication of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC). The treatment of the substrate surface with the PdCl 2/SnCl 2 "sensitiser" solution leads to the adsorption of catalytically inactive compounds of palladium and tin. Subsequent treatment of this surface with an "accelerator" solution removes excess oxides, hydroxides and salts of tin thereby leaving the active catalyst species, Pd xSn y, on the surface. Such sites, on exposure to the appropriete electroless plating bath, are then responsible for the metal deposition. In this study, the chemical state and relative quantities of the various surface species present after each of the processing stages have been determined by XPS. The surface roughness of the substrate results in less of the tin compounds present thereon being removed on washing the catalysed surface in the accelerator solution than normally reported for such systems, thereby affecting the measured Pd: Sn ratio. SEM studies show that the accelerator solution treatment generates crystalline areas, which may be a result of coagulation of the Pd xSn y particles present, in the otherwise amorphous catalyst coating.

Meenan, B. J.; Brown, N. M. D.; Wilson, J. W.

1994-03-01

319

Ceramicelectrode interaction in PZT and PNNPZT multilayer piezoelectric ceramics with AG\\/PD 70\\/30 inner electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3(PZT) and PbNi1\\/3Nb2\\/3O3-PZT (PNNPZT) multilayers with Ag\\/Pd 70\\/30 inner electrodes have been studied from the point of view of the ceramicelectrode interaction. PZT multilayers have shown silver free ceramic layers, and no lead has been detected in the electrode after sintering. Silver transport through the ceramic is avoided because of low open porosityclose porosity transition temperature. This transition seems to

A. C Caballero; E Nieto; P Duran; C Moure; M Kosec; Z Samardzija; G Drazic

1997-01-01

320

Prestressed curved actuators: characterization and modeling of their piezoelectric behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-stressed curved actuators consist of a piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate or PZT) sandwiched between various substrates and other top layers. In one configuration, the substrates are stainless steel with a top layer made with aluminum (THUNDER). In another configuration, the substrates and top are based on fiberglass and carbon composite layers (Lipca-C2). Due to their enhanced strain capabilities, these pre-stressed piezoelectric devices are of interest in a variety of aerospace applications. Their performance as a function of electric field, temperature and frequency is needed in order to optimize their operation. During the processing steps, a mismatch between the properties of the various layers leads to pre-stressing of the PZT layer. These internal stresses, combined with restricted lateral motion, are shown to enhance the axial displacement. The goal is to gain an understanding of the resulting piezoelectric behavior over a range of voltages, and frequencies. A nonlinear model, which quantifies the displacements generated in THUNDER actuators in response to applied voltages for a variety of boundary conditions, is developed. The model utilizes a hysteretic electric field-polarization relationship and predicts displacements based on the geometry and physical characteristics of the actuator components. The accuracy of the model and associated numerical method is demonstrated through comparison with experimental data.

Mossi, Karla M.; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Smith, Ralph C.; Ball, Brian

2003-08-01

321

Dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of Nb-substituted Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2TiO3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of niobium substitution on the crystal structure and on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2(Ti)O3 (BNKT) ceramics have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Nb-substitution induced a phase transition from the coexistence of rhombohedral-tetragonal symmetry to pseudocubic symmetry. Accordingly, the electric-fieldinduced polarization and strain hysteresis loops indicated that Nb substitution significantly disrupted the ferroelectric order of BNKT ceramics, leading to degradations in the remnant polarization, coercive field, and piezoelectric coefficient d 33. However, the destabilization of the ferroelectric order was accompanied by a significant enhancement in the electric-field-induced strain (EFIS), which peaked at x = 0.03 with a value of 0.47%. The abnormal enhancement in the EFIS could be attributed to a phase transition from a non-polar to a polar phase under an applied electric field.

Pham, Ky-Nam; Lee, Han Bok; Han, Hyoung-Su; Kang, Jin Kyu; Lee, Jae-Shin; Ullah, Aman; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Ill Won

2012-01-01

322

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Polymorphic phase transition and enhanced piezoelectric properties of LiTaO3-modified (Na0.52K0.48) (Nb0.93Sb0.07)O3 lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (Na0.52K0.48-x)(Nb0.93-xSb0.07)O3-xLiTaO3 (NKNS7-xLT) solid solution piezoelectric ceramics were investigated in terms of their phase transition behaviour and various electrical properties. The polymorphic phase transition of NKNS7 compositions with an orthorhombic structure was shifted downwards with the addition of a small amount of LT; however, the tetragonal ferroelectric to cubic paraelectric phase transition was moved slightly upwards. The polymorphic phase boundary between the orthorhombic and the tetragonal phases was thus formed near room temperature among the compositions with 0.03 <= x <= 0.0375 where enhanced piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were achieved. The compositions close to the tetragonal side exhibit better piezoelectric properties and temperature stability. The optimum electrical properties of d33 = 362 pC N-1, kp = 53%, \\varepsilon _{33}^T =2165 , Qm = 37 and Tc = 271 C were obtained in the composition with x = 0.0375. The results indicate that the materials studied could be an excellent candidate for replacing the widely used lead-based piezoelectric ceramics.

Fu, Jian; Zuo, Ruzhong; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

2009-01-01

323

EFFECT OF BiFeO3 DOPING ON FERROELECTRIC AND PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 AND BaTiO3 CERAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of BiFeO3 (BF) doping on the phase transition temperatures especially of lead-free piezoelectric materials were studied. Up to 20 mole% of BFO was doped in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) and BaTiO3 (BT) ceramics synthesized by solid state reactions. In BNT, ferroelectric transition temperature (TC) increased with doping but depolarization temperature (Td) was almost independent of BF contents. In BT, however,

K. H. RYU; T. K. SONG; M.-H. KIM; S. H. LEE; Y. S. SEONG; S. J. JEONG; J. S. SONG

2006-01-01

324

PHASE TRANSITION, DIELECTRIC AND PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF NaNbO3-Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 LEAD-FREE CERAMICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new lead-free solid solution of (1-x)NaNbO3-xBa0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 was prepared by a traditional sintering method and its phase transition, dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 diffuses into NaNbO3 lattices to form a new solid solution with perovskite structure. The addition of Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3(x?0.025) transforms NaNbO3 from antiferroelectric to ferroelectric. The diffusive ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition is induced in the ceramics with high concentration of Ba0.85Ca0.15(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3. The ceramics with x = 0.05-0.125 possess large Pr values of 18.6-25.5 ?C/cm2. A morphotropic phase boundary between tetragonal and orthorhombic phases is formed at 0.05 < x < 0.15, leading to a significant enhancement of piezoelectric properties. The ceramic with x = 0.125 situated near the morphotropic phase boundary exhibits the optimum piezoelectric properties: d33 = 151 pC/N and kp = 31.6%.

Lei, Yuqing; Wu, Hong; Lin, Dunmin; Zheng, Qiaoji; Wu, Xiaochun; Fan, Ximing

2012-09-01

325

Morphotropic phase boundary and electric properties in (1-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBiCoO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free (1-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBiCoO3 (x = 0, 0.015, 0.025, 0.03, 0.035, 0.04, and 0.06) piezoelectric ceramics have been synthesized and their structure and electric properties have been investigated systemically. The rhombohedral-tetragonal morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) locates near x = 0.025-0.035. For the ceramics with x = 0.025, the saturated polarization (Ps), remnant polarization (Pr), coercive field (Ec), strain(S), piezoelectric constant (d33), and thickness electromechanical coupling factor (kt) are 40.6 ?C/cm2, 35.4 ?C/cm2, 5.25 kV/mm, 0.11%, 107pC/N, and 0.45, respectively. The low temperature humps of relative dielectric constant, which is indicative of TR-T, are becoming inconspicuous gradually with the increasing x and almost disappear at x = 0.04. The depolarization temperature Td decreases first and then increases with the increasing x. Our results may be helpful for further work on Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

Guo, Fei-Fei; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Liu, Xiao; Zheng, Li-Mei; Wang, Zhu; Wu, Feng-Min; Wang, Da-Li; Cao, Wen-Wu

2012-06-01

326

Physics of failure modes in accelerometers utilizing single crystal piezoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over forty years, the lead zirconate -- lead titanate system (PZT) has been the industrial standard of sensing materials for piezoelectric accelerometers. This ceramic has established a reliability benchmark given the uniformity of its electromechanical properties, the negligible dependence of these properties on temperature and pre-stress, and the ability to manufacture the sensing element cost-effectively into a myriad of geometries. Today, revolutionary advances in the growth of single crystal piezoelectric materials have spawned the evolution of novel sensor designs. With piezoelectric coefficients exceeding 2000 pC/N, and electromechanical coupling factors above 90%, single crystals of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 [PMNT] and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 [PZNT] have the potential of superseding PZT ceramics in certain critical applications. This dissertation reports the first results of the design, development and performance characterization for an accelerometer utilizing bulk, single crystal piezoelectric materials. Numerous prototypes, developed in the compression and flexural-mode design configurations, exhibit charge sensitivities that exceed that of their PZT-counterparts by a factor of greater than three times. The introduction of accelerometer prototypes employing single crystal piezoelectric material is an important advancement for the sensor industry. Root-cause failure processes were identified and subsequently used as a reliability enhancement tool to prevent device failures through robust design and manufacturing practices. Crystal machining techniques were analyzed in which a scanning electron microscope was used to inspect the crystal surface for defects. Inhomogeneity in the piezoelectric properties over the surface of the crystal was quantified and recognized as a major obstacle to commercialization. Measurements were made on the material's fracture toughness and electromechanical properties over a wide temperature range. Effects of aging and mechanical cycling were also studied. The identification of these failure modes was the basis from which to develop optimal design guidelines specific to the single crystal piezoelectric material. Integral to this analysis was assessing the reliability of single crystal piezoelectric materials vis-a-vis ceramic PZT. The knowledge garnered from this research now serves as the cornerstone from which to develop a new-generation vibration sensor.

Wlodkowski, Paul Alexander

1999-11-01

327

Aging of piezoelectric properties in Pb(MgNb)O3-Pb(ZrTi)O3 multilayer ceramic actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aging characteristics of 0.2(PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)-0.8(PbZr0.475Ti0.525O3) multilayer ceramic actuators have been investigated by applying rectified ac bias. Multilayer ceramic actuators 555 mm3 in size were fabricated by tape-casting methods. X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to compare crystalline structures and lattice parameters. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient keff and pseudopiezoelectric constant d33 were calculated and discussed. Different rectified ac electric biases were applied to the actuators to investigate aging behavior in the multilayer ceramic actuators. The aging dependencies of cycles and electric fields were simulated and fitted to the linear logarithmic stretched exponential law.

Koh, Jung-Hyuk; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Ha, Mun-Su; Song, Jae-Sung

2004-07-01

328

A micromachining process for die-scale pattern transfer in ceramics and its application to bulk piezoelectric actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a batch mode planar pattern transfer process for bulk ceramics, glass, and other hard, brittle, nonconductive materials suitable for micromachined transducers and packages. The process is named LEEDUS, as it combines lithography, electroplating, batch mode micro electro-discharge machining (?EDM) and batch mode micro ultrasonic machining (?USM). An electroplating mold is first created on a silicon or

Tao Li; Yogesh B. Gianchandani

2006-01-01

329

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of stacked and plated PVDF, P(VDF\\/TeFe), P(VDF\\/TrFE) and ceramic\\/rubber composite thick films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the properties of nine different piezoelectric materials, as supplied, and as further processed to increase their hydrostatic sensitivity. We studied the effect of electrode material, stiffening plates, and multiple layering on the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the thick piezopolymer films. Dielectric measurements and thickness mode d3t, lateral mode d31 (d32), and hydrostatic mode dh piezoelectric coefficients were

Philip E. Bloomfield

1994-01-01

330

Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC actuator as a fluid chamber, the large flexural actuation can be used to produce the displacement needed to eject fluid. By applying an appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric unimorphs, a drop-on-demand ejection of ink or water can be achieved. The efficiency of fluid ejection can be enhanced after installing a valve in the fluid chamber. With the simple PMC structure, the dispenser can be operated with a low driving voltage of 12-15 V.

Lam, K. H.; Sun, C. L.; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.

2009-07-01

331

Soft Tissue Elastic Modulus Measurement and Tumor Detection Using Piezoelectric Fingers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated probing breast tumor in a lumpectomy sample using a newly developed piezoelectric finger (PEF). PEF is a piezoelectric cantile ver that consists of a top driving piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer and a bottom sen sing PZT layer sandwiched to a middle stainless steel layer. A PEF can both apply a force and detect the corresponding

Hakki O. Yegingil; Wan Y. Shih; Waqas Anjum; Ari D. Brooks; Wei-Heng Shih

332

Pyrochlore-rich titanate ceramics for the immobilization of plutonium: redox effects on phase equilibria in cerium- and thorium- substituted analogs  

SciTech Connect

Three compositions representing plutonium-free analogs of a proposed Ca-Ti-Gd-Hf-U-PU oxide ceramic for the immobilization of plutonium were equilibrated at 1 atm, 1350 C over a range of oxygen fugacities between air and that equivalent to the iron-wuestite buffer. The cerium analog replaces Pu on a mole-per-mole basic with Ce; the thorium analog replaces Pu with Th. A third material has 10 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} added to the cerium analog to encourage the formation of a Hf-analog of, CaHfTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, zirconolite, which is referred to as hafnolite. The predominant phase produced in each formulation under all conditions is pyrochlore, A{sub 2}T{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where the T site is filled by Ti, and Ca, the lanthanides, Hf, U and Pu are accommodated on the A-site. Other lanthanide and uranium-bearing phases encountered include brannerite (UTi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), hafnolite (CaHfTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), perovskite (CaTiO{sub 3}) and a calcium-lanthanide aluminotitanate with nominal stoichiometry (Ca,Ln)Ti{sub 2}Al{sub 9}O{sub 19}, where Ln is a lanthanide. The phase compositions show progressive shifts with decreasing oxygen fugacity. All of the phases observed have previously been identified in titanate-based high-level radioactive waste ceramics and demonstrate the flexibility of these ceramics to variations in processing parameters. The main variation is an increase in the uranium concentrations of pyrochlore and brannerite which must be accommodated by variations in modal abundance. Pyrochlore compositions are consistent with existing spectroscopic data suggesting that uranium is predominantly pentavalent in samples synthesized in air. A simple model based on ideal stoichiometry suggests the U{sup +4}/{Sigma}U varies linearly with log fO{sub 2} and that all of the uranium is quadravalent at the iron-wuestite buffer.

Ryerson, F J; Ebbinghaus, B

2000-05-25

333

The effects of nonhydrostatic compression and applied electric field on the electromechanical behavior of poled lead zirconate titanate 95/5-2Nb ceramic during the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric polymorphic transformation  

SciTech Connect

We conducted hydrostatic compression and constant-stress-difference experiments, with and without an applied electric field, on poled, niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The objective was to quantify the effects of nonhydrostatic stress and electric field bias on electromechanical behavior of the ceramic during the ferroelectric, rhombohedral {r_arrow} antiferroelectric, orthorhombic phase transformation. Increasing stress difference (shear stress) decreases the mean stress at which the transformation occurs. Increasing shear stress also retards the rate of transformation, causing reductions in both the rate of charge release and peak voltage attained during depoling. Application of the electric field bias slightly increases the transformation pressure for poled ceramic. Previously, we showed that under nonhydrostatic stress, the transformation took place in {ital unpoled} ceramic when the maximum compressive stress equalled the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation would otherwise occur. This simple stress criterion does not apply to poled ceramic. However, poled material has a preferred crystallographic orientation and mechanical anisotropy, whereas unpoled ceramic is isotropic. We present a qualitative model for the transformation under nonhydrostatic stress-related to that anisotropy, which resolves these seemingly disparate observations. {copyright} {ital 1999 Materials Research Society.}

Zeuch, D.M.; Holcomb, D.J. [Geomechanics Department 6117, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] Montgomery, S.T. [Integrated Product Development Department 1567, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1999-05-01

334

PIEZOELECTRIC MICRO POWER GENERATOR FOR ENERGY HARVESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), power generating device is developed. It is designed to resonate at specific vibrational frequencies from an ambient, vibrational energy source, thereby creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. The energy harvesting device uses the piezoelectric d33 mode and is fabricated with three mask steps. Our cantilever device was designed to have a

R. Sood; Y. B. Jeon; S. G. Kim

335

Piezoelectric Properties of Li-Doped (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 Ceramics Synthesized Using Hydrothermally-Derived KNbO3 and NaNbO3 Fine Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[Lix(Na0.52K0.48)1-x]NbO3 (0 ? x ? 0.091) ceramics were synthesized using hydrothermal powders and the lithium doping content was controlled to optimize their piezoelectric properties. The raw KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were obtained separately by a hydrothermal method and LiNbO3 powders were prepared by milling a commercial LiNbO3 single crystal. These powders were mixed with ethanol at a molar ratio LiNbO3: (Na0.52K_{0.48)NbO3}= x : 1-x. The synthesized powders were sintered at 1060--1120 C for 2 h. We succeeded in obtaining highly dense [Lix(Na0.52K0.48)1-x]NbO3 ceramics using hydrothermal powder. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystal phase changed from orthorhombic to tetragonal at around x = 0.06. At this morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), the c/a ratio changed from 1.016 to 1.024 and the highest piezoelectric constant was obtained with the chemical component of [Li0.065(K0.48Na0.52)0.935]NbO3. The obtained piezoelectric properties were as follows: k33 = 0.51, \\varepsilon33T/\\varepsilon0 = 836, c33E = 46 GPa, d33 = 203 pC/N, and Tc = 482 C.

Maeda, Takafumi; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

2012-09-01

336

Piezoelectric Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit prom...

J. S. Harrison Z. Ounaies

2001-01-01

337

Design and calibration of a piezoelectric actuator for interferometric applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports a possible solution for a low-cost piezoelectric actuator available for interferometric applications. In the paper the design, the assembly and the calibration of the actuator are described in detail. The solution adopted consists of a machined stainless steel case deformed by three low-voltage multilayer plumbum zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic blocks. In the proposed arrangement a three degree of freedom device is obtained, by which a translation and two rotations can be performed. The PZTs are driven by a supply voltage provided by a 16 bit D/A converter directly connected to the parallel port of a personal computer which guarantees a very accurate output. This voltage is applied on each ceramic by means of a variable resistor, by which it is possible to adjust the maximum driving voltage for the single block. This electrical solution allows to match up the strokes of the ceramics in order to obtain a straight expansion of the whole actuator. After the mechanical and electrical set-up of the actuator, a static calibration was carried out by inserting it along one arm of a Michelson speckle interferometer. The calibration procedure had emphasized the hysteresis loop and the non-linearity of the electromechanical behaviour of the actuator.

Bruno, Luigi; Poggialini, Andrea; Felice, Giuseppina

2007-12-01

338

Classical Piezoelectricity: Is the Theory Complete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper cites experimental evidences which show that the classical theory of piezoelectricity is not complete in describing the responses of ferroelectric ceramics. There are also some preliminary evidences to show that the theory as applied to piezoel...

P. J. Chen

1985-01-01

339

Development of a piezoelectric sensor to measure angular acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An angular acceleration measurement system using a piezoelectric material is described. The piezoelectric material used in the sensor was either a pre-polarised PVDF film or a polymer\\/ceramic piezoelectric composite of (PTCa:P(VDF\\/TrFE) 50:50 vol %)

R. Marat-Mendes; C. J. Dias; J. N. Marat-Mendes

1999-01-01

340

In-situ fabrication of ceramic\\/Metal nanocomposites by reduction reaction in barium titanateMetal oxide systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel ceramic\\/metal nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ reduction method in BaTiO3\\/NiO, BaTiO3\\/WO3 and BaTiO3\\/MoO3 systems. The fabrication processes and the phase stability of these metal and metal oxides were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis and thermodynamic consideration. For BaTiO3\\/NiO system, NiO was entirely reduced at 500C for several hours and dense BaTiO3\\/Ni nanocomposites were obtained without additional reaction phases. However,

Hae Jin Hwang; Motohiro Toriyama; Tohru Sekino; Koichi Niihara

1998-01-01

341

Temperature stability of ([Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}]{sub 0.93}-[LiTaO{sub 3}]{sub 0.07}) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

A polymorphic phase transition (PPT) is often engineered into lead-free materials to generate high piezoelectric activity at room temperature, limiting their temperature stability. We report [Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}]{sub 0.93}-[LiTaO{sub 3}]{sub 0.07} tetragonal ceramics with favorable properties over a broad temperature range due to a high Curie temperature at 447 deg. C and PPT at -15 deg. C involving a transition to a monoclinic rather than low temperature orthorhombic phase. Piezoelectric k{sub 31} and d{sub 31} coefficients varied from 0.19 to 0.14 and -53 to -33 pC/N, respectively, over the range of -15 to 300 deg. C. Strain-electric field loops provided strains of {approx}0.2% and a high-field d{sub 33} of 205 pm/V.

Skidmore, Thomas A.; Comyn, Tim P.; Milne, Steven J. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2009-06-01

342

Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than 5 increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d g coefficient with value of 59 000 10 15 m2 N 1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

Yan, Yongke [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Cho, Kyung-Hoon [Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboraory (BMDL); Maurya, Deepam [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Khachaturyan, Armen [State University of New Jersey, The; Priya, Shashank [ORNL

2013-01-01

343

Diffuse phase transition in Li0.12Na0.88NbO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphotropic phase boundary composition viz. lithium sodium niobate, Li0.12Na0.88NbO3, (LNN-12) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction and sintering route. The temperature dependent permittivity response near transition temperature showed a diffused phase transition (DPT). The degree of diffuseness, ?, using the modified Curie-Weiss law, was found to be 1.92, indicative of almost-complete diffuse phase transition. The planar coupling constant kp, and mechanical quality factor Qm, measured by resonance-antiresonance method, were 0.17 and 413 respectively. These parameter values make LNN-12 ceramic an attractive candidate for transducers applications.

Mitra, Supratim; Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Prakash, Om

2013-02-01

344

An experience of PNN-PT-PZ high-k piezoelectric ceramics aiming for medical imaging transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the k=0.7 class PZT families, our ever-lasting desire is to have more k to extend bandwidth and efficiency. A material within ceramic family, PNN-PT-PZ (PbNi1\\/3Nb2\\/3O3 -PbTiO3-PbZrO3), is an easier candidate, however, with k=0.8 around, in between PZT family and single crystal family. Although including a die-pressing step, the material can be prepared using conventional solid solution method similar to

Y. Takeuchi; M. Kondo

2001-01-01

345

Feature of morphotropic phase boundary of yBiGaO{sub 3}-(1-x-y)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

yBiGaO{sub 3}-(1-x-y)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (BGSPT) ternary piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by using conventional mixed oxide ceramic processing. It was found that the introduction of BiGaO{sub 3} into BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} system would cause a shift of morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs), from x=0.64, y=0 to x=0.56, y=0.155; and an increase of Curie temperature (T{sub C}) near MPB, from 450 up to 494 deg. C, respectively. BGSPT ceramics possessed higher T{sub C} ({approx}494 deg. C) and high piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}{approx}180 pC/N), and showed the different rule of the Curie temperature near MPB versus the end member tolerance factor (t). The mechanism of higher T{sub C} in BGSPT system was also proposed.

Jiang Yihang; Qin Baoquan; Yue Xi; Zhao Yi; Jiang Yuzhi; Xiao Dingquan; Zhu Jianguo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2008-04-01

346

Electromechanical and ferroelectric properties of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (0.95-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-x(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 (abbreviated as BNT-BKT-BT100x, with x ranged from 0 to 20 mol %) have been studied. Effects of amount of BKT on the electrical properties and crystal structure were examined. BNT-BKT-BT5 ceramics give good performances with piezoelectric constant d33=148 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factor kp=34 %, kt=49.2 %, free permittivity ?33T/?0=700, and dissipation factor tan?=2 % at 1 kHz. Accordingly, the sample shows larger remanent polarization and lower coercive field than 0.95BNT-0.05BT ceramics. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that incorporated BKT diffuses into the BNT-BT lattice to form a solid solution during sintering, but changes the crystal structure from rhombohedral to tetragonal symmetry at higher BKT amounts.

Wang, X. X.; Tang, X. G.; Chan, H. L. W.

2004-07-01

347

Phase transition and electric field induced strain properties in Sm modified lead zirconate stannate titanate based antiferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Sm addition on the crystal structures and electrical properties of Pb1-3x/2Smx(Zr0.63Sn0.26Ti0.11)O3 ceramics were investigated in this work. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that with increasing Sm content from 0.005 to 0.03, the phase structure of the specimens underwent transition from ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) state due to the substitution of Sm3+ with smaller ion radius for Pb2+ decreasing the tolerance factor of the ceramics. In addition, it was observed that with the improvement of Sm3+ content, the strain of the specimens first increased and then decreased, and the largest value of 0.735% was obtained in the sample with x = 0.015 near AFE/FE phase boundary at the measuring frequency 1 Hz. This is because the reversal of the domains, which produces the strain, is more consummate in this composition. Further, the strain at different frequencies was nearly the same at high electric field, which was attributed to that the electric field applied to the sample was so large that the reorientation of the domains could finish in all measuring frequencies. Both a high strain level and a relatively good frequency stability in the specimen with x = 0.015 make a potential candidate for actuators applications over a wide-frequency working range.

Zhang, Qingfeng; Yang, Tongqing; Zhang, Yangyang; Yao, Xi

2013-06-01

348

Research Note Reliability of Pb(Mg,Nb)O3Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 multilayer ceramic piezoelectric actuators by Weibull method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expected lifetime and reliability of multilayer ceramic actuators were considered. 5 5 5m m 3 sized multilayer ceramic actuators with 60 ceramic sheet layers embedded internal electrodes were selected in this experimental analysis. Specially selected rectified AC bias was applied to the multilayer ceramic actuators to remove heating during charging and discharging process. Sixteen sets of multilayer ceramic

Jung-Hyuk Koh; Tae-geun Kim

349

Phase transitional behavior, microstructure, and electrical properties in Ta-modified [(K0.458Na0.542)0.96Li0.04] NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free [(K0.458Na0.542)0.96Li0.04] (Nb1-xTax)O3 ceramics were prepared by ordinary sintering technique. The effects of Ta content on the phase transitional behavior, Raman spectrum, microstructure, and dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction results indicate that the phase structure undergoes a transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal phase with the increase in x. The small and large peaks observed in the Raman spectra can all be attributed to the internal modes of the NbO6 octahedron, and both ?5 and ?1 modes slightly shift to lower frequency numbers by increasing x. Ta substitution for Nb leads to the disappearance of the abnormal grain growth behavior, inhibits the grain growth, and improves the density of the ceramics. Increasing x leads to the different variations of dielectric constants before and after poling and makes the ceramics more relaxorlike. The proper substitution of Ta shifts the polymorphic phase transition (at To-T) to near room temperature, and a coexistence of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases is formed, which leads to significant enhancements of the electrical properties. For the ceramics with x=0.15, the electrical properties become optimum, which are as follows: piezoelectric coefficient d33=298 pC/N, electromechanical coupling coefficient kp=0.52, dielectric constant ?r=1195, dielectric loss tan ?=0.016, To-T=35 C, Curie temperature TC=366 C, remanent polarization Pr=28.68 ?C/cm2, and coercive field Ec=7.14 kV/cm. These properties are much higher than those of previously reported (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O3 systems with K:Na=1:1.

Chang, Yunfei; Yang, Zu-Pei; Ma, Difei; Liu, Zonghuai; Wang, Zenglin

2008-07-01

350

Influence of composition and pressure on the electric field-induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation in lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.  

PubMed

The electric field-induced phase transformation behavior in lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics was examined by polarization versus electrical field (P-E) measurements carried out from room temperature to 130 degrees C and under hydrostatic pressures from 20 to 300 MPa. The samples with composition (Pb(1-x)La(x))(Zr(0.90)Ti(0.10))(1-x/4)O(3) [PLZT x/90/10; x = 2,3,4 at%] were prepared by the standard solid-state reaction method. The analysis at room temperature under atmospheric pressure showed that the increase in the lanthanum content induces a transformation from the typical ferroelectric hysteresis, observed for PLZT 2,3/90/10, to double-hysteresis loops, typical of antiferroelectric phases, for PLZT 4/90/10 under a strong electric field. Hydrostatic pressure- induced and temperature-induced ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transformations were examined. The measured hysteresis loops indicated that the FE-AFE phase transformation depends on both temperature and hydrostatic pressure for PLZT 3/90/10. This composition, which is in a ferroelectric state at room temperature under atmospheric pressure, can be transformed into the antiferroelectric phase by the application of a hydrostatic pressure of 100 MPa or by increasing the temperature to around 90 degrees C. The PLZT 2/90/10 and 4/90/10 compositions displayed predominantly ferroelectric and antiferroelectric behavior, respectively, over the ranges of temperature and hydrostatic pressure examined in the present study. PMID:19811977

Peliz-Barranco, Aim; Hall, David A

2009-09-01

351

Doping effects of CuO additives on the properties of low-temperature-sintered PMnN-PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and their applications on surface acoustic wave devices.  

PubMed

To develop the anisotropic ceramic substrate with low sintering temperature for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications, the low cost and feasible material with moderate piezoelectric properties, good dielectric properties, and higher Curie temperature were explored. The piezoelectric ceramics with compositions of Pb[(Mn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0.06-) (Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))0.94] O(3) (PMnN-PZT) + 0.5 wt.% PbO + x wt.% CuO (0.05 = x = 0.3) had been prepared by the conventional mixed-oxides method. CuO dopants were used as the sintering aid to improve the bulk density under low sintering temperature (i.e., 980-1040 degrees C). The phase structures, microstructures, frequency behavior of dielectric properties (up to 50 MHz), piezoelectric properties, ferroelectric properties, and temperature stability with the amount of CuO additive were systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that the sintering temperature could be lowered down to 1020 degrees C and still keep reasonably good piezoelectric activity (i.e., high electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)), (k(t)) and dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The preferable composition, obtained at x = 0.1, presented the values of the electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)) (k(t)), mechanical quality factor (Q(m)), piezoelectric charge constant (d(33)), dielectric constant, dielectric loss, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCF(B)), and Curie point (T(c)) of 0.54, 0.48, 850, 238 pc/N, 1450, 0.0023, 1.1 kV/mm, 26 coul/cm(2), -150 ppm/ degrees C, and 348 degrees C. Using this developed low-temperature-sintered material to make the piezoelectric substrate, the SAW filter was fabricated and its properties were measured. Results showed that this device possessed very high value of k(2)(7.13%) with a good TCF (-40.15 ppm/ degrees C), and a surface wave velocity (V(P)) of 2196 m/s. PMID:19411224

Tsai, Cheng-Che; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Chun-Hsien

2009-03-01

352

High Power Characteristics of Piezoelectric Ceramics in Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 PbTiO3 PbZrO3 System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of high power characteristics of the piezoelectricceramics in Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 PbTiO3 PbZrO3system, the limit vibration velocity (vmax), is defined as thevibration velocity that generate the fixed temperature rise wasevaluated. From this system, a new material with a highervmax of 0.79 m/s which is 1.7 times larger than conventionalPb(Mn1/3Sb2/3)O3 PbTiO3 PbZrO3 system wasfound. By using this new material, piezoelectric transformers weremade and the output electric power (P) of the transformers weremeasured at RL=(?Cd2)-1 [load resistance (RL), resonant angular frequency (?), output damping capacitance (Cd2)] and at other fixed resistances. The P of the piezoelectric transformer was measured on this condition, however, measured values of P were smaller than that of the conventional material. In order to clarify this phenomenon, an equivalent circuit including stray capacitance (Cf) of the load circuit was proposed. Simulation results by using this equivalent circuit showed that; 1. The load resistance giving the maximum output power decreases, as Cf increases. 2. The maximum output power decreases, as Cf increases. 3. When Cd2 of the piezoelectric transformer is small, the effect of Cf on the piezoelectric transformer becomes large. Therefore, a high dielectric constant (?) is a required characteristicof the piezoelectric ceramic materials for use in the piezoelectrictransformer, except for the usually high vmax and highelectromechanical coupling coefficient (K).

Ise, Osamu; Satoh, Kaoru; Mamiya, Yoichi

1999-09-01

353

Abnormal electronic transition variations of lanthanum-modified lead zironate stannate titanate ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary: A spectroscopic evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure-related optical response of (Pb1-1.5xLax)(Zr0.42Sn0.40Ti0.18)O3 (100x/42/40/18) ceramics with different compositions has been investigated. Based on x-ray diffraction, the phase transition from rhombohedral to tetragonal structure is revealed between compositions of x = 2.6% and 2.8% near morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Correspondingly, abnormal spectral response in the photon energy from 1.4 to 6.1 eV is observed near MPB. Furthermore, the blue shift of the two critical points related parameters, which is obtained from fitting the reflectance spectra, indicates that the variation of electronic band structure near MPB is responsible for the anomalous behavior.

Chen, X.; Jiang, K.; Hu, Z. G.; Chen, X. F.; Wang, G. S.; Dong, X. L.; Chu, J. H.

2012-07-01

354

Flexoelectric sensing using a multilayered barium strontium titanate structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flexoelectric effect has been recently explored for its promise in electromechanical sensing. However, the relatively low flexoelectric coefficients of ferroelectrics inhibit the potential to develop flexoelectric sensing devices. In this paper, a multilayered structure using flexoelectric barium strontium titanate (Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 or BST) ceramic was fabricated in an attempt to enhance the effective flexoelectric coefficients using its inherent scale effect, and hence to improve the flexoelectric sensitivity. The performances of piezoelectric and flexoelectric cantilevers with the same dimensions and under the same conditions were compared. Owing to the flexoelectric scaling effect, under the same force input, the BST flexoelectric structure generated a higher charge output than its piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) and PMN-30PT counterparts when its thickness was less than 73.1 ?m and 1.43 ?m, respectively. Also, amplification of the charge output using the multilayered structure was then experimentally verified. The prototyped structure consisted of three layers of 350 ?m-thick BST plates with a parallel electric connection. The charge output was approximately 287% of that obtained using a single-layer structure with the same total thickness of the multilayered structure under the same end deflection input, which suggests high sensitivity sensing can be achieved using multilayer flexoelectric structures.

Kwon, S. R.; Huang, W. B.; Zhang, S. J.; Yuan, F. G.; Jiang, X. N.

2013-11-01

355

Computer modelling of barium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barium titanate is an important material for both scientific and industrial applications. Much of the interest centres around its ferroelectric properties, since it is structurally the most simple in this class. In addition rare-earth doped ceramics are found to exhibit a very steep positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) above the Curie point. The theory of this PTCR effect is

G. V. Lewis; C. R. A. Catlow

1983-01-01

356

Electron microscopy study of ferroelectric domains and microstructural defects in Bi and Zn-modified Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferroelectric domain configurations and microstructural defects in the Bi- and Zn-modified Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction. In the samples with tetragonal symmetry, labyrinthic domain configurations with 90deg a-c domains were observed besides the herringbone-like configuration, parallel band-shaped and\\/or wedge-shaped domains. Polar nanodomains with local random contrast were observed in the

X. H. Zhu; Y. Song; J. M. Zhu; S. H. Zhou; Z. G. Liu

2009-01-01

357

DIELECTRIC AND PIEZOELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF 0.07Pb (Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3) O3 ?0.10Pb (Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3) O3? 0.83Pb(Zr0.48Ti0.52) O3 CERAMICS ACCORDING TO THE HEATING RATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop the composition ceramics for low loss multilayer piezoelectric actuator, 0.07Pb (Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3) O3 ?0.10Pb (Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3) O3? 0.83Pb(Zr0.48Ti0.52) O3 (abbreviated as PMN-PNN-PZT) ceramics were fabricated using Li2CO3, Bi2O3 and CuO as sintering aids and according to variation of heating rate. And also, their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. At the heating rate of 700C\\/h

YUHYONG LEE; SANGHO LEE; JUHYUN YOO; INSUNG KIM; JAESUNG SONG

2008-01-01

358

Piezoelectric properties of 0.5(PbNi 1\\/3Nb 2\\/3)O 30.5Pb(Zr 0.32Ti 0.68)O 3 ceramics prepared by solid state reaction and mechanochemical activation-assisted method  

Microsoft Academic Search

0.5(PbNi1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O30.5Pb(Zr0.32Ti0.68)O3 (PNNPZT) ceramics were successfully prepared from a mechanochemical activation-assisted method (MAAM), which skips the calcination step(s) at an intermediate temperature which is otherwise required for solid state reaction. A detailed investigation has been carried out on the structural and piezoelectric properties of these samples. Improvement in piezoelectric properties was observed in PNNPZT ceramics processed by mechanochemical activation-assisted method. The

Sandeep Mahajan; Chandra Prakash; O. P. Thakur

2009-01-01

359

KLM model for lossy piezoelectric transducers.  

PubMed

A KLM model has been developed using equivalent circuits to analyze the effects of different loss mechanisms on the transducer performance in the time and frequency domain. Transducers from two different piezoelectric materials (lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) and polyvinylidene fluoride) were constructed to validate our model. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical simulation. PMID:14585479

Castillo, Martha; Acevedo, Pedro; Moreno, Eduardo

2003-11-01

360

KLM model for lossy piezoelectric transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A KLM model has been developed using equivalent circuits to analyze the effects of different loss mechanisms on the transducer performance in the time and frequency domain. Transducers from two different piezoelectric materials (leadzirconatetitanate (PZT) and polyvinylidene fluoride) were constructed to validate our model. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical simulation.

Martha Castillo; Pedro Acevedo; Eduardo Moreno

2003-01-01

361

Preparation and characterization of novel piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymer electrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and characterization of novel piezoelectric and pyroelectric electrets is discussed with respect to their electret properties. Charged heterogeneous electrets, like closed-cell microporous polypropylene (pp) foams and `soft-hard' fluoropolymer hybrids are shown to yield large quasi-static and dynamic piezoelectric responses, indistinguishable from true piezoelectricity. Piezoelectric coefficients comparable to that of ceramic counterparts have been achieved. For the investigation of

R. Schwodiauer; G. S. Neugschwandtner; K. Schrattbauer; M. Lindner; M. Vieytes; S. Bauer-Gogonea; S. Bauer

2000-01-01

362

Piezoelectric transducers, state of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for preparing, treating and sintering powders to be used in the production of ceramic elements (coprecipitation, isostatic compression, sintering under shock loading) are reviewed. Faults inherent in a piezoelectric ceramic element are outlined. Perovskite type compounds, analogous to PbTiO3, which are strongly anisotropic and have a very low k31 coupling factor; lead compounds which are strongly anisotropic and give

L. Eyraud; P. Eyraud; F. Bauer

1984-01-01

363

Parameter identification method for piezoelectric shunt damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric shunt damping is a method to reduce structural vibration by shunting a piezoelectric element with an electrical circuit. This paper proposes a method to identify the physical parameters that are required to design piezoelectric shunt damping systems. Employing self-sensing actuator methodology, the proposed method requires no additional sensor or actuator other than a simple bridge circuit. The parameters can be identified from a transfer function simply by linear least squares method. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, the shunt damping of the steel plate with the piezoelectric ceramic is performed based on the identified parameters.

Takagi, Kentaro; Nagase, Kenji; Oshima, Kazuhiko; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu; Luo, Zhi-Wei

2004-02-01

364

Dielectric behavior and microstructure of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(0.95-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-x(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (abbreviated as BNT-BKT-BT100x with x varying from 0 to 20 mol %) are prepared by a solid-state reaction process. Variation of the dielectric properties and microstructure of BNT-BKT-BT100x ceramics with BKT content is studied. The results indicate that the relative permittivity ?r and loss tangent tan ? vary with the BKT amount. Scanning electron microscope observation also indicates that BKT in high amount affects the microstructure. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the incorporated BKT diffuses into the BNT-BT lattice to form a solid solution during sintering.

Wang, X. X.; Choy, S. H.; Tang, X. G.; Chan, H. L. W.

2005-05-01

365

Effects of Copper Doping on Dielectric and A.C. Conductivity in Layered Sodium Tri-Titanate Ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 molar percentage (mp) of CuO doped derivatives of layered Na2Ti3O7 ceramic have been reported. The results show that copper substitutes as Cu2+ at Ti4+ octahedral sites. From the dependence of loss tangent (tan ?) and the relative permittivity (??) on temperature and frequency, it is concluded that all the derivatives are of polar nature. The relaxation peaks at lower temperatures have been attributed to the presence of different types of dipoles, whereas peaks in the higher temperature region indicate possible ferroelectric phase transition. The dependence of conductivity on temperature show that electron hopping (polaron) conduction exists in a wide span of temperature range. However, the associated interlayer ionic conduction exists in a small temperature range. Interlayer alkali ion hopping mechanism of conduction has been proposed toward higher temperatures. The conductivity versus frequency plots reveal that the polaron conduction plays a prominent role toward the lower temperature side that diminishes with the rise in temperature. The most probable relaxation times for 0.01 and 0.1 mp CuO doped derivatives are almost same but it records an increased value for 1.0 mp doped material. This again attributes to the possible change in the symmetry of copper environment.

Shripal; Dwivedi, Shailja; Singh, Rakesh; Tandon, R. P.

2013-09-01

366

Microstructure and piezoelectric properties of 0.95(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

For 0.95(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3} (0.95NKN-0.05BT) ceramics sintered at 1040-1075 deg. C, abnormal grain growth occurred but the grain size decreased when the sintering temperature exceeded 1075 deg. C. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub 3}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 3}), electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}), and piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) were considerably increased with increasing relative density and grain size. Evaporation of Na{sub 2}O deteriorated the piezoelectric properties by decreasing the resistivity. To minimize Na{sub 2}O evaporation, specimens were muffled with 0.95NKN-0.05BT powders during the sintering. Improved piezoelectric properties of d{sub 33}=225 pC/N, k{sub p}=36%, and {epsilon}{sub 3}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 3}=1058 were obtained for specimen sintered at 1060 deg. C for 2 h with muffling.

Park, Hwi-Yeol; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Heun; Nahm, Sahn; Uchino, Kenji; Lee, Hyeung-Gyu; Lee, Hwack-Joo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 1-5 Ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbud-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); International Center for Actuators and Transducers, Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Soeongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); New Materials Evaluation Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daeduk Science Town, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-08-07

367

Investigation of a new lead-free Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramic.  

PubMed

Lead-free piezoelectric compositions of the (1-x)Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-x(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 system (when x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) were fabricated using a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintered between 1,050C and 1,175C for 2 h. The effect of (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 [BST] content on phase, microstructure, and electrical properties was investigated. The optimum sintering temperature was 1,125C at which all compositions had densities of at least 98% of their theoretical values. X-ray diffraction patterns that showed tetragonality were increased with the increasing BST. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BST was added. The addition of BST was also found to improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the BNKT ceramic. A large room-temperature dielectric constant, ?r (1,609), and piezoelectric coefficient, d33 (214 pC/N), were obtained at an optimal composition of x = 0.10. PMID:22221833

Jaita, Pharatree; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

2012-01-05

368

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} (0-0.7 wt%) were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method, and the effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the structure and electrical properties was investigated. X-ray diffraction shows that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffuses into the lattice of (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped samples under various frequencies indicates obvious relaxor characteristics different from typical relaxor ferroelectric and the mechanism of the relaxor behavior was discussed. The optimum piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} = 137 pC/N and the electromechanical coupling factor k{sub p} = 0.30 are obtained at 0.5% and 0.1% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition, respectively.

Zhou Changrong [Department of Information Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)], E-mail: zcr750320@yahoo.com.cn; Liu Xinyu [Department of Information Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Li Weizhou [School of Resources and Environments, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Yuan Changlai [Department of Information Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

2009-04-02

369

Effects of Li content on the phase structure and electrical properties of lead-free (Ag0.85-xLixNa0.1K0.05)NbO3 piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free ceramics (Ag0.85-xLixNa0.1K0.05)NbO3 (ALNKN-x, x = 0-0.16) doped with 0.5 mol. % CuO were prepared by solid state reaction method under air atmosphere. The effects of Li content on the phase structure and electrical properties of the ALNKN-x ceramics were investigated. A morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases is found at x ~ 0.08-0.14. Both the ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperature (TFE) and Curie temperature (TC) shift toward higher temperatures with increasing x. Only the phase transition peak near the TC is observed when x >= 0.12. The ferroelectric phase of the ALNKN-x ceramics becomes more stable with increasing x. Furthermore, the ceramics with x = 0.12 exhibit relatively good electrical properties along with a high Curie temperature (d33 = 44 pC/N, kp = 17.7%, Pr = 14.5 C/cm2, Ec = 37.2 kV/cm, and Tc = 335 C). The results provide helpful guidance to develop new lead-free piezoelectric materials with good temperature stability.

Wu, Lang; Liu, Naiming; Zhou, Fei; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang

2012-03-01

370

Notes of the recent structural studies on lead zirconate titanate.  

PubMed

Atomic scale structure has a central importance for the understanding of functional properties of ferroelectrics. The X-ray and neutron diffraction studies used for the average symmetry determination of lead zirconate titanate [Pb(ZrxTi(1- x))O3, PZT] ceramics and powders are reviewed. The results obtained through two frequently used local probes, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with electron diffraction (ED) and Raman scattering measurements, are summarized. On the basis of these studies, structural trends as a function of composition x and temperature are outlined. There are two distinguished intrinsic structural features, (i) lead-ion shifts and (ii) local structural distortions related to different B cations and the spatial composition variation of x, which have a pronounced effect on the functional properties of PZT. Particular attention is paid to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) compositions for which a large number of different structural models have been proposed. Earlier symmetry considerations show that the monoclinic phase cannot serve as a continuous bridge between tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. This suggests that the two-phase coexistence has an important role for the piezoelectric properties. Near the MPB, the extrinsic contribution to piezoelectricity includes pressure (or electric-field)-induced changes in phase fractions and domain wall motion. It was recently shown that the domain contribution is crucial for the electromechanical properties of PZT in the vicinity of the MPB. The dependence of domain widths on crystal size and shape should also be properly accounted for when TEM/ED measurements complement X-ray and/or neutron diffraction experiments. The structure-piezoelectric property relations are summarized. PMID:18433161

Frantti, J

2008-04-24

371

Piezoelectric transducers, state of research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for preparing, treating and sintering powders to be used in the production of ceramic elements (coprecipitation, isostatic compression, sintering under shock loading) are reviewed. Faults inherent in a piezoelectric ceramic element are outlined. Perovskite type compounds, analogous to PbTiO3, which are strongly anisotropic and have a very low k31 coupling factor; lead compounds which are strongly anisotropic and give strongly attenuated ceramic elements; PVDF type polymers; electrostrictive materials; composite materials; and polar glass materials and electrets are described. Techniques for metallizing elements to improve the adhesive power of the electrodes and contacts; and adhesives and glues used for manufacturing transducers and composites are considered.

Eyraud, L.; Eyraud, P.; Bauer, F.

1984-06-01

372

Study of Zinc and Niobium Modified Lead Zirconate Titanate Fiber/Epoxy 1-3 Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc and niobium modified lead zirconate titanate (PZN-PZT) fibers were prepared by the sol-gel method. After sintering at various temperatures the crystal structure of the ceramic fibers was determined by X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the ceramic fibers was studied using a scanning electron microscope. A bundle of ceramic fibers of 25 ?m diameter was placed in a plastic tube, which was then filled with epoxy. After curing, a PZN-PZT fiber/epoxy 1-3 composite rod was formed. The rod was sliced into disks which were then polished to a thickness of approximately 40 ?m. A composite disk with 0.62 ceramic volume fraction was poled under an electric field of 3.5 kV/mm at 120C for 15 min. The electromechanical coupling coefficient kt, piezoelectric coefficient d33 and relative permittivity \\varepsilon of the disk were found to be 0.67, 403 pC/N and 1300, respectively. The hysteresis loop of the composite was also determined, and the remnant polarization Pr was found to be 12 ?C/cm2.

Li, Kun; Chan, Helen Lai-Wa; Choy, Chung-Loong

2002-11-01

373

Effects of barium titanate nanoparticles on proliferation and differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Nanomaterials hold great promise in the manipulation and treatments of mesenchymal stem cells, since they allow the modulation of their properties and differentiation. However, systematic studies have to be carried out in order to assess their potential toxicological effects. The present study reports on biocompatibility evaluation of glycol-chitosan coated barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) on rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). BTNPs are a class of ceramic systems which possess interesting features for biological applications thanks to their peculiar dielectric and piezoelectric properties. Viability was evaluated up to 5 days of incubation (concentrations in the range 0-100 ?g/ml) both quantitatively and qualitatively with specific assays. Interactions cells/nanoparticles were further investigated with analysis of the cytoskeleton conformation, with SEM and TEM imaging, and with AFM analysis. Finally, differentiation in adipocytes and osteocytes was achieved in the presence of high doses of BTNPs, thus highlighting the safety of these nanostructures towards mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:23006571

Ciofani, Gianni; Ricotti, Leonardo; Canale, Claudio; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Berrettini, Stefano; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

2012-08-11

374

Piezoelectricity Demo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry explores the history of piezoelectricity, with hands-on examples of how itâs used, models of why it happens, and how it is applied in nanotechnology. Pressing on the piezoelectric buzzer in the background causes a current to flow and the neon bulb in the foreground to glow.

2012-03-13

375

Amplifying transmission and compact suspension for a low-profile, large-displacement piezoelectric actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-profile, piezoelectrically driven microactuator is presented that achieves very large stroke lengths within size constraints suitable for certain endoscopic microscopy applications. The actuator utilizes a transmission consisting of lever arm and chevron-beam structures to amplify high-force, low-displacement motion of a ceramic lead-zirconate-titanate brick into large displacement of a translational platform. For 120 V input, a full range of 486 m of motion is achieved, with natural frequency greater than 500 Hz. This corresponds to the anticipated value found analytically and by simulation. In addition, the lateral translational platform is supported by a redesign of common folded silicon flexures to provide large transverse and vertical stiffness when the width of the actuator is limited.

Domke, J. F.; Rhee, C.-H.; Liu, Z.; Wang, T. D.; Oldham, K. R.

2011-06-01

376

High Power Piezoelectric Transformers with Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3--PbTiO3 Single Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plate-shaped piezoelectric transformers were designed and manufactured with Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3--PbTiO3 single crystals (PMN-PT). Theoretical analysis was performed using Mason's equivalent circuit model and finite element method (FEM) simulations. In the experiment, transformer performances, especially the power density, were compared among different materials, including lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, undoped PMN-PT, and manganese-doped PMN-PT (Mn-PMN-PT). High power density of 38 W/cm3 was obtained using single crystals, which was 5 times that of hard PZT ceramics. The power level of the single crystal transformer showed a significant dependence on doping, poling direction, and cutting orientation. Results also verified that the high power performance was mainly determined by the electromechanical coupling coefficient and mechanical quality factor of the material.

Zhuang, Yuan; Ural, Seyit O.; Gosain, Rohan; Tuncdemir, Safakcan; Amin, Ahmed; Uchino, Kenji

2009-12-01

377

Sintering and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (K0.38Na0.58Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0.04)O3 ceramics doped with Fe2O3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free (K0.38Na0.58Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0.04)O3 (KNLNTS) + x mol% Fe2O3 (x = 0 ~ 1) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction technique. The effect of Fe2O3 doping on the phase structure, microstructure and electrical properties of KNLNTS ceramics were studied. The addition of Fe2O3 was found to be effective in enhancing densification of KNLNTS ceramics. When x = 0.3, the piezoelectric

Yun-Po Ok; Han-Na Ji; Ki-Soo Kim; Weon-Pil Tai; Jeong-Hyeon Seol; In-Ki Hong; Jae-Shin Lee

2011-01-01

378

Piezoelectric characteristics of low temperature sintering Pb(Ni 1\\/3 Nb 2\\/3 )O 3 Pb(Zr 1\\/2 Ti 1\\/2 )O 3 ceramics as a function of Pb(Mn 1\\/3 Sb 2\\/3 )O 3 substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop the composition ceramics for multilayer ceramic for ultrasonic nozzle and ultrasonic actuator\\u000a application, Pb(Mn1\\/3Sb2\\/3)O3 (abbreviated as PMS) substituted Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (abbreviated as PNN-PZT) ceramics were fabricated using two-stage calcinations method and Li2CO3, Na2CO3 and ZnO as sintering aids, and their piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics were investigated. With the increase of\\u000a the amount of PMS

Sangho Lee; Juhyun Yoo; Insung Kim; Jaesung Song

2009-01-01

379

Piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics of low-temperature-sintering Pb(Mg 1\\/2 W 1\\/2 )O 3 Pb(Ni 1\\/3 Nb 2\\/3 )O 3 Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 ceramics according to the amount of PNN substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop low-temperature-sintering ceramics for multilayer piezoelectric actuator, Pb(Mg1\\/2W1\\/2)O3Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (abbreviated as PMWPNNPZT) ceramics were fabricated using Li2CO3 and CaCO3 as sintering aids and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated with the amount of Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3 (abbreviated as PNN) substitution. PMWPNNPZT composition ceramics could be sintered up to 870C by adding sintering aids.\\u000a At the sintering

Yeongho Jeong; Kyungjin Yoo; Juhyun Yoo

2009-01-01

380

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of <001> fiber-textured 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.325PbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 0.675Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.325PbTiO3 (PMN-32.5PT) ceramic composition (with 1 wt. % excess PbO) was fiber textured in the <001> direction by the templated grain growth process using 5 vol % oriented {001}-BaTiO3 platelet crystals as the templates. The templated ceramics annealed at 1150 C for 5 h attained texture fractions as high as 0.9. The fiber-textured samples showed an increase in the piezoelectric, electromechanical coupling, and compliance coefficients when poled and measured in the <001>-textured direction. The low drive field (<5 kV/cm) d33 coefficients in the <001>, measured directly from unipolar strain-field measurements, were ~1150 pC/N. This d33 coefficient is 1.2-1.5 times greater than randomly oriented samples. The poled ?max and Vrt for a 0.9-textured PMN-32.5PT ceramic were 21 500 and 2450, respectively. Factors limiting further property improvements are discussed.

Sabolsky, Edward M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Messing, Gary L.

2003-04-01

381

Piezoelectric Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)|

Garrison, Steve

1992-01-01

382

High-pressure hydrogen materials compatibility of piezoelectric films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen is well known for materials compatibility issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals, which are challenges for its use as the next-generation ``green'' fuel. Beyond metals, hydrogen also degrades piezoelectric materials used as actuators used in direct injection hydrogen internal combustion engines. We present the materials compatibility studies of piezoelectric films in high-pressure hydrogen environments. Absorption of high-pressure hydrogen and composition changes were studied with an elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

Alvine, K. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, W. D.; Bonham, C. C.; Skorski, D.; Pitman, S. G.; Dahl, M. E.; Henager, C. H.

2010-11-01

383

High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.

2010-12-02

384

Real-time detector for hypervelocity microparticles using piezoelectric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate was studied by bombarding with silver particles in the mass range from 2 to 100 pg, and the velocity range from 2 to 8 km\\/s. Output signals were uniquely identified on impact. It was found that incident energies above 100 nJ were measured unambiguously by a single lead-zirconate-titanate element. The detector characteristics were studied with respect to incident

T. Miyachi; N Hasebe; H. Ito; T. Masumura; H. Okada; H. Yoshioka; K. Nogami; T. Iwai; H. Shibata; Y. Hamabe; S. Sasaki; S. Sugita; S. Hasegawa; H. Yano; H. Ohashi; K. Muranaga; M. Sato; T. Tou

2004-01-01

385

Large piezoelectric effect in Pb-free Ba(Ti,Sn)O3-x(Ba,Ca)TiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a Pb-free pseudo-binary system, Ba(Sn0.12Ti0.88)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)O3 (BTS-xBCT), characterized by a phase boundary starting from a tricritical triple point of a paraelectric cubic phase, ferroelectric rhombohedral, and tetragonal phases. The optimal composition BTS-30BCT exhibits a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 ~ 530 pC/N at room temperature. In view of the recent report of high piezoelectricity in another Pb-free system BZT-BCT (Liu and Ren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 257602 (2009)), which possesses a similar tricritical triple point in the phase diagram, it seems that forming a suitable phase boundary starting from a tricritical triple point could be an effective way to develop high-performance Pb-free piezoelectrics.

Xue, Dezhen; Zhou, Yumei; Bao, Huixin; Gao, Jinghui; Zhou, Chao; Ren, Xiaobing

2011-09-01

386

Strain Rate Self-Sensing of a Piezoelectric Material with the Phase Delay Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analytical modeling, and the experimental verification of the strain rate self-sensing mechanism for a cantilevered piezoelectric beam. The piezoelectric beam consists of two laminated lead zirconium titanates (PZT) on a metal shim. A mathematical model of this beam dynamics is derived by the Hamilton's principle. It turns out that a method using an adaptive filter

Yoonsu Nam; Juno Yoon; Minoru Sasaki

2002-01-01

387

Diffuse phase transition and electrical properties of lead-free piezoelectric (LixNa1-x)NbO3 (0.04 <= x <= 0.20) ceramics near morphotropic phase boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity of lead-free (LixNa1-x)NbO3 for nominal x = 0.04-0.20, prepared by solid state reaction followed by sintering, was studied to resolve often debated issue pertaining to exactness of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) location besides structural aspects and phase stability in the system near MPB. Interestingly, a diffuse phase transition has been observed in the dielectric permittivity peak arising from the disorder induced in A-site and structural frustration in the perovskite cell due to Li substitution. A partial phase diagram has been proposed based on temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity studies. The room temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated and the ceramics with x = 0.12 showed relatively good electrical properties (d33 = 28 pC/N, kp = 13.8%, Qm = 440, Pr = 12.5 ?C/cm2, Ec = 43.2 kV/cm, and Tm = 340 C). These parameter values make this material suitable for piezoelectric resonator and filter applications. Moreover, a high dielectric permittivity (?'r = 2703) with broad diffuse peak near transition temperature, and low dielectric loss (<4%) over a wide temperature range (50-250 C) found in this material may also have a potential application in high-temperature multilayer capacitors in automotive and aerospace related industries.

Mitra, S.; Kulkarni, A. R.; Prakash, Om

2013-08-01

388

Complex electromechanical coefficients of piezoelectric composites: Applications to passive vibration damping  

SciTech Connect

A modified resonance technique was used to measure the complex electromechanical property coefficients of lossy 0-3 composite samples comprised of ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in different polymer matrices. An increase in the loss tangents of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric coefficients was observed near the glass transition temperatures of the polymer phases. In the case of a PZT-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite, it was possible to measure the electromechanical coefficients using 31 and thickness mode resonances over a range of temperature spanning the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The principle of time-temperature superposition was used to explain the frequency and temperature dependences of the coefficients. The relaxation behavior of the properties of 0-3 composites, predicted theoretically by a simple cubes model representing the composite structure, was found to be in partial agreement with the experimental data. Due to electromechanical coupling, an imaginary part in a corresponding elastic coefficient which in turn implies lossy mechanical behavior. A dissipative mechanism like electrical conductivity in a piezoelectric material results in a mechanical loss tangent and associated dissipation of mechanical energy and damping of mechanical vibrations. This concept of passive piezoelectric damping was developed and the effect of internal conductivity simulated by connecting external resistors across poled piezoceramic elements with large piezoelectric coupling. The damping characteristics of a stack specimen comprised of several such elements were optimized. The properties measured using electrical resonance and mechanical vibration experiments agreed with predictions from theory. It was possible to obtain a large mechanical stiffness coefficient ([approximately]5 to 10 x 10[sup 10] N/m[sup 2]) along with a large mechanical loss tangent ([approximately]0.30).

Ramachandran, A.R.

1992-01-01

389

Structural Evolution During Reaction to Form Aluminum Titanate from Sol-Gel Precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum titanate ceramic materials have been obtained by field-activated sintering of amorphous sol-gel powder precursors. Aluminum titanate formation started at 1000C. The structural evolution with temperature from the amorphous sol-gel state to the final fully densified ceramic product has been monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and electron microscopy. The full crystallization of aluminum titanate occurred at 1200C.

Lia A. Stanciu; Joanna R. Groza; A. Jitianu; Maria Zaharescu

2004-01-01

390

Nonlinearity and scaling behavior in a soft lead zirconate titanate piezoceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead oxide-based ferroelectrics, represented by lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr,Ti)O3] or PZT), are the most widely used materials for piezoelectric actuators, sensors, and transducers due to their excellent piezoelectric properties. Most of these piezoelectric materials are employed under a variety of strains (stress, electrical field, and temperature). It would thus be interesting to predict their behaviors under different excitations without having

Abdelowahed Hajjaji; Daniel Guyomar; Samira Touhtouh; Sebastien Pruvost; Yahia Boughaleb; Mohamed Rguiti; Christian Courtois; Anne Leriche; Khalil Benkhouja

2010-01-01

391

Analytically\\/experimentally evaluating the response of cylindrical piezoelectric material systems subjected to thermal loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromechanical elasticity solution is presented to evaluate the response of a piezoelectric linear motor at cryogenic temperatures. This model incorporates the pronounced coupling which occurs in these materials between temperature and piezoelectric strain coefficients. Results from experimental tests are presented for ceramic piezoelectric flat specimens to determine the linear and nonlinear properties required in the model; including thermal expansion

Mike A. Stam; Donny P. Wang; Gregory P. Carman

1995-01-01

392

Stress analyses of a smart composite pipe joint integrated with piezoelectric composite layers under torsion loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the joint failure strength, an adhesively bonded smart composite pipe joint system has been developed by integrating electromechanical coupling piezoelectric layers with the connection coupler. It has been validated that the integrated piezoelectric ceramic layers can smartly reduce stress concentration in the adhesive layer bond-line under bending or axial tension loads. In this study, piezoelectric particle\\/fiber

Jinquan Cheng; Guoqiang Li

2008-01-01

393

The Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Van Vooren, Ms.

2007-12-04

394

RMS TITANIC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Klooney

2010-04-20

395

RMS Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Introduction: You are going to be a passenger on board the RMS Titanic. You boarded the ship and set sail expecting the experience of a lifetime upon the Ship of Dreams, but what will happen next? In this project we will be exploring how the ship was structured, what activities were ...

Mr.taylor

2010-04-20

396

RMS TITANIC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be exploring the R.M.S Titanic. This includes an individual passenger, the class system on board, the collision and warnings leading up to it, and the construction of the ship. Hi Hillside Third Graders! Welcome to the Titanic... To watch some videos of the Wreck click on this link below. Scroll down and click on the yellow link above the YouTube screen that says watch more videos. Use the left side of the screen to help you find the word "Wreck Videos". Watch three ...

Law, Miss

2010-04-20

397

Piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials for transducer applications, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics covered under the program are reported under three major topic areas: Piezoelectric and Related Composites, Electrostriction, Phenomenology and Properties of Conventional Ceramic, and Piezoelectrics. A brief report is also given of related studies required to support and supplement work on the three major areas, under the title Associated Programs. The year has seen major personnel changes at the

L. E. Cross; R. E. Newnham; G. R. Barsch; J. V. Biggers

1988-01-01

398

Piezoelectric piggy-back microactuator for hard disk drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new piezoelectric piggy-back microactuator for high density hard disk drives was designed and fabricated to achieve more accurate positioning of the magnetic head and increasing servo bandwidth. The microactuator is made of stiff piezoelectric ceramic material to actuate the slider on which the head-element is formed. It is designed to amplify the actuating displacement. The basic mechanical performance of

Yoshikazu Soeno; Sliinji Ichikawa; Takamitsu Tsuna; Yoshikazu Sato; Isamu Sato

1999-01-01

399

3K-1 Integrated and Flexible Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick (>40 mum) ceramic films as piezoelectric and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) have been successfully deposited on metallic and non-metallic substrates by a spray technique. In the film fabrication a composite consisting of piezoelectric powders well mixed with solution of high dielectric constant is directly sprayed onto the substrate. It is then dried, fired or annealed by heat. Multiple coating is

M. Kobayashi; C.-K. Jen

2006-01-01

400

A buck-boost bidirectional converter to drive piezoelectric actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the development and control of a converter to drive piezoelectric actuators. In order to maximize the field in the piezoelectric ceramic important voltages are needed. To fulfill such requirements with a limited input voltage a bidirectional buck-boost converter is proposed. The converter is controlled by means of a sliding mode control strategy. The converter is

Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt; Daniel Montesinos-Miracle; Samuel Galceran-Arellano; A. Sudria-Andreu

2007-01-01

401

Effective moduli of granular and layered composites with piezoelectric constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective elastic and dielectric moduli of a composite made from piezoelectric materials are examined, with particular emphasis on applications to unpoled piezoelectric ceramics and layered materials. Explicit formulae for the effective moduli and coupling of a layered material are derived. A self-consistent estimate of the moduli of an isotropic polycrystal is obtained through an effective medium approximation (EMA), which

Tamara Olson; Marco Avellaneda

1993-01-01

402

A new type of linear piezoelectric stepper motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of linear piezoelectric stepper motor combining the piezoelectric effect with the electrorheological (ER) effect as studied. The ER effect occurred in fluids that can make a transition from the liquid state to a weak solid state reversibly controlled by an electric field. The driving device of a piezomotor consists of a bilayer piezoactuator using PMN-PNN-PZT ceramics, an

Shuxiang Dong; Longtu Li; Zhilun Gui; Tieying Zhou; Xiao-wen Zhang

1995-01-01

403

Lead zirconate titanate-nickel zink ferrite thick-film composites: obtaining by the screen printing technique and magnetoelectric properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered thick-film composites containing one lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer, one nickel zinc ferrite (NZF) layer, two PZT-NZF layers, or three PZT-NZF-PZT layers each 40-50 ?m thick are prepared. The layers are applied by screen printing on a ceramic aluminum oxide substrate with a preformed contact (conducting) layer. The dielectric properties of the composites are studied in the temperature interval 80-900 K and the frequency interval 25 Hz-1 MHz. Polarized samples exhibit piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and magnetoelectric effects. In tangentially magnetized two- and three-layer composites, the magnetoelectric conversion factor equals 57 kV/(m T) at low frequencies and reaches 2000 kV/(m T) at the mechanical resonance frequency.

Bush, A. A.; Shkuratov, V. Ya.; Chernykh, I. A.; Fetisov, Y. K.

2010-03-01

404

Displacement properties of RAINBOW and THUNDER piezoelectric actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromechanical displacement properties of two recently developed piezoelectric actuators, referred to as RAINBOW and THUNDER, have been measured and compared. The actuators evaluated in this investigation are fabricated from 2.54 cm diameter PZT-5H and PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramic disks and are produced with the same total device thicknesses and ceramic-to-metal thickness ratios. For the compositions tested, the RAINBOW devices are

Stephanie A. Wise

1998-01-01

405

A Cement-Based Piezoelectric Sensor for Civil Engineering Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new aggregate-like sensor using piezoelectric ceramic as sensing element was designed, fabricated and tested. The sensor\\u000a was made by bonding together two cuboids of hardened cement paste with a commercially available piezoelectric ceramic plate\\u000a in between, which is the sensing element. A new adhesive was developed during the fabrication of the sensor. The sensor was\\u000a tested on its basic

B. Shen; X. Yang; Z. Li

2006-01-01

406

Complex Electromechanical Coefficients of Piezoelectric Composites: Applications to Passive Vibration Damping.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified resonance technique was used to measure the complex electromechanical property coefficients of lossy 0-3 composite samples comprised of ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in different polymer matrices. An increase in the loss tangents of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric coefficients was observed near the glass transition temperatures of the polymer phases. In the case of a PZT-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite, it was possible to measure the electromechanical coefficients using 31 and thickness mode resonances over a range of temperatures spanning the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The principle of time-temperature superposition was used to explain the frequency and temperature dependences of the coefficients. The relaxation behavior of the properties of 0-3 composites, predicted theoretically by a simple cubes model representing the composite structure, was found to be in partial agreement with the experimental data. Due to electromechanical coupling, an imaginary part in a piezoelectric coefficient implies an imaginary part in a corresponding elastic coefficient which in turn implies lossy mechanical behavior. A dissipative mechanism like electrical conductivity in a piezoelectric material results in a mechanical loss tangent and associated dissipation of mechanical energy and damping of mechanical vibrations. This concept of passive piezoelectric damping was developed and the effect of internal conductivity simulated by connecting external resistors across poled piezoceramic elements with large piezoelectric coupling. The damping characteristics of a stack specimen comprised of several such elements were optimized. The properties measured using electrical resonance and mechanical vibration experiments agreed with predictions from theory. It was possible to obtain a large mechanical stiffness coefficient ( ~5 to 10 times 10 ^{10} N/m^2) along with a large mechanical loss tangent ( ~0.30). Such mechanical properties, not observed in conventional damping materials, are applicable in situations where mechanical vibrations of stiff structural elements are to be damped. Suggestions as to the utilization of the above damping effect have been made with respect to the design of ceramic-metal composites, inducing electrical conductivity in piezoceramics, use of active electronic circuits to enhance and obtain greater control over the damping properties and the possible use of magnetostrictive materials possessing large magnetomechanical coupling coefficients.

Ramachandran, A. R.

1992-01-01

407

Piezoelectric Properties of Vanadium-Substituted Strontium Bismuth Niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium-substituted strontium bismuth niobate, SrBi2Nb1.95V0.05O9 (SBNV), ceramics were synthesized by a low-temperature process, and the detailed piezoelectric properties of the SBNV ceramics were characterized. Dense SBNV ceramics were obtained at a sintering temperature of 950C, which is 200C lower than that for nonsubstituted (SBN) ceramics. With the substitution of vanadium cations for niobium the ferroelectric D-E hysteresis loops were observed

Rintaro Aoyagi; Shinya Inai; Yuji Hiruma; Tadashi Takenaka

2005-01-01

408

Aqueous processing of barium titanate powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many modern electronic devices, multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) are used in large quantities. For a greater volume efficiency of MLCCs, current efforts include thinner dielectric layers and a larger number of layers in a given volume, togethe r with embedded-capacitor design. All of these require a smaller particle size of the raw ceramic material, barium titanate (BaTiO3) powders, with

B. I. Lee; M. Wang; D. Yoon; M. Hu

2003-01-01

409

Magnetoelectric effect in a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the magnetoelectric effect in a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer structure have been presented. The expression for the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient in the region of electromechanical resonance has been derived based on the joint solution of the equations of motion for the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric media and the constitutive relations. The dependence of the magnitude of the effect on the thickness of the ferrite and piezoelectric layers has been analyzed. The experimental results for nickel-lead zirconate-titanate bilayer structures have been reported. The theoretical results agree perfectly with the experimental data.

Filippov, D. A.; Laletin, V. M.; Galichyan, T. A.

2013-09-01

410

Recent progress in science and technology of flexible piezoelectric composite in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical equations for dielectric piezoelectric and elastic properties of 0-3 composites are derived as a general solution based on a modified cube model using the equations from series and parallel models. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of flexible composites consisting of a polymer and a single ceramic powder or ceramic powder mixture of two average particle sizes are investigated as a

Hisao Banno

1990-01-01

411

A-site effects on the dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of (Na0.50+ x K 0.50-x)(Nb0.55Ta0.45)O3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Na0.5+ x K0.5- x )(Nb0.55Ta0.45)O3 (NKNT) ceramics prepared by using a solid state process were investigated for various A-site ratios between Na and K at 0 ? x ? 0.05 to determine the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Within the compositional range tested, X-ray diffraction patterns showed NKNT perovskite peaks with no apparent secondary peaks. Scanning electron microscope images showed little difference among microstructures composed of cube-like grains. The piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33) was enhanced up to 310 pC/N at x = 0.03 from 262 pC/N at x = 0 and then decreased with further increases in x while the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) temperature ( T O-T ) located around room temperature varied little with x. As a result, the increase that occurred in d 33 was mainly due to the MPB effects with the MPB composition of the NKNT ceramics at (Na0.53K0.47).

Lee, J. H.; Ryu, G. H.; Cho, J. H.; Song, T. K.; Kim, M. H.; Park, T. G.; Do, D.; Kim, S. S.; Sung, Y. S.; Baik, S.

2012-01-01

412

FABRICATION AND TESTING OF MICROWAVE SINTERED SOL-GEL SPRAY-ON BISMUTH TITANATE-LITHIUM NIOBATE BASED PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITE FOR USE AS A HIGH TEMPERATURE (>500 deg. C) ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER  

SciTech Connect

Bismuth titanate-lithium niobate based ultrasonic transducers have been fabricated using a sol-gel spray-on deposition technique. These transducers were then tested to determine their potential as high temperature ultrasonic transducers. Fabricated transducers were capable of operating to 1000 deg. C in pulse-echo mode; however, the exposure to such extreme temperatures appears to be destructive to the transducers.

Searfass, C. T.; Baba, A.; Tittmann, B. R. [Engineering Nanostructure Characterization Center (United States); Agrawal, D. K. [Microwave Processing and Engineering Center, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2010-02-22

413

Fabrication and Testing of Microwave Sintered Sol-Gel Spray-On Bismuth Titanate-Lithium Niobate Based Piezoelectric Composite for Use as a High Temperature (>500 c) Ultrasonic Transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth titanate-lithium niobate based ultrasonic transducers have been fabricated using a sol-gel spray-on deposition technique. These transducers were then tested to determine their potential as high temperature ultrasonic transducers. Fabricated transducers were capable of operating to 1000 C in pulse-echo mode; however, the exposure to such extreme temperatures appears to be destructive to the transducers.

Searfass, C. T.; Baba, A.; Tittmann, B. R.; Agrawal, D. K.

2010-02-01

414

Theoretical modeling for an electroactive polymer-ceramic-based micro hybrid actuation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new configuration of an electroactive polymer, ceramic-based micro hybrid actuation system (?HYBAS) is proposed in this paper. The ?HYBAS is a device concept to utilize different electroactive materials in a cooperative and efficient method for optimized electromechanical performance. A theoretical model has been developed, based on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the materials and on the configuration of the device. The ?HYBASs investigated use piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the electroactive polymer (EAP) element combined with the electroactive ceramic (EAC) elements, which are piezoelectric hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT), soft PZT, or Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-4.5%PbTiO3 single crystal (PZN-PT single crystal). The ?HYBAS demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by utilizing advantages of synergistic contributions of the electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer and an electroactive ceramic. The modeled results provide guidelines for future developments of high performance ?HYBASs to meet various applications.

Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji

2006-06-01

415

Microstructural origin for the piezoelectricity evolution in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 compositions with finely tuned polymorphic phase boundaries (PPBs) have shown excellent piezoelectric properties. The evolution of the domain morphology and crystal structure under applied electric fields of a model material, 0.948(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-0.052LiSbO3, was directly visualized using in situ transmission electron microscopy. The in situ observations correlate extremely well with measurements of the electromechanical response on bulk samples. It is found that the origin of the excellent piezoelectric performance in this lead-free composition is due to a tilted monoclinic phase that emerges from the PPB when poling fields greater than 14 kV/cm are applied.

Guo, Hanzheng; Zhang, Shujun; Beckman, Scott P.; Tan, Xiaoli

2013-10-01

416

Piezoelectric properties of MnO 2 doped low temperature sintering Pb(Mn 1\\/3 Nb 2\\/3 )O 3 Pb(Ni 1\\/3 Nb 2\\/3 )O 3 Pb(Zr 0.50 Ti 0.50 )O 3 ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, in order to develop the composition ceramics for low loss and low temperature sintering multilayer piezoelectric\\u000a actuator, Pb(Mn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Ni1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3Pb(Zr0.50Ti0.50)O3 (abbreviated as PMN-PNN-PZT) ceramics were fabricated using Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 as sintering aids, and their piezoelectric and dielectric characteristics were investigated according to the amount of MnO2 addition. At the 0.2wt% MnO2 doped specimen sintered at 900C, density and

Juhyun Yoo; Sangho Lee

2009-01-01

417

Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter  

SciTech Connect

The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length of the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.

Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-07-02

418

Microstructure and electrical properties of La-modified K0.5Na0.5NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-free ceramics (K0.5Na0.5)1-3xLaxNbO3 (0 <= x <= 0.0175) have been fabricated by a conventional sintering technique. The results of XRD show that the ceramics possess a perovskite structure with orthorhombic symmetry. Moreover, doping inhibits the grain growth, decreases the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature and induces a diffuse phase transition. At low doping levels (x <= 0.0075), the observed remanent polarization

Daojiang Gao; K. W. Kwok; Dunmin Lin; H. L. W. Chan

2009-01-01

419

Advances in Piezoelectrically Actuated RF MEMS Switches and Phase Shifters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents results on recent advances in piezoelectric actuated radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices including a temperature insensitive RF MEMS series switch and the demonstration of a 2-bit MEMS phase shifter incorporating PZT switches. Using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films, modifications to our earlier designs resulted in a RF MEMS series switch operating at 10 V

R. G. Polcawich; D. Judy; J. S. Pulskamp; S. Trolier-McKinstry; M. Dubey

2007-01-01

420

Processing, texture quality, and piezoelectric properties of <001>C textured (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)TiO3 - xPbTiO3 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the link between texture quality and electromechanical properties for <001>C textured, 0.03(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 - 0.97[0.715Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)TiO3 - 0.285PbTiO3] (0.03NBT-0.97[PMN-28.5PT]) ceramics with and without Mn-doping. Here, the subscript C denotes pseudocubic indices. Textured ceramics were prepared by templated grain growth of PMN-25PT on platelet-shaped 0.4(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.6PbTiO3 (NBT-0.6PT) templates. Texture fractions of f = 0.92 (for undoped (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)TiO3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT)) and f = 0.49 (for Mn-doped PMN-PT) were determined by fitting 002C XRD pole figures to the March-Dollase model, which was modified to account for symmetry-related 200C and 020C reflections. Using resonance methods, the elastic constants cij, sij, piezoelectric constants dij, eij, gij, hij, dielectric constants ?ij, and coupling coefficients kij of textured PMN-PT ceramics were characterized. It was found that the properties of textured PMN-PT approach the single crystal values along the texture axis (<001>C, also the poling axis), but not in transverse directions. In particular, the elastic compliance sE11 (perpendicular to <001>C) approaches an average of the single crystal sE11 and sE11(45) coefficients, resulting in anomalous -sE12/sE11 ratios of - 0.01 and 0.04 in pure and Mn-doped textured PMN-PT, respectively. The 33-mode properties as measured by resonance-antiresonance methods were d33 = 852 pC/N, k33 = 0.83, ?33 = 3500, and mechanical quality factor Qm = 94 for undoped textured ceramics and d33 = 515, k33 = 0.76, V33 = 2200, and Qm = 714 for Mn-doped textured ceramics.

Poterala, Stephen F.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Meyer, Richard J.; Messing, Gary L.

2011-07-01

421

Multilayer piezoelectric devices based on PZT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PZT 53\\/47 was obtained by a modified chemical route. Small-particle-size powders were allowed to obtain high solid content, non-aqueous slips with Newtonian behaviour. The use of both the tape-casting technique and the common multilayer ceramic fabrication process led to a high-density multilayer ceramic body without cracks or delaminations, and a homogeneous microstructure. The architecture of multilayer piezoelectrics has an

E. Nieto; J. F. Fernandez; C. Moure; P. Duran

1996-01-01

422

On piezoelectric super-helix actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical designs of piezoelectric ceramic helical and spiral actuators have existed for many years. The main reason these devices have not achieved widespread recognition and use is the perceived difficulty of processing such forms. These processing problems, covering both the material form itself and electrode placement, have been tackled and solved over recent years at the University of Birmingham. A

David H. Pearce; Anthony Hooley; Tim W. Button

2002-01-01

423

Microstructure of BaTiO3--Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3--BiFeO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of (1-x)(0.33BaTiO3--0.67BiFeO3)--xBi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) on Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 content x associated with microstructural changes is studied. From the behaviour of electric field-induced polarization and strain, polarization switching and depolarizing become easier as Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 content x increases. Remanent polarization and dielectric constant decrease, while polarization saturation field increases with increasing x. Microstructural observation reveals that Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 addition enhances the compositional fluctuation of BaTiO3/BiFeO3 ratio, which probably creates a nanometre-sized domain region with slightly BaTiO3-rich composition. Since this nanometre-sized domain may cause relatively large responses of polarization and strain to the applied electric field, an appropriate amount of Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 enhances the electric field-induced strain, resulting in the largest piezoelectric response at x = 0.05. However, excessive Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 degrades polarization and strain characteristics, because a number of Ba(Fe1-xMgx/2Tix/2)12O19 grains are created as a secondary phase and cause the segregation of excess bismuth oxide phases with low dielectric constant into the boundaries of the ferroelectric/piezoelectric grains.

Yabuta, Hisato; Shimada, Mikio; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hayashi, Jumpei; Kubota, Makoto; Miura, Kaoru; Fukui, Tetsuro; Fujii, Ichiro; Wada, Satoshi

2012-09-01

424

Raman imaging of grain growth mechanism in highly textured Pb(Mg{1{/}3}Nb{2{/}3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} piezoelectric ceramics*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb(Mg{1 / 3}Nb{2 / 3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} solid solution ((1-x)PMN-xPT) tape cast ceramics have been prepared by homo-epitaxial templated grain growth (HTGG) using cubic 0.75PMN 0.25 PT single crystal seeds as template (a few wt%) and x = 0.35 nanoparticles for the ceramic matrix. Raman imaging studied representative medium and highly textured ceramics. On the base of a previous study which has shown that the Raman peak centre of gravity depends on the solid solution composition whereas peak intensity is correlated to the unit-cell distortion, Raman imaging shows that the final composition and structure is very close to that of the matrix.

Colomban, P.; Pham Thi, Mai

2005-06-01

425

Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer.  

PubMed

The working principle of Cymbal piezoelectric composite underwater acoustic transducer was studied in this paper. PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramic disk was used as piezoelectric phase and brass foil was used as end cap electrode of the Cymbal transducer. The silicon rubber was used as the insulated proof layer of the underwater acoustic transducer. The properties of this transducer used as hydrophone, such as operation frequency, free-field voltage receiving sensitivity and directivity, were investigated. Several kinds of prototype of this transducer were fabricated and the properties of this transducer used as hydrophone were tested. The results show that the properties of this transducer used as hydrophone depend on the dimensions of Cymbal transducer because the piezoelectric properties of this transducer are dependent on the dimensions of Cymbal transducer's end caps. The appropriate dimensions for getting higher free-field voltage receiving sensitivity with -184.7 dB were obtained. PMID:16793099

Li, Denghua; Wu, Min; Oyang, Peixi; Xu, Xiaofei

2006-06-06

426

Polar glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyroelectric-piezoelecric glass ceramics of polar materials like Li2Si2O5, Ba2TiGe2O8, Ba2TiSi2O8, and Various compositions in the systems Li2O-B2O3, Li2O-SiO2-ZnO, Li2O-SiO2-B2O3 have been prepared by oriented recrystallization of the glasses under a strong temperature gradient, providing a simple inexpensive process for preparing piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials. High pyroelectric responses were observed in these glass-ceramics. Values of piezoelectric d33 coefficients, frequency constants, electromechanical

A. Halliyal; A. S. Bhalla; R. E. Newnham; L. E. Cross

1981-01-01

427

Electric field induced fracture mechanism and aging of piezoelectric behavior in Pb(MgNb)O 3Pb(ZrTi)O 3 multilayer ceramic actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical aging and mechanical fracture behavior of 0.2(PbMg1\\/3Nb2\\/3O3)0.8(PbZr0.475Ti0.525O3) multilayer ceramic actuators have been investigated by applying both bipolar and unipolar voltages for unpoled and poled actuator, respectively. After 8.7107 cycles of 2kV\\/mm bipolar voltage, unpoled multilayer ceramic actuator had distorted shape of PE hysteresis loops. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient keff of poled actuator was calculated by considering resonant frequency and

Jung-Hyuk Koh; Soon-Jong Jeong; Mun-Su Ha; Jae-Sung Song

2004-01-01

428

Dielectrophoretically structured piezoelectric composites with high aspect ratio piezoelectric particles inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric composites were prepared by dielectrophoretic alignment of high aspect ratio piezoelectric particles in a thermosetting polymer matrix. A high level of alignment was achieved in the cured composite from a resin containing randomly oriented high aspect ratio particles. Upon application of an electric field during curing of the resin, the particles were found to rotate with their long axes in the direction of the electric field, before coalescing to form chains. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the structured composites are well described by an analytical model for composites containing particles arranged into chains. The influence of degree of rotation and aspect ratio of the individual particles as well as their spacing is described with this model. The results correlate with the experimental values for both permittivity and piezoelectric constants in the poling direction. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties were significantly improved with respect to randomly dispersed piezoelectric ceramic powder-polymer composites and the maximum g33 was shifted to a lower volume fraction. The results could have implications for development of dielectric and piezoelectric (nano-)fiber composites for dielectrics such as embedded capcitors, as well as piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting applications.

van den Ende, D. A.; van Kempen, S. E.; Wu, X.; Groen, W. A.; Randall, C. A.; van der Zwaag, S.

2012-06-01

429

Future Titan Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New discoveries about Titan from the Cassini-Huygens mission have led to a broad range of mission class studies for future missions, ranging from NASA Discovery class to International Flagship class. Three consistent science themes emerge and serve as a framework for discussing the various mission concepts: Goal A: Explore Titan, an Earth-Like System - How does Titan function as a system? How are the similarities and differences with Earth, and other solar system bodies, a result of the interplay of the geology, hydrology, meteorology, and aeronomy present in the Titan system?; Goal B: Examine Titans Organic InventoryA Path to Prebiological Molecules - What is the complexity of Titans organic chemistry in the atmosphere, within its lakes, on its surface, and in its putative subsurface water ocean and how does this inventory differ from known abiotic organic material in meteorites and therefore contribute to our understanding of the origin of life in the Solar System?; and Goal C: Explore Enceladus and Saturns magnetosphereclues to Titans origin and evolution - What is the exchange of energy and material with the Saturn magnetosphere and solar wind? What is the source of geysers on Enceladus? Does complex chemistry occur in the geyser source? Within this scientific framework the presentation will overview the Titan Explorer, Titan AND Enceladus Mission, Titan Saturn System Mission, Titan Mare Explorer, and Titan Submersible. Future timelines and plans will be discussed.

Waite, J. H.; Coustenis, A.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Stofan, E.

2012-04-01

430

Raman- and Brillouin-scattering studies on lead-free piezoelectric Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5- x TiO3 ceramics with A-site vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman and Brillouin spectra of lead-free piezoelectric Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)0.5- x TiO3 ceramics with A-site vacancies were investigated for x = 0 0.05. The Raman spectra measured at room temperature showed seven broad bands over the range of 50-1000 cm-1, reflecting strong anharmonicity, inherent A-site disorder and the resulting breakdown of the Raman selection rule. The splitting of the A1 mode near 270 cm-1 indicated that the tetragonal symmetry was maintained over the whole x range, consistent with the X-ray diffraction results. The Brillouin spectra exhibited distributed longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes, in addition to central peaks. The distributed acoustic modes were attributed to the scattering events at all scattering angles from 0 to 180 due to multiple reflections and refractions at the grain boundaries. The relaxation time obtained from fitting the broad central peak by using a Debye function exhibited a slowing-down behavior in the paraelectric phase. The formation of the central peak was attributed to the existence of nano-sized polar regions due to the anharmonic vibrations and the hopping motions of the A-site cations.

Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji; Ahn, Chang Won; Kim, Ill Won; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

2013-04-01

431

Evaluation of the Long-Term Performance of Titanate Ceramics for Immobilization of Excess Weapons Plutonium: Results from Pressurized Unsaturated Flow and Single Pass Flow-Through Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes our findings from pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) and single-pass flow-through (SPFT) experiments to date. Results from the PUF test of a Pu-bearing ceramic with enclosing surrogate high-level waste glass show that the glass reacts rapidly to alteration products. Glass reaction causes variations in the solution pH in contact with the ceramic materials. We also document variable concentrations of Pu in solution, primarily in colloidal form, which appear to be related to secular variations in solution composition. The apparent dissolution rate of the ceramic waste form, based on Ba concentrations in the effluent, is estimated at {le} 10{sup {minus}5} g/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} d). Pu-bearing colloids were recovered in the size range of 0.2 to 2 {micro}m, but it is not clear that such entities would be transported in a system that is not advective-flow dominated. Results from SPFT experiments give information on the corrosion resistance of two surrogate Pu-ceramics (Ce-pyrochlore and Ce-zirconolite) at 90 C over a pH range of 2 to 12. The two ceramics were doped with minor quantities ({approximately}0.1 mass%) of MoO{sub 3}, so that concentrations of Mo in the effluent solution could be used to monitor the reaction behavior of the materials. The data obtained thus far from experiments with durations up to 150 d do not conclusively prove that the solid-aqueous solution systems have reached steady-state conditions. Therefore, the dissolution mechanism cannot be determined. Apparent dissolution rates of the two ceramic materials based on Ce, Gd, and Mo concentrations in the effluent solutions from the SPFT are nearly identical and vary between 1.1 to 8.5 x 10{sup {minus}4} g/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} d). In addition, the data reveal a slightly amphoteric dissolution behavior, with a minimum apparent rate at pH = 7 to 8, over the pH range examined. Results from two related ceramic samples suggest that radiation damage can have a measurable effect on the dissolution of titanium-based ceramics. The rare earth pyrochlores, Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Lu{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, are being studied as part of the DOE Environmental Management Science Program, and the results are germane to this study. The corrosion resistances of both heavy-ion bombarded and pristine (non-bombarded) specimens are being examined with the SPFT test. Initial data indicate that the dissolution rate may increase by a factor of 3 times or more when these materials become amorphous from radiation damage.

BP McGrail; HT Schaef; JP Icenhower; PF Martin; RD Orr; VL Legore

1999-09-13

432

Virtual Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recent historical and cinematic fascination with the Titanic proves that the allure of this most famous luxury liner remains unsinkable. The Discovery Channel Online has created a captivating site devoted to images, movies (IPIX, QuickTime), and text describing the ship and its demise. While the site contains historical photos and lithographs of the ship as well as underwater photos and movies from a 1985 submersible mission, the unique contribution of this site is its numerous virtual images of the interior and exterior of the Titanic as well as its movies of the collision and sinking. Developed by Andrew Nelson for a CD-ROM game, the movies include a flyby of the ship, a collision movie, a listing movie, and a three-part series of the sinking. Both flat and "bubble" views of such features as the first-class cabins, the wireless room, and the grand staircase are also included. A talk-back section discusses various theories surrounding the sinking and contains several related links.

1997-01-01

433

Investigation of ferroelectric phase transition for modified barium titanate in multilayer ceramic capacitors by in situ Raman scattering and dielectric measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ferroelectric phase behaviors of modified BaTiO3 in X7R multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) were investigated by dielectric measurements and in situ Raman scattering. The\\u000a in situ thermo-Raman scattering shows that because of a residual stress existing in the MLCCs, the tetragonal to cubic phase\\u000a transition for modified BaTiO3 in MLCCs takes place over a wide temperature range of 373K to

Gang Yang; Zhenxing Yue; Tieyu Sun; Jianqiang Zhao; Zhengwen Yang; Longtu Li

2008-01-01

434

Electron microscopy of X7R and Y5V type barium titanate multilayer ceramic capacitors with noble and base metal electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), Y5V with Ni electrodes and X7R with Ag\\/Pd electrodes, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and showed quite different microstructures which determined their dielectric behaviors. In X7R-type MLCCs, core-shell structures were observed. The flat dielectric constant-temperature curves obtained from these materials can be interpreted in terms of the internal stress states in

Qiquan Feng

2004-01-01

435

Piezoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students explore the piezoelectric effect, which is the conversion between electricity and mechanical motion. The model used in this activity shows this conversion and users can manipulate the model to change the voltage and observe changes to a crystal. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In these activities, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and central and key concepts.

2008-10-23

436

Transmission electron microscopy investigation of the high temperature BiScO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a perovskite solid-solution ((1-x)BiScO3-(x)PbTiO3) with superior electromechanical properties than PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PZT) ceramics has been discovered. The system has a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between ferroelectric rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) symmetries similar to PZT but the underlying domain structures and some aspects of the crystal chemistry remain to be elucidated. Therefore, transmission electron microscopy has been used to study

C. A. Randall; R. E. Eitel; T. R. Shrout; D. I. Woodward; I. M. Reaney

2003-01-01

437

Hydrogen Species Motion in Piezoelectrics: A Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is known to damage or degrade piezoelectric materials, at low pressure for ferroelectric random access memory applications, and at high pressure for hydrogen powered vehicle applications. The piezoelectric degradation is in part governed by the motion of hydrogen species within the piezoelectric materials. We present here Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) measurements of the local hydrogen species motion within lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) on samples charged by gaseous exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen {approx}17 MPa. Filter Analyzed Neutron Spectroscopy (FANS) studies of the hydrogen enhanced vibrational modes are presented as well. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and compared to comparable bulk diffusion studies of hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Tyagi, Madhu; Brown, Craig; Udovic, Terrence J.; Jenkins, T. J.; Pitman, Stan G.

2012-03-05

438

Temperature dependence dielectric properties of modified barium titanate-PVB composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, attempts are made to prepare ceramic polymer-composite followed by characterization of dielectric properties. The Barium Titanate ceramic powders are synthesized using the hydrothermal process. Silane treatment is carried out on Barium Titanate powder to increase its compatibility with polymer, followed with preparation of ceramic-polymer composite. Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) is used as matrix for preparation of the composites and the concentration of Barium Titanate is increased from 60 to 90 wt%. Dielectric properties such as volume resistivity, dielectric constant, dissipation factor are evaluated. Results indicate that the dielectric constant and dissipation factor vary between 52 to 120 and 0.01 to 0.07; respectively as the relative ratio of polymer and silane modified Barium Titanate is varied. Specifically, at 90 wt% of silane modified Barium Titanate, the highest dielectric constant of 123 along with dissipation factor of 0.07 is obtained.

Joshi, N. J.; Rakshit, P. B.; Grewal, G. S.; Shrinet, V.; Pratap, A.

2013-06-01

439

Investigations on surface composition and microstructure of sintered barium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes studies on surface atomic composition, microstructure and microarea elemental distribution in sintered\\u000a undoped as well as donor or acceptor doped polycrystalline barium titanate ceramics. The specimens examined are derived from\\u000a barium titanate powders synthesized by two different wet chemical procedures namely oxalate precursor route and gel-to-crystallite\\u000a conversion. The compositional analysis is carried out by backscattering spectrometry (BS)

Sanjiv Kumar; V. S. Raju; T. R. N. Kutty

2007-01-01

440

Micromechanical theory of the nonlinear behavior of ferroelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectric and ferroelastic switching cause ferroelectric ceramics to depolarize and deform when subjected to excessive electric field or stress. Switching is the source of the classic butterfly shaped strain vs. electric field hysteresis loops and the corresponding electric displacement vs. electric field loops. It is also the source of a stress-strain curve with linear elastic behavior at low stress, non-linear switching strain at intermediate stress, and linear elastic behavior at high stress. In this work, a series of experiments on lead lanthanum zirconate titanate are modeled with a computer simulation of the ceramic microstructure. The polarization and strain for an individual grain are predicted from the imposed electric field and stress through a Preisach hysteresis model. The response of the bulk ceramic to applied loads is predicted by averaging the response of individual grains that are considered to be statistically random in orientation. The random orientation yields essential non-linear behavior of the observed strain and electric displacement hysteresis loops and the non-linear stress- strain curve for the polycrystalline ceramic. The linear piezoelectric effect opens up a butterfly shape to the strain vs. electric field hysteresis loop but the model fails to predict the observed effect of 90 degree(s) switching. The grain to grain residual stress and residual polarization are estimated from inclusion calculations. These are both a function of the remanent strain and remanent polarization of the ceramic. This constraint opposed switching but has little effect on the butterfly shape in the strain vs. electric field hysteresis loop.

Lynch, Christopher S.; Hwang, Stephen C.; McMeeking, Robert M.

1995-02-01

441

Dielectric Behavior of Nano Barium Titanate Filled Polymeric Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid growth of electronic industry requires development of new materials that combine the high dielectric constant intrinsic to ferroelectric ceramic materials with easy processing characteristics of polymers. Ceramic-polymeric composites possess interesting properties for a variety of electronic applications including passive electronic devices. In fact, polymer-ceramic materials have drawn lot attention for use in microelectronic packaging, because they can give higher performance with lower cost, size and weight. In this work, attempts are made to prepare ceramic polymer composites followed by characterization of dielectric properties. The Barium Titanate ceramic powders are synthesized using the hydrothermal process. Crystal structure and crystallite size of particles are determined using X-ray diffraction. Silane treatment is carried out on Barium Titanate powder to increase its compatibility with polymer, followed with preparation of ceramic polymer composites. Epoxy and polyvinyledene fluoride (PVDF) polymers are used as matrices for preparation of the composites. The proportion of nanopowder is varied from 60 to 90 wt%. Dielectric properties such as volume resistivity, dielectric constant, dissipation factor are evaluated. Results indicate that the dielectric constant and dissipation factor vary between 18 -140 and 0.01 to 0.09, respectively as the relative ratio of polymer and silane modified Barium Titanate is varied. Specifically, at 90 wt% of 0.1 wt% silane modified Barium Titanate, the highest dielectric constant of 140 along with dissipation factor of 0.07 is obtained in the epoxy based system.

Pratap, A.; Joshi, N. J.; Rakshit, P. B.; Grewal, G. S.; Shrinet, V.

442

Leakage-current characteristics of vanadium- and scandium-doped barium strontium titanate ceramics over a wide range of DC electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the leakage-current characteristics of bulk vanadium (donor)- and scandium (acceptor)-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramic structures measured using gold electrical contacts. Vanadium doping reduces the ohmic leakage current that dominates the transport characteristics by up to 5kVcm?1. The Arrhenius activation energy is 0.18, 0.20 and 0.23eV for 1, 2 and 4at.% V-doped samples, respectively. Above this field, the currentvoltage characteristics exhibit

S. Bandyopadhyay; S. J. Liu; Z. Z. Tang; R. K. Singh; N. Newman

2009-01-01

443

High thermal stability of piezoelectric properties in (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3)x-(BaTiO3)y-(Na0.5K0.5NbO3)1-x-y ceramics for Na0.5K0.5NbO3 rich end of composition (x, y <= 0.04 mol. %). These compositions were found to exhibit significantly improved thermal stability of piezoresponse. Variation of dielectric constant as a function of temperature revealed that orthorhombic-tetragonal (To-t) and tetragonal-cubic (Tc) transition temperatures for these compositions were in the vicinity of 0 C and 330 C, respectively. Dynamic scaling and temperature dependent X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response explaining the temperature dependent behavior.

Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank

2013-01-01

444

Piezoelectric Properties of Bismuth Layer-Structured Ferroelectric Ceramics with a Preferred Orientation Processed by the Reactive Templated Grain Growth Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBT) and Na0.475Ca0.05Bi4.475Ti4O15 (NCBT) ceramics with a highly preferred {001} orientation were prepared by the reactive templated grain growth (RTGG) method. Plate-like Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) particles were synthesized by a molten salt technique and used as the reactive template. The template particles were mixed with other oxide and carbonate powders and aligned by tape-casting. During the sintering, oriented CBT

Tsuguto Takeuchi; Toshihiko Tani; Yasuyoshi Saito

1999-01-01

445

Titan 2D: Understanding Titans Seasonal Atmospheric Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present results from a novel two-dimensional (2D) model that simulates the physics and chemistry of Titans atmosphere. Despite being an icy moon of Saturn, Titan is the only Solar System object aside from Earth that is sheathed by a thick nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. This vulnerable gaseous envelopean embodiment of a delicate coupling between photochemistry, radiation, and dynamicsis Natures laboratory for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Titans large obliquity generates pronounced seasonal cycles in its atmosphere, and the Cassini spacecraft has been observing these variations since 2004. In particular, Cassini measurements show that the latitudinal distribution of Titans rich mlange of hydrocarbon species follows seasonal patterns. The mixing ratios of hydrocarbons increase with latitude towards the winter pole, suggesting a pole-to-pole circulation that reverses after equinox. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model of Titans atmosphere, we show that photochemistry alone cannot produce the observed meridional hydrocarbon distribution. This necessitates the employment of a 2D chemistry-transport model that includes meridional circulation as well as diffusive processes and photochemistry. Of additional concern, no previous 2D model of Titan extends beyond 500 km altitudea critical limitation since the peak of methane photolysis is at 800 km. Our 2D model is the first to include Titans stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The meridional circulation in our 2D model is derived from the outputs of two general circulation models (GCMs): the TitanWRF GCM (Newman et al. 2011) covering the troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere, and a thermosphere general circulation model (TGCM) covering the remainder of the atmosphere through the thermosphere (Mller-Wodarg et al. 2003; 2008). This presentation will focus on the utilization of these advances applied to the 2D Caltech/JPL KINETICS model to understand the seasonal and meridional distribution of hydrocarbons as well as other atmospheric cycles on Titan.

Wong, Michael; Zhang, X.; Li, C.; Hu, R.; Shia, R.; Newman, C.; Mller-Wodarg, I.; Yung, Y.

2013-10-01

446

Design and characterization of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents modeling and prototype fabrication and characterization of new types of piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. Our approach in designing these piezoelectric motors was: (i) to simplify the structure including the poling configuration of piezoelectric elements used in the stator and (ii) to reduce the number of components in order to decrease the cost and enhance the driving reliability. There are two different types of piezoelectric motors designed throughout this research. The first of these designs consists of a metal tube, on which two piezoelectric ceramic plates poled in thickness direction, were bonded. Two orthogonal bending modes of the hollow cylinder were superimposed resulting in a rotational vibration. Since the structure and poling configuration of the active piezoelectric elements used in the stator are simple, this motor structure is very suitable for miniaturization. Moreover, a single driving source can excite two bending modes at the same time, thus generate a wobble motion. Three types of prototypes are included in this design. The piezoelectric stator structure is the same for all. However, the dimensions of the motors are reduced by almost 50 percent. Starting with a 10 mm long stator, we reached to 4 mm in the last prototype. The initial diameter was 2.4 mm, which was reduced to 1.6 mm. In the final design, the rotor part of the motor was changed resulting in the reduction in the number of components. In terms of driving circuit, a single driving source was enough to run the motors and a conventional switching power supply type resonant L-C circuit was used. A simple motor structure with a simple driving circuit were combined successfully and fabricated inexpensively. The second design is a shear type piezoelectric linear motor. The behavior of a single rectangular piezoelectric shear plate was analyzed and after optimizing the dimensions and the mode characteristics, a prototype was fabricated. The prototype consists of one layer of ceramic and a brass teeth-like layer bonded on it. The displacement was amplified with the metal layer, the teeth of which were placed on the points of in-phase motion. The targeted application area is paper-feeding mechanism. In terms of application areas for the first design, a gas valve system and a micro vehicle were constructed. In addition, a new optical coherence tomography endoscope by utilizing the piezoelectric micromotor was designed. Finally, the prototype motor was integrated inside the camera of a cell phone to drive the zoom mechanism.

Yener, Serra

447

Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)|

Takis, Sandra L.

1999-01-01

448

ULTRASENSITIVE HIGH-TEMPERATURE SELECTIVE GAS DETECTION USING PIEZOELECTRIC MICROCANTILEVERS  

SciTech Connect

We have obtained very promising results in the Phase I study. Specifically, for temperature effects, we have established that piezoelectric cantilever sensors could retain their resonance peak strength at high temperatures, i.e., the Q values of the resonance peaks remained above 10 even when the temperature was very close to the Curie temperature. This confirms that a piezoelectric cantilever sensor can be used as a sensor up to its Curie temperature. Furthermore, we have shown that the mass detection sensitivity remained unchanged at different temperatures. For selective gas detection, we have demonstrated selective NH{sub 3} detection using piezoelectric cantilever sensors coated with mesoporous SiO{sub 2}. For high-temperature sensor materials development, we have achieved highly oriented Sr-doped lead titanate thin films that possessed superior dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Such highly oriented films can be microfabricated into high-performance piezoelectric microcantilever sensors that can be used up to 490 C. We have accomplished the goal of Phase I study in exploring the various aspects of a high-temperature gas sensor. We propose to continue the study in Phase II to develop a sensor that is suitable for high-temperature applications using piezoelectrics with a high Curie temperature and by controlling the effects of temperature. The lead titanate based thin film developed in Phase I is good for applications up to 490 C. In phase II, we will develop lithium niobate thin film based cantilevers for applications up to 1000 C.

Wan Y. Shih; Tejas Patil; Qiang Zhao; Yi-Shi Chiu; Wei-Heng Shih

2004-03-05

449

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of hydroxyapatite-BaTiO3 composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter describes the relationships between the composition and the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of hydroxyapatite-barium titanate composites for polarized bone substitut