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Sample records for tongue mucosa treated

  1. Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation: incidence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Piquero, K; Ando, T; Sakurai, K

    1999-05-01

    Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation have been considered as one of the visible and reliable signs of bruxism. However, there have not been any reports justifying this relationship scientifically. Moreover, there have not been any studies reporting specific procedures to assess them. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical incidence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and assess the possible relationship between certain factors that can influence their occurrence. A total of 244 (178 males and 66 females) dentulous adults from 20 to 59 years of age, who were employees at the Bank of Yokohama, were randomly selected. At first, the buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation were classified into three groups based in their intensity: none, mild, and severe. The incidence of both conditions in the different age groups, as well as the incidence by gender was evaluated. Furthermore, the possible relationships between buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and age, gender, clenching awareness, grinding awareness, headache, neck stiffness, vertical dimension, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain to palpation, masticatory muscle tenderness to palpation, and the presence of premature contacts were evaluated using the chi-square test. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and gender (p < 0.01); both conditions were observed more frequently in females than in males. A positive relationship was also found to age; the group between 20-29 years old showed the highest incidence. The vertical dimension had a positive relationship with the occurrence of both buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation. Other factors evaluated did not show any correlation. PMID:10825817

  2. Membrane potentials recorded from the mucosa of the toad's tongue during chemical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Eyzaguirre, C.; Fidone, S.; Zapata, P.

    1972-01-01

    An isolated stretch of tongue mucosa was obtained from the Chilean toad (Callyptocephalella gayi). The preparation was observed under transmitted illumination through a binocular microscope. The surface cells were impaled with micro-electrodes and different chemical agents were applied to the area. The following results were obtained. 1. The surface cells had resting potentials of -6 to -40 mV (mean of -176 mV) with the preparation bathed in Ringer solution. 2. The cells underwent depolarization by application of different salts (NaCl, NaF, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2) in concentrations of 025-10 M. The potentials evoked by the salt solutions often overshot the zero membrane potential level by several millivolts. The positive-going potential change produced by application of salts was increased during hyperpolarization of the membrane by inward current and was decreased by current of the opposite sign. Application of salts during depolarization of the membrane to a certain positive level produced a negative-going potential change. The potentials evoked by different salts were about the same, qualitatively, when recordings were made from different areas of the tongue, i.e. top of the fungiform and filiform papillae, doughnut-shaped folds at the base of the fungiform papillae, areas between papillae and from the side of the tongue totally devoid of papillary structures. 3. Quinine applied in concentrations of 2 10-2 M did not change the resting polarization of the surface epithelial cells. However, quinine applied to cells already depolarized by outward currents induced further depolarization. When it was delivered to cells hyperpolarized by inward current the substance induced further hyperpolarization. 4. Sucrose (05-10 M) did not change the membrane potential of lingual cells regardless of the level of cell polarization induced by injected currents. 5. Hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric and acetic acids produced minimal biphasic effects: a brief hyperpolarization followed by a slower secondary depolarization. 6. Water increased the membrane potential of the surface cells. Salts applied at the peak of the water-evoked hyperpolarization induced cell depolarization which was much larger than that evoked during application of salts to cells bathed in Ringer solution. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5016359

  3. Morphogenesis of the tongue mucosa in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica) during the late embryonic stages.

    PubMed

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Kontecka, Helena

    2014-09-01

    The tongue in domestic duck, as in other Anseriformes, is characterized by wide variety of shape and mechanical papillae and they fulfill different function during food collection. The present work aims to describe morphological features of the tongue as well as the pace formation of the mechanical papillae during embryonic period. The results may allow to answer whether the tongue in duck is ready to fulfill feeding function after hatching. The study revealed that the particular part of the tongue and the conical papillae of the body develop between 10th and 16th day of incubation, from the caudal part of the body into the rostral part of the tongue. The conical papillae of the lingual prominence in the first row are formed from 11th to 16th day and in the second row at the turn of the 15th and 16th day of incubation. These papillae developed symmetrically from the median part of the lingual prominence, to its edges. The lingual comb, which is used during transport of the food particles, is formed between 16th and 19th day. The present study indicated the morphological changes of the particular part of the tongue and the mechanical papillae were varied between the developmental stages. The morphology of the tongue in the domestic duck is fully developed before hatching and ready to collect food by pecking and grazing. However, filter-feeding mechanism is not still obvious. PMID:24909127

  4. Mouse papillomavirus MmuPV1 infects oral mucosa and preferentially targets the base of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Cladel, Nancy M; Budgeon, Lynn R; Balogh, Karla K; Cooper, Timothy K; Hu, Jiafen; Christensen, Neil D

    2016-01-15

    In 2010, a new mouse papillomavirus, MmuPV1, was discovered in a colony of NMRI- Foxn1(nu)/Foxn1(nu) athymic mice in India. This finding was significant because it was the first papillomavirus to be found in a laboratory mouse. In this paper we report successful infections of both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostral tongues of outbred athymic nude mice. We also report the observation that the base of the tongue, the area of the tongue often targeted by cancer-associated high-risk papillomavirus infections in humans, is especially susceptible to infection. A suitable animal model for the study of oral papillomavirus infections, co-infections, and cancers has long been sought. The work presented here suggests that such a model is now at hand. PMID:26609937

  5. Tongue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Swelling Tongue Discoloration Tongue Discomfort Tongue "Hairiness" Tongue Injury Tongue Sores and Bumps Also of Interest Test your knowledge Pulpitis is inflammation of the tooth pulp (the living center of a tooth). It ...

  6. Clinical inquiries. When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn?

    PubMed

    Cho, Anthony; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Consider treatment when the infant is having difficulty breastfeeding. Infants with mild to moderate tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, are likely to breastfeed successfully and usually require no treatment (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, a prospective controlled trial and a case-control study). However, mothers of infants with any degree of tongue-tie who have difficulty with breastfeeding despite lactation support report immediate improvement after frenotomy is performed on the baby. Complications from the procedure are minimal (SOR: B, a small randomized controlled trial [ RCT] and multiple uncontrolled cohort studies and case series). PMID:21135930

  7. Fissured Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... to remove any food debris from the fissures. Cleansing of the tongue helps prevent irritation and possible ... patients by making recommendations concerning devices for tongue cleansing. Q: Who can get fissured tongue? A: Anyone ...

  8. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4±8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5±5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. PMID:26921015

  9. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

    2009-02-01

    The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III. PMID:19143682

  10. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Tobinai, Kensei; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  11. Your Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... taste buds , so you can taste everything from apples to zucchini! People are born with about 10, ... onion slice under your nose while eating an apple. What do you taste? Your tongue also gets ...

  12. A Prospective Study on Radiological and Functional Outcome of Displaced Tongue Type Intra-Articular Calcaneal Fractures Treated by Percutaneous Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Anoop; Mathias, Lawrence John; Shetty, Vikram; Shetty, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calcaneal fractures have posed a challenge to orthopaedic surgeon for many years. The major problem is to reconstruct the fracture and improve healing of the fracture and also the surrounding tissues. Anatomic restoration of the three-dimensional anatomy of the calcaneum is the goal of surgical management of calcaneal fractures. Over the years, various techniques have been developed to accomplish this goal. Aim To determine the functional outcome in displaced tongue-type calcaneal fracture treated by percutaneous screw fixation. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted from October 2012 and September 2014. A total of 23 patients with intra-articular ‘tongue type’ calcaneal fractures were included in the study. Complete clinical and radiological evaluation was done. The surgical procedure encompassed closed reduction and fixation with two criss-cross 6.5 mm cannulated cancellous across the fracture site under fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperatively, on day three ankle and toe mobilization was begun. Non-weight bearing crutch mobilization was begun on postoperative day three. Reviews were done at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks postoperatively. At 6 weeks partial weight bearing mobilization was started. Full weight bearing was begun at 12 weeks. The patient was finally reviewed at 24 weeks and assessment of ankle function was done as per the Maryland foot scoring system. Radiographs were compared and preoperative and postoperative Gissane’s and Bohler’s angles were also compared. The results were analysed as per descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage). The complications noted were documented. Results Of the 23 patients under the study, three had excellent results with mean score of 90, 17 had good results with mean score of 82.94 and three had fair results with mean score of 74. Only one patient had subtalar arthritis as a complication. No other complications were seen. Conclusion Percutaneous screw fixation of tongue type calcaneal fractures is a very effective surgical technique. PMID:27042539

  13. Neck-Tongue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nancy; Dougherty, Carrie

    2016-03-01

    Neck-tongue syndrome (NTS) is a headache disorder often initiated by rapid axial rotation of the neck resulting in unilateral neck and/or occipital pain and transient ipsilateral tongue sensory disturbance. In this review, we examine reported cases of NTS since its initial description in 1980 to highlight the significance of this condition in the differential diagnosis of headache in patients presenting with neck pain and altered tongue sensation. The anatomical basis of NTS centers on the C1-C2 facet joint, C2 ventral ramus, and inferior oblique muscle in the atlanto-axial space. NTS may be categorized as complicated (secondary to another disease process) or uncomplicated (hereditary, related to trauma, or idiopathic). Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion after a thorough history and physical without a pathognomonic radiologic finding. It is typically treated conservatively with medications, local injections, immobilization with cervical collars, or physical therapy; rarely is surgical intervention pursued. PMID:26984539

  14. Wif1 and Ifitm3 gene expression preferentially altered in the colon mucosa of benzo[a]pyrene pre-treated mice following exposure to dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Naoki; Hakura, Atsushi; Toritsuka, Naoki; Sonoda, Jiro; Seki, Yuki; Tohyama, Osamu; Asakura, Shoji; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is highly mutagenic and yet does not lead to tumor development in the murine colon. We recently reported the generation of colonic tumors one week after treatment with BP followed by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), a colitis-inducer. In this BP/DSS model, male CD2F1 mice were treated orally with BP at 125 mg/kg/day for 5 days, followed by 4% DSS in drinking water for one week. There has been no report so far on the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor development in this model. In the present study, we performed global gene expression analysis on the colonic mucosae obtained from BP-exposed mice one week after treatment with DSS and those treated with the vehicle, BP, or DSS alone. Global gene expression analysis revealed that there were 563 genes preferentially altered (≥2-fold vs vehicle group) in the colonic mucosae exposed to both BP and DSS. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis combined with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis™ identified 2 genes associated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that were preferentially up-regulated (≥2-fold vs vehicle group) when BP and DSS were treated in combination in the distal part (site of predilection for tumor induction) of the colonic mucosae, especially in colonic tumors: WNT inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1; 14.6-fold increase) and interferon induced membrane protein 3 (Ifitm3; 5.7-fold increase). In colonic tumors, expression of Wif1 and Ifitm3 proteins were both confirmed by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that these genes are associated with rapid induction of colonic tumors in mice after exposure to BP/DSS, providing insights into the mechanisms of the BP/DSS short-term colon carcinogenesis. PMID:26271895

  15. [The clinico-morphological characteristics of the gastric mucosa during peptic ulcer therapy with the autotransfusion of hemosorbent-treated blood].

    PubMed

    Zhidkov, K P; Nutfullina, G M

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of gastric biopsy specimens withdrawn on repeated endoscopy in 35 patients with chronic gastric ulcers before and 2 weeks after the treatment by autohemotransfusion of hemosorbent-treated blood (AHTB). In 30 patients, the ulcer healed or reduced in size, in 5 patients, the effect was lacking. Morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out on cryostat sections stained by means of PAS and according to Romanovsky-Giemsa. They involved determination of the specific area of the gland and count of free cells of the stroma surrounding the gland followed by an analysis of correlations between effector cells of the immune system. A comprehensive estimation of the accumulation and distribution of the cells infiltrating m. mucosae of the stomach and of their interaction revealed the dependence on the use of AHTB. PMID:1792626

  16. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces apoptosis of colonic mucosa in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats: a possible mechanism of the anticarcinogenic effect by CLA.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Ryu, J H; Ha, Y L; Park, J H

    2001-11-01

    One of the objectives of the present study was to investigate whether 1 % conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the diet reduced tumour incidence in the colon of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated rats. Colon cancer was induced by injecting 6-week-old, male, Sprague-Dawley rats with 15 mg/kg DMH twice per week for 6 weeks. They were fed either 1 % CLA or a control diet ad libitum for 30 weeks. Dietary CLA significantly decreased colon tumour incidence (P<0.05). Our second objective was to investigate whether apoptosis in the colon mucosa of DMH-treated rats was affected by the amount of dietary CLA and whether the changes in apoptosis were related to those in fatty acid-responsive biomarkers. For this purpose, rats were killed after being fed a diet containing 0 %, 0.5 %, 1 % or 1.5 % CLA for 14 weeks. CLA was undetected in the mucosa of rats fed the 0 % CLA diet and increased to 5.9 mg/g phospholipid in rats fed the 0.5 % diet. The apoptotic index estimated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labelling technique was increased by 251 % and the 1,2-diacylglycerol content was decreased by 57 % in rats fed 0.5 % CLA. No further changes in these variables were observed when CLA in the diet was raised to 1.0 % or 1.5 %. However, dietary CLA decreased mucosal levels of prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2 and arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. The present data indicate that dietary CLA can inhibit DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis by mechanisms probably involving increased apoptosis. PMID:11737953

  17. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Esmati, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammad; Matini, Amirhassan; Ashtiani, Monir Sadat Mirai; Hamed, Ehsan Akbari; Nosrati, Hassan; Razi, Farideh; Ganjalikhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma usually originates from lung. Few data exist in the literature regarding neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue. Patient data including history, surgical procedure, histology, and radiology investigations were collected and summarized. A 40-year-old woman was referred after partial glossectomy. Squamous mucosa with neoplasm and cells with round nuclei and light cytoplasm was reported in the tongue biopsy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was positive for cytokeratin, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin and negative for leukocyte common antigen. This case showed a high proliferative activity (Ki-67 labeling index were 60%). These IHC findings were in favor of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. After surgery, she received chemotherapy and chemoradiation. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors in the present case is based on immunohistochemical markers and cellular shapes. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is a critical element of therapy for head and neck high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, our patient received this treatment after surgery. PMID:26458666

  18. Gliadin intake alters the small intestinal mucosa in indomethacin-treated HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; Luongo, Diomira; Rotondi Aufiero, Vera; Bozzella, Giuseppina; Palmieri, Gianna; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; David, Chella; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an enteropathy caused by the ingestion of wheat gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. A complete understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms in CD has been hindered because of the lack of adequate in vivo models. In the present study, we explored the events after the intragastric administration of gliadin and of the albumin/globulin fraction from wheat in human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 transgenic mice (DQ8 mice) treated with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs). After 10 days of treatment, mice showed a significant reduction of villus height, increased crypt depth, increased number of lamina propria-activated macrophages, and high basal interferon-γ secretion in mesenteric lymph nodes, all of which were specifically related to gliadin intake, whereas the albumin/globulin fraction of wheat was unable to induce similar changes. Cotreatment with NS-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, also induced the intestinal lesion. Enteropathy onset was further characterized by high levels of oxidative stress markers, similar to CD. Biochemical assessment of the small intestine revealed the specific activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, high caspase-3 activity, and a significant increase of tissue transglutaminase protein levels associated with the intestinal lesion. Notably, after 30 days of treatment, enteropathic mice developed serum antibodies toward gliadin (IgA) and tissue transglutaminase (IgG). We concluded that gliadin intake in combination with COX inhibition caused a basal inflammatory status and an oxidative stress condition in the small intestine of DQ8 mice, thus triggering the mucosal lesion and, subsequently, an antigen-specific immunity. PMID:24924747

  19. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo; Azumi, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  20. [Carcinoma of the tongue in xeroderma pigmentosum].

    PubMed

    Huet-Lamy, P; Dereure, O; Degavre, B; Atlan, P Y; Guillot, B; Guilhou, J J

    1992-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a defect in the repair of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet rays. The cutaneous tumours are frequent and occur at an early age, but neoplasias of the mucosae are seldom observed. Among the mucosae, the lipids and the conjunctiva clearly predominate. Tumours of the buccal cavity are much less frequent, and this is why we report a case of epidermoid carcinoma of the tip of the tongue in a Moroccan boy. Only 25 cases of intrabuccal tumour have been reported in patients with XP, and 22 were epidermoid carcinomas of the tip of the tongue. These carcinomas may be preceded by precancerous lesions such as leucoplasia. The early occurrence and elective location at the tip of the tongue clearly differentiate lingual carcinomas associated with XP from their homologues in adults. The aggressiveness of these lesions is difficult to determine due to a usually short follow-up and to the lack of details in reports. Treatment is surgical and non-specific. Concerning epidemiology, the predominance of African and Near-Eastern patients among those suffering from lingual carcinoma is striking. Moreover, when the complementation group is known it is always group C; our patients presented with characteristics of this group. Some authors believe that the lingual tumours are due to ultraviolet light (overexposure in case of natural pigmentation, with exposure of the tip of the tongue) and to certain toxic substances in food.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1304692

  1. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

  2. Small cell carcinoma of the lung in a treated case of Myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue - Report of a rare case with illustrated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Venkatesulu, Bhanuprasad; Mallick, Supriya; George, Archana; Bhasker, Suman

    2016-03-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma has rarely been reported in the oral cavity and oropharynx. We found only 6 cases of myoepithelioma of the tongue reported till date. Two cases had a benign myoepithelioma; four had epithelial-Myoepithelial carcinoma. The present case had malignant myoepithelioma, a distinct entity from other histologies. PMID:26117146

  3. Preventing Complications from High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy when Treating Mobile Tongue Cancer via the Application of a Modular Lead-Lined Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shumei; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Kakimoto, Naoya; Sumida, Iori; Fujiwara, Masateru; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Souhei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To point out the advantages and drawbacks of high-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of mobile tongue cancer and indicate the clinical importance of modular lead-lined spacers when applying this technique to patients. Methods First, all basic steps to construct the modular spacer are shown. Second, we simulate and evaluate the dose rate reduction for a wide range of spacer configurations. Results With increasing distance to the source absorbed doses dropped considerably. Significantly more shielding was obtained when lead was added to the spacer and this effect was most pronounced on shorter (i.e. more clinically relevant) distances to the source. Conclusions The modular spacer represents an important addition to the planning and treatment stages of mobile tongue cancer using HDR-ISBT. PMID:27128434

  4. Tongue piercing: case report and ethical overview.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William J; Reeves, Teresa E

    2004-01-01

    A case of infection following piercing of the tongue is presented. A dentist allegedly provided local anesthesia to the tongue prior to piercing. To avoid criticism from the first dentist, the patient saw a different dentist to treat the infection. The patient had symptoms of pain, inflammation, purulence, salivary incontinence, and difficulty speaking and swallowing. The ornament was discarded and the infection was resolved with antibiotic therapy. Ethical issues of administering anesthesia prior to piercing also are discussed. PMID:15206257

  5. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a diagnostic and treatment quandary.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, L A

    1999-04-01

    The tongue is an important oral structure that affects speech, the position of teeth, periodontal tissue, nutrition, swallowing, nursing, and certain social activities. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) limits the range of motion of the tongue, impairing its ability to fulfill its functions. In this article, diagnostic criteria needed to evaluate and treat ankyloglossia are suggested, and a method for classifying ankyloglossia is proposed. PMID:10635253

  6. Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue--Case report.

    PubMed

    Didona, Dario; Paolino, Giovanni; Donati, Michele; Didona, Biagio; Calvieri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is a rare, self-limiting, chronic and benign lesion of unknown pathogenesis that affects the oral mucosa. We present the case of a 65 year-old Caucasian female with a five month history of a painful ulcer on the lateral side of her tongue. The ulcer was not adhered to the underlying structures and there was no evidence of regional lymph node involvement. Laboratory examinations and X-rays revealed no abnormalities. Topical treatments had been performed without any improvement. Histopathological examination showed an ulcerated surface and mixed inflammatory infiltrate with several eosinophils extending into the mucosa and submucosa. No cellular atypia was observed. Based on the patient-s history and mucosal biopsy, a final diagnosis of eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa was made. PMID:26312683

  7. Central tongue reduction for macroglossia.

    PubMed

    Mixter, R C; Ewanowski, S J; Carson, L V

    1993-05-01

    Unhappy with our postoperative results from standard tongue reduction methods, we have developed a central tongue reduction technique. This technique allows for alteration of the tongue base as well as tongue height and width while minimizing postoperative scarring. Although the technique and its associated surgical complications are in some ways comparable with the standard tongue reduction methods, our postoperative polysomnographic and tongue functioning results are improved. It is noteworthy that none of our patients had worse speech postoperatively and that our one Down syndrome patient had improved speech. Our indication for central tongue reduction is macroglossia of any sort in appropriate patients. PMID:8479986

  8. The treatment of lymphangioma in the buccal mucosa by radiofrequency ablation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Süleyman; Uğar, Dilek; Karaca, Inci; Ceylan, Alper; Uslu, Sabri; Bariş, Emre; Tokman, Benay

    2006-11-01

    Lymphangioma is a benign, hamartomatous tumor of the lymphatic system. It is usually found in the head and neck region and is widely regarded as a developmental lesion rather than a true neoplasia. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth (60%), and by the age of 2 years 80% to 90% are present. In the head and neck area, the most common location is the submandibular region, followed by the parotid gland. When lymphangioma occurs in the mouth, the anterior two thirds of the tongue is the most commonly affected region. Various methods have been tried for treatment of lymphangioma including surgery, radiation, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Recently, a new and more conservative surgical approach to this lesion using radiofrequency ablation has been described. In this report, a case of lymphangioma in the right buccal mucosa of the mental foramen area that has been treated by radiofrequency ablation is presented. PMID:17052620

  9. Pentafid tongue: A new entity

    PubMed Central

    Senan, Manesh; Menon, Varun P

    2015-01-01

    Tongue plays a pivotal role in both physiological and functional life of human beings. Structural and developmental abnormalities of the tongue in various forms have been reported in isolation or in combination with various syndromes. Though cases of bifid tongues have been mentioned in literature, no reports of pentafid tongue have been reported till date. Here we describe a unique case of congenital pentafid tongue along with bilateral polydactyly and its surgical management.

  10. Tongue acupuncture in treatment of post-stroke dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haiyan; Ma, Benxu; Gao, Xia; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    Tongue acupuncture is a technique that treats illness through acupuncture applied to the tongue. This study was designed to assess its therapeutic effects in the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia. A clinical control study was conducted with randomly selected 180 patients with post-stroke dysphagia. The patients were assigned into 2 groups: 90 in the Tongue acupuncture group received tongue acupuncture on the basis of conventional medication, 90 in the conventional acupuncture group received acupuncture on the neck and wrist. Acupoints in the tongue are Juanquan (EX-HN10) (at the midpoint of dorsal raphe of the tongue) and Haiquan (EX-HN11) (Sublingual frenulum midpoint). Acupoits on the body are Fengchi (GB20) and Neiguan (PC6). The effective rate, the national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS), TV X-ray fluoroscopy swallowing function (VFSS), the incidence rate of pneumonia were used to evaluate the efficacy after 4 weeks treatment. The NIHSS and VFSS of tongue acupuncture group were improved significantly than that of the conventional group (P < 0.01, respectively). The incidence rate of pneumonia decreased (P < 0. 01). The effective rate of the tongue acupuncture group was higher than that of conventional group (96.67% vs. 66.67%, P < 0. 01). On the basis of the conventional medication, tongue acupuncture would effectively improve the swallow functions, decrease the neurological deficit and reduce the incidence of pneumonia in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. PMID:26550374

  11. Tongue lesions in psoriasis: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Moslehi, Homayoon; Akhyani, Maryam; Etesami, Marjan

    2004-01-01

    Background Our objective was to study tongue lesions and their significance in psoriatic patients. Methods The oral mucosa was examined in 200 psoriatic patients presenting to Razi Hospital in Tehran, Iran, and 200 matched controls. Results Fissured tongue (FT) and benign migratory glossitis (BMG) were the two most frequent findings. FT was seen more frequently in psoriatic patients (n = 66, 33%) than the control group (n = 19, 9.5%) [odds ratio (OR): 4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.61–8.52] (p-value < 0.0001). BMG, too, was significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients (28 cases, 14%) than the control group (12 cases, 6%) (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.20–5.50) (p-value < 0.012). In 11 patients (5.5%), FT and BMG coexisted. FT was more frequent in pustular psoriasis (7 cases, 53.8%) than erythemato-squamous types (56 cases, 30.4%). On the other hand, the frequency of BMG increased with the severity of psoriasis in plaque-type psoriasis assessed by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score. Conclusions Nonspecific tongue lesions are frequently observed in psoriasis. Further studies are recommended to substantiate the clinical significance of these seemingly nonspecific findings in suspected psoriatic cases. PMID:15527508

  12. Confocal fluorescence endomicroscopic imaging of the tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Olivo, Malini; Kho, K. W.; Thong, Patricia; Harris, Martin; Soo, Khee Chee

    2005-04-01

    Confocal endomicroscopy is a novel, noninvasive microscopic technique that enables surface and subsurface imaging of living tissues or cells in vivo. This study was to explore the possibility of utilizing a novel rigid confocal endomicroscope (RCE) system for detecting morphological changes in living normal and neoplastic human and murine tongue tissue in combination with different photosensitizers, i.e. hypericin and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence. Subjects were topically or systemically applied photosensitizer to the oral mucosa, and then fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy was performed on the tongue using the RCE system with the laser excitation wavelength at 488 nm. The preliminary results showed that confocal fluorescence images of the tongue can be acquired in real-time with well-defined micro-morphological structures, and changes of tissue structures associated with cancer transformation can also be identified. This study suggests that photosensitizer-mediated confocal endomicroscopy have a significant potential for rapid, non-invasive detection of early oral cancers in vivo.

  13. Mandible and Tongue Development

    PubMed Central

    Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The tongue and mandible have common origins. They arise simultaneously from the mandibular arch and are coordinated in their development and growth, which is evident from several clinical conditions such as Pierre Robin sequence. Here, we review in detail the molecular networks controlling both mandible and tongue development. We also discuss their mechanical relationship and evolution as well as the potential for stem cell-based therapies for disorders affecting these organs. PMID:26589920

  14. Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Ashok, L; Sujatha, G P

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient's age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue. PMID:24808705

  15. Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, K. A.; Ashok, L.; Sujatha, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient's age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue. PMID:24808705

  16. Tongue motor training support system.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Onishi, Kohei; Nakayama, Atsushi; Kamata, Katsuhiro; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new tongue-training system that can be used for improvement of the tongue's range of motion and muscle strength after dysphagia. The training process is organized in game-like manner. Initially, we analyzed surface electromyography (EMG) signals of the suprahyoid muscles of five subjects during tongue-training motions. This test revealed that four types tongue training motions and a swallowing motion could be classified with 93.5% accuracy. Recognized EMG signals during tongue motions were designed to allow control of a mouse cursor via intentional tongue motions. Results demonstrated that simple PC games could be played by tongue motions, achieving in this way efficient, enjoyable and pleasant tongue training. Using the proposed method, dysphagia patients can choose games that suit their preferences and/or state of mind. It is expected that the proposed system will be an efficient tool for long-term tongue motor training and maintaining patients' motivation. PMID:25570765

  17. Intramuscular haemangioma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Bhamre, R; Katna, R; Pai, P

    2014-01-01

    Haemangiomas are one of the most common benign tumours. Clinicians come across haemangiomas of different subtypes at different locations in the body. They are often faced with the question of whether to treat them or leave it to the natural history of the disease. We present a case of the intramuscular variety of haemangioma found in the unusual location of the tongue in a 60-year-old woman. Fine needle aspiration was inconclusive and on magnetic resonance imaging, it mimicked a malignancy, which prompted treatment. We also review the unique pathology of this variety of haemangioma, which defines their treatment. The radiological attributes of the disease and recurrence rates of surgery are also discussed. PMID:25198963

  18. The expression profile of filaggrin-2 in the normal and pathologic human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Makino, Teruhiko; Mizawa, Megumi; Inoue, Sayaka; Noguchi, Makoto; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial cells of the oral cavity show a remarkable degree of regional variation with respect to their morphology and keratinization status. In the oral cavity, the tongue and palate contain keratinizing stratified epithelia, while the buccal mucosa contains non-keratinizing stratified epithelia. We herein examined the expression of filaggrin-2, a member of the S100 fused-type protein family, in the oral mucosa. Filaggrin-2 was weakly expressed in the normal epithelium of the palate, but not in the buccal mucosa or tongue, although filaggrin protein was observed in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa and the palate. We next examined the expression of filaggrin-2 in the oral mucosa of subjects with hyperkeratotic diseases. The expression of filaggrin-2 was markedly increased in the epithelium of the oral mucosa in patients with lichen planus, leukokeratosis and leukoplakia. Filaggrin-2 positivity was observed in granules, some of which were co-localized with those of filaggrin. These results indicate that filaggrin-2 was expressed in the oral mucosa under certain pathological conditions, demonstrating that an aberrant protein expression, together with filaggrin, indicates the altered differentiation program including hyperkeratosis that occurs in these diseases. PMID:26858109

  19. A tongue-shielding radiation stent

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, T.J.; Rambach, S.C.

    1983-03-01

    This article describes a simple technique for fabricating stents to protect the lateral border of the tongue during therapeutic radiation therapy delivered to a unilateral region such as used in treating parotid or retromolar trigone lesions. The technique requires materials that are readily available and expertise that is possessed by all dentists. The use of radiation-protective stents markedly minimizes the treatment sequelae from therapeutic irradiation. The use of these protective stents is appreciated by patients and radiation therapists alike.

  20. Treatment and retention of relapsed anterior open-bite with low tongue posture and tongue-tie: A 10-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Su-Jung; Munkhshur, Janchivdorj; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ngan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current report is to present 6-year long-term stability and 10-year follow-up data for an adult patient who was treated with a tongue elevator for relapsed anterior open-bite. The 19-year-old male patient presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing his food. Collectively, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed an anterior open-bite, low tongue posture, and tongue-tie. The patient opted for orthodontic treatment alone, without any surgical procedure. A lingual frenectomy was recommended to avoid the risk of relapse, but the patient declined because he was not experiencing tongue discomfort. Initial treatment of the anterior open-bite with molar intrusion and tongue exercises was successful, but relapse occurred during the retention period. A tongue elevator was used for retreatment, because the approach was minimally invasive and suited the patient's requirements regarding discomfort, cost, and time. The appliance changed the tongue posture and generated an altered tongue force, which ultimately resulted in intrusive dentoalveolar effects, and a subsequent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. The results showed long-term stability and were maintained for six years through continual use of the tongue elevator. The results of this case indicated that a tongue elevator could be used not only as an alternative treatment for open-bite, but also as an active retainer. PMID:25133135

  1. Solitary nodular lesion of tongue- a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Sarada, P; Reddy, C H Sampath; A K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha

    2014-02-01

    The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

  2. Solitary Nodular Lesion of Tongue- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Sarada, P.; Reddy, C.H. Sampath; A.K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha

    2014-01-01

    The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

  3. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  4. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  5. Impact of tongue biofilm removal on mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943 PMID:23887759

  6. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes. PMID:24143939

  7. Carcinoma Tongue--Clinicopathological Presentation.

    PubMed

    Majumder, K R; Karmakar, R; Alam, M M; Rahman, T

    2015-10-01

    This prospective study was done to observe the diversity of clinical presentation of carcinoma of tongue and to study the pathological variety of carcinoma of tongue and was conducted in the Department of General Surgery and Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka Medical College Hospital on 50 patients from January 2011 to July 2013. In this series highest number of patients were middle aged (36%). Male female ratio was 2:1. Average socioeconomic conditions of the patient were poor (68%). Betel nut and leaves chewing (88%) and smoking (56%) habits were commonly practiced for more than 10 years among the patients. Depending on site of involvement, variation in presenting symptoms has been observed. Oral tongue carcinoma mostly was presented with tongue lesion, pain and dysphagia where as the carcinoma of base of tongue commonly was presented with dysphagia, lump in neck. Lateral border of tongue (60%) was seen commonly involved. Ulcerative lesion (56%) predominantly was found in tongue lesion. Eighty percent (80%) of cases had no palpable Lymph node. Only few patients were found with Lymph node metastasis and most of them had carcinoma in base of the tongue (75%). Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma of tongue in our study commonly found in middle aged male patients. Variation of symptoms has depended on anatomical site involved. Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma other than squamous cell was not found. PMID:26620021

  8. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps.

    PubMed

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A

    2015-08-22

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue-fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  9. Posteriorly based lateral tongue flap for reconstruction of large palatal-alveolar fistulas in cleft patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large palatal fistula in cleft patients is a difficult situation, especially with previous multiple surgeries, which have led to severe scars in the palatal mucosa. Tongue flaps are useful aids in such situations. Materials and Methods: Seven cleft patients who were reconstructed by posteriorly based lateral tongue flap between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Variables such as flap-ability to close the fistula, remaining tongue shape at least 1 year after operation, and speech improvement (patients’ self-assessment) were evaluated. Results: Age range of the patients was 14‒45 years. The male-to-female ratio was 2/7. Posteriorly based lateral tongue flap effectively closed the large fistula in 6/7 of patients. The largest dimensions of fistula closed by this flap was 5 cm × 1.5 cm. Follow-up of 2‒7 years showed that the tongue never returned to the original size and remained asymmetrical. In addition, the nasal speech did not improve dramatically after the closure of large palatal/alveolar fistulas in this age group. Conclusion: Posteriorly based lateral tongue flap is an effective method to solve the problem of large palatal fistulas in adult cleft patients. The most useful indication for this flap is a large longitudinal palatal fistula, extending to the alveolar process. Asymmetrical tongue shape after surgery is the rule and speech improvement depends on patient's age and location of fistula.

  10. Evaluation of Cytological Alterations of Oral Mucosa in Smokers and Waterpipe Users

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Safoura; Feizi, Farideh; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Khafri, Soraya; Ahmadi, Behrang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral mucosal epithelia of smokers and waterpipe users are more susceptible to malignant alterations. The aim of this study was morphometric evaluation of the effects of using waterpipe on normal oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, cytologic smear samples from the following three different areas: buccal mucosa, lateral surface of the tongue, and floor of the mouth (right) were taken from 40 smokers, 40 waterpipe users, and 40 normal individuals. They were then stained using Papanicolaou staining technique. Quantitative cytologic alterations such as nuclear and cytoplasmic size, nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, Feret ratio (FR), percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, two or multilobed nuclei, inflammation, and candida were evaluated. Quantitative evaluation was performed using MoticPlus 2 software, and 50 cells in each slide were studied. Practitioners were matched with age and sex in three groups. Results: An increase in nuclear size, the N/C ratio, and F.R, while a decrease in cytoplasm size were observed in lateral surface of the tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth of smokers, waterpipe users and normal individuals, respectively (p≤0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, and two or multilobed nuclei in oral mucosa of smokers, waterpipe users (p=0.8), and normal individuals (p=0.9) in buccal mucosa, tongue, and mouth floor areas. However, the percentage of inflammation and candida in smokers (p<0.001) and waterpipe users (p=0.002) were higher than normal individuals. Conclusion: Smoking and using waterpipe are effective in creating some quantitative cytometric alterations in oral mucosa; however, smoking shows greater effect in the cytometric alterations than using waterpipe. Role of cytology in screening and detection of oral mucosa malignancies in smokers and waterpipe users needs further studies. PMID:24381854

  11. Functional Segments in Tongue Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Maureen; Epstein, Melissa A.; Iskarous, Khalil

    2004-01-01

    The tongue is a deformable object, and moves by compressing or expanding local functional segments. For any single phoneme, these functional tongue segments may move in similar or opposite directions, and may reach target maximum synchronously or not. This paper will discuss the independence of five proposed segments in the production of speech.…

  12. Literacy and the Mother Tongue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  13. Mother Tongue Maintenance: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Sridhar, Kamal

    1994-01-01

    This debate presents two viewpoints on mother tongue maintenance: (1) that all individuals have a fundamental right to education in their native tongue, and that multilingual societies should actively promote multilingualism for all individuals; and (2) that the multitude of languages and rapid economic development in many countries calls for…

  14. Innate tissue fluorescence of the oral mucosa of controls and head-and-neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Howard E.; Kolli, Venkateswara; Ansley, John; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y.; Alfano, Robert R.; Schantz, Stimson P.

    1995-04-01

    Base line spectral excitation and emission scans were defined for the oral mucosa in a population of 61 controls, 16 oral tongue cancer patients and 2 patients with tongue leukoplakia. A xenon-based fluorescence spectrophotometer (Mediscience Corp.) with a fiberoptic probe (Mediscience Corp.) was used to collect excitation and emission spectra. Two excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm; (lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm) and two emission scans ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm; (lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360-660 nm) were used to analyze the buccal mucosa (BM), hard palate (HP), floor of mouth (FOM) and dorsal tongue (DT) of 61 control individuals. In 41 controls the lateral tongue site (LT) was added. The same set of scans was performed on tumor lesions and contralateral normal tissues of 16 patients with lateral tongue tumors and on two individuals with leukoplakia of the tongue. Ratios of points on the individual scans were used to quantitate data. The excitation scan ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm) and the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm) were able to statistically discriminate the HP and DT from the BM and FOM. The ratios of intensities of neoplastic mucosa and contralateral sites were significantly different with the excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm, p < 0.001) and ((lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm, p < 0.01) and with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm, p < 0.001). Discrimination was significant with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360- 660 nm, p < 0.07). Innate tissue fluorescence has potential as a monitor of cancer patients and populations at risk for head and neck cancer.

  15. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  16. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  17. [Failures and tongue rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Arnaud-Pellet, Noëlle

    2016-03-01

    When confronted with difficult-to-eradicate dysfunctions and parafunctions, speech therapy most often proves a reliable ally to control the functional environment of the dental arches. However, a number of factors ranging from psychological issues to anatomical ENT obstructions, from genetic anomalies to iatrogenic procedures, account for the occasional mixed results achieved using this approach. In addition, our own treatment results can also be jeopardized or even obliterated by a recalcitrant tongue or one which has been inadequately provided for. The author will analyze the different factors involved through a series of clinical cases in order to outline her thinking regarding this organ, which can be either a driving force behind our treatments or a force for destruction. PMID:27083229

  18. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of pre- and post-treated oral submucous fibrosis: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivabalan, S.; Ponranjini Vedeswari, C.; Jayachandran, S.; Koteeswaran, D.; Pravda, C.; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

    2010-02-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a high risk precancerous condition characterized by changes in the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts leading to stiffness of the mucosa and restricted mouth opening, fibrosis of the lining mucosa of the upper digestive tract involving the oral cavity, oro- and hypo-pharynx and the upper two-thirds of the oesophagus. Optical reflectance measurements have been used to extract diagnostic information from a variety of tissue types, in vivo. We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantitatively monitor tumour response to chemotherapy. Twenty patients with submucous fibrosis were diagnosed with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and treated with the chemotherapy drug, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Hyaluronidase injection for seven weeks and after the treatment they were again subjected to the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The major observed spectral alterations on pre and post treated submucous fibrosis is an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 600 nm. Normal mucosa has showed higher reflectance when compared to the pre and post-treated cases. The spectral changes were quantified and correlated to conventional diagnostic results viz., maximum mouth opening, tongue protrusion and burning sensation. The results of this study suggest that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may also be considered as complementary optical techniques to monitor oral tissue transformation.

  19. Arnold Tongues in Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Mogens

    In a recent work with Leo Kadanoff we studied the synchronization between an internal and an external frequency. One obtains a highly structured diagram with details that in essence are related to the difference between rational and irrational number. The synchronized regions appear as Arnold tongues that widen as the coupling between the frequencies increases. Such tongues have been observed in many physical systems, like in the Libchaber convective cell in the basement of the University of Chicago. In biological systems, where oscillators appear in in a broad variety, very little research on Arnold tongues has been performed. We discuss single cell oscillating dynamics triggered by an external cytokine signal. When this signal is overlaid by an oscillating variation, the two oscillators might couple leading to Arnold tongue diagram. When the tongues overlap, the cell dynamics can shift between the tongues eventually leading to a chaotic response. We quantify such switching in single cell experiments and in model systems based on Gillespie simulations. Kadanoff session.

  20. Corrective Osteotomies for Malunited Tongue-Type Calcaneal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ming-Zhu; Yang, Yun-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Displaced tongue-type fractures of the calcaneus can lead to severe pain and disability if not treated appropriately. Failure to reduce articular displacement may require subtalar joint arthrodesis with subsequent loss of function. The subtalar joint is crucial for normal foot and ankle function. In selected cases, if the malunited joint is still in good condition, it is preserved by corrective osteotomy. A joint-preserving osteotomy with axial realignment is a treatment option for malunited tongue-type calcaneal fractures encountered early on, before the development of subtalar arthrosis in carefully selected patients. PMID:26915783

  1. Removal of the intestinal mucosa: photochemical approach in bladder augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselhuhn, Gregory D.; Kropp, Kenneth A.; Keck, Rick W.; Selman, Steven H.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether 5-aminoleuvinic acid in combination with light could be used as an adjunct to intestinal bladder augmentation with the aim of removing intestinal mucosa with subsequent re-epithelialization of the treated segment with urothelium. Histopathologic studies of so-treated intestinal segments used in bladder augmentation demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  2. Pthlh, a promising cancer modifier gene in rat tongue carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Hirohiko; Hirano, Masato; Kawarada, Kouji; Nagayama, Motohiko; Ehara, Michiko; Muraki, Tomonari; Shisa, Hayase; Sugiyama, Aiko; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kitano, Motoo; Tanuma, Jun-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibly to the induction of rat tongue cancer (TC) by oral 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) exposure is a polygenic trait. Among several quantitative trait loci identified by crosses between TC-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and TC-resistant Wistar-Furth (WF) rats, we focused on tongue cancer susceptibility locus (Tcas3) of chromosome 4. We examined tongue carcinogenesis in the reciprocal congenic strains DA.WF-Tcas3 and WF.DA-Tcas3 and in their parental strains. The Tcas3DA allele, and not the Tcas3WF allele, significantly favored tumor latency, incidence and TC number/size. In genomic DNA of TCs induced in (DA x WF) F1 rats, the resistant Tcas3WF allele was frequently and selectively lost, particularly in larger tumors. Thus, we searched the possible candidate genes in the Tcas3 region using microarray analysis of TCs in F1 rats and revealed significant upregulation of 2 cancer-related genes, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) and Kras2. The relevance of the WF allele of Pthlh as a cancer modifier was indicated by 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to this strain. In contrast, no consistent strain-specific variations were found in Kras2. Moreover, the plasma Ca2+ level was consistently higher in DA rats when compared to the level in WF rats bearing TCs; moreover, the Pthlh-mRNA expression level was >30-fold higher in TCs when compared to this level in the normal tongue mucosa. Immunostaining experiments showed strong PTHrP protein expression in TCs of DA rats, and the signal was intensified in larger TCs. Kras2 was also upregulated in TCs, but to a lesser degree than PTHrP. Thus, Pthlh is a promising candidate modifier gene in the development and progression of rat TCs. PMID:24253735

  3. Traumatic partial amputation of the tongue. Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Méndez, José Roberto; Rodríguez-Luna, María Rita; Guarneros-Zárate, Joaquín Eugenio; Vélez-Palafox, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The traumatic injuries to the tongue can go form section to partial or complete amputation, the latter being a rare presentation in the setting of facial trauma or even in patients with mental illness. Case report We present 25-year-old patient with traumatic partial amputation of the tongue who presented to the emergency department with successful surgical repair with good functional and esthetic outcome. Discussion The tongue can suffer a broad type of traumatic injuries, in the setting of active bleeding, the muscular planes must be closed with absorbable sutures to stop the hemorrhage and prevent hematoma formation. Tongue surgical repair in the setting of a total section requires integrity of arterial and venous flow, so anastomosis must be executed. Conclusion Amputation of the tongue can put the patient's life at risk and its management needs to be mastered by the surgeons treating polytraumatized patients. PMID:26900463

  4. Hamartomatous tongue lesions in children.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Portia A; Ernst, Linda M; Elden, Lisa M; Kazahaya, Ken; Alawi, Faizan; Russo, Pierre A

    2007-08-01

    The incidence and spectrum of tongue lesions in children, in particular tongue hamartomas, is relatively unknown. We report a retrospective review of all tongue lesions seen at a major tertiary care children's hospital over an 18-year period with an emphasis on describing tongue hamartomas. A total of 135 tongue lesions were identified. Vascular/lymphatic lesions (36/135) were the most common followed by mucus extravasation phenomenon (22/135). Interestingly, hamartomatous lesions (18/135) were the third most common lesion category identified. Lingual hamartomas were predominantly submucosal in location and were classified histologically by tissue composition as follows: neurovascular (2/18), smooth muscle predominant (5/18), fat predominant (1/18), and smooth muscle and fat containing (10/18). All 5 smooth muscle predominant hamartomas also contained vasculature, and 1 case additionally contained salivary gland tissue. The single fat predominant hamartoma additionally contained vessels and salivary gland. The final 10 hamartomas contained varying amounts of both smooth muscle and fat, and also admixed combinations of vessels, nerves, and salivary glands. Two of these 10 cases additionally contained foci of choristomatous elements, including cutaneous adnexal structures and cartilage. Most patients with hamartomatous lesions were young, 2 years or less. Eight cases were congenital in origin. Females outnumbered males by 2:1. The majority of lesions (16/18) were dorsal in location, and 4 patients had a syndromic association, all oral-facial-digital syndrome. PMID:17667541

  5. Recent advances in electronic tongues.

    PubMed

    Riul, Antonio; Dantas, Cléber A R; Miyazaki, Celina M; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2010-10-01

    This minireview describes the main developments of electronic tongues (e-tongues) and taste sensors in recent years, with a summary of the principles of detection and materials used in the sensing units. E-tongues are sensor arrays capable of distinguishing very similar liquids employing the concept of global selectivity, where the difference in the electrical response of different materials serves as a fingerprint for the analysed sample. They have been widely used for the analysis of wines, fruit juices, coffee, milk and beverages, in addition to the detection of trace amounts of impurities or pollutants in waters. Among the various principles of detection, electrochemical measurements and impedance spectroscopy are the most prominent. With regard to the materials for the sensing units, in most cases use is made of ultrathin films produced in a layer-by-layer fashion to yield higher sensitivity with the advantage of control of the film molecular architecture. The concept of e-tongues has been extended to biosensing by using sensing units capable of molecular recognition, as in films with immobilized antigens or enzymes with specific recognition for clinical diagnosis. Because the identification of samples is basically a classification task, there has been a trend to use artificial intelligence and information visualization methods to enhance the performance of e-tongues. PMID:20730141

  6. Histomorphological and Histochemical Observations of the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Kadhim, Khalid Kamil; Hameed, AL-Timmemi; Abass, Thamir A.

    2013-01-01

    Common myna tongue was studied histomorphologically and histochemically. Four tongues of adult birds were carried out macroscopically and microscopically. The tongue was triangular; the dorsum of the body had median groove. Two to three backward directed papillae were located on each side of the body-base junction. A single transverse row of pharyngeal papillae was located behind the laryngeal cleft. The parakeratinized mucosa covered the entire surface of the tongue except clearly keratinized band on the ventrolateral surface and the conical papillae. Compared with the lateral group (LG), the secretory cells of the medial group (MG) of the anterior lingual glands (ALG) and the posterior lingual glands (PLG) contained large amount of mucin. It was neutral mucin. However, the LG had weak acid mucin with carboxylated group. Meanwhile, the MG of the ALG and the PLG had strong acid mucin with both carboxylated and sulphated groups. In conclusion, the morphological observation of the common myna tongue showed some variation from the other birds. Histochemical results indicated the differences between the LG and MG of the anterior lingual glands. However, no difference was observed between the latter and the PLG. PMID:23738140

  7. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of tongue.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shan-Yin; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Hung-Wen; D D S, Ying-Tai Jin

    2012-01-01

    Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare entity of the dorsal tongue first described in 1995. Herein, we report a rare case of lingual ECMT in a 41-year-old man. Patient presented with an asymptomatic, small nodule (0.5 cm in diameter) in the anterior tongue. The pathological findings showed uni-lobular proliferation of fusiform cells, arranged in net-like sheets or swirls, in a chondromyxoid background. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but negative for epithelial markers. Familiarity with this entity helps pathologists make a correct diagnosis. PMID:23455793

  8. Tongue piercing: a restorative perspective.

    PubMed

    Bassiouny, M A; Deem, L P; Deem, T E

    2001-06-01

    The implication of a traumatic injury to a permanent molar tooth as a complication by tongue piercing with ornamental jewelry is reported. An appropriate restorative management of the fractured tooth is described. The dentist's role in prevention and treatment of unfavorable complications is outlined. The rationales for selection of specific treatment modalities, in view of the degree of damage to hard dental tissues, are discussed. The range of hard tissue injuries resulting from tongue jewelry varies from a simple crack propagating into the enamel to a fractured tooth. A variety of factors must be considered before employing the available restorative methods. PMID:11491628

  9. Reduction glossectomy for large tongues

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological enlargement of tongue is caused by several conditions and diseases. In several instances, surgery remains the only viable option for complete cure. Persistent bleeding, compromised neuro-motor-sensory functions during the postoperative period are the most common complaints encountered after macroglossia correction. The tongue is a muscular organ, whose complex neuroanatomy is being unraveled slowly. Various types of macroglossia resections in unique clinical situations have been proposed by several clinicians till date. There has never been unanimously accepted resection for the treatment of macroglossia. This review article attempts to preview the cosmetic and functional components for resection designs. PMID:24205477

  10. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  11. Relationship between squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and the position of dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki-Yong; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue has a relatively high incidence of all oral cancers. Some studies have reported a relationship between intraoral dental prosthesis and SCC of the tongue; however, this relationship remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SCC of the tongue and the positional aspects of dental prosthesis using a retrospective analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 439 patients with SCC of the tongue were diagnosed and treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Seoul National University Dental Hospital. Patients were treated over a 12.5-year period ranging from January 1, 2001 to June 30, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed to examine potential differences between the groups. RESULTS The number of patients with a crown and/or a bridge (134, 63.5%) was significantly different than the number of patients without a prosthesis (77, 36.5%). Even after accounting for different types of prostheses such as crowns, bridges, and dentures, no significant differences were observed between the position of the prosthesis and the location of the SCC of the tongue, with significance defined as a P-value less than .05 by the Pearson-Chi square test. CONCLUSION Patients with crowns and/or bridges exhibited more frequent SCC of the tongue compared with patients without these prosthesis. These data support the hypothesis that mechanical trauma and galvanic phenomena play a role in the etiology of SCC of the tongue. PMID:25932311

  12. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission. PMID:23473290

  13. Tongue tumor detection in medical hyperspectral images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

  14. Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

  15. Metabolic markers and microecological characteristics of tongue coating in patients with chronic gastritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue diagnosis is a non-invasive, simple and valuable diagnostic tool. TCM treats the tongue coating on a very sensitive scale that reflects physiological and pathological changes in the organs, especially the spleen and stomach. Tongue coating can diagnose disease severity and determine the TCM syndrome (“Zheng” in Chinese). The biological bases of different tongue coating appearances are still poorly understood and lack systematic investigation at the molecular level. Methods Tongue coating samples were collected from 70 chronic gastritis patients and 20 normal controls. 16S rRNA denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA–DGGE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were designed to profile tongue coatings. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminate analysis. Results Ten potential metabolites or markers were found in chronic gastritis patients, including UDP-D-galactose, 3-ketolactose, and vitamin D2, based on LC–MS. Eight significantly different strips were observed in samples from chronic gastritis patients based on 16S rRNA–DGGE. Two strips, Strips 8 and 10, were selected for gene sequencing. Strip 10 sequencing showed a 100% similarity to Rothia mucilaginosa. Strip 8 sequencing showed a 96.2% similarity to Moraxella catarrhalis. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism could possibly form the basis of tongue coating conformation in chronic gastritis patients. The study revealed important connections between metabolic components, microecological components and tongue coating in chronic gastritis patients. Compared with other diagnostic regimens, such as blood tests or tissue biopsies, tongue coating is more amenable to, and more convenient for, both patients and doctors. PMID:24041039

  16. Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

    2010-01-01

    Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk. PMID:21358880

  17. Does Bilingualism Twist Your Tongue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical…

  18. Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Zuquim Guimarães, Flávia de Faria; Vieira, Charlles da Silva; Freire, Sarah Teixeira Carvalho; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Fernandes, Anacélia Mendes

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with oral mucosa alterations in patients from Vale do Jequiti-nhonha, Brazil. The sample consisted of 511 patients of both genders. Questionnaires were used to obtain information about patient gender, age, race, systemic disease state, medication use, cigarette use and alcohol consumption. Physical examinations were then performed to identify lesions of the oral mucosa. Descriptive analyses, Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were then used to analyze the results (p < 0.05, 95% CI). In this population, 84.9% (434/511) of patients were found to have alterations in their oral mucosa. The most common alterations were melanotic maculae (36.0%), linea alba (33.9%), traumatic ulcers (21.5%), Fordyce's granules (20.4%), coated tongue (12.5%) and fissured tongue (10.0%). Melanotic maculae were more frequently observed in black patients, with an odds ration (OR) of 7.51. Being female was a statistically significant predictive factor for having a visible linea alba (OR: 1.90) and a fissured tongue (OR: 2.11). No statistically significant association was found between the presence of oral lesions and systemic disease, medication use, alcohol use and smoking. The high observed prevalence of melanotic maculae and Fordyce's granules suggests that these alterations could be considered typical characteristics of the population of the Vale do Jequitinhonha. Coated tongue may be related to the socioeconomic deprivation in the region. Furthermore, the high prevalence of traumatic ulcers may be associated with the traumatic agents that caused patients to seek dental care. PMID:22031051

  19. [Neonatal tongue-tie: myths and science].

    PubMed

    Dollberg, Shaul; Botzer, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical restraining of tongue movement (tongue-tie, ankyloglossia) has been known for centuries and the subject of dozens of articles. The heated debate persists on its clinical significance and indications for treatment. Most authorities in the field of infant feeding and Lactation agree that breastfeeding problems, such as nipple pain and latching difficulties, are common signs of clinicaLly significant tongue-tie and indications for performing a frenotomy, while the sole presence of a visible lingual frenulum is not. In contrast, the lack of a visible frenulum does not rule out the diagnosis of clinically significant tongue-tie since submucosal ties, also called "posterior tongue-tie", may interfere with efficient breastfeeding. Whether tongue-tie interferes with speech articulation to a significant extent is currently unknown. Theoretically, articulation of some consonants (e.g., /s/, /th/, /r/) would be affected by impeded tongue movement. These articulation problems are, however, Less common than tongue-tie itself, and children and adults characteristically use various compensatory techniques of mouth opening and tongue movements. When it is indicated, frenotomy is performed by lifting the tongue and snipping the frenulum with scissors. Complications of frenotomy are rare and consist mainly of self-limited minor bleeding. The significance of posterior tongue tie and the long-term effects of frenotomy performed during early infancy are unresolved issues. PMID:21449157

  20. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  1. Oral lymphangioma of the buccal mucosa a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoganna, Saligrama Seema; Rajendra Prasad, Rame Gowda; Sekar, B.

    2014-01-01

    The lymphangioma are benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels that arises from the sequestration of lymphatic that fails to communicate with the lymphatic system. Most common intra oral site being the anterior two-thirds of tongue, usually superficial in location and demonstrates a pebbly surface that resembles a cluster of translucent vesicles, they are typically soft and fluctuant masses. Secondary hemorrhage into the lymphatic spaces may cause some of these vesicles to become purple. They have been known to grow to large size causing difficulties in mastication and speech. A variant of lymphangioma is cystic hygroma grows as lymphatic anomaly found in the neck commonly present with significant airway obstruction. We present a rare case of lymphangioma affecting the buccal mucosa of a 14-year-old male. PMID:25210370

  2. A New Accurate 3D Measurement Tool to Assess the Range of Motion of the Tongue in Oral Cancer Patients: A Standardized Model.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Simone; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Jacobi, Irene; Smeele, Ludwig E; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Balm, Alfons J M

    2016-02-01

    In oral cancer treatment, function loss such as speech and swallowing deterioration can be severe, mostly due to reduced lingual mobility. Until now, there is no standardized measurement tool for tongue mobility and pre-operative prediction of function loss is based on expert opinion instead of evidence based insight. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a triple-camera setup for the measurement of tongue range of motion (ROM) in healthy adults and its feasibility in patients with partial glossectomy. A triple-camera setup was used, and 3D coordinates of the tongue in five standardized tongue positions were achieved in 15 healthy volunteers. Maximum distances between the tip of the tongue and the maxillary midline were calculated. Each participant was recorded twice, and each movie was analysed three times by two separate raters. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability were the main outcome measures. Secondly, feasibility of the method was tested in ten patients treated for oral tongue carcinoma. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability all showed high correlation coefficients of >0.9 in both study groups. All healthy subjects showed perfect symmetrical tongue ROM. In patients, significant differences in lateral tongue movements were found, due to restricted tongue mobility after surgery. This triple-camera setup is a reliable measurement tool to assess three-dimensional information of tongue ROM. It constitutes an accurate tool for objective grading of reduced tongue mobility after partial glossectomy. PMID:26516075

  3. [Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25474963

  4. [Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25508742

  5. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  6. Cross-activation and detraining effects of tongue exercise in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Schaser, Allison J; Ciucci, Michelle R; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-01-15

    Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people. PMID:26477376

  7. Effect of saccades in tongue electrotactile stimulation for vision substitution applications.

    PubMed

    Chekhchoukh, A; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y; Glade, N

    2013-01-01

    The visual substitution paradigm aims to facilitate the life of blind people. Generally one uses electro-stimulating devices where electrodes are arranged into arrays to stimulate the skin or the tongue mucosa to send signals of visual type to the subjects. When an electro-stimulation signal is applied continuously (e.g. when static visual scenes are displayed for a long period of time), the receptors of the affected region can get saturated and the patient may lose the displayed information. We propose here some mechanisms that ameliorate the quality of perception of the electro-stimulation information. The electrical signal is encoded as 2D scenes projected onto the tongue via a Tongue Display Unit, i.e. an electro-tactile stimulator formed by a 12×12 matrix of electrodes. We propose to apply stochastic saccades on this signal. Our assumption is that this eye-inspired mechanism should make the visual substitution more efficient (by improving the perception) because of the reduction of the tactile receptors saturation. The influence of saccades was evaluated by a series of experiments. Results revealed a benefit on the persistence of perception due to saccades. This work helps to prevent the saturation of receptors on the tongue. Therefore increasing the quality of vision by the way of the electro-stimulation. It allows new enhancement features to retinal prosthesis devices which suffer from the same phenomenon. PMID:24110494

  8. Clipping the (tongue) tie

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Nagate Raghavendra; Marudhappan, Yuvaraja; Devi, Renuka; Narang, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is an uncommon congenital oral anomaly that can cause difficulty with breast-feeding and speech articulation. For many years, the subject of ankyloglossia has been controversial with practitioners of many specialties having widely different views regarding its significance and management. This study is about a series of five cases of ankyloglossia subjected to surgical correction by frenectomy procedure. Three cases were treated with electrocautery, one case with diode laser and one case with conventional scalpel technique. 1 week and 1 month post-operative follow-ups were done and healing was compared with the available literature. Manipulation of tissues was better in laser and electrocautery techniques when compared with scalpel. Post-operative complication of swelling and pain was seen in scalpel technique whereas it was largely uneventful in other techniques. Though, there was no difference in healing at the end of first month clinically, scalpel technique has shown better results in organization of muscle fibers. This clinical study indicates that laser and electrocautery treatment used for frenectomy operations provides better patient perception in terms of postoperative pain and function than that obtained by the scalpel technique. Considering the above advantages, when used correctly, the laser and electrocautery offers a safe, effective, acceptable and impressive alternative for frenectomy operations. PMID:25024558

  9. Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

  10. Tongue Image Matching Using Color and Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhenhua

    Tongue image matching is an important part for a tongue diagnosis system. Unlike common pattern recognition problems, it is hard to define the ground truth for tongue image matching because visual inspection of tongue by doctors is determined by the experience and knowledge of them. Here we propose to use, Mean Rank, as an objective and scientific criterion to evaluate matching performance. Instigating from color demosaicking, a new color texture operator, Primary Difference Signal Local Binary Pattern is proposed. The matching performance is evaluated on color, gray-scale and color texture, and fusion of color and texture features.

  11. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    MedlinePlus

    ... accurate joystick. The system employs a magnetic tongue stud worn by the user to wirelessly relay the ... a joystick. Tongue Drive System headset, magnetic tongue stud and smartphone. Source: Maysam Ghovanloo, Georgia Institute of ...

  12. Tongue fissure extraction and classification using hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Sun, Zhen; Liu, Zhi

    2010-04-10

    Tongue fissures, an important feature on the tongue surface, may be pathologically related to some diseases. Most existing tongue fissure extraction methods use tongue images captured by traditional charge coupled device cameras. However, these conventional methods cannot be used for an accurate analysis of the tongue surface due to limited information from the images. To solve this, a hyperspectral tongue imager is used to capture tongue images instead of a digital camera. New algorithms for automatic tongue fissure extraction and classification, based on hyperspectral images, are presented. Both spectral and spatial information of the tongue surface is used to segment the tongue body and extract tongue fissures. Then a classification algorithm based on a hidden Markov model is used to classify tongue fissures into 12 typical categories. Results of the experiment show that the new method has good performance in terms of the classification rates of correctness. PMID:20389998

  13. Charles Rennie Mackintosh and cancer of the tongue.

    PubMed

    McClymont, L G

    1989-08-01

    The Scottish architect and artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh died of an advanced cancer of the tongue at the age of 60 in 1928. He was treated by radium which was a controversial method at that time. There is good evidence that he was well palliated, and was able to live a fairly normal life for over a year. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in Mackintosh's life and work, but an examination of the literature of the 1920s shows that despite advances in treatment methods over the past 60 years, this has not been matched by an improvement in survival rates for cancer of the tongue. In this unpleasant tumour which history has shown to be particularly resistant to attempts at cure it is important that quality of life is fully considered. PMID:2678471

  14. Perspectives on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rosemary; Neiger, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    In light of the recent NCT petition to Health Minister Dr Dan Poulter MP to update guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tongue-tied babies to avoid stress and difficulties feeding for babies and their families, discussion has been sparked amongst mothers, midwives, health visitors and breastfeeding counsellors as to how exactly services could be improved. Access to evidence-based, family-centred care is vital to address this potentially distressing condition. But are we too quick to jump in with a diagnosis that may ultimately be of no clinical significance? This articles presents two professional perspectives on the issue and highlights the pertinent research available. PMID:25571701

  15. 21 CFR 880.6230 - Tongue depressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tongue depressor. 880.6230 Section 880.6230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6230 Tongue depressor....

  16. Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2008-01-01

    Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

  17. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) for the mu rhythm (813 Hz) and beta (13?25 Hz) bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance. PMID:26441599

  18. Inhibition of Tongue Coat and Dental Plaque Formation by Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Vs Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse: A Randomized, Triple Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Vineet Vaman; Padhye, Ashvini

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an oxidizing agent with known bactericidal, viricidal and fungicidal properties. Its efficacy in reducing the halitosis has been established by previous literature. However, data evaluating its antiplaque property is scarce. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered as the gold standard and an effective adjunctive to mechanical plaque removal. However, it is associated with few reversible side effects. Therefore a study was conducted to assess the antiplaque property of ClO2 containing mouthrinse against CHX mouthrinse. Aims and Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of stabilized chlorine dioxide containing mouthrinse and CHX containing mouthrinse in inhibition of tongue coat accumulation and dental plaque formation using a four day plaque regrowth model clinically and microbiologically in a healthy dental cohort. Materials and Methods A Single Center, Randomized, Triple blinded, Microbiological clinical trial was conducted involving 25 healthy dental students volunteers (11 males, 14 females). Two commercially available mouthrinse: Mouthrinse A – Aqueous based ClO2 mouthrinse Freshchlor® and Mouthrinse B - Aqueous based 0.2% CHX mouthrinse Hexidine® were selected as the test products. Subjects were asked to rinse and gargle for 1 minute with the allocated mouthrinse under supervision after supragingival scaling, polishing and tongue coat removal. After four hours, smears were taken from the buccal mucosa and tooth surface. On the fifth day from baseline of four day non brushing plaque regrowth model the samples were again taken from buccal mucosa and tooth surface followed by recording of plaque scores by Rastogi Modification of Navy Plaque index, extent of tongue coat by Winkel’s tongue coating index and measuring tongue coat wet weight in grams. The samples collected were subjected to microbial analysis and the results were expressed as colony forming units (CFUs) per sample. Statistical Analysis The Data was analysed using SPSS 16.00 and presented using descriptive statistics. Independent t-test was used for the comparison between mouthrinse A groups & mouthrinse B group. Results The plaque scores and Winkels tongue coat scores, wet tongue coat weight recorded on the fifth day after the use of the two mouthrinse didn’t show a statistically significant difference. The CFU per sample from tooth and mucosa after four hours revealed low bacteria count with respect to mouthrinse B however the CFU obtained on the fifth day did not show a statistically significant difference between the two mouthrinse. Conclusion The clinical antiplaque efficacy of CHX and ClO2 mouthwash is comparable and so is the efficacy in reducing the oral bacterial load. PMID:26501017

  19. Cortico-muscular synchronization by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles during isometric tongue protrusion.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Hitoshi; Mima, Tatsuya; Yazawa, Shogo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Funahashi, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Tongue movements contribute to oral functions including swallowing, vocalizing, and breathing. Fine tongue movements are regulated through efferent and afferent connections between the cortex and tongue. It has been demonstrated that cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) is reflected at two frequency bands during isometric tongue protrusions: the beta (β) band at 15-35Hz and the low-frequency band at 2-10Hz. The CMC at the β band (β-CMC) reflects motor commands from the primary motor cortex (M1) to the tongue muscles through hypoglossal motoneuron pools. However, the generator mechanism of the CMC at the low-frequency band (low-CMC) remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of low-CMC during isometric tongue protrusion using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) were also recorded following electrical tongue stimulation. Significant low-CMC and β-CMC were observed over both hemispheres for each side of the tongue. Time-domain analysis showed that the MEG signal followed the electromyography signal for low-CMC, which was contrary to the finding that the MEG signal preceded the electromyography signal for β-CMC. The mean conduction time from the tongue to the cortex was not significantly different between the low-CMC (mean, 80.9ms) and SEFs (mean, 71.1ms). The cortical sources of low-CMC were located significantly posterior (mean, 10.1mm) to the sources of β-CMC in M1, but were in the same area as tongue SEFs in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). These results reveal that the low-CMC may be driven by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles to S1, and that the oscillatory interaction was derived from each side of the tongue to both hemispheres. Oscillatory proprioceptive feedback from the tongue muscles may aid in the coordination of sophisticated tongue movements in humans. PMID:26774611

  20. Resemblance of Tongue Anatomy in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Andrew I.; Brand, Joseph G.; Buischi, Yvonne; Bretz, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the anatomical features of the tongue in nine pairs of twins — six monozygotic and three dizygotic. The aim of the project was to determine if tongues, like any other anatomical structure, could be used to reliably predict relatedness given that tongue shape, presentation and surface can be influenced by environment. Using the method of forced choice, 30 subjects were asked to match the photographs of tongues from twins. Our data indicate that, based on visual assessment, monozygotic twins have highly similar tongues (60% matches); similarly, dizygotic twins were matched 31% of the time, which is a higher probability than would be expected from random selection. This study should help identify baseline and control data in future behavioral studies of taste, which has a genetic basis. PMID:21623658

  1. Severe dental open bite malocclusion with tongue reduction after orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hotokezaka, H; Matsuo, T; Nakagawa, M; Mizuno, A; Kobayashi, K

    2001-06-01

    We treated a 21-year-old woman with a severe open bite and macroglossia with a standard edgewise appliance and without partial glossectomy. This was followed by retention using a Begg-type plate retainer for the upper dental arch and a fixed canine-to-canine for the lower arch. A crib was added to the upper plate retainer for suppression of a tongue thrust. The lower arch relapsed during the retention period, with a widening of the intermolar distance, flaring of the anterior teeth, and increased mobility of the teeth. We chose tongue reduction to resolve these problems and one-third of the middle dorsal part of the tongue was excised. After the tongue reduction, the patient experienced no functional problem in mastication, swallowing, and gustation, but she complained of mild speech difficulty and slight pain on the dorsal portion of her tongue. These symptoms disappeared 6 months after surgery. At this time, the mandibular dental arch was markedly improved. The flared lower dental arch had returned to an upright position and the tooth mobility reduced to normal. No appliance was used after surgery. Most of the recovery changes occurred within 4 months. This case highlights the importance of the teeth tending to move toward a balance between the tongue pressure from the inside and labio-buccal pressure from the outside. PMID:11407776

  2. Screening for Intestinal Microflora Influencing Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Mouse Cecal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    DOBASHI, Yuu; ITOH, Kikuji; TOHEI, Atsushi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have suggested that intestinal microflora reduces the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mouse cecal mucosa. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were used to examine the species of intestinal microflora influencing SOD activity in the cecal mucosa. The total SOD activity in the cecal mucosa of each germ-free (GF), gnotobiotic mouse with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was significantly higher than that in the cecal mucosa of gnotobiotic mice with chloroform-treated feces (CHF), conventionalized (CVz) mice and conventional (CV) mice (P<0.05). In addition, CuZnSOD mRNA expression showed similar tendencies. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in the cecal mucosa is influenced by CHF inoculation. PMID:24225363

  3. Screening for intestinal microflora influencing superoxide dismutase activity in mouse cecal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Yuu; Itoh, Kikuji; Tohei, Atsushi; Amao, Hiromi

    2014-03-01

    We have suggested that intestinal microflora reduces the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mouse cecal mucosa. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were used to examine the species of intestinal microflora influencing SOD activity in the cecal mucosa. The total SOD activity in the cecal mucosa of each germ-free (GF), gnotobiotic mouse with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was significantly higher than that in the cecal mucosa of gnotobiotic mice with chloroform-treated feces (CHF), conventionalized (CVz) mice and conventional (CV) mice (P<0.05). In addition, CuZnSOD mRNA expression showed similar tendencies. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in the cecal mucosa is influenced by CHF inoculation. PMID:24225363

  4. Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

  5. [Status of the buccal mucosa in subjects occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxyherbicides].

    PubMed

    Chemikosova, T S; Kamalova, O A; Ibragimova, Z N

    2004-01-01

    Examinations of workers engaged in the production of chlorophenoxyherbicides showed high prevalence of diseases of the buccal and labial mucosa with a trend to development of hyperkeratosis (exfoliative cheilitis, hyperkeratosis of the tongue, lips, buccal mucosa (BM), flat form of the BM and red lip leukoplakia). Cytogenetic effects of toxins on BM result in an increase of keratinization level, higher incidence of nuclear abnormalities, and appearance of the micronuclei in BM epithelium. A direct relationship between the severity of these symptoms, duration of exposure, and intensity of workers' contact with chlorophenoxyherbicides was revealed. The complex of noninvasive and atraumatic methods used in our study helped evaluate the BM status and can be used not only for visual examination, but also for the diagnosis of transformation of the defense reaction of the epithelium into pathological process and for preclinical detection of precancer changes in BM. PMID:15021869

  6. Granule proteinases define mast cell heterogeneity in the serosa and the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, H R; Huntley, J F; Newlands, G F; Mackellar, A; Lammas, D A; Wakelin, D

    1988-01-01

    In order to define further mast cell heterogeneity in the mouse, affinity-purified antibodies against a 28,000 MW serine proteinase from mouse intestinal mast cells (IMCP) and against rat mast cell proteinase I (RMCPI) were used to characterize mast cell cytoplasmic granules immunohistochemically. On Western blot, anti-IMCP cross-reacted with RMCPI and with a 25,000 MW antigen from isolated mouse serosal mast cells (SMC). Anti-RMCPI did not react with IMCP, although it identified the same 25,000 MW antigen from SMC. Isolated SMC (85-90% pure) lacked the 28,000 MW IMCP on Western blot, even though, immunohistochemically, the cells were stained with both anti-RMCPI and anti-IMCP. Anti-IMCP stained the granules of more than 85% of all mast cells detected with toluidine blue in the tongue or gastrointestinal mucosa. The specificity of anti-RMCPI which, in the rat, detects very few mucosal mast cells was almost identical to that of anti-IMCP for murine tongue and gastric and large intestinal mucosae, but a significant proportion of cells in distal jejunal, ileal and caecal mucosae were not stained with this antibody. The immunohistochemistry of the large numbers of mast cells recruited to jejunum following infection 10 days previously with 300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae was similar to that of uninfected control mice. The results show that considerable mast cell heterogeneity exists within the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse and indicate that there are both similarities and differences between mouse and rat in the distribution of mast cells and of their granule proteinases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3065218

  7. Connexin dynamics in the privileged wound healing of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nicola G; Phillips, Anthony; Becker, David L

    2013-01-01

    Wound closure is fundamental to maintaining tissue homeostasis; a plethora of processes and signals must be coordinated, and gap junctions play a critical role. Some tissues exhibit privileged healing, such as buccal mucosa, repairing more rapidly, but gap junction connexin dynamics during wound healing in such tissues have not been investigated. To determine connexin changes during this rapid healing process, incisional wounds were made in the cheeks of mice and microscopically observed. We discovered that buccal mucosa wound edge keratinocytes do not form a thin tongue of migratory cells like epidermis; instead, a wedge of cells rapidly moves into the wound. The dorsal surfaces of opposing sides of the wounds then touch and join in a "V," which subsequently fills up with cells to form a "delta" that remodels into a flat sheet. Immunostaining showed that connexin26, connexin30, and connexin43 are expressed at significantly higher levels in the buccal mucosa than the epidermis and that, unlike the skin, all three are rapidly down-regulated at the wound edge within 6 hours of wounding. This rapid down-regulation of all three connexins may in part underlie the rapid healing of the buccal mucosa. PMID:23627777

  8. Frog tongue acts as muscle-powered adhesive tape

    PubMed Central

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-01-01

    Frogs are well known to capture fast-moving prey by flicking their sticky tongues out of the mouth. This tongue projection behaviour happens extremely fast which makes frog tongues a biological high-speed adhesive system. The processes at the interface between tongue and prey, and thus the mechanism of adhesion, however, are completely unknown. Here, we captured the contact mechanics of frog tongues by filming tongue adhesion at 2000 frames per second through an illuminated glass. We found that the tongue rolls over the target during attachment. However, during the pulling phase, the tongue retractor muscle acts perpendicular to the target surface and thus prevents peeling during tongue retraction. When the tongue detaches, mucus fibrils form between the tongue and the target. Fibrils commonly occur in pressure-sensitive adhesives, and thus frog tongues might be a biological analogue to these engineered materials. The fibrils in frog tongues are related to the presence of microscopic papillae on the surface. Together with a layer of nanoscale fibres underneath the tongue epithelium, these surface papillae will make the tongue adaptable to asperities. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we are able to integrate anatomy and function to explain the processes during adhesion in frog tongues. PMID:26473054

  9. Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

  10. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (P<0.005), and there was also a significant increase in tongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles. PMID:26399776

  11. Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to determine tongue coating microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bai; Liang, Xujun; Chen, Yang; Ma, Tao; Liu, Liyang; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Shao

    2012-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis is a unique method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first investigation on the association between traditional tongue diagnosis and the tongue coating microbiome using next-generation sequencing. The study included 19 gastritis patients with a typical white-greasy or yellow-dense tongue coating corresponding to TCM Cold or Hot Syndrome respectively, as well as eight healthy volunteers. An Illumina paired-end, double-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing protocol was designed to profile the tongue-coating microbiome, from which approximately 3.7 million V6 tags for each sample were obtained. We identified 123 and 258 species-level OTUs that were enriched in patients with Cold/Hot Syndromes, respectively, representing "Cold Microbiota" and "Hot Microbiota". We further constructed the tongue microbiota-imbalanced networks associated with Cold/Hot Syndromes. The results reveal an important connection between the tongue-coating microbiome and traditional tongue diagnosis, and illustrate the potential of the tongue-coating microbiome as a novel holistic biomarker for characterizing patient subtypes. PMID:23226834

  12. Pigmented lesion of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  13. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    HAN, SHUWEN; YANG, XI; QI, QUAN; PAN, YUEFEN; CHEN, YONGCHAO; SHEN, JUNJUN; LIAO, HAIHONG; JI, ZHAONING

    2016-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer. PMID:27035407

  14. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer. PMID:27035407

  15. Inductive tongue control of powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Lund, Morten Enemark; Christiensen, Henrik Vie; Caltenco, Hector A; Lontis, Eugen Romulus; Bentsen, Bo; Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S

    2010-01-01

    Alternative and effective methods for controlling powered wheelchairs are important to individuals with tetraplegia and similar impairments whom are unable to use the standard joystick. This paper describes a system where tongue movements are used to control a powered wheelchair thus providing users, with high level spinal cord injuries, full control of their wheelchair. The system is based on an inductive tongue control system developed at Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University. The system emulates a standard analog joystick in order to interface the wheelchair, thus ensuring that the system works with almost any wheelchair. The total embedment of the tongue interface into the mouth makes the control practically invisible. A fuzzy system combining 8 sensors for directional control allows for multidirectional control of the wheelchair. Preliminary test results show navigation abilities, which are highly competitive when compared to other tongue control system. PMID:21097235

  16. Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Alastair; Bowley, Douglas M

    2014-11-01

    Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital variation characterised by a short lingual frenulum which may result in restriction of tongue movement and thus impact on function. Tongue tie division (frenotomy) in affected infants with breastfeeding problems yields objective improvements in milk production and breastfeeding characteristics, including objective scoring measures, weight gain and reductions in maternal pain. For the majority of mothers, frenotomy appears to enhance maintenance of breastfeeding. Tongue tie division is a safe procedure with minimal complications. The commonest complication is minor bleeding. Recurrence leading to redivision occurs with rates of 0.003-13% reported; this appears to be more common with posterior than anterior ties. There are limited reports indicating that prophylactic frenotomy may promote subsequent speech development; however, evidence is currently insufficient to condone this practice and further good quality research into this area is warranted. PMID:25258296

  17. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

  18. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic

  19. A fish that uses its hydrodynamic tongue to feed on land

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Krijn B.; Heiss, Egon; Aerts, Peter; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

    2015-01-01

    To capture and swallow food on land, a sticky tongue supported by the hyoid and gill arch skeleton has evolved in land vertebrates from aquatic ancestors that used mouth-cavity-expanding actions of the hyoid to suck food into the mouth. However, the evolutionary pathway bridging this drastic shift in feeding mechanism and associated hyoid motions remains unknown. Modern fish that feed on land may help to unravel the physical constraints and biomechanical solutions that led to terrestrialization of fish-feeding systems. Here, we show that the mudskipper emerges onto land with its mouth cavity filled with water, which it uses as a protruding and retracting ‘hydrodynamic tongue’ during the initial capture and subsequent intra-oral transport of food. Our analyses link this hydrodynamic action of the intra-oral water to a sequence of compressive and expansive cranial motions that diverge from the general pattern known for suction feeding in fishes. However, the hyoid motion pattern showed a remarkable resemblance to newts during tongue prehension. Consequently, although alternative scenarios cannot be excluded, hydrodynamic tongue usage may be a transitional step onto which the evolution of adhesive mucosa and intrinsic lingual muscles can be added to gain further independence from water for terrestrial foraging. PMID:25788596

  20. How Tongue Size and Roughness Affect Lapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, M. J.; Hay, K. M.

    2012-10-01

    The biomechanics of domestic cat lapping (Felis catus) and domestic dog lapping (Canis familiaris) is currently under debate. Lapping mechanics in vertebrates with incomplete cheeks, such as cats and dogs, is a balance of inertia and the force of gravity likely optimized for ingestion and physical necessities. Physiology dictates vertebrate mass, which dictates vertebrate tongue size, which dictates lapping mechanics to achieve optimum liquid ingestion; with either touch lapping, scooping, or a hybrid lapping method. The physics of this optimized system then determines how high a column of liquid can be raised before it collapses due to gravity, and therefore, lapping frequency. Through tongue roughness model variation experiments it was found that pore-scale geometrical roughness does not appear to affect lapping or liquid uptake. Through tongue size model variation experiments it was found that there is a critical tongue radius in the range of 25 mm to 35 mm above which touch lapping is no longer an efficient way to uptake liquid. Vertebrates with incomplete cheeks may use a touch lapping method to ingest water if their tongue radius is less than this critical radius and use an alternative ingestion method if their tongue radius is larger.

  1. Confocal endomicroscopic imaging of normal and neoplastic human tongue tissue using ALA-induced-PPIX fluorescence: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Harris, Martin; Kho, Kiang Wei; Thong, Patricia S P; Hibbs, Alan; Olivo, Malini; Soo, Khee Chee

    2004-08-01

    Confocal endomicroscopy is a novel and non-invasive microscopic technique that enables surface and subsurface imaging of living tissues or cells in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of utilizing a rigid confocal endomicroscope (RCE) system developed for detecting morphological changes in living normal and neoplastic human tongue tissue in combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence. Three patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue were examined using the novel RCE system with the excitation wavelength at 488 nm from an argon-ion laser and the detection wavelengths of the tissue fluorescence above 515 nm. Patients were topically applied with 0.4% of 5-ALA rinsing solution to the oral mucosa for approximately 15 min, and then the confocal endomicroscopic imaging of tissue PPIX fluorescence was performed on the lesion sites of the tongue after an optimal incubation period of 90-120 min. For comparison purposes, ALA-PPIX fluorescence confocal endomicroscopic imaging was also carried out on the normal sites of the tongue in vivo from two healthy volunteers. Image distortions due to tissue motion can be minimized using a specially designed tissue stabilizer attached to the RCE probe. Good quality ALA-mediated confocal fluorescence images of the tongue can be acquired in real-time, providing well-defined micro-morphological structures (e.g., filiform papillae, keratinized epithelium and fungiform papillae) of the tongue in vivo. Changes of tissue structures in oral tissue associated with cancer transformation can also be clearly identified using the RCE imaging. Preliminary results obtained in this study suggest that ALA-mediated rigid confocal endomicroscopy may have a significant potential for the rapid, non-invasive diagnosis and evaluation of early oral cancers in vivo. PMID:15254708

  2. Molecular and Cellular Regulatory Mechanisms of Tongue Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Parada, C.; Han, D.; Chai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The tongue exerts crucial functions in our daily life. However, we know very little about the regulatory mechanisms of mammalian tongue development. In this review, we summarize recent findings of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis. Specifically, cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) lead the initiation of tongue bud formation and contribute to the interstitial connective tissue, which ultimately compartmentalizes tongue muscles and serves as their attachments. Occipital somite-derived cells migrate into the tongue primordium and give rise to muscle cells in the tongue. The intimate relationship between CNCC- and mesoderm-derived cells, as well as growth and transcription factors that have been shown to be crucial for tongue myogenesis, clearly indicate that tissue-tissue interactions play an important role in regulating tongue morphogenesis. PMID:22219210

  3. Oral mucosa stem cells alleviates spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) deteriorates various physical functions, in particular, bladder problems occur as a result of damage to the spinal cord. Stem cell therapy for SCI has been focused as the new strategy to treat the injuries and to restore the lost functions. The oral mucosa cells are considered as the stem cells-like progenitor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oral mucosa stem cells on the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death and cell proliferation. Results The contraction pressure and the contraction time in the urinary bladder were increased after induction of SCI, in contrast, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells decreased the contraction pressure and the contraction time in the SCI-induced rats. Induction of SCI initiated apoptosis in the spinal cord tissues, whereas treatment with the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed the SCI-induced apoptosis. Disrupted spinal cord by SCI was improved by transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells, and new tissues were increased around the damaged tissues. In addition, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed SCI-induced neuronal activation in the voiding centers. Conclusions Transplantation of oral mucosa stem cells ameliorates the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms by inhibiting apoptosis and by enhancing cell proliferation. As the results, SCI-induced neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers was suppressed, showing the normalization of voiding function. PMID:24884998

  4. In Search of the Lost Tongue: Prospects for Mother Tongue Education in Zambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with the implementation of mother tongue education in Zambia. Focus is on the sociolinguistic situation, language policy after independence, sociolinguistic implications, language use in different domains, language use and ethnic identity in Zambia, Kenya, and Tanzania, prospects for mother tongue education; bilingual…

  5. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 protects gastric mucosa cells against DNA damage caused by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yantao; Gao, Yaohui; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Yinan; Jiang, Yannan; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Chen, Xuehua; Yang, Qiumeng; Su, Liping; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Lishun; Yu, Yingyan

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily and is involved with the metabolic processing of aldehydes. ALDH2 plays a cytoprotective role by removing aldehydes produced during normal metabolism. We examined the cytoprotective role of ALDH2 specifically in gastric mucosa cells. Overexpression of ALDH2 increased the viability of gastric mucosa cells treated with H2O2, while knockdown of ALDH2 had an opposite effect. Moreover, overexpression of ALDH2 protected gastric mucosa cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342, and TUNEL assays. Consistently, ALDH2 knockdown had an opposite effect. Additionally, DNA damage was ameliorated in ALDH2-overexpressing gastric mucosa cells treated with H2O2. We further identified that this cytoprotective role of ALDH2 was mediated by metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Consistently, 4-HNE mimicked the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in gastric mucosa cells. Treatment with 4-HNE increased levels of DNA damage in ALDH2-knockdown GES-1 cells, while overexpression of ALDH2 decreased 4-HNE-induced DNA damage. These findings suggest that ALDH2 can protect gastric mucosa cells against DNA damage caused by oxidative stress by reducing levels of 4-HNE. PMID:26855420

  6. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukahori, Mioko; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Monden, Yu; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls). Methods A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed. Results A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site. Conclusion The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds. PMID:26730600

  7. Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; Şlencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 μg/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 μg/kg bw/day; E3: 1 μg/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases. PMID:25655413

  8. The biomechanics of the human tongue.

    PubMed

    Kajee, Yaseen; Pelteret, J-P V; Reddy, B D

    2013-04-01

    The human tongue is composed mainly of skeletal muscle tissue and has a complex architecture. Its anatomy is characterised by interweaving yet distinct muscle groups. It is a significant contributor to the phenomenon of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. A realistic model of the tongue and computational simulations are important in areas such as linguistics and speech therapy. The aim of this work is to report on the construction of a geometric and constitutive model of the human tongue and to demonstrate its use in computational simulations for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome research. The geometry of the tongue and each muscle group of the tongue, including muscle fibre orientations, are captured from the Visible Human Project dataset. The fully linear muscle model is based on the Hill three-element model that represents the constituent parts of muscle fibres. The mechanics of the model are limited to quasi-static, small-strain, linear-elastic behaviour. The main focus of this work is on the material directionality and muscle activation. The transversely isotropic behaviour of the muscle tissue is accounted for, as well as the influence of muscle activation. The behaviour of the model is illustrated in a number of benchmark tests and for the case of a subject in the supine position. PMID:23319169

  9. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool.

    PubMed

    Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P K

    2012-01-01

    Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields. PMID:22470887

  10. Motivational conditions influence tongue motor performance.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2013-04-01

    Motivation plays an important role in the outcome of motor learning but has not received attention in tongue-training-induced plasticity of the corticomotor pathways. The present study investigated the influence of two different motivational conditions and gender on performance during a complex tongue-training paradigm using the tongue drive system (TDS). In addition, subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain, and fatigue were compared between groups and genders. Sixteen subjects were randomized into three groups and were asked to use the TDS for 40 min. A motivational condition (monetary reward or self-controlled practice) was introduced in two groups and the third group served as the control. The subjects were instructed to play a computer game using the TDS, having control of the computer cursor through a magnet attached to the tongue, and performance was compared among groups. Performance improved in all groups and in both genders. The monetary reward group tended towards higher performance scores compared with the control group, whereas the self-controlled practice group performed significantly better compared with the control group. There was no significant difference between groups and genders in the subject-based report for level of motivation, fun, pain, or fatigue. In conclusion, introduction of motivational conditions influenced tongue motor performance. PMID:23489900

  11. Benign Fibrous Histiocytomas of the Oral Mucosa: Report on Three Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Prisse, Laure-Anne; Jayasooriya, Primali Rukmal; Mendis, Balapuwaduge Ranjit Rigorbert Nihal; Lombardi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (BFH) of the skin are common lesions, although they only rarely involve the oral mucosa. This article presents 3 additional cases of BFH of the oral mucosa, with a review of previously published cases. Although a malignant variant of BFH also exists, the present review focuses only on benign lesions. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of BFH are discussed. According to the present analysis, the majority of oral mucosal BFH have occurred in middle-aged and elderly patients, with a slight female predilection. Within the oral cavity, BHF may occur at any mucosal site, including the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, mandibular and maxillary gingiva as well as the palate. Histopathology is essential to diagnose the lesion, while immunohistochemical investigations may be utilized to exclude the histopathological differential diagnoses such as juvenile xanthogranulomas and nevi. This review also revealed total excision as the treatment of choice for BFH, with a very good prognosis and an extremely low rate of relapse. PMID:27047935

  12. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Vtyurin, B M; Ivanov, V N; Medvedev, V S; Galantseva, G F; Abdulkadyrov, S A; Ivanova, L F; Petrovskaya, G A; Plichko, V I

    1985-03-01

    A clinical study using 252Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Group III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Recurrences occurred in 1 patient (6%) in Group I, 6 patients (35%) in Group II, and 5 patients (33%) in Group III. Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy. PMID:3972658

  13. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons between them. Paired BTAT assessments were obtained from eight midwives who were using the new assessment tool. Results There was acceptable internal reliability for the four-item BTAT (Cronbach's α=0.708) and the eight midwives who used it showed good correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.760). The BTAT showed a strong and significant correlation (0.89) with the ATLFF, indicating that the simpler BTAT could be used in place of the more detailed assessment tool to score the extent of a tongue-tie. Midwives found it quick and easy to use and felt that it would be easy to teach to others. Conclusions The BTAT provides an objective, clear and simple measure of the severity of a tongue-tie, to inform selection of infants for frenotomy and to monitor the effect of the procedure. PMID:25877288

  14. Electronic tongue for microcystin screening in waters.

    PubMed

    Lvova, L; Guanais Gonçalves, C; Petropoulos, K; Micheli, L; Volpe, G; Kirsanov, D; Legin, A; Viaggiu, E; Congestri, R; Guzzella, L; Pozzoni, F; Palleschi, G; Di Natale, C; Paolesse, R

    2016-06-15

    The potentiometric E-tongue system was employed for water toxicity estimation in terms of cyanobacterial microcystin toxins (MCs) detection. The data obtained from E-tongue were correlated to the MCs content detected by the standard chromatographic technique UHPLC-DAD (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector), as far as by the colorimetric enzymatic approach. The prediction of MCs released by toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strains was possible with Root Mean Squared Error of Validation (RMSEV) lower or very close to 1µg/L, the provisional guideline value of WHO for MCs content in potable waters. The application of E-tongue system opens up a new perspective offset for fast and inexpensive analysis in the field of environmental monitoring, offering also the possibility to distinguish toxin producing and non-toxic M. aeruginosa strains present in potable water. PMID:26827145

  15. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    SciTech Connect

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  16. Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

    2009-05-01

    As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

  17. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumour of the posterior tongue.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Marie-Josée; Fiset, Pierre Olivier; Zeitouni, Anthony G; Caglar, Derin

    2014-01-01

    Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare benign neoplasm arising in the tongue. With only 45 cases reported in the literature, there are several unique features defining this lesion. Firstly, almost all patients present with an asymptomatic slow growing mass on the anterior dorsum of the tongue. At the microscopic level, it is recognizable as a well-circumscribed unencapsulated proliferation of uniform round to fusiform cells embedded in a chondromyxoid matrix. Lastly, the immunohistochemistry profile is characterised by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein and frequent positivity for S-100 and cytokeratins. We report a case of a mass located on the posterior dorsum of the tongue and meeting the aforementioned morphological and immunohistochemical criteria of ECMT. PMID:24288100

  18. The tongue as an excitable medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiden, Gabriel; Curland, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    Geographic tongue (GT) is a medical condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known out-of-equilibrium phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics, chemically driven reaction-diffusion systems and morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Here we identify GT as a novel example of excitable media dynamics and explore the evolution of the condition from a dynamical systems perspective. We focus on two characteristic aspects of GT in particular: anisotropic expansion of lesions and re-entry of the inflammation into recovering regions. Our investigation sheds light on the evolution of the inflammation and suggests a practical way to classify the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

  19. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  20. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    PubMed

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny. J. Morphol. 277:351-362, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26647882

  1. Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (25.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

  2. Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (24.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

  3. Congenital angiomyoma of the tongue: case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y-H; Jang, Y-W; Pai, H; Kim, S-G

    2010-01-01

    Angiomyomas of the oral cavity are rare benign vascular neoplasms. In particular, the congenital form has not been reported before in the English language literature. We present a congenital angiomyoma of the tongue that was found on the posterior middle of the tongue in an infant. On MRI, the mass showed an isointense signal to muscle on the T1 weighted image and a slightly hyperintense signal on the T2 weighted image. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive to desmin and smooth muscle actin, but negative to vimentin and S100. The treatment was surgical excision and no recurrence was found during the 26 month follow-up period. PMID:20841464

  4. Clinical and prognostic analysis of second primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanzheng; Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Jiang, Yue; Sun, Ruimei; Fei, Jimin; Xi, Yan; Li, Xiaojiang; Song, Ming; Li, Wenhui; Li, Qiuli

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue after definitive radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and evaluated the effect of common therapeutic regimens for these patients. We retrospectively reviewed follow-up data for patients whose nasopharyngeal carcinoma had been treated by radiotherapy, and selected the 68 who had then developed SCC of the tongue, in the border of the tongue in half, and in the dorsum in 25 (37%). Eight of the 68 patients had clinical lymph node metastasis (12%), and 45 presented with stage I-II disease at the time of the diagnosis of the SCC (66%). Resection or radiotherapy alone was an effective treatment for patients with stage I-II SCC of the tongue, but patients with stage III-IV disease had a poor prognosis, despite being given multidisciplinary treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors that independently influenced the survival of these patients were use of alcohol, recurrence of their nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the latency period, and the clinical TNM stage. Tongue SCC after radiotherapy was generally at an early stage and commonly occurred on the border or the dorsum of the tongue, with few lymph node metastases. Resection or radiotherapy is an effective treatment, and the risk factors that independently influenced the survival of patients indicate that improving the technique of radiotherapy and close follow-up after nasopharyngeal cancer are vitally important. PMID:25085271

  5. Teaching the Mother Tongue in a Multilingual Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulasiewicz, Witold, Ed.; Adams, Anthony, Ed.

    This book on mother tongue (native language) teaching in Europe contains three parts. The first explores definitions and teaching implications of mother tongues, including issues of language identity, language standards, mother tongue roles, and language policies in the European Union. The second part consists of nine case studies: "Teaching the

  6. Linguatula serrata Tongue Worm in Human Eye, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Koehsler, Martina; Georgopoulos, Michael; Pruente, Christian; Boeckeler, Wolfgang; Auer, Herbert; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2011-01-01

    Linguatula serrata, the so-called tongue worm, is a worm-like, bloodsucking parasite belonging to the Pentastomida group. Infections with L. serrata tongue worms are rare in Europe. We describe a case of ocular linguatulosis in central Europe and provide molecular data on L. serrata tongue worms. PMID:21529398

  7. Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouni, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback

  8. Tongue tie and breastfeeding: assessing and overcoming the difficulties.

    PubMed

    Breward, Sharon

    2006-09-01

    Tongue tie, a condition in which the tongue's mobility is restricted, may reduce the ability of babies to breastfeed successfully. In this age of mass artificial feeding, the management of this condition has been, until recently, overlooked. This article highlights the effects of tongue tie on breastfeeding and what health professionals should be doing to assess and manage any difficulties PMID:17009777

  9. Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouni, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

  10. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  11. Carprofen-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of the colonic mucosa of the dog

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Lynne A.; McConnico, Rebecca S.; Morgan, Timothy W.; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R.; Hosgood, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 μg/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure. PMID:24982549

  12. A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

  13. Role of tongue pressure production in oropharyngeal swallow biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Magara, Jin; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Li, Qiang; Ono, Takahiro; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The tongue is important for orofacial movements, including swallowing. Although numerous studies have focused on tongue pressure against the palate, its physiological role has not been fully evaluated. The tongue pressure generation may have the temporal coordination with the swallowing relational organs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological mechanisms of tongue pressure and to investigate the temporal relationship among tongue pressure, supra-hyoid muscle activity, and videofluorographic (VF) images during swallowing. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated. Tongue pressure measured using a sensor sheet with five channels, electromyographic EMG, and VF was recorded synchronously during 4-ml barium swallowing. Swallowing behavior in VF images with and without the sensor sheet was compared. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between events measured from tongue pressure, EMG, and VF was evaluated. Swallowing behavior on VF images was not affected by placement of the sensor sheet. Tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral point of the hard palate tended to have biphasic peaks. Tongue pressure production with a monophasic pattern appeared during the same period as the second peak in the biphasic pattern. The onset of tongue pressure was later than the start of hyoid movement and onset of EMG, and offset was observed between the hyoid at the up-forward position and reposition. Onset of tongue pressure at the anterior area was correlated with the start of slight hyoid elevation. Offset of tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral points was strongly time locked with the hyoid at the up-forward position. The present results suggested the temporal coordination of tongue pressure generation with the swallowing-related organs. That is, the tongue pressure was produced for bolus propulsion, and was closely related to hyoid movement temporally during swallowing. These results may contribute to clarify the clinical state with the disorder of tongue kinetics. PMID:24400166

  14. [Virus diseases of the mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Nasemann, T

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with the system of viral species, viral disorders of the oral mucosa may be classified with regard to their intensity of affection. There are but few viral infections exclusively affecting the oral mucosa like e.g. 1. Glossitis papulosa of Michelson, representing a special form of vaccinia inoculata, 2. Gingivo-stomatitis herpetica and 3. warts of the mucosa or condyloma-like papillomas of the oral mucosa including oral papillomatosis, that, itself shows morphological and clinical similarities to laryngeal papilloma. A second group of disorders mainly affecting the oral mucosa includes the "Aphthoid of Pospischill and Feyrter", Zahorsky's herpangina and other viral infections by the Coxsackie group, like vesicular stomatitis. The 3rd group represents viral infections of other organs in which affection of the oral mucosa is a prerogative, e.g. smallpox, varicella, foot-and-mouth disease and pharyngo-conjunctival fever. A 4th group includes those viral infections of the organs in which co-affection of oral mucosa occurs frequently or once in a while (at occasions). Here, we find eczema vaccinatum, herpes zoster, herpes simplex of the oral mucosa mostly on the hard palate, eczema herpeticatum, post-herpetic Erythema exsudativum multiforme, Mononucleosis infectiosa Pfeiffer, viral flu, German measles, parotitis epidemica, rubeola and ECHO-exanthema. A 5th and last group is made up by viral infections of other organs, in which affection of the oral mucosa hardly occurs at all. This group contains paravaccinal Ecthyma contagiosum, poliomyelitis, viral infection of the city of Marburg and some Arbovirus infections. Relatively few viral disorders never co-exist with lesions on the oral mucosa like e.g. Virus-hepatitis or some viral encephalitides. Groups 1 and 2, most important of all, are presented in detail regarding clinics, diagnostics, differential-diagnosis and therapy. The disorders within the other 3 groups are discussed only regarding their importance in the field of ENT-related symptoms of the oral mucosa. A number of pictures and tables completes important clinical details and give further hints to their differential-diagnosis. PMID:830106

  15. [Vesiculobullous lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Spijkervet, F K; Vissink, A; Raghoebar, G M; van der Waal, I

    2001-06-01

    In general practice, the dentist can be confronted with a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa. In many cases the lesion can be classified as recurrent herpes labialis, but many other causes can induce a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa and perioral skin as well. This article gives an overview of the various vesiculous and bullous lesions of the oral mucous membranes. Special attention is given to the possible causes and their treatment. PMID:11441714

  16. Between the confusion of tongues and the gift of tongues. Or working as a psychoanalyst in a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan Pablo

    2004-12-01

    The author worked as a psychoanalyst for 5 years in Germany. In this paper, he attempts to answer the question 'How was it possible that, in spite of his imperfect knowledge of German, notwithstanding a deepening understanding of the language during his residence in the country, he was able to successfully treat so many patients? ' He starts by putting forward some distinctions between the activity of interpretation as translation of the unconscious with the patient in session and the activity of translation of texts. After a brief exegetic review of the myths of Babel and Pentecost, he suggests that the analyst working in a foreign language moves between 'the confusion of tongues' and the 'gift of tongues', that is, between Babel and Pentecost. He presents some vignettes to illustrate typical situations he encountered in his practice. Finally, he draws some conclusions from this experience of psychoanalytic polyglotism, mainly on the basis of the communicative function that modern infant research assigns to affect attunement and verbal language. PMID:15801513

  17. Protective and reparative effects of peptides from soybean β-conglycinin on mice intestinal mucosa injury.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianhua; Yang, Baichong; Lv, Ying; Guo, Shuntang

    2014-05-01

    Peptides derived from alcalase digestion of soybean β-conglycinin, containing 8.52% carbohydrate, exhibits an inhibition effect on pathogen adhesion or translocation to intestinal cells in vitro. In this study, the protective and reparative effects of β-conglycinin peptides on intestinal mucosa injury in vivo were studied using mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal mucosa injury. The results showed that β-conglycinin peptides contained approximately 21.77% glutamic acid (Glu), and significantly reduced the histological injury in mice both in the protective and reparative experiments. The myeloperoxidase activity of mice treated with β-conglycinin peptides decreased compared with those treated DSS in the positive control group. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that β-conglycinin peptides inhibited the expression of inflammatory factor NF-κB/p65. These results suggested that peptides derived from soybean β-conglycinin exhibited protective and reparative effects on mice intestinal mucosa injury. PMID:24224901

  18. Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) and breastfeeding: a review.

    PubMed

    Berg, K L

    1990-09-01

    Tongue-tie (partial ankyloglossia) is a congenital condition in which the membrane under the tongue is too short or may be attached too near the tip of the tongue, thereby preventing tongue protrusion. Considerable controversy among health professionals persists regarding the appropriate treatment of partial ankyloglossia. Therefore, lactation consultants need to be aware of tongue-tie and its potential negative impact on breastfeeding. This discussion examines issues relating to the possible need for treatment and the role of the lactation consultant in the evaluation and care of the infant who presents with ankyloglossia. PMID:2205229

  19. Mother Tongue Education: The West African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo, Ed.

    In the rapidly changing political, economic, and social life of West Africa, there is a renewed interest in cultural identity. This book describes the developments and the difficulties experienced by different West African countries in the use of mother tongues in multi-lingual society. The book was commissioned to give scholars, educators, and…

  20. The Tongue Map, Real or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Students need practice in proposing hypotheses, developing experiments that will test these hypotheses, and generating data that they will analyze to support or refute them. I describe a guided-inquiry activity based on the "tongue map" concept, appropriate for middle school and high school students.

  1. [Unilateral tongue atrophy and articulation difficulties].

    PubMed

    Lüers, J-C; Isfort, P; Bovenschulte, H; Beutner, D

    2010-01-01

    A 24-year-old female complained of difficulty articulating and chewing of 2 more than weeks' standing. She reported that her tongue felt "heavy and inert". Clinically, right-sided atrophy of the tongue and deflection of the tongue to the right were observed. Tone audiogram demonstrated normal hearing on both sides and tympanometry was also normal. On CT, a bone-destroying process was seen in the area of the right lateral skull base, which reached as far as the internal carotid artery. MRI demonstrated atrophy of the right tongue musculature with fatty degeneration, as well as an oval, smoothly edged lesion which showed marked contrast-medium uptake with a "salt and pepper" configuration in the region of the right jugular foramen. The diagnosis was hypoglossal paresis due to ipsilateral jugular paraganglioma (Fisch classification C1). Following embolization of the feeding vessels of the paraganglioma, the tumor was completely resected, including the hypoglossal nerve which ran through the tumor. Postoperative dysfunction of the vagus and facial nerves became unsymptomatic with time as a result of logopedic therapy. PMID:19727629

  2. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  3. Significant Geometry Features in Tongue Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bob; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    The shape of a human tongue and its relation to a patients' state, either healthy or diseased (and if diseased which disease), is quantitatively analyzed using geometry features by means of computerized methods in this paper. Thirteen geometry features based on measurements, distances, areas, and their ratios are extracted from tongue images captured by a specially designed device with color correction. Using the features, 5 tongue shapes (rectangle, acute and obtuse triangles, square, and circle) are defined based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Classification of the shapes is subsequently carried out with a decision tree. A large dataset consisting of 672 images comprising of 130 healthy and 542 disease examples (labeled according to Western medical practices) are tested. Experimental results show that the extracted geometry features are effective at tongue shape classification (coarse level). Even if more than one disease class belongs to the same shape, the disease classes can still be discriminated via fine level classification using a combination of the geometry features, with an average accuracy of 76.24% for all shapes. PMID:26246842

  4. Mother Tongue Education: Necessary? Possible? Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Barbara Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Issues affecting pre-school education in a rural area of Kenya are highlighted in a study of a mother tongue education (MTE) programme in one indigenous language group, the Pokomo. Factors supporting the introduction of MTE include official support for MTE, the welcoming of non-government stakeholder involvement in education, the presence of…

  5. Tidal rifting of the Mertz glacier tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legresy, Benoit; Lescarmontier, Lydie; Coleman, Richard; Young, Neal; Testut, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    The IPY CRAC-ICE project is aimed at monitoring the calving of the Mertz Glacier tongue in East Antarctica, which extends 140km from its grounding line. Legresy et al. (2004) observed dramatic ice flow changes at daily time scales linked to tide currents, using limited GPS observations and SAR interferometry. In November 2007, we deployed a network of GPS beacons on the glacier. Two months of GPS data were collected at the end of the field season from two stations straddling the main rift. We have analyzed ERS INSAR, SAR, Landsat and SPOT images, Radio echo sounding and the GPS data together to draw an overall description of the rifting and calving process for the Mertz glacier tongue. We describe the history of this rifting during the available 14 years observation period. The ice tongue is freely floating and has a longitudinal velocity of about 3m/day. It is clear that the ice flow is affected at daily time scales by the tides. A kind of stick-slip effect appears to also occur at daily scales. We see a modulation of the flow at fortnightly time scales; however, we also observe that the maximum speed occurs a few days after the spring tides. The ice tongue moves in an E-W direction in response to the force exerted by tide currents at all time scales. We find that the rifting is likely initiated by the tide current induced lateral hinging of the ice tongue, creating regularly spaced (~1km) weak lines on the glacier tongue across flow. The rifts further propagate into these weakness lines. Now that the rifts on both east and west sides of the glacier have significantly progressed, the daily to seasonal scale hinging is now happening between the down stream and upstream parts of the ice tongue. The rift is opening quickly at some 0.12 m/day at an angle of 35° from the main flow direction. We observe a residual rotation of the rift opening with a radius of 15 km. The rotation center is situated in the eastern part of the rift, which appears active at the daily scale. We present the results with an emphasis on the future possible calving scenarios.

  6. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  7. Multiple Histiocytic Foam Cell Nodules in the Tongue of Miniature Dachshund Dogs.

    PubMed

    Katou-Ichikawa, C; Izawa, T; Sasai, H; Kuwamura, M; Yamate, J

    2016-05-01

    Miniature dachshund dogs are a common breed in Japan and are known to be predisposed to granulomatous diseases. Here we report the pathologic features of multiple lingual nodules in 7 miniature dachshunds. Seven dogs had multiple nodules of variable sizes mainly on the ventral and lateral surface of the tongue. In addition, 1 dog also had masses on the left oral mucosa. Three cases had recurrence after surgical resection. Histologically, the lingual nodules were composed of aggregates of foam cells with clear vacuolated cytoplasm that were negative for oil red O, PAS, and alcian blue. They stained positively for CD204 (macrophage scavenger receptor) and MHC class II and negatively for Iba-1, E-cadherin, adipophilin, cytokeratins, S-100, and nestin. These findings indicate that the multiple lingual nodules in miniature dachshunds are an unusual, unique lesion consisting of macrophage-derived foam cells, which does not correspond to canine lingual diseases reported to date. PMID:26173452

  8. Congenital Tongue Mass With Concomitant Cleft Palate and Bifid Tongue: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Jared C; Johnson, Adam B; Tran, H Henry; Yu, Zhongxin; Glade, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    A case report of a congenital, lingual, salivary gland choristoma with bifid tongue and cleft palate is presented. The patient was born with airway obstruction in supine positioning. Laryngoscopy revealed a midline tongue mass that extended into the hypopharyx and pathological examination showed a congenital ectopic salivary gland. The bifid tongue was repaired at the time of surgical excision. Literature review revealed nine additional cases of congenital lingual mass, bifid tongue, and cleft palate. The most common tongue mass reported was hamartoma (40%), but the differential diagnoses include hamartoma, teratoma, and salivary choristoma. PMID:26171569

  9. Schwannoma of the Tongue in a Paediatric Patient: A Case Report and 20-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Nitin; Borle, Rajiv; Khemka, Gaurav; Kumar, Sanatan

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas (Neurilemmomas) are benign, encapsulated, slow-growing, and usually solitary tumours originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath with uncertain etiology. Approximately 25–48% of cases are seen in the head and neck region, of which 1% appears in the oral cavity. Lingual schwannoma can affect all age groups with peak incidence between the third and sixth decade. We report a rare case of lingual schwannoma in a 14-year-old girl complaining of asymptomatic swelling over lateral border of tongue since two years. Clinical examination revealed a nodule 1.5 × 1 cm in size, rubbery, nontender, smooth at right lateral border of tongue covered by normal mucosa, with no cervical lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion was done under local anaesthesia. The histological sections spindle cells with thin wavy nuclei arranged as typical Antoni A (with Verocay bodies) and Antoni B areas. Nuclear palisading distribution (typical of a schwannoma) was readily identifiable. The patient was recurrence-free after one year. PMID:25126428

  10. Newer Classification System for Fissured Tongue: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Sree Vijayabala, G.; Samata, Y.; Ravikiran, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Fissured tongue is a commonly encountered tongue disorder in dental practice. But there is a lack of data on different pattern, severity, and association of fissuring with various systemic disorders and other tongue anomalies. This study attempts to establish a classification system for fissured tongue and to know the correlation with the systemic health and other disorders of the tongue. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 subjects between the age groups of 10 and 80 years were included in the study. Pattern of fissuring, allied systemic diseases, and related tongue anomalies were tabulated. Results. Out of 1000 subjects, 387 subjects presented with fissured tongue. Out of 387 subjects, hypertension was present in 57 cases, 18 subjects had diabetes, and 3 subjects had both hypertension and diabetes. Central longitudinal type was found to be the most common type of tongue fissuring. Conclusion. Fissured tongue has been found to be associated with certain systemic disease and further researches are required to know positive correlation. If a correlation exists, such disorders could be diagnosed earlier by identifying fissured tongue at an earlier age. PMID:26457087

  11. Protective Effect and Mechanisms of Radix Astragali Injection on the Intestinal Mucosa of Rats with Obstructive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Xiping, Zhang; Ke, Weng; Yaping, Yu; Hongchan, Zhao; Qihui, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To research the protective effects and mechanisms of Radix Astragali injection on the intestinal mucosa of rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ). Methods. The rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, model control and Radix Astragali treated group. We observed the pathological changes of intestinal mucosa, expression levels of Bax and NF-κB proteins, and apoptosis indexes in intestinal mucosa as well as serum NO, MDA and SOD contents, respectively, on 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d after operation. Results. The pathological severity score (on 7d and 14d), apoptotic indexes (on 14d) of the intestinal mucosa and serum MDA content (on 14d) of treated group were significantly lower than those in the model control group (P < .05). The serum SOD contents (on all time points) of treated group were significantly higher than those in the model control group (P < .05). The sham-operated group (on 21d) of the product of staining intensity and positive rate of Bax protein was significantly lower than model control group (P < .05). Conclusion. Radix Astragali injection could protect the intestinal mucosa of OJ rats by increasing the content of SOD, reducing the content of MDA, inhibiting the apoptosis and relieving the pathological changes of intestinal mucosa. PMID:20300591

  12. A 3 dimensional assessment of the depth of tumor invasion in microinvasive tongue squamous cell carcinoma - A case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amit-Byatnal, Aditi; Natarajan, Jayalakshmi; Shenoy, Satish; Kamath, Asha; Hunter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the depth of tumor invasion (DI) in microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) of the tongue is critical to prognosis. An arithmetic model is generated to determine a reliable method of measurement of DI and correlate this with the local recurrence. Material and Methods Tumor thickness (TT) and DI were measured in tissue sections of 14 cases of MISCC of the tongue, by manual ocular micrometer and digital image analysis at four reference points (A, B, C, and D). The comparison of TT and DI with relevant clinicopathologic parameters was assessed using Mann Whitney U test. Reliability of these methods and the values obtained were compared and correlated with the recurrence of tumors by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. 3D reconstruction of the lesion was done on a Cartesian coordinate system. X face was on the YZ plane and Z face was on the XY plane of the coordinate system. Results Computer generated 3D model of oral mucosa in four cases that recurred showed increased DI in the Z coordinate compared to the XY coordinate. The median DI measurements between XY and Z coordinates in these cases showed no significant difference (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, p = 0.068). Conclusions The assessment of DI in 3 dimensions is critical for accurate assessment of MISCC and precise DI allows complete removal of tumor. Key words:Depth of invasion, tumor thickness, microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26449426

  13. Flow and mixing around a glacier tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. L.; Stewart, C. L.; Robinson, N. J.; Williams, M. J. M.; Haskell, T. G.

    2010-08-01

    A glacier tongue floating in the coastal ocean presents a significant obstacle to the local flow and influences oceanic mixing and transport processes. Here ocean shear microstructure observations at a glacier tongue side-wall show tidally-induced flow pulses and vortices as well as concomitant mixing. Flow speeds within the pulses reached around three times that of the ambient tidal flow amplitude and generated vertical velocity shear as large as 310-3 s-1. During the maximum flow period turbulent energy dissipation rates reached a maximum of 10-5 m2 s-3, around three decades greater than local background levels. This is in keeping with estimates of the gradient Richardson Number which dropped to around unity. Associated vertical diffusivities are higher that expected from parameterization, possibly reflecting the proximity of the cryotopography.

  14. Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

  15. Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well

  16. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  17. Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hintz, b.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Chan, P.; Gilbert, H.A.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Wollin, M.

    1980-06-01

    Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely.

  18. Sensing Basic Tastes by Electronic Tongue Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Zoltán; Szöllősi, Dániel; Fekete, András; Isz, Sandrine

    2011-09-01

    There is an increasing demand to develop method for simulating the human taste perception by objective instruments1. The task was to develop method for the assessment of definite taste attributes. Therefore, our objective was to develop complete method for sensing different taste attributes. The subject of this work was to test the Specific Sensor Array for taste screening developed by Alpha M.O.S. Different brands of carrot juices were analyzed by an Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue (ET) and a trained sensory panel. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the different carrot juice samples were significantly different from each other in some taste attributes. The electronic tongue was able to distinguish the tested samples according to the measurement results evaluated by multivariate statistics. Furthermore, the relevant taste attributes of carrot juice samples such as sour taste could be predicted by definite sensors of the electronic tongue. Based on our results we concluded that the selected sensors of the Specific Sensor Array could be an appropriate tool for estimating important taste attributes of the tested carrot juice samples.

  19. Carcinoma of the oral tongue: a study of patient selection and treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Lee, F.; Freeman, R.B.; Zivnuska, F.R.; Ogura, J.H.

    1981-09-01

    Retrospective review of 118 primarily treated cancers of the oral tongue was done to study patient selection and to search for improved treatment strategies. Small surface lesions were treated by local excision (LE); most small lesions invading muscle of the tongue without lymph node metastases were treated by radiation alone (RA) while larger lesions and those with palpable nodes were treated by preoperative radiation and surgery (R + S). Ultimate control of the primary tumor and lymph nodes after initial treatment and surgical salvage was high for the lesions by LE (91%), the T1N0 lesions treated by RA (88%) and for the TxN+ lesions treated by R + S (57%). Improved treatment strategies are suggested for T2N0 lesions treated by RA because of poor tumor control (53%) and a high rate of radiation complications (25%), and for T3N0 lesions because so many of these patients died from causes other than cancer within two years. Second primary cancers were most common in those patients with a good prognosis.

  20. Direct evidence of monocyte recruitment to inflammatory bowel disease mucosa.

    PubMed

    Grimm, M C; Pullman, W E; Bennett, G M; Sullivan, P J; Pavli, P; Doe, W F

    1995-01-01

    Alterations in phenotype and function of intestinal macrophages occur in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but it is unclear whether these changes result from the recruitment of circulating monocytes to the intestine or from proliferation of resident intestinal macrophages. We sought to demonstrate the arrival of blood monocytes, the precursors of macrophages, in IBD mucosa. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 23 patients with clinically active intestinal inflammation (13 Crohn's disease, eight ulcerative colitis, two infective colitis), then radiolabelled with 99mtechnetium (Tc)-stannous colloid (n = 13) or 111indium (In)-oxine (n = 10) before re-injection and abdominal scanning. Four patients had demonstrable intestinal monocyte uptake using [99mTc]-stannous colloid, while six [111In]-oxine-labelled monocyte scans were positive. Uptake sites correlated with actively inflamed regions. Patients demonstrating monocyte uptake had been treated with corticosteroids for a significantly (P < 0.02) shorter duration (median 3 vs 20 days) than those with negative scans. There was no significant difference between positive and negative scans for disease category, clinical or histological disease, activity, or radioisotope used. Biopsies of inflamed mucosa from two patients suffering ulcerative colitis who had positive scans showed a high proportion of CD14-positive macrophages, 4-9% of which contained autoradiographic grains. These results demonstrate that blood monocytes are recruited to the mucosa of actively inflamed bowel, and suggest that this process may be inhibited by corticosteroids. Moreover, the phenotype of the recently-arrived monocytes indicates their susceptibility to stimulation by lipopolysaccharide, and suggests a mechanism for the continuing inflammation in the bacterial product-rich milieu of IBD. PMID:8527703

  1. Peritoneal mesothelioma metastasis to the tongue – Comparison with 8 pleural mesothelioma reports with tongue metastases

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Melisa V.; Selvendran, Selwyn; Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; McKay, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Malignant mesothelioma (MM) rarely arises from the peritoneum. We describe the 1st such case which metastasised to the head and neck region (tongue). Methods We briefly surveyed the American Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, and the British Cancer Research UK database for the latest trends in MM incidence. We did a systematic Pubmed search for other MM reports with tongue metastases. Results and presentation of case American and British data show that MM incidence in men has stabilised in the last 10 years, earlier than previously predicted. The tongue is an unusual site for MM spread, with ours being only the 9th such case described. Our summary of published cases of MM metastasising to the tongue brings out our patient to be the least in age(35 years), and the only one to have peritoneal MM as the primary. Seven of the 9 cases were male. Only 2 had a recorded history of exposure to asbestos. All 9 patients had the epithelioid subtype of MM. Surgery was done as the exclusive reported intervention in 4 out of the 9 patients. Only 2 cases received radiotherapy, amongst whom, only our patient responded. Conclusions Metastasis of MM to the tongue is rare and usually in the uncommon context of MM with multiple sites of extra-thoracic or extra-abdominal spread. We have described a unique clinical manifestation of a rare subtype of mesothelioma. Moreover, we have tabulated and summarised details (including responses to surgery or/and radiotherapy) regarding all reported cases of mesotheliomas with tongue metastasis. PMID:26900461

  2. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

    1995-09-01

    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower. PMID:8591770

  3. Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-κB, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-κB, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

  4. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves impairs defence but not rapid repair of rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, M A; Schöninkle, E; Holzer, P

    1993-01-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones have previously been reported to play a part in gastric mucosal protection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these nociceptive neurones strengthen mucosal defence against injury or promote rapid repair of the damaged mucosa, or both. This hypothesis was examined in anaesthetised rats whose stomachs were perfused with ethanol (25 or 50% in saline, wt/wt) for 30 minutes. The gastric mucosa was inspected 0 and 180 minutes after ethanol had been given at the macroscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopic level. Rapid repair of the ethanol injured gastric mucosa (reduction of deep injury, partial re-epithelialisation of the denuded surface) took place in rats anaesthetised with phenobarbital, but not in those anaesthetised with urethane. Afferent nerve ablation as a result of treating rats with a neurotoxic dose of capsaicin before the experiment significantly aggravated ethanol induced damage as shown by an increase in the area and depth of mucosal erosions. Rapid repair of the injured mucosa, however, as seen in rats anesthetised with phenobarbital 180 minutes after ethanol was given, was similar in capsaicin and vehicle pretreated animals. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones was verified by a depletion of calcitonin gene related peptide from the gastric corpus wall. These findings indicate that nociceptive neurones control mechanisms of defence against acute injury but are not required for rapid repair of injured mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8344576

  5. The role of extensional viscosity in frog tongue projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth; Mendelson, Joe; Hu, David

    2014-11-01

    Frogs and other amphibians capture insects through high-speed tongue projection, some achieving tongue accelerations of over fifty times gravity. In this experimental study, we investigate how a frog's sticky saliva enables high-speed prey capture. At the Atlanta zoo, we used high-speed video to film the trajectory of frog tongues during prey capture. We have also designed and built a portable extensional rheometer; by following the capillary-driven thinning in the diameter of a thread of saliva we characterize the relaxation time and extensional viscosity and so infer the adhesive force between the frog tongue and prey.

  6. Relationship Between Tongue Base Region Pressures and Vallecular Clearance.

    PubMed

    Knigge, Molly A; Thibeault, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Tongue base pressures have been thought to provide primary bolus clearance through the pharynx during swallowing. The relationship between bolus driving pressures and residue remaining in the valleculae after the swallow has not been defined. Thirty-seven dysphagic patients who were evaluated with both videofluoroscopy (VFSS) and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were identified within the University of Wisconsin Voice and Swallowing Outcomes database. Patients were categorized according to binary ratings of presence or absence of vallecular stasis as well as incomplete or complete tongue retraction on VFSS. Tongue base region pressures measured with HRM during saline swallows of 1 and 10 ml volumes were compared to ratings of vallecular stasis or tongue base retraction. No significant difference could be identified among mean peak HRM pressures when compared to presence or absence of vallecular stasis (1 ml saline: p = .1886; 10 ml saline: p = .7354). When categorized according to complete or incomplete tongue retraction, mean peak HRM pressures were significantly greater in the complete tongue retraction group as compared to incomplete tongue retraction (1 ml saline: p = .0223; 10 ml saline: p = .0100). Findings suggest there are multiple factors that lead to reduced vallecular clearance. In the absence of HRM measures, judging complete or incomplete tongue retraction on VFSS may be a more valid gauge of tongue base region pressures than vallecular clearance when planning dysphagia treatment. PMID:26796743

  7. Nectar uptake in bats using a pumping-tongue mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Tschapka, Marco; Gonzalez-Terrazas, Tania P.; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Many insects use nectar as their principal diet and have mouthparts specialized in nectarivory, whereas most nectar-feeding vertebrates are opportunistic users of floral resources and only a few species show distinct morphological specializations. Specialized nectar-feeding bats extract nectar from flowers using elongated tongues that correspond to two vastly different morphologies: Most species have tongues with hair-like papillae, whereas one group has almost hairless tongues that show distinct lateral grooves. Recent molecular data indicate a convergent evolution of groove- and hair-tongued bat clades into the nectar-feeding niche. Using high-speed video recordings on experimental feeders, we show distinctly divergent nectar-feeding behavior in clades. Grooved tongues are held in contact with nectar for the entire duration of visit as nectar is pumped into the mouths of hovering bats, whereas hairy tongues are used in conventional sinusoidal lapping movements. Bats with grooved tongues use a specific fluid uptake mechanism not known from any other mammal. Nectar rises in semiopen lateral grooves, probably driven by a combination of tongue deformation and capillary action. Extraction efficiency declined for both tongue types with a similar slope toward deeper nectar levels. Our results highlight a novel drinking mechanism in mammals and raise further questions on fluid mechanics and ecological niche partitioning. PMID:26601270

  8. The hummingbird's tongue: a self-assembling syphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Peaudecerf, Francois; Quere, David

    2009-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the drinking technique of the hummingbird. Its long, thin tongue is dipped into nectar approximately 20 times per second. With each insertion, fluid rises along the length of the tongue through capillary action. While the tongue is open in cross-section, resembling a sliced straw, experiments demonstrate that surface tension serves to close it, with the tongue's zipping front corresponding to the rising meniscus. Supporting theoretical and analogue experimental models of this novel, natural example of capillary origami are developed and explored.

  9. Nectar uptake in bats using a pumping-tongue mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tschapka, Marco; Gonzalez-Terrazas, Tania P; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2015-09-01

    Many insects use nectar as their principal diet and have mouthparts specialized in nectarivory, whereas most nectar-feeding vertebrates are opportunistic users of floral resources and only a few species show distinct morphological specializations. Specialized nectar-feeding bats extract nectar from flowers using elongated tongues that correspond to two vastly different morphologies: Most species have tongues with hair-like papillae, whereas one group has almost hairless tongues that show distinct lateral grooves. Recent molecular data indicate a convergent evolution of groove- and hair-tongued bat clades into the nectar-feeding niche. Using high-speed video recordings on experimental feeders, we show distinctly divergent nectar-feeding behavior in clades. Grooved tongues are held in contact with nectar for the entire duration of visit as nectar is pumped into the mouths of hovering bats, whereas hairy tongues are used in conventional sinusoidal lapping movements. Bats with grooved tongues use a specific fluid uptake mechanism not known from any other mammal. Nectar rises in semiopen lateral grooves, probably driven by a combination of tongue deformation and capillary action. Extraction efficiency declined for both tongue types with a similar slope toward deeper nectar levels. Our results highlight a novel drinking mechanism in mammals and raise further questions on fluid mechanics and ecological niche partitioning. PMID:26601270

  10. Relationship between tongue positions and formant frequencies in female speakers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Shaiman, Susan; Weismer, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship (1) between acoustic vowel space and the corresponding tongue kinematic vowel space and (2) between formant frequencies (F1 and F2) and tongue x-y coordinates for the same time sampling point. Thirteen healthy female adults participated in this study. Electromagnetic articulography and synchronized acoustic recordings were utilized to obtain vowel acoustic and tongue kinematic data across ten speech tasks. Intra-speaker analyses showed that for 10 of the 13 speakers the acoustic vowel space was moderately to highly correlated with tongue kinematic vowel space; much weaker correlations were obtained for inter-speaker analyses. Correlations of individual formants with tongue positions showed that F1 varied strongly with tongue position variations in the y dimension, whereas F2 was correlated in equal magnitude with variations in the x and y positions. For within-speaker analyses, the size of the acoustic vowel space is likely to provide a reasonable inference of size of the tongue working space for most speakers; unfortunately there is no a priori, obvious way to identify the speakers for whom the covariation is not significant. A second conclusion is that F1 variations reflect tongue height, but F2 is a much more complex reflection of tongue variation in both dimensions. PMID:26827037

  11. [Urethroplasties with bladder mucosa in hypospadias].

    PubMed

    Garat, J M

    1990-01-01

    Urethroplasty with free grafting of tubulized vesical mucosa is a method of great interest for the solution of complex hypospadias, especially in multioperated patients. We prefer its use when the penis is erect and there is no redundant dorsal prepuce. We present 13 cases with an evolution that allows us to be optimistic about this technique. PMID:2339647

  12. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease. PMID:26582902

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Medically Performed Tongue Piercing in People with Tetraplegia for Use with Tongue-Operated Assistive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Rowles, Diane; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis; Kim, Jeonghee; Bruce, Joy; Roth, Elliot. J; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries need effective ways to perform activities. Objectives: To develop and test a medically supervised tongue-piercing protocol and the wearing of a magnet-containing tongue barbell for use with the Tongue Drive System (TDS) in persons with tetraplegia. Methods: Volunteers with tetraplegia underwent initial screening sessions using a magnet glued on the tongue to activate and use the TDS. This was followed by tongue piercing, insertion of a standard barbell, a 4-week healing period, and an exchange of the standard barbell for a magnet-containing barbell. This was then used twice weekly for 6 to 8 weeks to perform computer tasks, drive a powered wheelchair, accomplish in-chair weight shifts, and dial a phone. Symptoms of intraoral dysfunction, change in tongue size following piercing, and subjective assessment of receiving and wearing a magnet-containing tongue barbell and its usability with the TDS were evaluated. Results: Twenty-one volunteers underwent initial trial sessions. Thirteen had their tongues pierced. One individual’s barbell dislodged during healing resulting in tongue-tract closure. Twelve had the barbell exchanged for a magnet-containing barbell. One subject withdrew for unrelated issues. Eleven completed the TDS testing sessions and were able to complete the assigned tasks. No serious adverse events occurred related to wearing or using a tongue barbell to operate the TDS. Conclusions: Using careful selection criteria and a medically supervised piercing protocol, no excess risk was associated with tongue piercing and wearing a tongue barbell in people with tetraplegia. Participants were able to operate the TDS. PMID:25762861

  14. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the palatine mucosa of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Martinez, M; Martinez, F E; Watanabe, I S

    1998-04-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the lamina propria of the hard and soft palatine mucosa of the nine-banded armadillo was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Sodium hydroxide cell maceration method was applied to demonstrate the architecture of the connective tissue papillae. The palatine mucosa of the armadillo had a triangular shape and measured appr. 6.5 cm length. The hard palate showed 9 transverse palatine plicae while the soft palate was smooth. In the 10% NaOH treated specimens, the lamina propria of the hard palatine mucosa showed numerous connective tissue papillae with a general finger-like shape. These structures were composed by a meshwork of collagen fibers arranged in several directions. On the other hand, the connective tissue papillae of the soft palate mucosa were scattered and small. Numerous openings of glandular ducts with circular or elliptical shape were located in the interplicae area and in the soft palate. PMID:9651743

  15. Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

    2012-10-01

    The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients' own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD. PMID:23066307

  16. Inflammation and Immunity in Radiation Damage to the Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    François, Agnès; Milliat, Fabien; Guipaud, Olivier; Benderitter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Erythema was observed on the skin of the first patients treated with radiation therapy. It is in particular to reduce this erythema, one feature of tissue inflammation, that prescribed dose to the tumor site started to be fractionated. It is now well known that radiation exposure of normal tissues generates a sustained and apparently uncontrolled inflammatory process. Radiation-induced inflammation is always observed, often described, sometimes partly explained, but still today far from being completely understood. The thing with the gut and especially the gut mucosa is that it is at the frontier between the external milieu and the organism, is in contact with a plethora of commensal and foreign antigens, possesses a dense-associated lymphoid tissue, and is particularly radiation sensitive because of a high mucosal turnover rate. All these characteristics make the gut mucosa a strong responsive organ in terms of radiation-induced immunoinflammation. This paper will focus on what has been observed in the normal gut and what remains to be done concerning the immunoinflammatory response following localized radiation exposure. PMID:23586015

  17. Comparison of maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in relation to age in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Su; Oh, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] The study recruited 80 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged ≥65 years) in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing. For each subject, the peak value of three measurements was recorded and analyzed. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was statistically significantly higher for the young adults group than the older adults group. Conversely, tongue strength used during swallowing was statistically significantly higher for the older adults group than the young adults group. The percentages of tongue strength used during swallowing for the young adults and older adults groups were approximately 38.8% and 53.8%, respectively. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength than young adults, but a higher tongue strength used during swallowing. PMID:27064477

  18. The Great Imitator Strikes Again: Syphilis Presenting as “Tongue Changing Colors”

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jessica; Welch, Janna

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is known as the great imitator, making its diagnosis in the emergency department difficult. A 29-year-old male presented with the chief complaint of “my tongue is changing colors.” A syphilis rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test resulted as positive. In primary syphilis, the chancre is the characteristic lesion. While chancres are frequently found on the external genitalia or anus, extragenital chancres arise in 2% of patients. With oral involvement, the chancre is commonly found on the lip or tongue. The patient was treated for secondary syphilis with 2.4 million units of long acting penicillin intramuscularly. On follow-up a month later, the patient's symptoms had resolved. PMID:26904314

  19. Electronic integrated multisensor tongue applied to grape juice and wine analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreno i Codinachs, Lia; Kloock, Joachim P; Schöning, Michael J; Baldi, Antoni; Ipatov, Andrey; Bratov, Andrey; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2008-10-01

    An integrated multisensor composed by six ISFET devices selective to common ions and heavy metals combined with a flow injection analysis (FIA) system has been applied as an electronic tongue to grape juice and wine sample analysis. The data obtained for several grape and wine variety samples analysis have been treated using multiparametric tools like principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modelling class analogy technique (SIMCA) for the patterning recognition and classification of samples and partial least squares (PLS) regression for quantification of several parameters of interest in wine production. The results obtained have demonstrated the potential of using those multisensors as electronic tongues not only for distinguishing the samples according to the grape variety and the vintage year but also for quantitative prediction of several sample parameters. PMID:18810293

  20. The Great Imitator Strikes Again: Syphilis Presenting as "Tongue Changing Colors".

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jessica; Welch, Janna

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is known as the great imitator, making its diagnosis in the emergency department difficult. A 29-year-old male presented with the chief complaint of "my tongue is changing colors." A syphilis rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test resulted as positive. In primary syphilis, the chancre is the characteristic lesion. While chancres are frequently found on the external genitalia or anus, extragenital chancres arise in 2% of patients. With oral involvement, the chancre is commonly found on the lip or tongue. The patient was treated for secondary syphilis with 2.4 million units of long acting penicillin intramuscularly. On follow-up a month later, the patient's symptoms had resolved. PMID:26904314

  1. Optical detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa: autofluorescence characteristics of healthy mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.

    2001-10-01

    Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.

  2. Internal Kinematics of the Tongue Following Volume Reduction

    PubMed Central

    SHCHERBATYY, VOLODYMYR; PERKINS, JONATHAN A.; LIU, ZI-JUN

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the functional consequences following tongue volume reduction on tongue internal kinematics during mastication and neuromuscular stimulation in a pig model. Six ultrasonic-crystals were implanted into the tongue body in a wedge-shaped configuration which allows recording distance changes in the bilateral length (LENG) and posterior thickness (THICK), as well as anterior (AW), posterior dorsal (PDW), and ventral (PVW) widths in 12 Yucatan-minipigs. Six animals received a uniform mid-sagittal tongue volume reduction surgery (reduction), and the other six had identical incisions without tissue removal (sham). The initial-distances among each crystal-pairs were recorded before, and immediately after surgery to calculate the dimensional losses. Referring to the initial-distance there were 3−66% and 1−4% tongue dimensional losses by the reduction and sham surgeries, respectively. The largest deformation in sham animals during mastication was in AW, significantly larger than LENG, PDW, PVW, and THICK (P < 0.01−0.001). In reduction animals, however, these deformational changes significantly diminished and enhanced in the anterior and posterior tongue, respectively (P < 0.05−0.001). In both groups, neuromuscular stimulation produced deformational ranges that were 2−4 times smaller than those occurred during chewing. Furthermore, reduction animals showed significantly decreased ranges of deformation in PVW, LENG, and THICK (P < 0.05−0.01). These results indicate that tongue volume reduction alters the tongue internal kinematics, and the dimensional losses in the anterior tongue caused by volume reduction can be compensated by increased deformations in the posterior tongue during mastication. This compensatory effect, however, diminishes during stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and individual tongue muscles. PMID:18484603

  3. Tongue Fat and its Relationship to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrew M.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Chan, Eugenia L.; Staley, Bethany; Poptani, Harish; Torigian, Drew A.; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether tongue fat is increased in obese sleep apneics compared to obese subjects without sleep apnea. We hypothesized that excess fat is deposited in the tongue in obese patients with sleep apnea. Design: Case-control design. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined tongue fat in 31 obese controls (apnea-hypopnea index, 4.1 ± 2.7 events/h) and 90 obese apneics (apnea-hypopnea index, 43.2 ± 27.3 events/h). Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 18 gender-, race-, age-, and BMI-matched case-control pairs. Interventions: All subjects underwent a MRI with three-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. We used sophisticated volumetric reconstruction algorithms to study the size and distribution of upper airway fat deposits in the tongue and masseter muscles within apneics and obese controls. Measurements and Results: The data supported our a priori hypotheses that after adjustment for age, BMI, gender, and race, the tongue in apneics was significantly larger (P = 0.001) and had an increased amount of fat (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Similar results were seen in our matched sample. Our data also demonstrate that within the apneic and normal tongue, there are regional differences in fat distribution, with larger fat deposits at the base of the tongue. Conclusions: There is increased tongue volume and deposition of fat at the base of tongue in apneics compared to controls. Increased tongue fat may begin to explain the relationship between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Kim AM, Keenan BT, Jackson N, Chan EL, Staley B, Poptani H, Torigian DA, Pack AI, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat and its relationship to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1639-1648. PMID:25197815

  4. Case report of bacteremia due to Neisseria mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Baaboura, Rekaya; Ouertani, Hela; Lakhal, Amal; Torjemane, Lamia; Othman, Tarek Ben; Hassen, Assia Ben

    2014-04-01

    Neisseria mucosa, a Gram-negative diplococcus, is part of normal nasopharyngeal flora. We report a case of bacteremia caused by N. mucosa in a 50-year-old neutropenic patient suffering from non-secretory multiple myeloma stage IIIA. This case underscores that mostly nonpathogenic N. mucosa can cause bacteremia in neutropenic patients who developed mucositis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23905778

  5. Cat Got Your Tongue? Using the Tip-of-the-Tongue State to Investigate Fixed Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A.; Bull, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms…

  6. Atypical tongue-tie due to congenital tongue-palate fusion.

    PubMed

    Din, Saif Ud

    2003-08-01

    We are presenting a case report of a male neonate brought in an emergency room with feeding inability and signs of respiratory difficulty due to oral passage blockade - a developmental anomaly caused by tongue-palate fusion. Surgical correction instantly relieved respiratory distress and established the normal oral feeding mechanism. PMID:12921684

  7. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11

  8. Lingual Electromyography Related to Tongue Movements in Swedish Vowel Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hajime; And Others

    1979-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)

  9. Analysing Normal and Partial Glossectomee Tongues Using Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Uy, Catherine; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying underlying parameters that govern the shape of the tongue. A functional topography of the tongue surface was developed based on three-dimensional ultrasound scans of sustained speech sounds in ten normal subjects. A principal component analysis extracted three components that explained 89.2% of the variance…

  10. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  11. Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

  12. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  13. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  14. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to elaborate a framework for both the foundation and application of professional standards for mother-tongue teachers. The main issue with which this study is concerned constitutes the lack of a set of clear standards for the initial training of mother-tongue teachers. In terms of theory, that which has currently been analyzed in…

  15. Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    This study is the expanded version of the advocacy brief "Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls" [ED495413]. It highlights in more detail the correlations between girls, language and marginality, and shows that there are indeed positive links between the use of mother tongue in education and female participation and achievement in…

  16. Fifteen-minute consultation: the infant with a tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Bowley, Douglas M; Arul, G Suren

    2014-08-01

    Tongue tie is an increasingly common cause for referral of infants to our general paediatric surgery service. In this article, we will explore the indications for tongue tie division in the newborn child, the practicalities of the procedure and the supporting evidence. PMID:24419208

  17. Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…

  18. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope

  19. Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma revisited.

    PubMed

    Borie, Raphael; Wislez, Marie; Antoine, Martine; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Thieblemont, Catherine; Cadranel, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    This general review sought to clarify the pathophysiological, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic features of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.MALT lymphoma is the most common pulmonary B-cell lymphoma, which usually occurs in the context of acquired MALT. The disease is slow-growing with an asymptomatic chronic alveolar opacity visible on radiography. Diagnosis requires tissue samples that should be retrieved using minimally invasive techniques, such as bronchoscopy or computed tomography-guided biopsies. The pathophysiology includes cytogenetic abnormalities and autoimmune diseases, whereas an association with a chronic pulmonary infection is still suspected but not yet demonstrated. Disease prognosis is typically excellent and the current available treatments are discussed in this review, including the decision not to treat, surgery, and single- or double-agent chemotherapy. PMID:26797028

  20. Evaluation of the maximum isometric tongue force of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ulrich Sommer, J; Birk, Richard; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2014-11-01

    The forces of specific muscle groups have been well described for nearly all parts of the human body. Interestingly, data for the tongue and its forces are rare. In light of ongoing development of systems for managing the tongue (retaining, advancing, suspending or stabilizing), especially in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, knowledge of the maximum tongue force is important for the conceptual design of those systems. The maximum tongue force in a sagittal direction was documented using a custom-built device that included a tongue clamp and a piezoelectric sensor to capture force measurements. Once positioned securely in the device, participants were asked to move the tongue in a posterior sagittal direction, with maximum force, in each of three test positions. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (29 male) were included in the study. Tongue force measurements were collected three times in three different tongue positions. Thirty-three participants had repeated measurements to investigate any potential learning effect. The maximum force of the human tongue in a posterior sagittal direction showed high inter-individual variation and ranged from 3.2 to 52.4 Newton (N; mean 14.1 ± 7.5 N), when measured from a "neutral protrusion or resting" tongue position. The "retracted" and "maximal protrusion" testing positions yielded lower maximum tongue forces. Men (m) showed statistically significantly higher tongue forces than women (w) (m: 16.0 ± 8.4 N, w: 11.0 ± 4.3 N), and there was a positive correlation with BMI and a negative correlation with age. Comparing the first measurement session with the second session (per patient) showed higher mean maximum forces in the second session, but with no statistical significance. The maximum tongue force data showed substantial inter- and intra-individual variability and gender dependency. Some male individuals produced very high forces. These forces should be considered for the future conception and development of tongue management systems and the mechanical stress to which these systems may be exposed. PMID:24970288

  1. Rehabilitation of Glossectomy Cases with Tongue Prosthesis: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Muthu Kumar; Chidambaranathan, Ahila Singaravel; Shanmugam, Gokul; Tah, Rajdeep

    2016-02-01

    Tongue is the only movable muscular organ without any bone in the human body. It has very important role in perception of taste and sensations like touch, pressure, heat and cold. The purpose of the article is to review various types of tongue prosthesis and their clinical applications. This review helps the clinician to choose the appropriate type of tongue prosthesis for different clinical situations, retention of tongue prosthesis and material selection for each type of prosthesis. A broad search of published literature was performed using the keyword glossectomy, glossal prosthesis and tongue prosthesis from 1980 to 2014 in Medline, Google scholar, internet and text book. This review gives basic knowledge of glossal prosthesis and selection of the same for various clinical conditions. PMID:27042596

  2. Methods for quantifying tongue shape and complexity using ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Katherine M; Tiede, Mark K; Whalen, D H

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of tongue shape is potentially useful for indexing articulatory strategies arising from intervention, therapy and development. Tongue shape complexity is a parameter that can be used to reflect regional functional independence of the tongue musculature. This paper considers three different shape quantification methods - based on Procrustes analysis, curvature inflections and Fourier coefficients - and uses a linear discriminant analysis to test how well each method is able to classify tongue shapes from different phonemes. Test data are taken from six native speakers of American English producing 15 phoneme types. Results classify tongue shapes accurately when combined across quantification methods. These methods hold promise for extending the use of ultrasound in clinical assessments of speech deficits. PMID:26587871

  3. Pyogenic granuloma on the tongue: a pediatric case report.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Triches, Thaisa C; Cardoso, Mariane; Bolan, Michele

    2013-08-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a rare, benign, vascular, hyperplasic, soft tissue lesion caused by diverse factors, including traumatic injuries. This article presents a case involving the surgical removal of PG on the tongue of a 4-year-old boy who had difficulty with speech and eating because of the tongue lesion. The parents reported that the child had the habit of nibbling on and sucking his tongue. The lesion was excised and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of PG; however, because the child continued to nibble and suck on his tongue, the lesion recurred. A second surgery was performed with the same histopathological diagnosis. At a one-year follow-up, the child had ceased his tongue habits, and no recurrence was seen. PMID:23928434

  4. Visualization techniques for tongue analysis in traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Binh L.; Cai, Yang

    2004-05-01

    Visual inspection of the tongue has been an important diagnostic method of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Clinic data have shown significant connections between various viscera cancers and abnormalities in the tongue and the tongue coating. Visual inspection of the tongue is simple and inexpensive, but the current practice in TCM is mainly experience-based and the quality of the visual inspection varies between individuals. The computerized inspection method provides quantitative models to evaluate color, texture and surface features on the tongue. In this paper, we investigate visualization techniques and processes to allow interactive data analysis with the aim to merge computerized measurements with human expert's diagnostic variables based on five-scale diagnostic conditions: Healthy (H), History Cancers (HC), History of Polyps (HP), Polyps (P) and Colon Cancer (C).

  5. Different Requirements for Wnt Signaling in Tongue Myogenic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Z.; Zhao, H.; Mayo, J.

    2015-01-01

    The tongue is a muscular organ that is essential in vertebrates for important functions, such as food intake and communication. Little is known about regulation of myogenic progenitors during tongue development when compared with the limb or trunk region. In this study, we investigated the relationship between different myogenic subpopulations and the function of canonical Wnt signaling in regulating these subpopulations. We found that Myf5- and MyoD-expressing myogenic subpopulations exist during embryonic tongue myogenesis. In the Myf5-expressing myogenic progenitors, there is a cell-autonomous requirement for canonical Wnt signaling for cell migration and differentiation. In contrast, the MyoD-expressing subpopulation does not require canonical Wnt signaling during tongue myogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that canonical Wnt signaling differentially regulates the Myf5- and MyoD-expressing subpopulations during tongue myogenesis. PMID:25576472

  6. Rehabilitation of Glossectomy Cases with Tongue Prosthesis: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Muthu Kumar; Shanmugam, Gokul; Tah, Rajdeep

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is the only movable muscular organ without any bone in the human body. It has very important role in perception of taste and sensations like touch, pressure, heat and cold. The purpose of the article is to review various types of tongue prosthesis and their clinical applications. This review helps the clinician to choose the appropriate type of tongue prosthesis for different clinical situations, retention of tongue prosthesis and material selection for each type of prosthesis. A broad search of published literature was performed using the keyword glossectomy, glossal prosthesis and tongue prosthesis from 1980 to 2014 in Medline, Google scholar, internet and text book. This review gives basic knowledge of glossal prosthesis and selection of the same for various clinical conditions. PMID:27042596

  7. Retrospective study of survival and treatment pattern in a cohort of patients with oral and oropharyngeal tongue cancers from 1987 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lisetta; Logan, Richard M; Luke, Colin; Rees, Guy L

    2007-02-01

    This is a retrospective study of patients with oral and oropharyngeal tongue cancers who presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) from 1987 to 2004. The aims of this study were to determine sociodemographic and tumour characteristics, treatment patterns and five-year disease-specific survival of the disease. All cases of tongue cancers, including untreated and palliative cases, were identified through the Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Registry and were included in statistical analysis. A total of 212 cases of tongue cancer were identified. Patients less than 45 years of age accounted for 15% of cases and had a tendency to present with advanced stage disease. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type. Almost 30% of recorded cases were oropharyngeal or base of tongue cancers. Nearly half of the patients had advanced stage (III and IV) disease at presentation, which was significantly associated with rural area of residence, base of tongue sub-site and early diagnostic period. Treatment involved a multidisciplinary approach and majority of patients were treated with a curative intent. Palliative treatment was more likely to be given to patient with oropharyngeal tongue cancers or advance stage disease. There was no significant improvement of five-year disease-specific survival over the 18-year period. Poorer survival was significantly associated with age 45 years or older, oropharyngeal tongue cancers and advanced stage disease. Tongue cancer is an important health issue associated with poor survival. Early detection and diagnosis is important in order to improve survival rate for this malignancy. PMID:16807069

  8. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. )

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  9. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  10. Human keratinocyte culture from the peritonsillar mucosa.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Michel, O; Mahrle, G; Krieg, T; Stennert, E

    1996-01-01

    Tonsillectomy tissue can be used as a routine source for cultures of oropharyngeal keratinocytes. In so doing, a peritonsillar strip of unaltered mucosa was dissected in the upper submucosa. Subsequent trypsinization yielded 7.0 +/- 3.4 x 10(6) keratinocytes per bilateral tonsillectomy. Keratinocyte attachment and growth in primary culture were promoted by sublethally irradiated 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Three subcultures could be performed without a feeder layer and were characterized by a population doubling time of 4.5 days during log growth phase. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis of the third subculture revealed a strong expression of keratin pairs 5/14 and 6/16 as well as keratins 7 and 19, whereas keratins 8/18 were expressed less intensely. The lowest intensity, was found for keratin 13, which is known to be indicative of the differentiated mucosa. The culture technique thus provides an easily available in vitro model for morphological and functional studies on the epithelial compartment of human oropharyngeal mucosa. PMID:8737778

  11. Tongue lipoma in an older male: A case report and literature review of patients with tongue lipoma reported in China

    PubMed Central

    LU, SHU-LAI; ZHENG, JIAN-JIN; WU, HONG; LI, TAO; DONG, GANG; WANG, YUN-LONG; YANG, PI-SHAN

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma is the most common benign tumor that occurs at any region where adipose tissue is present. However, as the tongue is devoid of adipocyte it is an extremely rare site for a lipoma to develop, particularly in China. The present study reports the presence of a tongue lipoma in a 78-year-old man that measured 2.2×2.0×1.5 cm and was located on the left ventral region of the tongue. The tumor was completely excised, and subsequent to 4 years of follow-up, there was no recurrence of the lesion. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature concerning tongue lipomas in China and analyzed 18 other cases of patients with tongue lipomas in the past 30 years, between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2014. PMID:26870227

  12. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in trigeminal ganglion neurons contributes tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the mechanisms underlying tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation. Method Using mechanical and temperature stimulation following dental surgery, we have demonstrated that dental inflammation and hyperalgesia correlates with increased immunohistochemical staining of neurons for TLR4 and HSP70. Results Mechanical or heat hyperalgesia significantly enhanced in the ipsilateral tongue at 1 to 9 days after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) application to the left lower molar tooth pulp compared with that of sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats. The number of fluorogold (FG)-labeled TLR4-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly larger in CFA-applied rats compared with sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats to the molar tooth. The number of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70-IR neurons in trigeminal ganglion (TG) was significantly increased on day 3 after CFA application compared with sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats to the molar tooth. About 9.2% of TG neurons were labeled with DiI applied to the molar tooth and FG injected into the tongue, and 15.4% of TG neurons were labeled with FG injected into the tongue and Alexa-labeled Hsp70-IR applied to the tooth. Three days after Hsp70 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application to the tooth in naive rats, mechanical or heat hyperalgesia was significantly enhanced compared with that of saline-applied rats. Following successive LPS-RS, an antagonist of TLR4, administration to the TG for 3 days, the enhanced mechanical or heat hyperalgesia was significantly reversed compared with that of saline-injected rats. Noxious mechanical responses of TG neurons innervating the tongue were significantly higher in CFA-applied rats compare with sham rats to the tooth. Hsp70 mRNA levels of the tooth pulp and TG were not different between CFA-applied rats and sham rats. Conclusions The present findings indicate that Hsp70 transported from the tooth pulp to TG neurons or expressed in TG neurons is released from TG neurons innervating inflamed tooth pulp, and is taken by TG neurons innervating the tongue, suggesting that the Hsp70-TLR4 signaling in TG plays a pivotal role in tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation. PMID:24267924

  13. Taste and speech following surgical tongue reduction in children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maas, Saskia M; Kadouch, Daniel J; Masselink, Anne-Claire C M; Van Der Horst, Chantal M A M

    2016-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder in which macroglossia is one of the main signs. We investigated the long-term outcome of tongue surgery reduction (TRS) on taste and speech in patients with BWS who were more than 5 years of age and had undergone surgical anterior wedge resection of the tongue. A questionnaire was used to assess medical history and to determine some aspects of speech, taste, psychological well-being, and degree of satisfaction with regard to TRS and tongue mobility. Speech sound error pattern and degree of intelligibility were measured by a speech therapist, and taste was assessed using a validated test. The degree of both intelligibility and satisfaction with the surgery was high. There were some speech errors; especially the interdental 's', addental 't', and addental 'd' were more noticed. We conclude that anterior wedge resection is an effective technique to treat macroglossia in children with BWS, and that it has no long-term consequences for intelligibility and taste perception and only limited consequences for speech. PMID:27052941

  14. Are Hyoid Bone and Tongue the Risk Factors Contributing to Postoperative Relapse for Mandibular Prognathism?

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Lai, Steven; Lee, Huey-Er; Chen, Ker-Kong; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate postoperative stability and the correlation between hyoid, tongue, and mandible position following surgery for mandibular prognathism. Materials and Methods. Thirty-seven patients, treated for mandibular prognathism using intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO), were evaluated cephalometrically. A set of four standardized lateral cephalograms were obtained from each subject preoperatively (T1), immediately postoperatively (T2), six weeks to three months postoperatively (T3), and more than one year postoperatively (T4). The Student t-tests, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the multiple linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results. Immediately after surgery, menton (Me) setback was 12.8 mm, hyoid (H) setback was 4.9 mm, and vallecula epiglottica (V) setback was 5.8 mm. The postoperative stability significantly correlated (r = −0.512, p < 0.01) with the amount of setback. The hyoid bone and tongue did not have significant effects on postoperative stability. Multiple linear regression model (R2 = 0.2658, p < 0.05) showed predictability: Horizontal Relapse Me (T4-T2) = −6.406 − 0.488Me (T2-T1) + 0.069H (T2-T1) − 0.0619V (T2-T1). Conclusion. Mandibular setback surgery may push the hyoid and tongue significantly backward, but this did not correlate with mandibular relapse. Postoperative stability significantly correlated with the amount of mandibular setback. PMID:27042664

  15. Gypenosides inhibited invasion and migration of human tongue cancer SCC4 cells through down-regulation of NFkappaB and matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung-Chou; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Lin, Meng-Wei; Huang, An-Cheng; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Ip, Siu-Wan; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2008-01-01

    Gypenosides (Gyp), components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, were found to induce suppression of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cell growth and induce apoptosis in response to overexpression of reactive oxygen species, calcium (Ca(+2)) and to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro. In this study, the effect of Gyp on cell migration and invasion of human tongue SCC4 cells was examined. SCC4 cells treated in vitro with Gyp migrated and invaded less than cells treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control. Gyp inhibited migration and invasion by down-regulating the production of RAS, NFkappaB, COX2, ERK1/2 and MMP-9 relative to PBS only. These results show that Gyp inhibits invasion and migration of human tongue SCC4 cells by down-regulating proteins associated with these processes, resulting in reduced metastasis. PMID:18507059

  16. Tissue-point motion tracking in the tongue from cine MRI and tagged MRI.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z; Prince, Jerry L

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract-related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with harmonic phase (HARP)-based tracking applied to tagged MRI. METHOD Ten subjects repeated the phrase "a geese" multiple times while sagittal images of the head were collected at 26 Hz, first in a tagged MRI data set and then in a cine MRI data set. HARP tracked the motion of 8 specified tissue points in the tagged data set. Four DR methods including diffeomorphic demons and free-form deformations based on cubic B-spline with 3 different similarity measures were used to track the same 8 points in the cine MRI data set. Individual points were tracked and length changes of several muscles were calculated using the DR- and HARP-based tracking methods. RESULTS The results showed that the DR tracking errors were nonsystematic and varied in direction, amount, and timing across speakers and within speakers. Comparison of HARP and DR tracking with manual tracking showed better tracking results for HARP except at the tongue surface, where mistracking caused greater errors in HARP than DR. CONCLUSIONS Tissue point tracking using DR tracking methods contains nonsystematic tracking errors within and across subjects, making it less successful than tagged MRI tracking within the tongue. However, HARP sometimes mistracks points at the tongue surface of tagged MRI because of its limited bandpass filter and tag pattern fading, so that DR has better success measuring surface tissue points on cine MRI than HARP does. Therefore, a hybrid method is being explored. PMID:24686470

  17. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine-MRI and Tagged-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help to diagnose and treat vocal tract related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. We have compared tissue tracking results from four widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to Cine-MRI with harmonic phase (HARP)-based tracking applied to tagged-MRI. Method Ten subjects repeated the words “a geese” multiple times while sagittal images of the head were collected at 26 Hz, first in a tagged-MRI data set, and then in a Cine-MRI data set. HARP tracked the motion of eight specified tissue points in the tagged data set. Four DR methods including diffeomorphic demons and free-form deformations based on cubic B-spline with three different similarity measures were used to track the same eight points in the Cine-MRI data set. Individual points were tracked and length changes of several muscles were calculated using the DR and HARP based tracking methods. Results Results showed that the DR tracking errors were non-systematic and varied in direction, amount, and timing across speakers and within speakers. Comparison of HARP and DR tracking with manual tracking showed better tracking results for HARP except at the tongue surface, where mistracking caused greater errors in HARP than DR. Conclusions Tissue point tracking using DR tracking methods contain non-systematic tracking errors within and across subjects, making it less successful than tagged-MRI tracking within the tongue. However, HARP sometimes mistracks points at the tongue surface of tagged MRI due to its limited bandpass filter and tag pattern fading, so that DR has better success measuring surface tissue points on Cine-MRI than HARP does. Therefore a hybrid method is being explored. PMID:24686470

  18. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Base of Tongue: Is Midline Mandibulotomy Necessary for Approaching Benign Base Tongue Lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sandeep; Kalsotra, Gopika; Mohammed, Abdul Wadood; Bahl, Amanjit; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To report a rare presentation of pleomorphic adenoma, at base tongue, excised surgically by a transoral midline glossotomy technique without mandibulotomy. Case Report. Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign tumor of the salivary gland found rarely in the base of tongue. Surgery is the definitive treatment for this tumor, and different approaches have been mentioned in the literature. In our case we surgically excised the tumor by a transoral midline glossotomy technique without mandibulotomy where we combined the cosmetic advantage of transoral technique and the exposure advantage of a glossotomy technique. Discussion. We discuss the different approaches to oropharynx, their advantages and disadvantages. Primary transoral approach provides better cosmesis but less exposure whereas median labiomandibuloglossotomy approach provides more exposure but is cosmetically unacceptable. Conclusion. A transoral midline glossotomy approach without mandibulotomy provides wide exposure with acceptable cosmesis. PMID:22953125

  19. An unusual tongue base mass in an infant: Tongue base sialolipoma.

    PubMed

    Teo, Dawn T; Johnson, Romaine F; McClay, John E

    2015-12-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the head and neck. We present a case arising from a minor salivary gland in an infant. The 6-month-old infant presented with difficulty swallowing, frequent reflux, and snoring that had been worsening several weeks before presentation. Physical examination showed a large mass arising from the tongue base. The patient was taken to the operating room for transoral removal of a presumed cyst. Histologic examination of the lesion showed a well-circumscribed lesion composed of lobules of mature adipose tissue and nodules of entrapped, non-neoplastic acini and ductules separated by thin, fibrous septae, consistent with a sialolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a sialolipoma at the tongue base in a child. The patient has had no evidence of recurrence at 1 year of follow-up. PMID:26670759

  20. Congenital benign teratoma of the tongue with bifid tip, ankyloglossia and polydactyly: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Neelam N; Raikwar, Kanchan

    2010-09-01

    Teratomas of the tongue are rare, and often accompany other anomalies within the head and neck. We describe a combination of anomalies in a 6-week-old infant with teratoma and bifid tip of the tongue, severe tongue tie, and polydactyly. The teratoma was excised and the tongue tie released with no complications. PMID:20579786

  1. The Effect of Jaw Position on Measures of Tongue Strength and Endurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Munson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of tongue strength and endurance is common in research and clinical contexts. It is unclear whether the results reveal discrete function by the tongue or combined abilities of the tongue and jaw. One way to isolate the movement of the tongue is to constrain the jaw kinematically by using a bite block. In this study, 10 neurologically…

  2. Mood-induced variations of mandible and tongue postures.

    PubMed

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2013-06-01

    Twelve young adults in a good general health were observed during habitual posture of tongue and jaw in different emotional conditions induced by watching three video sequences. The position of the mandible was tracked by the displacements of an electromagnetic sensor glued to the chin. The tongue-to-palate distance was obtained by 2-D location of three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper midline surface. Head displacements were evaluated with a sensor fixed to an upper central incisor and were subtracted from corresponding displacements of tongue and chin sensors to obtain the real tongue and mandible positions during continuous recording sequences. Emotional conditioning by a fear movie influenced the vertical position of the mandible: the mean interarch distances during the fear movie (2·34 ± 0·24 mm) were significantly different from those measured during the tender (3·13 ± 0·35) and neutral (3·42 ± 0·80) movies, respectively (anova repeated measure, SNK; P < 0·05). anova repeated measure indicated that the tongue-to-palate distance differed significantly when the subjects were watching the conditioning movies (P = 0·003), the tip of the tongue taking a lower position during the fear movie than during the tender and neutral movies. PMID:23556417

  3. Electronic Tongue for Quantitation of Contaminants in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymers as recognition materials for electronic tongues.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2015-12-15

    For over three decades now, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have successfully been used for selective chemical sensing because the shape and size of their imprinted molecular cavities perfectly matched those of the target analyte molecules. Moreover, orientation of recognizing sites of these cavities corresponded to those of the binding sites of the template molecules. In contrast, electronic tongue (e-tongue) is usually an array of low-affinity recognition units. Its selectivity is based on recognition pattern or multivariate analysis. Merging these two sensing devices led to a synergetic hybrid sensor, an MIP based e-tongue. Fabrication of these e-tongues permitted simultaneous sensing and discriminating several analytes in complex solutions of many components so that these arrays compensated for limitation in cross-reactivity of MIPs. Apparently, analytical signals generated by MIP-based e-tongues, compared to those of ordinary sensor arrays, were more reliable where a unique pattern or 'fingerprint' for each analyte was generated. Additionally, several transduction platforms (from spectroscopic to electrochemical) engaged in constructing MIP-based e-tongues, found their broad and flexible applications. The present review critically evaluates achievements in recent developments of the MIP based e-tongues for chemosensing. PMID:26233642

  5. Color Distribution Differences in the Tongue in Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ji Ho; Jeon, Young Ju

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L∗, a∗, b∗) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory. PMID:24868237

  6. Slip of the tongue: Implications for evolution and language development.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Gillian S; Rodriguez, Alina

    2015-08-01

    A prevailing theory regarding the evolution of language implicates a gestural stage prior to the emergence of speech. In support of a transition of human language from a gestural to a vocal system, articulation of the hands and the tongue are underpinned by overlapping left hemisphere dominant neural regions. Behavioral studies demonstrate that human adults perform sympathetic mouth actions in imitative synchrony with manual actions. Additionally, right-handedness for precision manual actions in children has been correlated with the typical development of language, while a lack of hand bias has been associated with psychopathology. It therefore stands to reason that sympathetic mouth actions during fine precision motor action of the hands may be lateralized. We employed a fine-grained behavioral coding paradigm to provide the first investigation of tongue protrusions in typically developing 4-year old children. Tongue protrusions were investigated across a range of cognitive tasks that required varying degrees of manual action: precision motor action, gross motor action and no motor actions. The rate of tongue protrusions was influenced by the motor requirements of the task and tongue protrusions were significantly right-biased for only precision manual motor action (p<.001). From an evolutionary perspective, tongue protrusions can drive new investigations regarding how an early human communication system transitioned from hand to mouth. From a developmental perspective, the present study may serve to reveal patterns of tongue protrusions during the motor development of typically developing children. PMID:25966841

  7. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soo Jeong; Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun; Chi, Je Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures. PMID:26471340

  8. Metastases of Melanoma to Head and Neck Mucosa: A Report of Short Series

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Raphaela Silva Leandro; Andrade, Marília Ferreira; Alves, Fábio de Abreu; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Metastasis of melanoma to the head and neck mucosa is a very unusual condition. The aim of this study was to report four cases of patients with metastatic melanoma in the head and neck mucosa treated at a single institution. Methods Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All cases were histologically reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, and immunohistochemical reactions were performed in the cases submitted to biopsy. Results All patients were males and the mean age was 40.5 years old. The sites of the metastatic tumors were gingival mucosa, floor of the mouth, oropharynx, and larynx. Two tumors appeared as submucosal nodules with normal color; one lesion was a blackish nodular lesion, and one was shown to be an ulcerated lesion. The size of tumors ranged from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. All patients had developed systemic disease at time of diagnosis of metastatic tumor in the head and neck mucosa. Survival rates ranged from 2 to 19 months after the diagnosis of the metastatic mucosal melanoma in the head and neck region. Conclusion Although rare, patients with melanoma must be closely and regularly followed up, with careful routine examination of head and neck, because metastatic tumors in this region seem to be part of a lethal widespread metastatic disease. PMID:26976032

  9. Effect of environmental hyperthermia on gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng-Peng; Song, Yu-Gang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of environmental hyperthermia on gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa. METHODS: Forty-two Wistar rats were equally divided into six groups, according to the room temperature (high and normal) and the treatment (acetic acid, normal saline and no treatment). Levels of gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa were measured with a radioimmunoassay method. RESULTS: The average temperature and humidity were 32.5 °C and 66.7% for the high temperature group, and 21.1 °C and 49.3% for the normal temperature group, respectively. Gastric ulcer model was successfully induced in rat injected with 0.05 mL acetic acid into the antrum. In rats with gastric ulcers, the levels of gastrin and motilin increased, whereas the somatostatin level declined in antral mucosa, compared with those in rats treated with normal saline and the controls. However, the change extent in the levels of gastrin, motilin and somatostatin in antral mucosa was less in the high temperature group than in the normal temperature group. CONCLUSION: The levels of gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosal tissue remain relatively stable in a high temperature environment, which may relate to the equilibration of the dynamic system. PMID:15526379

  10. Paediatric Geographic Tongue: A Case Report, Review and Recent Updates

    PubMed Central

    Bhavana, Shivanand Bagalad; Deepak, Byathnal Suryakanth; Ashwini, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a benign recurrent condition of uncertain aetiology affecting the tongue characterized by loss of epithelium especially filiform papillae giving a characteristic appearance. The clinical presentation may vary from asymptomatic to painful and burning ulceration. The condition is commonly seen in adults but few cases are reported in children. A case of asymptomatic geographic tongue in three-year-old male child and literature review with new insight in aetiology is presented here. Management depends on the clinical condition and underlying aetiology. PMID:27042597

  11. Tongue tremor: a rare initial presentation of essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Kusanale, Atul; Wilson, Alan; Brennan, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Tongue tremor is commonly associated with essential tremor, but rarely presents as an initial finding. Essential tremor is the most common movement disorder and is characterised by 4-12 Hz postural and kinetic tremor, but there is no universally accepted diagnostic criterion. It commonly affects the arms, and to a lesser extent, other regions of the body, and signs and symptoms tend to worsen during emotional or physiological stress. We describe a rare isolated presentation of tongue tremor as a part of essential tremor, its management, and the diagnostic dilemma. To our knowledge isolated tongue tremor as a presentation of essential tremor has not previously been described in maxillofacial publications. PMID:21652126

  12. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  13. Immunomodulated anterior chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced tongue cancer: An Institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Chhatui, Bappaditya; Devleena; Roy, Sanjoy; Maji, Tapas; Lahiri, Debarshi; Biswas, Jaydip

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sequential induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) along with interferon-alpha2b and concurrent chemoradiation offers superior loco-regional control for locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate the beneficial role of induction PF chemotherapy and interferon-alpha2b followed by chemoradiation over definitive chemoradiation only for patients with locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue. Settings and Design: Phase II randomized, prospective, open-labeled, single-institutional study. Methods and Material: Fifty patients were randomized into 2 arms. Arm A patients were treated with induction chemotherapy with PF regimen for 3 cycles and interferon alpha 2b, 3MU biweekly for 6 such followed by chemoradiation with cisplatin 30 mg/ m2/ week and external radiotherapy. Arm B patients received chemoradiation only, in the same dose schedule as in Arm A. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical correlation between the two arms. For plotting the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for the two arms, Kaplan-Meier method was used. Results: The loco-regional response rate of patients treated with interferon containing induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation was superior to concurrent chemoradiation only. However the toxicities and treatment interruption were more in patients treated with induction chemotherapy. Conclusions: In locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue, induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) along with interferon alpha 2b followed by concurrent chemoradiation may produce superior loco-regional control with manageable toxicities that needs to be validated by more randomized trials with adequate number of patients. PMID:25810574

  14. Effects of dietary lipids on cell proliferation of murine oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Actis, AB; Joekes, S; Cremonezzi, D; Morales, G; Eynard, AR

    2002-01-01

    Background The lack of certain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induces perturbation in cell proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation that could be linked to an increased protumorigenic trend. Contrarily, n-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) arrest cell proliferation in several tumor models. According to the concept of field cancerization, multiple patches of abnormal epithelial proliferation may coexist in the vicinity of oropharyngeal neoplasms. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether certain dietary PUFAs differentially modulate the patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis at non-tumoral sites of the oral mucosa in mice bearing DMBA induced salivary tumors. After weaning, BALB/c mice were assigned to four diets: Control (C), Corn Oil (CO), Fish (FO) and Olein (O). Two weeks later, DMBA was injected into the submandibular area. The animals were sacrificed between 94 and 184 days at 46 PM. Fixed samples of lip, tongue and palate were stained using H-E and a silver technique. A quantification of AgNORs in the basal (BS) and suprabasal stratum (SBS) of the covering squamous epithelia as well as of mitosis and apoptosis was performed. Results Analysis of Variance showed greater proliferation in tongue than in palate or lip. According to the diet, a significant difference was found in the Fish Oil, in which palate exhibited fewer AgNOR particles than that of the control group, both for BS and SBS (p < 0.05 and 0.152, respectively), indicating a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions These results corroborate and reaffirm that the patterns of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of the oral stratified squamous epithelium may be differentially modulated by dietary lipids, and arrested by n-3 fatty acids, as shown in several other cell populations. PMID:12617749

  15. Congenital mucocele of the tongue: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Hugo; De Hoyos Parra, Ricardo; Cuestas, Giselle; Cambi, Jacopo; Passali, Desiderio

    2014-01-01

    Mucoceles are benign lesions of the oral cavity that develop as a result of retention or extravasation of mucous material from minor salivary glands. Congenital mucoceles are very rare. These lesions in newborns may interfere with breastfeeding and may even compromise respiratory function. A patient with a congenital mucocele diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound screening showing a cystic lesion of the tongue is presented herein. The physical examination, lesion evolution and imaging are described, together with the surgical management, histopathology and two-year follow-up. Early clinical assessment, differential diagnosis and magnetic resonance imaging allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this rare congenital condition with surgery in early infancy. PMID:24911859

  16. Salvage irradiation of oropharynx and mobile tongue about /sup 192/iridium brachytherapy in Centre Alexis Vautrin

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, D.; Hoffstetter, S.; Malissard, L.; Pernot, M.; Taghian, A.

    1988-05-01

    Between 1972 and 1984, 123 patients were treated using /sup 192/Iridium afterloading techniques for recurrence or new cancer of the tongue or oropharynx arising in previously irradiated tissues. The actuarial local control was 67% at 2 years and 59% at 5 years. Local control of the tumor was achieved in the majority of these patients, the actuarial survival was only 48% at 2 years and 24% at 5 years. Twenty-eight patients developed mucosal necrosis. We analyzed prognostic factors for survival, local control, and complication. We proposed a selection for this salvage therapy.

  17. Spectrum analysis of Chinese vowels formant in patients with tongue carcinoma underwent hemiglossectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yujie; Numan, Fahmi Ahmed; Li, Kan; Liao, Guiqing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tongue is the most important phonatory organ in stomatognathic system. Radical resection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma can cause tongue defect and result in serious oral dysfunction, especially in phonetic function. This study aims to reveal the influence of tongue cancer, tongue defect and tongue reconstructions to phonetic function of tongue cancer patients. Study design: Formant spectrum analysis of Chinese vowels was performed by linear predictive coding (LPC) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients (before surgery and 3 months, 9 months and 2 years after surgery) and normal people. Patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma were divided into reconstruction group and non-reconstruction group. In reconstruction group, patients underwent tongue reconstruction with radial forearm free flap (RFFF) and lateral arm free flap (LAFF), respectively. Results: 45 patients and 40 normal people were included. Differences were statistically significant between patients and normal persons, between patients before surgery and after surgery, between non-reconstruction group and construction group 2 years after operation. No statistical significance was found between patients underwent tongue reconstruction with RFFF or LAFF 2 years after operation. Conclusions: This study showed that tongue cancer and tongue defect after radical resections affected phonetic function of patients. Tongue reconstruction with free flaps could restore phonetic function to some extent. The efficiency of tongue reconstruction with RFFF and LAFF respectively were similar. PMID:25932247

  18. Dynamic changes in cell-surface expression of mannose in the oral epithelium during the development of graft-versus-host disease of the oral mucosa in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of cell-surface glycoconjugates in oral mucosal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still unclear, even though molecular changes in the oral epithelium are essential for the pathogenesis of these lesions. In this study, we investigated changes in the binding of mannose (Man)-specific Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) in the oral mucosa of rats with GVHD. Methods Lewis rat spleen cells were injected into (Lewis x Brown Norway) F1 rats to induce systemic GVHD, including oral mucosal lesions. Tongue and spleen samples were evaluated using lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, transwell migration assays and Stamper-Woodruff binding assays. Results Binding of Man-specific LCA expanded to the epithelial layers of the tongue in GVHD-rats. An expansion of LCA binding was related to the increased expression of mannosyltransferase in the oral mucosa. CD8+ cells, effector cells of oral mucosal GVHD, expressed mannose-binding protein (MBP) and migrated to the medium containing Man in the transwell migration assay. Adherence of CD8+ cells to the oral epithelium could be inhibited by pretreating CD8+ cells with MBP antibody and/or by pretreating sections with Man-specific LCA. Conclusions Increased expression of Man on keratinocytes leads to the migration and/or adhesion of CD8+ cells in the surface epithelium, which is mediated in part by the MBP/Man-binding pathway during the development of oral mucosal GVHD. PMID:24433462

  19. E-tongue 2 REDOX response to heavy metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Kounaves, S. P.

    2002-01-01

    E-Tongue 2 an array of electrochemical sensors including REDOX electrodes for Cylic Voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry measurements, Galvanic cells for corrosion measurements, and Ion Selective Electrodes.

  20. 51. Photocopied August 1978. PREMOULDED TONGUE AND GROOVE CONCRETE BLOCKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopied August 1978. PRE-MOULDED TONGUE AND GROOVE CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR TAIL RACE AND FOREBAY WALLS AND THE CONCRETE MIXER IN MID-1900. (70) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. 11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR SIDING IN LIVING QUARTERS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED IN DAM CONSTRUCTION, NORTH EAST OF EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTH - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  3. Improving breastfeeding outcomes: the impact of tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    A tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is defined as a lingual frenulum that is short, tight and restricts normal tongue movement. The tongue-tied newborn baby then has a mechanical difficulty attaching to his mum's breast and maintaining attachment to feed effectively. In the hands of skilled carers, this mechanical problem can be resolved by releasing the frenulum (frenulotomy) and the baby's access to his/her mother's breast milk be preserved. Published research on this subject has undergone justifiable criticism. Robust methodology was lacking in earlier studies. An overview of the course of researchers' response to critique is discussed. The care pathway in place in mid-Norfolk for mother and baby dyads where the baby's tongue-tie compromises efficient breastfeeding is outlined. PMID:22779397

  4. Osseous Choristoma of the Tongue: A Review of Etiopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, Edoardo; Migliorini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. In the oral region lingual localization occurs more frequently and the mass is generally localized on the dorsum of the tongue. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after histopathologic examination. The etiology remains already debatable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. In this paper we present a case of tongue osseous choristoma and a review of the literature. PMID:25580337

  5. Winter Cold tongue in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B.; Tkalich, P.; Rizzoli, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) surface circulation is mainly forced by seasonally varying monsoon winds and flow through the Luzon Strait. In winter, positive wind curl (due to the northeasterly winds) in the southern half of SCS drives a cyclonic gyre. The strong western boundary current south off Vietnam on the continental slope separates the Sunda Shelf to the west and deep SCS basin to the east. The advection of cold water due to the slope current results in a unique cold tongue in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from November to February. The inter-annual variability of this cold-tongue is investigated by analyzing the NCEP OISST version-2 dataset. Dynamics of the evolution, growth and decay of the cold tongue during the period 1982-2012 are addressed using the OISST and ERA-interim surface wind datasets. The role of water mass advection in the inter-annual variability of SCS cold-tongue is also investigated through the analysis of lateral heat fluxes estimated from NCEP-Climate Forecast System Re-analysis dataset. The vertically integrated Ekman transport (i.e., the Sverdrup transport) plays a vital role in the formation this cold tongue. The southward Sverdrup transport brings cold water from the northern parts of the SCS. Inter-annual variations in the cold tongue SST during the northeast monsoon (November to February) are strongly linked to the north-south Sverdrup and zonal Ekman transport anomalies. The positive SST anomalies over the cold-tongue region are associated with positive transport anomalies, reflecting the weakening of the southward and westward advection. The formation and termination of this cold tongue has significant correlation with the El Nino phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean.

  6. Tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Lun-Chien; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chiang, John Y; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lin, Hong-Jen; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology that causes the immune system to attack the joints (synoviums), leading to chronic inflammation. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), RA falls into the category of Impediment disease ("Bi" syndrome), that is, poor circulation of qi and blood (stasis). Tongue diagnosis is an important method of TCM to detect blood stasis. In this study, 74 RA patients, meeting the pre-set criteria, were recruited via rheumatology outpatient clinic and examined by experienced rheumatology physicians. Two images-one of the tongue and the other, sublingual vessels-of the same patient were taken by a Canon digital camera in a darkroom with uniform lighting conditions. Relevant features of the tongue were extracted by utilising image processing techniques. Every tongue was classified into corresponding patterns based on the features identified. The subjects included 62 females and 12 males with an average age of 49.86 ± 13.81 years old, an average morbidity period of 4.56 ± 3.92 years, an average rheumatoid factor (RF) of 225.3 ± 373.8 IU/mL and an average erythrocyte sedimentation rate of (ESR) 40.9 ± 31.9 m/hr. According to our study, 86% of the patients with RA have tongues with sublingual vessels with a width of more than 2.7 mm, a length of more than 3/5 from tongue tipto sublingual caruncle, or a count of sublingual vessels more than 2. Moreover, since RA index is highly correlated with blood stasis in TCM, a logistic regression is conducted to predict the probability of presence of RA using RF and ESR as explanatory variables. Also, the logistic regression analysis of RA with respect to the conventional tongue diagnosis criteria was performed. Based on the aforementioned studies, we concluded that tongue diagnosis is helpful in detecting blood stasis of RA. PMID:24311851

  7. Prostaglandin synthesis in the human gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Aly, A; Gréen, K; Johansson, C

    1987-01-01

    Prostaglandins derive from polyunsaturated fatty acids, of which arachidonic acid is the most abundant. Arachidonic acid occurs in all cell membranes, where it is bound to phospholipids and can, once liberated by phospholipases, be metabolized by cyclooxygenase into prostaglandins and thromboxanes and by lipoxygenases into hydroxyacids, leukotrienes and lipoxins. In most studies on prostaglandin formation in the human gastrointestinal mucosa PGE2 and PGF2 alpha seem to be the regularly occurring products. Quantification of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis in vivo is problematic. Mechanical handling of tissues immediately activates arachidonic acid metabolism, and the determination of "tissue levels" of prostaglandins or prostaglandin biosynthesis in biopsy specimens ex vivo thus becomes unreliable as a measure of in vivo formation. A more reliable approach may be to measure prostaglandins in gastrointestinal luminal contents, which can be obtained atraumatically. Most measurements are made by radioimmunological methods, but the specificity of most assays has not been satisfactorily examined. More specific methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry should be used to validate of a radioimmunoassays. Prostaglandin E2, which can be measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, is regularly found in human gastroduodenal luminal contents. Exposure of the mucosa to hydrochloric acid increases the output of PGE2 to the lumen, indicating increased mucosal PGE2 formation during physiological activation of mucosal defense mechanisms. PMID:3112928

  8. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

  9. Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure…

  10. Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure

  11. Reconstruction of the eyelids of a dog using grafts of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Peña, T M; García, F A

    1999-04-10

    A five-month-old English cocker spaniel with distichiasis had been treated four times surgically by a tarsomeibomian resection technique. As a result, three-quarters of the margins of its upper eyelids had been eliminated and the lower eyelids had become considerably thinner. The dog had developed upper entropion and upper eyelid trichiasis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. It was treated medically and grafts of oral mucosa were used to reconstruct its upper eyelids. A year after surgery, the new palpebral margin was completely functional and cosmetically acceptable. The dog's eyes appear normal and only require treatment with artificial tears. PMID:10331229

  12. Tongue Blade Bite Test Predicts Mandible Fractures.

    PubMed

    Neiner, John; Free, Rachael; Caldito, Gloria; Moore-Medlin, Tara; Nathan, Cherie-Ann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the utility of a simple tongue blade bite test in predicting mandible fractures and use this test as an alternative screening tool for further workup. This is a retrospective chart review. An institutional review board approved the retrospective review of patients evaluated by the Department of Otolaryngology at a single institution for facial trauma performed from November 1, 2011, to February 27, 2014. Patients who had a bite test documented were included in the study. CT was performed in all cases and was used as the gold standard to diagnose mandible fractures. Variables analyzed included age, sex, fracture type/location on CT, bite test positivity, and operative intervention. A total of 86 patients met the inclusion criteria and of those 12 were pediatric patients. Majority of the patients were male (80.2%) and adult (86.0%; average age: 34.3 years). Fifty-seven patients had a negative bite test and on CT scans had no mandible fracture. Twenty-three patients had a positive bite test and a CT scan confirmed fracture. The bite test revealed a sensitivity of 88.5% (95% CI: 69.8-97.6%), specificity of 95.0% (95% CI:86.1-99%), positive predictive value [PPV] of 88.5% (95% CI: 69.8-97.6%), and negative predictive value [NPV] of 95.0% (95% CI: 86.1-99.0%). Among pediatric patients, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 29.9-100%), specificity was 88.9% (95% CI: 68.4-100%), PPV was 75.0% (95% CI: 19.4-99.4%), and NPV was 100% (95% CI: 63.1-100%). The tongue blade bite test is a quick inexpensive diagnostic tool for the otolaryngologist with high sensitivity and specificity for predicting mandible fractures. In the pediatric population, where avoidance of unnecessary CT scans is of highest priority, a wider range of data collection should be undertaken to better assess its utility. PMID:27162567

  13. Morphologic and histologic outcomes of tongue reduction surgery in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jonathan A.; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Zi-Jun.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Describe the effect of anterior tongue reduction surgery on tongue size, morphology and histology. Design Prospective experiment. Materials Twenty-two 12 week old Yucatan minipigs. Methods Six sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group B) or sham surgery (Group A), and underwent euthanasia the day of surgery. Five sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group D) or sham surgery (Group C), and were raised for 4 weeks. Data collected included: changes in tongue morphology, histology and animal response to surgery. Results All animals tolerated surgery and maintained their weight. Tongue size was uniformly reduced in all animals as compared to sham surgery. Tongue reduction was stable long-term in Group D. All animals had normal wound healing and neurovascular structure preservation. Fibrosis occurred at the repair site. Conclusion Midline tongue reduction resulted in uniform tongue reduction in all dimensions and volume, without damaging neurovascular structures. Localized fibrosis is a sequelae of healing. PMID:18656732

  14. Tea polyphenols EGCG and TF restrict tongue and liver carcinogenesis simultaneously induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Sur, Subhayan; Pal, Debolina; Roy, Rituparna; Barua, Atish; Roy, Anup; Saha, Prosenjit; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in tongue and liver of the same mouse and restriction of carcinogenesis by Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Theaflavin (TF), if any. For that purpose, cellular proliferation/apoptosis, prevalence of CD44 positive stem cell population and expressions of some key regulatory genes of self renewal Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways and some of their associated genes were analyzed in the NDEA induced tongue and liver lesions in absence or presence of EGCG/TF. Chronic NDEA exposure in oral cavity could decrease mice body weights and induce tongue and liver carcinogenesis with similar histological stages (severe dysplasia up to 30thweeks of NDEA administration). Increasing mice body weights were seen in continuous and post EGCG/TF treated groups. EGCG/TF treatment could restrict both the carcinogenesis at similar histological stages showing potential chemopreventive effect in continuous treated groups (mild dysplasia) followed by pre treatment (moderate dysplasia) and therapeutic efficacy in post treated groups (mild dysplasia) up to 30thweek. The mechanism of carcinogenesis by NDEA and restriction by the EGCG/TF in both tongue and liver were similar and found to be associated with modulation in cellular proliferation/apoptosis and prevalence of CD44 positive population. The up-regulation of self renewal Wnt/β-catenin, Hh/Gli1 pathways and their associated genes Cyclin D1, cMyc and EGFR along with down regulation of E-cadherin seen during the carcinogenesis processes were found to be modulated during the restriction processes by EGCG/TF. PMID:27058323

  15. Functional reconstruction after subtotal glossectomy in the surgical treatment of an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm in this location: Primary malignant melanoma in the base of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Solo-de-Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Hernández-Vila, Cristina; Ramírez-Pérez, Francisco-Alejandro; González-Ballester, David; Ruíz-Laza, Luis; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm, especially on the tongue. We report a case of mucosal melanoma at the base of the tongue, an extremely rare location (only about 30 cases have been reported in literature). The extension study doesn´t revealed distant metastatic lesions. The patient was treated by subtotal glossectomy and bilateral functional neck dissection. Tongue is one of the most difficult structures to reconstruct, because of their central role in phonation, swallowing and airway protection. The defect was reconstructed with anterolateral thigh free flap. Surgical treatment was supplemented with adjuvant immunotherapy. The post-operative period was uneventful. At present, 24 months after surgery, patient is asymptomatic, there isn´t evidence of recurrence of melanoma and he hasn´t any difficulty in swallowing or phonation. Key words:Malignant mucosal melanoma, anterolateral thigh free flap, phonation, swallowing. PMID:25593674

  16. Superficial Mucocele of the Ventral Tongue: Presentation of a Rare Case and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John K; Schwartz, Kevin G; Basile, John R

    2016-06-01

    The superficial mucocele is a rare variant of the common mucocele and noted microscopically by subepithelial pools of mucin. To increase the understanding of oral superficial mucoceles, a database was created from the demographics of case reports and case series from a PubMed search. At least 200 patients with superficial mucoceles have been described in the English-language literature, 82 of whom had biopsy-proven lesions; additional clinical information was available for 39 of these 82 patients. Compiled data suggest superficial mucoceles offered phenotypic distinctions from the common mucocele because they were more apt to occur in middle-aged women, often on the soft palate and buccal mucosa. Affected patients frequently had multiple lesions that were smaller than 3 mm and nearly 50% of patients developed recurrence. This report also describes the first histopathologically confirmed case of a superficial mucocele arising on the ventral tongue in a 22-year-old man. It is speculated that the glossal lesion might have developed from long-term impingement from exposed metal barbs from an orthodontic splint. Persistent lesions or atypical presentations underscore the need for histopathologic examination. PMID:26706494

  17. [Local complications of lip and tongue piercing -- report of the cases].

    PubMed

    Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Piercing, which is the form of puncturing parts of the human body and creating openings where jewelry can be worn, is together with tattoos, body drawings or make-up, one of the oldest way of decorating of the human body. Piercing can be performed in each part of the body. In the recent years face piercing (nose, eyebrows, lip region) and in the oral cavity (tongue, lips, cheek, mentolabial sulcus, labial frenulum) is becoming particularly popular. The procedure of piercing itself may potentially lead to serious systemic and local complications. The aim of the study was to present three clinical cases of the patients who referred to the Dental University Clinic in Krakow for the treatment of lesions on the oral mucosa after piercing. Clinicians who examine patients with such body decorations should pay particular attention to the sites which can be injured by the jewelry. Medical staff should also make patients realize the risk of general complications after piercing. This will allow on the early removal of the jewelry and prevention of possible complications. PMID:24455839

  18. Epithelioid leiomyoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Koutlas, I G; Manivel, J C

    1996-12-01

    Oral leiomyomas are rare because of the paucity of smooth muscle in the mouth. The solid and vascular types are the most frequent variants. The purpose of this article is to present the pathologic features and differential diagnosis of an example of epithelioid leiomyoma. A 50-year-old woman presented with a small raised nonpainful polypoid lesion of unknown duration on the right buccal mucosa. The tumor was well demarcated and consisted of large epithelioid cells with distinct cytoplasmic borders, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. A few mitoses (4 in 20 high power fields) were present. Scattered spindle cells were also seen. The cytoplasm was eosinophilic to amphophilic and showed frequent clearing and retraction. Small capillaries were identified and surrounded by neoplastic cells that gave the lesion an angiomyomatous appearance. Masson trichrome stain highlighted focally smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed staining for vimentin, desmin, and muscle-specific actim. PMID:8974140

  19. Physiological correction of lingual dysfunction with the "Tongue Right Positioner": Beneficial effects on the upper airways.

    PubMed

    Mauclaire, Claude; Vanpoulle, Frédéric; Saint-Georges-Chaumet, Yann

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial role of functional tongue therapy in stabilizing treatments for dental malocclusion and treating sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect on the upper airways of the Tongue Right Positioner device (TRP) used for the correction of atypical swallowing. We analyzed lateral headfilms of 94 orthodontic patients aged between 11 and 17, before the start of treatment and after establishment of mature swallowing, treated with the TRP (TRP group) or by reeducation exercises (control group). In the TRP group, the establishment of mature swallowing occurs twice as fast as in the control group. This led to thinning of the floor of the mouth (-8.38%, P<0.001) linked to anteroposterior enlargement of the pharynx (+10.48%, P<0.01), both probably due to an increase in genioglossal and styloglossal muscle tone and correction of cranio-cervical posture (+2.52%, P<0.01). These results are not dependent on the type of orthodontic treatment. They suggest that the TRP could be used in the treatment of SDB. PMID:26282520

  20. Elective neck irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the oral tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, F.; Leborgne, J.H.; Barlocci, L.A.; Ortega, B.

    1987-08-01

    A total of 69 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue Stages T1-2-3 N0 were treated between 1952 and 1982 at one cancer center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Of 52 patients with the primary disease controlled, 2 had elective cervical lymph node dissection, and were therefore excluded from the study, 25 were treated with elective neck irradiation, and 25 were followed without irradiation to the neck. In the untreated group, 40% developed neck node metastases, while this was observed only in 20% of the group receiving elective neck irradiation, but only 4% recurred in the elective irradiated areas of the neck (p: 0.0028). The survival was the same for each group (5-year absolute survival with NED 67% for the neck irradiation group and 64% for the unirradiated group). From this retrospective study, we conclude that elective neck irradiation in carcinoma of the oral tongue decreases the incidence of neck metastases but an improvement in survival of these patients was not demonstrated.

  1. Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Shin-ichi

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species. PMID:12171472

  2. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  3. Study of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Scardina, Giuseppe Alessandro; Messina, Pietro

    2003-01-01

    The research has the following aims: 1: to verify the applicability of capillaroscopic investigation to oral mucosa; 2: to propose oral mucosa as an alternative to the fingernail fold for capillaroscopic investigation; 3: to describe the characteristics of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects. 100 healthy patients were examined. The characteristics of the micro-circulation in the areas of gum mucosa and the mucosa covering of the lower lip were examined using computerised videomicroscopic techniques. For each patient we evaluated the visibility, the course, the density, the tortuosity and any images characteristic of capillary loops, besides the possible presence of microhaemorrhages, the average calibre of capillary loops and the number of capillary loops visible per square millimetre. The investigation was simple, non invasive and repeatable for each patient. An investigation of gum mucosa has revealed a course of capillary loops both parallel and perpendicular to the surface: often the tops of the capillary loops appear as regularly distributed dots or commas. Microcirculatory architecture in the area of the mucosa covering is characterised by capillary loops with a variable diameter, course and length; next to typical capillary loops with the appearance of horse stirrups, there are other loops similar to hairpins, commas and cork screws; there are also rare microhaemorrhages with the aspect of reddish stains, that could be caused by microtraumas. Visibility was very good in the area of the mucosa covering of the lower lip: mediocre in the area of gum mucosa. Our research has highlighted, that today it is possible to carry out a capillaroscopic investigation of oral mucosa in a simple and reliable way. Future research could evaluate how "normal microcirculation", that we describe in this paper, is modified during pathology PMID:12737514

  4. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  5. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer: preliminary results of a dose reduction trial

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Masui, Koji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Arika, Takumi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the outcome of our facility with another about the shortened schedule (60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions) of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer. Material and methods Eighteen patients were treated with HDR ISBT as a monotherapy in dose reduction schedule with some unique technique to determine the border of tumor accuracy (lugol's staining and metal marker), and to minimize adverse effect (lead-lined silicon block) at our facility. Results The 2-year local and regional control rates and cause-specific survival rate were 82%, 80%, and 83% and moderate to severe late complications occurred in five patients (28%), which were almost the same treatment results achieved by another facility. Conclusions We recommend 54 Gy in 9 fractions over 7 days as a feasible treatment to reduce patient discomfort in mobile tongue cancer patients. PMID:24790616

  6. Policy and experiment in mother tongue literacy in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1993-07-01

    The advocacy for initial mother tongue literacy in elementary schools and in adult education has been intensified within the past three decades, reflecting new attitudes to cultural diversity, especially to multilingual and multicultural education. This paper assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education. Although, like the Ife project, many experimental projects on mother tongue literacy in other countries are shown to have succeeded in realizing their objectives, the findings highlight the mediating effects of several non-linguistic variables. The findings indicate that its use as the medium of instruction in schools cannot compensate for the deficiencies in the educational system, particularly poor quality instructional facilities, or the social barriers in the wider society which prevent certain groups of minority children from learning well in school. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Symmetrical lipomatosis of the tongue: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Munehiro; Adachi, Makoto; Motohashi, Masayuki; Muramatsu, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis is rare and characterized by diffuse growth and nonencapsulated lipomas. It is usually found in the posterior neck and upper trunk, and the entity is known as "benign symmetric lipomatosis," "Madelung disease," and "Launois-Bensaude syndrome." Symmetric lipomatosis of the tongue was first described by Desmond and is an extremely rare condition. A 74-year-old man complained of painless tongue swelling and difficulty speaking. Clinical findings revealed no tumor masses on the trunk, limbs, or head and neck region. Intraoral findings included soft yellowish masses with a smooth surface without erosions on the side of the tongue bilaterally. They were 30 mm in diameter. An incisional biopsy was taken from the mass, and the lipoma was diagnosed. The bilateral tongue lesions were resected under general anesthesia. Intraoperative findings revealed adipose tissues interspersed with lingual muscles and no capsulation. The lesion was finally diagnosed as symmetric lipomatosis of the tongue based on clinical findings and radiological and histologic examination. PMID:26228680

  8. The mucosa-kidney axis in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Feehally, John

    2016-03-01

    Links between IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and the mucosa have been recognized since the 1970s. In particular, the observation of visible haematuria induced by respiratory infections in patients with IgAN and the association of IgAN with diseases in which the mucosa plays a part, especially coeliac disease, have been taken as evidence of a mucosa-kidney axis. Here, we review current evidence that links the mucosa, in particular the gastrointestinal mucosa, and IgA produced by the bone marrow with IgAN. Genome-wide association studies in patients with IgAN have identified risk loci in genes involved in the intestinal mucosal integrity and immune network. Furthermore, the systemic immune response to mucosal antigens in IgAN is increased. Moreover, patients with IgAN have an increased reactivity to dietary proteins associated with subclinical intestinal mucosal inflammation. Associations between IgAN and gastrointestinal diseases have also been reported in a small number of patients, but whether these diseases share a common pathogenesis or whether gastrointestinal inflammation exacerbates IgAN is uncertain. Indeed, mucosal alterations such as infections could activate the innate immune system, aggravate a pre-existing IgAN and promote disease manifestations such as macrohaematuria. Various clinical interventions and trials targeting the mucosa or presumed mucosa-associated mechanisms have so far not yielded consistent findings and the results of ongoing trials are eagerly awaited. PMID:26714580

  9. Modeling of Transient Nectar Flow in Hummingbird Tongues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that hummingbirds do not pick up floral nectar via capillary action. The long believed capillary rise models were mistaken and unable to predict the dynamic nectar intake process. Instead, hummingbird's tongue acts as an elastic micropump. Nectar is drawn into the tongue grooves during elastic expansion after the grooves are squeezed flat by the beak. The new model is compared with experimental data from high-speed videos of 18 species and tens of individuals of wild hummingbirds. Self-similarity and transitions of short-to-long time behaviours have been resolved for the nectar flow driven by expansive filling. The transient dynamics is characterized by the relative contributions of negative excess pressure and the apparent area modulus of the tongue grooves.

  10. Robust contour tracking in ultrasound tongue image sequences.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kele; Yang, Yin; Stone, Maureen; Jaumard-Hakoun, Aurore; Leboullenger, Clémence; Dreyfus, Gérard; Roussel, Pierre; Denby, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    A new contour-tracking algorithm is presented for ultrasound tongue image sequences, which can follow the motion of tongue contours over long durations with good robustness. To cope with missing segments caused by noise, or by the tongue midsagittal surface being parallel to the direction of ultrasound wave propagation, active contours with a contour-similarity constraint are introduced, which can be used to provide 'prior' shape information. Also, in order to address accumulation of tracking errors over long sequences, we present an automatic re-initialization technique, based on the complex wavelet image similarity index. Experiments on synthetic data and on real 60 frame per second (fps) data from different subjects demonstrate that the proposed method gives good contour tracking for ultrasound image sequences even over durations of minutes, which can be useful in applications such as speech recognition where very long sequences must be analyzed in their entirety. PMID:26786063

  11. Does silent reading involve articulation? Evidence from tongue twisters.

    PubMed

    Haber, L R; Haber, R N

    1982-01-01

    To demonstrate an interfering effect of subvocal articulation on otherwise silent reading, college-student subjects were asked to repeatedly read, either silently or aloud, both tongue-twister sentences and control sentences matched for syntactic complexity, syllable count, and sentential stress pattern. A technique was developed to measure the amount of time needed for each repetition of a sentence whether done silently or aloud. A significant difference in reading time for tongue twisters as compared to their matched controls was found for both silent as well as out-loud reading. A variety of different kinds of articulatory errors occurred in the oral repetitions, and the number of such errors was highly correlated with oral reading time. While errors could not be measured in silent reading, this correlation suggested that comparable articulatory disturbances accounted for the slower time to silently repeat tongue twisters. PMID:7180948

  12. Tongue atrophy and fasciculations in transthyretin familial amyloid neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffar, Tahseen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Macroglossia is a well-known feature of amyloidosis; however, tongue atrophy and fasciculations are rarely seen and can lead to the misdiagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: We identified 2 unrelated patients with atypical features of tongue atrophy and fasciculations in the setting of a severe neuropathy. Results: Both patients were confirmed to have transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) by genetic testing. Conclusions: TTR-FAP should be considered as a possible mimicker of ALS when tongue atrophy and fasciculations are seen in the setting of a severely progressive polyneuropathy. Other atypical mimickers of ALS include polyglucosan body disease, hexosaminidase A deficiency, multisystem proteinopathy, and Allgrove syndrome. PMID:27066555

  13. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

  14. DNA Damage in Oral Mucosa Cells of Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Merati, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test. Results: The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336). Conclusion: Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells. PMID:24910659

  15. Histological Changes in the Gastric Mucosa of Magnesium Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Artizzu, Maria; Messier, B.

    1971-01-01

    The gastric mucosa of Sprague-Dawley male rats was studied histologically following a magnesium-deficient diet fed for 4, 8, 16, 30, 45 or 60 days. Control animals were given either the same diet supplemented with magnesium sulphate or Purina Laboratory Chow. Magnesium deficient animals showed the following prominent changes: vasodilatation, fewer surface mucous cells, as well as a diminution of theintracellular and the extracellular mucus, and structural disorganization of the upper third of the mucosa. No changes were noted in the controls. A possible interrelation of magnesium deficiency, histamine production and gastric mucosa is proposed. ImagesFigs. 5-7Figs. 1-4 PMID:5547657

  16. Dislocated Tongue Muscle Attachment and Cleft Palate Formation.

    PubMed

    Kouskoura, T; El Fersioui, Y; Angelini, M; Graf, D; Katsaros, C; Chiquet, M

    2016-04-01

    In Pierre Robin sequence, a retracted tongue due to micrognathia is thought to physically obstruct palatal shelf elevation and thereby cause cleft palate. However, micrognathia is not always associated with palatal clefting. Here, by using the Bmp7-null mouse model presenting with cleft palate and severe micrognathia, we provide the first causative mechanism linking the two. In wild-type embryos, the genioglossus muscle, which mediates tongue protrusion, originates from the rostral process of Meckel's cartilage and later from the mandibular symphysis, with 2 tendons positive for Scleraxis messenger RNA. In E13.5 Bmp7-null embryos, a rostral process failed to form, and a mandibular symphysis was absent at E17.5. Consequently, the genioglossus muscle fibers were diverted toward the lingual surface of Meckel's cartilage and mandibles, where they attached in an aponeurosis that ectopically expressed Scleraxis. The deflection of genioglossus fibers from the anterior-posterior toward the medial-lateral axis alters their direction of contraction and necessarily compromises tongue protrusion. Since this muscle abnormality precedes palatal shelf elevation, it is likely to contribute to clefting. In contrast, embryos with a cranial mesenchyme-specific deletion of Bmp7 (Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre) exhibited some degree of micrognathia but no cleft palate. In these embryos, a rostral process was present, indicating that mesenchyme-derived Bmp7 is dispensable for its formation. Moreover, the genioglossus appeared normal in Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre embryos, further supporting a role of aberrant tongue muscle attachment in palatal clefting. We thus propose that in Pierre Robin sequence, palatal shelf elevation is not impaired simply by physical obstruction by the tongue but by a specific developmental defect that leads to functional changes in tongue movements. PMID:26701347

  17. Tongue-tie in the newborn: what, when, who and how? Exploring tongue-tie division.

    PubMed

    Todd, David A

    2014-07-01

    The division of tongue-tie (TT) in babies with feeding problems has become a more accepted procedure in recent years (Bowley & Arul 2013). Although case series reports had described the benefits of division in problematic breastfeeding (Ballard, Auer & Khoury et al 2002; Notestine 1990), it was not until randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provided significant evidence of improvement that the procedure became more accepted (Berry, Griffiths & Westcott 2012; Buryk, Bloom & Shope 2011; Dollberg et al 2006; Emond et al 2014; Hogan, Westcott & Griffiths 2005). However there are still several areas of debate. These include: 1) what type of TT produces problems with feeding and thus what type of TT should be divided, 2) who should have the procedure, 3) when should the TT division be performed and 4) how should the TT be divided. In this review I will discuss these areas of debate and shed some light on this very common but often devastating congenital condition. PMID:25109095

  18. Vibrations of an ice-tongue using GPS records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lescarmontier, Lydie; Legrésy, Benoit; Coleman, Richard; Young, Neal; Testut, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In November 2007, during the IPEV R0 Astrolabe voyage, we deployed a network of year-round GPS beacons along a flow line of the Mertz glacier in East Antarctica (CRAC-ICE project, Legrésy et al.). Two months of GPS data were collected at the end of the field season from 2 stations (GPS4 & GPS5) around the main rift on the Mertz floating ice tongue. We investigate sub daily time scales of motion of the two sites using the GPS records. The observed vertical signal includes tides, but also more rapid signals at sub-hourly time scales. With GPS processing using Gins-PC software and Precise Point Positioning processing (PPP); we are able to confirm getting the sub hourly scale oscillations of the ice tongue with few centimeters amplitude from two different part of the floating ice tongue. One mechanism in calving events is ocean wave energy, which leads to the movement of the ice tongue. The glacier then acts like a filter, with filtering characteristics depending mainly of the ice thickness (Holsworth and Gynn 1981). If a dominant frequency of the ocean wave spectrum coincides with one of the fundamental vibration modes of the ice-tongue, cyclic bending stresses may lead to fatigue of the ice and hence to crack propagation. This kind of event is a good candidate to explain a part of a calving process of an ice-tongue. Therefore, we focused of these oscillations using Harmonic analysis, short term FFT and wavelets. We identified a main energetic mode of vibrations around 10-40 minutes (23% of the total energy of the signal) that we compared with simple modeling of the fundamental vibrations of a beam. The model has been run in different cases of ice thickness, ice-tongue length and directions of the observed vibrations. The most visible oscillations correspond to a main mode of vibration propagating in the across flow direction of the ice tongue, driven mostly by ocean forcing. Both GPS sites are recording these vibrations. Given that each beacon is situated on from each side of the rift, we investigated the possible effects of the movement on the opening of the rift by a comparison of their own signal. Finally, we focused the possible resonance with ocean forcing and their impact on calving processes.

  19. A Tongue Lesion as a Sign of a Systemic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liakou, Chrysoula I.; Koh, Joan; Tsimpidakis, Antonios; Rios, Katrina; Paskalis, Charalabos; Pipilis, Athanasios; Kantianis, Dimitrios; Georgiadis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the extracellular fibril deposition of a variety of proteins, many of which circulate as plasma ingredients. It is a disease difficult to identify due to its nonspecific symptoms and manifestations. Amyloidosis of the tongue, either isolated or part of the systemic disease, is rare and its features resemble those of a tumor. We report the case of a patient with amyloidosis who presented with a tongue lesion, weakness, nonspecific arthritis, and dyspnea on exertion that resulted in multiorgan system failure. PMID:27092182

  20. Fully integrated wireless inductive tongue computer interface for disabled people.

    PubMed

    Struijk, Lotte N S Andreasen; Lontis, Eugen Romulus; Bentsen, Bo; Christensen, Henrik Vie; Caltenco, Hector A; Lund, Morten Enemark

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a novel fully integrated inductive tongue computer interface for disabled people. The interface consists of an oral unit placed in the mouth, including inductive sensors, related electronics, a system for wireless transmission and a rechargeable battery. The system is activated using an activation unit placed on the tongue, and incorporates 18 inductive sensors, arranged in both a key area and a mouse-pad area. The system's functionality was demonstrated in a pilot experiment, where a typing rate of up to 70 characters/minute was obtained with an error rate of 3%. Future work will include tests with disabled subjects. PMID:19963971

  1. A Tongue Lesion as a Sign of a Systemic Disease.

    PubMed

    Liakou, Chrysoula I; Koh, Joan; Tsimpidakis, Antonios; Rios, Katrina; Paskalis, Charalabos; Pipilis, Athanasios; Kantianis, Dimitrios; Georgiadis, Thomas; Razis, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the extracellular fibril deposition of a variety of proteins, many of which circulate as plasma ingredients. It is a disease difficult to identify due to its nonspecific symptoms and manifestations. Amyloidosis of the tongue, either isolated or part of the systemic disease, is rare and its features resemble those of a tumor. We report the case of a patient with amyloidosis who presented with a tongue lesion, weakness, nonspecific arthritis, and dyspnea on exertion that resulted in multiorgan system failure. PMID:27092182

  2. Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

  3. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,

  4. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  5. Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the

  6. [Gas ventilation through middle ear mucosa].

    PubMed

    Ohno, F; Imakiire, T; Nobori, T; Ohyama, M

    1993-11-01

    The possible effects of gas ventilation via the middle ear mucosa on middle ear pressure changes with N2O inhalation were studied. Sixty-seven ears without otologic problems were selected from among cases undergoing ENT surgery under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced by isoflurane or sevoflurane, and inhalation with a gas mixture of 21/min O2 and 31/min N2O was started under controlled respiration via endotracheal tube. Middle ear pressure was measured each minute with tympanometry just before and during N2O inhalation. Changes in pressure were plotted against time on an X-Y plotter, and the rate of middle ear pressure change and pressure change in 10 minutes were calculated. The following results were obtained; 1. In all cases, the middle ear pressure rose with N2O inhalation. However, the same concentration of N2O created different middle ear pressure changes in different individuals varying from 1.6 mmH2O to 107.8 mmH2O per minute. 2. The rate of middle ear pressure elevation tended to be greater in younger subjects, especially in children aged 4 to 7. 3. There was a negative correlation between the middle ear pressure change and pneumatization of the middle ear. 4. Sex, pulmonary function, and the N2O expiratory flow concentration did not contribute to the variability in the rate of the middle ear pressure elevation. PMID:8283337

  7. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa. PMID:23422613

  8. Application of single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bing-Yang; Leng, Jian-Jun; Wan, Tao; Zhang, Wen-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the simplicity, reliability, and safety of the application of single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of patients who received pancreaticoduodenectomy completed by the same surgical group between January 2011 and April 2014 in the General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army. In total, 51 cases received single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis and 51 cases received double-layer pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. The diagnoses of pancreatic fistula and clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy were judged strictly by the International Study Group on pancreatic fistula definition. The preoperative and intraoperative data of these two groups were compared. χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze the incidences of pancreatic fistula, peritoneal catheterization, abdominal infection and overall complications between the single-layer anastomosis group and double-layer anastomosis group. Rank sum test were used to analyze the difference in operation time, pancreaticojejunal anastomosis time, postoperative hospitalization time, total hospitalization time and hospitalization expenses between the single-layer anastomosis group and double-layer anastomosis group. RESULTS: Patients with grade A pancreatic fistula accounted for 15.69% (8/51) vs 15.69% (8/51) (P = 1.0000), and patients with grades B and C pancreatic fistula accounted for 9.80% (5/51) vs 52.94% (27/51) (P = 0.0000) in the single-layer and double-layer anastomosis groups. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients with grade A pancreatic fistula, there was a significant difference in the percentage of patients with grades B and C pancreatic fistula between the two groups. The operation time (220.059 ± 60.602 min vs 379.412 ± 90.761 min, P = 0.000), pancreaticojejunal anastomosis time (17.922 ± 5.145 min vs 31.333 ± 7.776 min, P = 0.000), postoperative hospitalization time (18.588 ± 5.285 d vs 26.373 ± 15.815 d, P = 0.003), total hospitalization time (25.627 ± 6.551 d vs 33.706 ± 15.899 d, P = 0.002), hospitalization expenses (116787.667 ± 31900.927 yuan vs 162788.608 ± 129732.500 yuan, P = 0.001), as well as the incidences of pancreatic fistula [13/51 (25.49%) vs 35/51 (68.63%), P = 0.0000], peritoneal catheterization [0/51 (0%) vs 6/51 (11.76%), P = 0.0354], abdominal infection [1/51 (1.96%) vs 11/51 (21.57%), P = 0.0021], and overall complications [21/51 (41.18%) vs 37/51 (72.55%), P = 0.0014] in the single-layer anastomosis group were all lower than those in the double-layer anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis appears to be a simple, reliable, and safe method. Use of this method could reduce the postoperative incidence of complications. PMID:26649157

  9. [Premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Bruaset, I

    1989-04-01

    An overview is presented of the premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the detection of these lesions, thereby reducing the chance of premalignant transformation. PMID:2622509

  10. [Submicroscopic structure of the jejunal mucosa of human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Várkonyi, T; Gergely, G; Varró, V

    1977-04-01

    Authors investigated the submicroscopic structure of the jejunal mucosa of 6--12 week old human foetuses, obtained from arteficial abortions. It was established, that in this age the jejunal mucosa differentiates and develops intensively. In the third month it is build up of morphological units enterocytes. Their structure is morphologically similar to that of the enterocytes of the adult, although in this age they have no function at all. PMID:876258

  11. Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-11-12

    The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis. PMID:24167250

  12. Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy in 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Fournier, Charles; Castelain, Bernard; Prevost, Bernard; Lefebvre, Jean-Louis; Lartigau, Eric . E-mail: e-lartigau@o-lambret.fr

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results obtained with {sup 192}Ir low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Between December 1979 and January 1998, 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma were treated by exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy, with or without neck dissection. {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy was performed according to the 'Paris system' with a median total dose of 60 Gy (median dose rate, 0.5 Gy/h). Results: Overall survival was 74.3% and 46.6% at 2 and 5 years. Local control was 79.1% at 2 years and regional control, respectively, 75.9% and 69.5% at 2 and 5 years (Kaplan-Meier method). Systematic dissection revealed 44.6% occult node metastases, and histologic lymph node involvement was identified as the main significant factor for survival. Complication rate was 16.5% (Grade 3, 2.9%). Half of the patients presented previous and/or successive malignant tumor (ear-nose-throat, esophagus, or bronchus). Conclusion: Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for T2 tongue carcinoma. Regional control and survival are excellent in patients undergoing systematic neck dissection, which is mandatory in our experience because of a high rate of occult lymph node metastases.

  13. Enhanced intracellular calcium promotes metabolic and secretory disturbances in rat gastric mucosa during ethanol-induced gastritis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rincón, Ileana; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2003-03-01

    Changes in the Ca(2+) homeostasis have been implicated in cell injury and death. However, Ca(2+) participation in ethanol-induced chronic gastric mucosal injury has not been elucidated. We have developed a model of ethanol-induced chronic gastric injury in rats, characterized by marked alterations in plasma membranes from gastric mucosa and a compensatory cell proliferation, which follows ethanol withdrawal. Therefore, the present study explored the possible role of intracellular Ca(2+) in the oxidative metabolism and in acid secretion in this experimental model. Glucose oxidation was greatly enhanced in the injured mucosa, as evaluated by CO(2) production by isolated mucosal preparations incubated with (14)C-radiolabeled glucose in different carbons. Oxygen consumption and acid secretion (aminopyrine accumulation) were also stimulated. A predominating secretory status was morphologically identified by electron microscopy in oxyntic cells of gastric mucosa from ethanol-treated rats. A coupling between secretory and metabolic effects induced by ethanol (demonstrated by an inhibitory effect of omeprazole in both parameters) was found. These ethanol-induced effects were also inhibited by addition of Ca(2+) chelators to isolated gastric mucosa samples. Lanthanum, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, inhibited ethanol-promoted increase of oxidative metabolism. In addition, a stimulated Ca(2+) uptake by mucosal minces and increased in vivo Ca(2+) levels in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, were also noticed. Enhanced glucose and oxygen consumptions were associated with higher ATP and NADP+ availability, whereas cytosolic NAD/NADH ratio (assessed by mucosal levels of lactate and pyruvate) was not significantly modified by the chronic ethanol administration. In conclusion, changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis, probably mainly due to increased extracellular Ca(2+) uptake, could mediate secretory and metabolic alterations found in the gastric mucosa from rats chronically treated with ethanol. PMID:12626777

  14. Is There a Correlation between Languages Spoken and Intricate Movements of Tongue? A Comparative Study of Various Movements of Tongue among the Three Ethnic Races of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Awal, Mahfuzah Binti; Han, Chang Wei; Sivaram, Ganeshram; Vigneswaran, Thimesha; Choon, Tee Lian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tongue is mainly used for taste, chewing and in speech. In the present study, we focused on the secondary function of the tongue as to how it is used in phonetic pronunciation and linguistics and how these factors affect tongue movements. Objective To compare all possible movements of tongue among Malaysians belonging to three ethnic races and to find out if there is any link between languages spoken and ability to perform various tongue movements. Materials and Methods A total of 450 undergraduate medical students participated in the study. The students were chosen from three different races i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians (Malaysian Indians). Data was collected from the students through a semi-structured interview following which each student was asked to demonstrate various tongue movements like protrusion, retraction, flattening, rolling, twisting, folding or any other special movements. The data obtained was first segregated and analysed according to gender, race and types and dialects of languages spoken. Results We found that most of the Malaysians were able to perform the basic movements of tongue like protrusion, flattening movements and very few were able to perform twisting and folding of the tongue. The ability to perform normal tongue movements and special movements like folding, twisting, rolling and others was higher among Indians when compared to Malay and Chinese. Conclusion Languages spoken by Indians involve detailed tongue rolling and folding in pronouncing certain words and may be the reason as to why Indians are more versatile with tongue movements as compared to the other two races amongst Malaysians. It may be a possibility that languages spoken by a person serves as a variable that increases their ability to perform special tongue movements besides influenced by the genetic makeup of a person. PMID:26894051

  15. Color tongue image segmentation using fuzzy Kohonen networks and genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aimin; Shen, Lansun; Zhao, Zhongxu

    2000-04-01

    A Tongue Imaging and Analysis System is being developed to acquire digital color tongue images, and to automatically classify and quantify the tongue characteristics for traditional Chinese medical examinations. An important processing step is to segment the tongue pixels into two categories, the tongue body (no coating) and the coating. In this paper, we present a two-stage clustering algorithm that combines Fuzzy Kohonen Clustering Networks and Genetic Algorithm for the segmentation, of which the major concern is to increase the interclass distance and at the same time decrease the intraclass distance. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  16. The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshammari, Marzook M.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

  17. Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskarous, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

  18. Cat Got Your Tongue? Teaching Idioms to English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcpherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Why do questions about idioms often leave us "tongue-tied" in our classrooms? This book takes a look at learning and teaching idioms from two perspectives. First is a survey of recent work on learning and teaching idioms from diverse perspectives in the linguistics and educational research literature. The survey includes definitions of…

  19. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  20. Mother Tongue Use in Task-Based Language Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2012-01-01

    Researches of English language teaching (ELT) have focused on using mother tongue (L1) for years. The proliferation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been also occurred. Considerable findings have been made in the existing literature of the two fields; however, no mentions have been made in the combination of these two ELT aspects, i.e.,…

  1. Modulation of neural connectivity during tongue movement and reading.

    PubMed

    He, Alex G; Tan, Li Hai; Tang, Yiyuan; James, G Andrew; Wright, Paul; Eckert, Mark A; Fox, Peter T; Liu, Yijun

    2003-03-01

    In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a novel connectivity analysis method termed within-condition interregional covariance analysis (WICA) was introduced for investigation into brain modulation during tongue movement and reading Chinese pinyins and logographic characters. We found that performing a horizontal tongue movement task generated a specific brain module with hierarchical orders of neural computation. Such functional modularity was further examined during both overt and silent Chinese reading tasks. Our results showed that overt pinyin reading was associated with the following distributed regions involved in tongue movement: the primary motor cortex (M1), the supplementary motor area (SMA), Broca's area, and Wernicke's area. Furthermore, we have used the WICA and demonstrated task-dependent covariance patterns that are strongly associated with the M1 mouth/tongue region, in which the Broca-Wernicke pathway is implicated in a meaning access procedure based on assembled phonology, while the SMA-Broca pathway is implicated in a meaning access procedure based on addressed phonology. Our functional connectivity analysis of the neural pathway involved in language processing may provide a basis for future studies of the dynamic neural network associated with language learning and reading in both developmental and disease conditions. PMID:12599281

  2. HALL WITH FOYER IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE TONGUE AND GROOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HALL WITH FOYER IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS, CANEC PANEL CEILING AND LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Tongue-lip adhesion in Pierre Robin sequence.

    PubMed

    Krishna Kumar, K S; Vylopilli, Suresh; Sivadasan, Anand; Pati, Ajit Kumar; Narayanan, Saju; Nair, Santhy Mohanachandran

    2016-02-01

    Patients with Pierre Robin sequence exhibit varying degrees of airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. In some patients, airway obstruction may be profound, warranting surgical intervention to maintain a patent airway. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of the tongue-lip adhesion procedure for the management of airway obstruction in such patients compared to the currently available options. PMID:26904495

  4. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

  5. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of

  6. Education in the Mother Tongue and Educational Achievement in Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan, Grazziella

    1984-01-01

    Studies show that the use of the mother-tongue (Guarani) as a medium of instruction with students in Paraguay is the most significant determining factor in the acquisition of knowledge. The discrepancy between educational ideology and educational policies in Paraguay regarding the implementation of bilingual education programs negatively affects…

  7. 7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE FOR STOCK, BUILT ON-SITE AND USED TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. Tongue-lip adhesion in Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Pierre Robin sequence exhibit varying degrees of airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. In some patients, airway obstruction may be profound, warranting surgical intervention to maintain a patent airway. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of the tongue-lip adhesion procedure for the management of airway obstruction in such patients compared to the currently available options. PMID:26904495

  9. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 μm up to 3.2 μm. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  10. Super-resolution Reconstruction for Tongue MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jonghye; Bai, Ying; Roy, Snehashis; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the tongue have been used in both clinical medicine and scientific research to reveal tongue structure and motion. In order to see different features of the tongue and its relation to the vocal tract it is beneficial to acquire three orthogonal image stacks—e.g., axial, sagittal and coronal volumes. In order to maintain both low noise and high visual detail, each set of images is typically acquired with in-plane resolution that is much better than the through-plane resolution. As a result, any one data set, by itself, is not ideal for automatic volumetric analyses such as segmentation and registration or even for visualization when oblique slices are required. This paper presents a method of super-resolution reconstruction of the tongue that generates an isotropic image volume using the three orthogonal image stacks. The method uses preprocessing steps that include intensity matching and registration and a data combination approach carried out by Markov random field optimization. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated on five clinical datasets, yielding superior results when compared with conventional reconstruction methods.

  11. Cat Got Your Tongue? Teaching Idioms to English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcpherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Why do questions about idioms often leave us "tongue-tied" in our classrooms? This book takes a look at learning and teaching idioms from two perspectives. First is a survey of recent work on learning and teaching idioms from diverse perspectives in the linguistics and educational research literature. The survey includes definitions of

  12. Foreign-Language Grammar Instruction via the Mother Tongue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradowski, Michal B.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter reports the results of a controlled experiment which suggest that foreign-language grammar instruction that forges explicit connections with the grammar of the students' mother tongue aids learning, at least as far as students' application of discrete-point grammar rules is concerned. (Contains 2 figures and 3 notes.) [This document…

  13. BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshammari, Marzook M.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes

  15. The Use of the Mother Tongue in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbord, John

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of the first language in teaching a second language. Specific sections address the following: arguments for using the mother tongue; considerations regarding the use of the target language; using L1 to facilitate communication; using L1 to facilitate teacher-student relationships; and using L1 to facilitate learning of L2. (six…

  16. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN WATER CONTROL BOX. THIS SAME PLANKING IS USED AS CRIBBING FOR BOTH EAST DAM AND WEST DAM - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  17. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  18. Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskarous, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage

  19. Tongue-tie Repair: Z-Plasty Vs Simple Release

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Jamshid; Tabrizian Namini, Fariba; Raisolsadat, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Gillies, Rowan; Ashkezari, Azar; Meara, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly in which the lingual frenulum is unusually short and thick, thus decreasing tongue mobility. In the context of the newborn or young infant it is a subject of ongoing controversy within and between medical specialties. The controversy involves not only the definition but also the management of this anomaly. A tight lingual frenulum is considered a minor malformation by some investigators. Usual treatments for ankyloglossia include speech therapy, as well as simple frenulotomy and frenuloplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the latter two methods with respect to postoperative results and complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients referred for surgical care were randomly assigned into two groups: simple release (frenulotomy ) or Z-plasty (frenuloplasty), and underwent a pre-surgical assessment. After 3 months, patients were followed with a scheduled interview and questionnaire comparing the outcomes of the two methods. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Surgery had a significant effect on all variables measured in our study (P<0.05). Z-plasty had a greater effect on articulation, breast pain, tongue movement and parent satisfaction than simple release (P<0.05). Z-plasty and simple release had the same effect on breast feeding, latching, and sucking. Conclusion: Z-plasty is the preferred surgical method to address tongue-tie due to a greater improvement in mother’s breast pain, pronunciation and speech, tongue movement, and parental satisfaction. PMID:25938084

  20. Gift of Tongues: Passing the Ohio Mathematics Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goll, Paulette S.

    2009-01-01

    "Gift of Tongues: Passing the Ohio Mathematics Graduation Test" examines the Ohio Graduation Mathematics Tests of 2004, 2005, and 2006 in the context of bilingual test takers at one of Cleveland's high schools and reports findings from a promising, bilingual pilot project in 2007 that may point to a new strategy for passing the high-stakes test.…

  1. Operant Control of Pathological Tongue Thrust in Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, George A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior modification procedure, carried out at mealtime with a ten-year-old retarded boy who had spastic cerebral palsy, consisted of differential reinforcement and punishment, and resulted in substantial decreases in tongue thrust (reverse swallowing) and food expulsion, and a large increase in observed chewing. (Author/DLS)

  2. Mother Tongue Literacy and Language Renewal: The Case of Navajo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Dick, Galena Sells

    This paper discusses the contribution of school-based mother-tongue literacy to the maintenance and renewal of endangered languages, with Navajo as the case in point. Although Navajo claims the most speakers among U.S. indigenous languages, the absolute number and relative proportion of Navajo speakers have declined drastically in the last 30…

  3. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  8. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation).

  9. Sexual dimorphism in the histologic organization of the muscle fibers in human tongue.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Deivis; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Heck, Layana; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2014-07-01

    Tongue movements are critical for speech, swallowing, and respiration; and tongue dysfunction could lead to dysarthria, dysphagia, and obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Our current understanding of the contributions of specific tongue muscles (TOs) to precise movement patterns is limited. Likewise, there is still little information regarding the orientation of histologic muscle fibers of the tongue in humans, especially between men and women. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the histologic organization in the tongue of men and women. Ten tongues were studied in human specimens obtained from necropsies (five men and five women). The muscles were analyzed using histology, and the morphometric parameters were measured using Image Pro-Plus Software (Image Pro-Plus 6.0; Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). Slices were obtained from the anterior, median, and posterior parts of the tongue. We classified and estimated the percentages of transverse (T), oblique (O), and longitudinal (L) fibers in the tongue. To quantify the percentage of fibers in each category in the tongue, the shape coefficient (Shape Z) was estimated. Statistical differences were found between the orientation of the muscle fibers of men and women only for the middle region of the tongue. The middle region of the tongue in women compared with men has a smaller difference in the variation of the percentage of fibers T (P=0.0004), O (P=0.0006), and L (P=0.0013). These morphologic findings are probably related to physiological differences. PMID:24629642

  10. Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Grosse, Ann S; Iwatsuki, Ken; Mishina, Yuji; Gumucio, Deborah L; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the initiation of tongue formation, through papilla placode appearance and taste papilla development. The Wnt5a mutant tongue is severely shortened, with an ankyloglossia, and lingual mesenchyme is disorganized. However, fungiform papilla morphology, number and innervation are preserved, as is expression of the papilla marker, Shh. These data demonstrate that the genetic regulation for tongue size and shape can be separated from that directing lingual papilla development. Preserved number of papillae in a shortened tongue results in an increased density of fungiform papillae in the mutant tongues. In tongue organ cultures, exogenous Wnt5a profoundly suppresses papilla formation and simultaneously decreases canonical Wnt signaling as measured by the TOPGAL reporter. These findings suggest that Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling to dictate papilla number and spacing. In all, distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue size, fungiform papilla patterning and development are shown and a necessary balance between non-canonical and canonical Wnt paths in regulating tongue growth and fungiform papillae is proposed in a model, through the Ror2 receptor. PMID:22024319

  11. Temperature Gradient Reconstructions from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. L.; Ravelo, C.; Hovan, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Western and Eastern Equatorial Pacific (WEP and EEP) indicate the Equatorial Pacific was in a permanent El Niño-like state during the early Pliocene. Specifically, SST in the WEP was nearly the same as today, while SST in the EEP cold tongue region was 2-3 °C warmer than today. Climatic transitions recorded in the EEP are of particular interest due to the region’s sensitivity to changes in upwelling and thermocline depth, and due to its role in the global ocean heat balance. However, not much is known about the evolution of the EEP cold tongue. This study aims to reconstruct the east-west and north-south gradients within the EEP using new SST and sub-surface temperature records from ODP Sites 848, 849, and 853 and published paleoceanographic records from the EEP to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the EEP cold tongue from the Pliocene to Recent. Mg/Ca analyses on Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globorotalia tumida and alkenone analyses have been made to reconstruct east-west and north-south SST and thermocline depth, respectively. Currently, G. tumida Mg/Ca records have been generated for Sites 848 (most southern) and 853 (most northern) and G. sacculifer Mg/Ca and alkenone records have been generated for Site 848. This study compares new data to published data to achieve exceptional spatial coverage of the EEP cold tongue. Comparison of SST data to reconstructions of thermocline temperatures, paleoproductivity, and wind field strength will provide insight into the underlying causes of changes in the intensity and spatial extent of the cold tongue. Understanding these causes will aid in explaining the transition from the permanent El Niño-like state to modern conditions as climate cooled through the Pliocene.

  12. Crossed motor innervation of the base of human tongue.

    PubMed

    Kubin, Leszek; Jordan, Amy S; Nicholas, Christian L; Cori, Jennifer M; Semmler, John G; Trinder, John

    2015-06-01

    Muscle fibers of the genioglossus (GG) form the bulk of the muscle mass at the base of the tongue. The motor control of the tongue is critical for vocalization, feeding, and breathing. Our goal was to assess the patterns of motor innervation of GG single motor units (SMUs) in humans. Simultaneous monopolar recordings were obtained from four sites in the base of the tongue bilaterally at two antero-posterior levels from 16 resting, awake, healthy adult males, who wore a face mask with airway pressure and airflow sensors. We analyzed 69 data segments in which at least one lead contained large action potentials generated by an SMU. Such potentials served as triggers for spike-triggered averaging (STA) of signals recorded from the other three sites. Spontaneous activity of the SMUs was classified as inspiratory modulated, expiratory modulated, or tonic. Consistent with the antero-posterior orientation of GG fibers, 44 STAs (77%) recorded ipsilateral to the trigger yielded sharp action potentials with a median amplitude of 52 μV [interquartile range (IQR): 25-190] that were time shifted relative to the trigger by about 1 ms. Notably, 48% of recordings on the side opposite to the trigger also yielded sharp action potentials. Of those, 17 (29%) had a median amplitude of 63 μV (IQR: 39-96), and most were generated by tonic SMUs. Thus a considerable proportion of GG muscle fibers receive a crossed motor innervation. Crossed innervation may help ensure symmetry and stability of tongue position and movements under normal conditions and following injury or degenerative changes affecting the tongue. PMID:25855691

  13. Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin

    PubMed Central

    Coquerelle, Michael; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Rojo, Rosa; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bastir, Markus

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor – the space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies. PMID:24260566

  14. Perceptual, durational and tongue displacement measures following articulation therapy for rhotic sound errors.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Harper, Susan; Zhylich, Irina; Kulkarni, Gajanan V

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of articulation therapy for rhotic errors are usually assessed perceptually. However, our understanding of associated changes of tongue movement is limited. This study described perceptual, durational and tongue displacement changes over 10 sessions of articulation therapy for /ɹ/ in six children. Four of the participants also received ultrasound biofeedback of their tongue shape. Speech and tongue movement were recorded pre-therapy, after 5 sessions, in the final session and at a one month follow-up. Perceptually, listeners perceived improvement and classified more productions as /ɹ/ in the final and follow-up assessments. The durations of VɹV syllables at the midway point of the therapy were longer. Cumulative tongue displacement increased in the final session. The average standard deviation was significantly higher in the middle and final assessments. The duration and tongue displacement measures illustrated how articulation therapy affected tongue movement and may be useful for outcomes research about articulation therapy. PMID:26979162

  15. The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Anne M.; Claxton, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to…

  16. The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Anne M.; Claxton, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to

  17. Molecular Detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the Etiological Agent of a Chronic Tongue Ulcer in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Heym, Beate; Gehanno, Pierre; Friocourt, Véronique; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Le Moal, Michèle; Husson, Corinne; Leibowitch, Jacques; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect “American histoplasmosis.” A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin. PMID:16081997

  18. Roles of intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles in feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kayalioglu, Mustafa; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Seifi, Amir; Liu, Zi-Jun

    2007-01-01

    The performance of tongue muscles in various feeding behaviours is not well defined. This study was undertaken to examine the role of the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles during natural drinking, food ingestion and chewing. Ten 12-week-old Yucatan miniature pigs (5 in each gender) were used. Under anesthesia, fine-wire electrodes were inserted into three intrinsic (verticalis and transversus [V/T]; superior and inferior longitudinalis [SL and IL]) and two extrinsic (genioglossus [GG] and styloglossus [SG]) tongue muscles and two jaw muscles (masseter [MA] and anterior digastricus [DI]). Electromyogram (EMG) and jaw movement were recorded and synchronized when pigs were drinking water, ingesting and chewing food freely. Chewing frequency (CF), onset of activation, burst duration and integrated activity (IEMG) were assessed quantitatively, and EMG activities during drinking and ingestion were examined qualitatively. Results indicate that during chewing, the V/T and GG had one phase of activity starting at early jaw opening, and the V/T activity lasted through late of jaw closing. The SL, IL and SG had double phases with the first starting at jaw opening and the second at late jaw closing phases. The three intrinsic tongue muscles and the SG were active during 35-48% of the chewing cycle. IEMG values of the SL, IL and SG of both sides were significantly greater compared to the other muscles (p < 0.05-0.01). Both the SL and the IL showed significantly higher activities in the contralateral than ipsilateral sides (p < 0.05). The timing sequences of both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles were similar between ingestion and chewing, but amplitudes of the GG and IL were greatly enhanced and those of the MA and SL were reduced during ingestion. The simultaneous activation of the MA, GG and V/T were seen during drinking, along with major activity in the GG and V/T. These results suggested that the majority of activity in the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles occurred during jaw opening and the occlusal phases of chewing. The activity of the GG and IL played a major role during ingestion, whereas simultaneous activation of jaw, extrinsic and intrinsic tongue muscles and major activity in the GG and V/T occurred during drinking. PMID:17350586

  19. Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and ramus height, the anterior dental arch and midface width. These results suggest that reducing tongue body volume in young animals slows craniofacial skeletal growth and anterior dental arch expansion during rapid growth. The mandible, in particular its symphysis portion, and the anterior dental arch width are most affected. These effects may in part contribute to the decrease of functional loads in the anterior mouth by a volume-reduced tongue. PMID:18579119

  20. Drug-induced lesions of the oesophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Lesions of the oesophageal mucosa are observed in various situations: most often with gastrooesophageal reflux disease, but also with infections, cancer, contact with a toxic substance, etc. When they are symptomatic, these lesions provoke burning sensations, dysphagia, regurgitation and sometimes dorsal pain. The changes to the oesophageal mucosa may take various forms: inflammation, erosion, ulceration or necrosis. Serious or even fatal complications can develop but are rare; they include oesophageal perforation, stricture and haemorrhage. Some oral drugs damage the oesophageal mucosa through direct contact. The symptoms often develop several hours after ingestion. The pain is of sudden onset. The resulting lesions are solitary or multiple ulcers that vary in depth and usually occur in the upper portion of the oesophagus. Various factors prolong contact between a drug and the oesophageal mucosa, in particular: swallowing the drug with insufficient liquid or just before lying down; capsule forms; and oesophageal abnormalities. The drugs most frequently implicated are tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, bisphosphonates and various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Many drugs, used in various situations, provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, sometimes causing mucosal lesions in the lower oesophagus: calcium-channel blockers, nitrates, exenatide and liraglutide, drugs with antimuscarinic effects, theophylline, etc. Some drugs affect all mucous membranes in the body, including the oesophageal mucosa, irrespective of their route of administration: cancer drugs, isotretinoin, and nicorandil. PMID:26417631

  1. Association between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance in young dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2015-11-01

    Motor functions of masticatory organs such as the tongue, lips, cheeks and mandible are known to deteriorate with age, thereby influencing masticatory performance. However, there are few reports on the relationships between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance. To investigate the relationship between tongue and lip functions and comprehensive masticatory performance, by evaluating crushing, mixing and shearing abilities in young dentate adults. Participants comprised 51 dentate adults with a mean age of 25 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip functions. A multiple sieving method using peanuts was performed to evaluate crushing ability. A colour-changeable chewing gum was performed to evaluate mixing ability. A test gummy jelly was performed to evaluate shearing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip functions and each masticatory performance was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of crushing ability. Crushing ability was significantly correlated with maximum tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllables /pa/, /ta/ and /ka/. Maximum tongue pressure and number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/ were identified as significant predictors for crushing ability. Mixing ability was significantly correlated with the number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/. Shearing ability was not significantly correlated with tongue and lip functions. Masticatory performance during the chewing of brittle foods such as peanuts and solid foods such as chewing gum appears to be correlated with tongue and lip functions. PMID:26095117

  2. Interobserver Reliability of Tongue Diagnosis Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Mi Mi; Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Park, Tae-Yong; Lee, Jungsup; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Observation of the tongue, also known as tongue diagnosis, is an important procedure in diagnosis by inspection in Traditional Korean medicine (TKM). We investigated the reliability of TKM tongue diagnosis in stroke patients by evaluating interobserver reliability regarding tongue indicators as part of the project named the Fundamental Study for the Standardization and Objectification of Pattern Identification in TKM for Stroke (SOPI-Stroke). A total of 658 patients with stroke admitted to 9 oriental medical university hospitals participated. Each patient was independently seen by two experts from the same department for an examination of the status of the tongue. Interobserver agreement about subjects regarding pattern identification with the same opinion between the raters (n = 451) was generally high, ranging from moderate to excellent. Interobserver agreement was nearly perfect for certain signs of special tongue appearance (mirror, spotted, and bluish purple), poor for one of the tongue colors (pale) and moderate for others. Clinicians displayed measurable agreement regarding tongue indicators via both observation and pattern identification consistency. However, interobserver reliability regarding tongue color and fur quality was relatively low. Therefore, it is necessary to improve objectivity and reproducibility of tongue diagnosis through the development of detail-oriented criteria and enhanced training of clinicians. PMID:22474492

  3. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue. PMID:26936446

  4. Dose reduction trial from 60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions schedule in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for early oral tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Hironori; Yoshida, Ken; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Yamazaki, Hideya; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Kakimoto, Naoya; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effects of 60Gy/10 fractions (twice a day) with those of 54Gy/9 fractions in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for early tongue cancer, we performed a matched-pair analysis of patients with early tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0), who were treated with 60 or 54Gy of radiation between 1996 and 2004. Seventeen patients treated with 54Gy and 34 matched-pair patients treated with 60Gy were extracted and analyzed. Local recurrence occurred in two patients in the 54-Gy arm and five patients in the 60-Gy arm. The 2-year local control rates were 88% for both the 54-Gy arm and 60-Gy arm (not significant). The 2-year overall survival rates were 88% in the 60-Gy arm and 82% in the 54-Gy arm. Two-year actuarial complication-free rates were 91% in the 60-Gy arm and 83% in the 54-Gy arm (not significant), respectively. There was no significant association between the total dose and local control rate and late complications. The outcome of 54Gy/ 9 fractions was similar to that of 60Gy/ 10 fractions in patients with early tongue cancer. PMID:22843365

  5. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Julie; Eaton, Michael S; Ma, Yanling; Streeter, Oscar; Kumar, Parvesh

    2010-01-01

    Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the prostate is a rare disease that characteristically follows an indolent course. It is believed that infection or chronic inflammation may be triggers for malignant transformation in the prostate, but it is of unknown etiology. Reports of MALT lymphomas of the prostate with other concurrent primary prostate cancers are even more limited. We present the unique case of a 67-year-old male with concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate and primary MALT lymphoma of the prostate. The patient was treated with standard therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma, which would also treat a primary MALT lymphoma. He has been disease-free for over one year for both his primary malignancies. This case confirms that MALT lymphoma can arise concurrently with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. PMID:21139969

  6. Pathways and Progress in Improving Drug Delivery through the Intestinal Mucosa and Blood-Brain Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Laksitorini, Marlyn; Prasasty, Vivitri D.; Kiptoo, Paul K.; Siahaan, Teruna J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major hurdles in developing therapeutic agents is the difficulty in delivering drugs through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers (BBB). The goal here is to describe the general structures of the biological barriers and the strategies to enhance drug delivery across these barriers. Prodrug methods used to improve drug penetration via the transcellular pathway have been successfully developed, and some prodrugs have been used to treat patients. The use of transporters to improve absorption of some drugs (e.g., antiviral agents) has also been successful in treating patients. Other methods, including (a) blocking the efflux pumps to improve transcellular delivery and (b) modulation of cell-cell adhesion in the intercellular junctions to improve paracellular delivery across biological barriers are still in the investigational stage. PMID:25418271

  7. Pathways and progress in improving drug delivery through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers.

    PubMed

    Laksitorini, Marlyn; Prasasty, Vivitri D; Kiptoo, Paul K; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2014-10-01

    One of the major hurdles in developing therapeutic agents is the difficulty in delivering drugs through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers (BBB). The goal here is to describe the general structures of the biological barriers and the strategies to enhance drug delivery across these barriers. Prodrug methods used to improve drug penetration via the transcellular pathway have been successfully developed, and some prodrugs have been used to treat patients. The use of transporters to improve absorption of some drugs (e.g., antiviral agents) has also been successful in treating patients. Other methods, including blocking the efflux pumps to improve transcellular delivery, and modulation of cell-cell adhesion in the intercellular junctions to improve paracellular delivery across biological barriers, are still in the investigational stage. PMID:25418271

  8. Measurement and research on the appearance of tongue board based on modification to discuss centrifugal fan air performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Cheng, Tseng-Tang; Cho, Hung-Pin; Chiang, Wei-Tang; Chen, Sih-Li; Chen, Chien-Wei; Jian, Ling-You

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a reduced fan noise method, with increased fan-benefit analysis of various performances. The experimental approach adopts changes in the outlet in the form of two fans (flat tongue and a V-Type tongue plate) in order to measure the noise under the two forms of value and volume of supply air fan, shaft power consumption, operating current, and static pressure. The results showed that the tongue plate and the V-plane tongue plate noise between the value of the measurement location of 6.7 in the tongue plate in the plane below the noise level is about V-tongue plate 1 ~ 1.5dB (A). Air flow rate testing showed that the flat plate and the V-Type tongue plate between the tongue plate V-Type flow rate value, the measurement location of 3.4 in the tongue plate in the plane was more than the V-Type flow rate tongue plate 5 to 5.5%. Shaft power testing of measurement model 3, and measurement model 4, showed that the tongue plate in the plane V-tongue plate was more than 8%, 5%. The measurement models 3 and 4 and 5 showed more than the V-Type plane tongue plate 1%, 2.7%, and 2.6%. The measurement models 6 and 8 showed that, the flat tongue plate is less than the V-tongue plate of 2.9% and 2.3%. Static pressure testing showed that the flat tongue plate in particular measurement models (3,4,8,9), the static value of V-tongue plate than the 11.1% higher, respectively, 9%, 4.3%, and 3.7%. The results summarized above suggest that, in the specific measurement points, when parallel to the tongue plate the V-tongue board has better performance.

  9. Bladder mucosa graft for construction of male urethra.

    PubMed

    Hendren, W H; Reda, E F

    1986-03-01

    A graft of bladder mucosa was used to construct the urethra in 35 males. Most were complicated hypospadias cases. In all patients there was insufficient prepucial or penile shaft skin available to use for making a substitute urethra. The bladder mucosa worked well in every case. There were no fistulas. There was no case with stenosis of the anastomosis between the graft and the patient's own urethral tissue. The one possible disadvantage encountered in using bladder mucosa was its tendency to become edematous and irritated if the graft was redundant at the meatus, a situation that is not encountered with grafts made from prepucial skin or skin taken from a remote area. Revision of the meatus was required in six patients. It is the experience of the authors that a free graft that is covered by two well vascularized layers, subcutaneous tissue, and skin, fares as well or better than a graft with a vascular pedicle. PMID:3958881

  10. Comparative microscopical study of the gall bladder mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kamel, I; Nawar, N N

    1975-01-01

    The gall bladder from 6 Psammophis sibilans, 10 Bufo regularis and 10 Albino mice were extracted and prepared for microscopic examination. It was found that the mucosa of Psammophis sibilans consisted of ovoid and polygonal cells which were occasionally binucleated cells with darkly stained nuclei and occasionally pear-shaped cells with vesicular nuclei and fine processes. These cells were arranged in three layers. Apossible explanation for the different types of cells encountered and their arrangement was given. The gall bladder mucosa of Bufo regularis and Albino mouse were thrown into folds covered with simple columnar epithelium. However, the epithelium of the frog was higher than that of the mouse, with the nuclei situated midway between basement membrane and the lumen. Vacuolated cells were detected in the gall bladder mucosa of the mouse. The significance of the mucosal folds was discussed. PMID:1136701

  11. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  12. Flow and mixing near a glacier tongue: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. L.; Stewart, C. L.; Robinson, N. J.; Williams, M. J. M.; Haskell, T. G.

    2011-05-01

    A glacier tongue floating in the coastal ocean presents a significant obstacle to the local flow and so influences oceanic mixing and transport processes. Here acoustic Doppler current profiler and shear microstructure observations very near to a glacier tongue side-wall capture flow accelerations and associated mixing. Flow speeds reached around 40 cm s-1, twice that of the ambient tidal flow amplitude, and generated vertical velocity shear squared as large as 10-5 s-2. During the time of maximum flow, turbulent energy dissipation rates reached 10-5 m2 s-3, around three decades greater than local background levels. This is in keeping with estimates of the gradient Richardson Number which dropped to ~1 during maximum flow. Associated vertical diffusivities estimated from the shear microstructure results were substantial, reflecting the influence of the glacier on velocity gradients.

  13. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  14. Dynamic multileaf collimation without `tongue-and-groove' underdosage effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Santvoort, J. P. C.; Heijmen, B. J. M.

    1996-10-01

    In all commercially available multileaf collimators, a `tongue-and-groove' - or similar - construction is used for reduction of leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. These constructions can cause serious underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams. A method for leaf trajectory calculation for dynamic multileaf collimation, which fully avoids these underdosage effects, is presented. The method is based on pairwise synchronizations of trajectories of adjacent leaf pairs, such that the delivered beam intensity in each `tongue-and-groove' region is always equal to the smallest of the two prescribed intensities for the two corresponding leaf pairs. The effectiveness of the method has been proven for a large number of intensity-modulated fields, using the dynamic multileaf collimation mode of our MM50 Racetrack Microtron. Compared to dynamic multileaf collimation without synchronization, beam-on times are always equal or longer. For the cases that we studied, the beam-on time was typically increased by 5 to 15%.

  15. Computed tomography of the tongue and floor of the mouth

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, S.G.; Mancuso, A.; Hanafee, W.

    1982-05-01

    The anatomy of the tongue and floor of the mouth is readily discernible by computed tomography (CT) because of low-density fascial planes that outline the extrinsic musculature, lingual arteries, and hypoglossal nerves. Although the tongue is accessible to the examining finger, few patients can tolerate a detailed palpation. In planning for a partial glossectomy, CT scanning aids the surgeon who must be sure that the tumor is unilateral or that at least one lingual artery and one hypoglossal nerve can be preserved. The CT scans of 30 patients were reviewed for background anatomy. Pathologic changes are summarized for 16 extrinsic lesions and 11 intrinsic tumors. The status of the midline could be confirmed in 28 of the 30 patients. The fascial plane distortions by malignant intrinsic and extrinsic lesions are discussed.

  16. Synovial Sarcoma of the Tongue: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Basile, Lauren E; Hoch, Benjamin; Dillon, Jasjit K

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the workup and management of a 55-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma of the lateral border of the tongue that was initially diagnosed as a glomus tumor. A review was performed of the literature on synovial sarcomas of the oral cavity and current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Synovial sarcomas of the tongue are rare neoplasms, with variable morphologic microscopic types and immunohistochemical profiles. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the known gene translocation also can be used in diagnosis. According to the literature, resection of the tumor is the current treatment of choice; however, owing to the rarity of this entity, diagnosis and management prove challenging for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:26212094

  17. Cavernous hemangioma of tongue: management of two cases.

    PubMed

    V, Pranitha; Puppala, Niharika; Deshmukh, Sudhanwa N; B, Jagadesh; S, Anuradha

    2014-10-01

    Hemangiomas are benign tumours of infancy and childhood, most commonly located in the head and neck region and occur more frequently in the lips, tongue and palate. The treatment depends upon lesion location, size and evolution stage and the patient's age. This paper describes the management of cavernous hemangioma in a 2 -year -old child and 14 -year -old child using different approaches. PMID:25478463

  18. Cavernous Hemangioma of Tongue: Management of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Niharika; Deshmukh, Sudhanwa N; B, Jagadesh; S, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign tumours of infancy and childhood, most commonly located in the head and neck region and occur more frequently in the lips, tongue and palate. The treatment depends upon lesion location, size and evolution stage and the patient’s age. This paper describes the management of cavernous hemangioma in a 2 -year -old child and 14 -year -old child using different approaches. PMID:25478463

  19. Dental implant uncovering techniques with emphasis on increasing keratinized mucosa.

    PubMed

    Azar, David E

    2015-04-01

    The focus in implantology today is on the need to achieve results that are not only functional but also long-lasting and highly esthetic. Increased width and thickness of keratinized mucosa (KM) around dental implants, which is now widely recognized to be associated with better long-term success than implants without KM, addresses these goals. This is especially important in the esthetic zone, where marginal recession can be of concern. The author describes the following methods of implant uncovering that emphasize enhancement of the keratinized mucosa: the punch technique; buccally advanced flap; roll flap; tissue preservation technique; free connective tissue graft; and pedicle flap. PMID:25821941

  20. Moxibustion and Acupuncture Ameliorate Crohn's Disease by Regulating the Balance between Th17 and Treg Cells in the Intestinal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Bao, Chunhui; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yifang; Wang, Siyao; Yang, Ling; Shi, Yin; Liu, Huirong; Dou, Chuanzi; Ding, Guanghong; Wang, Xiaomei; Wu, Huangan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture is beneficial to patients with Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects remains unclear. To identify the mechanism by which acupuncture treats CD, the balance between Th17 and Treg cells was assessed in CD patients. In this study, Ninety-two CD patients were randomly and equally assigned to a treatment group that were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion and acupuncture or a control group with wheat bran-partitioned moxibustion and superficial acupuncture. The effect of these treatments on Th17 and Treg cells and their related molecular markers in the intestinal mucosa were detected before (week 0) and after (week 12) treatment. The results suggested that the ratio of Th17 and Treg cells was significantly decreased after treatment and that the levels of IL-17 and RORγt in the intestinal mucosa were obviously reduced, while the expression of FOXP3 was increased after treatment in both groups. In the treatment group, the expression of these molecules was more markedly regulated than the control group. In conclusion, moxibustion and acupuncture have been shown to regulate the ratio of Th17 and Treg cells in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients and restore the balance between these immune cell subsets. PMID:26347488

  1. Moxibustion and Acupuncture Ameliorate Crohn's Disease by Regulating the Balance between Th17 and Treg Cells in the Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Bao, Chunhui; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yifang; Wang, Siyao; Yang, Ling; Shi, Yin; Liu, Huirong; Dou, Chuanzi; Ding, Guanghong; Wang, Xiaomei; Wu, Huangan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture is beneficial to patients with Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects remains unclear. To identify the mechanism by which acupuncture treats CD, the balance between Th17 and Treg cells was assessed in CD patients. In this study, Ninety-two CD patients were randomly and equally assigned to a treatment group that were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion and acupuncture or a control group with wheat bran-partitioned moxibustion and superficial acupuncture. The effect of these treatments on Th17 and Treg cells and their related molecular markers in the intestinal mucosa were detected before (week 0) and after (week 12) treatment. The results suggested that the ratio of Th17 and Treg cells was significantly decreased after treatment and that the levels of IL-17 and RORγt in the intestinal mucosa were obviously reduced, while the expression of FOXP3 was increased after treatment in both groups. In the treatment group, the expression of these molecules was more markedly regulated than the control group. In conclusion, moxibustion and acupuncture have been shown to regulate the ratio of Th17 and Treg cells in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients and restore the balance between these immune cell subsets. PMID:26347488

  2. Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

    1995-03-01

    Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

  3. Two cross-linguistic factors underlying tongue shapes for vowels

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, D.A.; Papcun, G.; Hogden, J.; Zlokarnik, I.

    1996-06-01

    Desirable characteristics of a vocal-tract parametrization include accuracy, low dimensionality, and generalizability across speakers and languages. A low-dimensional, speaker-independent linear parametrization of vowel tongue shapes can be obtained using the PARAFAC three-mode factor analysis procedure. Harshman et al. applied PARAFAC to midsagittal x-ray vowel data from five English speakers, reporting that two speaker-independent factors are required to accurately represent the tongue shape measured along anatomically normalized vocal-tract diameter grid lines. Subsequently, the cross-linguistic generality of this parametrization was brought into question by the application of PARAFAC to Icelandic vowel data, where three nonorthogonal factors were reported. This solution is shown to be degenerate; a reanalysis of Jackson`s Icelandic data produces two factors that match Harshman et al.`s factors for English vowels, contradicting Jackson`s distinction between English and Icelandic language-specific `articulatory primes.` To obtain vowel factors not constrained by artificial measurement grid lines, x-ray tongue shape traces of six English speakers were marked with 13 equally spaced points. PARAFAC analysis of this unconstranied (x,y) coordinate data results in two factors that are clearly interpretable in terms of the traditional vowel quality dimensions front/back, high/low. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Two cross-linguistic factors underlying tongue shapes for vowels.

    PubMed

    Nix, D A; Papcun, G; Hogden, J; Zlokarnik, I

    1996-06-01

    Desirable characteristics of a vocal-tract parametrization include accuracy, low dimensionality, and generalizability across speakers and languages. A low-dimensional, speaker-independent linear parametrization of vowel tongue shapes can be obtained using the PARAFAC three-mode factor analysis procedure [Harshman et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 693-707 (1977)]. Harshman et al. applied PARAFAC to midsagittal x-ray vowel data from five English speakers, reporting that two speaker-independent factors are required to accurately represent the tongue shape measured along anatomically normalized vocal-tract diameter grid lines. Subsequently, the cross-linguistic generality of this parametrization was brought into question by the application of PARAFAC to Icelandic vowel data, where three nonorthogonal factors were reported [Jackson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 124-143 (1988)]. This solution is shown to be degenerate; a reanalysis of Jackson's Icelandic data produces two factors that match Harshman et al.'s factors for English vowels, contradicting Jackson's distinction between English and Icelandic language-specific "articulatory primes". To obtain vowel factors not constrained by artificial measurement grid lines, x-ray tongue shape traces of six English speakers were marked with 13 equally spaced points. PARAFAC analysis of this unconstrained (x,y) coordinate data results in two factors that are clearly interpretable in terms of the traditional vowel quality dimensions front/back, high/low. PMID:8655802

  5. Origin and development of the avian tongue muscles.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Zhi, Q; Izpisua-Belmonte, J C; Christ, B; Patel, K

    1999-08-01

    The musculature of the vertebrate tongue is composed of cells recruited from the somites. In this paper we have investigated the migration and organisation of the muscle cells that give rise to the tongue muscle during chick embryogenesis. At the molecular level, our data suggests that a population of Tbx-3 expressing cells migrate away from the occipital somites prior to the migration of muscle precursors that express Pax-3. Both populations take the same pathway and form the hypoglossal cord. The first signs of muscle cell differentiation were not detected until cells had migrated some distance from the somites. We have determined the contribution of single somites to the musculature of the tongue and show in contrast to previous data that somites 2-6 take part in the formation of all glossal and infrahyoid muscles to the same extent but do not contribute to suprahyoid muscle. This is particularly interesting since glossal and infrahyoid muscle differ from the suprahyoid muscles not only in their morphology, but also in their developmental origin. Furthermore we show that myocytes cross the midline and contribute to the contralateral glossal and infrahyoid muscles. This is supported from our molecular data, which showed that the migratory precursor population was maintained primarily at the rostral tip of the developing hypoglossal cord. PMID:10424872

  6. Rapid honey characterization and botanical classification by an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Major, Nikola; Marković, Ksenija; Krpan, Marina; Sarić, Goran; Hruškar, Mirjana; Vahčić, Nada

    2011-07-15

    In this paper a commercial electronic tongue (αAstree, Alpha M.O.S.) was applied for botanical classification and physicochemical characterization of honey samples. The electronic tongue was comprised of seven potentiometric sensors coupled with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Botanical classification was performed by PCA, CCA and ANN modeling on 12 samples of acacia, chestnut and honeydew honey. The physicochemical characterization of honey was obtained by ANN modeling and the parameters included were electrical conductivity, acidity, water content, invert sugar and total sugar. The initial reference values for the physicochemical parameters observed were determined by traditional methods. Botanical classification of honey samples obtained by ANN was 100% accurate while the highest correlation between observed and predicted values was obtained for electrical conductivity (0.999), followed by acidity (0.997), water content (0.994), invert sugar content (0.988) and total sugar content (0.979). All developed ANN models for rapid honey characterization and botanical classification performed excellently showing the potential of the electronic tongue as a tool in rapid honey analysis and characterization. The advantage of using such a technique is a simple sample preparation procedure, there are no chemicals involved and there are no additional costs except the initial measurements required for ANN model development. PMID:21645743

  7. Seismic stratigraphy of Veracruz Tongue, deep southwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagne, A.J.

    1984-12-01

    The Veracruz Tongue is a region of continental slope and rise sediments bounded bathymetrically by the Mexican Ridges fold belt to the west and the Campeche Knolls salt province to the east. Study of two multichannel seismic lines and single-fold sparker data enables five post-early Miocene seismic stratigraphic sequences to be distinguished in the tongue. Sedimentary processes responsible for deposition of each sequence are inferred on the basis of external geometry, internal reflection configuration, and, where possible, core data. The five sequences are each interpreted to consist of turbidites grading laterally into hemipelagites. These primary deposits may be modified later by downslope creep or sliding and slumping. Because bathymetry is a major control on location of turbidity-current flows, slides, and slumps, the depositional history of the Veracruz Tongue provides indirect evidence of tectonic evolution of the Mexican Ridges fold belt and the Campeche Knolls salt province. Salt domes first formed a barrier to turbidity-current flow from the east at the close of the middle Miocene. The Mexican Ridges fold belt evolved gradually until it formed a complete barrier to turbidity-current flow from the west at the close of the Pliocene. As a result of shift in direction of turbidity-current flow through time, potentially sand-prone Miocene turbidities are overlain by hemipelagic clays and clayey oozes, a situation favorable to hydrocarbon entrapment.

  8. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis. PMID:26695307

  9. Sublingual vein extraction algorithm based on hyperspectral tongue imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Guan, Yana; Xu, Liang

    2011-04-01

    Among the parts of the human tongue surface, the sublingual vein is one of the most important ones which may have pathological relationship with some diseases. To analyze this information quantitatively, one primitive work is to extract sublingual veins accurately from tongue body. In this paper, a hyperspectral tongue imaging system instead of a digital camera is used to capture sublingual images. A hidden Markov model approach is presented to extract the sublingual veins from the hyperspectral sublingual images. This approach characterizes the spectral correlation and the band-to-band variability using a hidden Markov process, where the model parameters are estimated by the spectra of the pixel vectors forming the observation sequences. The proposed algorithm, the pixel-based sublingual vein segmentation algorithm, and the spectral angle mapper algorithm are tested on a total of 150 scenes of hyperspectral sublingual veins images to evaluate the performance of the new method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can extract the sublingual veins more accurately than the traditional algorithms and can perform well even in a noisy environment. PMID:21030208

  10. Visual Feedback of Tongue Movement for Novel Speech Sound Learning

    PubMed Central

    Katz, William F.; Mehta, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Pronunciation training studies have yielded important information concerning the processing of audiovisual (AV) information. Second language (L2) learners show increased reliance on bottom-up, multimodal input for speech perception (compared to monolingual individuals). However, little is known about the role of viewing one's own speech articulation processes during speech training. The current study investigated whether real-time, visual feedback for tongue movement can improve a speaker's learning of non-native speech sounds. An interactive 3D tongue visualization system based on electromagnetic articulography (EMA) was used in a speech training experiment. Native speakers of American English produced a novel speech sound (/ɖ/; a voiced, coronal, palatal stop) before, during, and after trials in which they viewed their own speech movements using the 3D model. Talkers' productions were evaluated using kinematic (tongue-tip spatial positioning) and acoustic (burst spectra) measures. The results indicated a rapid gain in accuracy associated with visual feedback training. The findings are discussed with respect to neural models for multimodal speech processing. PMID:26635571

  11. Suprabasal Overexpression of the hsRPB7 Gene in Psoriatic Epidermis as Identified by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction Differential Display Model Comparing Psoriasis Plaque Tissue with Peritonsillar Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Böckelmann, Raik; Neugebauer, Peter; Djahan Paseban, Nuschin; Hüttemann, Martin; Gollnick, Harald; Bonnekoh, Bernd

    2001-01-01

    In psoriasis an etiopathogenetic vicious circle is nowadays hypothesized that the disease is triggered by skin-specific autoantigen structures, the expression and accessibility of which are positively correlated with the intensity of the hyperproliferation and inflammation in the epidermopapillary compartment driven by autoreactive T cells. Despite the close microanatomical relation between skin and mucosa, clinicians have always been intrigued by the observation that psoriatic affection of the mucosa, if at all existing, is only seen as very rare events in the lips and tongue sparing buccopharyngeal sites. This prompted us to establish an experimental model system comparing psoriatic-involved skin and peritonsillar mucosa from tonsillectomies by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction/differential display strategy. Among more than 60 cDNA species to be displayed in psoriasis, but missing in peritonsillar mucosa, one species was identified as coding for the RNA polymerase IIA seventh subunit (hsRPB7 gene) as a most critical factor for DNA to RNA transcription. Immunohistochemistry showed a hitherto unknown, distinctive pattern of hsRPB7 expression that was 1) tissue type-dependent with a surplus in skin keratinocytes and a near absence in peritonsillar mucosa, 2) tightly regulated by the keratinocyte differentiation process with a sharp suprabasal up-regulation in contrast to a basal down-regulation, and 3) substantially augmented in psoriatic-involved skin as compared to normal and psoriatic uninvolved skin. Keratinocytes of actinic keratoses also showed a strong hsRPB7 expression that however did not strictly spare the basal cell layer presumably reflecting the disturbed intraepidermal stratification because of the premalignant status of these precancerous lesions. PMID:11159173

  12. Results of brachytherapy for cancer of the tongue with special emphasis on local prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, J.; Okuyama, T.; Shibuya, H.; Takeda, M.

    1982-05-01

    One hundred and sixty-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated with radiation. Treatment modalities were mainly interstitial implant with or without external beam irradiation, except for early lesions, which were treated with intraoral electron beam therapy. Analysis was made on the local prognosis of the lesion to clarify the indications for interstitial therapy, especially the combined program with external beam therapy, and the time-dose relationship of the brachytherapy. Local recurrence-free rates (two years) were 94% in T1, 77% in T2 and 32% in T3 lesions, respectively. For T1 and surperficial or exophytic T2 lesions, the local recurrence-free rate was excellent with the interstitial therapy alone using either permanent implants of gold grain or radium implants. Therefore, prior external beam therapy seemed to be unnecessary for these lesions. When the treated area was less than 10 cm/sup 2/, subsequent complications were not likely even if the TDF (time-dose factor) value was high. Most of the patients who received combined external beam and interstitial therapy showed infiltrative T2 and a majority of the T3 lesions. In these patients, it was apparent that most of the total dose should be given from the interstitial implant after a small prior dose with external irradiation, because these lesions could not be cured even if the external dose was increased.

  13. Partial amputation of the tongue-self-inflicted or physical assault?

    PubMed

    Morgenthal, S; Bayer, R; Doerre, A; Dreßler, J

    2016-05-01

    Injuries of the tongue are generally self-inflicted lesions and occur during different diseases or external incidents. The amputation of the tongue is a rare event. In this article, we report about a woman presenting with a complete amputation of the anterior third of the tongue. The morphological findings, which are essential for the differentiation of self-inflicted injuries and injuries caused by a third party, are demonstrated. PMID:26387091

  14. Training-induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue-training paradigms.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M; Svensson, P; Jensen, J; Kjærsgaard, A; Jeonghee, K; Nielsen, J F; Ghovanloo, M; Baad-Hansen, L

    2013-08-29

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue-training paradigms: (1) therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), (2) playing computer games with the tongue using the Tongue Drive System (TDS) and (3) tongue-protrusion task (TPT). Forty-eight participants were randomized into three groups with 1h of TTE, TDS, or TPT. Stimulus-response curves of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and motor cortex mapping for tongue muscles and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation at three time-points: (1) before tongue-training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales after training. The resting motor thresholds of tongue MEPs were lowered by training with TDS and TPT (P<0.011) but not by TTE (P=0.167). Tongue MEP amplitudes increased after training with TDS and TPT (P<0.030) but not with TTE (P=0.302). Men had higher MEPs than women in the TDS group (P<0.045) at all time-points. No significant effect of tongue-training on FDI MEPs was observed (P>0.335). The tongue cortical motor map areas were not significantly increased by training (P>0.142). Training with TDS was most motivating and fun (P<0.001) and TTE was rated the most painful (P<0.001). Fatigue level was not different between groups (P>0.071). These findings suggest a differential effect of tongue-training paradigms on training-induced cortical plasticity and subject-based scores of fun, motivation and pain in healthy participants. PMID:23632170

  15. Verruca vulgaris of the tongue: a case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ural, Ahmet; Arslan, Selçuk; Ersöz, Şafak; Değer, Betül

    2014-01-01

    Verruca vulgaris (common warts) is a benign lesion of skin and mucous membranes caused by human papillomovirus (HPV). The lesions are typically self-limited but may vary in size and number. The occurrence on the tongue is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only one verruca vulgaris existing in the tongue had been reported in the literature. Case presentation: A rare case of verruca vulgaris of the tongue occurring in a 36-year-old Caucasian male is presented with a discussion on ethiopathogenesis and the treatment methods. Verruca vulgaris must be remembered in the differential diagnosis of tongue lesions and surgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcomes. PMID:25172971

  16. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children

    PubMed Central

    Winnier, J Jasmin; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Prasad Rao, Arun

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study compared and evaluated the effects of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on existing plaque levels in children. The investigation was a single blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who performed either tongue scraping or tongue brushing along with tooth brushing or only tooth brushing twice daily under professional supervision for a 21 day period. Dental plaque was recorded using the plaque index described by Silness and Loe at baseline, on day 10 and on day 21. All data was subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Sum Test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The results of the present study show that the tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in plaque levels after 10 days and also after 21 days. It was also noted that both tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing the plaque load in children. How to cite this article: Winnier JJ, Rupesh S, Nayak UA, Reddy V, Rao AP. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):188-192. PMID:25206220

  17. Biofilms and the tongue: therapeutical approaches for the control of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Roldán, S; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2003-12-01

    Due to its location and functions, the tongue is one of the most important anatomic structures in the oral cavity. However, knowledge in regards to its role and implications in oral health and disease is scarce. Moreover, although the dorsum of the tongue seems to harbour one of the most complex microbiological niches in human ecology, the knowledge of the role of tongue flora in health and disease is also very limited. Similarly, the nature of the tongue coating and the factors that influence its development and composition are almost unknown. The interest in the study of the tongue niche has increased in recent years due to its association with oral halitosis and to its role as a suitable reservoir for periodontal pathogens. The structure of the tongue favours a unique and complex bacterial biofilm, in which periodontal pathogens are frequently found. However, little is known about how to control this bacterial niche, and factors affecting tongue coating composition and aspect are not fully understood. Studies available on the influence of mechanical or antimicrobial approaches against tongue biofilm are very limited. Mechanical treatments showed a transient reduction in halitosis-related variables but were limited in time. Different antimicrobials agents have been evaluated: chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, metal ions, triclosan, formulations containing essential oils, and hydrogen peroxide. However, most studies were designed as short-term models. Some of these studies demonstrated that the reduction in halitosis-related variables was associated with significant changes in the tongue microflora. PMID:14513303

  18. /sup 192/Ir pharyngoepiglottic fold interstitial implants. The key to successful treatment of base tongue carcinoma by radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goffinet, D.R.; Fee, W.E. Jr.; Wells, J.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Clarke, D.; Mariscal, J.M.; Goode, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    Twenty-eight patients with squamous carcinomas of the base tongue were seen and evaluated in a conjoint Head and Neck Tumor Board at Stanford between 1976 and 1982. Fourteen patients were treated by combined external beam and interstitial irradiation, 11 of whom had Stage III and IV carcinomas (American Joint Committee). An initial dose of 5000 to 5500 rad was first delivered by external beam irradiation in 5 to 5.5 weeks, followed approximately 3 weeks later by an iridium 192 interstitial implant boost by the trocar and loop technique. The key to successful treatment of these neoplasms was found to be the use of a lateral percutaneous cervical technique, which placed horizontal loops through the oropharyngeal wall above and below the hyoid bone; the superior loop included the pharyngoepiglottic fold and the tonsilloglossal groove. Standard multiple loop implants (submentally inserted) of the base tongue from the vallecula anteriorly to the circumvallate papillae were also used routinely. This approach has been successful, since 10 of the 14 patients (71%) remain without evidence of disease (mean follow-up, 32 months). There have been only two local recurrences, both on the pharyngoepiglottic fold in patients who did not receive the now standard pharyngoepiglottic fold/lateral pharyngeal wall implants. No patients have relapsed after 18 months. The other 14 patients were treated prospectively during the same period by combining initial resection, radical neck dissection, and postoperative irradiation.

  19. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. |; Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. |; Wang, H.-M. |; Cheng, A.-J. |; Chang, J.T.-C. ||. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

  20. Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild–moderate tongue-tie

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2 weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a ‘standard care’ comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5 days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8 weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcome—Latch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5 days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8 weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8 weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5 days. PMID:24249695

  1. Small intestinal mucosa expression of putative chaperone fls485

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Maturation of enterocytes along the small intestinal crypt-villus axis is associated with significant changes in gene expression profiles. fls485 coding a putative chaperone protein has been recently suggested as a gene involved in this process. The aim of the present study was to analyze fls485 expression in human small intestinal mucosa. Methods fls485 expression in purified normal or intestinal mucosa affected with celiac disease was investigated with a molecular approach including qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and expression strategies. Molecular data were corroborated with several in situ techniques and usage of newly synthesized mouse monoclonal antibodies. Results fls485 mRNA expression was preferentially found in enterocytes and chromaffine cells of human intestinal mucosa as well as in several cell lines including Rko, Lovo, and CaCo2 cells. Western blot analysis with our new anti-fls485 antibodies revealed at least two fls485 proteins. In a functional CaCo2 model, an increase in fls485 expression was paralleled by cellular maturation stage. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated fls485 as a cytosolic protein with a slightly increasing expression gradient along the crypt-villus axis which was impaired in celiac disease Marsh IIIa-c. Conclusions Expression and synthesis of fls485 are found in surface lining epithelia of normal human intestinal mucosa and deriving epithelial cell lines. An interdependence of enterocyte differentiation along the crypt-villus axis and fls485 chaperone activity might be possible. PMID:20205943

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Lactobacillus mucosae Strain Marseille

    PubMed Central

    Drissi, Fatima; Merhej, Vicky; Blanc-Tailleur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae strain Marseille, isolated from stool samples of a child suffering from a malnutrition disorder called Kwashiorkor, produces bacteriocin and seems to have specific carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms different from those of other Lactobacillus organisms. The draft genome sequence of this strain is presented here. PMID:26227603

  3. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  4. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  5. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  6. Evidence of an anti-apoptotic effect of qinghuobaiduyin on intestinal mucosa following burn injury

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, JIE; WANG, PING; HE, QUANYONG; ZHOU, JIANDA; LUO, CHENGQUN

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are common in wartime and in times of peace. The prevention and therapy of ischemia-reperfusion injury to the organs, in particular the intestine, during the burn shock and recovery process has become a popular yet challenging area of research. Studies concerning the apoptosis of the cells of the burned intestinal mucosa have gained considerable attention. Qinghuobaiduyin (QHBDY) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used as a clinical prescription since 1995 to treat burn patients due to its opsonization function in the immune system and favorable clinical therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QHBDY on the apoptosis of intestinal mucosa following burn injury. An animal model was constructed comprising severely burned rats that were treated with various dosages of QHBDY. Tissues from the small intestine were collected to investigate the apoptosis rate by TUNEL assay and the protein expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. In addition, IEC-18 cells treated with QHBDY and burn serum were investigated. The cell apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM), the protein expression levels of Hsp70 were measured by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activity was analyzed by a colorimetric assay. The results showed that in animal experiments, compared with the burned group, the apoptosis rates in the treatment group was decreased, the protein expression level of Hsp70 was increased while Caspase-3 was decreased. In cell experiments, after treatment with QHBDY, the cell apoptosis rate was lower than that of the burn serum group. In addition, Hsp70 protein expression was upregulated and caspase-3 activity was decreased. QHBDY may play an important role in the prevention of apoptosis at the whole animal and cellular levels. PMID:24255668

  7. Evidence of an anti-apoptotic effect of qinghuobaiduyin on intestinal mucosa following burn injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Ping; He, Quanyong; Zhou, Jianda; Luo, Chengqun

    2013-12-01

    Burn injuries are common in wartime and in times of peace. The prevention and therapy of ischemia-reperfusion injury to the organs, in particular the intestine, during the burn shock and recovery process has become a popular yet challenging area of research. Studies concerning the apoptosis of the cells of the burned intestinal mucosa have gained considerable attention. Qinghuobaiduyin (QHBDY) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used as a clinical prescription since 1995 to treat burn patients due to its opsonization function in the immune system and favorable clinical therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QHBDY on the apoptosis of intestinal mucosa following burn injury. An animal model was constructed comprising severely burned rats that were treated with various dosages of QHBDY. Tissues from the small intestine were collected to investigate the apoptosis rate by TUNEL assay and the protein expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. In addition, IEC-18 cells treated with QHBDY and burn serum were investigated. The cell apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM), the protein expression levels of Hsp70 were measured by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activity was analyzed by a colorimetric assay. The results showed that in animal experiments, compared with the burned group, the apoptosis rates in the treatment group was decreased, the protein expression level of Hsp70 was increased while Caspase-3 was decreased. In cell experiments, after treatment with QHBDY, the cell apoptosis rate was lower than that of the burn serum group. In addition, Hsp70 protein expression was upregulated and caspase-3 activity was decreased. QHBDY may play an important role in the prevention of apoptosis at the whole animal and cellular levels. PMID:24255668

  8. Oral magnesium reduces gastric mucosa susceptibility to injury in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ige, A O; Adewoye, E O; Okwundu, N C; Alade, O E; Onuobia, P C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of magnesium on the gastric defence mechanism in alloxan-diabetic male Wistar rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, A (n=40) and B (n=20). Each group was subdivided into control, diabetic untreated (DU), diabetic magnesium (250mg/kg) treated (DMg250) and diabetic insulin (3IU/kgs.c) treated (DI). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120mg/kg) and both groups were treated for 14days. By day 14, group A rats were sacrificed, the stomach excised and evaluated for histopathology, mucus content, parietal and mucus cell counts. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus of group B rats for biochemical evaluation (blood glucose, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LP) and nitric oxide (NO)) and later sacrificed for gastric SOD, LP and NO evaluation. Blood glucose level was reduced (p<0.05) in all treatment groups compared to DU. Gastric SOD, parietal and mucus cell counts were increased (p<0.05) in the DMg250 and DI compared to DU. Serum LP and NO were reduced while gastric LP was increased in the DMg250 compared to DU. Gastric NO and mucous content were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in all diabetic groups compared to control. The gastric mucosa of the DU group had haemorrhage, inflammation and parasites embedded. The DMg250 and DI had normal submucus and muscle layers with reduced inflammation. Oral magnesium treatment in diabetes exerts hypoglycaemic effects, reduces serum nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, increases gastric superoxide dismutase, mucous cell count and reduces the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ulceration. PMID:27133222

  9. Olfactory Mucosa Autografts in Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Carlos; Pratas-Vital, José; Escada, Pedro; Hasse-Ferreira, Armando; Capucho, Clara; Peduzzi, Jean D

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: Olfactory mucosa is a readily accessible source of olfactory ensheathing and stem-like progenitor cells for neural repair. To determine the safety and feasibility of transplanting olfactory mucosa autografts into patients with traumatically injured spinal cords, a human pilot clinical study was conducted. Methods: Seven patients ranging from 18 to 32 years of age (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] class A) were treated at 6 months to 6.5 years after injury. Olfactory mucosa autografts were transplanted into lesions ranging from 1 to 6 cm that were present at C4–T6 neurological levels. Operations were performed from July 2001 through March 2003. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG), and ASIA neurological and otolaryngological evaluations were performed before and after surgery. Results: MRI studies revealed moderate to complete filling of the lesion sites. Two patients reported return of sensation in their bladders, and one of these patients regained voluntary contraction of anal sphincter. Two of the 7 ASIA A patients became ASIA C. Every patient had improvement in ASIA motor scores. The mean increase for the 3 subjects with tetraplegia in the upper extremities was 6.3 ± 1.2 (SEM), and the mean increase for the 4 subjects with paraplegia in the lower extremities was 3.9 ± 1.0. Among the patients who improved in their ASIA sensory neurological scores (all except one patient), the mean increase was 20.3 ± 5.0 for light touch and 19.7 ± 4.6 for pinprick. Most of the recovered sensation below the initial level of injury was impaired. Adverse events included sensory decrease in one patient that was most likely caused by difficulty in locating the lesion, and there were a few instances of transient pain that was relieved by medication. EMG revealed motor unit potential when the patient was asked to perform movement. Conclusion: This study shows that olfactory mucosa autograft transplantation into the human injured spinal cord is feasible, relatively safe, and potentially beneficial. The procedure involves risks generally associated with any surgical procedure. Long-term patient monitoring is necessary to rule out any delayed side effects and assess any further improvements. PMID:16859223

  10. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators.

    PubMed

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation). PMID:26185113

  11. Immunohistochemistry of lymphocytes in benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, S-X; Li, Q; Yang, Y-Q; Jin, L-J; Sun, Z; Yu, S-F

    2015-01-01

    Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM) is a common oral mucosa disease and may be regarded as a precancerous lesion. However, the association between its biological behavior and lymphocyte distribution remains unclear. Therefore, to investigate the characteristics of BLOM, we studied the infiltration of lymphocytes associated with it. The expression levels of CD74, CD20, CD3, and CD45RO were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in 14 sam-ples from BLOM, 9 samples from BLOM with atypia hyperplasia, 11 samples from BLOM with canceration, and 10 samples from normal oral mucosa tissues. The results were analyzed by two-sample t-test using SPSS 10.0 for Windows, and P < 0.05 was considered to be sig-nificant. In normal oral mucosa, positive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO were presented in the extra-lymphoid follicle, and the expres-sion levels of CD74 and CD20 were negative. In all BLOM groups, the expression level of CD20 was positive except for one case of BLOM with canceration; the expression levels of CD74 were all positive. Posi-tive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO could be found not only in extra-lymphoid follicles but also in inner-lymphoid follicles in the BLOM groups. The expression levels of CD74 and CD20 in extra-lym-phoid follicles, and CD3 and CD45RO in inner-lymphoid follicles in BLOM were significantly higher than in BLOM with canceration. The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and BLOM is a proliferative lesion. PMID:26125927

  12. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  13. A Pilot Study of the Tongue Pull-Back Exercise for Improving Tongue-Base Retraction and Two Novel Methods to Add Resistance to the Tongue Pull-Back.

    PubMed

    Slovarp, Laurie; King, Lauren; Off, Catherine; Liss, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study investigated the tongue pull-back (TPB) exercise to improve tongue-base retraction as well as two methods to add resistance to the TPB. Surface electromyography (sEMG) to the submental triangle was used as an indication of tongue-base activity on 13 healthy adults during: (1) saliva swallow, (2) 15 mL water swallow, (3) effortful swallow, (4) unassisted TPB, (5) TPB with added resistance by holding the tongue with gauze (finger-resisted TPB), and (6) TPB with the tongue clipped to a spring-loaded tension resistance device (device-resisted TPB). Order of the exercises was randomized. The exercises fell into two groups-weak and intense. Weak exercises included saliva swallow, water swallow, and unassisted TPB (mean sEMG = 19.07 μV, p = .593). Intense exercises included effortful swallow, finger-resisted TPB, and device-resisted TPB (mean sEMG = 36.44 μV, p = .315). Each intense exercise resulted in significantly higher mean sEMG peak amplitude than each weak exercise (p < .05), with one exception; the effortful swallow was not significantly different than the unassisted TPB (p = .171). This study provides preliminary evidence that the unassisted TPB may not be any more helpful for improving tongue-base retraction than normal swallowing. Adding resistance to the TPB by holding the tongue with gauze may be an effective alternative. This study also demonstrates proof-of-concept for creating a device to attach to the tongue and provide tension resistance during the TPB exercise. Further research with a more sophisticated design is needed before such a device can be fully developed and implemented clinically. PMID:26857465

  14. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa from cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of colon cancer patients and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 cancer patients and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of 10 of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r=0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. PMID:24806665

  15. Bcl-xL overexpression and its association with the progress of tongue carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kailiang; Jiao, Kangli; Xing, Zhankui; Zhang, Li; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xiaodong; Yang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis-related protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) has a crucial role in the control of cell death through its inhibition of apoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the expression of Bcl-xL in relation to the development of tongue carcinoma and whether it has potential as a marker for the clinical diagnosis of tongue carcinoma and as a therapeutic target to evaluate the dynamic of tongue carcinoma progression. A statistical analysis of 100 cases oral tongue carcinoma tissue specimens were performed using pathological grading and clinical TNM staging, and 14 cases corresponding non-tumor tissues as control. The changes in Bcl-xL mRNA expression between different pathological grades and clinical TNM stages of tissue were analyzed by RT-PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemical SP method and Western blot assays were employed to detect changes in Bcl-xL protein expression in different tongue carcinoma tissues. The results showed the expression of Bcl-xL was significantly higher in tongue carcinoma tissues than in normal tongue tissues and was positively associated with the degree of differentiation and the clinical TNM staging, but negatively correlated with the degree of malignancy of the tumor. There was higher expression of Bcl-xL in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) tissues compared with oral tongue adenocarcinoma (OTA) tissues, but Bcl-xL expression in tissue with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that without lymph node metastasis. Thus, Bcl-xL overexpression may be closely related to the dynamic of the pathogenesis and development of tongue carcinoma. It may be a useful marker for clinical diagnosis and an aid to evaluating the efficacy of therapeutics in tongue carcinoma. PMID:25550772

  16. Resource Competition Triggers the Co-Evolution of Long Tongues and Deep Corolla Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.; Llandres, Ana L.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is normally thought that deep corolla tubes evolve when a plant's successful reproduction is contingent on having a corolla tube longer than the tongue of the flower's pollinators, and that pollinators evolve ever-longer tongues because individuals with longer tongues can obtain more nectar from flowers. A recent model shows that, in the presence of pollinators with long and short tongues that experience resource competition, coexisting plant species can diverge in corolla-tube depth, because this increases the proportion of pollen grains that lands on co-specific flowers. Methodology/Principal Findings We have extended the model to study whether resource competition can trigger the co-evolution of tongue length and corolla-tube depth. Starting with two plant and two pollinator species, all of them having the same distribution of tongue length or corolla-tube depth, we show that variability in corolla-tube depth leads to divergence in tongue length, provided that increasing tongue length is not equally costly for both species. Once the two pollinator species differ in tongue length, divergence in corolla-tube depth between the two plant species ensues. Conclusions/Significance Co-evolution between tongue length and corolla-tube depth is a robust outcome of the model, obtained for a wide range of parameter values, but it requires that tongue elongation is substantially easier for one pollinator species than for the other, that pollinators follow a near-optimal foraging strategy, that pollinators experience competition for resources and that plants experience pollination limitation. PMID:18714343

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in T1/T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    SAGHEB, KEYVAN; SAGHEB, KAWE; RAHIMI-NEDJAT, ROMAN; TAYLOR, KATHY; AL-NAWAS, BILAL; WALTER, CHRISTIAN

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used staging procedures often cannot predict the absence of cervical metastases (CM) in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity. Due to the high incidence of occult CM in numerous N0 cases in the clinic, an elective neck dissection (ND) is performed. The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is a common concept in the modern surgical therapy of malignancies. The present study evaluates the applicability of this concept for T1/T2-SCC of the tongue. In a prospective clinical study, 10 consecutive patients with T1/T2-SCC of the tongue and cN0 necks, were enrolled. Following sentinel lymph node (SLN) scintigraphy, all patients underwent SNB with a γ-probe and a subsequent ND. SNB specimens were compared with histopathological assessments of surgical specimens from the ND. A total of 5 female and 5 male patients (mean age, 52 years; women, 62 years; men, 42 years), with a median follow-up time of 33.5 months (range, 10–40 months), were treated. All patients presented with detectable SLNs. In 7 cases, the SLN(s) and the residual ND were negative for CM. In 3 cases, the SLN(s) were positive without further CM in the other neck nodes. Furthermore, 1 patient showed additional CMs after 10 months in the contralateral neck and lung metastasis after 18 months, but none at the time of the initial treatment. The concept of an SNB appears to be applicable to the management of the cN0 neck in small SCC of the tongue. The role of SNB in the management of SCC requires further investigation by prospective trials with larger patient numbers. PMID:26870253

  18. A congenital mucocele of the anterior dorsal tongue.

    PubMed

    Wong Chung, J E R E; Ensink, R J H; Thijs, H F H; van den Hoogen, F J A

    2014-07-01

    We report on a new-born with a congenital mucocele on the anterior dorsal side of the tongue. The presentation as well as the differential diagnosis of congenital oral swellings is discussed. Because of breastfeeding problems the mucinous swelling was incised and drained two days after birth. Immediately after drainage the swelling disappeared. Congenital oral swellings are rare. Most of them are mucoceles. Post-partum treatment is surgically, but spontaneous remission has been described. High incidence of recurrence should be taken into account when (micro-)marsupialization or incision as sole treatment is performed. PMID:24814234

  19. Granular cell tumor of the tongue: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Dive, Alka; Dhobley, Akshay; Fande, Prajakta Zade; Dixit, Sudhanshu

    2013-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a benign lesion characterized by the accumulation of plump cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The formation of a granular cell tumor is a neoplastic process and the lesions formed are of neural derivation, as supported by immunophenotypic and ultra structural evidence. This type of tumor has been found to be both benign and malignant although malignancy is rare and comprises only 2% of all granular cell tumors. Here we report a case of GCT in a 40 year old male patient on the posterolateral border of tongue. PMID:23798853

  20. Electronic Tongue on a way towards the universal bitterness scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legin, Andrey; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Seleznev, Boris; Legin, Evgeny; Papieva, Irina; Clapham, David; Saunders, Ken; Richardson, Marie

    2011-09-01

    The present work deals with the development and application of the artificial sensory system (Electronic Tongue) to quantification of the bitter taste of various chemically dissimilar substances and suggests a universal approach for artificial sensory evaluation of bitterness, irrespective of chemical nature of the substance eliciting bitter taste. This approach to artificial quantification of bitterness is practically feasible and may be particularly useful on the early stages of development of novel API in pharmaceutical research and for flavour control of various pharmaceutical compositions, healthcare products and food ingredients.

  1. The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starzewski, Jacek J.; Pajak, Jacek T.; Pawelczyk, Iwona; Lange, Dariusz; Golka, Dariusz . E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika; Lorenc, Zbigniew

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

  2. Hyperfractionated high-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of oral tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tuček, Lubos; Petera, Jiri; Sirák, Igor; Vošmik, Milan; Doležalová, Helena; Brokešová, Simona; Hodek, Miroslav; Kašaová, Linda; Paluska, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-dose rate brachytherapy is a well established treatment modality of oral cancer. Data about high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy are still sparse with various fractionation schedules and heterogeneous results. Aim The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the results of HDR brachytherapy with doses of 3 Gy twice daily. Patients and methods Twenty patients with squamous cell tongue cancer were treated in the years 2001–2009 by exclusive HDR BT 18 × 3 Gy twice daily. The plastic tube technique was used. Median follow up was 47 months (7.8–118) since brachytherapy. Results The local and locoregional control was 85% and 68%, respectively. Bone necrosis developed in one case treated without mandibular shielding and soft tissue necrosis in 2 cases. Conclusion It can be concluded that HDR brachytherapy with 18 × 3 Gy twice daily is safe with promising local control. The risk of nodal recurrences is substantial. PMID:24376988

  3. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds. PMID:15340302

  4. Oxytocin evokes a pulsatile PGE2 release from ileum mucosa and is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Junhan; Wang, Haoyi; An, Ning; Zhou, Yuping; Fan, Jiahui; Luo, Junwen; Su, Wenlong; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) in rat ileum mucosa to identify the effect of oxytocin (OT) on mucosal secretion in small intestine. We identified a COX-2-derived pulsatile PGE2 release triggered by OT in rat ileum mucosa. OT receptors (OTR) are expressed in intestine crypt epithelial cells. Notably, OT evoked a dynamic change of [Ca(2+)]i in ileum crypts, which was responsible for this pulsatile release of PGE2. OT ameliorated 5-FU-, radiation- or DSS- induced injury in vivo, including the improvement of weight loss, reduced villus height and impaired survival of crypt transit-amplifying cells as well as crypt. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against intestinal injury were eliminated by coadministration of a selective inhibitor of PGE2, AH6809. Our findings strongly suggest that OT, a novel and important regulator of intestine mucosa barrier, is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury. Considering that OT is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent chemo-radiotherapy induced intestine injury or to treat IBD. PMID:26159321

  5. Proteinase content of mast cells of nasal mucosa; effects of natural allergen exposure and of local corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Juliusson, S; Aldenborg, F; Enerbäck, L

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and density of metachromatic cells (MCC) and mast cells containing chymase plus tryptase (MCTC) or tryptase alone (MCT) were studied in the nasal mucosa by dye-binding methods and immunohistochemical analysis. Biopsies were obtained from 17 subjects with birch pollen allergy before and during the peak season and from nine healthy controls. Six patients were treated with an intranasal glucocorticosteroid before and during the season in an open study. Hay fever patients, even when asymptomatic, showed signs of mast cell system activation, exhibiting an increased number of mast cells in the nasal epithelium. Basophils, lacking immunohistochemically detectable tryptase, were not a major component of the mast cell response. MCT, most conspicuous in the epithelium, were found to be the most frequent mast-cell type in the nasal mucosa of allergic, but not of normal, subjects. Only 33% of the epithelial, but 90% of the stromal, immunopositive cells in the atopic mucosa before as well as during the season were MCC. Intraepithelial MCT thus displayed a low capacity to stain metachromatically, indicating a relative deficiency of the glycosaminoglycan (heparin) component of the granules. Intraepithelial mast cells also appeared to be markedly sensitive to steroid treatment and aldehyde fixation. The findings suggest that the lack of chymase, the characteristic feature of MCT, may reflect a functional activation of the mast cells, rather than a stable phenotypic differentiation related to anatomic site. PMID:7741184

  6. Oxytocin evokes a pulsatile PGE2 release from ileum mucosa and is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Junhan; Wang, Haoyi; An, Ning; Zhou, Yuping; Fan, Jiahui; Luo, Junwen; Su, Wenlong; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) in rat ileum mucosa to identify the effect of oxytocin (OT) on mucosal secretion in small intestine. We identified a COX-2-derived pulsatile PGE2 release triggered by OT in rat ileum mucosa. OT receptors (OTR) are expressed in intestine crypt epithelial cells. Notably, OT evoked a dynamic change of [Ca2+]i in ileum crypts, which was responsible for this pulsatile release of PGE2. OT ameliorated 5-FU-, radiation- or DSS- induced injury in vivo, including the improvement of weight loss, reduced villus height and impaired survival of crypt transit-amplifying cells as well as crypt. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against intestinal injury were eliminated by coadministration of a selective inhibitor of PGE2, AH6809. Our findings strongly suggest that OT, a novel and important regulator of intestine mucosa barrier, is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury. Considering that OT is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent chemo-radiotherapy induced intestine injury or to treat IBD. PMID:26159321

  7. An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Samal, Ashok; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements. Method: The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of…

  8. Spatiotemporal Visualization of the Tongue Surface Using Ultrasound and Kriging (SURFACES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parthasarathy, Vijay; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing the motion of the human tongue surface provides valuable information about speech and swallowing. One method to analyse this motion is to acquire two-dimensional ultrasound images and extract the tongue surface contours from them. Quantitative and statistical analysis of these extracted contours is made difficult because of the absence…

  9. The Effect of Anatomic Factors on Tongue Position Variability during Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the…

  10. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.

  11. On Mother and Other Tongues: Sociolinguistics, Schools, and Language Ideology in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDousa, Chaise

    2010-01-01

    This is an expanded version of a paper given at a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa from December 11-13, 2008 entitled "The Native Speaker and the Mother Tongue." In keeping with the conference's themes of exploring and interrogating the notions of "mother tongue" and "native speaker," I consider constructions of languages emergent from…

  12. The Influence of Stimulus Taste and Chemesthesis on Tongue Movement Timing in Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids: water,

  13. An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Samal, Ashok; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements. Method: The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of

  14. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  15. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

  16. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

  17. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:

  18. Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls: Advocacy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Background: A linguistic mismatch between school and community creates problems in both access to school services and the quality of those services. Consideration of mother tongue is the key for making schools more inclusive for girls. Purpose: To argue that education in mother tongue results in making schools more inclusive for disadvantaged…

  19. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance, while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty. Methods Twenty-two healthy adults were enrolled into two groups (ages 20-35 years & 65-82 years, each including 5M, 6F). Maximum tongue strength (Pmax) and endurance (duration 50% of Pmax could be maintained) were measured twice at baseline and once post-meal. Subjects consumed half of a bagel with peanut butter, carrot sticks and milk between measures. Results All subjects demonstrated reduced tongue strength and endurance post-meal. Young adults showed a greater decline in anterior tongue endurance compared with older adults (p=0.05). There was no evidence that changes in tongue strength, perceived effort or meal duration varied by age or gender. The three oldest subjects reported the highest effort and displayed signs of difficulty swallowing while dining. Conclusions Young and old adults demonstrated reduced tongue strength and endurance after dining, but younger subjects showed greater declines in anterior tongue endurance while older adults exhibited signs of swallowing difficulty. PMID:20689047

  20. Marital Patterns and Use of Mother Tongue at Home among Native-Born Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap

    2010-01-01

    This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within

  1. Tongue fasciculations in an infant with spinal muscular atrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Eleni Z; Martin, Thomas; Wirth, Brunhilde; Yilmaz, Umut; Gortner, Ludwig; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Muscular hypotonia in infants may be associated with several conditions, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We report on an infant with tongue fasciculations and a rare mutation of the SMN1 gene. The presence of tongue fasciculations in combination with a thorough history may be suggestive of SMA. PMID:26509018

  2. The Effect of Anatomic Factors on Tongue Position Variability during Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the

  3. Marital Patterns and Use of Mother Tongue at Home among Native-Born Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap

    2010-01-01

    This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…

  4. The Influence of Stimulus Taste and Chemesthesis on Tongue Movement Timing in Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids: water,…

  5. Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the…

  6. Relating speech production to tongue muscle compressions using tagged and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use fourdimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two postglossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  7. Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the

  8. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'

  9. Difficult intubation in an infant with Pierre Robin syndrome and concomitant tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Jones, S E; Derrick, G M

    1998-01-01

    Intubation and airway difficulties may be assumed in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. We report a case of a six month old cleft palate repair who also had a tongue tie which compounded the problem. He was eventually intubated using the two anaesthetist technique. The contribution of the tongue tie is assessed. PMID:9836218

  10. Assessment of Cell Proliferation and Muscular Structure Following Surgical Tongue Volume Reduction in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, W.; Abu, A. F.; Liu, Z.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Tongue volume reduction is an adjunct treatment with several orofacial orthopedic procedures for various craniofacial deformities; it may affect structural reconstitution and functional recovery as a result of the repair process. The aim of this study was to investigate the myogenic regeneration and structural alteration of the tongue following surgical tongue volume reduction. Materials and Methods Five 12-week-old sibling pairs of Yucatan minipigs (3 males and 2 females) were used. Midline uniform glossectomy was performed on one of each pairs (reduction); the other had the same incisions without tissue removal (sham). All pigs were raised for 4 weeks, and received 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injection intravenously one day before euthanasia. Tissue sections of tongues were stained with anti-BrdU antibody to evaluate the number of replicating cells. H&E and Trichrome stains were applied to assess muscular structure. Results Reduction tongues contained significantly more BrdU+ cells as compared to sham tongues (p < 0.01). However, these BrdU+ cells were mostly identified in the reparative connective tissues (fibroblasts) rather than the regenerated muscle tissues (myoblasts). Trichrome stained sections showed disorganized collagen fibers linking with a few intermittent muscle fibers in the reduction tongues. These myofibers presented the signs of atrophy with reduced perimysium and endomysium. The matrix between these reduced perimysium and endomysium was fully filled with fibrous tissue. Conclusions Fibrosis without predominant myogenic regeneration is the major histologic consequence after surgical tongue volume reduction. PMID:21039994

  11. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  12. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether

  13. Effect of chemical compounds on electronic tongue response to citrus juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electronic tongue system mimics the process of taste detection by human taste buds and recognition by the brain, hence helping in prediction of taste. With this unique capability, the electronic tongue has been used for taste detection of a wide range of food products. As a preliminary step in p...

  14. Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. )

    1991-04-01

    During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

  15. Tongue Volume Influences Lowest Oxygen Saturation but Not Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Jinna; Min, Hyun Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Hong, Jae Min; Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Cho, Hyung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify correlations between sleep apnea severity and tongue volume or posterior airway space measured via three-dimensional reconstruction of volumetric computerized tomography (CT) images in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for use in predicting OSA severity and in surgical treatment. We also assessed associations between tongue volume and Mallampati score. Methods Snoring/OSA male patients (n = 64) who underwent polysomnography, cephalometry, and CT scans were enrolled in this retrospective study. OSA was diagnosed when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was greater than 5 (mild 5–14; moderate 15–29; severe>30). The patients were also categorized into the normal-mild group (n = 22) and the moderate-severe group (n = 42). Using volumetric CT images with the three-dimensional reconstruction technique, the volume of the tongue, posterior airway space volume, and intra-mandibular space were measured. The volumes, polysomnographic parameters, and physical examination findings were compared, and independent factors that are related to OSA were analysed. Results No associations between tongue volume or posterior airway space and the AHI were observed. However, multivariate linear analyses showed that tongue volume had significantly negative association with lowest O2 saturation (r = 0.365, p = 0.027). High BMI was related to an increase in tongue volume. Modified Mallampati scores showed borderline significant positive correlations with absolute tongue volume (r = 0.251, p = 0.046) and standardized tongue volume (absolute tongue volume / intramandibular area; r = 0.266, p = 0.034). Between the normal-mild and moderate-severe groups, absolute tongue volumes were not different, although the standardized tongue volume in the moderate-severe group was significantly higher. Conclusion Absolute tongue volume showed stronger associations with lowest O2 saturation during sleep than with the severity of AHI. We also found that high BMI was a relevant factor for an increase in absolute tongue volume and modified Mallampati grading was a useful physical examination to predict tongue size. PMID:26280546

  16. Daily reduction of oral malodor with the use of a sonic tongue brush combined with an antibacterial tongue spray in a randomized cross-over clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Saad, S; Gomez-Pereira, P; Hewett, K; Horstman, P; Patel, J; Greenman, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this clinical investigation was to test the effectiveness on breath odor of a newly designed sonic tongue brush (TongueCare+, TC). It consists of a soft silicone brush optimally designed based on the tongue's anatomy to remove bacterial biofilm from the tongue's complex surface, and it is coupled with a sonic power toothbrush handle. TC was used in combination with an antibacterial tongue spray (BreathRx, BRx) containing 0.09% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.7% zinc gluconate. A total of 21 participants with oral malodor exceeding the threshold for recognition took part in this cross-over clinical investigation, which consisted of a single use of four treatment arms with one week washout period in between. The treatments consisted of: (1) TC  +  BRx, (2) TC  +  water, (3) BRx and (4) water. Malodor levels and bacterial density were monitored up to 6 h by organoleptic scoring and selective plating, respectively. The organoleptic score and bacterial density were significantly lower after using TC  +  BRx compared to all alternative treatments at all time points. A significant decrease in both parameters was detected after a single use of TC  +  BRx, from levels characteristic of high oral malodor, to barely noticeable levels after treatment and this was maintained up to 6 h. Moreover, we identified a significant positive correlation between bacterial density and organoleptic score, confirming that bacterial tongue biofilm is the root cause of oral malodor in these subjects. The results of this clinical investigation demonstrated that the combined treatment of a sonic tongue brush with the antibacterial tongue spray is able to deliver more than 6 h of fresh breath following a single use. The clinical investigation was registered at the ISRCTN registry under study identification number ISRCTN38199132. PMID:26869586

  17. Histology of the Oral Mucosa in Patients With BRONJ at III Stage: A Microscopic Study Proves the Unsuitability of Local Mucosal Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Sara Di; Trapassi, Alberto; Corradino, Bartolo; Cordova, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) is a newly recognized condition reported in patients treated with aminobisphosphonates (BF). BRONJ is defined as the presence of exposed necrotic alveolar bone that does not resolve over a period of 8 weeks in a patient taking bisphosphonates who has not had radiotherapy to the jaw. Treatment protocols have been outlined, but trials and outcomes of treatment and long-term follow-up data are not yet available. In 2004 an expert panel outlined recommendations for the management of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Through the histological study of the oral mucosa over the bone necrosis and around the osteonecrosis area in 8 patients affected by BRONJ at III stage, the authors highlight the inappropriateness of the local mucosal flaps to cover the losses of substance of the jaw, BF-related. Methods Mucosa tissue was taken from 8 patients, affected by BRONJ, III stage. The samples taken from the mucosa around and over the osteonecrosis area were fixed with formalin and an ematossilina-eosin dichromatic coloring was carried out. Results The samples of mucosa showed pathognomonic signs of cell suffering that prove that in these patients using local mucosa flaps is inappropriate. Conclusions The authors suggest that only a well vascularized flap as free flap must be used to cover the osteonecrosis area in patients with BRONJ stage III. Because of the structural instability of the mucosa in patients suffering of osteonecrosis Bf related the local flaps are prone to ulceration and to relapse. PMID:23390472

  18. Enhanced Transferrin Receptor Expression by Proinflammatory Cytokines in Enterocytes as a Means for Local Delivery of Drugs to Inflamed Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Efrat; Rubinstein, Abraham; Nissan, Aviram; Khazanov, Elena; Nadler Milbauer, Mirela; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tirosh, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is often associated with adverse effects related to drug distribution into non-diseased tissues, a situation which attracts a rational design of a targeted treatment confined to the inflamed mucosa. Upon activation of immune cells, transferrin receptor (TfR) expression increases at their surface. Because TfR is expressed in all cell types we hypothesized that its cell surface levels are regulated also in enterocytes. We, therefore, compared TfR expression in healthy and inflamed human colonic mucosa, as well as healthy and inflamed colonic mucosa of the DNBS-induced rat model. TfR expression was elevated in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients in both the basolateral and apical membranes of the enterocytes. Increased TfR expression was also observed in colonocytes of the induced colitis rats. To explore the underlying mechanism CaCo-2 cells were treated with various proinflammatory cytokines, which increased both TfR expression and transferrin cellular uptake in a mechanism that did not involve hyper proliferation. These findings were then exploited for the design of targetable carrier towards inflamed regions of the colon. Anti-TfR antibodies were conjugated to nano-liposomes. As expected, iron-starved Caco-2 cells internalized anti-TfR immunoliposomes better than controls. Ex vivo binding studies to inflamed mucosa showed that the anti-TfR immunoliposomes accumulated significantly better in the mucosa of DNBS-induced rats than the accumulation of non-specific immunoliposomes. It is concluded that targeting mucosal inflammation can be accomplished by nano-liposomes decorated with anti-TfR due to inflammation-dependent, apical, elevated expression of the receptor. PMID:21915296

  19. Differences in maximal isometric tongue strength and endurance of healthy young vs. older adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Hwan; Park, Ji-Su; Jo, Young-Moon; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and endurance of young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study recruited 60 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged 67 to 75 years) at a university and in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and endurance. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was significantly higher in the young adult group than the older adult group. Maximal tongue endurance was longer in the young adult group than in the older adult group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength and endurance than young adults. PMID:27134371

  20. [A novel system for tongue inspection based on hyperspectral imaging system].

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Xue, Yongqi; Liu, Zhi

    2008-04-01

    Tongue inspection is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experience-based nature, traditional tongue inspection has found very limited application in modem clinical medicine. In this paper, a novel system for tongue inspection based on hyperspectral imaging system is developed. The system includes image acquisition, feature extraction and classification functions. In this system, two kinds of quantitative features, spatial and spectral, are extracted from hyperspectral tongue images by using popular digital image processing techniques. Then, Bayesian networks are employed to model the relationship between these quantitative features and diseases. The preliminary results show that the system is sensitive to the abnormal tongues. PMID:18610624

  1. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  2. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  3. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether

  4. [Changes of acid phosphatase in the gastric mucosa during ulcerogenesis].

    PubMed

    Amirov, N Sh; Trubitsyna, I E

    1982-09-01

    Experiments were performed on white rats with experimental acetate ulcer of the stomach and intestine. At the height of destruction of gastric mucosa tissue (60 minutes from the onset of ulcer formation) a consistent increase in acid phosphatase secretion was recorded. This process was accompanied, as a rule, by significant elevation of proteolytic activity (pH 6.5-7.0) in tissue extract obtained from the affected area. It is suggested that the increased proteolytic activity observed at pH 6.5-7.0 in the tissue extract from the ulcerous area is most likely related to the release of lysosomal proteases at the height of tissue destruction. It thus appears that ulcer of the gastric mucosa induced by acetic acid application is determined by interstitial proteolytic activity of cathepsins that are released during the destruction of lysosomal membranes. PMID:6756505

  5. Cryosectioning Method for Microdissection of Murine Colonic Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Attila E; Gerner-Smidt, Christian; Lili, Loukia; Nusrat, Asma; Capaldo, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    The colonic mucosal tissue provides a vital barrier to luminal antigens. This barrier is composed of a monolayer of simple columnar epithelial cells. The colonic epithelium is dynamically turned over and epithelial cells are generated in the stem cell containing crypts of Lieberkhn. Progenitor cells produced in the crypt-bases migrate toward the luminal surface, undergoing a process of cellular differentiation before being shed into the gut lumen. In order to study these processes at the molecular level, we have developed a simple method for the microdissection of two spatially distinct regions of the colonic mucosa; the proliferative crypt zone, and the differentiated surface epithelial cells. Our objective is to isolate specific crypt and surface epithelial cell populations from mouse colonic mucosa for the isolation of RNA and protein. PMID:26274554

  6. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  7. Characterisation of human dental stem cells and buccal mucosa fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Bettina; Mäenpää, Katja; Ylikomi, Timo; Oja, Hannu; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna

    2008-04-01

    Human craniofacial stem cells are recently discovered sources of putative mesenchymal stem cells that hold great promise for autogenic or allogenic cell therapy and tissue engineering. Prior to employing these cells in clinical applications, they must be thoroughly investigated and characterized. In this study, the surface marker expression was investigated on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), dental follicle cells (DFCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and buccal mucosa fibroblasts (BMFs) utilising surface markers for flow cytometry. The osteogenic potential was also examined by bone-associated markers alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. The results from our study demonstrate that the dental cell sources exhibit comparable surface marker and bone-associated marker profiles parallel to those of other mesenchymal stem cell sources, yet distinct from the buccal mucosa fibroblasts. Our data support evidence towards clinical applicability of dental stem cells in hard tissue regeneration. PMID:18230338

  8. Cryosectioning Method for Microdissection of Murine Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Attila E.; Gerner-Smidt, Christian; Lili, Loukia; Nusrat, Asma; Capaldo, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    The colonic mucosal tissue provides a vital barrier to luminal antigens. This barrier is composed of a monolayer of simple columnar epithelial cells. The colonic epithelium is dynamically turned over and epithelial cells are generated in the stem cell containing crypts of Lieberkühn. Progenitor cells produced in the crypt-bases migrate toward the luminal surface, undergoing a process of cellular differentiation before being shed into the gut lumen. In order to study these processes at the molecular level, we have developed a simple method for the microdissection of two spatially distinct regions of the colonic mucosa; the proliferative crypt zone, and the differentiated surface epithelial cells. Our objective is to isolate specific crypt and surface epithelial cell populations from mouse colonic mucosa for the isolation of RNA and protein. PMID:26274554

  9. Various patterns of oral mucosa candidiasis treatment in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Macura, Anna B; Bort, Artur; Postawa-Kłosińska, Barbara; Mach, Tomasz

    2002-01-01

    Oral cavity is the site of numerous HIV infection manifestations. Oral mucosa candidiasis is the most common one. It may be the earliest sign of the underlying disease. Long lasting observations give evidence that antiretroviral therapy is beneficial also in the cases of this opportunistic infection because it reduces both the number and severity of relapses, however, the prolongation of the patients' survival time creates the need of antifungal therapy prolongation, and thorough observation of its effectiveness and methods. We decided to analyze the influence of antiretroviral therapy with at least three drugs on the development of oral mucosa candidiasis in the out- and inpatients of the Jagiellonian University Medical College Clinic of Infectious Diseases (or Outpatient Clinic) in Cracow. The study was carried out in 75 patients with confirmed HIV infection. We have shown a decrease in the number of fungi present in the oral cavity in patients under antiretroviral treatment as well as higher susceptibility to fluconazole. PMID:12815800

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions as a working concept for oral mucosa regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiarong; Mao, Jeremy J; Chen, Lili

    2011-02-01

    Oral mucosa consists of two tissue layers, the superficial epithelium and the underlying lamina propria. Together, oral mucosa functions as a barrier against exogenous substances and pathogens. In development, interactions of stem/progenitor cells of the epithelium and mesenchyme are crucial to the morphogenesis of oral mucosa. Previous work in oral mucosa regeneration has yielded important clues for several meritorious proof-of-concept approaches. Tissue engineering offers a broad array of novel tools for oral mucosa regeneration with reduced donor site trauma and accelerated clinical translation. However, the developmental concept of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) is rarely considered in oral mucosa regeneration. EMIs in postnatal oral mucosa regeneration likely will not be a simple recapitulation of prenatal oral mucosa development. Biomaterial scaffolds play an indispensible role for oral mucosa regeneration and should provide a conducive environment for pivotal EMIs. Autocrine and paracrine factors, either exogenously delivered or innately produced, have rarely been and should be harnessed to promote oral mucosa regeneration. This review focuses on a working concept of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions in oral mucosa regeneration. PMID:21062224

  11. Method of expression of certain bacterial microflora mucosa olfactory area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Nosova, Yana V.; Shushlyapina, Natalia O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Burlibay, Aron; Zhassandykyzy, Maral

    2015-12-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem - the development of new express diagnostic methods, based on which a doctor-otolaryngologist can quickly and efficiently determine a violation of smell. The work is based on the methods of processing and analysis of medical images and signals. We have also identified informative indicators of endoscopic image of the olfactory region of the nasal mucosa of the upper course.

  12. Alteration of gene expression in rat colon mucosa after exercise.

    PubMed

    Buehlmeyer, K; Doering, F; Daniel, H; Kindermann, B; Schulz, T; Michna, H

    2008-01-01

    The development of colon cancer is highly influenced by lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical inactivity. Detailed biological mechanisms are thus far unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular treadmill exercise on gene expression in rat colon mucosa. For this purpose, 6-week-old male Wistar rats completed a stress-free voluntary treadmill exercise period of 12 weeks. Sedentary rats served as a control group. In the colon mucosa, steady-state mRNA expression levels of approximately 10,000 genes were compared between both groups by micro-array analysis (MWG rat 10K array). A total of 8846 mRNAs were detected above background level. Regular exercise led to a decreased expression of 47 genes at a threshold-factor of 2.0. Three genes were found to be up-regulated in the exercise group. The identified genes encode proteins involved in signal transduction (n=11), transport (n=8), immune system (n=7), cytoskeleton (n=6), protein targeting (n=6), metabolism (n=5), transcription (n=3) and vascularization (n=2). Among the genes regulated by regular exercise, the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) seems to be of particular interest. Physical activity may protect against aberrant methylation by repressing the BHMT2 gene and thus contribute to a decreased risk of developing colon cancer. We have also identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) and calcium-independent phospholipase a2 (iPL-A2), all of them with markedly reduced transcript levels in the mucosa of active rats. In summary, our experiment presents the first gene expression pattern in rat colon mucosa following regular treadmill activity and represents an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the preventive effect of physical activity on the development of colon cancer. PMID:18342145

  13. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  15. Bioelectronic tongues: New trends and applications in water and food analysis.

    PubMed

    Cetó, Xavier; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz

    2016-05-15

    Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for fast, highly sensitive and selective methods of analysis to meet new challenges in environmental monitoring, food safety and public health. In response to this demand, biosensors have arisen as a promising tool, which offers accurate chemical data in a timely and cost-effective manner. However, the difficulty to obtain sensors with appropriate selectivity and sensitivity for a given analyte, and to solve analytical problems which do not require the quantification of a certain analyte, but an overall effect on a biological system (e.g. toxicity, quality indices, provenance, freshness, etc.), led to the concept of electronic tongues as a new strategy to tackle these problems. In this direction, to improve the performance of electronic tongues, and thus to spawn new application fields, biosensors have recently been incorporated to electronic tongue arrays, leading to what is known as bioelectronic tongues. Bioelectronic tongues provide superior performance by combining the capabilities of electronic tongues to derive meaning from complex or imprecise data, and the high selectivity and specificity of biosensors. The result is postulated as a tool that exploits chemometrics to solve biosensors' interference problems, and biosensors to solve electronic tongues' selectivity problems. The review presented herein aims to illustrate the capabilities of bioelectronic tongues as analytical tools, especially suited for screening analysis, with particular emphasis in water analysis and the characterization of food and beverages. After briefly reviewing the key concepts related to the design and principles of electronic tongues, we provide an overview of significant contributions to the field of bioelectronic tongues and their future perspectives. PMID:26761617

  16. Black hairy tongue in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Erriu, Matteo; Pili, Francesca Maria Giovanna; Denotti, Gloria; Garau, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a condition characterized by the elongation of filiform papillae associated with a marked discoloration, from yellowish-brown to black, and a thick lingual coating. BHT is usually observed in the elderly and in patients with limited self-sufficiency, as a consequence of poor oral hygiene. In this perspective, the patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represent a high-risk category for the occurrence of BHT. The fast and inexorable loss of their self-sufficiency due to progressive muscle atrophy as well as the impropriate education of healthcare assistants have demonstrated to have significant reflection on the maintenance of an adequate standard of oral hygiene. This paper firstly described a case of BHT in a patient affected by ALS. A case of BHT in a patient (Caucasic, male, 63 years old) affected by ALS was described. The primary goal of the work was to teach and motivate the patient to the use of the tongue cleaner in association with the local application of chlorexidine 0.20%. Furthermore, in order to support the patient with accurate domiciliary oral hygiene, a proper training for his health-care assistant was provided. The maintenance of the oral health of ALS patient is fundamental to prevent systemic complications that could jeopardize the already fragile physical balance of these patients. The dedicated monitoring by a dentist or a dental hygienist would seem essential in order to achieve this objective. PMID:27011938

  17. Black hairy tongue in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Erriu, Matteo; Pili, Francesca Maria Giovanna; Denotti, Gloria; Garau, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a condition characterized by the elongation of filiform papillae associated with a marked discoloration, from yellowish-brown to black, and a thick lingual coating. BHT is usually observed in the elderly and in patients with limited self-sufficiency, as a consequence of poor oral hygiene. In this perspective, the patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represent a high-risk category for the occurrence of BHT. The fast and inexorable loss of their self-sufficiency due to progressive muscle atrophy as well as the impropriate education of healthcare assistants have demonstrated to have significant reflection on the maintenance of an adequate standard of oral hygiene. This paper firstly described a case of BHT in a patient affected by ALS. A case of BHT in a patient (Caucasic, male, 63 years old) affected by ALS was described. The primary goal of the work was to teach and motivate the patient to the use of the tongue cleaner in association with the local application of chlorexidine 0.20%. Furthermore, in order to support the patient with accurate domiciliary oral hygiene, a proper training for his health-care assistant was provided. The maintenance of the oral health of ALS patient is fundamental to prevent systemic complications that could jeopardize the already fragile physical balance of these patients. The dedicated monitoring by a dentist or a dental hygienist would seem essential in order to achieve this objective. PMID:27011938

  18. Interstitial brachytherapy and early tongue squamous cell carcinoma management

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, J.L.; Coche-Dequeant, B.; Castelain, B.; Prevost, B.; Buisset, E.; Ton Van, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The results of treatment of 341 previously untreated patients with early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anterior two thirds of the tongue using iridium 192 implants (January 1974-December 1983) are presented. Furthermore, 265 patients underwent neck dissection, followed, in 102 cases, by radiotherapy. Incidence of local treatment complications was 19% (66 patients); however, only 3% (11 patients) needed more than a single medical treatment. Two months after completion of overall treatment, 326 patients (96%) were free of disease. Local failures occurred in 18% of cases; however, after successful salvage surgery this rate was reduced to 11%. Neck failures occurred in 18% of cases, but after successful salvage were reduced to 12%. Distant metastases were rare (1.5%), whereas metachronous cancers were frequent (102 patients). Survival rates were 61% (56% to 66%) at 3 years, 46% (41% to 51%) at 5 years, and 26% (23% to 34%) at 10 years. Deaths due to tongue cancer evolution (20%) equalled those due to metachronous cancers (18.5%) and intercurrent diseases (21%).

  19. Interannual variability of the Atlantic Cold Tongue heat budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planton, Yann; Voldoire, Aurore; Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy

    2015-04-01

    The processes governing the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) development are now better understood, but the mechanisms of its interannual variability are still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the mechanisms leading to the cold tongue formation during cold and warm ACT events. Cold and warm ACT events are classified statistically from several datasets following a criteria derived from Richter et al. (2013) and slightly adapted. This classification allows to analyse composites of extreme events. In particular, composites of the mixed layer heat budget have been calculated, computed online in a forced global ocean model. This mixed layer heat budget is a good tool to identify the oceanic processes which control the formation of the ACT and its variability. The results show that the turbulent mixing at the base of the mixed layer plays a dominant role controlling the ACT formation. Cold (warm) events are associated with strong increase (decrease) of the turbulent mixing from march to July. In addition horizontal the advection anomalies are opposite during cold and warm events in June-July. The positive (negative) anomalies during cold (warm) events tend to damp (enhance) the ACT. During warm events, the advection process is responsible of the ACT formation with almost the same intensity as when averaged over all.

  20. Local Immunoglobulin E in the Nasal Mucosa: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  1. Dendritic cells transmit HIV-1 through human small intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ruizhong; Smythies, Lesley E.; Clements, Ronald H.; Novak, Lea; Smith, Phillip D.

    2010-01-01

    To dissect the early events in the transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child, we investigated whether DCs participate in HIV-1 entry into human small intestinal mucosa. We isolated human MNLs from jejunal lamina propria and identified a subpopulation of CD11c+HLA-DR+ MNLs that expressed DC-SIGN, CD83, CD86, CD206, and CCR7, indicating a DC phenotype. Jejunal DCs also expressed the HIV-1 receptor CD4 and coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and in suspension rapidly took up cell-free HIV-1. HIV-1 inoculated onto the apical surface of explanted jejunum was transported by lamina propria DCs through the mucosa and transmitted in trans to blood and intestinal lymphocytes. These findings indicate that in addition to intestinal epithelial cells, which we showed previously transcytose infectious HIV-1 to indicator cells, intestinal DCs play an important role in transporting HIV-1 through the intestinal mucosa and the subsequent transmission to T cells. PMID:20007245

  2. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor.

  3. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  4. Acylation of lysolecithin in the intestinal mucosa of rats

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, P. V.; Sastry, P. S.; Ganguly, J.

    1970-01-01

    1. The presence of an active acyl-CoA–lysolecithin (1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine) acyltransferase was demonstrated in rat intestinal mucosa. 2. ATP and CoA were necessary for the incorporation of free [1-14C]oleic acid into lecithin (phosphatidylcholine). 3. The reaction was about 20 times as fast with [1-14C]oleoyl-CoA as with free oleic acid, CoA and ATP. 4. With 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine as the acceptor, both oleic acid and palmitic acid were incorporated into the β-position of lecithin; the incorporation of palmitic acid was 60% of that of oleic acid. 5. Of the various analogues of lysolecithin tested as acyl acceptors from [1-14C]oleoyl CoA, a lysolecithin with a long-chain fatty acid at the 1-position was most efficient. 6. The enzyme was mostly present in the brush-border-free particulate fraction of the intestinal mucosa. 7. Of the various tissues of rats tested for the activity, intestinal mucosa was found to be the most active, with testes, liver, kidneys and spleen following it in decreasing order. PMID:5484668

  5. The Hannover experience: Surgical treatment of tongue cancer - A clinical retrospective evaluation over a 30 years period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In this retrospective study, we present a clinical review of our experience with tongue cancer in order to obtain valid criteria for therapeutic decision-making. Materials and methods Between 1980 and 2009, a total of 341 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated at our Department. The average follow-up was 5.2 years. 309 patients received surgical treatment, which was combined in nearly 10% with neoadjuvant and in nearly 20% with postoperative radio(chemo)therapy. 32 patients were excluded from surgery and received primary radiation. Results Local and regional failure occurred in 23.9% and 20.4%, leading to a total failure rate of 37.2% after an average duration of 1,6 years. N-Status, extracapsular spread and clear margins were identified as the dominant factors for survival, which was calculated with 54.5% after 5 years. Conclusions We recommend categorical bilateral neck dissection in order to reliably remove occult lymph node metastases. Adjuvant treatment modalities should be applied more frequently in controlled clinical trials and should generally be implemented in cases with unclear margins and lymphatic spread. Clinical relevance This study provides new treatment strategies for primary tumour disease and for tumour recurrence. PMID:21600000

  6. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  7. Sonic hedgehog exerts distinct, stage-specific effects on tongue and taste papilla development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Maccallum, Donald K; Edwards, Chris; Gaffield, William; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2004-12-15

    Taste papillae are ectodermal specializations that serve to house and distribute the taste buds and their renewing cell populations in specific locations on the tongue. We previously showed that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has a major role in regulating the number and spatial pattern of fungiform taste papillae on embryonic rat tongue, during a specific period of papilla formation from the prepapilla placode. Now we have immunolocalized the Shh protein and the Patched receptor protein (Ptc), and have tested potential roles for Shh in formation of the tongue, emergence of papilla placodes, development of papilla number and size, and maintenance of papillae after morphogenesis is advanced. Cultures of entire embryonic mandible or tongues from gestational days 12 to 18 [gestational or embryonic days (E)12-E18] were used, in which tongues and papillae develop with native spatial, temporal, and molecular characteristics. The Shh signaling pathway was disrupted with addition of cyclopamine, jervine, or the 5E1 blocking antibody. Shh and Ptc proteins are diffuse in prelingual tissue and early tongue swellings, and are progressively restricted to papilla placodes and then to regions of developing papillae. Ptc encircles the dense Shh immunoproduct in papillae at various stages. When the Shh signal is disrupted in cultures of E12 mandible, tongue formation is completely prevented. At later stages of tongue culture initiation, Shh signal disruption alters development of tongue shape (E13) and results in a repatterned fungiform papilla distribution that does not respect normally papilla-free tongue regions (E13-E14). Only a few hours of Shh signal disruption can irreversibly alter number and location of fungiform papillae on anterior tongue and elicit papilla formation on the intermolar eminence. However, once papillae are well formed (E16-E18), Shh apparently does not have a clear role in papilla maintenance, nor does the tongue retain competency to add fungiform papillae in atypical locations. Our data not only provide evidence for inductive and morphogenetic roles for Shh in tongue and fungiform papilla formation, but also suggest that Shh functions to maintain the interpapilla space and papilla-free lingual regions. We propose a model for Shh function at high concentration to form and maintain papillae and, at low concentration, to activate between-papilla genes that maintain a papilla-free epithelium. PMID:15581865

  8. Microbial Amyloids Induce Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 Responses via Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation in the Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Nishimori, Jessalyn H.; Newman, Tiffanny N.; Oppong, Gertrude O.; Rapsinski, Glenn J.; Yen, Jui-Hung; Biesecker, Steven G.; Wilson, R. Paul; Butler, Brian P.; Winter, Maria G.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Ganea, Doina

    2012-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/TLR1 receptor complex responds to amyloid fibrils, a common component of biofilm material produced by members of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. To determine whether this TLR2/TLR1 ligand stimulates inflammatory responses when bacteria enter intestinal tissue, we investigated whether expression of curli amyloid fibrils by the invasive enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium contributes to T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses by measuring cytokine production in the mouse colitis model. A csgBA mutant, deficient in curli production, elicited decreased expression of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 in the cecal mucosa compared to the S. Typhimurium wild type. In TLR2-deficient mice, IL-17A and IL-22 expression was blunted during S. Typhimurium infection, suggesting that activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway contributes to the expression of these cytokines. T cells incubated with supernatants from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with curli fibrils released IL-17A in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. Lower levels of IL-6 and IL-23 production were detected in the supernatants of the TLR2-deficient BMDCs treated with curli fibrils. Consistent with this, three distinct T-cell populations—CD4+ T helper cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and γδ T cells—produced IL-17A in response to curli fibrils in the intestinal mucosa during S. Typhimurium infection. Notably, decreased IL-6 expression by the dendritic cells and decreased IL-23 expression by the dendritic cells and macrophages were observed in the cecal mucosa of mice infected with the curli mutant. We conclude that TLR2 recognition of bacterial amyloid fibrils in the intestinal mucosa represents a novel mechanism of immunoregulation, which contributes to the generation of inflammatory responses, including production of IL-17A and IL-22, in response to bacterial entry into the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23027540

  9. Analysis of the influence of parenteral cancer chemotherapy on the health condition of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Mansur; Madej-Czerwonka, Barbara; Jastrzębska-Jamrogiewicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of oral complications in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Material and methods The study was conducted on a group of 58 patients treated with chemotherapy (study group). The control group consisted of 30 healthy patients. Dental status and oral mucosa were examined using the criteria of the National Cancer Institute Toxicity Criteria Scale. The levels of stimulated and unstimulated saliva flow were analysed. Results In the group of patients treated with chemotherapy, 59% of patients had inflammatory changes of the soft tissues of the mouth, such as erythema, erosions, or ulcers, which were discovered during dental examination. Such changes occurred in only 10% of patients in the control group. Six of the patients treated with chemotherapy reported pain with intensity was so severe that it caused swallowing difficulties. Patients in the study group frequently complained about the presence of dry mouth, taste disturbances, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms occurred in 70% of patients undergoing oncological treatment. In both stimulated and unstimulated saliva secretion, the rates were significantly lower in patients from the research group, when compared to the control group. PMID:26199575

  10. Automatic prediction of tongue muscle activations using a finite element model.

    PubMed

    Stavness, Ian; Lloyd, John E; Fels, Sidney

    2012-11-15

    Computational modeling has improved our understanding of how muscle forces are coordinated to generate movement in musculoskeletal systems. Muscular-hydrostat systems, such as the human tongue, involve very different biomechanics than musculoskeletal systems, and modeling efforts to date have been limited by the high computational complexity of representing continuum-mechanics. In this study, we developed a computationally efficient tracking-based algorithm for prediction of muscle activations during dynamic 3D finite element simulations. The formulation uses a local quadratic-programming problem at each simulation time-step to find a set of muscle activations that generated target deformations and movements in finite element muscular-hydrostat models. We applied the technique to a 3D finite element tongue model for protrusive and bending movements. Predicted muscle activations were consistent with experimental recordings of tongue strain and electromyography. Upward tongue bending was achieved by recruitment of the superior longitudinal sheath muscle, which is consistent with muscular-hydrostat theory. Lateral tongue bending, however, required recruitment of contralateral transverse and vertical muscles in addition to the ipsilateral margins of the superior longitudinal muscle, which is a new proposition for tongue muscle coordination. Our simulation framework provides a new computational tool for systematic analysis of muscle forces in continuum-mechanics models that is complementary to experimental data and shows promise for eliciting a deeper understanding of human tongue function. PMID:23021611

  11. Development of the tongue coating analyzer based on concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Wenping

    2010-10-01

    The tongue coating diagnosis is an important part in tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).The change of the thickness and color of the tongue coating can reflect the pathological state for the patient. By observing the tongue coating, a Chinese doctor can determine the nature or severity of disease. Because some limitations existed in the tongue diagnosis method of TCM and the method based on the digital image processing, a novel tongue coating analyzer(TCA) based on the concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument is developed in this paper. This analyzer consists of the light source system, check cavity, optical fiber probe, concave grating monochrometer, spectrum detector system based on CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card, signal processing circuit system, computer and data analysis software based on LabVIEW, etc. Experimental results show that the novel TCA's spectral range can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this TCA uses the back-split-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with the TCA based on the image processing technology, this TCA has many advantages, such as, compact volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and real-time handle data and display the result, etc. Therefore, it has the greatly potential values in the fields of the tongue coating diagnosis for TCM.

  12. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2012-02-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pain, fatigue, and motivation between paradigms. Three randomized sessions and one control experiment were performed. Sixteen healthy subjects completed two different 1-h sessions of simple tongue training with 1 N and 3 N, respectively, and one TDS session. After 1 wk, six out of 16 subjects participated as experienced subjects with six naive subjects in a control experiment with 2 × 5-min TDS training separated by a 30-min rest. Performance improved during training in all sessions. The mean ± SEM relative increase in success was 80 ± 12% (1 N), 52 ± 11% (3 N), and 285 ± 45% (TDS). In the control experiment the experienced group performed equal to the last 5 min of their first TDS session and neither group improved during rest. Training with the TDS was rated as more fun, less painful, less fatiguing, and more motivating compared with simple tongue training. In conclusion, force level and complexity of tongue training influences behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning. PMID:22288920

  13. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    PubMed

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. PMID:25786577

  14. A Bayesian approach to distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-10-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve interdigitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the computed fiber directions in both the controls and the patients were also compared, suggesting a potential clinical use for this imaging and image analysis methodology. PMID:26296155

  15. Dietary garcinol inhibits 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced tongue carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koujiro; Tanaka, Takuji; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Fumio; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Toida, Makoto; Hara, Akira; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Mori, Hideki

    2005-04-18

    The effects of dietary feeding with a polyisoprenylated benzophenone, garcinol, isolated from Garcinia indica fruit rind on the development of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced oral carcinogenesis were investigated in male F344 rats. At 7 weeks of age, animals were given 4-NQO at 20 ppm in the drinking water for 8 weeks to induce tongue neoplasms. They also received the diets containing 100 or 500 ppm garcinol either during (for 10 weeks) or after (for 22 weeks) the carcinogen exposure. The other rats were given tap water without 4-NQO throughout the experiment, and fed garcinol (500 ppm)-containing diet or basal diet alone. At the end of the study (week 32), incidences of tongue neoplasms and preneoplastic lesions, cell proliferation activity in the normal-like tongue epithelium estimated by 5-bromodeoxyurideine (BrdU)-labeling index and cyclin D1-positive cell ratio, and immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the tongue lesions were determined. Dietary garcinol significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of 4-NQO-induced tongue neoplasms and/or preneoplasms as compared to the control diet. Dietary administration of garcinol also significantly reduced the BrdU-labeling index and cyclin D1-positive cell ratio, suggesting reduction in cell proliferation activity in the tongue by garcinol. The COX-2 expression in the tongue lesions was also suppressed by feeding with garcinol. These results indicate that dietary administration of garcinol inhibited 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis through suppression of increased cell proliferation activity in the target tissues and/or COX-2 expression in the tongue lesions. PMID:15797624

  16. LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

    2014-12-01

    The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. PMID:25137178

  17. A Portable Sensing System for Electronic Tongue Operations

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Karen; Truemper, Andreas; Murphy, Kilian

    2006-01-01

    A portable, low cost sensing system is described which interfaces to an electronic tongue sensor. The sensor used is a voltammetric sensor which monitors electrochemical reactions that occur in solutions. The sensor is able to test a range of liquids with different electrochemical properties without any hardware adjustments to the system. The system can automatically adjust for the change in solution properties by performing a routine which uses an auto-ranging feature to determine a current-to-voltage conversion of the sensor data by using a binary search strategy. This eliminates the intervention of the user to modify the system each time a new solution is tested. The effectiveness of the calibration routine was tested by carrying out cyclic voltammetry in two different solutions, 0.1M sulfuric acid solution and the phosphate buffered solution of pH3. The sensor system was able to accurately acquire the sensor data for each solution.

  18. [The untold suffering. Psychosocial consequences of tongue tumor].

    PubMed

    Siemińska, Maria J

    2006-01-01

    It is evident from literature that is no clear picture of the psychosocial factors that play a role in the way patients with tongue neoplasms cope with their defects and their treatment. The most significant component of the impact of postoperative disfigurement and dysfunction appears within a social context where the drastic alteration in anatomic contour interrupts the visual impression ordinarily provided by the face in social interation. Physological, psychological, and social adaptation to postsurgical defects can indeed be facilitated with proper intervention. The deepest and initial suffering is often silent and unarticulated. The tendency toward silence appeared to have been reinforced by emotionally traumatic expierences in early life. . In the existential dimension of suffering, one is searching for one's own of giving the suffering meaning and the fight for hope and life. The struggling act of suffering demads a compassonate other to confirm suffering. PMID:17939197

  19. Epidermal Choristoma of the Tongue Mimicking a Congenital Melanotic Macule.

    PubMed

    Curto-Barredo, Laia; Vicente, Asunción; Rovira, Carlota; García-Diez, Eloy; Pujol, Ramón M; González-Enseñat, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    We report the fifth case of epidermal choristoma of the oral cavity in a Caucasian newborn with a congenital melanotic macule on the dorsum of the tongue. Epidermal choristoma is an exceedingly rare and benign condition probably caused by a developmental abnormality. It is identified according to the presence of normal skin in an abnormal location. Histologically it is identified according to areas of stratified epithelium and hyperpigmentation of the basal layer along with cutaneous adnexal structures (hair follicles, sebaceous or sweat glands). The clinical presentation is variable, but most of the cases described presented with a congenital lingual pigmented macule. These lesions should be included within the differential diagnosis of congenital lingual macules and distinguished from other entities such as congenital lingual melanotic macules and melanocytic lesions. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Epidermal choristoma is a benign condition that probably is underdiagnosed because it is a new and rare entity, and dermatologists should be aware of it. PMID:25529319

  20. Nectar bat stows huge tongue in its rib cage.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan

    2006-12-01

    Bats of the subfamily Glossophaginae (family Phyllostomidae) are arguably the most specialized of mammalian nectarivores, and hundreds of neotropical plants rely on them for pollination. But flowers pollinated by bats are not known to specialize for bat subgroups (unlike flowers that have adapted to the length and curvature of hummingbird bills, for example), possibly because the mouthparts of bats do not vary much compared with the bills of birds or the probosces of insects. Here I report a spectacular exception: a recently-described nectar bat that can extend its tongue twice as far as those of related bats and is the sole pollinator of a plant with corolla tubes of matching length. PMID:17151655