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1

Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

Voelzke, M. R.

2

MEMS AO for Planet Finding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

2008-01-01

3

Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

Jefferson, A

2011-01-17

4

Tricorrectional bunionectomy with AO screw fixation.  

PubMed

A 16-month preliminary study was performed on 58 patients for corrective surgery of hallux abducto valgus, with AO4 screw fixation. The procedure is a modification of the bi-plane Austin procedure, called a tricorrectional bunionectomy. The authors present the procedure with objective and subjective findings. The principles of bone healing and internal fixation using AO screw fixation are discussed. PMID:2625507

Boggs, S I; Selner, A J; Roth, I E; Bernstein, A L

1989-01-01

5

The New Frontiers Academic AO Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Alabama in Huntsville and the College of Charleston have embarked on an educational experiment called the Academic AO Project. This project seeks to simulate the NASA Announcement of Opportunity response process in the classroom.

Benfield, M. P. J.; Turner, M. W.; Runyon, C. J.; Hakkila, J.

2010-03-01

6

The Magellan Telescope adaptive secondary AO system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan Clay telescope is a 6.5m Gregorian telescope located in southern Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. The Gregorian design allows for an adaptive secondary mirror that can be tested off-sky in a straight-forward manner. We have fabricated a 85 cm diameter aspheric adaptive secondary with our subcontractors and partners. This secondary has 585 actuators with <1 msec response times. The chopping adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity AO science. We will achieve very high Strehls (~98%) in the Mid-IR AO (8-26 microns) with the BLINC/MIRAC4 Mid-IR science camera. This will allow the first "super-resolution" and nulling Mid-IR studies of dusty southern objects. We will employ a high order (585 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor similar to that used in the Large Binocular Telescope AO systems. The relatively high actuator count will allow modest Strehls to be obtained in the visible (~0.8?m). Our visible light AO (Vis AO) science camera is fed by an advanced ADC and beamsplitter piggy-backed on the WFS optical table. The system science and performance requirements, and an overview the design, interface and schedule for the Magellan AO system are presented here.

Close, Laird M.; Gasho, Victor; Kopon, Derek; Hinz, Phil M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson

2008-07-01

7

Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids from AO Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of our study of resolved asteroids using adaptive optics (AO) on large telescopes (>8; m), we have identified several that can serve as Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids (STEAs), suitable for radar and thermo-physical calibration. These objects are modeled well as triaxial ellipsoids, having: 1) small uncertainties on their three dimensions as determined with AO; 2) rotational poles well determined from both lightcurves and AO; and 3) good sidereal periods from lightcurves. Although AO allows the opportunity to find an asteroid's dimensions and rotational pole in one night, we have developed a method to combine AO observations from different oppositions to pool into a global solution. The apparent orientation and sizes of STEAs can be predicted to within a few degrees and a few km over decades. Currently, we consider 511 Davida, 52 Europa, 2 Pallas, and 15 Eunomia as STEAs. Asteroids that are not well modeled as ellipsoids, clearly showing departures from ellipsoid figures in AO images, include 129 Antigone and 41 Daphne. We will show movies of images and models of these asteroids.

Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Carry, B.

2008-09-01

8

Characterization of an AO-OCT system  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-volumetric-resolution, images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has been under development for 2 years and has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging [1]. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction [2] and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction [3]. We are beginning to investigate the potential for increasing the image contrast in this system using higher-order wavefront correction. The first step in this analysis is to quantify the residual wavefront error (WFE) in the current system. Developing an error budget is a common tool for improved performance and system design in astronomical AO systems [4, 5]. The process for vision science systems is also discussed in several texts e.g. [6], but results from this type of analysis have rarely been included in journal articles on AO for vision science. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of a future high-contrast system. In general, an AO system error budget must include an analysis of three categories of residual WFE: errors in measuring the phase, errors caused by limitations of the DM(s), and errors introduced by temporal variation. Understanding the mechanisms and relative size of these errors is critical to improving system performance. In this paper we discuss the techniques for characterizing these error sources in the AO-OCT system. It is useful to first calculate an error budget for the simpler case using a model eye, and then add the additional errors introduced for the case of a human subject. Measurement error includes calibration error, wavefront sensor (WFS) CCD noise, and sampling errors. Calibration errors must be measured by an external system. Typically this error is inferred from measurements of the point spread function (PSF). It can also be estimated by measuring known wavefront errors and comparing to the WFS measurement. Both methods will be used in the AO-OCT system. In this particular system measurement error introduced by the WFS can be caused by low light levels, poor camera sensitivity at the operating wavelength and noise introduced by heat in the uncooled CCD. Also, the gaussian beam profile of the system causes centroids near the edges of the pupil to be dimmer, and thus noisier. The easiest way to estimate measurement error is to compare successive wavefront measurements when the system is stable. This techniques will include vibrations and other systematic errors. Alternatively the measurement error can be estimated from measured signal to noise. This is more complicated but will decouple measurement errors from stability measurements. Ultimately, even if the phase is measured perfectly, performance will still be limited by the fitting error [7]. This error is inversely proportional to the number of actuators of the DM. Basically wavefront errors with spatial frequencies greater than half the number of actuators across the aperture cannot be corrected. For DMs with modal influence functions (like the AOptix Bimorph in the AO-OCT system), this translates to the number of modes which can be corrected. The AO-OCT system over-samples the wavefront, so to some extent, we can measure these out-of-band errors directly. In addition to fitting error, the DM will introduce errors based on the ability of each individual actuator to go to the position demanded by the control system. Generally this voltage step size is limited by the resolution of the drive electronics and can be calculated analytically.

Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

2007-07-26

9

Experimental comparison of Wide Field AO control schemes using the Homer AO bench.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) concepts, such as Laser Tomography AO (LTAO) or Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) have been developed in order to overcome the anisoplanatism limit of classical AO. Most of the future AO-assisted instruments of ELTs rely on such concepts which have raised critical challenges such as tomographic estimation and from laser and natural guide star combined with efficient DM(s) control. In that context, the experimental validation of the various clever control solutions proposed by several teams in the past years is now essential to reach a level of maturity compatible with their implementation in future WFAO developments for ELT. The ONERA wide field AO facility (HOMER bench) has been developed for these very issues. Gathering a 3D turbulence generator, laser and natural guide stars, two deformable mirrors with variable altitude positions and a PC-based flexible and user-friendly RTC , HOMER allows the implementation and comparison of control schemes from the simplest least-square to the optimal Linear Quadratic Gaussian solutions including Virtual DM and Pseudo-closed loop approaches. After a description of the bench internal calibrations and ultimate performance, all the control schemes are compared experimentally. Their evolutions as a function of wavefront sensors SNR as well as their robustness to calibration / model errors are particularly emphasised. Finally, we derive from the previous works some specific calibrations and identifications procedures ensuring both robustness and efficiency of WFAO systems and we extrapolate their applications to the future ELT AO systems.

Parisot, Amélie; Petit, Cyril; Fusco, Thierry

2011-09-01

10

The first VisAO-fed integral field spectrograph: VisAO IFS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the optomechanical design of the Magellan VisAO Integral Field Spectrograph (VisAO IFS), designed to take advantage of Magellan's AO system and its 85.1cm concave ellipsoidal Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM). With 585 actuators and an equal number of actively-controlled modes, this revolutionary second generation ASM will be the first to achieve moderate Strehl ratios into the visible wavelength regime. We have designed the VisAO IFS to be coupled to either Magellan's LDSS-3 spectrograph or to the planned facility M2FS fiber spectrograph and to optimize VisAO science. Designed for narrow field-of-view, high spatial resolution science, this lenslet-coupled fiberfed IFS will offer exciting opportunities for scientific advancement in a variety of fields, including protoplanetary disk morphology and chemistry, resolution and spectral classification of tight astrometric binaries, seasonal changes in the upper atmosphere of Titan, and a better understanding of the black hole M-sigma relation.

Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird M.; Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared R.; Gasho, Victor; Brutlag, Kevin M.; Uomoto, Alan

2010-07-01

11

Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em estudar o tema Astronom! ia entre os educandos.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

2007-08-01

12

Extreme is the new normal: lessons from 8-m ExAO for ELT regular AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first true extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) instruments for 8-m telescopes are nearing completion - SPHERE for the Very Large Telescope, and the Gemini Planet Imager for Gemini South. With N=40 to 44 subapertures across the telescope, these high-performance systems represent an important step towards the N=60+ systems that will be needed for general-purpose AO on ELTs. GPI and SPHERE each incorporate many key technologies - high-density deformable mirrors, computationally efficient advanced wavefront control algorithms, zero-noise CCDs, multi-stage wavefront correction, new calibration algorithms, etc. - that will have to be incoprorated into the ELT facilities. We will review these features and the status of the two instruments, and the lessons learned for the design of ELT AO, both normal and extreme

Macintosh, B.; Beuzit, J.-L.

2011-09-01

13

Characterization of an AO-OCT system - Oral Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-resolution, 3-D, in vivo images of the retina. We will discuss general techniques for characterizing a vision science AO system, and we will describe the results of applying these techniques to measure the residual wavefront errors for the UC Davis AO-OCT system. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of future systems.

Evans, J. W.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jones, Steve; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.

2008-01-01

14

The Magellan Telescope Adaptive Secondary AO System: a visible and mid-IR AO facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan Clay telescope is a 6.5m Gregorian telescope located in Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. The Gregorian design allows for an adaptive secondary mirror that can be tested off-sky in a straightforward manner. We have fabricated a 85 cm diameter aspheric adaptive secondary with our subcontractors and partners, the ASM passed acceptance tests in July 2010. This secondary has 585 actuators with <1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity AO science. We will achieve very high Strehls (~98%) in the Mid-IR (3-26 microns) with the BLINC/MIRAC4 Mid-IR science camera. This will allow the first "super-resolution" and nulling Mid-IR studies of dusty southern objects. We will employ a high order (585 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope. The relatively high actuator count will allow modest Strehls to be obtained in the visible (0.63-1.05 ?m). Moderate (~20%) Strehls have already been obtained at 0.8 ?m at the LBT with the same powerful combination of a next generation ASM and Pyramid WFS as we are providing for Magellan. Our visible light AO (VisAO) science camera is fed by an advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the WFS optical board. We have designed an additional "clean-up" very fast (2 kHz) tilt stabilization system for VisAO. Also a high-speed shutter will be used to block periods of poor correction. The VisAO facility can be reconfigured to feed an optical IFU spectrograph with 20 mas spaxels. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and is now finished the fabrication phase and is entering the integration phase. The system science and performance requirements, and an overview the design, interface and schedule for the Magellan AO system are presented here.

Close, Laird M.; Gasho, Victor; Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared; Follette, Katherine B.; Brutlag, Kevin; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson

2010-07-01

15

Testing the VLT AO facility with ASSIST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The testing and verification of ESO Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Facility (VLT-AOF) requires new and innovative techniques to deal with the absence of an intermediate focus on the telescope. ASSIST, The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator, was developed to provide a testing facility for the ESO AOF and will allow off-telescope testing of three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility; the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the AO systems for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). ASSIST will provide a full testing environment which includes an interferometric testing mode for the DSM, an on-axis testing mode with a single wavefront sensor and full operation testing modes for both the AO systems. Both natural as well as laser guide stars will be simulated under various asterisms and a realistic turbulent atmosphere will be provided for varying atmospheric conditions. ASSIST passed its final design review and is now being manufactured, integrated and tested and will be operational in mid 2011, in time for first testing with the DSM.

Stuik, Remko; Arsenault, Robin; Boland, Wilfried; Deep, Atul; Delabre, Bernard; Hubin, Norbert; Kolb, Johann; La Penna, Paolo; Molster, Frank; Wiegers, Emiel

2010-07-01

16

Cold Friends of Hot Jupiters: AO Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Hot Jupiters” are a class of gas giant planets found in extrasolar systems at very small orbital distances (?0.05 AU). We know that these planets could not have formed at their present locations, but must instead have migrated in from beyond the ice line. One class of proposed migration mechanisms for these planets involve gravitational perturbations from a distant stellar companion. These same processes also provide a natural explanation for the existence of a subset of hot Jupiters that have been observed to have orbits that are highly misaligned with respect to their star's spin axis and/or have large orbital eccentricities. In the "Cold Friends" survey, we search for stellar companions around 51 stars known to host hot Jupiters in order to determine whether stellar companions play an important role in hot Jupiter migration. Our survey consists of a population of stars with planets that have eccentric and/or misaligned orbits as well as a control population of planets with well-aligned and circular orbits. This project searches for companion stars (the "Cold Friends") in three detection modes: radial velocity monitoring, high resolution IR spectroscopy (presented by D. Piskorz et al. at this meeting), and adaptive optics (AO) imaging at infrared wavelengths (presented here). The AO mode is sensitive to the most distant companions (separations of 50-200 AU and beyond) while the other modes are effective at finding companions at smaller separations. We present the results of our AO survey and discuss the binary fraction found in our sample. Out of our total sample of 51 stars, 19 candidate companions (many of which have not been observed before) were directly imaged around 17 stars. We also describe follow-up photometry and astrometry of all detected companions to determine whether or not they are gravitationally bound to the primary planet-hosting star. If such companions are common, it would suggest that perturbations from stellar companions may play a significant role in the evolution of hot Jupiter systems.

Ngo, Henry; Knutson, H. A.; Hinkley, S.; Crepp, J. R.; Batygin, K.; Howard, A. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Morton, T. D.; Muirhead, P. S.

2013-10-01

17

Electromagnetic DM technology meets future AO demands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New deformable mirror technology is developed by the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Delft University of Technology and TNO Science and Industry. Several prototype adaptive deformable mirrors are realized mirrors, up to 427 actuators and ?150mm diameter, with characteristics suitable for future AO systems. The prototypes consist of a 100µm thick, continuous facesheet on which low voltage, electromagnetic, push-pull actuators impose out-of-plane displacements. The variable reluctance actuators with ±10µm stroke and nanometer resolution are located in a standard actuator module. Each module with 61 actuators connects to a single PCB with dedicated, 16 bit, PWM based, drivers. A LVDS multi-drop cable connects up to 32 actuator modules. With the actuator module, accompanying PCB and multi-drop system the deformable mirror technology is made modular in its mechanics and electronics. An Ethernet-LVDS bridge enables any commercial PC to control the mirror using the UDP standard. Latest results of the deformable mirror technology development are presented.

Hamelinck, Roger; Rosielle, Nick; Steinbuch, Maarten; Doelman, Niek

18

AO SLM demonstration system and test bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to demonstrate and to quantitatively evaluate the wavefront correction capabilities of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for optical imaging enhancement in Adaptive Optics (AO) a compact and flexible demonstration system and test bed has been developed. It basically consists of a projection system, where image objects of different complexity and spatial resolution can be implemented and imaged through Adaptive Optics onto a CCD camera. Furthermore, static and dynamic wavefront errors of different severeness can be introduced by means of fixed and rotating phase plates. With this system for the first time the optical performance of the Fraunhofer IPMS 240 × 200 micro mirror SLM for highresolution wavefront control has been characterized. For an incoherent or partially coherent imaging as employed in this case the image quality normally is assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). Therefore, a quantitative evaluation has been carried out by measuring the system MTF including the SLM for a number of spatial frequencies as well as for a variety of different complex aberrations without and with applied correction. Besides a description of the system set-up the obtained results on the imaging improvement and MTF measurement are presented.

Wildenhain, Michael; Knobbe, Jens; Gehner, Andreas; Wagner, Michael; Lakner, Hubert

2007-03-01

19

NFIRAOS Multiconjugate AO System for TMT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NFIRAOS, the Adaptive Optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, is a Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics System of order 60x60 with two deformable mirrors and six laser guide star wavefront sensors. NFIRAOS is 8 x 10 x 5 m (L x W x H) on a Nasmyth Platform and supports three client instruments operating over 0.8 - 2.5 ?m wavelength range. In this paper we discuss: NFIRAOS' requirements and architecture; changes to NFIRAOS since the last AO4ELT conference; interior details of NFIRAOS; interfaces to instruments; integration and verification plans. Top-level science requirements include 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole with <187 nm wavefront error. Astrometry is an important science driver - to minimize image distortion, we have recently revised the optical design to use four off-axis paraboloidal mirrors. We have vastly simplified the laser WFS zoom optics and moved them inside the cold enclosure. To control image magnification, differential magnification and tip/tilt/focus, NFIRAOS' client instruments have three low-order warfront sensors monitoring near-infrared natural guide stars. These stars are sharpened by NFIRAOS, which assists sky coverage. NFIRAOS will have high throughput and low thermal background - it will be cooled to -30 °C. The insulated walls have a buried cold plate to intercept heat leakage and isothermalize the interior of NFIRAOS. Instruments have stringent requirements on heat leakage and must provide their own rotator and interface to NFIRAOS, including a rotating seal. For wavelength and flat field calibration of client instruments, a NFIRAOS Science Calibration Unit (NSCU) feeds light in the entrance window, through NFIRAOS, to instruments. Inside NFIRAOS are deployable light sources simulating natural and laser guide stars, a focal plane mask with pinholes illuminated by the NSCU, as well as a turbulence phase screen. A prototype screen has been manufactured by magneto-rheological machining. We are currently updating the NFIRAOS preliminary design.

Herriot, Glen; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Byrnes, Peter; Boyer, Corinne; Caputa, Kris; Correia, Carlos; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Gilles, Luc; Hickson, Paul; Hill, Alexis; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vlad; Smith, Malcolm; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lianqi; Wevers, Ivan

2011-09-01

20

Simulations of (MC)AO for a 100-m telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we summarize the analysis made on various Adaptive Optics (AO) modes (including Shack-Hartmann (SH) and Pyramid Wavefront Sensors (PWS)) for the OverWhelmingly Large telescope (OWL). We will show some early results of the performance to be expected with a first generation AO system, working in the infrared. Several telescope diameters were considered to see the variations as

Miska Le Louarn; Christophe Verinaud; Natalia Yaitskova; Visa Korkiakoski; Enrico Fedrigo; Norbert N. Hubin

2004-01-01

21

First closed-loop visible AO test results for the advanced adaptive secondary AO system for the Magellan Telescope: MagAO's performance and status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heart of the 6.5 Magellan AO system (MagAO) is a 585 actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with <1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity and high-contrast AO science. We fabricated a high order (561 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor (similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope). The relatively high actuator count (and small projected ~23 cm pitch) allows moderate Strehls to be obtained by MagAO in the “visible” (0.63-1.05 ?m). To take advantage of this we have fabricated an AO CCD science camera called "VisAO". Complete “end-to-end” closed-loop lab tests of MagAO achieve a solid, broad-band, 37% Strehl (122 nm rms) at 0.76 ?m (i’) with the VisAO camera in 0.8” simulated seeing (13 cm ro at V) with fast 33 mph winds and a 40 m Lo locked on R=8 mag artificial star. These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are enabled by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 400 controlled modes and 1000 Hz sample speeds (similar to that used successfully on-sky at the LBT). Currently only the VisAO science camera is used for lab testing of MagAO, but this high level of measured performance (122 nm rms) promises even higher Strehls with our IR science cameras. On bright (R=8 mag) stars we should achieve very high Strehls (>70% at H) in the IR with the existing MagAO Clio2 (?=1-5.3 ?m) science camera/coronagraph or even higher (~98% Strehl) the Mid-IR (8-26 microns) with the existing BLINC/MIRAC4 science camera in the future. To eliminate non-common path vibrations, dispersions, and optical errors the VisAO science camera is fed by a common path advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the Pyramid WFS optical board itself. Also a high-speed shutter can be used to block periods of poor correction. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and we finished the closed-loop system level testing phase in December 2011. Final system acceptance (“pre-ship” review) was passed in February 2012. In May 2012 the entire AO system is was successfully shipped to Chile and fully tested/aligned. It is now in storage in the Magellan telescope clean room in anticipation of “First Light” scheduled for December 2012. An overview of the design, attributes, performance, and schedule for the Magellan AO system and its two science cameras are briefly presented here.

Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek A.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Phil; Morzinski, Katie; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Busoni, Lorenzo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier

2012-07-01

22

Seasonality of synoptic eddy feedback and the AO/NAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, by using a dynamic model with synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF) interaction, we show that the SELF feedback is of significant importance for the formation of the AO/NAO in both winter and summer. Although background storm activity is significantly weaker in summer than that in winter, the positive SELF feedback associated with the AO/NAO mode in summer can be as strong as that in winter. The seasonal variations of the AO/NAO patterns are found to resemble those of the leading singular modes simulated by a linear dynamic system with the SELF interaction in different seasons, and the seasonal shifts in spatial patterns of the AO/NAO are the result of the seasonal changes in climatological basic state and synoptic eddy activity.

Pan, Lin-Lin; Jin, Fei-Fei

2005-11-01

23

A Large-Telescope Natural Guide Star AO System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

None given. From overview and conclusion:Keck Telescope case study. Objectives-low cost, good sky coverage. Approach--natural guide star at 0.8um, correcting at 2.2um.Concl- Good performance is possible for Keck with natural guide star AO system (SR>0.2 to mag 17+).AO-optimized CCD should b every effective. Optimizing td is very effective.Spatial Coadding is not effective except perhaps at extreme low light levels.

Redding, David; Milman, Mark; Needels, Laura

1994-01-01

24

Beyond the Blur: Construction and Characterization of the First Autonomous AO System, and, An AO Survey of Magnetar Proper Motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics (AO) corrects distortions created by atmospheric turbulence and delivers diffraction-limited images on ground-based telescopes. The vastly improved spatial resolution and sensitivity has been utilized for studying everything from the magnetic fields of sunspots upto the internal dynamics of high-redshift galaxies. This thesis about AO science from small and large telescopes is divided into two parts: Robo-AO and magnetar kinematics. In the first part, I discuss the construction and performance of the world's first fully autonomous visible light AO system, Robo-AO, at the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Robo-AO operates extremely efficiently with an overhead < 50s, typically observing about 22 targets every hour. We have performed large AO programs observing a total of over 7,500 targets since May 2012. In the visible band, the images have a Strehl ratio of about 10% and achieve a contrast of upto 6 magnitudes at a separation of 1??. The full-width at half maximum achieved is 110-130 milli-arcsecond. I describe how Robo-AO is used to constrain the evolutionary models of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars by measuring resolved spectral energy distributions of stellar multiples in the visible band, more than doubling the current sample. I conclude this part with a discussion of possible future improvements to the Robo-AO system. In the second part, I describe a study of magnetar kinematics using high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) AO imaging from the 10-meter Keck II telescope. Measuring the proper motions of five magnetars with a precision of upto 0.7 milli-arcsecond/yr -1, we have more than tripled the previously known sample of magnetar proper motions and proved that magnetar kinematics are equivalent to those of radio pulsars. We conclusively showed that SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20 were ejected from the stellar clusters with which they were traditionally associated. The inferred kinematic ages of these two magnetars are 6 +/- 1.8 kyr and 650 +/-3 00 yr respectively. These ages are a factor of three to four times greater than their respective characteristic ages. The calculated braking index is close to unity as compared to three for the vacuum dipole model and 2.5--2.8 as measured for young pulsars. I conclude this section by describing a search for NIR counterparts of new magnetars and a future promise of polarimetric investigation of a magnetars' NIR emission mechanism.

Tendulkar, Shriharsh Prakash

25

Performance of a MEMS-based AO-OCT system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-resolution, 3-D images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has been under development for 2 years and has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging. The current system uses a bimorph deformable mirror (DM) made by AOptix Technologies, Inc. for low-order, high-stroke correction and a 140-actuator mirco-electrical-mechanical-system (MEMS) DM made by Boston Micromachines Corporation for high-order correction. We present our on-going characterization of AO system performance. The AO-OCT system typically has residual wavefront error of 100 nm rms. The correctable error in the system is dominated by low-order error that we believe is introduced by aliasing in the control loop. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of future systems.

Evans, Julia W.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jones, Steve; Okpodu, Samelia; Olivier, Scot; Werner, John S.

2008-03-01

26

Constru»c~ao de codigos geometricamente uniformes utilizando tecnicas multin¶‡veis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tecnicas convencionais de codiflca»c~ao de canal podem melhorar o desempenho de um sistema de comunica»c~ao sacriflcando a ocupa»c~ao de faixa es- pectral ou a taxa de transmiss~ao de informa»c~ao. Imai e Hirakawa sugeriram em (1) uma tecnica de codiflca»c~ao multin¶‡vel que utiliza varios codigos binarios de bloco para construir sistemas efl- cientes em largura de faixa. Recentemente, foi mostrado em

J. Portugheis; S. I. R. Costa; D. C. da Cunha; R. M. de Siqueira; J. Bali; B. S. Rajan; Block-coded PSK

27

ASSIST: the test setup for the VLT AO facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASSIST: The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator is the test setup for the verification and calibration of three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility.; the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) the AO system for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). In the DSM testing mode the DSM will be tested using both interferometry and fast wave front sensing. In full AO mode, ASSIST will allow testing of the AO systems under realistic atmospheric conditions and optically equivalent to the conditions on the telescope. ASSIST is nearing its final design review and in this paper we present the current optical and mechanical design of ASSIST. In this paper we highlight some of the specific aspects of ASSIST that we are developing for ASSIST.

Stuik, Remko; Arsenault, Robin; Conzelmann, Ralf; Deep, Atul; Delabre, Bernard; Hallibert, Pascal; Jolissaint, Laurent; Hubin, Norbert; Kendrew, Sarah; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Molster, Frank; Paufique, Jerome; Pauwels, Evert; Stroebele, Stefan; Wiegers, Emiel

2008-07-01

28

High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

2010-01-01

29

Early experiences with the AO calcaneal fracture plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our early experiences using the new AO plate for open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum. An overview of our operative technique based on 22 cases is given. The relative merits of the new plate are discussed and we conclude that the plate is a useful device for dealing with this complex injury.

P. S. Kerr; M. Pape; M. Jackson; R. M. Atkins

1996-01-01

30

LGS-AO: the making of a star for astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For astronomers, it all started in 1985 when Foy and Labeyrie (1985, A&A, 152, L29)published the concept of creating a laser guide star (LGS) in the mesospheric layer of the atmosphere to extend the use of adaptive optics (AO) to a much larger fraction of the astronomical sky. Shortly thereafter, the first sodium wavelength laser beam was propagated from Mauna Kea to validate the LGS concept (Thompson & Gardner 1987, Nature, 328, 229). In 1991, the results from the research undertaken by the U.S. Dept. of Defence were published in the open literature (Fugate et al. 1991, Nature, 353, 144). Experiments were subsequently performed at a number of Observatories (Apache Point, MMT, Calar Alto & Lick) resulting in one operational LGS-AO facility on the Lick 3-m telescope (Max et al. 1997, Science, 277, 1649). Today, Keck II LGS-AO, the first operational LGS-AO facility on an 8-10-m class telescope, is paving a new road for astronomical science by providing very high angular resolution (FWHMs of 50-60 mas with Strehls of 20-35% at K) over half of the sky. AO-corrected imagers and spectrographs at Keck and elsewhere will soon be used by a wider community of astronomers to complement and frequently surpass the observations obtained from space. We will present a review and a discussion of this powerful new instrumentation: the exciting scientific showcases and the challenges for combining complicated dynamic systems into productive, reliable and user-friendly instrumentation. We will provide an update on the forthcoming LGSAO intruments at other major observatories. We will report on the image quality performance, as well as on-sky observing efficiency, for the Keck II system (Wizinowich et al. 2005, PASP, submitted). As many astronomers plan for "AO all-the-time" on large and extremely large telescope, this talk will provide some information and lessons learned for how to best prepare for the bright LGS-AO future.

Le Mignant, D.

2005-12-01

31

Early Visible Adaptive Optics Science Results from MagAO's VisAO Camera in Simultaneous Differential Imaging (SDI) Mode: Disks and Point Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on early science results from the newly-commissioned Magellan AO (MagAO) system's VisAO camera in Simultaneous Differential Imaging (SDI) mode. The MagAO Adaptive Secondary Mirror's high actuator pitch allow us to achieve AO correction into the visible wavelength regime, and VisAO is the first visible light science camera behind a large (d>6m) telescope AO system. This opens up an interesting new region of parameter space to high contrast, high spatial resolution science. As a natural guide star system, MagAO is optimized for circumstellar science, including both point source detection and high resolution imaging of circumstellar disks. Early SDI science results include the first circumstellar disk imaged in silhouette from the ground, high-resolution images of a binary propylid in Orion and high contrast images of an accreting point source at small separation.

Follette, Kate; Close, Laird; Wu, Ya-Lin; Males, Jared; Morzinski, Katie; Kopon, Derek

2013-07-01

32

Holocene Evolution of Qing'ao Embayment, Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, Nan'ao Island, southern China, is primarily the result of the interaction of tectonic activity, climate variation and changes in relative sea level. Characterizing the evolutionary history of the relatively small Qing'ao embayment during the Holocene will help improve our understanding of the driving mechanisms of coastal evolution in the area. To reconstruct the Holocene evolution history we analyzed the grain size, loss on ignition (LOI) and carbonate content of modern and core samples. Modern environmental analogs were examined in surface samples ranging from the coastal sand dunes through to offshore. The results of these modern samples suggest that dune sand (mean size of ~2.33Phi) are slightly finer than beach sand (mean size of 2.13Phi), and nearshore sediment is much coarser than offshore sediment (mean size of 5.90Phi). This modern analogs were then applied to 8 percussion cores from the Qing'ao embayment. A chronological framework obtained from 11 radiocarbon samples suggests that the embayment started to accept deposition since early Holocene, ~8500 cal. yr. BP. Three main phases of Holocene evolution were identified. A basin wide shell-rich sand sheet forms the basal Holocene facies and overlies clay rich presumably Pleistocene sediments or bedrock. This facies records an initial sedimentation phase associated with the early Holocene transgression into the embayment (~8500-6000 cal. yr. BP). The basal facies grades upward to a mixed sandy-mud facies which includes lagoonal clayey-silts, flood tide delta sands and records an estuarine phase lasting from ~6000-1000 cal. yr. BP that appears coincident with falling regional sea levels. Coincident with the estuarine phase is a period of coastal dune building recorded as yet undated massive sands that are found in the upper fill. Toward the end of the estuarine phase it is apparent that dune migration has restricted the lagoon entrance and that this was contemporaneous with the final stages of infilling of the lagoon. The final phase of sedimentation is recorded as a thin terrestrial sequence dominated by fluvial floodplain facies that covers the last ~1000 cal. yr. BP and is topped by soils that also record enhanced anthropogenic modification over the last 1000 years. Our early results suggest that sea level and accomodation space are the main drivers for evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, as climate change during the Holocene in this region is relatively insignificant. However, as this area is reported to be tectonically active the impact of the tectonic movements on the evolution of Qing'ao embayment still requires further investigation.

Switzer, A. D.; Yu, F.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.

2012-12-01

33

Speckle Imaging with VLT/NACO No-AO Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-exposure stellar images recorded with large ground-based telescopes are blurred due to the turbulent nature of the atmosphere. The VLT employs active and adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the deleterious effects of the atmosphere in real time. The speckle imaging technique provides an alternative way to achieve diffraction-limited imaging by post-processing a series of short-exposure images. The use of speckle imaging with the no-AO mode of NACO at the VLT is demonstrated. Application of this technique is particularly suited to the J-band and it provides versatile high angular resolution imaging under mediocre conditions and/or in imaging extended objects. The implementation of this mode underlines the continuing attractiveness of NACO at the VLT.

Rengaswamy, S.; Girard, J.; de Wit, W.-J.; Boffin, H.

2014-03-01

34

An advanced atmospheric dispersion corrector for extreme AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the BLINC/MIRAC IR science instruments, the Magellan adaptive secondary AO system will have an EEV CCD47 that can be used both for visible AO science and as a wide-field acquisition camera. The effects of atmospheric dispersion on the elongation of the diffraction limited Magellan adaptive optics system point spread function (PSF) are significant in the near IR. This elongation becomes particularly egregious at visible wavelengths, culminating in a PSF that is 2000?m long in one direction and diffraction limited (30-60 ?m) in the other over the wavelength band 0.5-1.0?m for a source at 45° zenith angle. The planned Magellan AO system consists of a deformable secondary mirror with 585 actuators. This number of actuators should be sufficient to nyquist sample the atmospheric turbulence and correct images to the diffraction limit at wavelengths as short as 0.7?m, with useful science being possible as low as 0.5?m. In order to achieve diffraction limited performance over this broad band, 2000?m of lateral color must be corrected to better than 10?m. The traditional atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC) consists of two identical counter-rotating cemented doublet prisms that correct the primary chromatic aberration. We propose two new ADC designs: the first consisting of two identical counter-rotating prism triplets, and the second consisting of two pairs of cemented counter-rotating prism doublets that use both normal dispersion and anomalous dispersion glass in order to correct both primary and secondary chromatic aberration. The two designs perform 58% and 68%, respectively, better than the traditional two-doublet design. We also present our design for a custom removable wide-field lens that will allow our CCD47 to switch back and forth between an 8.6" FOV for AO science and a 25.8" FOV for acquisition.

Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Gasho, Victor

2008-07-01

35

On random walk de Lévy aplicado aos mapas de variâncias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uma pergunta que surge ao nos confrontarmos com os mapas de variâncias, ou s-Maps [Klafke, J. C. "Estudo da Difusão Caótica em Ressonâncias Asteroidais", Tese de Doutorado, IAG/USP, 2002] diz respeito ao conteúdo físico de tais representações do espaço de fase. Ou seja, o que representa as variâncias das ações obtidas para uma determinada condição inicial e como relacioná-las com o tempo de difusão das órbitas, supondo-se que estas de fato estejam envolvidas em um processo difusivo? Para discutirmos essa questão, lançamos mão da modelagem dos processos estocásticos subjacentes às variâncias determinadas e implementamos uma série de simulações do tipo Monte Carlo a partir das informações registradas nos s-Maps calculados para algumas ressonâncias asteroidais bem estudadas (p.ex. 3: 1, 2: 1 e 3: 2). Para tanto, temos usado uma função de densidade de probabilidade gaussiana ao definir os n passos que permitirão estabelecer uma relação direta entre o Mapa de Difusão e o Mapa de Variâncias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos até agora tem subestimado o tempo de difusão esperado para os fenômenos conhecidos. Tal se deve ao fato de que, no processo difusivo real, é possível existirem passos de comprimento consideravelmente maiores que a média estabelecida pelas distribuições gaussiana ou normal, sobretudo quando se cruza uma região caótica. Neste trabalho, apresentamos os resultados comparativos de simulações de Monte Carlo com base no random walk de Lévy [Klafter, J. et al. 2002. "Beyond Brownian motion", Phys. Today, Feb, 33-39.], o qual possibilita passos esporádicos de comprimento acima do valor médio (saltos) permitindo estabelecer uma escala de tempo mais próxima da esperada para a difusão.

Klafke, J. C.

2003-08-01

36

Simulations of (MC)AO for a 100-m telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we summarize the analysis made on various Adaptive Optics (AO) modes (including Shack-Hartmann (SH) and Pyramid Wavefront Sensors (PWS)) for the OverWhelmingly Large telescope (OWL). We will show some early results of the performance to be expected with a first generation AO system, working in the infrared. Several telescope diameters were considered to see the variations as a function of telescope diameter. This is also compatible with the concept of "grow a telescope" where the telescope diameter of OWL grows from 60m to 100m as a function of time. In a first phase, to simplify the problem, the effects of the central obstruction were neglected. However, for the Shack-Hartmann (SH) simulations, additional simulations were carried out with a simulated OWL pupil, including segmentation errors. We show some early results for a ground-layer correction system, working with three natural guide stars (NGSs) and a single deformable mirror (DM). An MCAO system based on 2 DMs, 3 NGSs is also investigated. For the last two systems, our results are found to be in very good agreement with Cibola, an analytical AO modeling tool. We show that some outer scale of turbulence effects improve slightly the correction quality when going from a telescope diameter of 10m to 100m.

Le Louarn, Miska; Verinaud, Christophe; Yaitskova, Natalia; Korkiakoski, Visa; Fedrigo, Enrico; Hubin, Norbert N.

2004-10-01

37

Laboratory demonstration of real time frame selection with Magellan AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan AO system combines a pyramid wavefront sensor and high-order adaptive secondary mirror, and will see first light on the Magellan Clay telescope in November 2012. With a 24 cm projected actuator pitch, this powerful system will enable good correction in the optical (0.5 to 1 ?m). Realistic laboratory testing has produced Strehl ratios greater than 40% in i’ (0.765 ?m) on bright simulated stars. On fainter stars our visible AO camera, VisAO, will work in the partially corrected regime with only short moments of good correction. We have developed a form of lucky imaging, called real time frame selection, which uses a fast shutter to block moments of bad correction, and quickly opens the shutter when the correction is good, enabling long integrations on a conventional CCD while maximizing Strehl ratio and resolution. The decision to open or shut is currently based on reconstructed WFS telemetry. Here we report on our implementation and testing of this technique in the Arcetri test tower in Florence, Italy, where we showed that long exposure i’ Strehl could be improved from 16% to 26% when the selection threshold was set to the best 10% of instantaneous Strehl.

Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Kopon, Derek; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco; Puglisi, Alfio; Gasho, Victor; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.

2012-07-01

38

Development and testing of an AO-structured illumination microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of an Adaptive Optics (AO) Structured Illumination (SI) microscope is presented. Two key technologies are combined to provide effective super-resolution at significant depths in tissue. AO is used to measure and compensate for optical aberrations in both the system and the tissue by measuring the optical path differences in the wavefront. Uncorrected, these aberrations significantly reduce imaging resolution, particularly as we view deeper into tissue. SI allows us to reconstruct an image with resolution beyond the Rayleigh limit of the optics by aliasing high spatial frequencies, outside the limit of the optics, to lower frequencies within the system pass band. The aliasing is accomplished by spatially modulating the illumination at a frequency near the cutoff frequency of the system. These aliased frequencies are superimposed on the lower spatial frequencies of the object in our image. Using multiple images and an inverse algorithm, we separate the aliased and normal frequencies, restore them to their original frequency positions, and recreate the original spectrum of the object. This allows us to recreate a super-resolution image of the object. A problem arises with thick aberrating tissue. Tissue aberrations, including sphere, increase with depth into the tissue and reduce the high spatial frequency response of a system. This degrades the ability of SI to reconstruct at superresolution and limits its use to relatively shallow depths. However, adding AO to the system compensates for these aberrations allowing SI to work at maximum efficiency even deep within aberrating tissue.

Kissel, Matthew; Reinig, Marc; Azucena, Oscar; Díaz León, Juan J.; Kubby, Joel

2014-03-01

39

LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

Tennyson, R. C.

1992-01-01

40

LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H09  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H09 The postflight photograph was taken in the KSC SAEF II facility after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The brown stains are still very prominent and appear to be the same as in the flight photograph. The openings in the base plate for the grid voltage cable connector mounts are thought to be the source of the darker brown stains around the connectors. The covers have been installed on the canister housings to protect the space exposed hardware. The contamination stain provides an out- line of tray clamp block locations on the experiment tray flanges.

1990-01-01

41

LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H06  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H06 The postflight photograph was taken in the KSC SAEF II facility after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The brown stains are still very prominent and appear to be the same as in the flight photograph. The openings in the base plate for the grid voltage cable connector mounts are thought to be the source of the darker brown stains around the connectors. The covers have been installed on the canister housings to protect the space exposed hardware. The contamination stain provides an out- line of tray clampblock locations on the experiment tray flanges.

1990-01-01

42

LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C03  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray C03 The IDE mounting plate and the detector frames are coated with a brown stain similiar to that seen on the other experiments in this and other trays located nearby. The stain seems to be slightly darker along the lower edge of the solar sensor mounting plate. The colors and designs seen on the detectors are reflections of the surrounding area. The thin brown film on the detectors metallic surface has resulted in a duller reflection of a technician, in the upper left, and other items.

1990-01-01

43

Aspect-Oriented Business Process Modeling with AO4BPMN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many crosscutting concerns in business processes need to be addressed already at the business process modeling level such as compliance, auditing, billing, and separation of duties. However, existing business process modeling languages including OMG's Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) lack appropriate means for expressing such concerns in a modular way. In this paper, we motivate the need for aspect-oriented concepts in business process modeling languages and propose an aspect-oriented extension to BPMN called AO4BPMN. We also present a graphical editor supporting that extension.

Charfi, Anis; Müller, Heiko; Mezini, Mira

44

Study on correcting angle-of-arrival fluctuations of space optical communication with AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of correcting angle-of-arrival fluctuations with adaptive optics (AO) is presented in this article. Numerical simulation is used for analyzing and studying the effect of AO correction and its influence factors. The simulative results indicate that AO can correct angle-of-arrival fluctuations induced by atmosphere turbulence effectively and the effect of AO correction is related with wavelength and aperture.

Li, Fang; Rong, Jian; Zhong, Xiao-chun; Ding, Xue-ke

2007-11-01

45

New Results from the AO327 Drift Pulsar Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arecibo 327 MHz drift pulsar survey (AO327) has operated since 2010 and aims to cover the entire Arecibo sky (declinations of -1 to 38 degrees). We present details on the progress of the survey and a new set of discoveries over the past year. Phase 1 of AO327 targets declinations of -1 to 28 degrees and is 55% complete; Phase 2 will target declinations of 28 to 38 degrees. The survey is expected to be completed in 2017. Out of a total of 28 new pulsars, 12 were found in 2013, including three millisecond pulsars. PSR J2234+06 has a rotation period of 3.58 ms and is in a 32-day orbit in a binary system with a white dwarf companion. This pulsar is bright and a very stable rotator, making it suitable for inclusion in Pulsar Timing Arrays. The orbit of J2234+06 has an eccentricity of 0.13, which cannot be accounted for by stellar evolution but may be explained by an origin in a subsequently disrupted hierarchical triple, or by an exchange interaction. PSR J0509+08 has a period of 4.06 ms and is in a 4.9-day binary system with a white dwarf companion. This pulsar is also a candidate for inclusion in PTAs.

Deneva, Julia S.; Stovall, K.; McLaughlin, M.; Bates, S.; Freire, P.; Martinez, J.; Jenet, F.; Bagchi, M.

2014-01-01

46

Searching and Studying Binary Asteroids with AO Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group has conducted adaptive optics observations of asteroids since 2001. Our main goal is the search and study of binary asteroids using several AO systems (Lick, Keck, VLT) and related technique such as Appulse (Berthier and Marchis, 2002) and Laser Guide Star observations (Marchis et al., AGU-EGS, 2003) to broaden the sample of asteroids observed from the main-belt out to the Kuiper Belt. We focussed our program last year on Trojan Asteroids. Six of them were observed using Appulses with Keck AO ( ˜0.05-0.10", mv=15.4-18.5), 6 with the LGS at Lick ( ˜0.25-0.35", mv<16) and 12 with the VLT/NACO system ( ˜0.10-0.14"; mv<16.7). None of these observations reveals the presence of a companion. Based on this sample, and including 617 Patroclus binary asteroid discovered by Merline et al. (IAU, 7741, 2001), we deduce that the proportion of binary Trojan asteroids larger than 40 km is less than 4%. We will promote and discuss a technique of the analysis of negative discovery in large samples. In January 2003, we conducted an observing campaign spanning 5 days of 121 Hermione with NACO, the new AO system offered at VLT. This C-type asteroid was discovered by Merline et al. (IAU, 7980, 2002). The companion, 6.1 mag fainter than the primary, is easily detected despite the faintness of the asteroid (mv ˜13). We use the method described in Marchis et al. (Icarus, 2003) to determine the orbit of the companion. Its orbital elements are a=794.7+/-2.1 km, and P=1.643+/-0.005 days. We derived a mass =1.47E19 kg, and a density of 3.1+/-0.8 g cm-3 (using IRAS diameter of 209+/-4.7 km). Considering typical densities of meteorite analogues (CI or CM carboneceous chondrite) would led to an extremely low macro-porosity of p<3%. This suggests that the volume of Hermione is ˜30% larger, which is also supported by our resolved images of this body. This work supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, based partly on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.

Marchis, F.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Hestroffer, D.; de Pater, I.; Conrad, A.; Le Mignant, D.; Chaffee, F.; Gavel, D.

2003-05-01

47

High Contrast Imaging of an Exoplanet with the Magellan VisAO Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) system saw first light in November 2012 at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) on the 6.5m Clay telescope. Here we present an introduction to MagAO's visible wavelength diffraction limited imager, VisAO. VisAO delivers Strehl ratios greater than 30% from 0.62 microns (r') through 1 micron, where Strehl is even higher, and achieved resolutions as small as 20 milli-arcseconds. We took advantage of the excellent performance of MagAO/VisAO to conduct high contrast observations of an exoplanet in the optical. With VisAO, we are, for the first time, able to begin characterizing exoplanet atmospheres in the optical from the ground.

Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Kopon, Derek; Puglisi, Alfio; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Kate; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Hinz, Phil M.; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier; Busoni, Lorenzo; Rodigas, T. J.; Wu, Ya-Lin

2014-01-01

48

LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray H11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray H11 The Interplanetary Dust Experiment hardware has a thin brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A deeper brown stain, probably from the material underneath the small electrical cover plate of the detector frame, can be seen in the upper right corner of some of the detectors. Stain that was seen on the solar sensor base plate in the flight photograph cannot be seen because of reflected light. The colors seen in the detector's mirror like surface are reflections of the surrounding area. A dark spot seen on a detector in the third row from the top in the flight photograph, was not found in a postflight inspection. A close inspection of this photograph does reveal several impact damage locations.

1990-01-01

49

Progress report of USAF Research Laboratory liquid crystal AO program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a status report of our liquid crystal (LC) adaptive optics program. Liquid crystal have been proposed to be used for adaptive optics components by several authors. We are actively pursuing a two prong approach, on one side we have built a closed loop test bed based on a 127 element nematic LC device; on the other side we are actively involved in research on the ferroelectric side of the LC devices. In this paper we present preliminary results from our testbed. The essential elements of this testbed are a Shack-Hartman based wavefront sensors with an analog reconstructor, and the 127 nematic elements from Meadowlark Optics. Some of the basic experimental parameters will be reviewed, and result will be discussed. Furthermore we will present the status of our activity in the field of ferroelectric LC. Several prototypes are under testing to establish their capabilities as AO components.

Restaino, Sergio R.; Payne, Don; Anderson, Michael H.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Serati, Steven A.; Loos, Gary C.

1998-09-01

50

The nature of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235 + 164  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emission features in the optical spectrum of the highly variable BL Lac object AO 0235 + 164 have been detected which are identified as Mg II, forbidden Ne V, and forbidden O II at a redshift of 0.9399, consistent with a cosmological interpretation of the two absorption systems at z = 0.524 and z = 0.851. The spectrum also shows emission features associated with the z = 0.524 system at a projected separation of 20 kpc from the apparent central concentration of the material producing that absorption. This implies a highly extended and very luminous line-emitting region for the material at z = 0.524. A comparison of the new data with previous spectroscopic observations of the BL Lac object when it was faint suggests that the Mg II emission may be variable on a time scale of approximately 2 yr.

Cohen, Ross D.; Smith, Harding E.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

1987-01-01

51

LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The IDE experiment appears to be in excellent condition in the postflight photograph. All bond joints seem to have survived the space environment and the experiment hardware seems to be intact. The direction and intensity of the artificial light source has caused hot spots and reflections that tend to wash out the brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A close inspection of individual detectors reveal locations where impacts have occurred and damage is present. In the detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, two detectors continue to show the discolorations observed in the flight photograph. A triangular shape can be seen in the detector located in the second horizontal row from the bottom and the second vertical row from the left. The other detector, located in the third horizontal row from the bottom and the fourth vertical row from the left has an irregular shaped, very faint, discolora tion. The blue color in the detectors metallic surface is caused by reflections of the surrounding area.

1990-01-01

52

Shape and Size of Asteroid (41) Daphne from AO Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of our ongoing programs to use adaptive optics (AO) to study asteroids for size, shape, and presence of satellites, we observed asteroid (41) Daphne during its recent close (1.05 AU) opposition. In March 2008, we discovered a small satellite to Daphne at Keck (Conrad et al. 2008, IAUC 8939; Merline et al. 2008, ACM 2008, #8370). Follow up observations at Keck and VLT allowed us to refine the orbit. The unusually short period of the satellite ( 1.1 day) and the estimated size (239x183x153 km) from our observations lead to a density near 2.0 g/cc. This is significantly higher than most other large C-types with densities determined from presence of a moon (Merline et al. 2002, Asteroids III, 289). Because of this surprising density, and because we expect to derive an exceptionally accurate volume from our data, we are placing special emphasis on our size and shape determinations. One of the peculiarities is that this object is highly irregular in shape. We demonstrate several methods of determining the volume, including triaxial ellipsoid fits, detailed shape modeling, and improving estimates by using existing lightcurve information (e.g., from Kaasalainen et al.).

Conrad, Al; Carry, B.; Drummond, J. D.; Merline, W. J.; Dumas, C.; Owen, W. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Goodrich, R. W.; Campbell, R. D.

2008-09-01

53

Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AO 138-5 experiment was designed, via the FRECOPA (FRench COoperative PAyload) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar irradiation. Samples were ruled and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the LDEF and was protected against Atomic Oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling was evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The samples (two batches of four pieces) were located on a dedicated plate, by a pair of equivalent gratings or mirrors; optical faces were located on the external side. The plate was inside a canister, which had been opened in space for ten months. When the satellite returned to Kennedy Space Center, the remaining vacuum in the canister was still correct. The analysis focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings (rules and holographic master or replica) loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or direct solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure had damaged the coating (aluminum and platinum) reflectivity in the Ultra-Violet region; the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

Bonnemason, Francis

1993-01-01

54

Near-infrared AO imaging of QSO host galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report NIR (primarily H-band) AO imaging with the Gemini-N and Subaru telescopes, of 32 nearby ( z < 0.3) QSOs selected from the Palomar-Green bright quasar survey (PGBQS), in order to investigate the properties of the host galaxies. Two-dimensional modeling and visual inspection of the images shows that ˜36% of the hosts are ellipticals, ˜39% contain a prominent disk component, and ˜25% are of undetermined type. Thirty percent show obvious signs of disturbance. The mean MH(host) = -24.82 ( 2.1LH*), with a range -23.5 to -26.5. At 2LH* most are ellipticals. "Disturbed" hosts are found at all MH(host). Hosts with prominent disks have less luminous QSOs, while the most luminous QSOs are almost exclusively in ellipticals or in mergers (which presumably shortly will be ellipticals). There is a strong correlation between the "infrared-excess", LIR/ LBB, of QSOs with host type and degree of disturbance. Disturbed and strongly disturbed hosts and hosts with dominant disks have LIR/ LBB twice that of non-disturbed and elliptical hosts, respectively.

Guyon, O.; Sanders, D. B.; Stockton, A. N.

2006-11-01

55

MCP-Medipix2 hybrid detector for AO wavefront sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid optical detector being developed at Berkeley has most of the attributes desired for the next generation AO wavefront sensors. The detector consists of proximity focused MCPs read out by a multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256 x 256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting) and can be read out at 1kHz frame rates. We will report on the progress achieved after two years of our three year development effort for this detector technology funded as part of the Adaptive Optics Development Program managed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Details on the first vacuum tube constructed with a Medipix2 ASIC along with the fast kHz parallel electronic readout are presented. We also describe a new hybrid detector design based on HgCdTe APD arrays coupled to a Medipix2 readout that could bring zero readout noise at high frame rates to the near IR regime.

Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan; Siegmund, Oswald

2006-07-01

56

Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

1993-04-01

57

Modelo An\\\\'alogo Ac\\\\'ustico ao Buraco Negro de Schwarzschild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Um fluido em movimento pode agir sobre o som da mesma forma que os espa\\\\c{c}o-tempos curvos podem influenciar na trajet\\\\'oria da luz na relatividade geral. Com isso, pode-se descrever a propaga\\\\c{c}\\\\~ao dessas ondas sonoras atrav\\\\'es de uma m\\\\'etrica efetiva, sob a qual elas seguir\\\\~ao geod\\\\'esicas nulas. Esta disserta\\\\c{c}\\\\~ao faz uma revis\\\\~ao destes estudos concentrando-se em uma analogia ac\\\\'ustica para um

Júnior Diniz Toniato

2011-01-01

58

Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente recomendado, este não é ensinado, nem no Ensino Fundamental, nem no Ensino Médio.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

2009-03-01

59

AO Capabilities at the MMT for the User  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MMT operates a facility natural guide star (NGS) AO system. Diffraction limited imaging and medium and high resolution spectroscopy in the near IR are offered over the full isoplanatic field with the ARIES instrument.The system also offers imaging with unique sensitivity in the thermal IR from 3 to 10 microns thanks to its use of an adaptive secondary mirror. L and M band imaging is offered with Clio which has a 12x15 arcsec field of view with Nyquist sampling if the diffraction limt. Recent M band images from Clio show the planetary system around HR8799. In addition, 10 - 25 micron imaging is offered with the MIRAC camera, which may also be operated as a Bracewell nulling interferometer. In this mode, two large subapertures are defined within the pupil. Light from the two is combined so as to cancel the light from an unresolved star through destructive interference, while the environs are imaged in constructive interference. In this way, dust disks and planetary systems may be imaged with greatly improved contrast. The MMT also operates the first astronomical adaptive optics system to employ multiple laser guide stars (LGS). Its initial operational mode, ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO), provides uniform stellar wavefront correction within the 2 arcmin diameter laser beacon constellation, routinely reducing the stellar image widths to < 0.3 arcsec in the J - K bands. An imaging camera,PISCES, is available for these bands with 2 arcmin field of view sampled at 0.1 arcsec/pixel. In addition, L and M band imaging will be available with Clio in the fall of 2009, opening up near all-sky coverage with near-diffraction limited image quality and emissivity of just 7%.

Lloyd-Hart, Michael M.

2009-05-01

60

Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

Laganaro, Marina

2012-01-01

61

Enabling Technologies for Visible Adaptive Optics: The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its beginnings, diffraction-limited ground-based adaptive optics (AO) imaging has been limited to wavelengths in the near IR ({\\\\lambda} > 1 micron) and longer. Visible AO ({\\\\lambda} < 1 micron) has proven to be difficult because shorter wavelengths require wavefront correction on very short spatial and temporal scales. The pupil must be sampled very finely, which requires dense actuator spacing

Derek Kopon; Jared R. Males; Laird M. Close; Victor Gasho

2010-01-01

62

LDEF: Dosimetric measurement results (AO 138-7 experiment)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the objectives of the AO 138-7 experiment on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a total dose measurement with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD 100). Two identical packages, both of them including five TLD's inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile. Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles (AE8 and AP8 models during solar maximum and minimum periods) and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi infinite plane shield of aluminum are computed with the radiation transport codes available at DERTS. The dose profile obtained is in good agreement with the evaluation by E.V. Benton. TLD readings are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase a post flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the in flight induced dose. The results obtained, similar (plus or minus 30 percent) for both packages, are compared with the dose profile computation. For thick shields it seems that the measurements exceed the forecast (about 40 percent). That can be due to a cosmic ray and trapped proton contributions coming from the backside (assumed as perfectly shielded by the LDEF structure in the computation), or to an underestimate of the proton or cosmic ray fluences. A fine structural shielding analysis should be necessary in order to determine the origin of this slight discrepancy between forecast and in flight measurements. For the less shielded dosimeters, mainly exposed to the trapped electron flux, a slight overestimation of the dose (less than 40 percent) appears. Due to the dispersion of the TLD's response, this cannot be confirmed. In practice these results obtained on board LDEF, with less than a factor 1.4 between measurements and forecast, reinforce the validity of the computation methods and models used for the long term evaluation of the radiation levels (flux and dose) encountered in space on low inclination and altitude Earth orbits.

Bourrieau, J.

1993-01-01

63

Bringing the visible universe into focus with Robo-AO.  

PubMed

The angular resolution of ground-based optical telescopes is limited by the degrading effects of the turbulent atmosphere. In the absence of an atmosphere, the angular resolution of a typical telescope is limited only by diffraction, i.e., the wavelength of interest, ?, divided by the size of its primary mirror's aperture, D. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with a 2.4-m primary mirror, has an angular resolution at visible wavelengths of ~0.04 arc seconds. The atmosphere is composed of air at slightly different temperatures, and therefore different indices of refraction, constantly mixing. Light waves are bent as they pass through the inhomogeneous atmosphere. When a telescope on the ground focuses these light waves, instantaneous images appear fragmented, changing as a function of time. As a result, long-exposure images acquired using ground-based telescopes--even telescopes with four times the diameter of HST--appear blurry and have an angular resolution of roughly 0.5 to 1.5 arc seconds at best. Astronomical adaptive-optics systems compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. First, the shape of the incoming non-planar wave is determined using measurements of a nearby bright star by a wavefront sensor. Next, an element in the optical system, such as a deformable mirror, is commanded to correct the shape of the incoming light wave. Additional corrections are made at a rate sufficient to keep up with the dynamically changing atmosphere through which the telescope looks, ultimately producing diffraction-limited images. The fidelity of the wavefront sensor measurement is based upon how well the incoming light is spatially and temporally sampled. Finer sampling requires brighter reference objects. While the brightest stars can serve as reference objects for imaging targets from several to tens of arc seconds away in the best conditions, most interesting astronomical targets do not have sufficiently bright stars nearby. One solution is to focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system, employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope. PMID:23426078

Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K; Davis, Jack T C; Dekany, Richard G; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Morton, Timothy D; Ofek, Eran O; Punnadi, Sujit

2013-01-01

64

Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO  

PubMed Central

The angular resolution of ground-based optical telescopes is limited by the degrading effects of the turbulent atmosphere. In the absence of an atmosphere, the angular resolution of a typical telescope is limited only by diffraction, i.e., the wavelength of interest, ?, divided by the size of its primary mirror's aperture, D. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with a 2.4-m primary mirror, has an angular resolution at visible wavelengths of ~0.04 arc seconds. The atmosphere is composed of air at slightly different temperatures, and therefore different indices of refraction, constantly mixing. Light waves are bent as they pass through the inhomogeneous atmosphere. When a telescope on the ground focuses these light waves, instantaneous images appear fragmented, changing as a function of time. As a result, long-exposure images acquired using ground-based telescopes - even telescopes with four times the diameter of HST - appear blurry and have an angular resolution of roughly 0.5 to 1.5 arc seconds at best. Astronomical adaptive-optics systems compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. First, the shape of the incoming non-planar wave is determined using measurements of a nearby bright star by a wavefront sensor. Next, an element in the optical system, such as a deformable mirror, is commanded to correct the shape of the incoming light wave. Additional corrections are made at a rate sufficient to keep up with the dynamically changing atmosphere through which the telescope looks, ultimately producing diffraction-limited images. The fidelity of the wavefront sensor measurement is based upon how well the incoming light is spatially and temporally sampled1. Finer sampling requires brighter reference objects. While the brightest stars can serve as reference objects for imaging targets from several to tens of arc seconds away in the best conditions, most interesting astronomical targets do not have sufficiently bright stars nearby. One solution is to focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system2,3 employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope.

Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A.N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T.C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

2013-01-01

65

Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The angular resolution of ground-based optical telescopes is limited by the degrading effects of the turbulent atmosphere. In the absence of an atmosphere, the angular resolution of a typical telescope is limited only by diffraction, i.e., the wavelength of interest, ?, divided by the size of its primary mirror's aperture, D. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with a 2.4-m primary mirror, has an angular resolution at visible wavelengths of ~0.04 arc seconds. The atmosphere is composed of air at slightly different temperatures, and therefore different indices of refraction, constantly mixing. Light waves are bent as they pass through the inhomogeneous atmosphere. When a telescope on the ground focuses these light waves, instantaneous images appear fragmented, changing as a function of time. As a result, long-exposure images acquired using ground-based telescopes - even telescopes with four times the diameter of HST - appear blurry and have an angular resolution of roughly 0.5 to 1.5 arc seconds at best. Astronomical adaptive-optics systems compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. First, the shape of the incoming non-planar wave is determined using measurements of a nearby bright star by a wavefront sensor. Next, an element in the optical system, such as a deformable mirror, is commanded to correct the shape of the incoming light wave. Additional corrections are made at a rate sufficient to keep up with the dynamically changing atmosphere through which the telescope looks, ultimately producing diffraction-limited images. The fidelity of the wavefront sensor measurement is based upon how well the incoming light is spatially and temporally sampled. Finer sampling requires brighter reference objects. While the brightest stars can serve as reference objects for imaging targets from several to tens of arc seconds away in the best conditions, most interesting astronomical targets do not have sufficiently bright stars nearby. One solution is to focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope.

Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

2013-02-01

66

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six (6) orthogonal faces of the LDEF was correlated, the Interplanetary Dust Experiment clock could be precisely calibrated. The center 1/3rd tray cover is a chromic anodized aluminum plate that protects the IDE data conditioning and control electronics mounted underneath. The cover plate also serves as a mounting platform for ten (10) individual specimen holders provided by one of the IDE investigators.The material specimen, consisting of germanium, sapphire and zinc sulfide of different sizes, shapes and colors, are bonded to the specimen holders with an RTV adhesive. The specimen holders are attached to the cover plate with stainless steel non-magnetic fasteners. The 1/3rd tray cover plate in the right hand end of the experiment tray is an aluminum plate painted white with Chemglaze II A-276 paint and used as a thermal cover for the Experiment Power and Data System (EPDS). The EPDS is a system provided by the LDEF Project Office that processes and stores, on magnetic tape, the orbital experiment and housekeeping data from six (6) experiment locations on the LDEF.

1984-01-01

67

CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Correcting dynamic residual aberrations of conformal optical systems using AO technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyses the dynamic residual aberrations of a conformal optical system and introduces adaptive optics (AO) correction technology to this system. The image sharpening AO system is chosen as the correction scheme. Communication between MATLAB and Code V is established via ActiveX technique in computer simulation. The SPGD algorithm is operated at seven zoom positions to calculate the optimized surface shape of the deformable mirror. After comparison of performance of the corrected system with the baseline system, AO technology is proved to be a good way of correcting the dynamic residual aberration in conformal optical design.

Li, Yan; Li, Lin; Huang, Yi-Fan; Du, Bao-Lin

2009-07-01

68

On-Sky Speckle Nulling Demonstration at Small Angular Separation with SCExAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first on-sky demonstration of speckle nulling, which was achieved at the Subaru Telescope in the context of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) Project. Despite the absence of a high-order high-bandwidth closed-loop AO system, observations conducted with SCExAO show that even in poor-to-moderate observing conditions, speckle nulling can be used to suppress static and slow speckles even in the presence of a brighter dynamic speckle halo, suggesting that more advanced high-contrast imaging algorithms developed in the laboratory can be applied to ground-based systems.

Martinache, Frantz; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Currie, Thayne; Thalmann, Christian; McElwain, Michael; Tamura, Motohide

2014-06-01

69

The Association of Management and the International Association of Management (AoM / IAoM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of Management and the International Association of Management (AoM/IAoM), publisher of the Journal of Management Systems (JMS), recently held its 16th Annual Conference in Chicago, Illinois to promote growth in management research and practice. AoM/IAoM is a non-profit organization of academicians and management practitioners, with divisions ranging from organizational and human resources to information systems and technology. Separate listervs exist for each division, and AoM/IAoM membership, publication, and conference information is available online.

1998-01-01

70

Determination of Metallosis after AO Plate Osteosynthesis by Means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine metallosis after osteosynthesis in 11 samples of contact tissues and 6 samples of fascial tissues by means of AO-plates made of stainless steel. The concentrations of the elements specific...

G. Blettenberg

1975-01-01

71

Status update and closed-loop performance of the Magellan adaptive optics VisAO camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present laboratory results of the closed-loop performance of the Magellan Adaptive Optics (AO) Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM), pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS), and VisAO visible adaptive optics camera. The Magellan AO system is a 585-actuator low-emissivity high-throughput system scheduled for first light on the 6.5 meter Magellan Clay telescope in November 2012. Using a dichroic beamsplitter near the telescope focal plane, the AO system will be able to simultaneously perform visible (500-1000 nm) AO science with our VisAO camera and either 10 ?m or 3-5 ?m science using either the BLINC/MIRAC4 or CLIO cameras, respectively. The ASM, PWS, and VisAO camera have undergone final system tests in the solar test tower at the Arcetri Institute in Florence, Italy, reaching Strehls of 37% in i'-band with 400 modes and simulated turbulence of 14 cm ro at v-band. We present images and test results of the assembled VisAO system, which includes our prototype advanced Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC), prototype calcite Wollaston prisms for SDI imaging, and a suite of beamsplitters, filters, and other optics. Our advanced ADC performs in the lab as designed and is a 58% improvement over conventional ADC designs. We also present images and results of our unique Calibration Return Optic (CRO) test system and the ASM, which has successfully run in closedloop at 1kHz. The CRO test is a retro reflecting optical test that allows us to test the ASM off-sky in close-loop using an artificial star formed by a fiber source.

Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared; Gasho, Victor; Morzinski, Katie; Follette, Katherine

2012-07-01

72

Keck AO survey of Io global volcanic activity between 2 and 5 ?m  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this Keck AO paper the first global high angular resolution observations of Io in three broadband near-infrared filters: Kc (2.3 ?m), Lp (3.8 ?m), and Ms (4.7 ?m). The Keck AO observations are composed of 13 data sets taken during short time intervals spanning 10 nights in December, 2001. The MISTRAL deconvolution process, which is specifically aimed

F. Marchis; D. Le Mignant; F. H. Chaffee; A. G. Davies; S. H. Kwok; R. Prangé; I. de Pater; P. Amico; R. Campbell; T. Fusco; R. W. Goodrich; A. Conrad

2005-01-01

73

An improved model with bending of laser beam for satellite-to-ground AO laser communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correcting scintillation for a slant path with adaptive optics (AO) has been studied. However, the models for solving this problem are all to treat the ray track as a straight line. Based on the engineering practical environment, in a low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite-to-ground laser communication link, the properties of laser beam bending in the slant path will be studied in this paper, and the novel amendatory model of correcting the scintillation with AO will be presented.

Rong, Jian; Li, Fang; Zhong, Xiao-chun; Ding, Xue-ke; Gui, Guan

2007-11-01

74

Defining reference turbulence profiles for E-ELT AO performance simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ELT sites have been chosen after many years of site evaluation with various atmospheric turbulence profilers. ELT instrument planners are expecting reference profiles as input to the AO instrument performance estimators. It appears however that, for some AO modes like LTAO, the requirements exceed the available products in terms of altitude resolution. We explore the possibility of mixing long term statistics at low altitude resolution with high resolution data collected during short term campaigns to produce representative profiles

Sarazin, Marc; Le Louarn, Miska; Ascenso, Joana; Lombardi, Giancluca; Navarrete, Julio

2013-12-01

75

Enabling technologies for visible adaptive optics: the Magellan adaptive secondary VisAO camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its beginnings, diffraction-limited ground-based adaptive optics (AO) imaging has been limited to wavelengths in the near IR (lambda>1mum) and longer. Visible AO (lambda>1mum) has proven to be difficult because shorter wavelengths require wavefront correction on very short spatial and temporal scales. The pupil must be sampled very finely, which requires dense actuator spacing and fine wavefront sampling with large

Derek Kopon; Jared Males; Laird M. Close; Victor Gasho

2009-01-01

76

Enabling Technologies for Visible Adaptive Optics: The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its beginnings, diffraction-limited ground-based adaptive optics (AO)\\u000aimaging has been limited to wavelengths in the near IR ({\\\\lambda} > 1 micron)\\u000aand longer. Visible AO ({\\\\lambda} < 1 micron) has proven to be difficult\\u000abecause shorter wavelengths require wavefront correction on very short spatial\\u000aand temporal scales. The pupil must be sampled very finely, which requires\\u000adense actuator spacing

Derek Kopon; Jared R. Males; Laird M. Close; Victor Gasho

2010-01-01

77

A computa»c~ao numerica como ferramenta para o professor de F¶‡sica do Ensino Medio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposta deste trabalhoe apresentar ao professor de F¶‡sica do ensino medio uma forma de empregar recur- sos computacionais para esclarecer e aprofundar conceitos de F¶‡sica que s~ao explorados de forma limitada por n~ao se poder recorrer ao Calculo Diferencial e Integral. O p^endulo simplese usado como prototipo para o trata- mento sugerido. Mostramos que apenas com o aux¶‡lio de

Augusto Cesar; Claudio Gon; Marcus Vinicius; Tovar Costa

78

Building a reliable, scalable and affordable RTC for AO instruments on ELTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing the unprecedented amount of computing power needed by the ELTs AO instruments real-time controllers (RTC) is one of the key technological developments required for the design of the next generation AO systems. Throughput oriented architectures such as GPUs, providing orders of magnitude greater computational performance than high-end CPUs, have recently appeared as attractive and economically viable candidates since the fast emergence of devices capable of general purpose computing. However, using for real-time applications a I/0 device which cannot be scheduled nor controlled internally by the operating system but is sent commands through a closed source driver comes with a number of challenges. Building on the experience of almost real-time end-to-end simulations using GPUs, and relying on the development of the COMPASS platform, a unified and optimized framework for AO simulations and real-time control, our team has engaged into the development of a scalable, heterogeneous GPU-based prototype for an AO RTC. In this paper, we review the main challenges arising when utilizing GPUs in real-time systems for AO and rank them in terms of impact significance and available solutions. We present our strategy, to mitigate these issues including the general architecture of our prototype, the real-time core and additional dedicated components for data acquisition and distribution. Finally, we discuss the expected performance in terms of latency and jitter on the basis of realistic benchmarks and focusing on the dimensioning of the MICADO AO module RTC.

Gratadour, Damien; Sevin, Arnaud; Perret, Denis; Brule, Julien

2013-12-01

79

Decolorization of the AO24 azo dye and reduction of toxicity and genotoxicity in trickling biofilters.  

PubMed

Acid Orange 24 (AO24) dye was degraded in a trickling biofilter packed with peat and wood chips and inoculated with biomass from a petrochemical industry wastewater system. Different operating strategies were tested; in the first stage, two biofilters were operated independently--one non-aerated biofilter (passive) and the other with aeration-subsequently, the systems were operated serially, and effluent from the non-aerated biofilter was fed to the biofilter with aeration. This treatment train was used to test three different filtration velocities--0.141, 0.282, and 0.423 m/d. The results show that, when operating the systems with a dye charge of 0.035 kg AO24 m2/d and treating the effluent in a single step, good removal efficiencies of AO24 (95 and 89%), COD (63 and 53%), and acute toxicity (63 and 78%) were obtained in both biofilters (with and without air), although mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic intermediary compounds were not removed, because genotoxicity exhibits values higher than 2.0 units for the mutation rate. When using the non-aerated biofilter/aerated biofilter treatment train, it is possible to treat a dye charge 3 times greater (0.106 kg AO24 m2/d) and efficiently remove 98% AO24, 76% COD, 100% acute toxicity, and 100% genotoxicity, which indicates that, with this biological system, an advanced degree of biotransformation and mineralization of the azo dye AO24 is achieved. PMID:21449472

Garzóón-Zúñga, Marco A; Sandoval-Villasana, Ana M; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela E

2011-02-01

80

Robo-AO: Initial results from the first autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large surveys, such as the Kepler mission and Palomar Transient Factory, are discovering upwards of thousands of objects which require further characterization at angular resolutions significantly finer than normally allowed by atmospheric seeing. The demands on precious space-based observatories (i.e. Hubble Space Telescope) and large telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems (i.e. Keck, VLT, Gemini) leave them generally unavailable for high angular resolution surveys of more than a few hundred targets at a time. To address the gap between scientific objects and available telescopes, we have developed Robo-AO, the first robotic laser AO system, as an economical and efficient imaging instrument for the more readily available 1-3 m class telescopes. The Robo-AO system system demonstrates angular resolutions approaching the visible diffraction limit of the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Observations of over 200 stellar objects per night have routinely been performed, with target-to-target observation overheads of less than 1.5 minutes. Scientific programs requiring high-resolution follow-up characterization of several thousands of targets can thus be executed in mere weeks, and Robo-AO has already completed the three largest AO surveys to date.

Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kulkarni, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

2014-03-01

81

Requirements Modeling with the Aspect-oriented User Requirements Notation (AoURN): A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The User Requirements Notation (URN) is a recent ITU-T standard that supports requirements engineering activities. The Aspect-oriented URN (AoURN) adds aspect-oriented concepts to URN, creating a unified framework that allows for scenario-based, goal-oriented, and aspect-oriented modeling. AoURN is applied to the car crash crisis management system (CCCMS), modeling its functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). AoURN generally models all use cases, NFRs, and stakeholders as individual concerns and provides general guidelines for concern identification. AoURN handles interactions between concerns, capturing their dependencies and conflicts as well as the resolutions. We present a qualitative comparison of aspect-oriented techniques for scenario-based and goal-oriented requirements engineering. An evaluation carried out based on the metrics adapted from literature and a task-based evaluation suggest that AoURN models are more scalable than URN models and exhibit better modularity, reusability, and maintainability.

Mussbacher, Gunter; Amyot, Daniel; Araújo, João; Moreira, Ana

82

Frame selection techniques for the Magellan adaptive optics VisAO camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan AO system will begin commissioning in early 2012. Its VisAO camera will provide 20 mas FWHM images with mean Strehl ratios of ~ 0.2 in R band on a 6.5m telescope. Depending on seeing conditions, Strehl ratio may reach temporary peaks as high as 0.5 at these wavelengths. To take advantage of these brief periods of high performance, we plan to adopt lucky imaging style data taking and reduction techniques. As part of this effort we have developed a novel real-time frame selection technique, which will use AO system telemetry and a fast shutter to limit CCD exposure to these very brief moments of higher Strehl. Here we describe the expected benefits of our frame selection techniques in various operating modes. We also present the results of laboratory characterization of the shutter, and describe the performance of predictive algorithms used to control it.

Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Kopon, Derek; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

2010-07-01

83

[TRAIL inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of 3AO ovarian cancer cells].  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on the proliferation of ovarian carcinoma 3AO cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism. Methods Ovarian carcinoma 3AO cells were incubated with 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 ng/mL TRAIL proteins for 72 hours, respectively. At 24, 48 and 72 hours, the cells were collected to observe the morphological change under an inverted microscope, detect the cell proliferation using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the apoptosis rate and cell cycle using flow cytometry (FCM), the morphological features of apoptotic cells using TdT-mediated-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the expression of caspase-3 protein using Western blotting. Results The growth of 3AO cells was inhibited by different concentrations of TRAIL (P<0.05). Morphological change of 3AO cells was clearly observed. TRAIL protein at 25 and 50 ng/mL significantly induced 3AO cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. With the treatment time went by, the percentage of cells at G1 phase increased and cells at S and G2/M phase decreased. The expression of caspase-3 protein was raised by TRAIL. No significant differences were noted in the apoptosis rate and the expression of caspase-3 protein between the 25 and 50 ng/mL TRAIL groups (P>0.05). Conclusion TRAIL protein could promote the apoptosis of 3AO cells through inhibiting cell growth cycle, blocking DNA synthesis and activating caspase-3. PMID:24796736

Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Kaige; Cheng, Biping; Gao, Qian; Wang, Li; Yang, Xiaofeng

2014-05-01

84

Up-Regulated Expression of AOS-LOXa and Increased Eicosanoid Synthesis in Response to Coral Wounding  

PubMed Central

In octocorals, a catalase–like allene oxide synthase (AOS) and an 8R-lipoxygenase (LOX) gene are fused together encoding for a single AOS-LOX fusion protein. Although the AOS-LOX pathway is central to the arachidonate metabolism in corals, its biological function in coral homeostasis is unclear. Using an acute incision wound model in the soft coral Capnella imbricata, we here test whether LOX pathway, similar to its role in plants, can contribute to the coral damage response and regeneration. Analysis of metabolites formed from exogenous arachidonate before and after fixed time intervals following wounding indicated a significant increase in AOS-LOX activity in response to mechanical injury. Two AOS-LOX isoforms, AOS-LOXa and AOS-LOXb, were cloned and expressed in bacterial expression system as active fusion proteins. Transcription levels of corresponding genes were measured in normal and stressed coral by qPCR. After wounding, AOS-LOXa was markedly up-regulated in both, the tissue adjacent to the incision and distal parts of a coral colony (with the maximum reached at 1 h and 6 h post wounding, respectively), while AOS-LOXb was stable. According to mRNA expression analysis, combined with detection of eicosanoid product formation for the first time, the AOS-LOX was identified as an early stress response gene which is induced by mechanical injury in coral.

Lohelaid, Helike; Teder, Tarvi; Toldsepp, Kadri; Ekins, Merrick; Samel, Nigulas

2014-01-01

85

Gas Permeability of Foam Films Stabilized by an Alpha Olefin Sulfonate (AOS) Surfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study we examine the basic properties of single foam films prepared from alpha (C14-C16) olefin sulfonate (AOS). The film thickness was measured as a function of the electrolyte (NaCl) concentration. Special attention was focused on the gas permeability of the films defined by permeability coefficient kf(cm/s). The influence of the film thickness and surfactant adsorption on kf was followed. Supporting surface tension experiments at different surfactant concentrations were performed to obtain the adsorption of AOS at air/aqueous solution interface at different surfactant and salt concentrations.

Farajzadeh, R.; Krastev, R.; Zitha, P. L. J.

2008-07-01

86

An eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph for the Subaru coronagraphic extreme AO (SCExAO) system: system design and expected performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eight-octant phase-mask (EOPM) coronagraph is one of the highest performance coronagraphic concepts, and attains simultaneously high throughput, small inner working angle, and large discovery space. However, its application to ground-based telescopes such as the Subaru Telescope is challenging due to pupil geometry (thick spider vanes and large central obstruction) and residual tip-tilt errors. We show that the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system, scheduled to be installed onto the Subaru Telescope, includes key technologies which can solve these problems. SCExAO uses a spider removal plate which translates four parts of the pupil with tilted plane parallel plates. The pupil central obstruction can be removed by a pupil remapping system similar to the PIAA optics already in the SCExAO system, which could be redesigned with no amplitude apodization. The EOPM is inserted in the focal plane to divide a stellar image into eight-octant regions, and introduces a ?-phase difference between adjacent octants. This causes a self-destructive interference inside the pupil area on a following reimaged pupil plane. By using a reflective mask instead of a conventional opaque Lyot stop, the stellar light diffracted outside the pupil can be used for a coronagraphic low-order wave-front sensor to accurately measure and correct tip-tilt errors. A modified inverse-PIAA system, located behind the reimaged pupil plane, is used to remove off-axis aberrations and deliver a wide field of view. We show that this EOPM coronagraph architecture enables high contrast imaging at small working angle on the Subaru Telescope. Our approach could be generalized to other phase-mask type coronagraphs and other ground-based telescopes.

Murakami, Naoshi; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Matsuo, Taro; Yokochi, Kaito; Nishikawa, Jun; Tamura, Motohide; Kurokawa, Takashi; Baba, Naoshi; Vogt, Frédéric; Garrel, Vincent; Yoshikawa, Takashi

2010-07-01

87

The Hohmann bunionectomy utilizing A-O screw fixation: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

A 14-month retrospective study was performed on 11 patients (15 feet) who had corrective bunion surgery utilizing a modified A-O Hohmann bunionectomy. The study involved radiographic evaluation, range of motion measurements, and a subjective questionnaire. The results of the study suggest that the procedure is very effective in correcting mild to moderate bunion deformities. PMID:6470424

Warrick, J P; Edelman, R

1984-01-01

88

GPS-Based Navigation And Orbit Determination for the AMSAT AO-40 Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AMSAT OSCAR-40 (AO-40) spacecraft occupies a highly elliptical orbit (HEO) to support amateur radio experiments. An interesting aspect of the mission is the attempted use of GPS for navigation and attitude determination in HEO. Previous experiences with GPS tracking in such orbits have demonstrated the ability to acquire GPS signals, but very little data were produced for navigation and orbit determination studies. The AO-40 spacecraft, flying two Trimble Advanced Navigation Sensor (TANS) Vector GPS receivers for signal reception at apogee and at perigee, is the first to demonstrate autonomous tracking of GPS signals from within a HEO with no interaction from ground controllers. Moreover, over 11 weeks of total operations as of June 2002, the receiver has returned a continuous stream of code phase, Doppler, and carrier phase measurements useful for studying GPS signal characteristics and performing post-processed orbit determination studies in HEO. This paper presents the initial efforts to generate AO-40 navigation solutions from pseudorange data reconstructed from the TANS Vector code phase, as well as to generate a precise orbit solution for the AO-40 spacecraft using a batch filter.

Davis, George; Moreau, Michael; Carpenter, Russell; Bauer, Frank

2002-01-01

89

Development of vibration source requirements for TMT to ensure AO performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for TMT to deliver the required adaptive optics (AO) image quality, vibrationsources throughout the observatory need to be understood and their resulting optical response characterized.The sensitivity to vibration has been determined using a finite element model of the telescopestructure and mirror segments coupled to optical models. Frequency dependent models of the AO, activeoptics and mount control systems are included allowing end-to-end assessment of vibration sourceson AO-corrected image quality; future work will improve estimates of the propagation of vibrationsfrom equipment in the summit support building and enclosure to the telescope pier. Modeling separatelypredicts effects on image jitter caused by relative rigid body motion of main optical elements, and thedynamic motion of the 492 individual primary mirror segments. These results have been used to developallocated requirements on source amplitudes at different locations and as a function of frequency, whichwill lead to subsystem design requirements (e.g. for isolation systems at various locations both in thesupport building and enclosure and on the telescope structure). In order to meet an aggressive target forthis contribution to the AO error budget, vibration forces on the telescope itself must be limited to a fewNewtons in the most sensitive frequency range of 5-20Hz; larger forces of order 100N can be toleratedfor equipment mounted off the telescope in the summit facilities building.

MacMartin, Doug; Thompson, Hugh

2013-12-01

90

ALGO NOVO NO MUNDO EMPRESARIAL: DO TURBILHÃO DE DADOS AO REQUINTE DA INTELIGÊNCIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO 1. INTRODUÇÃO Na Sociedade do Conhecimento, as organizações precisam aprender a administrar sua inteligência empresarial. Esta pode representar um importante diferencial em relação aos concorrentes, e, dessa forma, não deve ser desprezada ou subestimada. No mundo atual, altamente competitivo, as organizações precisam estar atentas à concorrência, sob pena de perder espaço no mercado. Desse modo, fica cada vez mais

Simone Bastos Paiva; Edward de Bono

2002-01-01

91

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Tray D12 The prelaunch photograph shows the positions of the three (3) LDEF experiments in a three (3) inch deep tray. The AO023 experiment is located in the left one third (1/3rd) section, the AO180 experiment occupies the center one third (1/3rd) section plus the lower one half (1/2) of the right section and the AO019 experiment is shown in the top right section of the tray. The Polymer Matrix Composite Materials experiment is an active experiment that occupies one half (1/2) of the tray's exposed surface area and contains a data acquisition and recording system. The experiment consist of sixty-two (62) composite tubes with aluminum end fittings, forty-five (45) flat composite coupons with aluminum retainer blocks, and one (1) stainless steel calibration tube. The fasteners used to assemble the experiment were non-magnetic stainless steel. The test samples were manufactured from different epoxy matrix composites containing carbon, boron and aramide (Kevlar) reinforcements. A custom data acquisition system was designed to record and store the data from sixteen (16) thermal/strain gauges on a magnetic tape cassette. The data system and batteries to power the system are located beneath the aluminum base plates.

1984-01-01

92

Performance of a MEMS-based AO-OCT system using Fourier Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-resolution (3.5 {micro}m isotropic), 3-D images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction. Developments to improve performance or functionality of the instrument are on-going. Based on previous work in system characterization we have focused on improved AO control. We present preliminary results and remaining challenges for a newly implemented Fourier transform reconstructor (FTR). The previously reported error budget analysis is also reviewed and updated, with consideration of how to improve both the amount of residual error and the robustness of the system. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of future systems.

Evans, J; Zawadzki, R; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

2009-01-21

93

Performance of a MEMS-based AO-OCT system using Fourier reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-resolution (3.5 ?m isotropic), 3-D images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction. Developments to improve performance or functionality of the instrument are on-going. Based on previous work in system characterization we have focused on improved AO control. We present preliminary results and remaining challenges for a newly implemented Fourier transform reconstructor (FTR). The previously reported error budget analysis is also reviewed and updated, with consideration of how to improve both the amount of residual error and the robustness of the system. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of future systems.

Evans, Julia W.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jones, Steve; Olivier, Scot; Werner, John S.

2009-02-01

94

Improved tilt sensing in an LGS-based tomographic AO system based on instantaneous PSF estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser guide star (LGS)-based tomographic AO systems, such as Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), Multi-Object AO (MOAO) and Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), require natural guide stars (NGSs) to sense tip-tilt (TT) and possibly other low order modes, to get rid of the LGS-tilt indetermination problem. For example, NFIRAOS, the first-light facility MCAO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope requires three NGSs, in addition to six LGSs: two to measure TT and one to measure TT and defocus. In order to improve sky coverage, these NGSs are selected in a so-called technical field (2 arcmin in diameter for NFIRAOS), which is much larger than the on-axis science field (17x17 arcsec for NFIRAOS), on which the AO correction is optimized. Most times, the NGSs are far off-axis and thus poorly corrected by the high-order AO loop, resulting in spots with low contrast and high speckle noise. Accurately finding the position of such spots is difficult, even with advanced methods such as matched-filtering or correlation, because these methods rely on the knowledge of an average spot image, which is quite different from the instantaneous spot image, especially in case of poor correction. This results in poor tilt estimation, which, ultimately, impacts sky coverage. We propose to improve the estimation of the position of the NGS spots by using, for each frame, a current estimate of the instantaneous spot profile instead of an average profile. This estimate can be readily obtained by tracing wavefront errors in the direction of the NGS through the turbulence volume. The latter is already computed by the tomographic process from the LGS measurements as part of the high order AO loop. Computing such a wavefront estimate has actually already been proposed for the purpose of driving a deformable mirror (DM) in each NGS WFS, to optically correct the NGS spot, which does lead to improved centroiding accuracy. Our approach, however, is much simpler, because it does not require the complication of extra DMs, which would need to be driven in open-loop. Instead, it can be purely implemented in software, does not increase the real-time computational burden significantly, and can still provide a significant improvement in tilt measurement accuracy, and therefore in sky-coverage. In this paper, we illustrate the benefit of this new tilt measurement strategy in the specific case of NFIRAOS, under various observing conditions, in comparison with the more traditional approaches that ignore the instantaneous variations of the NGS spot profiles.

Veran, Jean-Pierre

2013-12-01

95

Increase in BrAO1 gene expression and aldehyde oxidase activity during clubroot development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).  

PubMed

SUMMARY In clubroot disease, gall formation is induced by infection with the obligate biotroph Plasmodiophora brassicae due to increased levels of auxins and cytokinins. Because aldehyde oxidase (AO) may be involved in auxin biosynthesis in plants, we isolated two AO genes (BrAO1 and BrAO2) from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. Muso), which are the most similar to AAO1 among Arabidopsis AO genes, and examined their expressions during clubroot development. The expression of BrAO1 was enhanced in inoculated roots from 15 days post-inoculation (dpi) when visible clubroots were still undetectable. Thereafter, BrAO1 expression increased with clubroot development compared with uninoculated roots, although BrAO2 expression was repressed. In situ hybridization revealed that BrAO1 was strongly expressed in tissues that were invaded by immature plasmodia at 35 dpi, suggesting that BrAO1 expression was enhanced by the pathogen in order to establish its pathogenesis. In addition, we detected AO activity, as evidenced by the occurrence of at least six bands (BrAO-a to BrAO-f) in the roots of Chinese cabbage using an active staining method with benzaldehyde and indlole-3-aldehyde as the substrate. Coincidental with BrAO1 expression, the signals of BrAO-a and BrAO-d increased with inoculation by P. brassicae during clubroot development compared with healthy roots, resulting in an increase in total AO activity. By contrast, the band BrAO-b decreased post-inoculation, in parallel with the expression of BrAO2. The other bands of activity were not clearly influenced by the infection. Based on these results, we discuss the involvement of AO in auxin-overproduction during clubroot development in Chinese cabbage. PMID:20507442

Ando, Sugihiro; Tsushima, Seiya; Tagiri, Akemi; Kamachi, Shinichiro; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Hagio, Takashi; Tabei, Yutaka

2006-07-01

96

Effect of Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a dietary supplement (Ambrotose AO®) on resting and exercise-induced blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in exercise-trained and untrained men and women. METHODS: 25 individuals (7 trained and 5 untrained men; 7 trained and 6 untrained women) received Ambrotose AO® (4 capsules per day = 2 grams per

Richard J Bloomer; Robert E Canale; Megan M Blankenship; Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman

2010-01-01

97

Systematic structure modifications of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine to reduce metabolism mediated by aldehyde oxidase (AO).  

PubMed

N-{trans-3-[(5-Cyano-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)oxy]-2,2,4,4-tetramethylcyclobutyl}imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide (1) was recently identified as a full antagonist of the androgen receptor, demonstrating excellent in vivo tumor growth inhibition in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine moiety is rapidly metabolized by aldehyde oxidase (AO). The present paper describes a number of medicinal chemistry strategies taken to avoid the AO-mediated oxidation of this particular system. Guided by an AO protein structure-based model, our investigation revealed the most probable site of AO oxidation and the observation that altering the heterocycle or blocking the reactive site are two of the more effective strategies for reducing AO metabolism. These strategies may be useful for other drug discovery programs. PMID:21955208

Linton, Angelica; Kang, Ping; Ornelas, Martha; Kephart, Susan; Hu, Qiyue; Pairish, Mason; Jiang, Ying; Guo, Chuangxing

2011-11-10

98

Computer simulations and real-time control of ELT AO systems using graphical processing units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive optics (AO) simulations at the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) have been carried out using the efficient, C based multi-threaded adaptive optics simulator (MAOS, http://github.com/lianqiw/maos). By porting time-critical parts of MAOS to graphical processing units (GPU) using NVIDIA CUDA technology, we achieved a 10 fold speed up for each GTX 580 GPU used compared to a modern quad core CPU. Each time step of full scale end to end simulation for the TMT narrow field infrared AO system (NFIRAOS) takes only 0.11 second in a desktop with two GTX 580s. We also demonstrate that the TMT minimum variance reconstructor can be assembled in matrix vector multiply (MVM) format in 8 seconds with 8 GTX 580 GPUs, meeting the TMT requirement for updating the reconstructor. Analysis show that it is also possible to apply the MVM using 8 GTX 580s within the required latency.

Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

2012-07-01

99

Results using the AO hook plate for dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint.  

PubMed

The AO Hook plate has been used for stabilization of acromioclavicular joint dislocations. We present our experience of this newly introduced device in a general hospital, since there are not many papers in the literature reporting on this. A total of 16 patients were treated with the AO Hook plate between November 2001 and November 2003 at Princess Alexandra Hospital in Harlow, UK. For functional assessment 6 months after removal of the plate, the constant score and the pain visual analogue score were used. The pain visual analogue score ranged from 0 to 6 (mean: 0.87) and the constant score ranged from 78 to 100 (mean: 96.4). In one instance, a patient developed instability after removal of the plate. The use of this device results in excellent functional outcome for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocations. PMID:18803467

Koukakis, Athanasios; Manouras, Andreas; Apostolou, Constantinos D; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Papadima, Artemisia; Triantafillou, Christos; Korres, Dimitrios; Allen, Paul W; Amini, Alexander

2008-09-01

100

Villages: an on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEMS-AO\\/Villages project consists of a series of on-sky experiments that will demonstrate key new technologies for the next generation of adaptive optics systems for large telescopes. One of our first goals is to demonstrate the use of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror as the wavefront correcting element. The system is mounted the 1-meter Nickel Telescope at the UCO\\/Lick

Donald Gavel; Scott Severson; Brian Bauman; Daren Dillon; Marco Reinig; Christopher Lockwood; Dave Palmer; Kathleen Morzinski; Mark Ammons; Elinor Gates; Bryant Grigsby

2008-01-01

101

The Incidence of Hip Fracture in Four Asian Countries: The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS) is the first multicenter study to document and compare the incidence of hip fracture in\\u000a four Asian countries. Hospital discharge data for the year 1997 were obtained for the Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Malaysia and\\u000a Thailand (Chiang Mai). The number of patients who were 50 years of age and older and who were discharged

E. M. C. Lau; J. K. Lee; P. Suriwongpaisal; S. M. Saw; S. Das De; A. Khir; P. Sambrook

2001-01-01

102

Enabling technologies for visible adaptive optics: the Magellan adaptive secondary VisAO camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its beginnings, diffraction-limited ground-based adaptive optics (AO) imaging has been limited to wavelengths in the near IR (?>1?m) and longer. Visible AO (?>1?m) has proven to be difficult because shorter wavelengths require wavefront correction on very short spatial and temporal scales. The pupil must be sampled very finely, which requires dense actuator spacing and fine wavefront sampling with large dynamic range. In addition, atmospheric dispersion is much more significant in the visible than in the near-IR. Imaging over a broad visible band requires a very good Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC). Even with these technologies, our AO simulations using the CAOS code, combined with the optical and site parameters for the 6.5m Magellan telescope, demonstrate a large temporal variability of visible (?=0.7?m) Strehl on timescales of 50 ms. Over several hundred milliseconds, the visible Strehl can be as high at 50% and as low as 10%. Taking advantage of periods of high Strehl requires either the ability to read out the CCD very fast, thereby introducing significant amounts of read-noise, or the use of a fast asynchronous shutter that can block the low-Strehl light. Our Magellan VisAO camera will use an advanced ADC, a high-speed shutter, and our 585 actuator adaptive secondary to achieve broadband (0.5-1.0 ?m) diffraction limited images on the 6.5m Magellan Clay telescope in Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. These will be the sharpest and deepest visible direct images taken to date with a resolution of 17 mas, a factor of 2.7 better than the diffraction limit of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Kopon, Derek; Males, Jared; Close, Laird M.; Gasho, Victor

2009-08-01

103

A Method of Geospatial Modeling and Simulation Based on Geo-AO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic cognition or spatio-temporal simulation to geo-objects (geo-spatial objects) or phenomena' is always one of the principal difficulties owing to their dynamic complexity. To solve it to a certain extent, a new mechanism based on Geo-AO is proposed in this paper. First, the popular methods of geo-simulation are analysed and some existing problems are also summarized briefly. Then, geo-cognition

Jun Wang; Qingxiong Cui; Kun Yang

2008-01-01

104

Tomographic phase diversity for phase retrieval on wide-field AO systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase diversity is a commonly used technique to retrieve the wavefront at the focal plane. The usual algorithm involves two or more images of the same target with known phase changes like defocus. It has been shown to be very efficient at measuring on-axis the non-common path aberrations of classical AO systems. In this paper, we present an evolution of this algorithm towards tomographic measurements. This novel technique is dedicated to wide-field AO systems, allowing phase retrieval on multiple layers, conjugated at various altitudes. While the general grounds are very similar to classical phase diversity, the tomographic algorithm involves two or more images with known phase changes of several targets dispatched over the entire field of view. Regularization on the phase is usualy done by factorizing it on a basis of modes, traditionally Zernike polynomials. In this paper, we discuss the choice of a proper basis in the tomographic case and show that other basis such as disk harmonics are interesting alternatives in the case of real AO systems. We additionally propose two versions for this algorithm: an image-based and a Fourier-based both leading to comparable results. We finally present the results obtained on simulated data as well as on real data obtained on the Gemini MCAO system on which this algorithm has been used to estimate and compensate for non common path aberrations.

Gratadour, Damien; Rigaut, François

2011-09-01

105

ASSIST: development of a test-infrastructure for the VLT AO facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASSIST - The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator is a test setup to verify the operation of three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility, namely the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the two AO systems using this DSM, the AO system for the visible light integral field spectrograph MUSE (GALACSI) and the AO system for the IR wide field imager HAWK-I (GRAAL). To support the testing of these elements, ASSIST will provide both an interferometry setup for testing the DSM as well as a full atmospheric turbulence simulator and star simulator to mimic the conditions at the telescope. To test the instruments using the DSM, the output beam is matched the output beam of the VLT telescope, including the correct exit-pupil and high-quality imaging and a similar hardware interface is provided. Since one of the modes to be verified is nearly diffraction limited, also the thermal and vibrational stability are very important, with strong constraints on both the mechanical as well as the optical design.

Stuik, Remko; Arsenault, Robin; Deep, Atul; Delabre, Bernard; Hallibert, Pascal; Jolissaint, Laurent; Hubin, Norbert; Kendrew, Sarah; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Paufique, Jerome; Stroebele, Stefan

2007-09-01

106

Microwelding of various metallic materials under ultravacuum (AO 138-10)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first finding from the AO 138-10 is that cold welding never occurred, and that microwelds didn't even affect the reference (presumably microweld prone) pairs of metals consisting of gold, silver, and chromium. The scientific disappointment from these results must be tempered by the notion of a static AO 138-10 experiment, reflecting the passive character of the global Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight. Thus far, it has been theorized that cold welding results from the peeling of the oxide layer, that is formed in an earth environment, by the space environment since such a layer no longer grows in space. In fact, such stripping of the oxide layer supposes relative motion of the contacting materials. In the absence of such motion, as in this experiment, oxidation will preserve its integrity and continue to prevent microwelding. More bewildering is that there was no microwelding of the reference pairs. Even though AO 138-10 failed scientific expectations, as did the LDEF structure with cold welding, the positive, functional aspect to keep in mind is the safe operation of single-shot (appendage releasing and/or latching) mechanisms, unhindered by microwelding in a space vacuum, as now demonstrated by the statically representative pairs of materials. Other aspects of the experiment are discussed.

Assie, Jean Pierre; Conde, Eric

1991-01-01

107

An AO real-time control solution for ELT scale instrumentation and application to EAGLE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EAGLE is a proposed multi-IFU instrument for the E-ELT, with a full multi-object AO system. Current baseline designs for this MOAO system include up to six laser guide stars and five natural guide stars. Twenty science channels will be corrected using a corresponding number of independent 84x84 actuator deformable mirrors, though the applied corrections will not be observed by the wavefront sensors. In addition to this, the E-ELT M4 mirror is also part of the AO system, and will operate in closed loop. One possible design for a real-time control system for EAGLE is presented here, based on the Durham AO Real-time Control platform (DARC). Using hardware that we have available, we will present performance results based on the implementation of a sub-set of EAGLE, a single IFU channel. This can then be replicated twenty times to obtain a full EAGLE real-time control system, since each channel is independent. We also consider the implementation of real-time control systems for other ELT instruments, and how far our approach can take us.

Basden, Alastair; Dipper, Nigel; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

2012-07-01

108

Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

2003-08-01

109

A Tn5051-like mer-containing transposon identified in a heavy metal tolerant strain Achromobacter sp. AO22  

PubMed Central

Background Achromobacter sp. AO22 (formerly Alcaligenes sp. AO22), a bacterial strain isolated from a lead-contaminated industrial site in Australia, was previously found to be resistant to moderate to high levels of mercury, copper and other heavy metals. However, the nature and location of the genetic basis for mercuric ion resistance in this strain, had not been previously identified. Findings Achromobacter sp. AO22 contains a functional mer operon with all four essential genes (merRTPA) and shows >99% DNA sequence identity to that of Tn501. The mer operon was present on a transposon, designated TnAO22, captured by introducing a broad-host-range IncP plasmid into Achromobacter sp. AO22 and subsequently transferring it to E. coli recipients. The transposition frequency of TnAO22 was 10-2 to 10-3 per target plasmid transferred. Analysis of TnAO22 sequence revealed it belonged to the Tn21 subgroup of the Tn3 superfamily of transposons, with the transposition module having >99% identity with Tn5051 of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a water sample in New York. Conclusion TnAO22 is thus a new variant of Tn5051 of the Tn3 superfamily and the transposon and its associated mercury resistance system are among the few such systems reported in a soil bacterium. Achromobacter sp. AO22 can thus be exploited for applications such as in situ mercury bioremediation of contaminated sites, or the mobile unit and mer operon could be mobilized to other bacteria for similar purposes.

Ng, Shee Ping; Davis, Belinda; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

2009-01-01

110

Increasing Efficiency at the NTF by Optimizing Model AoA Positioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is a national resource for aeronautical research and development. The government, military and private industries rely on the capability of this facility for realistic flight data. Reducing the operation costs and keeping the NTF affordable is essential for aeronautics research. The NTF is undertaking an effort to reduce the time between data points during a pitch polar. This reduction is being driven by the operating costs of a cryogenic facility. If the time per data point can be reduced, a substantial cost savings can be realized from a reduction in liquid nitrogen (LN2) consumption. It is known that angle-of-attack (AoA) positioning is the longest lead-time item between points. In January 2005 a test was conducted at the NTF to determine the cause of the long lead-time so that an effort could be made to improve efficiency. The AoA signal at the NTF originates from onboard instrumentation then travels through a number of different systems including the signal conditioner, digital voltmeter, and the data system where the AoA angle is calculated. It is then fed into a closed loop control system that sets the model position. Each process along this path adds to the time per data point affecting the efficiency of the data taking process. Due to the nature of the closed loop feed back AoA control and the signal path, it takes approximately 18 seconds to take one pitch pause point with a typical AoA increment. Options are being investigated to reduce the time delay between points by modifying the signal path. These options include: reduced signal filtering, using analog channels instead of a digital volt meter (DVM), re-routing the signal directly to the AoA control computer and implementing new control algorithms. Each of these has potential to reduce the positioning time and together the savings could be significant. These timesaving efforts are essential but must be weighed against possible loss of data quality. For example, a reduction in filtering can introduce noise into the signal and using analog channels could result in some loss of accuracy. Data quality assessments need to be performed concurrently with timesaving techniques since data quality parameters are essential in maintaining facility integrity. This paper will highlight time saving efforts being undertaken or studied at the NTF. It will outline the instrumentation and computer systems involved in setting of the model pitch attitude then suggest changes to the process and discuss how these system changes would effect the time between data points. It also discusses the issue of data quality and how the potential efficiency changes in the system could affect it. Lastly, it will discuss the possibility of using an open loop control system and give some pros and cons of this method.

Crawford, Bradley L.; Spells, Courtney

2006-01-01

111

Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

2003-08-01

112

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The prelaunch photograph shows the two (2) clam shell type canisters in their closed position. The canister shells are made of aluminum sheet material with end caps of diecast aluminum. The baseplate and support structure are fabricated from 6000 series aluminum. Fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel. The electrical box and the stainless steel tubing located on the baseplate protect the drive system wiring. The experiment contains a timing mechanism that provides the intelligence to open the canisters after the Orbiter has departed the area and any initial outgassing or offgassing has occurred.

1984-01-01

113

The optical periodic analysis of BL Lac object AO 0235+164  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BL Lac object AO 0235+164 is a well-known object. We collect a large number of effective observation in B, V, R and I band from historical literatures. The possible periods are analyzed by means of discrete correlation function (DCF) method, structure function (SF) method and Jurkevich (J-K) method. The results show that there are possible periodic variations of 2.63-2.66 years in B band, 2.79-2.84 years in V band, 2.57-2.87 years in R band, 2.62-2.88 years in I band, respectively.

Wang, Hongtao

2014-05-01

114

VSOP Monitoring of the Compact BL Lac Object AO 0235+164  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999, the highly compact and variable BL Lac object AO 0235+ 164 was identified as the highest brightness temperature active galactic nucleus observed with the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP), with TB > 5.8 × 1013 K (Frey et al. 2000). The sub-milliarcsec radio structure of this source has been studied with dual-frequency (1.6 and 5GHz), polarization-sensitive VSOP observations during 2001 and 2002. Here we present the results of this monitoring campaign. At the time of these observations, the source was weakly polarized and characterized by a radio core that is clearly resolved on space-ground baselines.

Frey, Sándor; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Gabuzda, Denise C.; Salter, Chris J.; Altschuler, Daniel R.; Perillat, Phil; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Davis, Michael M.

2006-04-01

115

Imprints of The Northern Mode (NAO/ao) On The Distribution of Col Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of cu-off low systems (COLs) could be an interesting climate diagno- sis parameter in the dabate about the regional character of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) versus the hemisferic character of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). COL systems are usually closed circulations at middle and upper troposphere developed from a deep trough in the westerlies (Palmen and Newton, 1969; Winkler et al., 2000). These sys- tems are largerly influenced by blocking and consequently their number, size, temporal and spatial distribution should be affected by the NAO / AO. This would be a point in favour of the NAO paradigm versus AO paradigm as recognized by Wallace (2000). Cut-off low systems were identified in the band 20zN-70zN using data from the re- analysis NCEP-NCAR for the period from 1958 to 1998. To quantify NAO we use the 41 winter values of NAO index as the normalized pressure difference between Ponta Delgada (Azores) and Reykjavik (Iceland). An automated procedure was developed to identify individual cut-off lows. COL sys- tems were determinated according to the following five steps procedure: 1)Minimum of 200hPa geopotential, 2)Cut-off circulation, 3) Minimum of equivalent thickness, 4) A baroclinic area, 5) Thermodinamic inestability. The areas of most frecuent occurrence(Atlantic Ocean around 20zW-20zE and 37zN- 44zN and in the Pacific area around 120zW-135W and 33z N-41zN) are the same in the two phases of NAO but there are a significant difference: the density of COL systems are higher during NAO positive phase than during NAO negative phase, the density in the negative phase is about the third part of the density in the positive phase. A variability associated to NAO in the frecuency of COL systems centered in both sides of the atlantic area is a clear support for the NAO paradigm vs. AO paradigm.

Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Ribera, P.; Gallego, D.; Garcia, R.; Hernandez, E.; de La Torre, L.

116

Recent Progress in CMOS Integrated Mems AO Mirror Development - Oral Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high-resolution optical phase control the Fraunhofer IPMS has developed a CMOS-integrated MEMS micro mirror array including 240 × 200 independently deflectable piston mirror elements of 40 ?m pixel size. To further improve the actual mirror performance, amorphous TiAl has been successfully implemented as a novel CMOS-integrable actuator material providing a virtually drift-free deflection. In addition, first two-level designs with separated mirrors and hinges have been realized offering the potential of increased mechanical stroke at improved optical fill factor. Finally, the high wavefront correction capability of the IPMS mirror device has been demonstrated within an AO testbed.

Gehner, A.; Schmidt, J. U.; Wildenhain, M.; Knobbe, J.; Wagner, M.

2008-01-01

117

An overview of the first results on the solar array passive LDEF experiment (sample), AO171  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space environmental effects were visibly obvious on components of experiment AO171 which contained solar cells, composites, polymeric thin films, solar reflectors, protective coatings, metals, paints , and elastomers. Micrometeoroid/space debris impacts were observed on all experiment elements. Luminescence of polyimide, silicone, and polyurethane materials occurred under black light examination. Outgassing of RTV511 occurred mainly as a result of insufficient thermal vacuum bakeout. Solar cell degradation was predominantly below 10 percent. Elastomers lost mass and discolored; composites showed evidence of atomic oxygen attack, and unprotected thin polymer films eroded away.

Whitaker, Ann F.; Young, Leighton E.

1991-01-01

118

LDEF (Postflight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Mat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO180 : The Effect of Space Environment Exposure on the Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, Tray D12 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF-II facility prior to removal of experiment trays from the LDEF. The Polymer Matrix Composite Materials experiment appears the same as in the flight photograph. The composite containing the aramid (Kevlar) fibers has changed from a yellow to a light brown color and the cylinderical tubes containing the boron and carbon fiber materials have changed from a light green tint to a brown color. The experiment mounting hardware and fasteners seem to be intact and in very good condition.

1990-01-01

119

Tomographic separation of composite spectra - The components of the O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cassiopeiae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The UV photospheric lines of the short-period, double-lined O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cas are analyzed. Archival data from IUE (16 spectra uniformly distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with a tomography algorithm to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, O9.5 III and O8 V, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. An intensity ratio of 0.5-0.7 (primary brighter) at 1600 A is compatible with the data.

Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.

1991-01-01

120

Cavitation Performance of a Propeller Design for a Naval Auxiliary Oiler (AO 177) (Model 5326 with Design Propeller 4645).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cavitation experiments were performed on a model propeller designed for (AO 177). The results showed satisfactory performance concerning power loss; However, a potential problem with erosion is predicted based on these results. Additional erosion studies ...

K. Remmers N. A. McDonald R. Hecker

1974-01-01

121

The properties and performance of poly AO™-79; A nonabsorbable, polymeric antioxidant intended for use in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Poly AO™-79, a composition selected from a class of polymers prepared\\u000a by the polycondensation of divinylbenzene and a blend of various sterically hindered phenols and hydroquinone, are discussed.\\u000a Data are presented indicating that Poly AO™-79 demonstrates excellent antioxidant activity in stabilizing vegetable oils when\\u000a compared to monomeric food grade antioxidants [butylated hydroxytoluene

Thomas E. Furia; Nicolo Bellanca

1977-01-01

122

LDEF (Postflight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 EL-1994-00266 LDEF (Postflight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The experiment is shown in the postflight configuration before closing the canisters with ground support equipment that bypassed the experiments onboard electronics circuitry. Three full panels and approximately 3/4th of the other panel are covered with gold foil (>99.99 percent pure). The remaining area on the fourth panel is covered with strips of other detector materials: zirconium, beryllium, titanium, platium, aluminum, carbon, Kapton, polyethylene and TEFLON®. A brown stain is visible on the experiment tray flanges, however, most of the stains observed in the flight photograph are obscured by reflected light. All materials remain intact with no visual evidence of damage to the experiment. The reflection of a video camera on a tripod and light sources can be seen on the gold foil covered panels. The experiment canisters are shown after being closed by using the experiments ground support equipment. The stain buildup can be clearly seen at the vertical center of the right tray flange. The clean area was located under the experiment tray clamp block and was not exposed to the staining medium. The stain also coats other areas that were exposed during the mission but are not as noticeable. The experiment hardware seems to be intact and have no damage.

1990-01-01

123

OCam with CCD220, the Fastest and Most Sensitive Camera to Date for AO Wavefront Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, subelectron readout noise has been achieved with a camera dedicated to astronomical wavefront-sensing applications. The OCam system demonstrated this performance at a 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240 × 240 pixel frame size. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON jointly funded e2v Technologies to develop a custom CCD for adaptive optics (AO) wavefront-sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240 × 240 pixel frame-transfer eight-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This article demonstrates, for the first time, subelectron readout noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e- pixel-1 frame-1 . It reports on the quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220, including readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency. OCam includes a low-noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks, and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user-friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2 , has been designed to offer enhanced performance, a completely sealed camera package, and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally challenging applications. New features of OCam2 are presented in this article. This instrumental development will strongly impact the performance of the most advanced AO systems to come.

Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz Garcia, José Javier

2011-03-01

124

Study of isoplanatic angle of dual-conjugate AO system in atmospheric turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limitation of classical AO and the basic principle of MCAO are briefly introduced. A dual-conjugate AO (tow-DM MCAO) can offer a possibility of widening FOV characterized by the isoplanatic angle, Considering the application of lidar, the isoplanatic angle's expressions of MCAO for uplink and downlink are deduced in this paper. And through simulation, the conjugate height, the isoplanatic angle, the isoplanatic angle gain and the coherence length for dual-conjugate system are thoughtfully discussed. The results show the conjugate heights play a great role in widening the isoplanatic angle, and the isoplanatic angle retains maximum when the conjugate heights is at optimal altitudes. For the ground lidar, the positions of optimal conjugate heights simulated are about 1 and 12 km, and the optimal detecting height is 17 km. For the air-borne lidar, the isoplanatic angle gain is minimum at the height of 13 km, and fails to reach an optimal detecting state, and the selection of the optimal conjugate height is relative with not only the coherence length but also the height of air-borne system.

Ding, Xueke; Rong, Jian; Zhong, Xiaochun; Li, Fang

2007-11-01

125

LDEF (Postflight), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02 The post flight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges and sidewalls have become discolored with a light tan stain except where the tray clamp blocks were located. The Biostack experiment appears to have survived the extended mission with no visible damage. The experiment housings are intact and all hardware is securely in place. The detector housings appear to be discolored with a stain similar to that on the tray hardware. The exposed Kapton H foil covering windows in two (2) detector housings do not appear to have sustained damage dur ing the extended mission. The perforated dome on two (2) of the detector housings has a slight tan discoloration but no indication of damage.

1990-01-01

126

LDEF (Postflight), AO139A : Growth of Crystals From Solutions in Low Gravity, Tray G06  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO139A : Growth of Crystals From Solutions in Low Gravity, Tray G06 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges have become discolored with a light tan stain except where the tray clamp blocks were located. A darker stain appears to exist at the intersection of the white cover plate and the upper left flange of the experiment tray. The Crystal Growth experiment appears to have survived the extended mission with no visible damage. The experiment cover plate, originally white, appears to be discolored by a very light brown stain but is intact and securely in place.

1990-01-01

127

[First experiences with unreamed AO intramedullary nail in treatment of femoral shaft fractures].  

PubMed

The unreamed femoral nail (UFN) system, with its numerous proximal interlocking options, allows a minimal invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of nearly all femoral fracture patterns. Sixty-six fractures, 5 cases of osteolysis or pathologic fractures, 2 limb shortenings and 1 lengthening (monorail technique) and 3 cases of pseudarthrosis were stabilised with the UFN from July 1994 to December 1996. The fractures were analysed according to the AO classification. We found 31 polytrauma patients with an mean ISS of 21.8 and a mean PTS of 25.4. Most of the multiply injured patients (n = 26) were stabilised with the UFN primarily. Follow-up of 44 patients ranged from 4 to 18 months postoperatively. According to our clinical and radiological score the results were excellent in 34% of cases, good in 36.3%, poor in 20.4% and bad in 9%. Average fracture healing time was about 9.8 weeks. PMID:9340239

Stockenhuber, N; Hofer, H P; Schweighofer, F; Bratschitsch, G; Szyszkowitz, R

1997-07-01

128

Functional expression of amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (AO-I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to prepare recombinant amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger after overexpressing in yeast. The yeast expression vector pDR197 that includes a constitutive PMA1 promoter was used for the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant amine oxidase was extracted from the growth medium of the yeast, purified to homogeneity and identified by activity assay and MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting. Similarity search in the newly published A. niger genome identified six genes coding for copper amine oxidase, two of them corresponding to the previously described enzymes AO-I a methylamine oxidase and three other genes coding for FAD amine oxidases. Thus, A. niger possesses an enormous metabolic gear to grow on amine compounds and thus support its saprophytic lifestyle. PMID:17899443

Kolaríková, Katerina; Galuszka, Petr; Sedlárová, Iva; Sebela, Marek; Frébort, Ivo

2009-01-01

129

Villages: an on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MEMS-AO/Villages project consists of a series of on-sky experiments that will demonstrate key new technologies for the next generation of adaptive optics systems for large telescopes. One of our first goals is to demonstrate the use of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror as the wavefront correcting element. The system is mounted the 1-meter Nickel Telescope at the UCO/Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton. It uses a 140 element (10 subapertures across) MEMS deformable mirror and is designed to produce diffraction-limited images at wavelengths from 0.5 to 1.0 microns. The system had first light on the telescope in October 2007. Here we report on the results of initial on-sky tests.

Gavel, Donald; Severson, Scott; Bauman, Brian; Dillon, Daren; Reinig, Marco; Lockwood, Christopher; Palmer, Dave; Morzinski, Kathleen; Ammons, Mark; Gates, Elinor; Grigsby, Bryant

2008-03-01

130

Analysis of Optical Variations of BL Lac Object AO 0235+164  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical optical BVRI band data are combined on the BL Lac object AO 0235 + 164. In order to examine the possible existence of lags and correlations between variations in different optical bands from this source, a statistical analysis is performed through the Discrete Correlation Function (DCF) method. Monte Carlo simulations called Flux Redistribution/Random Subset Selection (FR/RSS) are performed to obtain statistically meaningful values for the cross-correlation time lags and their related uncertainties. The analysis confirms that the variations in different optical light curves are strongly correlated, with no or very weak lag within the errors. Long term variability of color indices are also analysed. No color variabilities are found.

Hong-tao, Wang

2014-03-01

131

LDEF (Flight), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Flight), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. The paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks, originally white, have become discolored. The LDEF end frame structure also is discolored in locations adjacent to the edge of the black thermal panels. The Biostack experiment appears to have survived the extended mission with no visible damage. The experiment housings are intact and all hardware is securely in place. The exposed Kapton H foil covering windows in two (2) detector housings are deformed due to a positive internal pres sure but do not appear to have sustained damage. The Kapton H foil covers are visible beneath the perforated dome on two (2) of the detector housings with no indication of damage.

1990-01-01

132

High contrast experiment of an AO-free coronagraph with a checkerboard pupil mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: A high contrast coronagraph is expected to provide one of the promising ways to directly observe extra-solar planets. We present the newest results of our laboratory experiment investigating “rigid” coronagraph with a binary shaped checkerboard pupil mask, which should offer a highly stable solution for telescopes without adaptive optics (AO) for wavefront correction in space missions. Aims: The primary aim of this work was to study the stability of the coronagraph, and to demonstrate its performance without adaptive wavefront correction. Estimation of both the raw contrast and the gain of the point spread function (PSF) subtraction were needed. The limiting factor of the contrast was also important. Methods: A binary shaped pupil mask of a checkerboard type has been designed. The mask, consisting of an aluminum film on a glass substrate, was manufactured using nano-fabrication techniques with electron beam lithography. Careful evaluation of coronagraphic performance, including PSF subtraction, was carried out in air using the developed mask. Results: A contrast of 6.7 × 10-8 was achieved for the raw coronagraphic image by areal averaging of all of the observed dark regions. Following PSF subtraction, the contrast reached 6.8 × 10-9. Speckles were a major limiting factor throughout the dark regions of both the raw image and the PSF subtracted image. Conclusions: A rigid coronagraph with PSF subtraction without AO is a useful method to achieve high contrast observations. Applications of a rigid coronagraph to a Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and other platforms are discussed.

Enya, K.; Abe, L.; Tanaka, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Haze, K.; Sato, T.; Wakayama, T.

2008-03-01

133

Aspergillus oryzae AoSO Is a Novel Component of Stress Granules upon Heat Stress in Filamentous Fungi  

PubMed Central

Stress granules are a type of cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granule formed in response to the inhibition of translation initiation, which typically occurs when cells are exposed to stress. Stress granules are conserved in eukaryotes; however, in filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus oryzae, stress granules have not yet been defined. For this reason, here we investigated the formation and localization of stress granules in A. oryzae cells exposed to various stresses using an EGFP fusion protein of AoPab1, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pab1p, as a stress granule marker. Localization analysis showed that AoPab1 was evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm under normal growth conditions, and accumulated as cytoplasmic foci mainly at the hyphal tip in response to stress. AoSO, a homolog of Neurospora crassa SO, which is necessary for hyphal fusion, colocalized with stress granules in cells exposed to heat stress. The formation of cytoplasmic foci of AoSO was blocked by treatment with cycloheximide, a known inhibitor of stress granule formation. Deletion of the Aoso gene had effects on the formation and localization of stress granules in response to heat stress. Our results suggest that AoSO is a novel component of stress granules specific to filamentous fungi. The authors would specially like to thank Hiroyuki Nakano and Kei Saeki for generously providing experimental and insightful opinions.

Huang, Hsiang-Ting; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

134

Possible impact of the autumnal North Pacific SST and November AO on the East Asian winter temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effects of the North Pacific sea surface temperature (NP SST) anomalies on the East Asian winter temperature (TEA), and the relationship between the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and NP SST anomalies in association with TEA. Time-lagged correlation analysis revealed that the third mode of the September-October-November (SON) mean NP SST ("SON SST 3rd mode") and the AO index for November ("Nov AO") are closely related to TEA, and further that the first and second modes of NP SST are associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North America (PNA) patterns, respectively. This study reveals that when the SON SST 3rd mode and Nov AO have a positive (negative) phase, the intensity of the Siberian High weakens (strengthens), which in turn weakens (strengthens) the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), resulting in a warm (cold) winter in East Asia. Our results suggest that the North Pacific Ocean signals influence the AO, which is one of the most pronounced Northern Hemispheric atmospheric global patterns. Such an influence in turn governs the continental-scale circulation over Siberia and affects the subsequent local climate variation over the East Asia regions.

Kim, Hae-Jeong; Ahn, Joong-Bae

2012-06-01

135

The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: diffraction-limited broadband visible imaging and 20mas fiber array IFU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10?m camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, the VisAO camera will have a full suite of filters, coronagraphic focal plane occulting spots, and SDI prism/filters. The imaging mode should provide ~20% mean Strehl diffraction-limited images over the band 0.5-1.0 ?m. In IFS mode, the VisAO instrument will provide R~1,800 spectra over the band 0.6-1.05 ?m. Our unprecedented 20 mas spatially resolved visible spectra would be the highest spatial resolution achieved to date, either from the ground or in space. We also present lab results from our recently fabricated advanced triplet Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC) and the design of our novel wide-field acquisition and active optics lens. The advanced ADC is designed to perform 58% better than conventional doublet ADCs and is one of the enabling technologies that will allow us to achieve broadband (0.5-1.0?m) diffraction limited imaging and wavefront sensing in the visible.

Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

2010-07-01

136

Comparative analysis of the main bioactive components of San-ao decoction and its series of formulations.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) was established for simultaneous determination of seven main bioactive components in San-ao decoction and its series of formulae (San-ao decoction, Wu-ao decoction, Qi-ao decoction and Jia-wei San-ao decoction). Seven compounds were analyzed simultaneously with a XTerra C(18) column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm) using a linear gradient elution of a mobile phase containing acetonitrile (A) and a buffer solution (0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate and adjusted to pH 3 using phosphoric acid) (B); the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The sample was detected with DAD at 210, 254 and 360 nm and the column was maintained at 30 °C. All the compounds showed good linearity (r2 > 0.9984) in the tested concentration range. The precisions were evaluated by intra-day and inter-day tests, and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values within the range of 0.83%–2.53% and 0.64%–2.77% were reported, respectively. The recoveries of the quantified compounds were observed to cover a range from 95.34% and 104.82% with R.S.D. values less than 2.72%. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of seven main bioactive components including ephedrine (1), amygdalin (2), liquiritin (3), benzoic acid (4), isoliquiritin (5), formononetin (6) and glycyrrhizic acid (7) in San-ao decoction and its series of formulae. The results also showed a wide variation in the content of the identified active compounds in these samples, which could also be helpful to illustrate the drug interactions after some herbs combined in different formulations. PMID:23117432

Shu, Xiaoyun; Tang, Yuping; Jiang, Chenxue; Shang, Erxing; Fan, Xinshen; Ding, Anwei

2012-01-01

137

A roadmap for a new era turbulence studies program applied to the ground-based astronomy supported by AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sites selection for ELTSs concluded and a new era opens for turbulence studies in application to the ground-based astronomy supported by AO. If in the last decade the main interest of astronomy has been focused on the characterization of sites, now priorities change. In the last years more and more AO systems have seen their first light. A few more complex AO techniques are still in a phase of verification/validation. The efficiency of the operating and forthcoming AO systems can strongly be affected by turbulence and observation strategies rely on our ability in knowing in advance the turbulence spatial distribution in a region around the telescope. Progresses in development of more sophisticated AO techniques (such as the LTAO, MCAO and MOAO) definitely depend on a more detailed knowledge of the main turbulence features such as the turbulence stratification at high vertical resolution. An European working group has been recently set-up aiming at defining the roadmap of a program of site testing campaigns for OT measurements having multiple goals mainly addressed to support requirements for 3D OT modeling with hydrodynamical approach and AO at wide field in application to the ground-based astronomy. The main first objective of this program will be the absolute instrument cross-calibration (in particular the vertical profilers for the whole troposphere and low stratosphere ~20km) and validation of techniques for turbulence stratification on the same vertical range at high vertical resolution (with the optimal goal of 100-200m). In this contribution we will present the motivations of our work, the goals, the instrumentation we are taking into accounts, the different strategies and constraints we are considering for the conception of site testing campaigns.

Masciadri, Elena; Rousset, Gérard; Fusco, Thierry; Basden, Alastair; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Fuensalida, Jesus; Robert, Clélia; Sarazin, Marc; Wilson, Richard; Ziad, Aziz

2013-12-01

138

LDEF (Postflight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 EL-1994-00147 LDEF (Postflight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 The post flight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF and shows the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE) on the LDEF. Six (6) plates of passive components, provided by various experiment organizations and designated plate I thru plate VI, are shown mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. All six plates are aluminum and attach to the LDEF experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Plate I, located in the upper right corner, consist of a combination of solar cells with and without covers, solar cell modules and solar arrays assembled on the baseplate. Three of the four solar arrays are missing. Other components appear to be secure. Plate II in the top center section, has twenty seven (27) composite samples, carbon fiber and glass fiber, mounted on the baseplate. The composites appear to be intact with no physical damage. Plate III, in the upper left corner, consist of metallized and thin polymeric films (Kapton, Mylar, TEFLON® , white Tedlar,etc.). The thin films without protective coatings sustained significant damage and most were destroyed. The thin film specimen hanging by one end in the flight photograph is missing. The metallized film apparently survived the mission with minimum damage. Plate IV located in the lower right corner consist of metals and coatings mounted in an aluminum baseplate and covered with a thin aluminum coverplate that partially mask the specimen. Several of the coatings appear to have darkened and a unique pattern of light brown discoloration appears around the outer edges of the mounting plate and along the lower edge of the coverplates. Plate V, in the lower center section, contained thermal plastics and structural film configured into tensile and shear specimen. All specimen, including the tape holding down the small specimen in the lower right corner, have darkened significantly during the extended time in space. Plate VI, in the lower left corner, is populated with solar cells and associated components such as covers, encapsulants,adhesives, etc. The solar cell components appear to be intact with no apparent physical damage.The colors of the specimen, however, appear to have darkened. The photographic lighting angle has significantly highlighted abrasions on the mounting plate surface.

1990-01-01

139

LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 EL-1994-00666 LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay and shows the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE) on the LDEF. Six (6) plates of passive components, provided by various experiment organizations and designated plate I thru plate VI, are shown mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. All six plates are aluminum and attach to the LDEF experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Plate I, located in the upper left corner, consist of a combination of solar cells with and without covers, solar cell modules and solar arrays assembled on the baseplate. Two of the four solar arrays are missing and one appears to be attached at only one corner. Other components appear to be secure. Plate II in the left center section, has twenty-seven (27) composite samples, carbon fiber and glass fiber, mounted on the baseplate. The composites appear to be intact with no physical damage. Plate III, in the lower left corner, consist mostly of metallized and thin polymeric films (Kapton, Mylar, TEFLON® , white Tedlar,etc.). The thin films without protective coatings sustained significant damage and most were destroyed. The metallized film apparently survived with minimum damage. Plate IV located in the upper right corner consist of metals and coatings mounted in an aluminum baseplate and covered with a thin aluminum coverplate that partially mask the specimen. Several of the coatings appear to have changed to a darker color and a light brown discoloration appears around the outer edges of the mounting plate and along the right edge of the coverplates. Plate V, in the right center section, contained thermal plastics and structural film configured into tensile and shear specimen. All specimens, including the tape holding down the small specimen in the lower right corner, have darkened significantly during the extended time in space. Plate VI, in the lower right corner, is populated with solar cells and associated components such as covers, encapsulants,adhesives, etc.. The solar cell components appear to be intact with no apparent physical damage.The colors of the specimen, however, appear to have darkened.

1990-01-01

140

The AOLI Non-Linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor: High sensitivity reconstruction for low-order AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions on incoming wavefronts. This requirement is because Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors (SHWFS) distribute incoming light from reference objects into a large number of sub-apertures. Bright natural reference objects occur infrequently across the sky leading to the use of laser guide stars which add complexity to wavefront measurement systems. The non-linear curvature wavefront sensor as described by Guyon et al. has been shown to offer a significant increase in sensitivity when compared to a SHWFS. This facilitates much greater sky coverage using natural guide stars alone. This paper describes the current status of the non-linear curvature wavefront sensor being developed as part of an adaptive optics system for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The sensor comprises two photon-counting EMCCD detectors from E2V Technologies, recording intensity at four near-pupil planes. These images are used with a reconstruction algorithm to determine the phase correction to be applied by an ALPAO 241-element deformable mirror. The overall system is intended to provide low-order correction for a Lucky Imaging based multi CCD imaging camera. We present the current optical design of the instrument including methods to minimise inherent optical effects, principally chromaticity. Wavefront reconstruction methods are discussed and strategies for their optimisation to run at the required real-time speeds are introduced. Finally, we discuss laboratory work with a demonstrator setup of the system.

Crass, Jonathan; King, David; Mackay, Craig

2013-12-01

141

Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5). [long duration exposure facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AO 138-5 experiment has been designed, via the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar radiation. Samples were rules and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and has been protected against atomic oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling has been evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The analysis has been focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure has damaged the coating reflectivity in the ultraviolet region, the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

Bonnemason, Francis

1992-01-01

142

Wide Tertiary Companions to Nearby Spectroscopic Binaries: A Close Look with Gemini-North AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the preliminary findings of a multi-epoch, common proper motion (CPM) search for tertiary companions to known, nearby spectroscopic binary systems. Simulations of the star forming environment indicate that, in order to produce the very small separations of such systems, a third member can carry away angular momentum, tightening the binary. This third member typically has a low-mass and remains bound to the system. We use NIRI-Altair AO imaging on Gemini-North to search for close tertiary companions to a sample of 91 spectroscopic binaries. We collect the data in two narrow-band filters separated by approximately one year. The two filters are centered just outside of the 1.6 ?m methane feature (CH4short) and just inside it (CH4long). This allows for two forms of candidate identification: 1) CPM and 2) methane dropout if the object is a T dwarf. At this time, we have obtained and analyzed 60 multi-epoch fields. We confirm a previously known CPM companion and identify three sub-stellar candidates and two M dwarf candidates.

Allen, P. R.; Close, L.

2011-12-01

143

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Prelaunch), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02 The prelaunch photograph shows the Bio stack experiment containers mounted on a baseplate and installed in a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner experiment tray. Non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners were used in all mechanical joint assemblies. The Biostack experiment consist of twenty (20) detector units in hermetically sealed aluminum housings mounted on aluminum baseplates. Eight (8) detector units are mounted on a baseplate and installed in a six (6) inch peripheral tray adjacent to the LDEF trailing edge and twelve (12) detector units mounted on a baseplate are located in the tray shown and will be installed on the earth facing end of the LDEF. The experiment housings and the mounting plate have a thin chro mic anodize surface coating to meet thermal requirements. Two (2) housings have windows cov ered with Kapton H foil that provides a light filter with low radiation absorption. Two (2) additional housings have windows covered with Kapton H foil but also have perforated aluminum domes to limit incoming earth albedo.

1984-01-01

144

GRAVITY: The AO-Assisted, Two-Object Beam-Combiner Instrument for the VLTI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the proposal for the infrared adaptive optics (AO) assisted, two-object, high-throughput, multiple-beam-combiner GRAVITY for the VLTI. This instrument will be optimized for phase-referenced interferometric imaging and narrow-angle astrometry of faint, red objects. Following the scientific drivers, we analyze the VLTI infrastructure, and subsequently derive the requirements and concept for the optimum instrument. The analysis can be summarized with the need for highest sensitivity, phase referenced imaging and astrometry of two objects in the VLTI beam, and infrared wavefront-sensing. Consequently our proposed instrument allows the observations of faint, red objects with its internal infrared wavefront sensor, pushes the optical throughput by restricting observations to K-band at low and medium spectral resolution, and is fully enclosed in a cryostat for optimum background suppression and stability. Our instrument will thus increase the sensitivity of the VLTI significantly beyond the present capabilities. With its two fibers per telescope beam, GRAVITY will not only allow the simultaneous observations of two objects, but will also push the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 ?as, and provide simultaneous astrometry for up to six baselines.

Eisenhauer, F.; Perrin, G.; Rabien, S.; Eckart, A.; Léna, P.; Genzel, R.; Abuter, R.; Paumard, T.; Brandner, W.

145

GRAVITY: The AO assisted, two object beam combiner instrument for the VLTI.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the proposal for the infrared adaptive optics (AO) assisted, two-object, high-throughput, multiple-beam-combiner GRAVITY for the VLTI. This instrument will be optimized for phase-referenced interferometric imaging and narrow-angle astrometry of faint, red objects. Following the scientific drivers, we analyze the VLTI infrastructure, and subsequently derive the requirements and concept for the optimum instrument. The analysis can be summarized with the need for highest sensitivity, phase referenced imaging and astrometry of two objects in the VLTI beam, and infrared wavefront-sensing. Consequently our proposed instrument allows the observations of faint, red objects with its internal infrared wavefront sensor, pushes the optical throughput by restricting observations to K-band at low and medium spectral resolution, and is fully enclosed in a cryostat for optimum background suppression and stability. Our instrument will thus increase the sensitivity of the VLTI significantly beyond the present capabilities. With its two fibers per telescope beam, GRAVITY will not only allow the simultaneous observations of two objects, but will also push the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 micro-arcsec, and provide simultaneous astrometry for up to six baselines.

Eisenhauer, F.; Perrin, G.; Rabien, S.; Eckart, A.; Lena, P.; Genzel, R.; Abuter, R.; Paumard, T.

2005-08-01

146

Estimating the reduction of vibrations in MACAO and ALTAIR AO systems using H2 control synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations and external disturbances of various origins (e.g. structural, wind, axis control) have been shown to degrade the image quality at the instrument focus of the telescopes. Furthermore, the next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) and their associated adaptive optics (AO) systems will reach new levels of high angular resolution, thus reducing vibrations represents becomes highly desirable to ensure that the scientific instruments will take full advantage of this unprecedented resolution. We present a method that aims to mitigate the effect of vibrations at Paranal's MACAO and Gemini North's ALTAIR instruments. A frequency-based controller, based on the H2 synthesis technique [1,2], is used to maximize the performance of the tip and tilt closed-loop systems. The pseudo open-loop slopes are reconstructed from on-sky data and then used to find the controller that minimizes the variance of the tip-tilt residuals in an off-line simulation of the closed-loop system.

Guesalaga, Andrés; Haguenauer, Pierre; Gonte, Frederic; O'Neal, Jared; Neichel, Benoit; Lai, Olivier Lai; Trujillo, Chad; Guzman, Dani

2013-12-01

147

Detectability of Planets in Wide Binaries by Ground-Based Relative Astrometry with AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed the 3 arc sec wide visual binary star HD 19994 twice with the VLT NACO AO instrument to measure the separation between the two stars with very high precision, in order to detect the astrometric wobble of star A due to its radial velocity planet Ab, to be measured as periodic change in the binary separation. We obtained roughly 100 short exposure images per epoch and could thereby obtain a relative astrometric precision in measuring the binary separation of below 100 micro arc sec. This is the best precision ever reached in ground-based single- aperture relative astrometry, comparable to a similar program with the HST FGS by Benedict et al. With this precision, it is possible to detect the astrometric wobble (or its upper limit) of star A due to its radial velocity planet as periodic change in the binary separation, to be observed in the next few years. With such a measurement, one can determine the mass of the spectroscopic companion, which is a planet candidate from radial velocity observations (m sin i, unknown orbit inclination i). Once such a project is shown to be successful for a known planet, one can start searching for new planets in binary stars. Such observations are also very useful for significantly improving the orbit of this and many other binaries.

Neuhäuser, R.; Seifahrt, A.; Röll, T.; Bedalov, A.; Mugrauer, M.

2007-08-01

148

The AO\\/ASIF-proximal femoral nail (PFN): a new device for the treatment of unstable proximal femoral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available intramedullary devices for the treatment of unstable pertrochanteric femoral fractures are technically demanding and show a considerable failure rate due to their massiveness and the persistent rotational instability of the head–neck fragment. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO\\/ASIF) therefore designed a new intramedullary device, the proximal femoral nail (PFN), which during a handling study was tested in 4 European

R. K. J Simmermacher; A. M Bosch; Chr Van der Werken

1999-01-01

149

Liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water characteristics in the East Greenland Current during the AO02 Oden expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical features of the East Greenland Current (EGC) are synthesized from a survey conducted by the Swedish icebreaker Oden during the International Arctic Ocean – 02 expedition (AO-02) in May 2002 with emphasis on the liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water. The data include hydrography and lowered acoustic doppler current profiler (LADCP) velocities in eight transects along the EGC,

Johan Nilsson; Göran Björk; Bert Rudels; Peter Winsor; Daniel Torres

2008-01-01

150

In-situ characterization of microbial community in an A/O submerged membrane bioreactor with nitrogen removal.  

PubMed

The bacterial community involved in removing nitrogen from sewage and their preferred DO environment within an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR) was investigated. A continuously operated laboratory-scale A/O MBR was maintained for 360 d. At a sludge age of 150 d and a C/N ratio of 3.5, the system was capable of removing 88% of the influent nitrogen from raw wastewater through typical nitrogen removal transformations (i.e. aerobic ammonia oxidation and anoxic nitrate reduction). Characterization of the A/O MBR bacterial community was carried out using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH results further showed that Nitrosospira spp. and Nitrospira spp. were the predominant groups of ammonia and nitrite oxidizing group, respectively. They constituted up to 11% and 6% of eubacteria at DO below 0.05 mg/l (low DO), respectively, and about 14% and 9% of eubacteria at DO between 2-5 mg/l (sufficient DO), respectively, indicating preference of nitrifiers for a higher DO environment. Generally low counts of the genus Paracoccus were detected while negative results were observed for Paracoccus denitrificans, Alcaligenes spp, and Pseudomonas stutzeri under the low and sufficient DO environments. The overall results indicate that Nitrosospira spp., Nitrospira spp. and members of Paracoccus spp. can be metabolically functional in nitrogen removal in the laboratory-scale A/O MBR system. PMID:15566185

Sofia, A; Liu, W T; Ong, S L; Ng, W J

2004-01-01

151

AoSO protein accumulates at the septal pore in response to various stresses in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Filamentous ascomycetes form hyphal networks that are compartmentalized by septa which have a perforated pore allowing the passage of cytoplasm and organelles between adjacent hyphal compartments. Thus, the septal pore may play an important role in the organized growth of multicellular organisms. Upon hyphal injury, the septal pore is plugged by a wound-healing organelle, known as the Woronin body, to prevent excessive cytoplasmic leakage. However, the movement of proteins towards the septal pore in response to stress has not been extensively studied in filamentous fungi. In this study, we identified an Aspergillus oryzae protein, AoSO, which is homologous to the Neurospora crassa SO protein that was reported to accumulate at the septal pore in aging hyphae. The DeltaAoso strain showed excessive cytoplasmic leakage upon hyphal injury similar to the Woronin body-deficient strain DeltaAohex1. Cellular localization studies using EGFP showed that AoSO accumulated at the septal pore adjacent to the injured compartment, while it was dispersed throughout the cytoplasm under normal growth conditions. These results indicate that AoSO plays a role in preventing excessive cytoplasmic leakage upon hyphal injury by accumulating at the septal pore. Furthermore, AoSO accumulated at the septal pore in response to various stresses, including low and high temperature, extreme acidic and alkaline pH, and nitrogen and carbon depletion. Physical stress induced by pulse laser treatment on a hyphal region at a distance from the septum caused accumulation of the AoSO protein at the septal pore within only a few minutes. This study presents a novel behavior in which a filamentous fungal protein relocalizes to the septal pore in response to various stresses. PMID:19945422

Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Escaño, Cristopher Salazar; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

2010-01-01

152

Orbital Period Changes and Their Evolutionary Status for the Weak-Contact Binaries. III. AO Camelopardalis and AH Tauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we presented multicolor photometric observations for two eclipsing binaries, AO Camelopardalis and AH Tauri, obtained on 2008 December 16 and 17. Using the Wilson-Devinney Code, the photometric solution of AH Tau was determined from our new CCD data. The mass ratio and the fill-out factor are q = 0.503(±0.003) and f = 10.8%(±0.1%), respectively. This indicates that AH Tau is in weak contact. For the weak-contact binary AO Cam, BVI light curves clearly show a difference in the heights of the maxima (i.e., the O'Connell effect), which may be explained by spot activity. By analyzing the O - C curves for AO Cam and AH Tau, it is found that the orbital periods appear to show a secular period decrease with a cyclic variation. The observed period modulation is ?P/P ~ 10-6. For AO Cam, the cyclic oscillation with a short period of 7.63(±0.07) yr and a low amplitude of 0fd0019(±0fd0003) may be preferably attributed to the cyclic magnetic activity. The period and amplitude of the cyclic variation for AH Tau are 45.8(±1.1) yr and 0fd0171(±0fd0005), which may more likely result from the light-time effect via a third body. The secular period decrease rates are dP/dt = -1.26(±0.04) × 10-7 days yr -1 for AO Cam and dP/dt = -6.98(±0.07) × 10-8 days yr -1 for AH Tau. This kind of period decrease can be plausibly explained by the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, and may result in the system evolving into a deep contact configuration.

Yang, Y.-G.; Wei, J.-Y.; Kreiner, J. M.; Li, H.-L.

2010-01-01

153

Dispersion in Neptune's zonal wind velocities from NIR Keck AO observations in July 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observations of Neptune made in H-(1.4-1.8 ?m) and K'-(2.0-2.4 ?m) bands on 14 and 16 July 2009 from the 10-m W.M. Keck II Telescope using the near-infrared camera NIRC2 coupled to the Adaptive Optics (AO) system. We track the positions of 54 bright atmospheric features over a few hours to derive their zonal and latitudinal velocities, and perform radiative transfer modeling to measure the cloud-top pressures of 50 features seen simultaneously in both bands. We observe one South Polar Feature (SPF) on 14 July and three SPFs on 16 July at ˜65 °S. The SPFs observed on both nights are different features, consistent with the high variability of Neptune's storms. There is significant dispersion in Neptune's zonal wind velocities about the smooth Voyager wind profile fit of Sromovsky et al. (Icarus, 105:140, 1993), much greater than the upper limit we expect from vertical wind shear, with the largest dispersion seen at equatorial and southern mid-latitudes. Comparison of feature pressures vs. residuals in zonal velocity from the smooth Voyager wind profile also directly reveals the dominance of mechanisms over vertical wind shear in causing dispersion in the zonal winds. Vertical wind shear is not the primary cause of the difference in dispersion and deviation in zonal velocities between features tracked in H-band on 14 July and those tracked in K'-band on 16 July. Dispersion in the zonal velocities of features tracked over these short time periods is dominated by one or more mechanisms, other than vertical wind shear, that can cause changes in the dispersion and deviation in the zonal velocities on timescales of hours to days.

Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; de Pater, Imke; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Wong, Michael H.; Hammel, Heidi B.

2014-03-01

154

LDEF (Postflight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray B04  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray B04 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The experiment trays upper, lower and right flanges have light tan discolorations. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the centers of the trays upper and right flanges and at the left end of the lower flange have changed from their original white color to a light tan. The SP HVD experiment consist of two identical sets of experiment hardware mounted in three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment trays, one tray is located in the LDEF position B04 adjacent to the LDEF trailing edge and the other is located at LDEF position D10 adjacent to the LDEF leading edge. Each set of SP HVD experiment hardware, self-contained within the experiment tray, consist of six (6) fiberglass reinforced epoxy modules carrying charged dielectric samples on top and the power supplies and electronics below. Four (4) dielectric samples, Kapton with Vapor Deposited Aluminum on one side (VDA-Kapton), are bonded to each of the fiberglas modules with a silver filled conductive epoxy. The spaces between the dielectric sample covered modules and between the modules and the tray flanges are covered by strips of VDA-Kapton attached with acrylic transfer adhesive and Kapton tape. Each experiment tray also contain two solar cell modules. Power for the experiment is provided by LiSO2 batteries supplied by the LDEF Project. The experiment was assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The SP HVD experiment appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage from exposure to the space environment. The white paint around the outer edges of the solar cell modules appears to have changed to a light tan.

1990-01-01

155

LDEF (Flight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray B04  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Flight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray B04 The Space Plasma High Voltage Drainage Experiment (SP HVD) flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the centers of the trays lower and left flanges and at the right end of the upper flange have changed from their original white color to a dark brown. The SP HVD experiment consist of two identical sets of experiment hardware mounted in three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment trays, one tray is located in the LDEF position B04 adjacent to the LDEF trailing edge and the other is located at LDEF position D10 adjacent to the LDEF leading edge. Each set of SP HVD experiment hardware, self-contained within the experiment tray, consist of six (6) fiberglass reinforced epoxy modules carrying charged dielectric samples on top and the power supplies and electronics below. Four (4) dielectric samples, Kapton with Vapor Deposited Aluminum on one side (VDA-Kapton), are bonded to each of the fiberglass modules with a silver filled conductive epoxy. The spaces between the dielectric sample covered modules and between the modules and the tray flanges are covered by strips of VDA-Kapton attached with acrylic transfer adhesive and Kapton tape. Each experiment tray also contain two solar cell modules. Power for the experiment is provided by LiSO2 batteries supplied by the LDEF Project. The experiment was assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The SP HVD experiment appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage from exposure to the space environment. The lighting is such that changes in material colors is difficult to detect, however, the white paint in the vicinity of the solar cell modules appears to have darkened.

1990-01-01

156

The Hydrography in Shen-ao Bay, North Taiwan, without Thermal Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at northern Taiwan, the Shen-ao Bay is characterized by thermal plume of a power plant and fresh water of the Jiu-fen Brook, causing the surface water of high temperature and low salinity which makes a significant stratification against the subsurface water. The power plant was extended in 2008 and stopped discharging warm water for one year, providing an opportunity to survey the hydrographic and current fields of the bay in natural condition. During 2005~2009, there were seven times hydrographic surveys in the bay and four times aside the coast. When the plume appeared, the surface water could be 2~4 degree warmer than the subsurface water. The surface warm water disappeared when the power plant was shutdown. In such a circumstance, the brook water might even cause the surface water cooler than the subsurface water. After the thermal plume was terminated, coastal temperature descended about 8 degree in June-July and 6 degree in August-September. The ADP (Acoustic Doppler Profiler) and CTD surveys disclosed a bottom cold water intrusion which did not relate to the tidal current and almost happened in 2~5 hours after sunset. The observations of hydrographic field together with local winds revealed that the bottom intrusion was induced by the land breath. In summer, the daily intrusion occurred earlier, thicker and staying longer than in winter. Despite the plume existed or not, the temperature profiles in the bay of a depth shallower than 20 m could become a 3-stepwise pattern under the bottom cold water intrusion.

Wu, C.; Hu, J.; Lee, C.

2009-12-01

157

Integrating AO in a performance budget: toward a global system engineering vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EAGLE (Extremely large Adaptive telescope for GaLaxy Evolution) is one of the eight E-ELT instrument concepts that was developed as part of the Phase A E-ELT instrument studies. EAGLE is a near-infrared wide field multi object spectrograph1. It includes its own multi-object adaptive optics system (MOAO) and its subsystems are cooled down so as to ensure that the instrument can both achieve the desired spatial resolution and to be sure that the instrument is background limited, as required in the primary science case, to deliver the performance in the K-band. In this paper we discuss the performance matrix developed to allow us to partition and allocate the important characteristics to the various subsystems as well as to describe the process to verify that the current concept design will deliver the required performance. Due to the integrated nature of the instrument, a large number of AO parameters have to be controlled. The performance matrix also has to deal with the added complexity of active optical elements such as the science channel deformable mirrors (DMs). This paper also defines a method of how to convert the ensquared energy (EE) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required by the science cases into the "as designed" wavefront error and the overall residue wavefront error. To ensure successful integration and verification of the next generation instruments for ELT it is of the utmost importance to have method to control and manage the instrument's critical performance characteristics at very early design steps.

Laporte, Philippe; Schnetler, Hermine; Rousset, G.

2010-07-01

158

A forced titration study of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Ambrotose AO supplement  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress plays a role in acute and chronic inflammatory disease and antioxidant supplementation has demonstrated beneficial effects in the treatment of these conditions. This study was designed to determine the optimal dose of an antioxidant supplement in healthy volunteers to inform a Phase 3 clinical trial. Methods The study was designed as a combined Phase 1 and 2 open label, forced titration dose response study in healthy volunteers (n = 21) to determine both acute safety and efficacy. Participants received a dietary supplement in a forced titration over five weeks commencing with a no treatment baseline through 1, 2, 4 and 8 capsules. The primary outcome measurement was ex vivo changes in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The secondary outcome measures were undertaken as an exploratory investigation of immune function. Results A significant increase in antioxidant activity (serum ORAC) was observed between baseline (no capsules) and the highest dose of 8 capsules per day (p = 0.040) representing a change of 36.6%. A quadratic function for dose levels was fitted in order to estimate a dose response curve for estimating the optimal dose. The quadratic component of the curve was significant (p = 0.047), with predicted serum ORAC scores increasing from the zero dose to a maximum at a predicted dose of 4.7 capsules per day and decreasing for higher doses. Among the secondary outcome measures, a significant dose effect was observed on phagocytosis of granulocytes, and a significant increase was also observed on Cox 2 expression. Conclusion This study suggests that Ambrotose AO® capsules appear to be safe and most effective at a dosage of 4 capsules/day. It is important that this study is not over interpreted; it aimed to find an optimal dose to assess the dietary supplement using a more rigorous clinical trial design. The study achieved this aim and demonstrated that the dietary supplement has the potential to increase antioxidant activity. The most significant limitation of this study was that it was open label Phase 1/Phase 2 trial and is subject to potential bias that is reduced with the use of randomization and blinding. To confirm the benefits of this dietary supplement these effects now need to be demonstrated in a Phase 3 randomised controlled trial (RCT). Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12605000258651

2010-01-01

159

LDEF (Postflight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray D10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray D10 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The experiment trays upper, lower and right flanges have light tan discolorations. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the centers of the trays upper and right flanges and at the left end of the lower flange have changed from their original white color to a light tan. The SP HVD experiment consist of two identical sets of experiment hardware mounted in three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment trays, one tray is located in the LDEF position B04 adjacent to the LDEF trailing edge and the other is located at LDEF position D10 adjacent to the LDEF leading edge. Each set of SP HVD experiment hardware, self-contained within the experiment tray, consist of six (6) fiberglass reinforced epoxy modules carrying charged dielectric samples on top and the power supplies and electronics below. Four (4) dielectric samples, Kapton with Vapor Deposited Aluminum on one side (VDA-Kapton), are bonded to each of the fiberglass modules with a silver filled conductive epoxy. The spaces between the dielectric sample covered modules and between the modules and the tray flanges are covered by strips of VDA-Kapton attached with acrylic transfer adhesive and Kapton tape. Each experiment tray also contain two solar cell modules. Power for the experiment is provided by LiSO2 batteries supplied by the LDEF Project. The experiment was assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The SP HVD experiment in this tray was severely degraded by impingement of atomic oxygen during the long exposure to the space environment. Most of the Kapton polyimide material making up the dielectric samples was completely eroded leaving only the 2000-3000 angstrom Vapor Deposited Aluminum (VDA) layer bonded to the module. The edges of the dielectric surface that survived were taped over by Kapton tape with a silicone adhesive. The Kapton backing eroded leaving the silicone adhesive that protected the Kapton surface beneath. The VDA-Kapton strips used to cover spaces between the modules have degraded substantially and only fragments of the extremely fragile VDA layer remain. The larger fragments of the VDA layer observed in the flight photograph were disturbed during post retrieval operations and became many small aluminum particles. The white paint around the outer edges of the solar cell modules appears to have changed little. Impact craters are visible as black or white specks in many locations on the degraded dielectric surfaces. One of the most noticeable is in the dielectric surface in the upper right corner.

1990-01-01

160

LDEF (Flight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray D10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Flight), AO054 : Space Plasma High-Voltage Drainage Experiment, Tray D10 The Space Plasma High Voltage Drainage Experiment (SP HVD) flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The paint dots on clamp blocks located at the center of the trays right flange and at the right and left ends of the left flange have changed very little from their original white color. The SP HVD experiment consist of two identical sets of experiment hardware mounted in three (3) inch deep LDEF experiment trays, one tray is located in the LDEF position B04 adjacent to the LDEF trailing edge and the other is located at LDEF position D10 adjacent to the LDEF leading edge. Each set of SP HVD experiment hardware, self-contained within the experiment tray, consist of six (6) fiberglass reinforced epoxy modules carrying charged dielectric samples on top and the power supplies and electronics below. Four (4) dielectric samples, Kapton with Vapor Deposited Aluminum on one side (VDA-Kapton), are bonded to each of the fiberglass modules with a silver filled conductive epoxy. The spaces between the dielectric sample covered modules and between the modules and the tray flanges are covered by strips of VDA-Kapton attached with acrylic transfer adhesive and Kapton tape. Each experiment tray also contain two solar cell modules. Power for the experiment is provided by LiSO2 batteries supplied by the LDEF Project. The experiment was assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The SP HVD experiment in this tray was severely degraded by impingement of atomic oxygen during the long exposure to the space environment. Most of the Kapton polyimide material making up the dielectric samples was completely eroded leaving only the 2000-3000 angstrom vapor deposited aluminum layer bonded to the module. The edges of the dielectric surface that survived were taped over by Kapton tape with a silicone adhesive. The Kapton backing eroded leaving the silicone adhesive that protected the Kapton surface beneath. The VDA-Kapton strips used to cover spaces between the modules have degraded substantially and only fragments of the vapor deposited aluminum layer remain attached along the edges. The white paint around the outer edges of the solar cell modules appears to have changed little. Impact craters are visible as black or white specks in many locations on the degraded dielectric surfaces. One of the most noticeable is in the dielectric surface in the upper right corner.

1990-01-01

161

Future change of water vaiables from HadGEM2-AO simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex global models developed for climate prediction are now applied to the future climate projection in a number of global modeling centers around the world. In climate prediction aspects, an atmosphere-ocean coupled model (one-tier climate system) has been recognized to exhibit useful skill for a global or certain regions (Graham et al., 2005). Wang et al. (2005) demonstrates that an AGCM coupled with an ocean model, simulates realistic SST-rainfall relationships for the Asia during the summer period. Also the transition from two-tier to one-tier approach in climate prediction are mainly caused by recent progresses in development of coupled climate models and enlargement of understanding air-sea interactions obtained from international collaborative efforts such as TOGA (the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere) program (Wang et al., 2009). Meanwhile, water resource including river outflow in association with surface and sub-surface water flow is an important part of the global hydrological cycle, and is affected by climate variability and change through recharge processes (Chen et al., 2002), as well as by human interventions in many locations (Petheram et al., 2001). Also, water is critical resource to the social, economic and environmental aspects, and advances of these core elements requires improved water resource management. Better management and use of water need to abundant real time hydro-meteorological (river and weather) information as well as accurate water resource forecasting (Barrett, 1990). For this reason, many studies have recently carrying out the water resource prediction and estimation using hydrology and climate model. For example, Shiklomanov et al. (2011) predicted that water resource in Russian territory increases about 8-10% during 2010-2020 using the unit hydrograph (UH) model based on hydrologic rainfall-runoff model. Anderson et al. (2000) explained the probabilistic seasonal prediction of drought with a simplified climate model coupled hydrology-atmosphere for water resource planning. Arora et al. (1999) and Oki and Sud (1998) developed a method for routing river flows through GCM grid cells. Accordingly, reliable forecasts are expected to help water managers and users with long lead time decisions, leading to greater water use efficiency and better risk management (Wang, 2012). SO, we analysed hydrological cycle and drought index from precipitation, evaporation, runoff, soil moisture, river outflow, and so on using atmosphere-ocean coupled model which called by HadGEM2-AO. Details and added information by this climate projection system about the future water cycle's change will be presented at the workshop. Acknowledgments: This research has been supported by project NIMR-2013-B-2 of the National Institute of Meteorological Research in Korea Meteorological Administration.

Kim, Moon-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Johan; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Chunho

2013-04-01

162

LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A07 The postflight photograph was taken in the Operations and Control (O&C) facility after the LDEF had been transferred from the KSC Payload Transporter to the LDEF Assembly and Transport System (LATS) and shows more detail than the flight photograph. The areas on the aluminum mounting strips where the coating has been scraped and/or abraided can be seen in greater detail under the better lighting conditions. The coating color remains essentially the same. The white paint dots on the tray clampblocks have changed little from the orginal color. PMR-15 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-009) postflight photograph provides more detail than the flight photograph. The geometric pattern seen on the flight photograph is not visible, however, the horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, observed previously are better defined. A gray haze or dust appears to cover the gray/brown panel surface. The yellow colored identification numbers seem to be a little lighter than in the flight photograph but the white marking in the upper left corner do not appear to have changed. Scratch marks/abrasions on the lower left edge of panel were on prelaunch photographs. F-178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (cocured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide panel (T40T30060-005) seems to have changed in color from the light gray in the flight photograph to a brownish gray. The yellow identification numbers seem lighter while the white marking in the upper left corner appear brighter. The fine horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, are still visible on the panel surface. F178/T300 Graphite-Polyimide Panel (precured) - The 178/T300 graphite-polyimide laminated panel (T40T30060-001) seems to have changed to a brownish gray from the light gray color seen in the flight photograph. The yellow identification numbers and the white marking seen on the lower right corner of the panel appear the same as in the flight photograph. The fine horizontal lines, cracks and/or crazing, are still visible on the panel surface.

1990-01-01

163

High energy resolution observation of the Crab and AO535 plus 26 in the hard X-ray range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of uncertainties exist currently regarding the existence of gamma-ray lines in the Crab spectrum. An investigation was, therefore, conducted, and the Crab was observed for eight hours during a balloon flight from Palestine, TX, on September 26, 1980. It appeared that the binary source AO535 plus 26 contaminated the Crab data. It was, however, possible to separate the two sources. The obtained results are discussed and evaluated. It is found that the possibility of a line at 73 keV with the intensity reported by Ling et al. (1979) can be excluded for the obtained data. The 400 keV line cannot be ruled out. The results concerning AO535 plus 26 are very different from those previously obtained.

Hameury, J. M.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, P.; Cline, T.; Teegarden, B.; Tueller, J.; Paciesas, W.; Haymes, R.

1982-01-01

164

Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Treated by the AO Hook Fixation System: A Four Year Follow-Up of an Alternative Technique  

PubMed Central

Surgical fixation is recommended for stable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions that have failed nonoperative management and for all unstable lesions. In this study we set out to describe and evaluate an alternative method of surgical fixation for such lesions. Five knees with unstable OCD lesions in four male adolescent patients with open physes were treated with the AO Hook Fixation System. The outcome was evaluated both clinically and with three separate outcome systems (IKDC 2000, KOOS, Lysholm) at one and a mean four year follow-up. We demonstrated excellent clinical results in all patients. At four years, all scoring systems demonstrated statistically significant improvement when compared to the preoperative status. Our study suggests that the AO Hook Fixation System is an alternative method of surgical intervention with comparable medium term results with other existing modes of fixation and the added biomechanical advantage of the absence of distracting forces during hardware removal.

Pengas, Ioannis P; Assiotis, Angelos; Kokkinakis, Michail; Khan, Wasim S; Meyers, Paul; Arbuthnot, James; Mcnicholas, Michael J

2014-01-01

165

Classification of Orbital Fractures Using the AO/ASIF System in a Population Surveillance Cohort of Traumatic Optic Neuropathy.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: In our prospective nationwide surveillance study of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in the United Kingdom, the prevalence of orbital fractures was found to be 39% (47/121). The prevalence of skull fractures was 7.4% (9/121). This study aims to identify the association of craniofacial-orbital fractures with the severity of visual loss. Methods: TON patients who sustained orbital fractures were identified prospectively by population-based active surveillance through the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit over a 2-year period. Available CT scans were classified by a head and neck radiologist according to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) scheme: the face was divided into 4 units; fractures in each unit were graded according to displacement (A-C) and severity (1.1-3.3). Correlation between severity of craniofacial orbital fractures and visual acuity as well as number of fractured units and visual acuity were evaluated. Results: Twelve of the 25 patients (48%) with imaging available had adequate high resolution craniofacial CT imaging for review and classification using the AO/ASIF system (i.e. 48 classifiable units). Three of 48 (6%) units were undisplaced (grade A), 18 of 48 (29%) units were minimally displaced (grade B), and 4 of 48 (8%) units had largely displaced (grade C) fractures. Twenty-three units (47.9%) had no fractures; 5 patients had radiological evidence of optic canal fractures. Poor visual acuities positively correlated with severity of fractures graded using the AO/ASIF classification (Spearman's rho?=?0.95, p?=?0.05) and number of fractured units (Spearman's rho?=?1.0, p?AO/ASIF classification system provides a uniform method in the assessment of orbital fractures which correlates with visual outcome in TON. PMID:24694248

Ong, Hon Shing; Qatarneh, Dania; Ford, Rebecca L; Lingam, Ravi Kumar; Lee, Vickie

2014-08-01

166

Radial artery pseudoaneurysm complication from use of AO\\/ASIF volar distal radius plate: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of pseudoaneurysm of the radial artery after fixation of a distal radius using the AO\\/ASIF volar distal radius plate system is presented. This unusual complication resulted from inadequate fracture stabilization and plate preparation. Technical tips on plate shortening and preparation of the cut ends are emphasized. (J Hand Surg 2001;26A:448-453. Copyright © 2001 by the American Society for

Khiem D Dao; Eric Venn-Watson; Alexander Y Shin

2001-01-01

167

ShaneAO: an enhanced adaptive optics and IR imaging system for the Lick Observatory 3-meter telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lick Observatory 3-meter telescope has a history of serving as a testbed for innovative adaptive optics techniques. In 1996, it became one of the first astronomical observatories to employ laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics as a facility instrument available to the astronomy community. Work on a second-generation LGS adaptive optics system, ShaneAO, is well underway, with plans to deploy on telescope in 2013. In this paper we discuss key design features and implementation plans for the ShaneAO adaptive optics system. Once again, the Shane 3-m will host a number of new techniques and technologies vital to the development of future adaptive optics systems on larger telescopes. Included is a woofer-tweeter based wavefront correction system incorporating a voice-coil actuated, low spatial and temporal bandwidth, high stroke deformable mirror in conjunction with a high order, high bandwidth MEMs deformable mirror. The existing dye laser, in operation since 1996, will be replaced with a fiber laser recently developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The system will also incorporate a high-sensitivity, high bandwidth wavefront sensor camera. Enhanced IR performance will be achieved by replacing the existing PICNIC infrared array with an Hawaii 2RG. The updated ShaneAO system will provide opportunities to test predictive control algorithms for adaptive optics. Capabilities for astronomical spectroscopy, polarimetry, and visible-light adaptive optical astronomy will be supported.

Kupke, Renate; Gavel, Donald; Roskosi, Constance; Cabak, Gerald; Cowley, David; Dillon, Daren; Gates, Elinor L.; McGurk, Rosalie; Norton, Andrew; Peck, Michael; Ratliff, Christopher; Reinig, Marco

2012-07-01

168

Io Volcanic Activity Since 2003 As Seen By 8-10-m-class Telescopes Equipped With Adaptive Optics (ao)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Io, most volcanic place in the our Solar System, has been monitored since 2003 on a semi-irregular basis using the Keck II and the Gemini North Adaptive Optics (AO) systems equipped with a near infrared (NIR) camera sensitive to 5 um. We present a global view of Io volcanic activity, identifying permanent hot spots, sporadic outbursts, and possible surface changes from these observations. AO observations were also obtained at the time of the New Horizons flyby in early 2007, from these data we can constrain the style of volcanism at specific volcanic centers. Finally, we discuss the relatively quiescent state of Io volcanism observed over the past 2 years. The monitoring of Io's volcanic activity will continue through 2016, which includes the arrival of the Juno spacecraft in July of that year, and beyond. An ever-increasing timeline of volcanic activity and thermal emission variability continues to be constructed and which will be further complimented by data obtained by other missions to the Jupiter system (such as JUICE, or a dedicated Europa or Io mission). Until these missions, however, the task of monitoring Io's volcanic activity will be from large, AO-enabled ground-based telescopes. The support of the NASA Planetary Outer Planets Research Program is acknowledged.

Marchis, Franck; Davies, A.

2012-10-01

169

HIGH RESOLUTION H{alpha} IMAGES OF THE BINARY LOW-MASS PROPLYD LV 1 WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at H{alpha}. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The H{alpha} image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over {approx}18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in H{alpha}.

Wu, Y.-L.; Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Follette, K.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R., E-mail: yalinwu@email.arizona.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

2013-09-01

170

A possible cause of the AO polarity reversal from winter to summer in 2010 and its relation to hemispheric extreme summer weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010, the Northern Hemisphere, in particular Russia, Europe and Japan, experienced an abnormally hot summer characterized by record-breaking warm temperatures and associated with a strongly positive Arctic Oscillation (AO). In contrast, in winter 2009/2010, the continent suffered from anomalously cold weather associated with a record-breaking negative AO. The winter-to-summer of the AO index during 2009/2010 evolved as follows: a strongly negative wintertime AO index continued until May, after which it abruptly changed, becoming strongly positive in July and continuing so until the beginning of August. The abrupt change of the AO index from strongly negative to strongly positive in 2010 thus corresponded to the change from the abnormally cold winter of 2009/2010 to the abnormally hot summer of 2010, which shows that the AO index is a good indicator of abnormal weather on a planetary-scale, and that extra-seasonal prediction of the AO is a key to long-term forecasting. In this study, we therefore aimed to examine the cause of the 2010 change in the AO index from strongly negative to strongly positive. We suggest that an oceanic memory of the strongly negative wintertime AO may have influenced the strongly positive summertime AO. The winter sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic Ocean showed a tripolar anomaly pattern which is warm SST anomalies over the tropics and high latitudes and cold SST anomalies over the midlatitudes. The strongly negative wintertime AO would cause the warm SST anomaly in this region. The warm SST anomalies continued into summer 2010 because of the large oceanic heat capacity. In May and June, the heat flux anomaly changed from downward to upward in the tropics, and in July and August, the center of the upward anomaly moved westward. The area of the upward heat flux anomaly coincided with the area of the warm SST anomaly from May to August. The numerical model experiment showed that the tripolar SST pattern resulted in an anomalous height and wind pattern that caused a blocking high over Europe. The observed wave activity flux also seems to emanate from Europe. This midlatitude atmospheric response implies that strengthening of the positive geopotential anomalies over Europe was associated with the Atlantic tripolar SST anomaly. The positive geopotential anomaly in the area of the polar jet stream caused eastward propagation of Rossby waves, and the exceeding amplification of Rossby waves might have led to the formation of blocking anticyclones. As a consequence of these interactions, the positive AO pressure pattern can continue for a long time. Thus, a possible cause of the AO polarity reversal might be the "memory" of the negative winter AO in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting an interseasonal linkage of the AO in which the oceanic memory of a wintertime negative AO induces a positive AO in the following summer. Understanding of this interseasonal linkage may aid in the long-term prediction of such abnormal summer events. If this reversal pattern recurs, it might be possible to predict the summertime AO from the wintertime AO. Main parts of this study were published in Climatic Dynamics by Otomi et al, (2012).

Otomi, Y.; Tachibana, Y.; Nakamura, T.

2012-12-01

171

Effect of Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a dietary supplement (Ambrotose AO®) on resting and exercise-induced blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in exercise-trained and untrained men and women. Methods 25 individuals (7 trained and 5 untrained men; 7 trained and 6 untrained women) received Ambrotose AO® (4 capsules per day = 2 grams per day) or a placebo for 3 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with a 3 week washout period). Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 minutes following a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT) performed to exhaustion, both before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 form and exercise time to exhaustion was recorded. Resting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood count (CBC), metabolic panel, and lipid panel before and after each 3 week supplementation period. Dietary intake during the week before each exercise test was recorded. Results No condition effects were noted for SF-12 data, for GXT time to exhaustion, or for any variable within the CBC, metabolic panel, or lipid panel (p > 0.05). Treatment with Ambrotose AO® resulted in an increase in resting levels of TEAC (p = 0.02) and ORAC (p < 0.0001). No significant change was noted in resting levels of MDA, H2O2, or NOx (p > 0.05). Exercise resulted in an acute increase in TEAC, MDA, and H2O2 (p < 0.05), all which were higher at 0 minutes post exercise compared to pre exercise (p < 0.05). No condition effects were noted for exercise related data (p > 0.05), with the exception of ORAC (p = 0.0005) which was greater at 30 minutes post exercise for Ambrotose AO® compared to placebo. Conclusion Ambrotose AO® at a daily dosage of 4 capsules per day increases resting blood antioxidant capacity and may enhance post exercise antioxidant capacity. However, no statistically detected difference is observed in resting or exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers, in quality of life, or in GXT time to exhaustion.

2010-01-01

172

Design, Implementation, and On-Sky Performance of an Advanced Apochromatic Triplet Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector for the Magellan Adaptive Optics System and VisAO Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the novel design, laboratory verification, and on-sky performance of our advanced triplet atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC), an important component of the Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO), which recently achieved first light in December 2012. High-precision broadband (0.5--1.0 ?m) atmospheric dispersion correction at visible wavelengths is essential both for wavefront sensing (WFS) on fainter guide stars, and for performing visible AO science using our VisAO science camera. At 2 airmasses (60° from zenith) and over the waveband 500--1000 nm, our triplet design produces a 57% improvement in geometric rms spot size, a 33% improvement in encircled energy at 20? radius, and a 62% improvement in Strehl ratio when compared to a conventional doublet design. This triplet design has been fabricated, tested in the lab, and integrated into the MagAO WFS and the VisAO science camera. We present on-sky results of the ADC in operation with the MagAO system. We also present a zero-beam-deviation triplet ADC design, which will be important to future AO systems that require precise alignment of the optical axis over a large range of airmasses in addition to diffraction-limited broadband dispersion correction.

Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Gasho, Victor

2013-08-01

173

Inter-observer reliability assessment of the Schatzker, AO/OTA and three-column classification of tibial plateau fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of our study was to evaluate inter-observer reliability of the Three-Column classifications with conventional Schatzker and AO/OTA of Tibial Plateau Fractures. Methods 50 cases involving all kinds of the fracture patterns were collected from 278 consecutive patients with tibial plateau fractures who were internal fixed in department of Orthopedics and Trauma III in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital. The series were arranged randomly, numbered 1 to 50. Four observers were chosen to classify these cases. Before the research, a classification training session was held to each observer. They were given as much time as they required evaluating the radiographs accurately and independently. The classification choices made at the first viewing were not available during the second viewing. The observers were not provided with any feedback after the first viewing. The kappa statistic was used to analyze the inter-observer reliability of the three fracture classification made by the four observers. Results The mean kappa values for inter-observer reliability regarding Schatzker classification was 0.567 (range: 0.513–0.589), representing “moderate agreement”. The mean kappa values for inter-observer reliability regarding AO/ASIF classification systems was 0.623 (range: 0.510–0.710) representing “substantial agreement”. The mean kappa values for inter-observer reliability regarding Three-Column classification systems was 0.766 (range: 0.706–0.890), representing “substantial agreement”. Conclusion Three-Column classification, which is dependent on the understanding of the fractures using CT scans as well as the 3D reconstruction can identity the posterior column fracture or fragment. It showed “substantial agreement” in the assessment of inter-observer reliability, higher than the conventional Schatzker and AO/OTA classifications. We finally conclude that Three-Column classification provides a higher agreement among different surgeons and could be popularized and widely practiced in other clinical centers.

2013-01-01

174

A novel mammalian expression system derived from components coordinating nicotine degradation in arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1  

PubMed Central

We describe the design and detailed characterization of 6-hydroxy-nicotine (6HNic)-adjustable transgene expression (NICE) systems engineered for lentiviral transduction and in vivo modulation of angiogenic responses. Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1 encodes a unique catabolic machinery on its plasmid pAO1, which enables this Gram-positive soil bacterium to use the tobacco alkaloid nicotine as the exclusive carbon source. The 6HNic-responsive repressor-operator (HdnoR-ONIC) interaction, controlling 6HNic oxidase production in A.nicotinovorans pAO1, was engineered for generic 6HNic-adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells. HdnoR fused to different transactivation domains retained its ONIC-binding capacity in mammalian cells and reversibly adjusted transgene transcription from chimeric ONIC-containing promoters (PNIC; ONIC fused to a minimal eukaryotic promoter [Pmin]) in a 6HNic-responsive manner. The combination of transactivators containing various transactivation domains with promoters differing in the number of operator modules as well as in their relative inter-ONIC and/or ONIC-Pmin spacing revealed steric constraints influencing overall NICE regulation performance in mammalian cells. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for NICE-controlled expression of the human glycoprotein secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) showed high SEAP serum levels in the absence of regulating 6HNic. 6HNic was unable to modulate SEAP expression, suggesting that this nicotine derivative exhibits control-incompatible pharmacokinetics in mice. However, chicken embryos transduced with HIV-1-derived self-inactivating lentiviral particles transgenic for NICE-adjustable expression of the human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF121) showed graded 6HNic response following administration of different 6HNic concentrations. Owing to the clinically inert and highly water-soluble compound 6HNic, NICE-adjustable transgene control systems may become a welcome alternative to available drug-responsive homologs in basic research, therapeutic cell engineering and biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

Malphettes, Laetitia; Weber, Cornelia C.; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Schoenmakers, Ronald G.; Aubel, Dominique; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

2005-01-01

175

Search of Binary Jupiter-Trojan Asteroids with Laser Guide Star AO systems: a moon around 624 Hektor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, we initiated a search for multiple asteroids in Jupiter Trojan L4 population with Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) technology on 8-10m class telescopes. To maximize the chance of detecting companion, we prioritized Trojan asteroids that could be member of collisional families in our search (see the PeTrA project and Beaugé and Roig (A&A, 2001)). Our first night was performed on July 17 2006 UT with the Keck LGS AO system. Twenty targets up to the 18th magnitude in R band were observed mostly in Kp broadband filter with an angular resolution 0.06 arcsec. Images of 624 Hektor, our brightest target (predicted V=14.4) revealed the presence of a moonlet companion (Marchis et al., IAU, 2006, provisional designation S/2006(624)1) located at 0.36” ( 1150 km) from the primary with a peak SNR 25. The resolved primary has a bilobated shape, but it is unclear if the primary is a contact or separated binary. It can be approximated as an ellipse with major and minor axes 2a = 350 km and 2b = 210 km (108 and 65 milli-arcseconds). The pole solution ?=329°, ?=-25° in ecliptic B1950 (Magnusson 1989, and updated table) is in agreement with the observations. Based on the integrated brightness ratio between the moonlet and the primary of about 6.5, the diameter of S/2006(624)1 is estimated to be about 15 km. Additional observations will be recorded using the Keck and Gemini LGS AO system in Aug-Sept. 2006 aiming to estimate the orbit of the moonlet. The conditions of observations seem optimal since the system will be seen pole-on during this period. 624 Hektor is the first binary asteroid found in the L4 point and the first Trojan possessing a moonlet companion. The result of this campaign of observations, including Aug-Sept. observations, will be discussed.

Marchis, Franck; Berthier, J.; Wong, M. H.; Descamps, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Colas, F.; de Pater, I.; Vachier, F.

2006-09-01

176

Snow anomaly events from historical documents in eastern China during the past two millennia and implication for low-frequency variability of AO\\/NAO and PDO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and instrumental data indicate that the spatial and temporal variations of snow cover are significantly related to atmospheric circulation (e.g. the AO\\/NAO). Here, we present historical snow anomaly events during the past two millennia that provide a unique temporal window to studying long-term AO\\/NAO, a prominent phenomenon in wintertime. Direct descriptions such as “no snow during the winter” and

Guoqiang Chu; Qing Sun; Xiaohua Wang; Junying Sun

2008-01-01

177

Snow anomaly events from historical documents in eastern China during the past two millennia and implication for low-frequency variability of AO\\/NAO and PDO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and instrumental data indicate that the spatial and temporal variations of snow cover are significantly related to atmospheric circulation (e.g. the AO\\/NAO). Here, we present historical snow anomaly events during the past two millennia that provide a unique temporal window to studying long-term AO\\/NAO, a prominent phenomenon in wintertime. Direct descriptions such as ``no snow during the winter'' and

Guoqiang Chu; Qing Sun; Xiaohua Wang; Junying Sun

2008-01-01

178

An Aspergillus oryzae CCAAT-binding protein, AoCP, is involved in the high-level expression of the Taka-amylase A gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus oryzae contains a nuclear protein designated AoCP, which binds specifically to a CCAAT sequence in the promoter region of the A. oryzae Taka-amylase A gene. A gene encoding a homologue of Aspergillus nidulans HAPC, a subunit of the A. nidulans CCAAT binding complex, was isolated from A. oryzae and designated AohapC. AoHAPC comprises 215 amino acids and shows 84%

Akimitsu Tanaka; Masashi Kato; Hideki Hashimoto; Ken-ichi Kamei; Fumiko Naruse; Peter Papagiannopoulos; Meryl A. Davis; Michael J. Hynes; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Norihiro Tsukagoshi

2000-01-01

179

Production and characterisation of AoSOX2 from Aspergillus oryzae, a novel flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase with good pH and temperature stability.  

PubMed

Sulfhydryl oxidases have found application in the improvement of both dairy and baking products due to their ability to oxidise thiol groups in small molecules and cysteine residues in proteins. A genome mining study of the available fungal genomes had previously been performed by our group in order to identify novel sulfhydryl oxidases suitable for industrial applications and a representative enzyme was produced, AoSOX1 from Aspergillus oryzae (Faccio et al. BMC Biochem 11:31, 2010). As a result of the study, a second gene coding for a potentially secreted sulfhydryl oxidase, AoSOX2, was identified in the genome of A. oryzae. The protein AoSOX2 was heterologously expressed in Trichoderma reesei and characterised with regard to both biochemical properties as well as preliminary structural analysis. AoSOX2 showed activity on dithiothreitol and glutathione, and to a lesser extent on D/L-cysteine and beta-mercaptoethanol. AoSOX2 was a homodimeric flavin-dependent protein of approximately 78 kDa (monomer 42412 Da) and its secondary structure presents alpha-helical elements. A. oryzae AoSOX2 showed a significant stability to pH and temperature. PMID:21327412

Faccio, Greta; Kruus, Kristiina; Buchert, Johanna; Saloheimo, Markku

2011-05-01

180

THE FIRST CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK IMAGED IN SILHOUETTE AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS: MagAO IMAGING OF ORION 218-354  

SciTech Connect

We present high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) corrected images of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354 taken with Magellan AO (MagAO) and its visible light camera, VisAO, in simultaneous differential imaging mode at H?. This is the first image of a circumstellar disk seen in silhouette with AO and is among the first visible light AO results in the literature. We derive the disk extent, geometry, intensity, and extinction profiles and find, in contrast with previous work, that the disk is likely optically thin at H?. Our data provide an estimate of the column density in primitive, ISM-like grains as a function of radius in the disk. We estimate that only ?10% of the total submillimeter derived disk mass lies in primitive, unprocessed grains. We use our data, Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, and previous results from the literature to make the first self-consistent multiwavelength model of Orion 218-354. We find that we are able to reproduce the 1-1000 ?m spectral energy distribution with a ?2-540 AU disk of the size, geometry, small versus large grain proportion, and radial mass profile indicated by our data. This inner radius is a factor of ?15 larger than the sublimation radius of the disk, suggesting that it is likely cleared in the very interior.

Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Morzinski, Katie M.; Hinz, Philip; Rodigas, Timothy J. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kopon, Derek [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)] [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

2013-09-20

181

T'ao-t'ieh, a motif of Chinese funerary art as the iconographic counterpart of Cinnabar, an alchemical drug.  

PubMed

The agency conferring resurrection is soul or its emblem. The earliest conception of soul is blood. Its Redness penetrates subsoil and is taken up by serpent, from whence arises snake-soul, later snake-god. Blood vapours is the other fraction arising upwards. It becomes wraith bird, later soul bird, and finally bird god. Blood as whole gave snake-god plus bird-god. A winged-cobra became snake-god and bird-god or together, one-as-all. Red Cock was its equivalent. As substance came cinnabar, red like blood and sublimable like soul. Dragon was idealized snake-god. Then Dragon-god plus Bird-god became the equal of blood soul, the magical power. T'ao-t'ieh is Dragon-plus-Bird, snake-god plus bird-god, the equivalent of Cosmic soul. Then cinnabar as the equal of blood soul and T'ao-t'ieh, the emblem of Cosmic soul, each were capable of conferring resurrection and have been interred in Chinese graves. PMID:7183206

Mahdihassan, S

1982-01-01

182

English vowel production by native Mandarin speakers: Influences of AoA, LoR, education, perception, and orthography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates relations among several factors that are expected to influence vowel production in second language learning, including AoA, LoR, L2 and general education, L2 perception, and orthography. Vowel production will be examined through duration and formant frequency measurements and listener identification. The results will be analyzed in relation to educational background and language use. Among the educational factors examined are general education level, English education (in their native land and/or New York City), and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin (Pinyin or Zhuyin). The language-use factors include AoA, LoR, language spoken at work and at home, and perception of English vowels. The hypotheses addressed include: (1) educational background, language use, and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin all influence L2 English speakers perception and production of English vowels; (2) the more accurately an L2 listener discriminates a vowel contrast, the more distinctly he/she produces that contrast.

Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Yu, Yan Helen

2005-09-01

183

A new polymer-based laccase for decolorization of AO7: Long-term storage and mediator reuse.  

PubMed

To address the bottlenecks of laccase-based catalysis, i.e., poor long-term stability and potential secondary pollution caused by synthetic mediator, we fabricated a new biocatalyst (N-PS-Lac) through adsorption of laccase onto polystyrene anion exchangers (N-PS) binding quaternary ammonium groups. After 2-year storage, the residual activity of N-PS-Lac remained as high as 101.7%, while that for native laccase was only 14.6%. Also, N-PS-Lac exhibited improved durability against pH variation and thermal treatment at 60°C. Gaussian curve fitting of FT-IR spectra indicated that laccase conformation of N-PS-Lac was rigidified, possibly because of the host geometric restriction and the host-laccase electrostatic attraction. A two-step method, i.e., adsorption of an azo dye AO7 by N-PS and then ectopic degradation by the immobilized laccase, was proposed to reuse the mediator HOBT for seven cyclic runs, where N-PS-Lac kept the constant decolorization efficiency. AO7 solution was detoxified completely after decolorization by the two-step method. PMID:24862000

Zhang, Xiaolin; Pan, Bingcai; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu

2014-07-01

184

Use of a single 2.0-mm locking AO reconstruction titanium plate in linear, non-comminuted, mandible fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of the following study is to prospectively evaluate the use of a single Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) 2.0-mm locking reconstruction plate for linear non-comminuted mandibular fractures without the use of a second plate. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of a sample of 10 patients who reported to the department with fractures of the mandible and were treated over a period of 24 months from November 2010 to November 2012. Out of these, there were 8 male patients and 2 female patients. There were four cases of isolated parasymphysis fractures, 1 of the case had a parasymphysis fracture associated with subcondylar fracture, 4 had a body fracture and 2 had a symphysis fracture. Results: All patients had satisfactory fracture reduction and a successful treatment outcome without major complications. Only one patient (10%) developed minor complications. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated that treating linear non-comminuted mandibular fractures with a single AO 2.0-mm locking reconstruction plate provides excellent stability at the fracture site which in turn leads to sound bone healing and early functional rehabilitation.

Parmar, Babu S.; Makwana, Kalpesh G.; Patel, Aditi M.; Tandel, Ramanuj C.; Shah, Jay

2014-01-01

185

Combination of the AO-Magerl and load-sharing classifications for the management of thoracolumbar burst fractures.  

PubMed

The AO-Magerl classification is widely accepted for the appropriate management of patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures; however, it fails to assess the ability of the injured spine to withstand compressive loading and cannot predict instrumentation failure after short-segment posterior fixation. The load-sharing classification depends on the degree of comminution and apposition of bony fragments.We retrospectively classified according to both classifications 100 consecutive patients with 1-level thoracolumbar burst fractures treated nonoperatively or operatively within a 7-year period. Sixty neurologically intact patients (60%) were treated nonoperatively, 15 (15%) had short posterior instrumentation, 15 (15%) had short anterior instrumentation, and 10 (10%) had combined short posterior instrumentation and anterior strut grafting. Twenty-five of the 40 (60%) surgically treated patients had neurological impairment on admission. Clinical outcome was assessed using a pain and working ability scale. Mean follow-up was 52 months (range, 24-70 months). Function was satisfactory in 55 (92%) nonoperatively treated patients and in 33 (83%) surgically treated patients. Neurological improvement by American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade was observed in patients with incomplete paraplegia (70% of neurologically impaired patients) who were treated operatively.The combination of AO-Magerl and load-sharing classifications provides for accurate selection of treatment, surgical approach, and length of instrumentation, and can guide the decision for additional anterior surgery. PMID:20349867

Katonis, Pavlos; Pasku, Dritan; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Korres, Demetrios S; Sapkas, George S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2010-03-01

186

Time and frequency evolution of radio spectrum of the BL Lacertae type object AO 0235+16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present investigations of multifrequency spectra of BL Lacertae type object called AO 0235+16. All data had been observed by RATAN-600 radiotelescope from 2006 to 2011. Variations and spectrum parameters such as a peak frequency (?0), FWHM, etc. had been studied. Also Shklovsky-Van der Laan model for variable extragalactic radio sources was programmed and applied to compare our observed data and theoretical values. Comparison revealed that calculations based on Shklovsky-Van der Laan model are in good agreement with observed data (Pearson correlation coefficient close to 1) and they clear up physical processes that proceed in object during its evolution. Differences between model and experiment caused mainly by limitation to the magnetic field and its uniformity, particles concentration and source structure. Nowadays we know that the best agreement achieves by taking account of heterogeneous structure and assuming continuously acceleration of particles during expansion.

Mufakharov, T.

2012-05-01

187

Characterization of OCam and CCD220: the fastest and most sensitive camera to date for AO wavefront sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, sub-electron read noise has been achieved with a camera suitable for astronomical wavefront-sensing (WFS) applications. The OCam system has demonstrated this performance at 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240×240-pixel frame rate. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON2 have jointly funded e2v technologies to develop a custom CCD for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240×240 pixel frame-transfer 8-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This paper demonstrates sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. It reports on the comprehensive, quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220 such as readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, charge transfer efficiency... OCam includes a low noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2, was designed offering enhanced performances, a completely sealed camera package and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally rugged applications. OCam2 offers two types of built-in data link to the Real Time Computer: the CameraLink industry standard interface and various fiber link options like the sFPDP interface. OCam2 includes also a modified mechanical design to ease the integration of microlens arrays for use of this camera in all types of wavefront sensing AO system. The front cover of OCam2 can be customized to include a microlens exchange mechanism.

Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz-Garcia, José Javier

2010-07-01

188

Use of the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs.  

PubMed

The use of the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs was evaluated in a retrospective study. All of the 14 dogs in the study weighed 3.5 kg or less. The AO mini 'T'-plate was used as the final means of fixation in all cases. It was used as the primary form of stabilisation in ten dogs, and in four dogs it was used at revision surgery. In all cases, of the fractures healed. Return to function was graded 'as excellent' in six cases, 'good' in four and 'fair' in two. Two dogs were lost to long-term follow up. It was concluded that the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate is a suitable choice of implant for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs, especially when the distal fragment is very small. PMID:16594212

Hamilton, M H; Langley Hobbs, S J

2005-01-01

189

Snow anomaly events from historical documents in eastern China during the past two millennia and implication for low-frequency variability of AO/NAO and PDO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models and instrumental data indicate that the spatial and temporal variations of snow cover are significantly related to atmospheric circulation (e.g. the AO/NAO). Here, we present historical snow anomaly events during the past two millennia that provide a unique temporal window to studying long-term AO/NAO, a prominent phenomenon in wintertime. Direct descriptions such as ``no snow during the winter'' and ``pray God for snow'' are interpreted as convincing evidence for snow anomalies. The variations of positive/negative snow abnormal events show clear decadal to century variations during the past two millennia. Based on the previous instrumental research and comparison with other reconstruction data, we suggest the Index of Abnormal Snow (IAS) may be an AO-like atmospheric variability. The winter during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) (AD 900-1300) might be strongly influenced by a predominantly positive AO with less snow condition, whereas the Little Ice Age (LIA) (AD 1300-1900) by negative AO concomitant with heavier snowfalls in East Asia. Our data show that a warm climate period (the MWP)/a cold period (the LIA) can be perturbed by a cold spell/a warm spell which are linked with a change in atmospheric circulation. Low-frequency variability of snow records may be intrinsic to the natural climate system. Although the dynamic mechanisms linking snow anomalies with atmospheric circulation (the AO/NAO, the PDO) is unclear on the decadal to century time scales, Pacific Ocean may play an important role in regulating atmospheric circulations since the IAS is highly correlated with the reconstruction of PDO.

Chu, Guoqiang; Sun, Qing; Wang, Xiaohua; Sun, Junying

2008-07-01

190

SRT Evaluation of AIRS Version-6.02 and Version-6.02 AIRS Only (6.02 AO) Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Version-6 contains a number of significant improvements over Version-5. This report compares Version-6 products resulting from the advances listed below to those from Version-5. 1. Improved methodology to determine skin temperature (T(sub s)) and spectral emissivity (Epsilon(sub v)). 2. Use of Neural-net start-up state. 3. Improvements which decrease the spurious negative Version-5 trend in tropospheric temperatures. 4. Improved QC methodology. Version-6 uses separate QC thresholds optimized for Data Assimilation (QC=0) and Climate applications (QC=0,1) respectively. 5. Channel-by-channel clear-column radiances R-hat(sub tau) QC flags. 6. Improved cloud parameter retrieval algorithm. 7. Improved OLR RTA. Our evaluation compared V6.02 and V6.02 AIRS Only (V6.02 AO) Quality Controlled products with those of Version-5.0. In particular we evaluated surface skin temperature T(sub s), surface spectral emissivity Epsilon(sub v), temperature profile T(p), water vapor profile q(p), OLR, OLR(sub CLR), effective cloud fraction alpha-Epsilon, and cloud cleared radiances R-hat(sub tau) . We conducted two types of evaluations. The first compared results on 7 focus days to collocated ECMWF truth. The seven focus days are: September 6, 2002; January 25, 2003; September 29, 2004; August 5, 2005; February 24, 2007; August 10, 2007; and May 30, 2010. In these evaluations, we show results for T(sub s), Epsilon(sub v), T(p), and q(p) in terms of yields, and RMS differences and biases with regard to ECMWF. We also show yield trends as well as bias trends of these quantities relative to ECMWF truth. We also show yields and accuracy of channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau) for V6.02 and V6.02 AO. Version-5 did not contain channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau). In the second type of evaluation, we compared V6.03 monthly mean Level-3 products to those of Version-5.0, for four different months: January, April, July, and October; in 3 different years 2003, 2007, and 2011. In particular, we compared V6.03 and V5.0 trends of T(p), q(p), alpha-Epsilon, OLR, and OLR(sub CLR) computed based on results for these 12 time periods

Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula; Blaisdell, John

2012-01-01

191

Monitoring Io volcanic activity using the Keck AO system: 2-5?m sunlit and eclipse observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galileo provided us with spectacular images of the volcanically active Io moon over the last 7 years, but we understand little about the physical processes occurring on this moon. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the long time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. Our group started a monitoring program of Io's volcanic activity using the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system and its recently installed near-infrared camera NIRC2. Here we report groundbased observations of Io conducted in December 2001 (UT), at 0.05" resolution (120-140 km on Io) in K', i.e., ~4 times better than HST and than global Galileo NIMS images. Our 1-5 micron data enable us to determine the temperature of individual hot spots, a key parameter for geophysical/volcanic flow models. We will present: i) Io in reflected sunlight in K', L', and M bands. We used Io itself as reference source for the wavefront sensor of the AO system. Our L and M-band images show both reflected sunlight and thermal emission from volcanic hot spots. The contrast of images is enhanced using the MISTRAL deconvolution algorithme. The 12 images taken on 10 days provides a complete survey of Io surface during one full rotation. 26 active hot spots were detected on the entire surface in L band (3.8?m), approximatively three times more in M band (4.7?m). One active hot spot is seen in K band (2.2?m) in the Pele area. A study of individual hot spot (temperature, emission area, nature) will be presented. ii) Io in eclipse. While Io is in Jupiter's shadow, it is invisible to the wavefront sensor, but its hot spots are easily visible in the near-infrared. We imaged Io during the 18 Dec. 2001 eclipse using Ganymede (30" from Io, moving relative to Io at ~0.5"/min) as a reference source. A dozen of faint hot spots are detected at both K' and L', allowing temperature estimates for each of them. Keck Science team is composed of S. Kwok, P. Amico, R. Campbell, F. Chaffee, A. Conrad, A. Contos, B. Goodrich, G. Hill, D. Sprayberry, P. Stomski, P. Wizinowich (W.M. Keck Observatory). This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783 and the France-Berkeley Fund.

Marchis, F.; de Pater, I.; Le Mignant, D.; Roe, H. G.; Fusco, T.; Graham, J. R.; Prange, R.; Macintosh, B.

2002-12-01

192

AO — Organization Chart  

Cancer.gov

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193

Interdecadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in the pre-industrial simulation of HadGEM2-AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic meridional overturning circulation(AMOC) has particularly important roles for the climate system because it, as a part of the ocean circulation, poleward transports the vast amount of heat and brings atmospheric chemicals into deep ocean layers. Here we investigated the temporal and spatial characteristics of AMOC using the 300-yr simulation data from the pre-industrial experiment of HadGEM2-AO. AMOC has the dominant periodicities of the both interannual (2-7 years) and interdecadal (20 and 40 years) time scales. The regression analysis reasonably well captured the relationship between the AMOC intensity and meridional temperature gradient, i.e.,, the enhanced AMOC leads to the surface warming at high latitudes as well as thinning of Arctic sea ice. In addition, the lead-lag correlation analysis indicates that the instability caused by the out of phase between meridional temperature gradient and AMOC strength drive the natural AMOC fluctuation. This study has found that the variation of AMOC intensity can be explained by the only ocean circulation dynamics except the effect of external influences such as the atmosphere-ocean interactions.

Moon, Byung-Kwon; Wie, Jieun; Kim, Ki-Young; Lee, Johan; Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, ChunHo

2014-05-01

194

LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H07 The postflight photograph was taken in the KSC SAEF II facility after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner tray located on the space end of the LDEF. A light tan discoloration is visible on the left and lower flanges of the experiment tray and also on the unpainted aluminum filler to the left of the passive part of the experiment. A darker stain has discolored the lower corners of the tray structure. The SBR Phased-Array Antenna experiment, consisting of an active part in the upper half of the tray and a passive part located in the lower half of the experiment tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The black thermal coating on the active part of the experiment appears to have changed from a flat black to a dark gray while the coating on the passive part of the experiment appears less degraded. The exposed Kapton specimen surfaces in both the active and passive parts of the experiment appear to have changed from specular to diffuse from exposure to the space environment.

1990-01-01

195

LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H07 The post landing photograph was taken from the Orbiter's cargo bay access hatch during post landing operations to prepare the Orbiter for the ferry flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center to the Kennedy Space Center. The Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner tray located on the space end of the LDEF. A light tan discoloration can be seen on the left and lower flanges of the experiment tray and a darker stain has discolored the originally white paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks. Dark brown stains on the LDEF structure are vis- ible in areas adjacent to the edge of thermal end panels that were designed to facilitate venting of the LDEF interior. The SBR Phased-Array Antenna experiment, consisting of an active part in the left half of the tray and a passive part located in the right half of the experiment tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The black thermal coating on the passive part of the experiment appears unchanged while the black thermal coating on the active part of the experiment appears dark gray. The passive experiment Kapton specimen surfaces appear to have changed from specular to diffuse after exposure to the space environment.

1990-01-01

196

LDEF (Flight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LDEF (Flight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H07 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. The Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner tray located on the space end of the LDEF. A shadow cast by the Orbiter covers most of the right half of the tray containing the active part of the experiment. Even in the shadow, a light tan discoloration can be seen on the left and lower flanges of the experiment tray and a darker stain has discolored the originally white paint dots on the experiment tray clamp blocks. Dark brown stains on the LDEF structure are visible in areas adjacent to the edge of thermal end panels designed to facilitate venting of the LDEF interior. The SBR Phased-Array Antenna experiment, consisting of an active part in the left half of the tray and a passive part located in the right half of the experiment tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The black thermal coating on the passive part of the experiment appears unchanged while the black thermal coating on the active part of the experiment appears a dark gray. The passive experiment Kapton specimen surfaces appear to have changed from specular to diffuse when exposed to the space environment.

1990-01-01

197

[Clinical results of primary intramedullary osteosynthesis with the unreamed AO/ASIF tibial intramedullary nail of open tibial shaft fractures].  

PubMed

From 04/91 to 06/96 sixty-nine open fractures of the tibia were primarily treated on the day of the accident with unreamed nailing (UTN, Synthese). The distributions of fracture type according to the AO classification and of soft tissue injury according to Gustilo were as follows: fracture type: A: 28%, B: 52%, C: 20%; soft tissue injury: I: 30%, II: 28%, IIIA: 12%, IIIB: 12%, IIIC: 6%. Of the 65 fractures assessed 46 (71%) healed within 18 weeks without secondary intervention. There was delayed healing in three fractures requiring secondary conversion to reamed nailing. Eight fractures (12%) developed pseudarthrosis of which five (8%) healed uneventfully. Deep infections was manifest in four fractures (6%). Three of these infections developed after secondary intervention to treat pseudarthrosis. Seven of the eight pseudarthroses and three of the four infections healed eventually. Revision procedures were necessary in 11 patients (17%) to deal with disturbed fracture healing or infection (10 reamed nailing procedures, three cancellous bone grafts, and one of each of the following: sequestrectomy, fibular osteotomy, plate fixation, external fixator, monorail procedure). The results show that the same good infection rates were achieved for the UTN as for the external fixator. The advantages of the UTN are, however, a lesser need for secondary intervention and greater patient comfort. Therefore, we find the UTN to be a good alternative to the external fixator in the treatment of open fractures with severe soft tissue damage. PMID:9865165

Müller, C A; Dietrich, M; Morakis, P; Pfister, U

1998-11-01

198

MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF BLAZAR AO 0235+164 IN THE 2008-2009 FLARING STATE  

SciTech Connect

The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to {gamma}-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February. In this paper, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We find that the {gamma}-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R{sub g}. We model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.

Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J. M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'M. Merlin' dell'Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Caliandro, G. A. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caraveo, P. A., E-mail: eduardo@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: madejski@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: fabio.gargano@ba.infn.it, E-mail: silvia.raino@ba.infn.it, E-mail: lreyes04@calpoly.edu, E-mail: knalew@colorado.edu, E-mail: sikora@camk.edu.pl [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Collaboration: Fermi-LAT Collaboration; GASP-WEBT consortium; F-GAMMA; Iram-PdBI; Kanata; RXTE; SMARTS; Swift-XRT; and others

2012-06-01

199

Microstructure and fission gas bubbles in irradiated mixed carbide fuels at 2 to 11 a/o burnup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the defect structure and of small fission gas bubbles has been performed on mixed carbide fuels with burn-ups between 1.8 and 11 a/o by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A complex defect structure consisting of dislocations, loops and at least 3 types of solid fission product precipitates was observed. Na-bonded carbides develop predominantly a dislocation network increasing in density with burn-up whereas He-bonded carbides showed mainly a corresponding network of crystallographic needle precipitates. Locally the nucleation and growth of small fission gas bubbles with 1 to 20 nm diameters (bubble population P 1) is closely related to their dislocation or needle environment, larger bubbles with diameters 30 to 50 nm appear to be mostly associated with platelike precipitates or dislocation boundaries. The local swelling contribution ? 1 of bubble population P 1 is ? 0.5% and its fission gas content G 1 is 4 to 5% of the total amount of gas created over the whole burn-up range investigated.

Ray, I. L. F.; Blank, H.

1984-05-01

200

Volcanic activity of Io observed in December 2001 with the Keck AO system: 2-5mu m sunlit and eclipse observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanically active Io remains a mysterious and intriguing moon, despite numerous spacecraft flybys. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. The satellite was observed intensively in December 2001 with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system and its recently installed near-infrared camera

F. Marchis; I. de Pater; D. Le Mignant; H. Roe; T. Fusco; J. R. Graham; R. Prange; B. Macintosh

2002-01-01

201

Since When or How Often? Dissociating the Roles of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and Lexical Frequency in Early Visual Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of both word age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency of occurrence on the timing and topographical distribution of ERP components. The processing of early- versus late-acquired words was compared with that of high-frequency versus low-frequency words. Participants were asked to perform an…

Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

2013-01-01

202

Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior: impacto do desempenho muscular e funcional no retorno ao mesmo nível de atividade pré-lesão  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: A reconstrução do LCA objetiva restabelecer a biome- cânica e minimizar a instabilidade do joelho. Objetivo: comparar performance muscular, funcional e frouxidão ligamentar, entre voluntários que retornaram ao mesmo nível de atividade pré-lesão e aqueles que não retornaram, após a reconstrução ligamentar. Métodos: 25 homens, operados pelo mesmo cirurgião, com o ligamento patelar, via artroscopia e mais de

Lygia Paccini Lustosa; Sérgio Teixeira da Fonseca; Marco Antônio Percope de Andrade

2007-01-01

203

O PROCESSO DECISÓRIO DE IMPLANTAÇÃO DE ESTRUTURA DE ARMAZENAGEM DE SOJA AO NÍVEL DE PROPRIEDADE RURAL NA REGIÃO DE SANTO ÂNGELO\\/RS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerando-se que existe um déficit na capacidade estática de armazenamento de grãos no Brasil, aliado a baixa margem de rentabilidade auferida pelos produtores de commodities agrícolas, notadamente a soja, bem como o fato de que a armazenagem em nível de propriedade rural pode vir a se constituir em um diferencial positivo ao produtor no momento da comercialização desta oleaginosa, buscou-se

Alberto Silva Dutra; Joao Armando Dessimon Machado; Regis Rathmann

2008-01-01

204

ADAPTABILIDADE E ESTABILIDADE DE REAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE SOJA AO OÍDIO, EM CASA DE VEGETAÇÃO ADAPTABILITY AND STABILITY OF REACTION OF SOYBEAN GENOTYPES TO POWDERY MILDEW, IN GREENHOUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de genótipos de soja em relação ao oídio, por meio de estudos de adaptabilidade e de estabilidade, em casa de vegetação, durante cinco épocas de avaliação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, disposto em parcelas subdivididas, com 15 tratamentos e três tipos de controle (parcial, total e sem controle) representando as

Derval Gomes PEREIRA; Tuneo SEDIYAMA; Cosme Damião CRUZ; Múcio Silva REIS

205

Molecular dynamics evidence for alkali-metal rattling in the ?-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs).  

PubMed

We have used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations validated against inelastic neutron scattering data to study alkali-metal dynamics in the ?-pyrochlore osmates AOs2O6 (A=K, Rb, Cs) at 300 K to gain insight into the microscopic nature of rattling dynamics in these materials. Our results provide new evidence at the microscopic level for rattling dynamics: (1) the elemental magnitude spectra calculated from the MD show a striking dominance by the alkali metals at low energies indicating weak coupling to the cage, (2) the atomic root-mean-square displacements for the alkali metals are significantly larger than for the other atoms, e.g., 25% and 150% larger than O and Os, respectively, in KOs2O6, and (3) motions of the alkali metals are weakly correlated to the dynamics in their immediate environment, e.g. K in KOs2O6 is 6 times less sensitive to its local environment than Os, indicating weak bonding of the K. There is broadening of the elemental spectra of the alkali metals from Cs to K corresponding to a similar broadening of the local potential around these atoms as determined from potential of mean-force calculations. This feature of the spectra is partly explained by the well-known increase in the relative cage volume with decreasing atomic size of the alkali metal. We find that for the smallest rattler in this series (K) the larger relative cage volume allows this atom freedom to explore a large space inside the cage leading to vibration at a broader range of frequencies, hence a broader spectrum. Thus, since K is considered the best rattler in this series, these findings suggest that a significant feature of a good rattler is the ability to vibrate at several different but closely spaced frequencies. PMID:24172693

Shoko, E; Peterson, V K; Kearley, G J

2013-11-27

206

Molecular dynamics evidence for alkali-metal rattling in the ?-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations validated against inelastic neutron scattering data to study alkali-metal dynamics in the ?-pyrochlore osmates AOs2O6 (A=K, Rb, Cs) at 300 K to gain insight into the microscopic nature of rattling dynamics in these materials. Our results provide new evidence at the microscopic level for rattling dynamics: (1) the elemental magnitude spectra calculated from the MD show a striking dominance by the alkali metals at low energies indicating weak coupling to the cage, (2) the atomic root-mean-square displacements for the alkali metals are significantly larger than for the other atoms, e.g., 25% and 150% larger than O and Os, respectively, in KOs2O6, and (3) motions of the alkali metals are weakly correlated to the dynamics in their immediate environment, e.g. K in KOs2O6 is 6 times less sensitive to its local environment than Os, indicating weak bonding of the K. There is broadening of the elemental spectra of the alkali metals from Cs to K corresponding to a similar broadening of the local potential around these atoms as determined from potential of mean-force calculations. This feature of the spectra is partly explained by the well-known increase in the relative cage volume with decreasing atomic size of the alkali metal. We find that for the smallest rattler in this series (K) the larger relative cage volume allows this atom freedom to explore a large space inside the cage leading to vibration at a broader range of frequencies, hence a broader spectrum. Thus, since K is considered the best rattler in this series, these findings suggest that a significant feature of a good rattler is the ability to vibrate at several different but closely spaced frequencies.

Shoko, E.; Peterson, V. K.; Kearley, G. J.

2013-11-01

207

Fluid inclusion characteristics and geological significance of the Xi'ao copper-tin polymetallic deposit in Gejiu, Yunnan Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly discovered Xi'ao Cu-Sn polymetallic deposit is located in the inner alteration zone of the Laochang-Kafang granite edge in Gejiu, Yunnan Province. The mineralization process of this deposit can be divided into four stages. Cassiterite and chalcopyrite mainly formed at stages II and III, respectively. Fluid inclusions at different stages were studied by petrography, microthermometry, and laser Raman spectrometry. Five fluid inclusion types are observed. Microthermometry results revealed that the ore-forming fluid evolved from high temperature with low to intermediate salinity to low temperature with low salinity. At stage I, the fluid was under near-critical conditions and then separated into coexisting liquid and vapor phases at stage II. Finally, the fluid was boiling and immiscible at stage III. A meteoric fluid mixing process was also observed at this stage. Laser Raman spectra identified CH4 at the skarn and mineralization stages. Combined with other geological features, the deposit was concluded to have formed under a relatively reduced environment. The CO2 component abruptly increased at stage III and probably originated from the exterior. Fluorine may play an important role in mineralization. Cassiterite and chalcopyrite were mainly deposited at 340-440 and 300-400 °C under pressures of 18-50 and 12-36 MPa, respectively. Boiling and immiscibility are probably the main reason for mineral deposition. The deposit of cassiterite and chalcopyrite showed similar salinities but higher temperatures than other mineralization types of deposits in the Gejiu area. This finding indicated that the study deposit probably represents the high-temperature part of the Gejiu mineralization system, thereby benefiting mineral explorations in the Gejiu area.

Liao, Shili; Chen, Shouyu; Deng, Xiaohu; Li, Pei; Zhao, Jiangnan; Liao, Ruanyingzi

2014-01-01

208

Magellan Adaptive Optics First-light Observations of the Exoplanet ? Pic B. I. Direct Imaging in the Far-red Optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the Near-ir with NICI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first ground-based CCD (? < 1 ?m) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet ? Pictoris b in Y-short (YS , 0.985 ?m), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10-5. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH 4S,1% (1.58 ?m), KS (2.18 ?m), and K cont (2.27 ?m). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L bol/L ?) = -3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for ? Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M Jup for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L bol-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T eff = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R Jup, this T eff is ~250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, ? Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.; Wu, Ya-Lin

2014-05-01

209

The characteristics of laser-transmission and guide star's brightness for Subaru LGS/AO188 system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are commissioning the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS/AO188) system for Subaru Telescope at Hawaii, Mauna Kea. This system utilizes a combination of an all-solid-state mode-locked sum-frequency generation (SFG) laser (1.7GHz-bandwidth, 0.7ns-pulse width) as a light source and single-mode optical fiber for beam transference. However, optical fibers induce nonlinear scattering effects, such as stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), beyond certain threshold levels in high-power lasers. We measured the laser transmission characteristics of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) whose mode field diameter (MFD) was 11 ? m, and a step index fiber (SIF) cable whose MFD was 4.2 ? m to evaluate the threshold levels for non-linear effects. We observed SRS in the 200-m-long SIF when we input 1.3W. The material losses of them were 10db/km and 6.4dB/km, respectively. However, SRS and SBS were not induced in the 200-m-long PCF, even for an input power of 5.3W. As a result, we estimated the threshold of SRS to be 33W for the 35-m-long PCF designed for the Subaru LGSAO system. Other than SRS and SBS, we found self phase modulation (SPM) in our PCF. SPM makes the spectrum of the laser beam broaden and it causes less efficiency of generating bright LGS. We measured width of the spectrum by spectrum analyzer. As the result, we found it was 9.1GHz of full width half maximum (FWHM) in comparison with the original FWHM of our laser spectrum, 2.1GHz. This shows 70% of the laser energy for brightening the LGS was lost. We also measured the brightness of the LGS and evaluated its relationship with wavelength of the laser. The LGS's brightness showed a peculiar tendency that did not be extinguish even though the wavelength has varied about 2pm. The tendency was not shown with the experiment using sodium gas cell. Therefore, it may be concerned the environment of the sodium layer in the mesosphere.

Ito, M.; Hayano, Y.; Saito, Y.; Takami, H.; Iye, M.; Hattori, M.; Oya, S.; Watanabe, M.; Akagawa, K.; Colley, S. A.; Golota, T. I.; Guyon, O.

2010-07-01

210

Time Differential Electrical Resistivity for Water Resource Assessment: A Case Study in Cura‡ao, Netherlands Antilles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of groundwater prospecting is presented that capitalizes on changes in electrical resistivity arising from annual variability in subsurface fluid flow. According to Archie's Law, effective resistivity is a function of pore fluid resistivity, saturation, and porosity. For competent Earth materials, short-term temporal changes in near-surface porosity are negligible because changes in effective pressure are small with respect to the bulk moduli of the materials. Therefore, annual variability in effective resistivity is dependent only on fluid flow via changes in saturation and, to a lesser extent, pore fluid resistivity. Aquifer detection is but the first step; thereafter, it is necessary to estimate permeability, capacity, and, importantly, sustainability. Time differential resistivity is well matched to the task because it detects prospective aquifers and also illuminates their natural hydrodynamics. Explicitly, this method captures an undeveloped aquifer's seasonal volumetric variability, which is important as engineers reconcile monthly demand with monthly supply. The best scenario would be to detect a capacious, intermediate-resistivity (high pore fluid resistivity and high porosity) zone that is invariant from season to season (clays and ore bodies excepted). Less desirable, but still manageable, is the case where a large, porous formation undergoes significant seasonal resistivity variation; it behaves as a subterranean river with little lag-time between meteoric water input and groundwater throughput; carefully timed extraction and storage would be required in this case. A suite of thirty-eight electrical resistivity soundings were collected from the wet and dry seasons at Plantages PortoMari, an ecotourist plantation on the semiarid island of Cura‡ao, N.A. The data were analyzed with special attention paid to wet-to-dry season resistivity ratios. The results suggest two possible courses of action. (1) A hypothetical limestone terrace was detected whose estimated minimum water volume fluctuates between approximately 1200m3 and 2300m3; this terrace may be tapped with several boreholes descending to an elevation of 25m ASL. (2) A shallow subsurface dam and extraction fence (10m BGS) might be installed where the watershed corridor converges onto a flat plain whose surficial lithology is comprised of poorly sorted alluvia atop an impermeable clayey unit. Both extraction scenarios require storage facilities, as neither hydrogeologic setting indicates a persistent aquifer.

Coles, D.; Vichabian, Y.; Sogade, J.; Spiertz, P.; Morgan, F. D.

2003-12-01

211

Characterization of AB74, ARS, AO7, and DR28 During the Electro-Fenton Process by Using Three-Dimensional Excitation and Emission Matrix Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of Acid Blue 74 (AB74), Alizarin Red S (ARS), Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and Direct Red 28 (DR28) were investigated by using EEM fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results suggest that the azo and anthraquinone dyes can be quickly distinguished from other dyes (such as AB74) according to their different total fluorescence intensity. During the decolorization process by the electro-Fenton technique, the total fluorescence intensity of the four dyes all would increase to their maximum value, but the fluorescence intensity increase in multiples of 12 (ARS), 61 (AO7), and 13 (DR28) times was much higher than that of AB74 (3 times). Furthermore, the different fluorescence intensities of the four dyes in the electro-Fenton process resulted mainly from their different chemical structure characteristics. Additionally, EEM spectroscopy can support much more information about the chemical structure characteristics of the dyes than the conventional UV-vis spectroscopy.

Zhang, Y. H.; Lai, B.; Zhou, Y. X.; Wang, J. L.; Yang, P.

2013-11-01

212

Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched mode-locked YVO 4\\/Nd:YVO 4 laser with AO and GaAs saturable absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using both acousto-optic (AO) modulator and GaAs saturable absorber, a diode-pumped doubly Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) YVO4\\/Nd:YVO4 laser is presented. The average output power and the pulse width of the Q-switched envelope have been measured. The Q-switch pulse energy of the doubly QML laser are higher than that only with GaAs. The stability of the QML laser with the

Yan Zhang; Shengzhi Zhao; Dechun Li; Kejian Yang; Guiqiu Li; Gang Zhang; Kang Cheng

2010-01-01

213

Start-up of a two-stage bioaugmented anoxic–oxic (A\\/O) biofilm process treating petrochemical wastewater under different DO concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional two-stage anoxic–oxic (A\\/O) activated sludge process might be inefficient in pollutants removal and could not ensure the effluent quality. By installing polyurethane foams as carriers and inoculating specialized bacteria in the oxic compartments, the activated sludge systems could be transformed into bioaugmented biofilm processes to enhance the removal efficiency to recalcitrant pollutants. Optimal environment should be provided for

Jingbo Guo; Fang Ma; Chein-Chi Chang; Di Cui; Li Wang; Jixian Yang; Liang Wang

2009-01-01

214

Effect on the Solubility, Wettability, and Dispersibility of the ??CD?Deltamethrin Inclusion Complex in Presence of Mixed Surfactant (C14MEA\\/AOS) Blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inclusion complex formation using ??cyclodextrin (??CD) as the host molecule and deltamethrin as guest molecule was a first step towards improvement in conventional insecticide formulations. ??CD?deltamethrin inclusion complex formation in the absence and presence of the nonionic myrisitic acid monoethanolamide (C14MEA)\\/anionic ??olefin sulfonate C12?C14 (AOS) mixed surfactant system was comparatively studied. The co?evaporation method was used for complex formation,

Rakesh K. Nair; Mahesh M. Kadam; M. R. Sawant

2006-01-01

215

PALMAR PLATE FIXATION OF AO TYPE C2 FRACTURE OF DISTAL RADIUS USING A LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE – A BIOMECHANICAL STUDY IN A CADAVERIC MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of palmar plate fixation using a locking compression T-plate was compared with that of a conventional palmar T-plate and a dorsal T-plate in a cadaveric model of an AO type C2 fracture of distal radius. The wrist axial load transmission through the radius was tested for each fixation. The results show that, under 100N axial load, the palmar

F. LEUNG; L. ZHU; H. HO; W. W. LU; S. P. CHOW

2003-01-01

216

Identification of a copper-responsive promoter and development of a copper biosensor in the soil bacterium Achromobacter sp. AO22.  

PubMed

A number of human activities result in environmental contamination with copper compounds that can cause severe detrimental effects on the ecosystem as well as human health. The physico-chemical methods of metal detection have limitations such as inability to distinguish between total versus bio-available metals and differences in metal uptake in different organisms. The heavy metal resistance-encoding genetic systems of certain bacteria provide critical tools for development of biosensors for these purposes. This study reports a copper biosensor utilizing the cop operon of the heavy metal resistant bacterial isolate, Achromobacter sp. AO22, isolated from a contaminated site in Australia. A section located between the divergently transcribed putative response regulator gene copR and multicopper oxidase gene copA that included a palindromic cop box was identified as a copper-responsive promoter using a lacZ reporter construct, pCOPRP, in E. coli. The expression was found to be enhanced by inclusion of copR. Another engineered strain, AO22(pCOPRP), showed stronger induction, and the lacZ expression in both backgrounds was enhanced significantly (250-400 fold) by copper but minimally by other metals. The construct in Achromobacter sp. AO22 thus has a high potential as biosensor for detecting copper bioavailability (hence potential toxicity) in a soil bacterial background, while the construct in E. coli is ideal for laboratory-based testing. PMID:22806045

Ng, Shee Ping; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

2012-05-01

217

Technetium(V) oxo complexes of substituted propylene diamine dioxime (PnAO) ligands: water-dependent interconversion between syn and anti isomers.  

PubMed

99mTc and (99)Tc complexes of PnAO (propylene diamine dioxime) ligands monosubstituted in the 6-position [PnAO-6-R] were prepared and studied. Ligands substituted with an alkyl group or with no substituent (R = H, CH(3), or CH(2)CH(CH(3))(2)), gave only one Tc complex. However, for several other nonalkyl substituents (R = COOCH(3), OH, OCH(3), OCH(2)CH(3), F, CN, NHCOCH(3), and NHCOCH(2)CH(3)), two Tc complexes A and B were formed. Products A and B were assigned to the anti and syn TcO(PnAO-6-R) species, respectively, based on (1)H NMR results. X-ray structure analyses supported these assignments. The A (anti) isomer of TcO(PnAO-6-OH) had the chemical formula TcC(13)H(25)N(4)O(4) and crystallized in an orthorhombic system with space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and Z = 4; a = 12.744(2) A, b = 13.591(2) A, c = 9.976(2) A. The B (syn) isomer of TcO(PnAO-6-CN) had the chemical formula TcC(14)H(24)N(5)O(3) and was a 1:4 mixture of two monoclinic polymorphs: individual rectangular prisms (space group P2(1)/c, Z = 4) and clusters of intergrown twinned rectangular rods (space group Cc, Z = 8). For the prisms, a = 12.457(1) A, b = 13.932(1) A, c = 10.336(1) A, and for the rods, a = 31.344(5) A, b = 6.993(1) A, c = 21.657(2) A. The syn and anti isomers interconverted in the presence of water; nonequilibrium mixtures of epimers remained unchanged under dry conditions. The HPLC behavior under reversed phase conditions was consistent with on-column interconversion (poor resolution), whereas the two isomers were cleanly resolved under drier normal phase conditions. An oxo inversion mechanism involving trans water attack is proposed for the interconversion process. Water also influenced the position of equilibrium of the two isomers. The syn isomer was stabilized in water relative to the anti isomer. PMID:11421705

Cyr, J E; Nowotnik, D P; Pan, Y; Gougoutas, J Z; Malley, M F; Di Marco, J; Nunn, A D; Linder, K E

2001-07-01

218

Comparison of palmar fixed-angle plate fixation with K-wire fixation of distal radius fractures (AO A2, A3, C1) in elderly patients.  

PubMed

The objective of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the results of two operative techniques used for the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures in elderly patients classified as AO types A2, A3, and C1. Patients were treated with either fixed-angle volar plates or K-wires using a combined Kapandji and Willenegger technique. The functional results were determined after 3, 6, and 12 months. We included 40 patients aged over 65 years. Twenty-one patients were treated with plate fixation and 19 with K-wire fixation. The functional results, after 1 year, were nearly the same in both treatment groups, suggesting that either method is suitable for the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures of AO types A2, A3, and C1 in elderly patients. Sixteen of 21 patients with plate fixation and 17 of 19 patients with K-wire fixation present good results as assessed by the Castaing score. The median DASH score was three in both groups after 1 year. The patients with plate fixation were able to resume activities of daily living 4 weeks earlier. The most common complication was an intermediate post-traumatic median nerve irritation. Both methods are suitable for the treatment of elderly patients with unstable distal radius fractures of AO types A2, A3, and C1. If early functional post-operative care is important, palmar fixed-angle plate fixation is an ideal treatment approach. Otherwise, K-wire fixation is an effective, minimally invasive method with comparable clinical results. PMID:23677960

Goehre, F; Otto, W; Schwan, S; Mendel, T; Vergroesen, P P; Lindemann-Sperfeld, L

2014-03-01

219

Backside-illuminated, high-QE, 3e- RoN, fast 700fps, 1760x1680 pixels CMOS imager for AO with highly parallel readout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the next generation of instruments for 8 to 40-m class telescopes will depend upon improving the image quality (correcting the distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence) by exploiting sophisticated Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. One of the critical components of the AO systems for the E-ELT has been identified as the Laser/Natural Guide Star (LGS/NGS) WaveFront Sensing (WFS) detector. The combination of large format, 1760x1680 pixels to finely sample (84x84 sub-apertures) the wavefront and the spot elongation of laser guide stars, fast frame rate of 700 (up to 1000) frames per second, low read noise (< 3e-), and high QE (> 90%) makes the development of such a device extremely challenging. Design studies by industry concluded that a thinned and backside-illuminated CMOS Imager as the most promising technology. This paper describes the multi-phased development plan that will ensure devices are available on-time for E-ELT first-light AO systems; the different CMOS pixel architectures studied; measured results of technology demonstrators that have validated the CMOS Imager approach; the design explaining the approach of massive parallelism (70,000 ADCs) needed to achieve low noise at high pixel rates of ~3 Gpixel/s ; the 88 channel LVDS data interface; the restriction that stitching (required due to the 5x6cm size) posed on the design and the solutions found to overcome these limitations. Two generations of the CMOS Imager will be built: a pioneering quarter sized device of 880x840 pixels capable of meeting first light needs of the E-ELT called NGSD (Natural Guide Star Detector); followed by the full size device, the LGSD (Laser Guide Star Detector). Funding sources: OPTICON FP6 and FP7 from European Commission and ESO.

Downing, Mark; Kolb, Johann; Baade, Dietrich; Balard, Philippe; Dierickx, Bart; Defernez, Arnaud; Dupont, Benoit; Feautrier, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Fryer, Martin; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Iwert, Olaf; Jerram, Paul; Jorden, Paul; Pike, Andrew; Pratlong, Jerome; Reyes, Javier; Stadler, Eric; Walker, Andrew

2012-07-01

220

Susceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host Aglaophenia octodonta (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the species V. harveyi, and the benthic hydrozoan Aglaophenia octodonta. In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility to antibiotics (ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, or co-trimoxazole = mix of sulfamethoxazole and trimetoprim) of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host by using microcosm experiments. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments demonstrated that Vibrio sp. AO1 was highly resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin in pure culture. Nevertheless, these antibiotics, when used at sub-MIC values, significantly reduced the hydroid fluorescence. Co-trimoxazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on fluorescence of A. octodonta. However, in all treatments, the fluorescence was reduced after 48 h, but never disappeared completely around the folds along the hydrocaulus and at the base of the hydrothecae of A. octodonta when the antibiotic was used at concentration completely inhibiting growth in vitro. The apparent discrepancy between the MIC data and the fluorescence patterns may be due to either heterogeneity of the bacterial population in terms of antibiotic susceptibility or specific chemical-physical conditions of the hydroid microenvironment that may decrease the antibiotic susceptibility of the whole population. The latter hypothesis is supported by scanning electron microscope evidence for development of bacterial biofilm on the hydroid surface. On the basis of the results obtained, we infer that A. octodonta might behave as a reservoir of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria, increasing the risk of their transfer into aquaculture farms. PMID:19888625

Stabili, Loredana; Gravili, Cinzia; Boero, Ferdinando; Tredici, Salvatore M; Alifano, Pietro

2010-04-01

221

Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

2012-12-01

222

ExposiÁªo humana ao metilmercœrio em comunidades ribeirinhas da Regiªo do TapajÛs, ParÆ, Brasil Methylmercury human exposure in riverine villages of Tapajos basin, ParÆ State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Resumo Avaliou-se a exposição humana ao metilmercúrio e ao mercúrio total em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Tapajós e da região metropolitana de Belém, no Estado do Pará, Brasil, através da determinação de mercúrio total e metilmercúrio em amostras de cabelo nos anos de 1994 e 1995. Observou-se que as concentrações médias de mercúrio total variaram de 2 ± 1µg\\/g-1

Maria da Conceição; Nascimento Pinheiro; Junko Nakanishi; Manoel Quaresma; Bernardo Cardoso; Walter W. Amoras; Masazume Harada; Carlos Magno; Luis F. Vieira; Marilia Brasil Xavier; Denise R. Bacelar

223

Construction of a mouse Aos1-Uba2 chimeric SUMO-E1 enzyme, mAU, and its expression in baculovirus-insect cells.  

PubMed

Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a highly conserved protein that is covalently attached to target proteins. This posttranslational modification, designated SUMOylation, is a major protein-conjugation-driven strategy designed to regulate structure and function of cellular proteins. SUMOylation consists of an enzymatic cascade involving the E1-activating enzyme and the E2-conjugating enzyme. The SUMO-E1 enzyme consists of two subunits, a heterodimer of activation of Smt3p 1 (Aos1) and ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (Uba2), which resembles the N- and C-terminal halves of ubiquitin E1 (Uba1). Herein, we describe the rational design of a single polypeptide version of SUMO-E1, a chimera of mouse Aos1 and Uba2 subunits, termed mAU, in which the functional domains appear to be arranged in a fashion similar to Uba1. We also describe the construction of a mAU plasmid for expression in a baculovirus-insect cell system and present an in situ SUMOylation assay using the recombinant mAU. Our results showed that mAU has SUMO-E1 activity, thereby indicating that mAU can be expressed in baculovirus-insect cells and represents a suitable source of SUMO-E1. PMID:24637489

Nakayama, Tomofumi; Yuasa, Eri; Kanemaru, Ayumi; Saito, Masayuki; Saitoh, Hisato

2014-03-01

224

The ubiquitin-like protein Smt3p is activated for conjugation to other proteins by an Aos1p/Uba2p heterodimer.  

PubMed Central

SMT3 is an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a 11.5 kDa protein similar to the mammalian ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1. We have found that Smt3p, like SUMO-1 and ubiquitin, can be attached to other proteins post-translationally and have characterized the processes leading to the activation of the Smt3p C-terminus for conjugation. First, the SMT3 translation product is cleaved endoproteolytically to expose Gly98, the mature C-terminus. The presence of Gly98 is critical for Smt3p's abilities to be conjugated to protein substrates and to complement the lethality of a smt3Delta strain. Smt3p undergoes ATP-dependent activation by a novel heterodimeric enzyme consisting of Uba2p, a previously identified 71 kDa protein similar to the C-terminus of ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), and Aos1p (activation of Smt3p), a 40 kDa protein similar to the N-terminus of E1s. Experiments with conditional uba2 mutants showed that Uba2p is required for Smt3p conjugation in vivo. Furthermore, UBA2 and AOS1 are both essential genes, providing additional evidence that they act in a distinct pathway whose role in cell viability is to conjugate Smt3p to other proteins.

Johnson, E S; Schwienhorst, I; Dohmen, R J; Blobel, G

1997-01-01

225

Phosphorylation of the Aspergillus oryzae Woronin body protein, AoHex1, by protein kinase C: evidence for its role in the multimerization and proper localization of the Woronin body protein.  

PubMed

Woronin body, a specialized peroxisome, is a unique organelle involved in septal pore sealing and protecting filamentous fungus from excessive cytoplasmic bleeding. We recently characterized the Aohex1 gene encoding the major protein of the Woronin body in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Although three-dimensional microscopy revealed plugging of the septal pore by Woronin body, the mechanism of its formation remains unknown. We report here a reduction in the oligomeric forms (dimeric and tetrameric) of AoHex1 upon l-phosphatase treatment, which indicated that AoHex1 phosphorylation in vivo facilitates its oligomerization. Concomitant with the presence of a highly conserved predicted PKC (protein kinase C)-phosphorylatable site (Ser151), the recombinant AoHex1 was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro and the administration of the PKC inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimide I and chelerythrine, resulted in the reduction of the oligomeric forms of AoHex1 in vivo. While spherical dot-like Woronin bodies were visualized by expressing the dsred2-Aohex1 and egfp (enhanced green fluorescent protein)-Aohex1 constructs in A. oryzae, treatment with the PKC inhibitors caused an abnormal localization to ring-like structures. In addition to the reduced phosphorylation of the mutagenized recombinant AoHex1[S151A] (Ser151 to alanine substitution) by PKC in vitro, the overexpression of Aohex1[S151A] as dsred2 fusion against the wild-type background also showed reduction of the oligomeric forms of the endogenous AoHex1 and its perturbed localization to ring-like structures in vivo. In conclusion, the present study implicates the relevance of PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the Woronin body protein, AoHex1, for its multimerization and proper localization. PMID:17441786

Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

2007-08-01

226

Fout-Tolerante Computersystem een Overzicht van Enkele Methoden en Technieken (Fault-Tolerant Computer Systems: A Survey of Some Methods and Techniques).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A global survey of methods and techniques for the realization of fault tolerance using multiprocessor systems is given. The reliability of systems, the profits and costs, error detection and error recovery, redundancy in a system, and repairable and non-r...

L. J. M. Nieuwenhuis

1988-01-01

227

Multi-watt 589-nm Na D2-line generation via frequency doubling of a Raman fiber amplifier: a source for LGS-assisted AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a novel solid state fibre laser system, AFIRE, for the purposes of laser guidestar (LGS) assisted adaptive optics (AO), based on the second harmonic generation (SHG) from a high-power (P1178 ~25W) CW narrowband (?? < 3GHz) Raman fibre amplifier developed by IPF. We present what we believe to be the highest power, narrowband single-pass CW 589nm SHG result reported to date, P589 ~ 4.2W from P1178 ~ 19W (?VIS > 22%). We demonstrate our understanding of the arising absorption-induced thermal effects (namely, dephasing and degradation of the conversion), offer predictions towards higher powers and conversion levels, and show that our current results are essentially pump-power limited. We are confident of the scalability of both the IR and visible parts of our system, to these higher output powers and conversion efficiencies.

Taylor, L.; Feng, Y.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Hackenberg, W.

2006-07-01

228

Volcanic activity of Io observed in December 2001 with the Keck AO system: 2-5? m sunlit and eclipse observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanically active Io remains a mysterious and intriguing moon, despite numerous spacecraft flybys. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. The satellite was observed intensively in December 2001 with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system and its recently installed near-infrared camera NIRC2. The spatial resolution after applying the MISTRAL myopic deconvolution method (130 km in K band and 200 km in L band) is better than that of the global images from the Galileo/NIMS instrument. A movie produced from 12 pictures taken every 30o in Ionian longitude provides a complete survey of Io's surface during one full rotation. A total of 26 active hot spots were detected in L band (3.8? m), and approximatively three times more in M band (4.7? m). One active hot spot is seen in K band (2.2? m) in the Pele area. While Io is in Jupiter's shadow, it is invisible to the wavefront sensor, but its hot spots are easily visible in the near-infrared. We imaged Io during the 18 Dec. 2001 eclipse using Ganymede (30" from Io, moving relative to Io at 0.5"/min) as a reference source. Although isoplanatic effects limited AO performance, numerous spots are detected at both K' and L'. We will show the results of detailed studies (temperature, emission area, nature) for several of the hot spots. Keck Science team is composed of S. Kwok, P. Amico, R. Campbell, F. Chaffee, A. Conrad, A. Contos, B. Goodrich, G. Hill, D. Sprayberry, P. Stomski, P. Wizinowich (W.M. Keck Observatory). This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783.

Marchis, F.; de Pater, I.; Le Mignant, D.; Roe, H.; Fusco, T.; Graham, J. R.; Prange, R.; Macintosh, B.; Keck Science Team

2002-09-01

229

Separation, characterization and dose-effect relationship of the PPARgamma-activating bio-active constituents in the Chinese herb formulation 'San-Ao decoction'.  

PubMed

San-ao decoction (SAD), comprising Herba Ephedrae, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and Seneb Armeniacae Amarum, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae for asthma. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) areey regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism and have become important therapeutic targets for various deseases, PPARgamma activation might exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in different chronic inflammatory processes. The EtOAc fraction of SAD showed a significant effect on PPARgamma activation. A simple and rapid method has been established for separation and characterization of the main compounds in the PPARgamma-activating fraction of SAD by ultra-fast HPLC coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass pectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 10 compounds were identified in the activating fraction of SAD, including amygdalin (1), liquiritin (2), 6'-acetyliquiritin (3), liquiritigenin (4), isoliquiritigenin (5), formononetin (6), licoisoflavanone (7), glycycoumarin (8), glycyrol (9) and uercetin (10). The results also characterized formononetin as a predominant component in this fraction. The dose-effect relationship comparison study of formononetin and the EtOAc fraction of SAD by adding formononetin was performed, the results suggested that formononetin was the major component of the EtOAc fraction of SAD responsible for activating PPARgamma, and the method will possibly be applied to study the complex biological active constituents of other TCMs. PMID:19924040

Zhou, Ling; Tang, Yu-Ping; Gao, Lu; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Mei; Wu, De-Kang

2009-01-01

230

Influence of spinel substrate and over-layer for enhanced SAW and AO properties with KNbO3 thin film.  

PubMed

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation characteristics have been studied using modeling calculations for a potassium niobate (KNbO3) thin film-layered structure with (001) and (110) orientation on a single crystal spinel (MgAl2O4) substrate, and a spinel buffer layer on silicon. Variation in the electromechanical coupling and acoustic attenuation has been compared. A significantly high value of coupling factor (k2max = 23%) is obtained for the (001)KNbO3/spinel structure by introducing an optimum thickness of spinel over-layer for potential wide bandwidth SAW device applications. The dispersion characteristics with the (110) KNbO3 orientation indicate an initial peak in the coupling coefficient value (k2max = 8.8%) at a relatively low KNbO3 film thickness that appears attractive for fabricating devices with thinner films. The KNbO3 film with (001) orientation is found attractive for efficient acousto-optic (AO) device application with the formation of a symmetric waveguide structure (spinel(0.5 microm)/KNbO3(1.0 microm)/spinel). A high value of k2 = 23.5% with 50% diffraction efficiency has been obtained for the spinel(0.5 microm)/KNbO3(1.0 microm)/spinel structure at 1 GHz SAW frequency and 633 nm optical wavelength at a very low input drive power of 15.4 mW. PMID:12839169

Nayak, Ranu; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, Kondepudy

2003-06-01

231

Summary Report of the First International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances and Workshop on AoA/Model Deformation Measurement Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances was sponsored under the auspices of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton, Virginia during October 22-25, 1996. Held at the LaRC Reid Conference Center, the Symposium provided an open international forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and strain gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant international technical communities. The program included a panel discussion, technical paper sessions, tours of local facilities, and vendor exhibits. Over 130 delegates were in attendance from 15 countries. A steering committee was formed to plan a second international balance symposium tentatively scheduled to be hosted in the United Kingdom in 1998 or 1999. The Balance Symposium was followed by the half-day Workshop on Angle of Attack and Model Deformation on the afternoon of October 25. The thrust of the Workshop was to assess the state of the art in angle of attack (AoA) and model deformation measurement techniques and to discuss future developments.

Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping; Burner, Alpheus W.; Finley, Tom D.

1999-01-01

232

Summary Report of the First International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances and Workshop on AoA/Model Deformation Measurement Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances was sponsored under the auspices of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton, Virginia. Held at the LaRC Reid Conference Center, the Symposium provided an open international forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and strain gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant international technical communities. The program included a panel discussion, technical paper sessions, tours of local facilities, and vendor exhibits. Over 130 delegates were in attendance from 15 countries. A steering committee was formed to plan a second international balance symposium tentatively scheduled to be hosted in the United Kingdom in 1998 or 1999. The Balance Symposium was followed bv the half-day, Workshop on Angle of Attack and Model Deformation on the afternoon of October 25. The thrust of the Workshop was to assess the state of the art in angle of attack (AoA) and model deformation measurement techniques and to discuss future developments.

Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping; Burner, Alpheus W.; Finley, Tom D.

1998-01-01

233

Using UPLC-QTOF-MS to analyze the chemical changes between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of San-Ao-Tang.  

PubMed

In the present study, a chemical profiling approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS) was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of traditional medicine combinatorial formulae and validated using San-Ao-Tang (SAT) as a model combinatorial formula. SAT is an effective traditional Chinese medicine, which is usually used in treating asthma and other diseases of the respiratory system. Two decoctions were prepared: traditional decoction, which is a water extract of three mixed constituent herbs of SAT; and dispensing granule decoction, which is a mixed water extract of each individual herb of SAT. Batches of these two decoction samples were subjected to UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS analysis and the data sets of t(R)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to holistically compare their differences. Once a clear classification trend was found in the score plot, further statistics were performed to generate points at the two ends of S, and the components that correlated to these ions were regarded as the most changed components during decoction of the combinatorial formula. The changed components were identified by comparing the mass/ultraviolet spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of the known compounds published in the literature. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, licorice saponine H2, licorice saponine G2 and amygdalin. PMID:23572319

Ma, Chunhua; Qian, Yefei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, ErXin; Yao, Xin; Ma, Shiping

2014-04-01

234

Temperature dependence of alkali-metal rattling dynamics in the ?-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs), from MD simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the temperature response of the alkali-metal rattling modes in ?-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs), from the results of ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed at 20?K, 100?K and 300?K. Our results show that the temperature response of the T1u mode is clearly different from that of the T2g mode for all three pyrochlores. In this regard, two features are of particular note for both K and Rb; (1) the T1u mode exhibits a distinctly stronger softening response with decreasing temperature compared to the T2g mode, and (2) the T1u mode becomes stronger and sharper with decreasing temperature. These two findings suggest that the T1u mode is significantly more anharmonic and sensitive to the cage dynamics than the T2g mode. Examination of the local potentials around the alkali-metal atoms reveals that K has the flattest and most anharmonic potential at all temperatures while Cs exhibits the narrowest potential. The temperature dependence of the local potentials reveals that, for K, the potential at a higher temperature is not a simple extrapolation to higher energy of that at a lower temperature. Instead, we find significant reconstruction of the potential at different temperatures. Finally, we explore the temperature response of the coupling between the alkali metals and find a complex temperature dependence which suggests that the origin of the coupling may be more complex than a pure Coulomb interaction. We also find an unexpected increase in the static disorder of the system at low temperatures for the K and Rb pyrochlores.

Shoko, E.; Peterson, V. K.; Kearley, G. J.

2014-06-01

235

Temperature dependence of alkali-metal rattling dynamics in the ?-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs), from MD simulation.  

PubMed

We investigate the temperature response of the alkali-metal rattling modes in ?-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs), from the results of ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed at 20?K, 100?K and 300?K. Our results show that the temperature response of the T1u mode is clearly different from that of the T2g mode for all three pyrochlores. In this regard, two features are of particular note for both K and Rb; (1) the T1u mode exhibits a distinctly stronger softening response with decreasing temperature compared to the T2g mode, and (2) the T1u mode becomes stronger and sharper with decreasing temperature. These two findings suggest that the T1u mode is significantly more anharmonic and sensitive to the cage dynamics than the T2g mode. Examination of the local potentials around the alkali-metal atoms reveals that K has the flattest and most anharmonic potential at all temperatures while Cs exhibits the narrowest potential. The temperature dependence of the local potentials reveals that, for K, the potential at a higher temperature is not a simple extrapolation to higher energy of that at a lower temperature. Instead, we find significant reconstruction of the potential at different temperatures. Finally, we explore the temperature response of the coupling between the alkali metals and find a complex temperature dependence which suggests that the origin of the coupling may be more complex than a pure Coulomb interaction. We also find an unexpected increase in the static disorder of the system at low temperatures for the K and Rb pyrochlores. PMID:24832480

Shoko, E; Peterson, V K; Kearley, G J

2014-06-11

236

ON THE LOCATION OF THE {gamma}-RAY OUTBURST EMISSION IN THE BL LACERTAE OBJECT AO 0235+164 THROUGH OBSERVATIONS ACROSS THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and {gamma}-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at {lambda} = 7 mm with {approx}0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary 'core' and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

Agudo, Ivan; Gomez, Jose L. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Larionov, Valeri M.; Blinov, Dmitriy A.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A. [Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskij Pr. 28, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laehteenmaeki, Anne [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FIN-02540 Kylmaelae (Finland); Smith, Paul S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Nilsson, Kari [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FIN-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Readhead, Anthony C. S. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 222, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 817 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48 109 (United States); Heidt, Jochen [ZAH, Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Koenigstuhl, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gurwell, Mark [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thum, Clemens [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, 38406 St. Martin d'Heres (France); Wehrle, Ann E. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Nikolashvili, Maria G. [Abastumani Observatory, Mt. Kanobili, 0301 Abastumani, Georgia (United States); BenItez, Erika [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hiriart, David, E-mail: iagudo@iaa.es [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 2280 Ensenada (Mexico)

2011-07-01

237

On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; Heidt, Jochien; Gurwell, Mark; Thum, Clemens; Wehrle, Ann E.; Nikolashvili, Maria G.; Aller, Hugh D.; Benitez, Erika; Blinov, Dmitriy A.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Hiriart, David; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Joshi, Manasvita; Kimeridze, Givi N.; Kurtanidze, Omar M.; Kurtanidze, Sofia O.

2011-01-01

238

The mass of the black hole in Centaurus A from SINFONI AO-assisted integral-field observations of stellar kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a determination of the mass of the supermassive black hole (BH) and the nuclear stellar orbital distribution of the elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A) (NGC 5128) using high-resolution integral-field observations of the stellar kinematics. The observations were obtained with SINFONI (Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope in the near-infrared (IR) (K band), using adaptive optics (AO) to correct for the blurring effect of the Earth's atmosphere. The data have a spatial resolution of 0.17 arcsec full width at half-maximum and high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) >~ 80 per spectral pixel so that the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution can be reliably extracted. We detect clear low-level stellar rotation, which is counter-rotating with respect to the gas. We fit axisymmetric three-integral dynamical models to the data to determine the best-fitting values for the BH mass MBH = (5.5 +/- 3.0) × 107Msolar (3? errors) and (M/L)K = (0.65 +/- 0.15) in solar units. These values are in excellent agreement with previous determinations from the gas kinematics, and in particular with our own published value, extracted from the same data. This provides one of the cleanest gas versus stars comparisons of MBH determination, due to the use of integral-field data for both dynamical tracers and due to a very well-resolved BH sphere of influence RBH ~ 0.70 arcsec. We derive an accurate profile of the orbital anisotropy, and carefully test its reliability using spherical Jeans models with radially varying anisotropy. We find an increase in the tangential anisotropy close to the BH, but the spatial extent of this effect seems restricted to the size of RBH instead of that of Rb ~ 3.9 arcsec of the core in the surface brightness profile, contrary to detailed predictions of current simulations of the binary BH scouring mechanism. More realistic simulations would be required to draw conclusions from this observation.

Cappellari, Michele; Neumayer, N.; Reunanen, J.; van der Werf, P. P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Rix, H.-W.

2009-04-01

239

Análise do STR-F13A01 e MPSs do mtDNA para fins de identificação humana: comparação de três métodos de extração de DNA de dentes submetidos ao calor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Nos casos de carbonização humana, usualmente, há uma limitação do emprego dos remanescentes bio- lógicos para estudo. Nesses casos, têm-se usado por eleição dentes para análises forenses, já que sua cons- tituição anatômica proporciona proteção ao material genético. No presente estudo, avaliou-se a amplifica- ção por PCR do DNA obtido de dentes submetidos a calor (200ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC e

VANESSA ROSÁLIA REMUALDO; FABIO DAUMAS NUNES; MARIO HIROYUKI HIRATA

240

Ensino de Sistemas de Informac ¸ ˜ ao para Cursos de Graduac ¸ ˜ ao em Computac ¸ ˜ ao: Uma Experiencia Integrada e Inovadora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching Information Systems in Computer graduation course s uses techniques already being applyed in market for some years, b ut when the aim is to integrate new technologies to systems practice at real or ganization environ- ments, new integrated and inovative approaches need to be us ed. This article presents a teaching proposal for Information Systems based on an inovative

Ghedini Ralha; Jorge Henrique Cabral Fernandes

241

Synchronization Tolerance to Receiving Errors in Coded Em and PCM Signals Transmitted by Meteorological Satellites Sincronizacao Tolerante a Erros Para a Recepcao de Sinais Codificados Em PCM, Transmitidos Por Satelites Meteorologicos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The error tolerant synchronization technique was used in the reception of PCM signals that were transmitted by geostationary satellites, and the usual errors probabilities associated with it were 1 part per million. Some algorithms for minimizing the sync...

V. Rodrigues

1980-01-01

242

ao~~~- a~ c5  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... P-1 N f~l 1 U ' / ff ~~ f4!)V200 .:• PM I T ~ ' .., ry o~'~~~ i~~ . , v 1~G~~s~Q cA ^--T-1, Ii -FD M ~j~/l e l/~~/'y . • ta ~r *,~^~ yr "1°^ 0~ ~~l~ ...

243

Io's Corona: Asymmetries and AO Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Io's corona is the critical link between Io's atmosphere and the plasma torus. This region, from the exobase to the Hill sphere at about 6 RIo, has now been studied in enough detail to search for temporal variations, spatial asymmetries, and differences between atomic species. Our mutual eclipse observations reveal a relatively stable sodium corona with a significant asymmetry: Io's

N. M. Schneider; M. H. Burger; S. E. Sutton; M. A. Dubson

2003-01-01

244

Telephone System Operations Evaluation: Before AOS Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1997, the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority began deploying advanced public transportation systems (APTS) technologies in its fixed route and paratransit operations. The project's concept is the integration of a range of such technologies i...

1999-01-01

245

Não ao sedentarismo, sim à saúde: contribuições da Educação Física escolar e dos esportes No to sedentarianism, yes to health: contributions of school physical education and sports No al sedentarismo, sí a la salud: contribuciones de la educación física en la escuela y de los deportes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Um dos grandes problemas enfrentados pelos povos no mundo se refere ao sedentarismo. Associado a ele, a obesidade, as cardiopatias, a diabetes e tantas outras doenças aparecem com índices muito preocupantes principalmente nas populações de jovens em idade escolar. A tecnologia parece agravar mais ainda este quadro. Entretanto, a prática da atividade física regular, com orientação, com vestimenta e

Ubiratan Silva Alves

246

Persistent Infection of a Continuous Line of Pig Embryo Kidney Cells (RES) with a Variant of Influenza AO/WSN Virus. Communication I: Investigation of WSN/RES16 Influenza Virus Variant and RES(WSN) Cultures Spontaneou sly Recovering after Persistent Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensitivity of the RES(WSN) cultures (reticuloendothelial system) to reinfection by the AO/WSN virus and its variant WSN/RES16 is completely restored after spontaneous recovery from prolonged infection with influenza virus. It is demonstrated that WSN/RES...

V. I. Gavrilov S. Y. Vyalushkina D. M. Asher L. S. Ratushkina B. G. Tumain

1974-01-01

247

The Magellan Telescope Adaptive Secondary AO System: a visible and mid-IR AO facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Magellan Clay telescope is a 6.5m Gregorian telescope located in Chile at Las Campanas Observatory. The Gregorian design allows for an adaptive secondary mirror that can be tested off-sky in a straightforward manner. We have fabricated a 85 cm diameter aspheric adaptive secondary with our subcontractors and partners, the ASM passed acceptance tests in July 2010. This secondary has

Laird M. Close; Victor Gasho; Derek Kopon; Jared Males; Katherine B. Follette; Kevin Brutlag; Alan Uomoto; Tyson Hare

2010-01-01

248

NA- laser guide star AO with dynamical refocus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser guide star adaptive optics performance is strongly affected by the LGS spot size. An increased spot size and deformation can be caused by uplink wavefront deformation and the thickness of the sodium layer. With the perspective elongation of the fluorescing stripe being imaged on the wavefront sensor, the signal to noise ratio of Hartmann type sensors is lowered, pyramid type sensors would even not work properly. With the upcoming extremely large telescopes this problem is getting a serious issue. In this paper we will discuss a twofold possible solution to this problem: The use of pulsed lasers in conjunction with dynamical refocussing and the uplink adaptive correction of the launched lasers. Dynamical following the laser pulse as it propagates through the sodium layer not only removes the elongation of the laser guide star on the detector, but as well allows for pyramid sensors and removes the Rayleigh scattered light from the detection. This mean removes theperspective elongation and sharpens the LGS spot on the wavefront detector. An additional adaptive optics correction of the launched laser even further decreases the laser spot size- finally leading to increased signals and lower required laser power.

Rabien, Sebastian; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Pinna, Enrico; Busoni, Lorenzo; Esposito, Simone

2013-12-01

249

Keck I laser guide star AO system integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the much anticipated delivery of the Lockheed Martin Coherent Technology Quasi-CW laser, the W. M. Keck Observatory was able to complete the installation and integration of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System on the Keck I telescope. The Keck I LGSAO system was developed to provide redundancy for the Keck II system as well as balancing the instrumentation load between the two telescopes and interferometers. With the improved sodium coupling efficiency of the laser and a center launching system, the Keck I laser performance is expected to exceed those on the Keck II system. We present the challenges of integrating the Keck I Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System on an operational telescope. We will present issues and performance data related to the primary subsystem components such as the laser itself, the Selex Galileo Avionica launch telescope, the Mitsubishi fiber transport, and the Adaptive Optics System. The paper will also focus on the integration and testing performed at the W. M. Keck headquarters as well as the summit of Mauna Kea. We will present initial first light performance of the Keck I LGSAO System and compare those to the existing Keck II LGSAO System.

Chin, Jason C. Y.; Stalcup, Thomas; Wizinowich, Peter; Panteleev, Sergey; Neyman, Chris; Tsubota, Kevin; Summers, Douglas; Stomski, Paul; Medeiros, Drew; Nance, Craig; Grace, Kenny; Cooper, Andrew; Wetherell, Ed; Doyle, Steve

2010-07-01

250

O Conceito de Resiliência Aplicado ao Trabalho nas Organizações  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilience is a concept that has been used to explain psychosocial phenomena referred to individuals, groups or organizations that surpass or transcend adverse situations. In this study, the use of the concept of resilience as a theoretical referential in the field of Psychology of Work is discussed through: a) content analysis of two recent films - Frida and Life is

Lisete Barlach; Ana Cristina Limongi-França; Sigmar Malvezzi

2008-01-01

251

Metallic line profiles of the AO V star Vega  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High dispersion ultrahigh signal to noise Reticon spectra of Vega were obtained with the coude spectrograph of the 1.2 m telescope. A mean signal to noise ratio of 2500 over the spectral region lambdas from 3825 to 5435 was achieved. Examination of the line profiles confirmed the presence of two different types of profiles which were previously seen in IIIaJ and lower signal to noise Reticon spectra. The profiles of the strong lines are essentially classical rotational profiles with enhanced wings which are slightly stronger than expected while those of weak lines are clearly flat-bottomed resulting in a trapezoidal appearance. A few possible theoretical explanations are presented.

Gulliver, Austin F.; Adelman, Saul J.; Cowley, Charles R.; Fletcher, J. M.

1991-01-01

252

Ground-layer AO for Dome C: the WHITE instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Dome C, Antarctica, the whole turbulence is reduced to a boundary layer of about 50 meters. WHITE is a project of an infrared survey based on a 2-m telescope using a ground-layer adaptive-optics instrument to obtain high angular resolution on a wide field of view. Simulation results obtained both analytically and from a numerical end-to-end approach are presented and then compared.

Le Roux, Brice; Carbillet, Marcel; Langlois, Maud; Trinquet, Hervé; Burgarella, Denis; Ferrari, Marc; Schmider, Francois-Xavier

2008-07-01

253

Therapie der dislozierten Calcaneusgelenkfraktur mit der AO-Calcaneusplatte  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary  \\u000a \\u000a . From August 1992 to March 1997, 66 patients with 71 displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures were prospectively examined\\u000a after an operative treatment using an extended lateral approach and the ASIF calcaneal plate followed by early functional\\u000a postoperative treatment (mean follow-up 25 months, retrieval rate 96 %). To classify the type of fracture and to verify the\\u000a results of reduction

D.-H. Boack; A. Wichelhaus; T. Mittlmeier; R. Hoffmann; N. P. Haas

1998-01-01

254

Post flight system analysis of FRECOPA (AO 138)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unexpected duration for the flight of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) conducted CNES to create a special investigation group in order to analyze all the materials and systems which compose the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) except the experiments especially prepared for the flight. The FRECOPA tray was on the trailing face (V-) of the LDEF and protected from the atomic oxygen flux during all the flight. However, the solar irradiation was very important with solar flux quite perpendicular to the experiment once an orbit. There was also a good vacuum environment. The objectives are to test the effects of the combined space environment on materials and components like: structure, thermal control coatings and blankets, electronic unit, motors, and mechanical fixtures. When the LDEF returned to Kennedy Space Center, a visual inspection showed the very good behavior of the materials used and it was noted that the three mechanisms to open and close the experiment canisters worked completely. Many impacts of micrometeoroids or space debris on the structure and on the thermal protections were observed. After FRECOPA was brought back to Toulouse, many tests were performed and include: working order tests, mechanical tests (tension), optical and electronic microscopy (SEM), surface analysis (ESCA, SIMS, RBS, AUGER, etc.), thermal analysis, pressure measurements, and gas analysis (outgassing tests). The results of these experiments are discussed.

Durin, Christian

1991-01-01

255

Spacecraft thermal control coatings (AO 138-6)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment A0 138-6 was located on the trailing edge of LDEF as part of the Experiment FRECOPA. Material specimens 2 x 2 cm, independently mounted in sample-holders with their surface in the same reference plane, were exposed to space. Materials include paints (conductive or not), SSMs, polymeric films, surface coatings, composite materials, and metals. The results show that for some materials the degradation was higher for samples in the canister than for those directly mounted on the tray; contamination problems were ruled out, the higher temperature experienced by the samples inside the canister probably explains this phenomenon.

Paillous, Alain; Guillaumon, Jean Claude

1991-01-01

256

Deconvolution-based super resolution for post-AO data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster presents preliminary results on NACO/VLT images of close binary stars obtained by means of a Richardson-Lucy-based algorithm of super-resolution, where down to less than a half-resolution element is attained, and with confirmation from VLTI observations in one of the cases treated. A new gradient method, the scaled gradient projection (SGP), permitting the acceleration of the used method, is also tested with the same scope.

Carbillet, Marcel; La Camera, Andrea; Chesneau, Olivier; Millour, Florentin; Girard, Julien; Prato, Marco

2013-12-01

257

Adesão ao tratamento em pacientes com fibrose cística  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the self-reported degree of adherence to treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), investigating associations with characteristics of the disease and with the degree of adherence perceived by health professionals. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving patients with CF monitored at a Program for Adults with CF. The degree of adherence was evaluated using a

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin; Greice Rampon; Lílian Rech Pasin; Gretchem Mesquita Ramon; Claudine Lacerda de Oliveira Abrahão; Viviane Ziebell de Oliveira

2007-01-01

258

Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy for Surface Eye Disease (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. Methods In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Results Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Conclusions Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC.

Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

2008-01-01

259

Acesso ao casamento no Brasil: uma questão de cidadania sexual  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo esumo esumo esumo esumo: A instituição do casamento deve estar acessível a todos os cidadãos, independen- temente de sua orientação sexual, sob pena de discriminação vedada na Constituição Federal. Contribui para essa conclusão a jurisprudência que, utilizando-se da analogia, tem reconhecido uniões estáveis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo sem que para isso seja obstáculo o

Roberto Arriada Lorea

2006-01-01

260

Global Warming Patterns over the North Pacific: ENSO versus AO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the natural variability and CO2-induced response over the Pacific region are investigated in terms of the spatial anomaly pattern of SST, sea level pressure and precipitation by a multi-model intercomparison analysis, based on the 18-model results contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The analysis indicates that the CO2-induced response pattern is related with the model natural

Kazuki YAMAGUCHI; Akira NODA

2006-01-01

261

The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Neovascular Glaucoma (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the results of Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery in neovascular glaucoma and control patients. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, we reviewed 76 eyes of 76 patients, comparing the surgical outcomes in control patients (N=38) to matched neovascular glaucoma patients (N=38). Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ?6 mm Hg and ?21 mm Hg, without further glaucoma surgery, and without loss of light perception. Results: Average follow-up for control and neovascular glaucoma patients was 18.4 and 17.4 months, respectively (P = .550). At last follow-up, mean IOP was 16.2 ± 5.2 mm Hg and 15.5 ± 12.5 mm Hg (P = .115) in control and neovascular glaucoma patients, respectively. Life-table analysis showed a significantly lower success for neovascular glaucoma patients compared with controls (P = .0096), with success at 1 year of 89.2% and 73.1%, at 2 years of 81.8% and 61.9%, and at 5 years of 81.8% and 20.6% for control and neovascular glaucoma eyes, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed neovascular glaucoma as a risk factor for surgical failure (odds ratio, 5.384, 95% CI, 1.22–23.84, P = .027). Although IOP control and complications were comparable between the two groups, visual outcomes were worse in neovascular glaucoma patients, with 9 eyes (23.7%) with neovascular glaucoma compared with no controls losing light perception vision (P = .002). The majority with loss of vision (5 of 9) had successful control of IOP during the postoperative period. Conclusion: Neovascular glaucoma patients have greater risk of surgical failure after Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery compared with controls. Despite improved mean IOP with drainage implants, visual outcomes may be poor, possibly due to progression of underlying disease.

Netland, Peter A.

2009-01-01

262

Contactless Large Deformable Mirrors: ELT AO corrector technology available now  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our design of ESO E-ELT M4 deformable mirror and GMT Adaptive Secondary Mirrors unit. Both systems are based on our consolidated design of large deformable mirrors for 8-m class telescopes, successfully implemented on MMT and LBT and currently in advanced construction and testing phase for VLT and Magellan telescopes respectively. We describe the main features of the technology adopted: thin Zerodur mirror shell with contactless voice coil motors, co-located capacitive sensors to close a local position loop at each actuator, centralized control by force feedforward, embedded real time control and communication electronics. We then highlight how the same concept has been scaled up on the E-ELT M4AU and the GMT-ASM cases, adapting the technology to deal with thousands of actuators, while maintaining its intrinsic advantages: tolerance to actuators' failures, mechanical de-coupling and relaxed tolerances between correcting mirror and reference structure, large stroke, hysteresis-free behavior. For the next generation systems, we report the predicted performances based on the actual results attained on our 1-m class DMs currently in use: the LBT adaptive secondary for the GMT-ASM and the 330 actuators Demonstration Prototype for the E-ELT M4AU.

Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele

2011-09-01

263

A process activity monitor for AOS/VS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the ever increasing concern for computer security, users of computer systems are becoming more sensitive to unauthorized access. One of the initial security concerns for the Shuttle Management Information System was the problem of users leaving their workstations unattended while still connected to the system. This common habit was a concern for two reasons: it ties up resources unnecessarily and it opens the way for unauthorized access to the system. The Data General MV/10000 does not come equipped with an automatic time-out option on interactive peripherals. The purpose of this memorandum is to describe a system which monitors process activity on the system and disconnects those users who show no activity for some time quantum.

Mckosky, R. A.; Lindley, S. W.; Chapman, J. S.

1986-01-01

264

C-gen - Ferramenta de Apoio ao Estudo de Compiladores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due the quantity of complex techniques involved in the Compilers discipline, it is well known the students difficulties to comprehend it. Moreover, tools for educational purposes on this theme are scarse, and only a handful have enough capacity to enclose a considerable portion of techniques teached at classroom. Considering that this situation hinders both exploration and visualization of the compilation

Jerônimo Backes; Alessandra Dahmer

265

The Interplanetary Network Supplement to the Fermi GBM Catalog - An AO-2 and AO-3 Guest Investigator Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the first two years of operation of the Fermi GBM, the 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN) detected 158 GBM bursts with one or two distant spacecraft, and triangulated them to annuli or error boxes. Combining the IPN and GBM localizations leads to error boxes which are up to 4 orders of magnitude smaller than those of the GBM alone. These localizations comprise the IPN supplement to the GBM catalog, and they support a wide range of scientific investigations.

Hurley, K.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Meegan, C.; von Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.; Golenetskii, S.; Aptekar, R.; Mazets, E.; Pal'shin, V.; Fredericks, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.

2012-01-01

266

Técnicas avançadas de sensoriamento remoto aplicadas ao estudo de mudanças climáticas e ao funcionamento dos ecossistemas amazônicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to assess the contribution of remote sensing technology in addressing key questions raised by the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The answers to these questions foster the knowledge on the climatic, biogechemical and hydrologic functioning of the Amazon, as well as on the impact of human activities at regional and global scales. Remote sensing methods

Evlyn Márcia Leão de Moraes Novo; Laerte Guimaraes Ferreira; Cláudio Barbosa; Claudio Carvalho; Edson E. Sano; Yosio Shimabukuro; Alfreado Huete; Christopher Potter; Dar. A. Roberts; Laura L. Hess; John J. Melack; Hiroki Yoshioka; Steven Klooster; Vipin Kumar; Ranga Myneni; Piyachat Ratana; Kamel Didan; Tomoaki Miura

2005-01-01

267

Study of cosmic dust particles on board LDEF: The FRECOPA experiments AO138-1 and AO138-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two experiments, within the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) and devoted to the detection of cosmic dust, were flown on the LDEF. A variety of sensors and collecting devices have made possible the study of impact processes on materials of technological interest. Preliminary examination of hypervelocity impact features gives valuable data on size distribution and nature of interplanetary dust particles in low earth orbit, within the 0.5 to 300 micrometer size range. Most of the events detected on the trailing face of LDEF are expected to be the result of impacts of meteoritic particles only. So far, chemical analysis of craters by EDS clearly shows evidence of elements (Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe) consistent with cosmic origin. Systematic occurrence of C and O in crater residues is an important result, to be compared with the existence of CHON particles detected in P-Halley comet nucleus. Crater size distribution is in good agreement with results from other dust experiments flown on LDEF. However, no crater smaller than 1.5 micron was observed, thus suggesting a cutoff in the near earth particle distribution. Possible origin and orbital evolution of micrometeoroids is discussed.

Mandeville, J. C.; Borg, Janet

1992-01-01

268

COMUNICAÇÃO SELEÇÃO DE LINHAGENS DE MELANCIA RESISTENTES AO Watermelon mosaic virus E AO Papaya ringspot virus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible) and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W), were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days

José Evando Aguiar; Beserra Júnior; Reis Figueira; Wilson Roberto Maluf

269

HÍBRIDOS Y PROGENITORES DE SORGO TOLERANTES AL FRÍO. III: CALIDAD DE LA SEMILLA COSECHADA DE PLANTAS INFECTADAS CON Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg COLD TOLERANT SORGHUM HYBRIDS AND PARENTAL LINES. III: QUALITY OF SEEDS HARVESTED FROM PLANTS INFECTED WITH Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg  

Microsoft Academic Search

One factor that limits commercial expansion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Central High Valleys of México is its susceptibility to stem and head blight, a disease caused by Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme). Because of the lack of information on quality of seed harvested from plants infected with this fungus, in 2003 an experiment was set up in

Manuel Livera-Muñoz

2007-01-01

270

Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

White, Raymond E., III

1998-01-01

271

A Ao ka Po A Po ke Ao (Until Night Becomes Day, Until Day Becomes Night): Revolution: A Journey of Self-Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

C. Mamo Kim is a Native Hawaiian leader and political activist in Hawai'i. In 1986 she began healing people of diseases from which their doctors had already pronounced they would be imminently dying or chronically doomed to suffer. By merely placing her hands on or near the body she was able to completely reverse the diseases or chronic…

Kim, C. Mamo

2013-01-01

272

Study of meteoroid impact craters on various materials (AO 138-1). Attempt at dust debris collection with stacked detectors (AO 138-2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray allocated to French experiments, known as FRECOPA payload, was devoted to the study of dust particles. Two passive experiments were flown: one composed of a set of glass and metallic samples and one composed of multilayer thin foils detectors. In addition to these experiments, a broad variety of materials were exposed to the bombardment of microparticles and provide more data. Thick target experiment comprises selected metallic (Al, Au, Cu, W, Stainless Steel) 250 microns thick and glass surfaces 1.5 mm thick. Crater size distribution from these thick target experiments enable, with the aid of lab calibrations by solid particle accelerators, the evaluation of the incident microparticle flux in the near earth environment. The aim of the multiple foil penetration and collection experiment is primarily to study the feasibility of multilayer thin film detectors acting as energy sorters in order to collect micrometeoroids, if not in their original shape, at least as 'breakup' fragments suitable for chemical analysis. Foil thicknesses range from 0.75 to 5 microns of Al.

Mandeville, Jean Claude

1991-01-01

273

O ESTADO ATUAL DO ACERVO DOS MANUSCRITOS JUNTO AO ARCHIVUM GENERALE POETARUM LATINORUM BRASILIENSIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being aware of the importance and relevance of the contributions of the Archivum Generale Poetarum Latinorum Brasiliensium, this article intends to expose the results of the researches concerning the brazilian literature written in Latin. The gathering of material that have been diligently carried out by this Institute have provided a valuable amount of data yet to be used in philological,

Enio Aloísio FONDA; Mirtes Rocha RODRIGUES; Cláudia Valéria; Penavel BINATO

2007-01-01

274

A forced titration study of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Ambrotose AO supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a role in acute and chronic inflammatory disease and antioxidant supplementation has demonstrated beneficial effects in the treatment of these conditions. This study was designed to determine the optimal dose of an antioxidant supplement in healthy volunteers to inform a Phase 3 clinical trial. METHODS: The study was designed as a combined Phase 1 and 2

Stephen P Myers; Lesley M Stevenson; Phillip A Cheras; Joan O'Connor; Lyndon O Brooks; Margeret I Rolfe; Paul A Connellan; Carol A Morris

2010-01-01

275

Preliminary performance analysis of the Multi-Conjugate AO system of the EST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Solar Telescope (EST), a 4-meter diameter world-class facility, has been designed to measure the properties of the solar magnetic field with great accuracy and high spatial resolution. For that reason, it incorporates an innovative built-in Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO), featuring 4 high altitude DM's. It combines a narrow field high order wavefront sensor, providing the information to correct the ground layer, and a wide field lower order sensor to control the higher altitude mirrors. Using sensors collecting wide field of view information has several implications, i.e. it averages wavefront information from different sky directions, making the Strehl ratio to drop for low elevation observations. So far these effects have not been studied in MCAO. We analyze this effect by using the Fractal Iterative Method (FrIM), which incorporates a wide field Shack-Hartmann, and we performed end to end simulations of the EST MCAO system to analyze the performance of this system for a large range of elevations, as required in solar observations, and depending on the asterism geometry and number and height of DM's, in order to find the best system configuration.

Montilla, Icíar; Béchet, Clémentine; Langlois, Maud; Tallon, Michel; Collados, Manuel

2013-12-01

276

Análise dos focos de calor em áreas florestais ao longo do Arco do Desflorestamento  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of remoting Sense and the GIS technology help to detect the fire in the Brazilian Amazon Forest, mainly on the Arc of Deforestation. During the dry season the hot spots have been continuously increasing in this area. The analysis includes the cross check of satellites images with polygons of deforestation and others cartographic informations. The result shows that

Ligia Martins; Alexandre de Araujo

277

[Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed. PMID:21717746

Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

2011-04-01

278

DISCOVERY OF A FAINT COMPANION TO ALCOR USING MMT/AO 5 {mu}m IMAGING  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of a faint stellar companion to the famous nearby A5V star Alcor (80 UMa). The companion has M-band ({lambda} = 4.8 {mu}m) magnitude 8.8 and projected separation 1.''11 (28 AU) from Alcor. The companion is most likely a low-mass ({approx}0.3 M {sub sun}) active star which is responsible for Alcor's X-ray emission detected by ROSAT (L {sub X} {approx_equal} 10{sup 28.3} erg s{sup -1}). Alcor is a nuclear member of the Ursa Major star cluster (UMa; d {approx_equal} 25 pc, age {approx_equal} 0.5 Gyr), and has been occasionally mentioned as a possible distant (709'') companion of the stellar quadruple Mizar ({zeta} UMa). Comparing the revised Hipparcos proper motion for Alcor with the mean motion for other UMa nuclear members shows that Alcor has a peculiar velocity of 1.1 km s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the predicted velocity amplitude induced by the newly discovered companion ({approx}1 km s{sup -1}). Using a precise dynamical parallax for Mizar and the revised Hipparcos parallax for Alcor, we find that Mizar and Alcor are physically separated by 0.36 {+-} 0.19 pc (74 {+-} 39 kAU; minimum 18 kAU), and their velocity vectors are marginally consistent ({chi}{sup 2} probability 6%). Given their close proximity and concordant motions we suggest that the Mizar quadruple and the Alcor binary be together considered the second closest stellar sextuplet. The addition of Mizar-Alcor to the census of stellar multiples with six or more components effectively doubles the local density of such systems within the local volume (d < 40 pc)

Mamajek, Eric E. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Hinz, Philip M.; Meyer, Michael R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-03-15

279

New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To p...

L. C. Liou

2008-01-01

280

Aspectos da satisfação das mulheres com a assistência ao parto: contribuição para o debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The objective of this study was,to evaluate fac- tors associated,with women’s,satisfaction with vaginal,delivery ,at the ,Leila Diniz Maternity Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sec-

Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues; Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Maria do Carmo Leal

2004-01-01

281

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF PHOSTRIP, A/O, AND BARDENPHO PROCESSES FOR BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

An engineering evaluation of three proprietary processes for biological removal of phosphorus from municipal wastewater was conducted. The report presents for each process: Technology description; Technology evaluation; Development status; Equivalent technologies comparison; Asse...

282

Foil perforation particulate impact records on LDEF MAP AO023: Incident mass distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An array of multiple foils varying from 1.5 to 3.0 microns exposed on Long Duration Exposure Facility's (LEDF's) geocentrically stabilized exposure platform provides perforation distributions which relate to particulate flux mass distributions and impact velocity in LDEF's orbital reference frame. The application of physical modeling enables a preliminary separation into orbital and interplanetary components, both of which have differing velocities and hence penetration effectiveness. Thin foil hypervelocity calibration data and parametric penetration formulae developed to relate target hole diameter to projectile dimensions are critically examined and a new formula offered for the ballistic limit situation. Incorporating projectile density, target density, and target strength and dimensional scaling from submicron particulates to centimeter scale data, it contrast very significantly with previous formulae in the interpretation of space impact data. Perforation flux distributions for the leading, trailing, and space pointing faces and associated mass distributions for the two populations are presented.

Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Sullivan, K.

1991-01-01

283

Hypervelocity impact microfoil perforations in the LEO space environment (LDEF, MAP AO-023 experiment)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microabrasion Foil Experiment comprises arrays of frames, each supporting two layers of closely spaced metallic foils and a back-stop plate. The arrays, deploying aluminum and brass foil ranging from 1.5 to some 30 microns were exposed for 5.78 years on NASA's LDEF at a mean altitude of 458 km. They were deployed on the North, South, East, West, and Space pointing faces; results presented comprise the perforation rates for each location as a function of foil thickness. Initial results refer primarily to aluminum of 5 microns thickness or greater. This penetration distribution, comprising 2,342 perforations in total, shows significantly differing characteristics for each detector face. The anisotropy confirms, incorporating the dynamics of particulate orbital mechanics, the dominance of incorporating extraterrestrial particulates penetrating thicknesses greater than 20 microns in Al foil, yielding fluxes compatible with hyperbolic geocentric velocities. For thinner foils, a disproportionate increase in flux of particles on the East, North, and South faces shows the presence of orbital particulates which exceed the extraterrestrial component perforation rate at 5 micron foil thickness by a factor of approx. 4.

Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Stevenson, T. J.

1992-01-01

284

New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To provide further information about the AMBR engine, this document provides details on performance, development, mission implementation, key spacecraft integration considerations, project participants and approach, contact information, system specifications, and a list of references. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) leads the technology development of the AMBR engine. Their NASA partners were Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Aerojet leads the industrial partners selected competitively for the technology development via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process.

Liou, Larry C.

2008-01-01

285

Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.

2003-08-01

286

Teoria das Ondas de Elliott- Uma aplicação ao mercado de ações aa Bm&Fbovespa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os preços dos ativos negociados em bolsas de valores, assim como qualquer outro tipo de commodity do mercado financeiro, oscilam naturalmente com a procura por esses produtos. Essas oscilações, juntamente com a assimetria das informações acerca dos preços desses produtos geram processos de volatilidade. Charles Dow, no início do século XX criou índices setoriais, nos quais reunia papéis da mesma

Daniele Ferreira de Sousa

287

Study of factors determining the radiation sensitivity of quartz crystal oscillators (AO189)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quartz resonators fabricated from two different grades of quartz material and selected for their susceptibility to radiation damage as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were tested prior to the LDEF flight. These resonators were then flown on the LDEF mission where they were exposed to the radiation environment of low Earth orbit. Post-flight tests were then conducted to determine any differences in resonator performance caused by the space exposure. Results of the TEM analysis of the quartz material and preflight and postflight measurements of the flight resonators and of the space and ground based control resonators are presented. Further planned work on the TEM analysis of the quartz materials will also be outlined.

Ahearn, J. S.; Venables, J. D.

1991-01-01

288

Long-Term Visual Acuity Results of Treated and Untreated Radiation Retinopathy (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report ocular findings in eyes with radiation retinopathy and visual acuity (VA) results of photocoagulation for macular edema and proliferative retinopathy. Methods This retrospective case series compared VA after photocoagulation treatment and nontreatment of radiation macular edema. Visual outcomes were assessed with regression analyses. Results Eighty-seven eyes (78 [89.7%] treated with external beam irradiation and 9 treated with local plaques) were studied. Fifty-nine (67.8%) and 28 (32.2%) eyes had nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy, respectively; macular edema developed in 42 nonproliferative eyes (71.2%) and 24 proliferative eyes (85.7%). Initial VAs (median) were 20/40 and 20/65 for nonproliferative and proliferative eyes, respectively, and final VA was 20/80 and 20/400. Initial VA (median) in eyes with macular edema was 20/50 compared to 20/25 in eyes without edema; final VAs were 20/200 and 20/30. Comparing treated (19 [45.2%]) and untreated (23[54.8%]) macular edema in 42 eyes with nonproliferative retinopathy, initial median VA (20/40 and 20/50) and final VA (20/100 and 20/200) were better in treated eyes. Regression analysis showed significant treatment effect (P = .003) when initial VA (logMAR) and months of follow-up were kept constant; treated eyes had mean final VA (logMAR) 0.36 (95% CI, 0.12–0.60) better than untreated eyes. Conclusions The presence of macular edema and proliferation indicates more severe retinopathy and worse visual prognosis than for eyes without macular edema and proliferation. Although these VA results suggest macular photocoagulation is beneficial, eyes with macular edema continue to lose vision despite treatment. Better prevention and treatment methods are needed for radiation retinopathy.

Kinyoun, James L.

2008-01-01

289

Progress report on the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment (AO178)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) is based on a modular array of 192 side-viewing solid state nuclear track detector stacks. These stacks were mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels employing sixteen peripheral Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) trays. The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced scientific yield from the UHCRE. The geometry factor for high energy cosmic ray nuclei, allowing for Earth shadowing, was 30 sq m-sr, giving a total exposure factor of 170 sq m-sr-y at an orbital inclination of 28.4 degrees. Scanning results indicate that about 3000 cosmic ray nuclei in the charge region with Z greater than 65 were collected. This sample is more than ten times the current world data in the field (taken to be the data set from the HEAO-3 mission plus that from the Ariel-6 mission) and is sufficient to provide the world's first statistically significant sample of actinide (Z greater than 88) cosmic rays. Results to date are presented including details of ultra-heavy cosmic ray nuclei, analysis of pre-flight and post-flight calibration events and details of track response in the context of detector temperature history. The integrated effect of all temperature and age related latent track variations cause a maximum charge shift of +/- 0.8 e for uranium and +/- 0.6 e for the platinum-lead group. The precision of charge assignment as a function of energy is derived and evidence for remarkably good charge resolution achieved in the UHCRE is considered. Astrophysical implications of the UHCRE charge spectrum are discussed.

Thompson, A.; Osullivan, D.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

1993-01-01

290

Um Estudo sobre Gerência de Configuração de Software aplicada ao Desenvolvimento Baseado em Componentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to analyze the Software Configurati on Management (SCM) approach for conventional development and identify points that need to be tai lored to support Component Based Development (CBD). We believe that adapting SCM process to support CBD by applying variants for producer and consumer teams is the best way to take advantage of the benefits of SCM a

Ribeiro Dantas; Hamilton Oliveira; Leonardo Gresta; Paulino Murta; Cláudia Maria; Lima Werner

291

High accuracy localization method using AoA in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sensor networks, several applications such as habitat monitoring and moving objects tracking, require the knowledge of nodes positions. Position estimation most often includes errors due to the measurements of distance and incoming angles between neighbors. Erroneous positions are propagated from a node to other nodes exacerbating the degree of errors in the estimation of the positions of these nodes.

Mustapha Boushaba; Abdelhakim Hafid; Abderrahim Benslimane

2009-01-01

292

Delta XTE Spacecraft Solar Panel Deployment, Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The footage shows technicians in the clean room checking and adjusting the deployment mechanism of the solar panel for XTE spacecraft. Other scenes show several technicians making adjustments to software for deployment of the solar panels.

1995-01-01

293

End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

1994-11-01

294

GMT AO system requirements and error budgets in the preliminary design phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Error budgets are an indispensable tool for assuring that project requirements can be and are being met. An error budget will typically include terms associated with subsystems which are being designed by different teams of engineers, and fabricated by different vendors. It is a useful tool at all levels of design since it provides a means to negotiate design trades in the broadest possible context. Error budgeting is in many ways fundamental to the mission of systems engineering and of course to the overall project success. In this paper we will describe the GMT Adaptive Optics System flow down requirements and their integration with their wavefront error budgets. We will focus on the GMT Adaptive Optics wavefront error budgets for the following observing modes: Natural Guide Star Adaptive, Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics and Ground Layer Adaptive Optics. Finally, a description of the error budgets and the close link between the error budgets and other parameter such as sky coverage, zenith angle, etc., will be discussed in this paper.

Trancho, G.; Espeland, B.; Bouchez, A.; Conan, R.; Hinz, P.; van Dam, M.

2012-07-01

295

Kinematics of the Central Kiloparsec in Cygnus A from AO Integral Field Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Keck Integral Field Unit observations and long-slit spectroscopy of the central regions of Cygnus A using laser guide star adaptive optics. Our near-IR images show a bi-conic structure clearly seen in Pa-alpha emission and a more flattened structure perpendicular to the axis of the radio jets that is only visible in H_2 emission. Both of these structures are strongly suggestive of an obscuring torus around a heavily extinguished quasar nucleus. We use the integral field spectroscopy to develop velocity maps and model the kinematics of the entire region. We thus set constraints on the torus geometry and obtain an estimate for the mass of the supermassive black hole.

Aylor, Kevin; Rude, G.; Medling, A.; Canalizo, G.; Max, C. E.; Antonucci, R. R.

2013-01-01

296

Experimental study of AO and T1 modes of the concert harp.  

PubMed

String instruments are usually composed of a set of strings, a soundboard, and a soundbox with sound holes, which is generally designed to increase the sound level by using the acoustic resonances of the cavity. In the case of the harp, the soundbox and especially the sound holes are primarily designed to allow access to the strings for their mounting. An experimental modal analysis, associated to measurements of the acoustic velocity in the holes, shows the importance of two particular modes labeled A0 and T1 as it was done for the guitar and the violin. Their mode shapes involve coupled motions of the soundboard's bending and of the oscillations of the air pistons located in the sound holes. The A0 mode is found above the frequency of the lowest acoustically significant structural mode T1. Thus, the instrument does not really take advantage of the soundbox resonance to increase its radiated sound in low frequencies. However, contribution of mode A0 is clearly visible in the response of the instrument, confirming the importance of the coupling between the soundboard and the cavity. PMID:17297809

Le Carrou, J L; Gautier, F; Foltête, E

2007-01-01

297

CARACTERÍSTICAS ESTRUTURAIS DA MADEIRA DE Pinus elliottii Engelm AOS 30 ANOS DE IDADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, six trees from a 30 year slash pine stand were harvested. The stumps were converted into 2,5 m logs and the two first were processed into pith centered cants. After air- seasoning, the cants were transformed into small clear static bending specimens according to ASTM D143-93 (1995). Samples were taken near the pith and the bark. Bending

Clovis Roberto Haselein; Emerson Cechin; Elio José Santini; Darci Alberto Gatto

298

Functional expression of amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (AO-I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to prepare recombinant amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger after overexpressing in yeast. The yeast expression vector pDR197 that includes a constitutive PMA1 promoter was used for\\u000a the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant amine oxidase was extracted from the growth medium of the yeast, purified to homogeneity and identified by activity\\u000a assay and MALDI-TOF peptide

Kate?ina Kola?íková; Petr Galuszka; Iva Sedlá?ová; Marek Šebela; Ivo Frébort

2009-01-01

299

Discovery of a Faint Companion to Alcor Using MMT/AO 5 ?m Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the detection of a faint stellar companion to the famous nearby A5V star Alcor (80 UMa). The companion has M-band (? = 4.8 ?m) magnitude 8.8 and projected separation 1.''11 (28 AU) from Alcor. The companion is most likely a low-mass (~0.3 M ?) active star which is responsible for Alcor's X-ray emission detected by ROSAT (L X ~= 1028.3 erg s-1). Alcor is a nuclear member of the Ursa Major star cluster (UMa; d ~= 25 pc, age ~= 0.5 Gyr), and has been occasionally mentioned as a possible distant (709'') companion of the stellar quadruple Mizar (? UMa). Comparing the revised Hipparcos proper motion for Alcor with the mean motion for other UMa nuclear members shows that Alcor has a peculiar velocity of 1.1 km s-1, which is comparable to the predicted velocity amplitude induced by the newly discovered companion (~1 km s-1). Using a precise dynamical parallax for Mizar and the revised Hipparcos parallax for Alcor, we find that Mizar and Alcor are physically separated by 0.36 ± 0.19 pc (74 ± 39 kAU minimum 18 kAU), and their velocity vectors are marginally consistent (?2 probability 6%). Given their close proximity and concordant motions we suggest that the Mizar quadruple and the Alcor binary be together considered the second closest stellar sextuplet. The addition of Mizar-Alcor to the census of stellar multiples with six or more components effectively doubles the local density of such systems within the local volume (d < 40 pc). Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

Mamajek, Eric E.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Hinz, Philip M.; Meyer, Michael R.

2010-03-01

300

Poder de inchamento e solubilidade de amido de arroz submetido ao tratamento térmico com baixa umidade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This research aimed to determine the influence of heat-moisture treatment of rice starch on swelling power and solubility properties. Rice starch was isolated by alkaline method. The moisture content of rice starch was adjusted to 15, 20 and 25% and stored at 4 °C during four days. The samples were autoclaved at 110 °C for one hour and dried

Elessandra da Rosa ZAVAREZE; Andressa Oliveira RODRIGUES; Cátia Regina STORCK; Letícia Marques de ASSIS; Álvaro Renato; Guerra DIAS

301

PCR: a PC-based wave front reconstructor for MMT-AO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PC Reconstructor (PCR) is the control software for the natural guide star and the laser guide star systems at the 6.5m Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) operating with the adaptive secondary mirror on Mt. Hopkins south of Tucson, AZ. The PCR computes and corrects atmospheric turbulence featuring a common interface between the wave front sensor camera control link and the deformable mirror, diagnostic data management, vibration control, closed-loop data distribution and saving routines, and housekeeping modules. We report here on the development, use and the on-sky performance of the PCR.

Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Hinz, Phil; Brusa, Guido; Miller, Doug; Stalcup, Thomas

2008-08-01

302

Vacuum Deposited Optical Coatings Experiment (AO 138-4) (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this experiment was to test the optical behavior of 20 components and coatings subjected to space exposure. Most of them are commonly used for their reflective or transmittive properties in spaceborne optics. They consist in several kind of met...

J. Charlier

1991-01-01

303

Vulnerabilidade ao abuso de drogas e a outras situações de risco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risky situations involving children and teenagers, specially the poor ones, required a second thought on strategies to face these problems. The Municipal Childrens Bureau in Curitiba , by means of the Socio-Preventive Managing Programs and the help from the School of Education of the Federal University of Parana , is launching a new task. 2,096 male and female children, from

Araci Asinelli da Luz; Francine Lia; Wosniak Cláudia; Aparecida Savi

304

First biological and dosimetric results of the free flyer biostack experiment AO015 on LDEF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objectives of the Biostack Experiment are to study the effectiveness of the structured components of the cosmic radiation to bacterial spores, plant seeds, and animal cysts for a long duration spaceflight and to get dosimetric data such as particle fluences and spectra and total doses for the Long Duration Exposure Facility orbit. The configuration of the experiment packages allows the localization of the trajectory of the particles in each biological layer and to correlate the potential biological impairment or injury with the physical characteristics of the responsible particle. Although the Biostack Experiment was designed for a long duration flight of only nine months, most of the biological systems show a high hatching or germination rate. Some of the first observations are an increase of the mutation rate of embryonic lethals in the second generation of Arabidopsis seeds, somatic mutations, and a reduction of growth rates of corn plants and a reduction of life span of Artemia salina shrimps. The different passive detector systems are also in a good shape and give access to a proper dosimetric analysis. The results are summarized, and some aspects of future analysis are shown.

Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.; Facius, R.; Horneck, G.; Schaeffer, M.; Schott, J. U.; Bayonove, J.; Beaujean, R.; Benton, E. V.; Delpoux, M.

1991-01-01

305

Baixo peso ao nascer em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birthweight infants (under 2500 g) are much more likely to have severe diseases or die in the first year of life. This study's objective was to compare occurrence of low birthweight, preterm births, and intrauterine growth retardation in two cohorts born in the years 1982 and 1993 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All hospital births (corresponding to over 99% of

Bernardo L. Horta; Fernando C. Barros; Ricardo Halpern; Cesar G. Victora

1996-01-01

306

Systemic lupus erythematosus on the Caribbean island of Cura?ao: an epidemiological investigation.  

PubMed Central

To determine the incidence, prevalence, and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a well delineated black population in the Caribbean basin data were collected on the disease course of all patients with definite SLE seen during a 10 year period (1980-9) using three different sources of information (hospital records, private practice records, and death certificates). Ninety four patients were identified giving an average annual incidence rate of 4.6/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 8.8), which showed little variation during the study period. Twenty five patients (27%) died during the study period, giving a point prevalence of 47/100,000 (CI 34.1 to 51.1) in 1990. In women aged 15-44 years the annual incidence (12/100,000; CI 5.3 to 18.9) was highest, whereas in women aged 44-65 years the 1990 point prevalence rate (one in 526; CI 469 to 625) was highest. Annual mortality was 1.7/100,000 (CI -0.8 to 4.2) with a female to male ratio of 5.3. Renal disease was the most common complication, occurring in 73 (78%) patients. Thus the transatlantic movement from an area with a (presumably) low prevalence of SLE (Central Africa) has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of SLE in the black population of Curaçao, indicating that environmental factors may prevail over genetic factors in the expression of this disease.

Nossent, J C

1992-01-01

307

Project 1640: the world's first ExAO coronagraphic hyperspectral imager for comparative planetary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project 1640, a high-contrast spectral-imaging effort involving a coordinated set of instrumentation and software, built at AMNH, JPL, Cambridge and Caltech, has been commissioned and is fully operational. This novel suite of instrumentation includes a 3388+241-actuator adaptive optics system, an optimized apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, an integral field spectrograph, and an interferometric calibration wave front sensor. Project 1640 is the first of its kind of instrumentation, designed to image and characterize planetary systems around nearby stars, employing a variety of techniques to break the speckle-noise barrier. It is operational roughly one year before any similar project, with the goal of reaching a contrast of 10-7 at 1 arcsecond separation. We describe the instrument, highlight recent results, and document on-sky performance at the start of a 3-year, 99-night survey at the Palomar 5-m Hale telescope.

Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Beichman, Charles; Brenner, Douglas; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Crepp, Justin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Ligon, E. R.; Lockhart, Thomas; Parry, Ian; Pueyo, Laurent; Rice, Emily; Roberts, Lewis C.; Roberts, Jennifer; Shao, Michael; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Vasisht, Gautam; Vescelus, Fred; Wallace, J. Kent; Zhai, Chengxing; Zimmerman, Neil

2012-07-01

308

SELEÇÃO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE RESISTENTES AO CARRAPATO BEEF CATTLE SELECTION FOR THICK RESISTANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tick infection is one of the most important problem of the Brazilian beef cattle herd. Regardless the beef cattle production systems, the tick infection causes great productive and financial losses. The tick control drugs utilization follows the traditional procedures for its control on beef cattle growth. Nevertheless, due to the inadequate and undistinguished usage of drugs, recent studies show

Ricardo Velludo; Gomes de Soutello; Liliane Suguisawa; Giane Kamimura Condi; Marcelo Miyasaki; Daniela Fumie Tanaka; Rafael Vargas Coelho; Kátia Cristina Tanaka

309

TEMPERATURA SUPERFICIAL E ÍNDICE DE TOLERÂNCIA AO CALOR DE CAPRINOS DE DIFERENTES GRUPOS RACIAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aimed with this work to determine the superficial temperature and the index of tolerance to the heat of goats (F1) resultants of crossings among these breed, Boer, Savanna, Kalahari, Anglo Nubiana and Moxotó, with goat in no definite breed of the northeast area. Thirty goats were used, with medium age of six months and medium weight of 25,17kg being

Bonifácio Benicio de Souza; Expedito Danusio de Souza; Marcílio Fontes Cezar; Wandrick Haus de Souza; José Romulo; Soares dos Santos; Talícia Maria Alves Benicio

310

Impact of Cn2 profile structure on wide-field AO performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WFAO systems are in their design phase for the ELTs. MCAO (MAORY), LTAO (ATLAS) and MOAO (EAGLE) approaches have been analyzed for the E-ELT. All these approaches require a precise tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent volume. In that frame, Cn2 profiles come up at two levels: the input "true" profile, and the prior profile used as a regularization in the tomographic reconstruction. The impacts of the structure and the complexity of the Cn2 profile on the residual error after tomographic reconstruction are analyzed and discussed. We show that isoplanatic angle is not sufficient to characterize profiles in WFAO. We highlight the importance of a well sampled Cn2 input profile and prior profile to be considered in the tomographic reconstructor.

Fusco, Thierry; Costille, Anne

2010-07-01

311

iMática - Ambiente Interativo de Apoio ao Ensino de Matemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the consolidation of the Internet and of the information interactive means, we can explore some factors as multi-sensorial association, interaction human-computer and experimentation, in order to solve teaching problems. These facilities can provide a larger comprehension of the information and can produce a faster and effective learning. In the present work, we discuss some of these ideas, particularly with

Seiji Isotani; Leônidas de Oliveira Brandão

312

Compositional analysis of projectile residues on LDEF instrument AO187-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact craters greater than 30 microns and associated projectile residues were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA). Objectives were to analyze a statistically significant number of projectiles to evaluate their chemical variability and possible clustering into discrete particle types. Bay A11 exposed six collector surfaces of anodized 1100-T4 (greater than 99 percent pure) aluminum sheets, 0.32 cm thick, yielding an exposed surface area of 1.1 sq. m. Four of the six panels have been retained at JSC, and were optically scanned, one (A11E00E) was prepared for SEM/EDX analysis. Bay A03 was occupied by high purity (99.99 percent) gold sheets, 0.5 mm thick, yielding an exposed surface area of 0.85 sq. m. Sample processing included the optical scanning (6X), labeling, and dislodging (by a punch-die device) of each individual impact greater than 75 microns for the aluminum and 30 microns for the gold. The 209 craters were dislodged form A11E00E, having crater diameters up to 3500 microns. Optical examination of the gold surfaces detected 238 craters, 198 of which were retained at JSC and analyzed via SEM/EDX. The analytical procedures included maximizing the geometric efficiency (take-off angles), using relatively long count times (500-1000 sec) and sufficiently high accelerating currents (25-30Kev). Despite diligent examination, a large number of craters did not exhibit measurable signals above background. Detectable resides were classified as either micrometeoritic or as man-made debris.

Bernhard, Ronald P.; Horz, F.

1992-01-01

313

JUVENTUDE, TRABALHO E EDUCAÇÃO PROFISSIONAL: O PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE ESTÍMULO AO PRIMEIRO EMPREGO EM DISCUSSÃO  

Microsoft Academic Search

No contexto atual de estreitamento e volatividade do mercado de trabalho, de extremas exigências de qualificações profissionais e do excedente de mão-de-obra pouco escolarizada e qualificada, um dos maiores desafios a serem enfrentados é a inserção dos jovens no mundo do trabalho, já que estes são os mais penalizados com o desemprego e com a precarização do trabalho, que se

Carlos Soares

314

A REFORMA TRABALHISTA E SINDICAL DO GOVERNO LULA: DE VOLTA AOS PARÂMETROS NEOLIBERAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUÇÃO Sob o pretexto d e e stabelecer mudanças radicais na Legislação do Trabalho n o Brasil, garantindo-se assim o crescimento e os empregos, um grande véu vem obscurecendo o verdadeiro carater da reforma sindical e trabalhista que está sendo proposta pelo governo do Presidente Luiz Ignácio Lula da Silva. A hipótese central sustentada por esse artigo é de que

Ariovaldo Santos

315

AS TIC NA FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES: DO PACOTE OFFICE AO PACOTE MOODLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is presented by three teachers with different experiences within teachers' training, although sharing a common interest: the professional development of teachers and the use of ICT in context. The older ones are the critical consciousness of MINERVA, and the younger one, belonging to the young generation of Nónio, is equally critical but more daring and tolerant towards the

José Duarte; João Torres; Conceição Brito

316

Synergy between glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides during acute exposures in tadpoles of the common South American Toad Rhinella arenarum.  

PubMed

The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide cypermethrin are key pesticides of modern management in soy and corn cultures. Although these pesticides are likely to co-occur in ephemeral ponds or aquatic systems supporting amphibian wildlife, the toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of these two pesticides have been little studied. The current study evaluated the toxicity of equitoxic and non-equitoxic binary mixtures of glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides to tadpoles of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum. Two different combinations of commercial products were tested: glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® and glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin®. When tested individually, the formulations presented the following 96h-LC50s: Glifosato Atanor® 19.4mg aeL(-1) and Glifoglex 72.8mg aeL(-1), Xiper® 6.8mgL(-1) and Glextrin® 30.2mgL(-1). Equitoxic and non-equitoxic mixtures were significantly synergic in both combinations of commercial products tested. The magnitude of the synergy (factor by which toxicity differed from concentration addition) was constant at around twofold for all tested proportions of the glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin® mixture; whereas the magnitude of the synergy varied between 4 and 9 times in the glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® mixture. These results call for more research to be promptly undertaken in order to understand the mechanisms behind the synergy observed and to identify and quantify the extent of its environmental impacts. PMID:25048890

Brodeur, Julie Céline; Poliserpi, María Belén; D Andrea, María Florencia; Sánchez, Marisol

2014-10-01

317

The influence of Co content on the corrosion resistance of sputter-deposited TbFeCo thin films in aqueous environments. [Fe, 20-22 a/o Tb, 0-38 a/o Co  

SciTech Connect

The influence of Co content on the corrosion resistance of sputter-deposited TbFeCo alloy films was investigated by means of an immersion corrosion test, electrochemical measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance of the alloy films in chloride solutions increased with increasing Co content. This is due to the decrease in the growth rate of pits. The stability of passive films on the surface of the alloys increased with increasing Co content. The number of pits, however, increased with increasing Co content. Colonies of microcrystals were locally formed in an amorphous alloy matrix with increasing Co content. Such colonies are presumed to be responsible for the increase in the number of pits.

Akao, Noboru; Kato, Tomoya; Sasaki, Takashi; Sugimoto, Katsuhisa (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy)

1994-05-01

318

Estudo do sector eléctrico e electrónico: uma análise desagregada, ao nível dos 40 principais produtos do comércio bilateral comunitário e ao nível das principais empresas, para o período 1980 - 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo faz-se: I) a caracterização do sector eléctrico - electrónico utilizando vários indicadores, dos quais destacamos as medidas de capital humano, em termos de stock e de fluxo, as medidas de concentração industrial e da escala mínima de eficiência (economias de escala) as medidas do peso das PMEs e as medidas da inovação tecnológica; ÍI) o ranking dos principais

Horácio Crespo Faustino

1995-01-01

319

Direct measurement of the size, shape, and pole of 511 Davida with Keck AO in a single night  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the high-quality data set of 165 images taken at 11 epochs over the 5.13 h rotation of the large C-type Asteroid 511 Davida, we find the dimensions of its triaxial ellipsoid model to be 357±2×294±2×231±50 km. The images were acquired with the adaptive optics system on the 10 m Keck II telescope on December 27, 2002. The a and b diameters are much better determined than previously estimated from speckle interferometry and indirect measurements, and our mean diameter, (=289±21 km, is 19% below previous estimates. We find the pole to lie within 2° of [ RA=295°; Dec=0°] or in Ecliptic coordinates [ ?=297°; ?=+21°], a significant improvement to the pole direction. Otherwise, previous determinations of the axial ratios agree with our new results. These observations illustrate that our technique of finding the dimensions and pole of an asteroid from its changing projected size and shape is very powerful because it can be done in essentially one night as opposed to decades of lightcurves. Average departures of 3% (5 km) of the asteroid's mean radius from a smooth outline are detected, with at least two local positive-relief features and at least one flat facet showing approximately 15 km deviations from the reference best-fit ellipsoid. The facet is reminiscent of large global-scale craters on Asteroid 253 Mathilde (also a C-type) when seen edge-on in close-up images from the NEAR mission flyby. We show that giant craters (up to 150 km diameter, the size of the largest facets seen on Davida) can be expected from the impactor size distribution, without likelihood of catastrophic disruption of Davida.

Conrad, A. R.; Dumas, C.; Merline, W. J.; Drummond, J. D.; Campbell, R. D.; Goodrich, R. W.; Le Mignant, D.; Chaffee, F. H.; Fusco, T.; Kwok, S. H.; Knight, R. I.

2007-11-01

320

Effects of ultra-vacuum and space environment on contact ohmic resistance: LDEF experiment AO 138-11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FRECOPA experimentation of chemical resistance of electrical connector contacts, as described, has evidenced the detrimental time variations of nickel plated conductors and gilded copper contacts, irrespective of crimping storage or metal peening conditions. With a view to reorient aluminum technology a silvered aluminum conductor/gilded aluminum contact solution was evaluated.

Assie, Jean-Pierre; Perotto, Alfred

1992-01-01

321

AO 160 - OZVAL: validation of ENVISAT ozone products through assimilation in a CTM; first results obtained with GOMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results obtained by assimilating GOMOS data into the MSDOL assimilation system in the frame of the OZVAL project. This project aimed at supporting Envisat data validation by providing the ACVT group with assimilated fields of ozone. The availability of GOMOS data allowed us to perform assimilation experiments using GOMOS data. We present here some of these

Bertrand Théodore; Marielle Guirlet; Alain Hauchecorne; Odile Hembise; Antoine Mangin

322

Monitoring Io volcanic activity using the Keck AO system: 2-5mum sunlit and eclipse observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galileo provided us with spectacular images of the volcanically active Io moon over the last 7 years, but we understand little about the physical processes occurring on this moon. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the long time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. Our group started a monitoring

F. Marchis; I. de Pater; D. Le Mignant; H. G. Roe; T. Fusco; J. R. Graham; R. Prange; B. Macintosh

2002-01-01

323

Mapas Auto-Organizáveis Aplicados ao Mapeamento do Potencial Mineral na Província Mineral de Carajás, Norte do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was designed with the aim of integrating and searching for patterns in airborne geological and geophysical gamma-spectrometric and magnetic data of the Serra Leste region, Carajás Mineral Province. SOM is an unsupervised Artificial Neural Network method that performs a non-linear mapping from a high-dimensional data space to a 2-dimensional grid, whereas preserving the topological relations

Emilson Pereira Leite

324

PEQUENAS EMPRESAS DE FAST FOOD: UMA ANÁLISE JUNTO AO CLIENTE SOBRE A QUALIDADE DO ATENDIMENTO NO SEGMENTO DE ALIMENTAÇÃO RÁPIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fast food industry has generated billions o f dollars around the globe. In the seventies, Americans have to spend more than six bi llion dollars in this type of meal, in the year two thousand, that figure was up to eighteen t imes greater. The three major U.S. networks Burger King, McDonald's and Tricon Global Restaurants, every two

Cléber Alves Ferreira

325

Uso de imagens LANDSAT como subsídio ao estudo da dispersão de sedimentos na região da foz do rio São Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a sequence of water reservoirs along the lower São Francisco river basin has caused a severe change in the supply of water and sediments to the coastal zone. We present in this paper a first attempt to use Landsat data to estimate de Suspended Sediment Content (SSC) of the coastal plume. A simple log model proposed by

João Antonio Lorenzzetti; Eduardo Negri

326

[Stable joint-bridging extension of malleolar dislocations and pilon fractures with the AO pinless external fixator].  

PubMed

The pinless external fixator, introduced into clinical practice for open tibial fractures, suggested itself for use as a traction substitute because of its pinless frame. The aim of this feasibility study was to replace the conventional calcaneal pin traction by a joint-bridging pinless fixator, inserted under local anesthesia. 10 patients with 6 malleolar dislocation fractures, 3 pilon tibial and 1 open distal tibial fracture were immobilised by a joint-bridging pinless fixator during 10.4 days (5-16 days) till swelling had subsided and definitive fracture treatment, consisting of plate fixation, took place. The implantation of the joint-bridging pinless fixator in local anaesthesia was well tolerated by all patients. This traction substitute offered good patient comfort and easy care. Although the provided stability was less than a conventional fixator, all patients were able to lift up their fractured extremity without pain. PMID:7960918

Babst, R; Renner, N; Rosso, R; Marx, A; Heberer, M; Regazzoni, P

1994-07-01

327

Características químicas de solo submetido ao tratamento com esterco líquido de suínos e cultivado com gramíneas forrageiras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of intensive swine liquid manure (SLM) application was evaluated through the overland flow method, on chemical characteristics of a Yellow-red Podzolic soil (Ultisol) cultivated with four forage species: Amazonian kikuyu grass (Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick), signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf), coastcross bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) and Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)

Flávia Martins de Queiroz; Antônio Teixeira de Matos; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Rubens Alves de Oliveira

2004-01-01

328

Analysis of LDEF experiment AO187-2: Chemically and isotopic measurements of micrometeoroids by secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous 'extended impacts' found in both leading and trailing edge capture cells have been successfully analyzed for the chemical composition of projectile residues by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Most data have been obtained from the trailing edge cells where 45 of 58 impacts have been classified as 'probably natural' and the remainder as 'possibly man-made debris.' This is in striking contrast to leading edge cells where 9 of 11 impacts so far measured are definitely classified as orbital debris. Although all the leading edge cells had lost their plastic entrance foils during flight, the rate of foil failure was similar to that of the trailing edge cells, 10 percent of which were recovered intact. Ultra-violet embrittlement is suspected as the major cause of failure on both leading and trailing edges. The major impediment to the accurate determination of projectile chemistry is the fractionation of volatile and refractory elements in the hypervelocity impact and redeposition processes. This effect had been noticed in simulation experiment but is more pronounced in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) capture cells, probably due to the higher average velocities of the space impacts. Surface contamination of the pure Ge surfaces with a substance rich in Si but also containing Mg and Al provides an additional problem for the accurate determination of impactor chemistry. The effect is variable, being much larger on surfaces that were exposed to space than in those cells that remained intact. Future work will concentrate on the analyses of more leading edge impacts and the development of new SIMS techniques for the measurement of elemental abundances in extended impacts.

1992-01-01

329

Microwelding (or cold-welding) of various metallic materials under the ultra-vacuum LDEF experiment AO 138-10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FRECOPA experimentation, as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission, of mechanical and electrical parts of spacecraft in space ultra-vacuum has demonstrated freedom from any cold welding including microweld effects. This, as theorized, is due to integrity in space of the earthly grown oxygen layer. A further experimentation, a dynamic one this time, could provide a wealth of scientific data, yielding reliable material selecting criteria.

Assie, Jean-Pierre; Conde, Eric

1992-01-01

330

Attitude toward contraception and abortion among Cura?ao women. Ineffective contraception due to limited sexual education?  

PubMed Central

Background In Curaçao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curaçao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curaçao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of connivance. We present data on the relevance of economic and socio-cultural factors for the high abortion-rates and the ineffective use of contraception. Methods Structured interviews to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception and abortion and reasons for ineffective use of contraceptives among women, visiting general practitioners. Results Of 158 women, 146 (92%) participated and 82% reported that their education on sexuality and about contraception was of good quality. However 'knowledge of reliable contraceptive methods' appeared to be - in almost 50% of the cases - false information, misjudgements or erroneous views on the chance of getting pregnant using coitus interruptus and about the reliability and health effects of oral contraceptive pills. Almost half of the interviewed women had incorrect or no knowledge about reliability of condom use and IUD. 42% of the respondents risked by their behavior an unplanned pregnancy. Most respondents considered abortion as an emergency procedure, not as contraception. Almost two third experienced emotional, physical or social problems after the abortion. Conclusions Respondents had a negative attitude toward reliable contraceptives due to socio-cultural determined ideas about health consequences and limited sexual education. Main economic factors were costs of contraceptive methods, because most health insurances in Curaçao do not cover contraceptives. To improve the effective use of reliable contraceptives, more adequate information should be given, targeting the wrong beliefs and false information. The government should encourage health insurance companies to reimburse contraceptives. Furthermore, improvement of counseling during the abortion procedure is important.

2011-01-01

331

In orbit degradation of UV optical components for the wavelength range 10-140 microns. AO 138.3 (FRECOPA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical components (thin film filters and multilayered mirrors) for use in the wavelength range 10-140 micro-m were included in the vacuum tight container FRECOPA in preparation for the SOHO mission. They were exposed during 9 months at the beginning of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight. One batch of components was exposed to the sun, while another one was shielded from solar radiation. The results of the optical transmission measurements of the flight components and of a groundbase reference set, made at the ORSAY Synchotron radiation light source are presented.

Delabouinere, J. P.; Carabetian, C.; Hochedez, J. F.

1992-01-01

332

MMT/AO 5 ?m Imaging Constraints on the Existence of Giant Planets Orbiting Fomalhaut at ~13-40 AU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A candidate lsim3 M Jup extrasolar planet was recently imaged by Kalas et al. using Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and Keck II at 12farcs7 (96 AU) separation from the nearby (d = 7.7 pc) young (~200 Myr) A2V star Fomalhaut. Here, we report results from M-band (4.8 ?m) imaging of Fomalhaut on 2006 December 5 using the Clio IR imager on the 6.5 m MMT with the adaptive secondary mirror. Our images are sensitive to giant planets at orbital radii comparable to the outer solar system (~10-40 AU). Comparing our 5? M-band photometric limits to theoretical evolutionary tracks for substellar objects, our results rule out the existence of planets with masses >2 M Jup from ~13 to 40 AU and objects >13 M Jup from ~8 to 40 AU. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Hinz, Philip M.; Meyer, Michael R.; Heinze, Aren N.; Miller, Douglas L.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Freed, Melanie

2009-06-01

333

Genotypic Identification of Fusarium Species from Ocular Sources: Comparison to Morphologic Classification and Antifungal Sensitivity Testing (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ocular infections caused by fungal organisms can cause significant ocular morbidity, particularly when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Rapid and accurate identification of Fusarium species at the subgenus level using current diagnostic standards is timely and insensitive. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) in detecting and differentiating Fusarium species from isolates of ocular infections, and to assess the correlation between the genotypic and morphologic classification. Methods Fifty-eight isolates from 52 patients diagnosed with Fusarium ocular infections were retrieved from storage at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute’s ocular microbiology laboratory. Morphologic classification was determined at both a general and a reference microbiology laboratory. DNA was extracted and purified, and the ITS region was amplified and sequenced. Following DNA sequences, alignment and phylogenetic analysis were done. Susceptibility to antifungal drugs was measured according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method. Results Sequence analysis demonstrated 15 unique sequences among the 58 isolates. The grouping showed that the 58 isolates were distributed among 4 main species complexes. At the species level, morphologic classification correlated with genotypic classification in 25% and 97% of the isolates in a general microbiology and a reference mycology laboratory, respectively. Conclusions The sequence variation within the ITS provides a sufficient quantitative basis for the development of a molecular diagnostic approach to the Fusarium pathogens isolated from ocular infections. Morphology based on microscopic and macroscopic observations yields inconsistent results, particularly at nonreference laboratories, emphasizing the need for a more reproducible test with less user-dependent variability. Fusarium solani tends to be more resistant to certain antifungals (azoles).

Alfonso, Eduardo C.

2008-01-01

334

Tug of war between AO-hybridization and aromaticity in dictating structures of Li-doped alkali clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybridization of atomic orbitals is a widely appreciated phenomenon in organic chemistry. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization also can dramatically impact the shapes of small all-alkali metal clusters, and oppose ?-aromaticity in defining cluster shapes. The valence-iso-electronic LiNa4- and LiK4- clusters adopt different global minimum structures: LiNa4- is a planar C2v (1A1) species distorted from the perfect pentagon, and LiK4- is a planar square D4h (1A1g) species with Li being in the centre. This effect is rooted in the different degrees of the 2s-2p hybridization in Li in response to binding to Na versus K.

Alexandrova, Anastassia N.

2012-04-01

335

Time Differential Electrical Resistivity for Water Resource Assessment: A Case Study in Cura‡ao, Netherlands Antilles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of groundwater prospecting is presented that capitalizes on changes in electrical resistivity arising from annual variability in subsurface fluid flow. According to Archie's Law, effective resistivity is a function of pore fluid resistivity, saturation, and porosity. For competent Earth materials, short-term temporal changes in near-surface porosity are negligible because changes in effective pressure are small with respect to

D. Coles; Y. Vichabian; J. Sogade; P. Spiertz; F. D. Morgan

2003-01-01

336

A fuzzy neural network model for monitoring A²/O process using on-line monitoring parameters.  

PubMed

An adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model was employed to predict effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD(eff)) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)(+) (eff)) from an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process, and meanwhile a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to identify the model's architecture and optimize fuzzy rules. When constructing the model or predicting, the on-line monitoring parameters, namely hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO) and mixed-liquid return ratio (r), were adopted as the input variables. Compared with the artificial neural network (ANN) model whose weight vector was optimized by a real-code genetic algorithm (GA), the ANFIS presented better estimate performance. When predicting, the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) of 1.8458% and 2.8984% for COD(eff) and NH(4)(+) (eff) could be achieved using ANFIS; the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for COD(eff) and NH(4)(+) (eff) were 1.6317 and 0.1291, respectively; the correlation coefficient (R) values of 0.9928 and 0.9951 for COD(eff) and NH(4)(+) (eff) could also be achieved. The results indicated that reasonable monitoring A(2)/O process performance, just using on-line monitoring parameters, has been achieved through the ANFIS. PMID:22416869

Hu, Kang; Wan, Jin Q; Ma, Yong W; Wang, Yan; Huang, Ming Z

2012-01-01

337

Contribuicao ao estudo dos ditionatos de terras-raras. (Contribution for the studies of rare earth dithionates).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this work is the synthesis and investigation of some properties of rare earth dithionates. The rare earth dithionates were prepared from the respective sulphates, by the reaction of the latter with BaS sub(2) O sub(6) in aqueous solu...

L. C. Schmitz

1988-01-01

338

Microfauna communities as performance indicators for an A/O Shortcut Biological Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The microfauna communities present in the mixed liquor and biofilm of an Anoxic/Oxic Shortcut Biofilm Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm process were characterised in order to optimise process control through the use of bioindicators. The system operated at high ammonium concentrations, with an average of 588 ± 220 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) in the influent, 161 ± 80 mg L(-1) in the anoxic reactor and 74 ± 71.2 mg L(-1) in the aerobic reactor. Up to 20 different taxa were identified, including ciliates (4), flagellates (11), amoebae (4) and nematodes (1). Compared to conventional wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs), this process can be defined as a flagellates-predominant system with a low diversity of ciliates. Flagellates were mainly dominant in the mixed liquor, demonstrating high tolerance to ammonium and the capacity for survival over a long time under anoxic conditions. The data obtained provide interesting values of maximum and minimum tolerance ranges to ammonium, nitrates and nitrites for the ciliate species Cyclidium glaucoma, Colpoda ecaudata, Vorticella microstoma-complex and Epistylis cf. rotans. The last of these was the only ciliate species that presented a constant and abundant population, almost exclusively in the aerobic biofilm. Epistylis cf. rotans dynamics showed a high negative correlation with ammonium variations and a positive correlation with ammonium removal efficiency. Hence, the results indicate that Epistylis cf. rotans is a good bioindicator of the nitrification process in this system. The study of protozoan communities in unexplored WWTPs sheds light on species ecology and their role under conditions that have been little studied in WWTPs, and could offer new biological management tools. PMID:23561502

Canals, O; Salvadó, H; Auset, M; Hernández, C; Malfeito, J J

2013-06-01

339

76 FR 52972 - United States v. Regal Beloit Corp. and A.O. Smith Corp.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...service marks, or service names ``Regal Beloit,'' ``Marathon,'' ``Leeson,'' ``FASCO,'' ``imPower,'' and...trademarks, trade names, service marks, or service names ``Marathon,'' ``Leeson,'' ``FASCO,'' ``imPower,''...

2011-08-24

340

Concept study of a multi-object AO system for the EAGLE instrument on the European ELT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EAGLE is a wide FoV (5 arcmin diameter), multi-objects (at least 20) integral-field spectrograph (R>4000) for the E-ELT. The top level requirements are to concentrate 30 to 40 % of the photons collected by the E-ELT in a focal area of 75x75 mas2 in H band. This leads to the selection of the Multi Object Adaptive Optics in order to deliver such a performance in a so-large FoV. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the error budget for an MOAO system in EAGLE. It is based on numerical simulation results. The budget is splitted in LGS and NGS contributions. The analysis leads to share the specifications between low spatial frequencies and high spatial frequencies in the wave-front errors. Finally a preliminary conceptual design of the MOAO system is deduced including 9 LGS for tomography and a 9000 actuator deformable mirror per channel.

Fusco, T.; Rousset, G.; Assémat, F.; Neichel, B.; Gendron, E.; Myers, R. M.; Morris, T.; Chemla, F.; Robert, C.; Bryson, I.; Cuby, J. G.

2008-07-01

341

Analise do Comportamento de Vigas de Betao Armado Reforcadas a Flexao e ao Esforco Transverso (Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened to Flexural and Shear).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work aims to study the experimental behavior of strengthened beams. To analyze the flexural and the shear strengthening, scaled models of reinforced concrete T beams, simply supported, were tested. The strengthening was realized by adding new reinforc...

R. H. F. de Souza

1990-01-01

342

Les apports de l'experimentation assistee par ordinateur (ExAO) en pedagogie par projet en Sciences de la nature au collegial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of this research were to conceptualize and to produce a test synthesis model for the Sciences program, where the student had to demonstrate his or her competency using the approach Considering New Situations from Acquired Knowledge. The test took the form of a student-structured project utilizing the experimental process: the student's scientific investigation was supported and facilitated by computer-assisted experimentation (CAEx). The model of action was elaborated in developmental research within the school setting, tested in biology, and continued in an interdisciplinary context. Our study focused on the advantages and the constraints of this new learning environment, which modify laboratories using traditional instrumentation. The final research was not to evaluate a type of test synthesis, but to propose and to improve this model of test synthesis based on experimental process and supported by CAEx. In order to implement the competency approach within an integration activity, we chose a cooperative learning environment contained within the pedagogical project. This didactic environment was inspired by socio-constructivism which involves students in open scientific problem-solving. Computer-assisted experimentation turned out to be a valuable tool for this environment, facilitating the implementation of the scientific process by increased induction. Resistance to confronted and uncircumvented reality changes students' perception of scientific knowledge. They learn to integrate the building of this knowledge, and then to realize the extent of their learning and their training. Students' opinions, which were gathered from questionnaires, reveal that they favorably perceive this type of environment in interaction with their peers and the experimentation. While this new knowledge contributes to CAEx within the pedagogical project, the products of this research included a teaching guide for the test synthesis, a booklet featuring the projects carried out by the students with CAEx, and the proposals to renew the didactic approach in the laboratory.

Marcotte, Alice

343

Contribuicao ao estudo de recuperacao e recristalizacao do zircaloy-4 laminado a frio. (Contribution to study on recovery and recrystallization of cold rolling zircaloy-4).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery and recrystallization of work-hardened (40-60% - Cold rolling) Zircaloy-4 were studied between 200 and 600(sup 0) C with times varying from 15 to 240 minutes, from electrical resistance and hardness measurements. Activation energy calculation for...

A. I. C. Persiano

1977-01-01

344

Desequilibrio no Mercado do Credito e Politica Economica: Uma Aplicacao ao Caso Portugues (Disequilibrium in the Bank Credit Market and Policy: An Application to the Portuguese Credit Market).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author considers the standard disequilibrium model of three goods (labor, output and money) and two markets (labor and output) in which he introduces the bank credit market. The aim of the study is the examination and comparison of the effects of diff...

A. L. Silvestre

1989-01-01

345

Digital version of the CrAO archive of spectral observations of the Sun, carried out with the KG-2 coronagraph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of computer technology a topical problem to digitize the astronomical data stored on various media, for their preservation and accessibility for further faster and more accurate processing has arisen. Creation of a digital archive of observational data obtained with the KG-2 coronagraph and stored on photographic films has been started at the Department of the Solar Physics of the Scientific Research Institute ``Crimean Astrophysical Observatory''. We obtained satisfactory results in comparing a part of the spectrum digitized with EPSON Expression 10000XL scanner and with the MF-2 type scanning microphotometer which was used before. This allows the scanner to be used in the future to create the archive. We also developed a special software, which speeds up the processing of scanned data, and tried to minimize and eliminate potential errors.

Fursiak, Yu. A.

2012-11-01

346

The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 1. Transportation Services for the Elderly. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of materials produced by a research project on improvement of transportation services for the elderly. (The materials are a state-of-the-art report, planning handbook, and…

Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

347

Keck LGS AO Imaging of QSOs with Double-Peaked or Offset Narrow Lines: Are They Signs of Potential Black Hole Mergers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical merging of smaller structures into larger ones is fundamental to galaxy evolution in ?CDM cosmologies. The Mbh sigma relation suggests that when galaxies merge, their central supermassive black holes merge and grow as well. Using spectroscopic surveys such as SDSS and DEEP, candidates for galaxies containing two active black holes or an offset black hole have been identified by double-peaked or offset narrow emission lines. However it is not yet known whether these galaxies correspond to systems in which there are actually double supermassive black holes. With the Keck 2 Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the NIRC2 camera, we have obtained high spatial resolution near-infrared images of spectroscopically identified candidate galaxies that may contain two supermassive black holes. In our sample of 24 galaxies to date, approximately half are in close mergers, have close companion galaxies, and/or show clearly disturbed morphologies. We discuss the implications of our observations for the fueling of merging supermassive black holes as well as for the relationship between QSO activity and major mergers. Most of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

McGurk, Rosalie C.; Rosario, D. J.; Max, C. E.; Shields, G. A.; Smith, K. L.

2011-01-01

348

Remote Sensing Applied to Regional Geological Mapping in the Sao Francisco River Area Sensoriamento Remoto Aplicado AO Mapeamento Geologico Regional: Folha Rio Sao Francisco.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A working method that permits the integrated interpretation of various available products of remote sensing was developed for LANDSAT 1 multispectral imagery, Project RADAM's radar (SLAR) mosaics, and the black and white and colored multispectral photogra...

A. R. Dossantos P. R. Meneses U. P. Dossantos

1977-01-01

349

Symmetry Between the Right and Left Eyes of the Normal Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measured with Optical Coherence Tomography (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the limits of the normal amount of interocular symmetry in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained with third-generation time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT3). Methods Both eyes of normal volunteers were scanned using the peripapillary standard and fast RNFL algorithms of OCT3. Results A total of 108 volunteers were included in the analysis. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age of the volunteers was 46.0 ± 15.0 years (range 20–82). Forty-two participants (39%) were male and 66 (61%) were female. Mean RNFL thickness correlated extremely well, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.89 for both algorithms (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.93). The mean RNFL thickness of the right eye measured 1.3 ?m thicker than the left on the standard scan (SD 4.7, 95% CI 0.4–2.2, P = .004) and 1.2 ?m on the fast scan (SD 5.2, 95% CI 0.1–2.2, P = .026). The 95% tolerance limits on the difference between the mean RNFL thicknesses of right minus left eye was ?10.8 and +8.9 ?m with the standard scan algorithm and ?10.6 and +11.7 ?m with the fast scan algorithm. Conclusions Mean RNFL thickness between the 2 eyes of normal individuals should not differ by more than approximately 9 to 12 ?m, depending on which scanning algorithm of OCT3 is used and which eye measures thicker. Differences beyond this level suggest statistically abnormal asymmetry, which may represent early glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

Budenz, Donald L.

2008-01-01

350

Factores predictores de inicio y cesaci?n de tabaquismo en una cohorte de mujeres chilenas con 5,5 a?os de seguimiento  

PubMed Central

Background Chilean women have one of the highest smoking prevalence in the world. Aim To estimate the main factors associated with smoking initiation and quitting among a cohort of adult women living in a low socioeconomic status area of Santiago, Chile. Material and methods A random population-based sample of 1,100 women, 18 years and older, were selected from a community located in the South East area of Santiago. Sociodemographic, as well as smoking, beliefs, behaviors, stages of change and nicotine addiction level were recorded during a personal interview. After an average follow-up period of 5.5 years, women were re-evaluated. Results Seventy-three percent of women completed the study. At baseline, 39% of women were smokers. At the end of the study, there was an absolute smoking rate reduction of 7.1% (p<0.001). The main variables associated with smoking initiation were younger age (Odds ratio (OR): 1.08, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.05–1.12), higher education level (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.07–1.35), and having fewer children (OR: 1.3 95% CI: 1.01–1.66). Factors related with quitting were younger age of onset (OR: 1.06 95% CI: 1.02–1.1), higher level of nicotine dependence (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.74–10.27), and higher perception of smoking addiction (OR: 4.34, 95% CI: 2–9.09). Stage of change was associated with smoking cessation but its effect was diluted after adjusting for the level of nicotine addiction. Conclusions Sociodemographic and family factors were the main variables related with initiation, whereas age of onset, belief of addiction, and nicotine dependence were the main factors related with cessation. Women with a high motivation for quitting should be evaluated for nicotine addiction level to define the best strategy for intervention (Rev Méd Chile 2009; 137: 1001–9).

Puschel, Klaus; Thompson, Beti; Olcay, Fabiola; Frreccio, Catterina

2014-01-01

351

Palmar and dorsal fixed-angle plates in AO C-type fractures of the distal radius: is there an advantage of palmar plates in the long term?  

PubMed Central

Background Current surgical approaches to the distal radius include dorsal and palmar plate fixation. While palmar plates have gained widespread popularity, few reports have provided data on long term clinical outcomes in comparison. This paper reports the result of a randomised clinical study comparing dorsal Pi plates and palmar, angle-stable plates for treatment of comminuted, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius over the course of twelve months. Methods 42 patients with unilateral, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius were included and randomised to 2 groups, 22 were treated with a palmar plate, 20 received a dorsal Pi-plate. Results were evaluated after 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively focussing on functional recovery as well as radiological results. Results The palmar plate group demonstrated significantly better results regarding range of motion and grip strength over the course of 12 months. While a comparable increase in function was observed in both groups, the better results from the early postoperative period in the palmar plate group prevailed over the whole course. Radiological results showed a significantly increased palmar tilt and carpal sag in dorsal plates, with other radiological parameters being comparable. Pain levels were decreased in dorsal plates after hardware removal and failed to show significant differences after 12 months. However, complications such as tendon ruptures were more frequent in the dorsal plate group. Conclusions Functional advantage of palmar plates gained within the first 6 weeks prevails over the course of a year. Both groups demonstrate further gradual increase of function after 6 months, although dorsal plates did not catch up completely. Improved early postoperative function seems to be the cornerstone for the best possible results. Patients with dorsal plates benefit from hardware removal more than palmar plates in terms of reduction of pain levels. The advantage of palmar plates is a faster functional recovery with lower complication rates. This is especially important in the elderly population. Radiological results did not show a superiority of palmar plates over dorsal plates.

2012-01-01

352

Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched mode-locked YVO 4\\/Nd:YVO 4\\/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs saturable absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using both acousto-optic modulator and GaAs saturable absorber, a diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked(QML) YVO4\\/Nd:YVO4\\/KTP green laser is presented. The experimental results show that the doubly QML YVO4\\/Nd:YVO4\\/KTP green laser has good stability and nearly 100% modulation depth. The average output power and the pulse width of the Q-switched envelope have been measured. The mode-locked pulse inside the Q-switched envelope

Yan Zhang; Shengzhi Zhao; Dechun Li; Kejian Yang; Guiqiu Li; Gang Zhang; Kang Cheng

2011-01-01

353

Additional Fixations for Sliding Hip Screws in Treating Unstable Pertrochanteric Femoral Fractures (AO Type 31-A2): Short-Term Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the utility of additional fixation methods and to suggest a method of reduction in the treatment of unstable pertrochanteric femur fractures with a sliding hip screw (SHS). Methods A retrospective study was performed on thirty patients with unstable pertrochanteric femur fractures, who were operated on with a SHS between September 2004 and September 2009 and were followed up for at least 6 months. The additional fixation devices were as follows; antirotation screw (21 cases), fixation of displaced fractures of the posteromedial bone fragment (cerclage wiring, 21 cases and screw, 2 cases) and trochanter stabilizing plate (27 cases). Clinically, the Palmer's mobility score and Jensen's social function group were used. Radiologically, alignment and displacement were observed. The tip-apex distance (TAD) and sliding of the lag screw were measured, and the position of the lag screw within the femoral head was also examined. Results The mean age at the time of surgery was 76 years (range, 56 to 89 years) and the average follow-up period was 25 months (range, 6 to 48 months). At the last follow-up, the average mobility and social function score was 6.2 (± 3.5) and 2.3 (± 1.5). Postoperatively, the alignment and displacement indices were adequate in almost all the cases. The mean amount of lag screw sliding and the mean TAD was 5.1 mm (range, 2 to 16 mm) and 6 mm (range, 3 to 11 mm) respectively. The lag screws were located in the center-center zone in 21 cases. The average period to union was 18.7 weeks without any cases of nonunion or malunion. Mechanical failure was noted in one case with breakage of the lag screw and clinical failure was noted in another case with persistent hip pain related to excessive sliding (16 mm). Conclusions With additional fixations, the unstable pertrochanteric femur fractures could be well stabilized by SHS until bone union.

Lee, Soo Ho; Cho, Hyung Lae; Ku, Jung Hoei; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Alex J

2011-01-01

354

Características de carcaça de bovinos Nelore e Caracu selecionados para peso aos 378 dias de idade recebendo alimentação restrita ou à vontade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this trial was to evaluate carcass traits of 56 bulls from three genetics groups averaging 18 months of age and receiving two feeding levels. Twelve bulls were slaughtered in the beginning of the study and used as reference animals. The remaining 16 genetically improved Nellore, 12 ordinary Nellore, and 16 genetically improved Caracu averaging 404, 345, and

Antonio Gesualdi Júnior; Augusto César de Queiroz; Flávio Dutra de Resende; Guilherme Fernando Alleoni; Alexander George Razook; Leopoldo Andrade de Figueiredo; Ana Cristina Ladeira de Souza Gesualdi; Edenio Detmann

2006-01-01

355

Intravitreous Bevacizumab in the Treatment of Macuar Edema from Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Hemisphere Retinal Vein Occlusion (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare intravitreous bevacizumab to other current treatments of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and hemisphere retinal vein occlusion (HRVO) with consideration to visual outcome, cost, convenience, and risk of treatment. Methods This is a retrospective chart review from a large referral retina practice. The data comprise 56 patients with BRVO and HRVO treated by intravitreous bevacizumab, with and without intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide. Initial visual acuities at the time of first bevacizumab injection, best acuities through the follow-up time, final acuity at last visit before review, initial macular thickness, and final macular thickness were measured. Changes in vision and thickness were calculated, as were the percentage of eyes improving, stabilizing, and worsening. Results The data were compared to composite data derived from several current treatments of BRVO. The subgroup of 39 eyes that received only bevacizumab without triamcinolone acetonide had the most improvement in vision. The median change in visual acuity was 1.5 lines (P = .012) over a mean follow-up of 8.8 months. Twenty-three eyes (59%) improved visually, with 20 eyes (51%) improving 2 or more lines. These results are similar to those for eyes that received argon grid laser and chorioretinal anastomosis, but are worse than in eyes that received arteriovenous adventitial sheathotomy, macular decompression surgery, and intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide. Conclusions Visual benefit from intravitreous bevacizumab compares well against laser treatments for BRVO and HRVO but not as well opposed to surgical techniques and intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide. Intravitreous bevacizumab injection has a risk, cost, and convenience profile that is favorable.

Fish, Gary Edd

2008-01-01

356

Keratoconus and Normal-Tension Glaucoma: A Study of the Possible Association with Abnormal Biomechanical Properties as Measured by Corneal Hysteresis (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that keratoconus and pellucid patients who have glaucoma or are suspected of having glaucoma have lower corneal hysteresis (CH) and/or corneal resistance factor (CRF) measurements compared to controls. Methods: A prospective study at a tertiary eye center of keratoconus and pellucid patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma, and age-matched keratoconus and pellucid controls, was performed. After informed consent was obtained, corneal topography, ocular response analyzer measurements, pachymetry, intraocular pressure, A-scan measurements, Humphrey visual fields (VFs), and disc photos were done. Analyses compared cases to controls on primary (CH and CRF) and secondary variables. Disc photos and VFs were rated in a masked fashion. Results: The mean CH (8.2, SD=1.6, vs 8.3, SD=1.5) and CRF (7.3, SD=2.0, vs 6.9, SD=2.1) were low and did not differ significantly between 20 study patients (29 eyes) and 40 control patients (61 eyes), respectively. CH had a negative, significant correlation with maximum corneal curvature by topography (P < .002) and positive, significant correlation with central corneal thickness (P < .003). The mean cup-disc ratio was larger among cases than controls (0.54, SD=0.20, vs 0.38, SD=0.20; P = .003). VFs were suggestive of glaucoma more often among the study eyes than controls (11 of 29, 37.9%, vs 8 of 60, 13.3%; P =.019). Conclusions: CH was low in study and control patients and was correlated with severity of keratoconus/pellucid, but not with glaucoma/suspected glaucoma or control status. Evidence of glaucoma was more common in study eyes than controls, but was present in both.

Cohen, Elisabeth J.

2009-01-01

357

Failure of femoral head fixation: a cadaveric analysis of lag screw cut-out with the gamma locking nail and AO dynamic hip screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most commonly reported failure mode of sliding hip screws in published literature is cut-out of the lag screw. This study investigates the resistance to failure of the femoral head, with lag screws used in two types of sliding hip screws, the gamma locking nail (Howmedica) and the dynamic hip screw (DHS) (Synthes). The investigation consisted of biomechanical tests under

R. C. Haynes; R. G. Pöll; A. W. Miles; R. B. Weston

1997-01-01

358

Ferredoxin from sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) intensifying harpin pss -mediated hypersensitive response shows an enhanced production of active oxygen species (AOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypersensitive response (HR) is a form of cell death associated with plant resistance to pathogen infection. Harpinpss, an elicitor from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, induces a HR in non-host plants. Previously, we reported an amphipathic protein from sweet pepper interfering with harpinpss-mediated HR. In this report, we isolated and characterized a cDNA clone encoded that amphipathic protein

Badri Venkata Dayakar; Hao-Jan Lin; Cheng-Hsien Chen; Mang-Jye Ger; Bor-Heng Lee; Chia-Hwei Pai; David Chow; Hsiang-En Huang; Shaw-Yhi Hwang; Mei-Chu Chung; Teng-Yung Feng

2003-01-01

359

Contribuicao AO Estudo de Sistemas de Modulacao Codificada Em Codigos Concatenados (Contribution to the Study of Coded Modulation Systems in Concatenated Codes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coded modulation systems applied to concatenated codes are studied. The analyses of some trellis and block coded modulation schemes are shown and simulations are performed to choose the most suitable internal code for the concatenated scheme. The simulati...

M. A. Chamon

1989-01-01

360

Aplicação do Código Florestal Brasileiro em Zonas Urbanas: Análise Espacial de Áreas de Preservação ao Longo de Cursos D'Água  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of the Brazilian Forest Code in urban areas and the use of cartography in the environmental zoning of the municipality. Define the maximum height of flood water and do a space analysis about delimited the permanent preservation areas located along the Capibaribe river, Recife-PE. Palavras-chave: Código florestal brasileiro, zoneamento ambiental, cartografia, brazilian forest code, environmental

Ivan Dornelas; Falcone de Melo; Silvane Karoline da Silva Paixão; Aramis Leite de Lima; Andrea Flávia; Tenório Carneiro

361

Desflorestamento ao longo das estradas AM - 070 (Manaus\\/Iranduba\\/Manacapuru) e AM - 352 (Manacapuru\\/Novo Airão) na Amazônia Central: subsídios para o planejamento  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently roads are the main vector of occupation and deforestation in Amazon. In Manaus region (Amazonas State, Brazil) the AM-070 and AM-352 highways are the most important roads since they connect four cities: Manaus, Iranduba, Manacapuru and Novo Airão. These roads facilitate the flow of the marketing products such as timber and no timber forest products, agricultural products and ceramic

Marcelo Paustein Moreira

362

An experimental study of the failure modes of the Gamma Locking Nail and AO Dynamic Hip Screw under static loading: a cadaveric study.  

PubMed

The sliding compression screw is widely regarded as the optimum treatment for intertrochanteric fractures of the femur, allowing bone fragments to impact until a bony support has been established across the fracture site. This study carried out biomechanical, cadaveric tests to establish the influence of direct static loading situations on the modes of failure of the Gamma Nail compared with the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS). Clinical studies report DHS failures of lag screws cutting-out, bending of the lag screws and cortical screws pulling out causing plate loosening. Gamma Nail failures include lag screw cut-out or fractures of the femoral shaft around the distal locking screws or nail tip. In this study each failure mode has been isolated, to establish the loads to failure under various fracture configurations. The biomechanical results indicated that the intramedullary Gamma Locking Nail can be recommended over a standard DHS in cases of subtrochanteric fracture or conditions of very poor bone quality. PMID:9338885

Haynes, R C; Pöll, R G; Miles, A W; Weston, R B

1997-07-01

363

Previsao de demanda: metodologia aplicada ao caso de consumidores de energia eletrica para irrigacao. (Demand forecasting: methodology used to electric power consumers for irrigation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of load curves on the evaluation of systems behaviour, consumers and in the owners and users brought a new subsidy for the performance of forecast techniques. This paper shows how we can use these forecasting techniques and load curves in ...

R. D. Gangi, J. L. Atmann

1989-01-01

364

Análise de Componentes Principais em Imagens Multitemporais TM\\/Landsat como Subsídio aos Estudos de Vulnerabilidade à Perda de Solo em Ambiente Semi-Árido  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows a methodological approach to evaluate soil losses and environmental vulnerability of the semi-arid regime on the northeast of Brazil. In order to perform this work Landsat\\/TM bands (red and infrared), from distinct hydrological periods were used by PCA (Principal Component Analysis).The results obtained indicate different features of the land use changes, that were categorized on three landscape

Alessandra Rodrigues Gomes; Francisco Dario Maldonado

1998-01-01

365

AVALIAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DE SOJA SUBMETIDO AO PROCESSO DE FRITURA DE ALIMENTOS DIVERSOS Evaluation of soybean oil submitted to the frying process of varied foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of degradation of the soybean oil used in frying processes. The quality of the oil during the frying process was evaluated by means of physical-chemical analyses, such: conjugated dienes (%) and TBA index (mmoles g -1 ), and determination of total polar compounds (%). It was observed that the

Neuza Jorge; Camila Janieri

366

Comparação do desempenho funcional de crianças portadoras de síndrome de Down e crianças com desenvolvimento normal aos 2 e 5 anos de idade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of functional performance among children with Down Syndrome and children with age- Comparison of functional performance among children with Down Syndrome and children with age- Comparison of functional performance among children with Down Syndrome and children with age- Comparison of functional performance among children with Down Syndrome and children with age- appropriate development at 2 and 5 years of

Marisa Cotta Mancini; Priscila Carvalho e Silva; Sabrina Corrêa Gonçalves; Simone de Medeiros Martins

2003-01-01

367

A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Cura?ao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins  

PubMed Central

Abstract Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

2014-01-01

368

The ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station Area in the Framework of the SMOS Cal/Val AO Project no. 3252  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA defined and designed the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the purpose of repeating the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming that all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim was to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the campaign consisted of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR). Together with the ground soil moisture measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements from the Valencia Anchor Station area, kindly provided by other institutions, are currently been used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature to have satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test the retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel is carried out by using a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model (SURFEX, SURFace EXternalisée) from Météo France. Output data, particularly soil moisture, will then be used to simulate the L-band surface emission through the use of the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model. For that purpose, the microwave model uses specific ground information regarding the soil and vegetation properties provided by the validation teams. The aggregation of the brightness temperatures at the SMOS pixel scale is then carried out in an operational way taking into account the SMOS viewing configuration and antenna properties. This paper presents an overview of the ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station area making more emphasis on the development of the ground activities which are significant for the performance of the different validation components and giving an outline of the methodology to be used for the whole SMOS Reference Pixel.

Lopez-Baeza, E.

2009-04-01

369

Treatment of AO Type C Fractures of the Distal Part of the Humerus through the Bryan-Morrey Triceps-Sparing Approach  

PubMed Central

Several alternative approaches have been described to avoid the complications related to the olecranon osteotomy used to treat distal articular humerus fractures. The published experience with the triceps-sparing approach is scant. In this prospective study, a total of 12 patients with an articular humeral fracture were treated using this approach. At a mean followup of 1,7 years, the average range of motion was 112.8° (range from 85° to 135°); the elbow flexion averaged 125.5° (range from 112° to 135°) and the deficit of elbow extension 14.6° (range from 0° to 30°). All the elbows were stable. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) averaged 93.3 (range from 80 to 100). In the present series no failure of the triceps reattachment to the olecranon was found, and all the patients recalled returning to their previous daily life activities without impairment with a satisfactory MEPS. As a conclusion, the triceps-sparing approach can be considered for treating distal articular humerus fractures. We consider that three clinical settings can be more favorable to use this approach: those cases in which a total elbow prosthesis might be needed, cases of ipsilateral diaphyseal fracture, or presence of previous hardware in the olecranon.

Fernandez-Valencia, J. A.; Munoz-Mahamud, E.; Ballesteros, J. R.; Prat, S.

2013-01-01

370

Efeito neuroprotetor da melatonina e N-acetilserotonina na epileptogênese e no controle de crises em animais submetidos ao modelo da pilocarpina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroprotector effect of melatonin and N-acetilserotonin in the epileptogenesis and in the control of seizures in animals submitted to the pilocarpine model Purpose: The aim of this research was to study the effects of treatment with melatonin and N-acetilserotonin in the development of pilocarpina model of epilepsy in adult male rats. Methods: PART I - The animals were divided in

Eliângela de Lima; Francisco Romero Cabral; Esper Abrão Cavalheiro; Maria da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti; Débora Amado

2006-01-01

371

High NH(4)(+)-N concentration wastewater treatment by shortcut nitri?cation-denitri?cation using a system of A/O inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactors.  

PubMed

In this experiment, a rapid mass-transfer inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor (ILFBBR) was employed to treat synthetic high ammonia nitrogen-containing (NH(4)(+)-N) wastewater by shortcut nitri?cation-denitri?cation. The reactor operation was stable after a short start-up period. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were predominant and 65% nitrite (NO(2)(-)-N/NO(x)(-)-N) levels were achieved. During the nitri?cation-denitri?cation period, the removal rates of NH(4)(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) reached 94 and 82%, respectively. From the material balance, it was indicated that 87% of NH(4)(+)-N was removed by shortcut nitrification. The features of ILFBBR and the bene?ts of shortcut nitrification were combined in this experiment, and showed an excellent removal of NH(4)(+)-N from high-concentration NH(4)(+)-N wastewater. PMID:23416601

Hu, X M; Chen, Y W; Liao, Y G; Yan, W F; Zhu, S M; Shen, S B

2013-01-01

372

Achados laboratoriais associados à acitretina e ao metotrexato no tratamento da psoríase: uma coorte histórica Laboratorial findings of acitretine and methotrexate on the psoriasis treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To quantify and evaluate the adverse effects caused by acitretine and me- thotrexate when treating psoriasis. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate an intervention in patients using methotrexate and acitretine to treat psoria- sis. Results: The records of 101 patients were reviewed, with a total of 127 treatments, and the following variables were evaluated: sex, age,

ARTIGOS ORIGINAIS; Gabriela Maldonado

373

Irradiacao de borbulhas visando a obtencao de resistencia ao cancro citrico por inducao de mutacao. (Bud irradiation to obtain resistence to citrus canker through induction of mutation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiosensitivity to gamma rays of the bud of the orange cultivar Pera is determined through irradiation of buds with several doses; the irradiated buds were grafted onto rootstocks of lemon cu. Cravo. The grafting percentage and the development of the...

J. O. M. Menten J. Pompeu P. Dragone J. T. Sobrinho V. A. Prada

1989-01-01

374

Production and characterisation of AoSOX2 from Aspergillus oryzae , a novel flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase with good pH and temperature stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfhydryl oxidases have found application in the improvement of both dairy and baking products due to their ability to oxidise\\u000a thiol groups in small molecules and cysteine residues in proteins. A genome mining study of the available fungal genomes had\\u000a previously been performed by our group in order to identify novel sulfhydryl oxidases suitable for industrial applications\\u000a and a representative

Greta Faccio; Kristiina Kruus; Johanna Buchert; Markku Saloheimo

2011-01-01

375

A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Cura?ao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements—III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31—III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution’s Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP).

Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

2013-01-01

376

5-6-year Variability In Middle East Coral Records: Signature of Large-scale Atmospheric Teleconnections (ao\\/NAO, Pdo, Enso)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle East climate variability as documented in a northern Red Sea coral record is closely related to mid- and high-latitude climatic modes with strong influence on Eurasia (Felis et al., 2000; Rimbu et al., 2001). A 5.7-year oscillation in this 245-year oxygen isotope record from Ras Umm Sidd (~28N) is correlated with instrumental observations of regional sea surface temperature (SST)

T. Felis; J. Pätzold; G. Wefer

2002-01-01

377

The Visual Difficulties of Selected Artists and Limitations of Ophthalmological Care During The 19th and Early 20th Centuries (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Methods Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Results Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Conclusions Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist’s ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist’s ability to depict fine details. Ophthalmological care was limited during the lifetimes of the artists under consideration, by comparison to 21st century standards. When medical or surgical therapy was ineffective, the most important thing a physician could offer these artists was consolation against anxiety and depression.

Ravin, James G.

2008-01-01

378

Contribuicao ao estudo dos mecanismos de reparacao em Staphylococcus epidermidis: caracterizacao de mutantes sensiveis as radiacoes ultravioleta. (Contribution to the safety of repairing mechanisms in Staphylococcus epidermidis: characterization of mutants sensible to ultraviolet radiation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mutants obtained from N - methyl -N' - nitro - N - nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment of the W(sub 5) strain or Staphylococcus epidermidis and selected for their increased UV - sensitivity were characterized according to their capacity to repair DNA damage...

H. C. Rocha Guillobel

1985-01-01

379

Similarities between punching and shear strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) slabs and beams Similaridades entre resistência à punção em lajes-cogumelo e ao cisalhamento em vigas de concreto armado com fibras de aço  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo This paper discusses the influence of steel fiber in both punching strength of flat slabs and shear strength of concrete beams. Similarities in the structural behavior were observed in an experimental analysis of analogous slabs and beams. The analogous slabs and beams had the same height, longitudinal reinforcement ratio and concrete properties. Concrete mixtures were designed to attain different

J. B. DE HANAI; K. M. A. HOLANDA

2008-01-01

380

Projeto Serge: Trabalho de Campo Referente AO Experimento Sir-a No Brasil (Fase 2) (Shuttle Experimental Radar for Geological Exploration (SERGE) Project: Field Work Relating to the Shuttle Experimental Radar A (SIR-A) in Brazil (Phase 2)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ground observations undertaken over the northern position of Minas Gerais State, and part of Distrito Federal from 7 to 12 December 1982, along the Space Shuttle 2 flying orbit 22 of November 1981 are described. Field data related mostly with litholog...

M. G. Balieiro P. R. Martini J. R. Dossantos J. T. Demattos

1984-01-01

381

Artigo Original Capacidade inspiratória, limitação ao exercício, e preditores de gravidade e prognóstico, em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica* Inspiratory capacity, exercise limitation, markers of severity, and prognostic factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To correlate the postbronchodilator (post-BD) inspiratory capacity (IC), % of predicted, with other markers of severity and prognostic factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Eighty stable patients with COPD performed forced vital capacity and slow vital capacity maneuvers, as well as the 6-min walk test, prior to and after receiving albuterol spray (400 µg). Patients were divided

Clarice Guimarães de Freitas; Castro Pereira; Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

2007-01-01

382

Contribuicao ao estudo da fusao a arco sob atmosfera de gas inerte da esponja de zirconio. (Contribution to the study of arc melting in inert gas atmospheres of zirconium sponge).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metallic zirconium is a material of great interest in the nuclear industry due to its low thermal neutron cross section, high strength and corrosion resistance. The latter permits its use in the chemical industry. In this study, a critical bibliographic r...

O. Julio Junior

1990-01-01

383

FIRST LIGHT LBT AO IMAGES OF HR 8799 bcde AT 1.6 AND 3.3 {mu}m: NEW DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN YOUNG PLANETS AND OLD BROWN DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

As the only directly imaged multiple planet system, HR 8799 provides a unique opportunity to study the physical properties of several planets in parallel. In this paper, we image all four of the HR 8799 planets at H band and 3.3 {mu}m with the new Large Binocular Telescope adaptive optics system, PISCES, and LBTI/LMIRCam. Our images offer an unprecedented view of the system, allowing us to obtain H and 3.3 {mu}m photometry of the innermost planet (for the first time) and put strong upper limits on the presence of a hypothetical fifth companion. We find that all four planets are unexpectedly bright at 3.3 {mu}m compared to the equilibrium chemistry models used for field brown dwarfs, which predict that planets should be faint at 3.3 {mu}m due to CH{sub 4} opacity. We attempt to model the planets with thick-cloudy, non-equilibrium chemistry atmospheres but find that removing CH{sub 4} to fit the 3.3 {mu}m photometry increases the predicted L' (3.8 {mu}m) flux enough that it is inconsistent with observations. In an effort to fit the spectral energy distribution of the HR 8799 planets, we construct mixtures of cloudy atmospheres, which are intended to represent planets covered by clouds of varying opacity. In this scenario, regions with low opacity look hot and bright, while regions with high opacity look faint, similar to the patchy cloud structures on Jupiter and L/T transition brown dwarfs. Our mixed-cloud models reproduce all of the available data, but self-consistent models are still necessary to demonstrate their viability.

Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Close, Laird; McCarthy, Don; Kulesa, Craig; Apai, Daniel; Bailey, Vanessa [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Esposito, Simone; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Mannucci, Filippo; Agapito, Guido; Argomedo, Javier; Briguglio, Runa [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astronomy, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Skrutskie, Michael [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Desidera, Silvano; Mesa, Dino [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Boutsia, Konstantina [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

2012-07-01

384

Geoprocessamento aplicado ao mapeamento dos impactos socioambientais decorrentes das formas de uso da terra nas Áreas de Preservação Permanente (APPs) da Represa de Salto Grande no município de Americana (SP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dam of Salto Grande, occupying an area of 10.5 km2, is located in the hydrographical basin of the Atibaia River, important tributary of the Piracicaba River, in the State of São Paulo. It takes care of, in the present time, to the inhabitants of the cities of Americana, Paulínia and Nova Odessa, that also use the source for activities

Joyce Rodrigues da Cruz

385

Uniaxial Compression Experiments on PZT 95/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, 'Maximum Compressive Stress' Criterion for Onset of the F(R1)()A(O) Polymorphic Phase Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some time ago the authors presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F(sub R1) A(sub O) polymorphic phase transformation in unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydrostatic pressure at which th...

L. W. Carlson J. M. Grazier D. J. Holcomb S. T. Montgomery D. H. Zeuch

1999-01-01

386

Uniaxial Compression Experiments on PZT 95\\/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, ''Maximum Compressive Stress'' Criterion for Onset of the F(R1)()A(O) Polymorphic Phase Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some time ago we presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F{sub R1} â A{sub O} polymorphic phase transformation in unpoled PZT 95\\/5-2Nb ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation otherwise took place. More recently, we showed that this simple stress criterion did not apply to nonhydrostatically compressed, poled ceramic. However, unpoled

L. W. Carlson; J. M. Grazier; D. J. Holcomb; S. T. Montgomery; D. H. Zeuch

1999-01-01

387

Uniaxial Compression Experiments on PZT 95/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, ''Maximum Compressive Stress'' Criterion for Onset of the F(R1)()A(O) Polymorphic Phase Transformation  

SciTech Connect

Some time ago we presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F{sub R1} {r_arrow} A{sub O} polymorphic phase transformation in unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation otherwise took place. More recently, we showed that this simple stress criterion did not apply to nonhydrostatically compressed, poled ceramic. However, unpoled ceramic is isotropic, whereas poled ceramic has a preferred crystallographic orientation and is mechanically anisotropic. If we further assume that the transformation depends not only on the magnitude of the compressive stress, but also its orientation relative to some feature(s) of PZT 95/5-2Nb's crystallography, then these disparate results can be qualitatively resolved. In this report, we first summarize the existing results for unpoled and poled ceramic. Using our orientation-dependent hypothesis and these results, we derive simple arithmetic expressions that accurately describe our previously-observed effects of nonhydrostatic stress on the transformation of unpoled ceramic. We then go on to test new predictions based on the orientation-dependent model. It has long been known that the transformation can be triggered in uniaxial compression: the model specifically requires a steadily increasing axial stress to drive the transformation of a randomly-oriented polycrystal to completion. We show that when the stress is held constant during uniaxial compression experiments, the transformation stops, supporting our hypothesis. We close with a discussion of implications of our model, and ways to test it using poled ceramic.

Carlson, L.W.; Grazier, J.M.; Holcomb, D.J.; Montgomery, S.T.; Zeuch, D.H.

1999-01-01

388

Toward the overthrow of half of a major paradigm for interfacial structure deduction, with special attention to the massive transformation in Ti46.5 A\\/O Al alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In parallel with the successful development of the theory of dislocations within a given phase, the theory and also the experimental knowledge of interphase boundaries made partially coherent by the presence of misfit dislocations and\\/or other linear misfit compensating defects have greatly advanced. The central idea to be offered on the connections, or lack thereof, among orientation relationship (OR), habit

J. F. Nie; B. C. Muddle; T. Furuhara; H. I. Aaronson

1998-01-01

389

V Congresso Brasileiro de Agroinformática, SBI-AGRO Londrina, 28 a 30 de setembro de 2005 SISTEMA DE APOIO À DECISÃO AO PLANEJAMENTO DAS TÉCNICAS DE PERCURSO NO PROCESSO DE SEMEADURA E PULVERIZAÇÃO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of trajectories combination accomplished by the machines in the crop fields, aiming to the economy of costs, is valuable in a rational mechanization program. Analyzinh this context, the present work has the purpose of being a support tool to decision in the planning of agricultural operations. The programming language Borland Delphi? 7.0 and the database Interbase were used

RODRIGO YUITI INOUE; LUCIANA VILAS BOAS WIECHETECK; ALAINE MARGARETE GUIMARÃES; ALTAIR JUSTINO

390

The Influence of the Atmospheric Ozone Layer on the Formation of Layer D of the Ionosphere at Sunrise a Influencia DA Camada Atmosferica de Ozonio NA Formacao DA Camada D DA Ionosfera AO Amanhecer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase data of 13,6 Khz VLF signal, transmitted from Golfo Nuevo, Argentina (43 S, 65 W), and recorded in Atibaia, SP (23 S, 46 W), together with atmospheric ozone measurements from Dobson spectrophotometers located in Cachoeira Paulista, SP (22 S, 45 W) a...

R. A. Medrano L. R. Piazza M. A. Abdu

1982-01-01

391

Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA Barcoding and Morphology Unite an Enigmatic Fish Larva from the Florida Straits with a New Species of Sea Bass from Deep Reefs off Cura?ao  

PubMed Central

Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species. Here we combine data from DNA barcoding, comparative morphology, and analysis of color patterns to identify an unusual fish larva from the Florida Straits and demonstrate that it is the pelagic larval phase of a previously undescribed species of Liopropoma sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. The larva is unique among larvae of the teleost family Serranidae, Tribe Liopropomini, in having seven elongate dorsal-fin spines. Adults of the new species are similar to the golden bass, Liopropoma aberrans, with which they have been confused, but they are distinct genetically and morphologically. The new species differs from all other western Atlantic liopropomins in having IX, 11 dorsal-fin rays and in having a unique color pattern–most notably the predominance of yellow pigment on the dorsal portion of the trunk, a pale to white body ventrally, and yellow spots scattered across both the dorsal and ventral portions of the trunk. Exploration of deep reefs to 300 m using a manned submersible off Curaçao is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species, improving our genetic databases, and greatly enhancing our understanding of deep-reef fish diversity in the southern Caribbean. Oh the mother and child reunion is only a moment away. Paul Simon.

Baldwin, Carole C.; Johnson, G. David

2014-01-01

392

Contribuicao ao estudo da marcacao de eritrocitos com cromo-51 e tecnecio-99m. (Contribution to the study of the red blood cells labelled with chromium-51 and technetium-99 m).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the bindings of Cr-51 and Tc-99 m were both in the (beta) chain of hemoglobin molecule, the results obtained after previous incubations of the RBC with chromium and technetium, and the determinations of the efficiency of the labeling of RBC showe...

M. S. Canine

1983-01-01

393

FERUS: Um Ambiente de Desenvolvimento de Especica c~ oes CASL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo apresenta FERUS (Apoio Formal a Especic a c~ ao e Re-Utiliza c~ ao de Software), um am- biente desenvolvido no Departamento de Inform atica e Matem atica Aplicada da UFRN em parceria com o LORIA (Fran ca), que permite a cria c~ ao, manipula c~ ao e prototipa c~ ao de especic a c~ oes na linguagem CASL.

Gleydson Lima; Anamaria Martins; David Pereira; Demostenes Sen; Jorgiano Vidal

394

Characteristics and purification of an oxygen insensitive azoreductase from Caulobacter subvibrioides strain C7-D  

Microsoft Academic Search

  An azo dye-degrading bacterium, Caulobacter subvibrioides strain C7-D, semi-constitutively produces an azoreductase that reduced the azo bond of the dyes Acid Orange (AO) 6, AO7,\\u000a AO8, AO12, Acid Red (AR) 88, AR151, and Methyl Red (MR). This activity was oxygen insensitive. Of the dyes tested, AO7 was\\u000a the best inducer and the most rapidly reduced substrate suggesting that dye AO7

R Mazumder; J R Logan; A T Mikell Jr; S W Hooper

1999-01-01

395

o sup 14C como tracador do fluxo do carbono assimilado pelas plantas (milho, cana-de-acucar, feijao) e sua liberacao ao solo. ((14)C as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean) and it liberation to the soil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flow of carbon in three different crops, maize, beans and sugar cane was studied by use of (sup 14)V. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the iso...

B. J. F. Paula Eduardo

1987-01-01

396

Avaliacao de Dados Do MSS-LANDSAT-4 Para O Mapeamento Geomorfologico No Semi-Arido COMO Suporte AO Planejamento Regional: Uma Abordagem Integrada (Area-Teste Regiao de Juazeiro-BA) (Evaluation of LANDSAT 4 MSS Data for Geomorphological Mapping in the Semiarid Environment for Regional Planning Purposes: An Integrated Approach (Study Site, the Juazeiro Region)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of LANDSAT-MSS data is evaluated for geomorphological mapping at 1:100 scale in a semiarid environment for regional planning purposes. An integrated mapping approach was used. The study site is located in northern Bahia State and covers ne...

T. Gallottiflorenzano

1986-01-01

397

RESPOST A DE CUL TIVARES DE TRIGO AO NITROGÊNIO EM RELAÇÃO ÀS FONTES E ÉPOCAS DE APLICAÇÃO SOB PLANTIO DIRET O E IRRIGAÇÃO POR ASPERSÃO Response of wheat cultivars to nitrogen related to sources and application time under irrigation in no-tillage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen fertilization is very important to wheat crop, since nitrogen constitutes one of the most demanded nutrients by this crop, which yield is directly related to the amount of nutrients accumulated in the plant. Three nitrogen sources were tested at 70 kg N ha -1 : ammonium sulfonitrate with nitrification inhibitor, ammonium sulfate, and urea in two applications (at sowing

Márcio Mahmoud Megda; Salatiér Buzetti; Marcelo Andreotti; Marcelo Minhoto; Carvalho Teixeira; Michele Xavier Vieira

398

Relation Between Ocean Temperature and Ocean Level Change in the Tropical Atlantic and Precipitation in the Amazon Region of Northeast Brazil Relacoes Entre Temperatura DA Agua Do Mar E Divergencia AO Nivel Do Mar No Atlantico Tropical E Precipitacao NAS Regioes Amazonica E Nordeste Do Brasil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The precipitation series for the rainy season over northeastern Brazil (Fortaleza and Quixeramobim) and the Amazon Region (manaus, Belem, Taperinha, Conceicao do Araguaia and Alto Tapajos) and a 48 station average of normalized departure of annual precipi...

M. T. Kagano

1982-01-01

399

VIVÊNCIA DOS TRABALHADORES DE ENFERMAGEM FRENTE AO USO DOS ANTIRETROVIRAIS APÓS EXPOSIÇÃO OCUPACIONAL A MATERIAL BIOLÓGICO 1 LIVING EXPERIENCE OF NURSING WORKERS FACED WITH THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRALS AFTER OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL LA VIVENCIA DE LOS TRABAJADORES DE LA ENFERMERÍA ANTE EL USO DE LOS ANTIRETROVIRAIS DESPUES DE LA EXPOSICIÓN OCUPACIONAL AL MATERIAL BIOLÓGICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on the Health Belief Model, using a quanti-qualitative approach by means of percentage calculations as quantitative data, while presenting qualitative data through content analysis. This study aims to analyze significant beliefs among nursing workers who were victims of occupational accidents while exposed to biological material, either adhering to chemoprophylactic treatment or not with antiretroviral medication. This

Giselle Clemente Sailer; Maria Helena P. Marziale

2007-01-01

400

OCORRÊNCIA DO LEITE INSTÁVEL AO ÁLCOOL 76% E NÃO ÁCIDO (LINA) E EFEITO SOBRE OS ASPECTOS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS DO LEITE OCCURRENCE OF UNSTABLE TO ALCOHOL 76% AND NON-ACID MILK (LINA) AND INFLUENCE ON PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF MILK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unstable to alcohol 76% Non-Acid Milk (LINA) is characterized by loss of protein stability, which precipitates in alcohol 76% test without being acid (< 18 °D). This situation is characterized by alterations in the physic-chemical properties of the milk with changes of nutritional quality. Results of this test will determine milk acceptance at dairy industry and milk producer may

Lúcia Treptow Marques; Maira Balbinotti Zanela; Maria Edi Ribeiro Ribeiro; Vivian Fischer

401

Person-Centered Challenges to Traditional Psychological Healthcare Systems \\/ Personzentrierte Herausforderungen an die traditionellen Systeme der psychischen Gesundheitsversorgung \\/ Desafíos centrados en la persona a los sistemas de salud tradicionales psicológicos \\/ Défis centrés-sur-la-personne aux systèmes traditionnels de Soins Psychologiques \\/ Os desafios da abordagem centrada na pessoa aos sistemas de saúde tradicionais de psicologia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensions between traditional psychological healthcare and person-centered and experiential psychotherapies are reviewed. The following challenges to traditional medical-model dominated systems are proposed: (i) acknowledge and act on the understanding that the struggle for mental health and fulfillment involves addressing and changing the environment; (ii) understand that human beings grow in response to the environment and that growth is the

Pete Sanders

2009-01-01

402

Contribuicao ao estudo da migracao de uranio e de alguns elementos traco em solucao na mina de uranio de Pocos de Caldas. (Contribution to the study of uranium migration and some trace elements in solution from Pocos de Caldas uranium mining).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was studied the chemical composition of ground water from four boreholes as a contribution to the hydrogeochemical studies in the Pocos de Caldas uranium mining. Methods for water analyses were selected and optimized in order to determine the main anio...

R. Zenaro

1989-01-01

403

The influence of cement type and admixture on life span of reinforced concrete utility poles subjected to the high salinity environment of Northeastern Brazil, studied by corrosion potential testing (A influência do tipo de cimento e adição na vida útil de postes de concreto armado submetidos ao ambiente de alta salinidade do Nordeste do Brasil, estudada pela técnica de potencial de corrosão)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced concrete structures installed in coastal zones have constantly been threatened by environmental damaging elements. The chloride ion is known as one of the most aggressive of these elements, causing, among other damages, corrosion of the steel reinforcement and then degradation of the concrete matrix. The goal of this work was to determine the influence of cement type on the

A. Joukoski; K. F. Portella; O. Baron; C. M. Garcia; G. R. Vergés; A. Sales; J. F. de Paula

404

Avaliacao do metodo da diluicao isotopica com adicao de fertilizante (sup 15) N ao solo, na quantificacao da FBN de leguminosas. (Evaluation of the isotopic dilution method with addition of (sup 15) N fertilizer to the soil, for quantification of BNF by legumes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two pot experiments were carried out in greenhouse, with the objective of evaluating the isotopic dilution method with the addition of (sup 15) N fertilizer to the soil for evaluation of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by legumes. Experiment I: with ad...

E. R. B. Morales

1990-01-01

405

El oeste de Europa y la Peninsula Iberica desde hace 120.000 aos hasta el presente: isostasic glaciar, paleogeografias y paleotemperatures. (West Europe and Iberian Peninsula from 120.000 years ago to the present: glacial isostacy, paleogeography and paleotemperatures).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this paper is to describe the Occidental Europe and Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial cycle. This project has been done within the software Geoprospect, developed by BRGM.

M. Garcin

1994-01-01

406

ACCESS TO PRENATAL CARE AND CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION ACTION AMONG WOMEN FROM BRAZILIAN LANDLESS WORKERS MOVEMENT ACESSO DAS MULHERES DO MOVIMENTO SEM TERRA AOS CUIDADOS DO PRÉ-NATAL E DA PREVENÇÃO DE CÂNCER DE COLO UTERINO ACCESO AL CUIDADO PRENATAL Y PREVENCIÓN DEL CÁNCER CERVICAL DE LAS MUJERES QUE PERTENECEN AL MOVIMIENTO SIN TERRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a qualitative research that aimed to investigate Brazilian Landless Workers Movement women's access to pre-natal care and cervical cancer prevention. Interviews were done in 2005 with five women in the city of Cajamar, Brazil. The thematic analysis of content made it possible to evidence that access barriers such as territorial delimitation and geographical distance let women use false

Sayuri Tanaka Maeda; Ana Luiza; Vilela Borges; Eunice Nakamura; Daniela Miyahiro; Lucila Fernandes Silva

2007-01-01

407

Desenvolvimento e Teste de um Sistema de Fiscali Zacao das Operacoes de Credito Agricola AO Nivel de Municipio E de Propriedades Agricolas Utilizando Tecnicas de Sensoriamento Remoto (Development and Testing of a Rural Credit Supervision System at the Level of Counties and Rural Properties Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniqes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic...

G. T. Batista A. M. Delima A. T. Tardin B. F. T. Rudorff F. J. Mendonca

1984-01-01

408

Beyond alternative officing: Infrastructure on-demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last ten years interest in and implementation of different forms of alternative officing (AO) have increased dramatically. AO has, in fact, become simply another tool in the real estate and FM space planning and design toolkit. This paper briefly describes different types of AO, and then suggests that AO, which has primarily responded to corporate drives to reduce

Franklin Becker

1999-01-01

409

Interactions of the DNA intercalator acridine orange, with itself, with caffeine, and with double stranded DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine (CAF) inhibits the intercalation of acridine orange (AO) into cellular DNA. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to determine the molecular interactions of AO with itself, with CAF, and with double stranded herring sperm DNA (dsDNA). AO dimerization was observed at concentrations >2 ?mol. The sharp increase in fluorescence (?em=530 nm) at 5 ?mol of AO was attributed

Mark B. Lyles; Ivan L. Cameron

2002-01-01

410

SPARTA: the ESO standard platform for adaptive optics real time applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESO is starting a number of new projects collectively called Second Generation VLT instrumentation. Several of them will use Adaptive Optics (AO). In comparison with today's ESO AO systems, the 2nd Generation VLT AO systems will be much bigger (in terms of degrees of freedom) and faster (in terms of loop frequency). Consequently the Real-Time Computer controlling these AO systems

Enrico Fedrigo; Robert Donaldson; Christian Soenke; Richard Myers; Stephen Goodsell; Deli Geng; Chris Saunter; Nigel Dipper

2006-01-01

411

Current Evidence on Atypical Odontalgia: Diagnosis and Clinical Management  

PubMed Central

Patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) complain of medically unexplained toothache. No evidence-based diagnostic criteria or treatment guidelines are yet available. The present paper addresses seven clinical questions about AO based on current knowledge in the literature and discusses diagnostic criteria and guidelines for treatment and management. The questions are (i) What is the prevalence of AO in the community? (ii) What psychological problems are experienced by patients with AO? (iii) Are there any comorbidities of AO? (iv) Is local anesthesia effective for the relief of pain in AO? (v) Are there any characteristic symptoms of AO other than spontaneous pain? (vi) Are antidepressants effective for treatment of AO? (vii) Are anticonvulsants effective for treatment of AO? Our literature search provided answers for these questions; however, there is insufficient evidence-based data to establish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AO. Overall, some diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pain and persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder may be applied to AO patients. The patient's psychogenic background should always be considered in the treatment and/or management of AO. The clinicians may need to treat AO patients using Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters approach.

Abiko, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Toyofuku, Akira

2012-01-01

412

The Function of Ascorbate Oxidase in Tobacco1  

PubMed Central

The function of the apoplastic enzyme ascorbate oxidase (AO) was investigated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The abundance of AO mRNA was up-regulated by light. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX1) transcripts were also highest in the light. In contrast, l-galactono-?-lactone dehydrogenase, stromal APX, and thylakoid APX transcripts remained constant over the day/night cycle. Salicylic acid inhibited growth, increased expression of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) 1a, and decreased AO transcript abundance. In contrast, the application of auxin enhanced growth and increased AO and PR 1a gene expression. Therefore, AO transcript abundance varied in a manner similar to hormone-mediated changes in plant growth. To study the effects of modified AO expression on growth, transformed tobacco plants expressing AO in the sense and antisense orientations were generated. The resultant large changes in apoplastic AO activity in the transformed tobacco plants had little effect on whole leaf ascorbate (AA) content, but they had dramatic effects on apoplastic AA levels. Enhanced AO activity oxidized the apoplastic AA pool, whereas decreased AO activity increased the amount of AA compared with dehydroascorbate. A relationship was observed between AO activity and plant height and biomass. Native AO transcript levels were no longer subject to light/dark regulation in AO sense and antisense plants. Taken together, these data show that there is an interaction between hormone, redox, and light signals at the level of the apoplast via modulation of ion of AA content.

Pignocchi, Cristina; Fletcher, John M.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Barnes, Jeremy D.; Foyer, Christine H.

2003-01-01

414

Optimization Considerations for Adaptive Optics Digital Imagery Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation had three objectives. The first objective was to develop image quality metrics that characterize Adaptive Optics System (AOS) performance. The second objective was to delineate control settings that maximize AOS performance. The third ob...

R. T. Brigantic

1997-01-01

415

Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use  

SciTech Connect

We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J

2008-02-04

416

Direct imaging of Beta Pictoris b with first-light Magellan Adaptive Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MagAO is the newly-commissioned adaptive optics (AO) instrument on the Magellan Clay telescope at Las Companas Observatory, Chile. MagAO has two co-mounted science cameras: VisAO for visible-light direct and spectral-differential imaging; and Clio for near to thermal IR direct imaging, non-redundant-mask interference, and prism spectroscopy. We demonstrate MagAO's simultaneous visible and infrared AO performance via direct images of exoplanet Beta Pictoris b. The planet was detected in 5 passbands from 0.9-5?m. Here we show the infrared images; the visible observations are presented in Males et al. 2013. MagAO is the first AO system to offer good performance with extensive coverage across the O/IR spectrum and thus offers an unprecedented opportunity to study the spectral energy distributions of directly-imaged extrasolar planetary atmospheres.

Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Hinz, Phil M.; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Follette, Kate; Kopon, Derek; Gasho, Victor; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Skemer, Andy; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier; Busoni, Lorenzo; Rodigas, T. J.; Wu, Ya-Lin

2014-01-01

417

eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: Overview and Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As adaptive optics (AO) matures, it becomes possible to envision AO systems oriented towards specific important scientific goals rather than general-purpose systems. One such goal for the next decade is the direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. ...

B. A. Macintosh B. Bauman J. W. Evans J. Graham C. Lockwood

2004-01-01

418

Environmental and Human Safety of Major Surfactants. Volume 1. Anionic Surfactants. Part 4. Alpha Olefin Sulfonates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alpha olefin sulfonates (AOS) have been available since the 1930s. AOS are reportedly efficient, readily biodegradable cleaning agents. They offer detergency and foam properties comparable to those of lauric acid sulfonates (LAS) and possibly possess a sl...

1993-01-01

419

Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We present an aberration cancelling optical design for a reflective adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) retinal imaging system. The optical performance of this instrument is compared to our previous multimodal AO-OCT/AO-SLO retinal imaging system. The feasibility of new instrumentation for improved visualization of microscopic retinal structures is discussed. Examples of images ac