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1

Cytokeratin expression in human fetal tongue and buccal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of cytokeratins (CK), a subset of intermediate filament (IF) proteins in epithelia, is developmentally regulated.\\u000a CK expression may also change after malignant transformation. Our earlier studies on CK expression in human oral tumours and\\u000a pre-cancerous lesions have shown specific changes in CK expression. We analysed CK expression in human tongue and buccal mucosa\\u000a (BM) in fetuses in the embryonic

M M Vaidya; Sharda S. Sawant; Anita M. Borges; N K Naresh; Manda C. Purandare; A N Bhisey

2000-01-01

2

Morphogenesis of the tongue mucosa in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica) during the late embryonic stages.  

PubMed

The tongue in domestic duck, as in other Anseriformes, is characterized by wide variety of shape and mechanical papillae and they fulfill different function during food collection. The present work aims to describe morphological features of the tongue as well as the pace formation of the mechanical papillae during embryonic period. The results may allow to answer whether the tongue in duck is ready to fulfill feeding function after hatching. The study revealed that the particular part of the tongue and the conical papillae of the body develop between 10th and 16th day of incubation, from the caudal part of the body into the rostral part of the tongue. The conical papillae of the lingual prominence in the first row are formed from 11th to 16th day and in the second row at the turn of the 15th and 16th day of incubation. These papillae developed symmetrically from the median part of the lingual prominence, to its edges. The lingual comb, which is used during transport of the food particles, is formed between 16th and 19th day. The present study indicated the morphological changes of the particular part of the tongue and the mechanical papillae were varied between the developmental stages. The morphology of the tongue in the domestic duck is fully developed before hatching and ready to collect food by pecking and grazing. However, filter-feeding mechanism is not still obvious. PMID:24909127

Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Kontecka, Helena

2014-09-01

3

Resolution of tongue lesions caused by Leishmania infantum in a dog treated with the association miltefosine-allopurinol  

PubMed Central

Canine leishmaniosis is a severe systemic disease caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Leishmania infantum, an obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages, transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies. The infection in dogs might occur without any clinical signs or might be characterised by chronic viscerocutaneous signs, such as lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, splenomegaly, onychogryphosis, and renal as well as ocular damage due to immunocomplex deposition. In atypical cases the parasites can be found in the striated musculature, the central nervous system, the endocrine glands or gonads, with or without functional damage. Leishmania infection might seldom induce oral lesions, particularly on the tongue. The authors describe the clinical case of a four-year old mongrel dog with tongue lesions caused by L. infantum. The dog was presented due to diarrhoea, lack of appetite and hypersalivation. Examination of the oral cavity revealed the presence of multiple red, nodular lesions on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue. Definite diagnosis of an infection with L. infantum was obtained by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by the cytological identification of the parasite in nodular, lingual lesions and bone marrow aspirates. The dog was treated with a combination of miltefosine (Milteforan®, Virbac), 2 mg/kg orally once a day for four weeks and allopurinol (Ziloric®, GlaxoSmithKline), 10 mg/kg orally twice a day for six months. At the end of the treatment, the animal showed full remission of clinical signs. The authors outline the atypical manifestations in the oral cavity in combination with a L. infantum infection and discuss the therapeutic potential of the combination treatment of miltefosine and allopurinol in canine leishmaniosis. PMID:19426445

Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Paparcone, Rosa; Cappiello, Silvia; De Santo, Roberta; Bianciardi, Paolo; Oliva, Gaetano

2009-01-01

4

Fissured Tongue  

MedlinePLUS

... to remove any food debris from the fissures. Cleansing of the tongue helps prevent irritation and possible ... patients by making recommendations concerning devices for tongue cleansing. Q: Who can get fissured tongue? A: Anyone ...

5

Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.  

PubMed

The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III. PMID:19143682

Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

2009-02-01

6

Prognostic factors of local outcome for T1, T2 carcinomas of oral tongue treated by iridium 192 implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of Iridium 192 implantation for 121 node negative T1 or T2 squamous carcinomas of mobile tongue were reviewed to look for predictors of local control and necrosis. Age, sex, total dose, dose rate, linear activity, and intersource spacing were examined. Minimum follow-up was 2 years but no patient with local recurrence or necrosis was excluded. There were 57

J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; G. Marinello; W. Walop; B. Pierquin

1990-01-01

7

Salivary glands: report of a rare case of myoepithelial carcinoma involving tongue base treated by CO2 Laser  

PubMed Central

Summary Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignant tumour of the salivary glands. Herewith, the clinical evolution, anatomo-pathological characteristics and treatment adopted are described in a case occurring in the minor salivary glands of the tongue base. To our knowledge, this location has not been previously described in the literature. In fact, due to the rarity of the epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, there is no uniformity of data in the literature and very different therapeutic strategies have been suggested. In this report, the possibility of applying conservative surgery using CO2 Laser is proposed. Results obtained in the case described confirm that conservative surgery is feasible in this type of neoplastic lesion of the tongue. PMID:20140162

Esposito, E; Cassiano, B; Cinquegrani, F

2009-01-01

8

Traditional chinese medicine (tongue acupuncture) in children with drooling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue acupuncture is an innovative technique in traditional Chinese medicine. We have demonstrated that specific tongue acupoints are related to various functional domains. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of tongue acupuncture in children with neurologic disability who had severe drooling problems. We conducted an intent-to-treat study in a cohort of 10 children. A continuous course of tongue acupuncture

Virginia Wong; J. G Sun; Wilfred Wong

2001-01-01

9

The molecular features of tongue epithelium treated with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and alcohol as a model for HNSCC  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common type of cancer affecting humans worldwide. To determine the potential mechanisms by which chronic tobacco and alcohol abuse lead to HNSCC of the oral cavity, we have used both the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) murine oral carcinogenesis and the Meadows–Cook alcohol models. In this study, we treated mice with 4-NQO in drinking water for 10 weeks and then administered 20% (w:v) ethanol (EtOH) for another 10 weeks. We observed increased levels and/or activation of signaling proteins [p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ?-catenin and Erk 1/2] that are typically altered during HNSCC initiation in humans. We found that EtOH administration alone increased the expression of p38 MAPK but not Erk 1/2 MAPK. Total ?-catenin levels in the tongues increased by 2- to 3-fold after 4-NQO treatment, with or without EtOH. However, EtOH combined with 4-NQO reduced phosphorylated ?-catenin levels, whereas 4-NQO treatment alone did not. These data implicate EtOH as a regulator of ?-catenin signaling in this HNSCC model. We also utilized K14-CreERTAM; ROSA26 mice to mark permanently stem/progenitor cells in the tongue epithelia. We found that 4-NQO alone and 4-NQO plus EtOH treatment resulted in massive, horizontal expansion of stem/progenitor cell populations arising from single stem cells in the basal layer of the epithelia. This expansion is consistent with carcinogen-associated, symmetric division of stem/progenitor cells. Our data suggest that specific therapeutic targets for prevention of HNSCC of the oral cavity associated with both alcohol and tobacco use are p38 MAPK and ?-catenin. PMID:23784083

Gudas, Lorraine J.

2013-01-01

10

Electron-microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of Langerhans cells and Thy1-positive cells in mouse tongue epithelium subjected to local hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local hyperthermia via skin has been used to treat cancer but may suppress local immune responses as a side-effect. To examine effects of heat on immunologically responsive cells in oral mucosa, mouse tongues were heated by an implant system at 43°C for 20 min. The densities of Langerhans cells and Thy-1-positive cells rapidly increased within 3 h after the treatment,

Kenji Mitsudo; Miya Kobayashi; Iwai Tohnai; Minoru Ueda; Hisanari Kotani; Takeshi Hoshino

1995-01-01

11

Gliadin intake alters the small intestinal mucosa in indomethacin-treated HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an enteropathy caused by the ingestion of wheat gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. A complete understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms in CD has been hindered because of the lack of adequate in vivo models. In the present study, we explored the events after the intragastric administration of gliadin and of the albumin/globulin fraction from wheat in human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 transgenic mice (DQ8 mice) treated with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs). After 10 days of treatment, mice showed a significant reduction of villus height, increased crypt depth, increased number of lamina propria-activated macrophages, and high basal interferon-? secretion in mesenteric lymph nodes, all of which were specifically related to gliadin intake, whereas the albumin/globulin fraction of wheat was unable to induce similar changes. Cotreatment with NS-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, also induced the intestinal lesion. Enteropathy onset was further characterized by high levels of oxidative stress markers, similar to CD. Biochemical assessment of the small intestine revealed the specific activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, high caspase-3 activity, and a significant increase of tissue transglutaminase protein levels associated with the intestinal lesion. Notably, after 30 days of treatment, enteropathic mice developed serum antibodies toward gliadin (IgA) and tissue transglutaminase (IgG). We concluded that gliadin intake in combination with COX inhibition caused a basal inflammatory status and an oxidative stress condition in the small intestine of DQ8 mice, thus triggering the mucosal lesion and, subsequently, an antigen-specific immunity. PMID:24924747

Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; Luongo, Diomira; Rotondi Aufiero, Vera; Bozzella, Giuseppina; Palmieri, Gianna; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; David, Chella; Rossi, Mauro

2014-08-01

12

Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

2012-03-15

13

Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.  

PubMed

The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-Holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

2014-09-10

14

Smart tongue and nose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we review recent effort towards the development of both a smart tongue (the so-called `electronic tongue') and a smart nose (or so-called `electronic noise'). The difference being that the smart tongue operates within the solution under test, while the smart nose evaluates the nature of its headspace.

Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

1999-07-01

15

Linezolid induced black hairy tongue.  

PubMed

Black hairy tongue (BHT) also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc) are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed database. Here we report a case, where significant association of linezolid intake with BHT was found in a 10-year-old boy, who was treated with tablet linezolid for post surgical infection of left side radial neck fracture. This case is reported for the rarity of occurrence with linezolid therapy. According to Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) causality scale, the association of BHT due to linezolid in our case was probable. PMID:25538341

Balaji, Govindan; Maharani, B; Ravichandran, Velappan; Parthasarathi, Thiyagarajan

2014-11-01

16

Black hairy tongue (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A black hairy tongue is produced when the papilla (finger-like projections from the surface of the tongue) fail to fall off, as they normally do. As the length of the papilla increases, debris collects and bacteria grow, producing the ...

17

Tongue piercing: case report of a local complication.  

PubMed

Historically, wearing adornments on pierced body parts has been associated with many cultures as manifestations of religious or cultural identities. Currently, its use has a broad acceptance among young people. The most common sites for piercings are the tongue and lower lip in the oral cavity. Several complications may be associated with this practice with the most frequently observed being halitosis, periodontitis, tooth fracture, glossitis, and the formation of abscesses. This paper is a case report of a patient who had a complication from a piercing on the tongue located under the overlying mucosa. It also suggests a local habit was a possible initiator of this complication. PMID:17211509

Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Horikawa, Fernando Kendi; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Shinohara, Mauro Tadachi

2007-01-01

18

Tongue Area Extraction in Tongue Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of tongue area from digital photos is essential to an automatic tongue diagnostic system in traditional Chinese medicine. Simple segmentation methods couldn't be effective due to the weak edge of tongue and the details on the tongue's surface. In this paper, we propose a unique segmentation method based on the combination of the watershed transform and active contour

Jia Wu; Yonghong Zhang; Jing Bai

2005-01-01

19

Isolated congenital bifid tongue  

PubMed Central

Human growth and development is a meticulously planned and precisely executed process. Even a mild disturbance can have clinically significant manifestations later on. Even today, ancient beliefs and practices override/delay patient's aspiration for seeking treatment as seen in the case report presented here. Congenital bifid tongue in association with various other orofacial abnormalities has been reported, many of which have been linked to various syndromes. But congenital bifid tongue occurring in the absence of other orofacial abnormalities is very rare. Here, we discuss a case of bifid tongue involving the anterior one-third of tongue, reported in a 45-year-old male patient unusually with no other intraoral abnormalities. PMID:22442597

Surej, Kumar L. K.; Kurien, Nikhil M.; Sivan, Madhu P.

2010-01-01

20

Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient's age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue. PMID:24808705

Kamala, K. A.; Ashok, L.; Sujatha, G. P.

2014-01-01

21

Science Nation: Tongue Driver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past four years, Maysam Ghovanloo has been working with a team at Georgia Institute of Technology to improve life for quadriplegics. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), they have devised a headset that responds to a magnet. Using a laptop, a wireless connection and navigation software, the headset is programmed to allow someone to steer a wheelchair by moving his tongue. Since the tongue driver could help control any number of devices like the TV or a computer, it could one day mean even more of the most precious commodity of all: independence.

22

Ultrastructural Aspects of Female Aging Wistar Rat Epithelium Tongue: A HRSEM and TEM Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is general consensus that the effects of intrinsic aging on the oral mucosa are relatively small, though potentially important to understanding the pathologies present in the aged animals. Objective: In this paper, the development of dorsal surface of rat tongue was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) in order to understand the

Marilia Gabriela de Oliveira Lopes; Ii-sei Watanabe; Luís Eduardo Silva Soares; Newton Soares da Silva; Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira da Silva

2009-01-01

23

Treatment and retention of relapsed anterior open-bite with low tongue posture and tongue-tie: A 10-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current report is to present 6-year long-term stability and 10-year follow-up data for an adult patient who was treated with a tongue elevator for relapsed anterior open-bite. The 19-year-old male patient presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing his food. Collectively, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed an anterior open-bite, low tongue posture, and tongue-tie. The patient opted for orthodontic treatment alone, without any surgical procedure. A lingual frenectomy was recommended to avoid the risk of relapse, but the patient declined because he was not experiencing tongue discomfort. Initial treatment of the anterior open-bite with molar intrusion and tongue exercises was successful, but relapse occurred during the retention period. A tongue elevator was used for retreatment, because the approach was minimally invasive and suited the patient's requirements regarding discomfort, cost, and time. The appliance changed the tongue posture and generated an altered tongue force, which ultimately resulted in intrusive dentoalveolar effects, and a subsequent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. The results showed long-term stability and were maintained for six years through continual use of the tongue elevator. The results of this case indicated that a tongue elevator could be used not only as an alternative treatment for open-bite, but also as an active retainer. PMID:25133135

Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Su-Jung; Munkhshur, Janchivdorj; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ngan, Peter

2014-01-01

24

Solitary Nodular Lesion of Tongue- A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

Sarada, P.; Reddy, C.H. Sampath; A.K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha

2014-01-01

25

An asymptomatic tongue nodule  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a major health concern in developing countries, as it is a major cause of seizures in these countries. The tissues commonly affected are the neural tissues, muscle, heart, lungs, liver, subcutaeneous layers and peritoneum, but oral manifestations are rare. Present case is of an asymptomatic tongue nodule which was diagnosed as cysticercosis on histologic examination. Thus, emphasizing the importance of routine microscopic examination and diagnosis of apparently innocuous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23633810

Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal; Pattanayak, Sweta; Vibha

2012-01-01

26

Black hairy tongue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

2014-01-01

27

Pixel Based Tongue Color Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tongue diagnosis is a distinctive and essential diagnostic measure in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and chromatic information is its most decisive characteristic which is utilized to unearth pathological changes for identifying diseases. In this paper, a computerized medical biometrics scheme is established which classify all pixels in tongue into various color classes. For train specimens, both a forward and a backward selection are employed to pick up the correct labeled pixel specimens and screen out the wrong, and then various pixels of diversified colors are classified for the tongue color analysis. The experimental outcomes are more applicable to tongue color analysis.

Huang, Bo; Li, Naimin

28

3-D neurohistology of transparent tongue in health and injury with optical clearing  

PubMed Central

Tongue receives extensive innervation to perform taste, sensory, and motor functions. Details of the tongue neuroanatomy and its plasticity in response to injury offer insights to investigate tongue neurophysiology and pathophysiology. However, due to the dispersed nature of the neural network, standard histology cannot provide a global view of the innervation. We prepared transparent mouse tongue by optical clearing to reveal the spatial features of the tongue innervation and its remodeling in injury. Immunostaining of neuronal markers, including PGP9.5 (pan-neuronal marker), calcitonin gene-related peptide (sensory nerves), tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic nerves), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cholinergic parasympathetic nerves and neuromuscular junctions), was combined with vessel painting and nuclear staining to label the tissue network and architecture. The tongue specimens were immersed in the optical-clearing solution to facilitate photon penetration for 3-dimensiontal (3-D) confocal microscopy. Taking advantage of the transparent tissue, we simultaneously revealed the tongue microstructure and innervation with subcellular-level resolution. 3-D projection of the papillary neurovascular complex and taste bud innervation was used to demonstrate the spatial features of tongue mucosa and the panoramic imaging approach. In the tongue injury induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide administration in the drinking water, we observed neural tissue remodeling in response to the changes of mucosal and muscular structures. Neural networks and the neuromuscular junctions were both found rearranged at the peri-lesional region, suggesting the nerve-lesion interactions in response to injury. Overall, this new tongue histological approach provides a useful tool for 3-D imaging of neural tissues to better characterize their roles with the mucosal and muscular components in health and disease. PMID:24155698

Hua, Tzu-En; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Yang, Wen-Chan; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

2013-01-01

29

Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521

ZHAO, XIN; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; QIU, LIHUA; PANG, LIANG

2013-01-01

30

How Is Angina Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor prescribes, especially if you have diabetes . Medicines Nitrates are the medicines most commonly used to treat ... GLIS-er-in) is the most commonly used nitrate for angina. Nitroglycerin that dissolves under your tongue ...

31

Literacy and the Mother Tongue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

Literacy Work, 1974

1974-01-01

32

Mother Tongue Maintenance: The Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This debate presents two viewpoints on mother tongue maintenance: (1) that all individuals have a fundamental right to education in their native tongue, and that multilingual societies should actively promote multilingualism for all individuals; and (2) that the multitude of languages and rapid economic development in many countries calls for…

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Sridhar, Kamal

1994-01-01

33

Painful Papillae of the Tongue  

MedlinePLUS

... guard) can protect the tongue as well as the teeth. A night guard may be useful if you grind your teeth or have a habit of rubbing your tongue across your teeth. Treatment Treatment depends on the cause. Some common treatments include: Smoothing any sharp ...

34

Computerized tongue diagnosis based on Bayesian networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experience-based nature, traditional tongue diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. Moreover, traditional tongue diagnosis is always concerned with the identification of syndromes rather than with the connection between tongue abnormal appearances and diseases. This is not well understood

Bo Pang; David Zhang; Naimin Li; Kuanquan Wang

2004-01-01

35

Our Mother Tongues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Frequently when one hears about the Native American experience in the United States, the focus is on the loss of traditions, folkways, and language. In contrast, this website was created to highlight a recent documentary by Anne Makepeace that focuses on the ways in which Native American languages have recovered and thrived in recent times. On the site, visitors should start by clicking on the interactive "Language Map." Here visitors can learn about twelve different languages, including Crow, Cherokee, Dakota, Euchee, and Lakota. Clicking on the "Voices" area gives visitors the opportunity to listen to Native Americans from different tribal communities speaking in their mother tongues. Additionally, visitors can send an electronic postcard from the site, read the site blog, and learn more about the project and the documentary.

2012-01-06

36

Lymphangioma of the tongue - a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537

V, Usha; Sivasankari, T; Jeelani, S; Asokan, G S; Parthiban, J

2014-09-01

37

Lymphangioma of the Tongue - A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537

V, Usha; Sivasankari, T.; Jeelani, S.; Parthiban, J.

2014-01-01

38

Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath  

MedlinePLUS

... with bacteria-rich mucous," says AGD spokesperson, June Lee?xml:namespace>, DDS, MAGD. "A tongue scraper is ... xml:namespace> Despite the short-term reduction, Dr. Lee feels that tongue scrapers are a good tool ...

39

So You Want to Pierce Your Tongue?  

MedlinePLUS

... people with oral piercings. People chip teeth on tongue piercings while eating, sleeping, talking and simply chewing on ... to further complications. How do I maintain my piercing? Once your tongue has been pierced, it will take four to ...

40

Undulating tongue in Wilson's disease.  

PubMed

We report an unusual occurrence of involuntary movement involving the tongue in a patient with confirmed Wilson's disease (WD). She manifested with slow, hypophonic speech and dysphagia of 4 months duration, associated with pseudobulbar affect, apathy, drooling and dystonia of upper extremities of 1 month duration. Our patient had an uncommon tongue movement which was arrhythmic. There was no feature to suggest tremor, chorea or dystonia. It might be described as athetoid as there was a writhing quality, but of lesser amplitude. Thus, the phenomenology was uncommon in clinical practice and the surface of the tongue was seen to "ripple" like a liquid surface agitated by an object or breeze. Isolated lingual dyskinesias are rare in WD. It is important to evaluate them for WD, a potentially treatable disorder. PMID:25024581

Nagappa, M; Sinha, S; Saini, Js; Bindu, Ps; Taly, Ab

2014-04-01

41

Histomorphological and Histochemical Observations of the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) Tongue  

PubMed Central

Common myna tongue was studied histomorphologically and histochemically. Four tongues of adult birds were carried out macroscopically and microscopically. The tongue was triangular; the dorsum of the body had median groove. Two to three backward directed papillae were located on each side of the body-base junction. A single transverse row of pharyngeal papillae was located behind the laryngeal cleft. The parakeratinized mucosa covered the entire surface of the tongue except clearly keratinized band on the ventrolateral surface and the conical papillae. Compared with the lateral group (LG), the secretory cells of the medial group (MG) of the anterior lingual glands (ALG) and the posterior lingual glands (PLG) contained large amount of mucin. It was neutral mucin. However, the LG had weak acid mucin with carboxylated group. Meanwhile, the MG of the ALG and the PLG had strong acid mucin with both carboxylated and sulphated groups. In conclusion, the morphological observation of the common myna tongue showed some variation from the other birds. Histochemical results indicated the differences between the LG and MG of the anterior lingual glands. However, no difference was observed between the latter and the PLG. PMID:23738140

Kadhim, Khalid Kamil; Hameed, AL-Timmemi; Abass, Thamir A.

2013-01-01

42

Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

2007-01-01

43

Metabolic markers and microecological characteristics of tongue coating in patients with chronic gastritis  

PubMed Central

Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue diagnosis is a non-invasive, simple and valuable diagnostic tool. TCM treats the tongue coating on a very sensitive scale that reflects physiological and pathological changes in the organs, especially the spleen and stomach. Tongue coating can diagnose disease severity and determine the TCM syndrome (“Zheng” in Chinese). The biological bases of different tongue coating appearances are still poorly understood and lack systematic investigation at the molecular level. Methods Tongue coating samples were collected from 70 chronic gastritis patients and 20 normal controls. 16S rRNA denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA–DGGE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were designed to profile tongue coatings. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminate analysis. Results Ten potential metabolites or markers were found in chronic gastritis patients, including UDP-D-galactose, 3-ketolactose, and vitamin D2, based on LC–MS. Eight significantly different strips were observed in samples from chronic gastritis patients based on 16S rRNA–DGGE. Two strips, Strips 8 and 10, were selected for gene sequencing. Strip 10 sequencing showed a 100% similarity to Rothia mucilaginosa. Strip 8 sequencing showed a 96.2% similarity to Moraxella catarrhalis. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism could possibly form the basis of tongue coating conformation in chronic gastritis patients. The study revealed important connections between metabolic components, microecological components and tongue coating in chronic gastritis patients. Compared with other diagnostic regimens, such as blood tests or tissue biopsies, tongue coating is more amenable to, and more convenient for, both patients and doctors. PMID:24041039

2013-01-01

44

Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images  

PubMed Central

A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

2012-01-01

45

Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing.  

PubMed

Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig's angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk. PMID:21358880

Yu, Catherine Hy; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

2010-01-01

46

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

47

Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

48

Application of the Electronic Tongue to Milk Quality Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic tongue comprising an array of 31 different chemical sensors with pattern recognition engine has been utilized for milk recognition and quality monitoring. The ability of the system to distinguish between milk samples produced by different manufacturers and theramlly treated in different ways and to monitor the process of milk spoilage has been demonstrated. The measurements and processing of the sensor array response without reference electrode have been successfully performed.

Legin, A.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Lvova, L.; Vlasov, Yu.; D'Amico, A.; di Natale, C.; Paolesse, R.

2000-12-01

49

Solitary Angiokeratoma of Oral Mucosa: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa is rare entity. The term Angiokeratoma is used to refer to several lesions, whose common denominator is the presence of dilated blood vessels in association with epidermal hyperplasia. Mucosal involvement, including oral cavity is occasionally found either as a component of the systemic variety, cutaneous involvement or isolated oral involvement. Clinically, the lesion is irregular, whitish to dark brown in color, with female predominance. The etiological factors include injury, trauma, or chronic irritation to the wall of a papillary dermis. Histologically, it is characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and dilated vascular spaces with or without organizing thrombi in papillary dermis. The vascular spaces are partly or completely enclosed by elongated ret-ridges. Along with this reporting a case of solitary angiokeratoma affecting tongue in a 38-year-old male patient, along with the literature review is presented. PMID:23936686

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa; Tupsakhare, Suyog; Patil, Ashok; Gabhane, Mahesh; Sonune, Shrikant

2013-01-01

50

Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa: a rare presentation.  

PubMed

Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa is rare entity. The term Angiokeratoma is used to refer to several lesions, whose common denominator is the presence of dilated blood vessels in association with epidermal hyperplasia. Mucosal involvement, including oral cavity is occasionally found either as a component of the systemic variety, cutaneous involvement or isolated oral involvement. Clinically, the lesion is irregular, whitish to dark brown in color, with female predominance. The etiological factors include injury, trauma, or chronic irritation to the wall of a papillary dermis. Histologically, it is characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and dilated vascular spaces with or without organizing thrombi in papillary dermis. The vascular spaces are partly or completely enclosed by elongated ret-ridges. Along with this reporting a case of solitary angiokeratoma affecting tongue in a 38-year-old male patient, along with the literature review is presented. PMID:23936686

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa; Tupsakhare, Suyog; Patil, Ashok; Agrawal, Gaurav; Gabhane, Mahesh; Sonune, Shrikant

2013-01-01

51

[Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].  

PubMed

The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25508742

Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

2014-08-01

52

[Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].  

PubMed

The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25474963

Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

2014-08-01

53

Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s-2. At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to power tongue projection directly during the actual fast projection of the tongue. However,

Groot de J. H; Leeuwen van J. L

2004-01-01

54

[Supportive therapy for locally advanced cancer of the oral mucosa].  

PubMed

The article discusses the practice of detoxication therapy to minimize undesirable toxic effects during chemo- and radiotherapy for locally advanced cancer of the oral mucosa in 88 patients treated with 1.5% solution of reamberine. There was a significant improvement in the parameters of liver function, as well as in the general wellbeing of patients. We analyzed the main symptoms of the toxicity of chemo- and radiotherapy in both groups. Inclusion of the reamberine solution as supportive therapy for cancer patients who were receiving chemo- and radiotherapy for cancer of the oral mucosa allowed reducing the number and severity of toxic complications. PMID:23600298

Ivanov, V M; Matiakin, G G; Ivanova, O V; She?kin, M V; Romantsov, M G

2012-01-01

55

Changes of tongue position and oropharynx following treatment with functional appliance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine changes of tongue position and oropharyngeal space following treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div I malocclusion. In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div I malocclusion were investigated. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. These samples were treated for II months. McNamara analysis and some linear variables were used to determine positional changes of tongue and oropharyngeal space. In this study, tongue moved significantly (P. value < 0.05) forwards in the horizontal dimension and non-significantly downwards in the vertical dimension. Treatment with functional appliance leads to significant alterations in tongue position and significantly increases the extent of oropharyngeal space. PMID:19161068

Yassaei, S; Bahrololoomi, Z; Sorush, M

2007-01-01

56

Leptin Promotes Wound Healing in the Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Results Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Conclusion Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa. PMID:25033454

Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

2014-01-01

57

Clipping the (tongue) tie.  

PubMed

Ankyloglossia is an uncommon congenital oral anomaly that can cause difficulty with breast-feeding and speech articulation. For many years, the subject of ankyloglossia has been controversial with practitioners of many specialties having widely different views regarding its significance and management. This study is about a series of five cases of ankyloglossia subjected to surgical correction by frenectomy procedure. Three cases were treated with electrocautery, one case with diode laser and one case with conventional scalpel technique. 1 week and 1 month post-operative follow-ups were done and healing was compared with the available literature. Manipulation of tissues was better in laser and electrocautery techniques when compared with scalpel. Post-operative complication of swelling and pain was seen in scalpel technique whereas it was largely uneventful in other techniques. Though, there was no difference in healing at the end of first month clinically, scalpel technique has shown better results in organization of muscle fibers. This clinical study indicates that laser and electrocautery treatment used for frenectomy operations provides better patient perception in terms of postoperative pain and function than that obtained by the scalpel technique. Considering the above advantages, when used correctly, the laser and electrocautery offers a safe, effective, acceptable and impressive alternative for frenectomy operations. PMID:25024558

Reddy, Nagate Raghavendra; Marudhappan, Yuvaraja; Devi, Renuka; Narang, Sumit

2014-05-01

58

Streptococcus endocarditis after tongue piercing.  

PubMed

While body piercing has been practiced for many centuries, the popularity of this body art has increased vastly in recent years. It is estimated that up to 51% of college-age individuals in the United States have ear piercing or other forms of piercing or tattoo. Although perceived as a relatively safe practice, medical complications, mostly resulting from bleeding and infections, occur in 17% of all cases after piercing. The case is reported of a patient with native mitral valve endocarditis after tongue piercing, resulting in acute mitral valve insufficiency that required valve replacement. PMID:17578056

Kloppenburg, Geoffrey; Maessen, Jos G

2007-05-01

59

Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

Regmi, Kapil Dev

2008-01-01

60

Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue  

SciTech Connect

The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

Robbins, E.I.

1987-01-01

61

Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tongue launch. We examined the dynamics of tongue projection in three genera of plethodontids (Bolitoglossa, Hydromantes

S. M. Deban; J. C. O'Reilly; U. Dicke; Leeuwen van J. L

2007-01-01

62

Extremely High-Power Tongue Projection in Plethodontid Salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tongue launch. We examined the dynamics of tongue projection in three genera of plethodontids (Bolitoglossa, Hydromantes

Stephen M. Deban; James C. OReilly; Ursula Dicke; Johan van Leeuwen

2007-01-01

63

Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

Buehler, Martin

2007-01-01

64

Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

2014-01-01

65

Acute tongue swelling, the only initial manifestation of carotid artery dissection: a case report with differentiation of clinical picture.  

PubMed

While it is well known that carotid artery dissection can cause hypoglossal palsy, which can cause muscle atrophy and fat tissue replacement in the chronic stage but what is less well known is the acute edematous stage, which can mimic tongue angioedema. We present a case report of a 52-year-old man presented to accident and emergency department with 3 hr history of right-side tongue swelling. He was initially diagnosed with angioedema and treated with corticosteroids and antihistamines. His tongue swelling persisted and subsequently developed unilateral weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging scan of the tongue, head, and neck revealed denervation of the right half of the tongue because of injury to hypoglossal nerve during extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection. There was no evidence of ischemic complication of right cerebral artery distribution. He was commenced on antiplatelet therapy to prevent cerebral ischemia as a prophylactic measure. Swelling and weakness of the tongue subsided in the following months. We believe that hypoglossal palsy caused by ICA dissection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with acute tongue swelling. PMID:25463346

Ryan, Patrick; Rehman, Sooda; Prince, Sharon

2015-02-01

66

Characterization of secretin release in secretin cell-enriched preparation isolated from canine duodenal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of secretin was studied in secretin cell-enriched preparations isolated from canine duodenal mucosa. The crude enterocytes were isolated by treating the duodenal mucosa sequentially with collagenase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Secretin cell-enriched fraction was prepared by centrifugation of the crude enterocytes in a counterflow elutriation rotor to obtain a final preparation containing 3.2±0.3 pmol\\/106 cell of immunoreactive secretin, which

Weijian Sue; William Y. Chey; Qi Sun; Ta-Min Chang

1993-01-01

67

Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to determine tongue coating microbiome  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is a unique method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first investigation on the association between traditional tongue diagnosis and the tongue coating microbiome using next-generation sequencing. The study included 19 gastritis patients with a typical white-greasy or yellow-dense tongue coating corresponding to TCM Cold or Hot Syndrome respectively, as well as eight healthy volunteers. An Illumina paired-end, double-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing protocol was designed to profile the tongue-coating microbiome, from which approximately 3.7 million V6 tags for each sample were obtained. We identified 123 and 258 species-level OTUs that were enriched in patients with Cold/Hot Syndromes, respectively, representing "Cold Microbiota" and "Hot Microbiota". We further constructed the tongue microbiota-imbalanced networks associated with Cold/Hot Syndromes. The results reveal an important connection between the tongue-coating microbiome and traditional tongue diagnosis, and illustrate the potential of the tongue-coating microbiome as a novel holistic biomarker for characterizing patient subtypes. PMID:23226834

Jiang, Bai; Liang, Xujun; Chen, Yang; Ma, Tao; Liu, Liyang; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Shao

2012-01-01

68

The Human Tongue Slows Down to Speak: Muscle Fibers of the Human Tongue  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of 4 neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2 year old human, a newborn human, an adult with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), and a macaque monkey. The average percentage of slow MFs in adult and the 2 year old muscle specimens was 54%, the IPD was 45%, while the neonatal human (32%) and macaque monkey (28%) had markedly fewer slow MFs. In contrast the tongue muscles of the rat and cat have been reported to have no slow MFs. There was a marked spatial gradient in the distribution of slow MFs with the highest percentages found medially and posterially. Normal adult tongue muscles were found to have a variety of uniquely specialized features including MF type grouping (usually found in neuromuscular disorders), large amounts of loose connective tissue, and short branching MFs. In summary, normal adult human tongue muscles have by far the highest proportion of slow MFs of any mammalian tongue studied to date. Moreover, adult human tongue muscles have multiple unique anatomic features. As the tongue shape changes that are seen during speech articulation are unique to humans we hypothesize that the large proportion of slow MFs and the anatomical specializations observed in the adult human tongue have evolved to perform these movements. PMID:23929762

SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI; AMIRALI, ASIF; SU, HUNGXI; SOBOTKA, STANISLAW

2013-01-01

69

Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy.  

PubMed

Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital variation characterised by a short lingual frenulum which may result in restriction of tongue movement and thus impact on function. Tongue tie division (frenotomy) in affected infants with breastfeeding problems yields objective improvements in milk production and breastfeeding characteristics, including objective scoring measures, weight gain and reductions in maternal pain. For the majority of mothers, frenotomy appears to enhance maintenance of breastfeeding. Tongue tie division is a safe procedure with minimal complications. The commonest complication is minor bleeding. Recurrence leading to redivision occurs with rates of 0.003-13% reported; this appears to be more common with posterior than anterior ties. There are limited reports indicating that prophylactic frenotomy may promote subsequent speech development; however, evidence is currently insufficient to condone this practice and further good quality research into this area is warranted. PMID:25258296

Brookes, Alastair; Bowley, Douglas M

2014-11-01

70

Semantic Object Generation in Tongue Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of computerized tongue image analysis based on image processing for the purpose of digitizing the tongue properties\\u000a in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis is presented. A hybrid method which uses Support Vector Machine to extract the semantic\\u000a object, and a combination kernal function is selection after many compare. Finite Mixture Model and many image process methods\\u000a is applied into

Xie Zhiming; Yang Bao-an; Chai xin

71

Computerized tongue diagnosis based on Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Tongue diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experience-based nature, traditional tongue diagnosis has a very limited-application in clinical medicine. Moreover, traditional tongue diagnosis is always concerned with the identification of syndromes rather than with the connection between tongue abnormal appearances and diseases. This is not well understood in Western medicine, thus greatly obstruct its wider use in the world. In this paper, we present a novel computerized tongue inspection method aiming to address these problems. First, two kinds of quantitative features, chromatic and textural measures, are extracted from tongue images by using popular digital image processing techniques. Then, Bayesian networks are employed to model the relationship between these quantitative features and diseases. The effectiveness of the method is tested on a group of 455 patients affected by 13 common diseases as well as other 70 healthy volunteers, and the diagnostic results predicted by the previously trained Bayesian network classifiers are reported. PMID:15490827

Pang, Bo; Zhang, David; Li, Naimin; Wang, Kuanquan

2004-10-01

72

Molecular and Cellular Regulatory Mechanisms of Tongue Myogenesis  

PubMed Central

The tongue exerts crucial functions in our daily life. However, we know very little about the regulatory mechanisms of mammalian tongue development. In this review, we summarize recent findings of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis. Specifically, cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) lead the initiation of tongue bud formation and contribute to the interstitial connective tissue, which ultimately compartmentalizes tongue muscles and serves as their attachments. Occipital somite-derived cells migrate into the tongue primordium and give rise to muscle cells in the tongue. The intimate relationship between CNCC- and mesoderm-derived cells, as well as growth and transcription factors that have been shown to be crucial for tongue myogenesis, clearly indicate that tissue-tissue interactions play an important role in regulating tongue morphogenesis. PMID:22219210

Parada, C.; Han, D.; Chai, Y.

2012-01-01

73

Tongue piercing and chronic abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting-two cases.  

PubMed

Chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of unclear etiology are frustrating to patients and physicians alike. The integrative medicine procedures of acupuncture and neural therapy may provide treatment options. Tongue piercing, which is prevalent in 5.6% of the adolescent population, may be a contributing factor in upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To demonstrate the usefulness of an integrative medicine treatment approach in two cases of patients with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting of unclear etiology who had failed standard medical management. (2) To identify scars from tongue piercings as a possible contributing factor in chronic upper GI symptoms of unclear etiology. Two retrospective case studies are presented of young adult females who were seen in a private multi-physician integrative medicine practice in the US. The patients were treated with neural therapy and acupuncture. The desired outcome was the cessation or reduction of the frequency of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms. From this study, we have concluded the following: (1) Tongue scars from tongue rings may be causes of chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms. (2) Neural therapy and acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of chronic upper GI symptoms related to tongue scars. PMID:25457444

Chung, Myung Kyu; Chung, Danielle; LaRiccia, Patrick J

2015-01-01

74

The Versatility of the Tongue Flap in the Closure of Palatal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery. PMID:23997859

Vasishta, Sathish M.S.; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y.S.; Desai, Anil

2012-01-01

75

Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.  

PubMed

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-12-01

76

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

77

Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool  

PubMed Central

Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields. PMID:22470887

Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P. K.

2012-01-01

78

Contralateral dominance of corticomuscular coherence for both sides of the tongue during human tongue protrusion: an MEG study.  

PubMed

Sophisticated tongue movements contribute to speech and mastication. These movements are regulated by communication between the bilateral cortex and each tongue side. The functional connection between the cortex and tongue was investigated using oscillatory interactions between whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals and electromyographic (EMG) signals from both tongue sides during human tongue protrusion compared to thumb data. MEG-EMG coherence was observed at 14-36 Hz and 2-10 Hz over both hemispheres for each tongue side. EMG-EMG coherence between tongue sides was also detected at the same frequency bands. Thumb coherence was detected at 15-33 Hz over the contralateral hemisphere. Tongue coherence at 14-36 Hz was larger over the contralateral vs. ipsilateral hemisphere for both tongue sides. Tongue cortical sources were located in the lower part of the central sulcus and were anterior and inferior to the thumb areas, agreeing with the classical homunculus. Cross-correlogram analysis showed the MEG signal preceded the EMG signal. The cortex-tongue time lag was shorter than the cortex-thumb time lag. The cortex-muscle time lag decreased systematically with distance. These results suggest that during tongue protrusions, descending motor commands are modulated by bilateral cortical oscillations, and each tongue side is dominated by the contralateral hemisphere. PMID:25038437

Maezawa, Hitoshi; Mima, Tatsuya; Yazawa, Shogo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Funahashi, Makoto

2014-11-01

79

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and  

E-print Network

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory (Cynoglossum officinale) invades rangelands in British Columbia (BC) and creates economic welfare losses

80

9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103...DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured...

2011-01-01

81

9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103...DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured...

2010-01-01

82

Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2014-03-01

83

Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumour of the posterior tongue.  

PubMed

Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare benign neoplasm arising in the tongue. With only 45 cases reported in the literature, there are several unique features defining this lesion. Firstly, almost all patients present with an asymptomatic slow growing mass on the anterior dorsum of the tongue. At the microscopic level, it is recognizable as a well-circumscribed unencapsulated proliferation of uniform round to fusiform cells embedded in a chondromyxoid matrix. Lastly, the immunohistochemistry profile is characterised by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein and frequent positivity for S-100 and cytokeratins. We report a case of a mass located on the posterior dorsum of the tongue and meeting the aforementioned morphological and immunohistochemical criteria of ECMT. PMID:24288100

Cardin, Marie-Josée; Fiset, Pierre Olivier; Zeitouni, Anthony G; Caglar, Derin

2014-09-01

84

Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

2014-03-15

85

Do airstream mechanisms influence tongue movement paths?  

PubMed

Velar consonants often show an elliptical pattern of tongue movement in symmetrical vowel contexts, but the forces responsible for this remain unclear. We here consider the role of overpressure (increased intraoral air pressure) behind the constriction by examining how movement patterns are modified when speakers change from an egressive to ingressive airstream. Tongue movement and respiratory data were obtained from 3 speakers. The two airstream conditions were additionally combined with two levels of speech volume. The results showed consistent reductions in forward tongue movement during consonant closure in the ingressive conditions. Thus, overpressure behind the constriction may partly determine preferred movement patterns, but it cannot be the only influence since forward movement during closure is usually reduced but not eliminated in ingressive speech. PMID:9774755

Hoole, P

1998-01-01

86

Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

2009-05-01

87

Tongue support of complete dentures in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the tongue’s role in supporting maxillary denture retention, in providing additional stabilization for the mandibular denture, and the tongue’s relationship with the oral health related well-being in elderly complete denture patients. Four hundred elderly subjects, 263 males and 137 females, were enrolled in this study. All were older than 65 years of age, and wore

Yu-Fen Chen; Yi-Hsin Yang; Ji-Hua Lee; Jen-Hao Chen; Huey-Er Lee; Tsau-Mau Chou

88

Identification of lingual glands and ducts ventrally in pigs' tongues.  

PubMed Central

Hitherto unreported tubulo-acinar mucous lingual glands were located ventrally in the free tip of the tongue, just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum linguae in 186 of 400 (47%) of pigs' tongues. The glands were bilateral in 126 (32%) of the tongues. These glands emptied by several ducts onto the ventral surface of the tongue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2606778

Sanford, S E; Josephson, G K

1989-01-01

89

Introduction about traditional Tongue Diagnosis with scientific value addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Tongue Diagnosis is a non-invasive diagnostic procedure of different traditional medical systems like Acupuncture, Ayurveda etc. In modern medicine tongue gets importance but no qualitative evaluation has been performed. In Traditional Medicine, along with other traditional diagnostic criteria, TONGUE DIAGNOSIS contributes enormous importance in identification & evaluation of pathological conditions as a whole, also very useful in assessing the

D. Bakshi; S. Pal

2010-01-01

90

Midline pyogenic granuloma of the tongue: two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristically, pyogenic granuloma of the tongue is more common on the lateral side of the tongue. The reasons for this are unclear, but may be related to trauma from adjacent teeth or dentures. This article was prompted by the presentation of two patients with lesions in the midline of the anterior surface of the dorsum of the tongue. Both lesions

Elizabeth Croton; Uday Kale

2003-01-01

91

Using ultrasound to quantify tongue shape and movement characteristics.  

PubMed

Objective : Previous experimental studies have demonstrated abnormal lingual articulatory patterns characterizing cleft palate speech. Most articulatory information to date has been collected using electropalatography, which records the location and size of tongue-palate contact but not the tongue shape. The latter type of data can be provided by ultrasound. The present paper aims to describe ultrasound tongue imaging as a potential tool for quantitative analysis of tongue function in speakers with cleft palate. A description of the ultrasound technique as applied to analyzing tongue movements is given, followed by the requirements for quantitative analysis. Several measures are described, and example calculations are provided. Measures : Two measures aim to quantify overuse of tongue dorsum in cleft palate articulations. Crucially for potential clinical applications, these measures do not require head-to-transducer stabilization because both are based on a single tongue curve. The other three measures compare sets of tongue curves, with the aim to quantify the dynamics of tongue displacement, token-to-token variability in tongue position, and the extent of separation between tongue curves for different speech sounds. Conclusions : All measures can be used to compare tongue function in speakers with cleft palate before and after therapy, as well as to assess their performance against that in typical speakers and to help in selecting more effective treatments. PMID:22117937

Zharkova, Natalia

2013-01-01

92

Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

Ouni, Slim

2014-01-01

93

Carprofen-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of the colonic mucosa of the dog  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 ?g/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure. PMID:24982549

Snow, Lynne A.; McConnico, Rebecca S.; Morgan, Timothy W.; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R.; Hosgood, Giselle

2014-01-01

94

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

95

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-12-16

96

Role of tongue pressure production in oropharyngeal swallow biomechanics  

PubMed Central

The tongue is important for orofacial movements, including swallowing. Although numerous studies have focused on tongue pressure against the palate, its physiological role has not been fully evaluated. The tongue pressure generation may have the temporal coordination with the swallowing relational organs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological mechanisms of tongue pressure and to investigate the temporal relationship among tongue pressure, supra-hyoid muscle activity, and videofluorographic (VF) images during swallowing. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated. Tongue pressure measured using a sensor sheet with five channels, electromyographic EMG, and VF was recorded synchronously during 4-ml barium swallowing. Swallowing behavior in VF images with and without the sensor sheet was compared. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between events measured from tongue pressure, EMG, and VF was evaluated. Swallowing behavior on VF images was not affected by placement of the sensor sheet. Tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral point of the hard palate tended to have biphasic peaks. Tongue pressure production with a monophasic pattern appeared during the same period as the second peak in the biphasic pattern. The onset of tongue pressure was later than the start of hyoid movement and onset of EMG, and offset was observed between the hyoid at the up-forward position and reposition. Onset of tongue pressure at the anterior area was correlated with the start of slight hyoid elevation. Offset of tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral points was strongly time locked with the hyoid at the up-forward position. The present results suggested the temporal coordination of tongue pressure generation with the swallowing-related organs. That is, the tongue pressure was produced for bolus propulsion, and was closely related to hyoid movement temporally during swallowing. These results may contribute to clarify the clinical state with the disorder of tongue kinetics. PMID:24400166

Hori, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Magara, Jin; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Li, Qiang; Ono, Takahiro; Inoue, Makoto

2013-01-01

97

Use of a biomechanical tongue model to predict the impact of tongue surgery on speech production  

E-print Network

This paper presents predictions of the consequences of tongue surgery on speech production. For this purpose, a 3D finite element model of the tongue is used that represents this articulator as a deformable structure in which tongue muscles anatomy is realistically described. Two examples of tongue surgery, which are common in the treatment of cancers of the oral cavity, are modelled, namely a hemiglossectomy and a large resection of the mouth floor. In both cases, three kinds of possible reconstruction are simulated, assuming flaps with different stiffness. Predictions are computed for the cardinal vowels /i, a, u/ in the absence of any compensatory strategy, i.e. with the same motor commands as the one associated with the production of these vowels in non-pathological conditions. The estimated vocal tract area functions and the corresponding formants are compared to the ones obtained under normal conditions

Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

2008-01-01

98

Computerized diagnosis from tongue appearance using quantitative feature classification.  

PubMed

This study investigates relationships between diseases and the appearance of the human tongue in terms of quantitative features. The experimental samples are digital tongue images captured from three groups of candidates: one group in normal health, one suffering with appendicitis, and a third suffering with pancreatitis. For the purposes of diagnostic classification, we first extract chromatic and textural measurements from original tongue images. A feature selection procedure then identifies the measures most relevant to the classifications, based on which of the three tongue image categories are clearly separated. This study validates the use of tongue inspection by means of quantitative feature classification in medical diagnosis. PMID:16355442

Zhang, David; Pang, Bo; Li, Naimin; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Hongzhi

2005-01-01

99

Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

2005-01-01

100

Relation Between Psoriasis and Geographic Tongue  

PubMed Central

The aim this article is to investigate the link between geographic tongue and psoriasis skin disease. Our review paper of the literature will handle strict study about the relation between geographic tongue and psoriasis. Our search has identified only limited studies available in English written literature starting from 2006-2013 using pubMed – indexed for MEDLINE. The result of this review suggests that geographic tongue may be an oral manifestation of psoriasis.There is no clear evidence in literature about association with gender and aetiology except one study which shows that benign migratory glossitis is more prevalent in young, nonsmoker and atopic or allergic individuals. Treatment for oral lesions is not standardized. A geographic tongue is significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients but only a limited data is available to date to strongly validate the association between these two entities.We recommend the general practitioner to have a good understanding about the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this lesion. Psoriatic patients should be encouraged to undergo routine dental checkups. PMID:25584342

Umair, Ayesha; Babaker, Zynab; SN, Azzeghaiby; Gazal, Giath; Sarraj, Faysal

2014-01-01

101

Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

McCarty, Teresa L.

2008-01-01

102

The Tongue Map, Real or Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students need practice in proposing hypotheses, developing experiments that will test these hypotheses, and generating data that they will analyze to support or refute them. I describe a guided-inquiry activity based on the "tongue map" concept, appropriate for middle school and high school students.

Marshall, Pamela A.

2013-01-01

103

Stimulated eosinophils and proteinases augment the transepithelial flux of albumin in bovine bronchial mucosa.  

PubMed Central

1. The apical to basolateral transmucosal flux of albumin has been measured in isolated sheets of bovine bronchial and tracheal mucosa. Under resting conditions the net unidirectional flux in the bronchial mucosa was not significantly different from that measured previously for the basolateral to apical vector. In contrast, the apical to basolateral flux in the tracheal mucosa was significantly lower than that measured in the opposite direction. 2. Addition of guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils to the apical side of the tissues had no significant effect on the transmucosal flux of albumin in either the bronchial or tracheal mucosa. 3. When eosinophils were stimulated with the ionophore A23187 or by opsonic adherence to tissues treated with a guinea-pig anti-bovine airway epithelium antibody, the bronchial mucosal sheets that had been exposed showed a significant increase in the transmucosal flux of albumin. However, tissues from the tracheal mucosa were resistant to the effects of stimulated eosinophils. 4. Histologically, sheets of mucosa from bovine main bronchi that had been exposed to stimulated eosinophils were characterized by epithelial injury consisting of loss of columnar epithelium from the underlying basal cell layer and biomatrix. Much less evidence of cellular injury was observed in tracheal tissues. 5. Bacterial collagenases applied to the apical side of the sheets were shown to increase the permeability of the bronchial mucosa to albumin and to produce histological changes that had similarities with the pattern of damage produced by stimulated eosinophils. 6. These observations demonstrate that the ability of eosinophils to injure the bronchial mucosa is independent of the side of the tissue on which they are present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8242259

Herbert, C. A.; Edwards, D.; Boot, J. R.; Robinson, C.

1993-01-01

104

Tongue-surface movement patterns during speech and swallowing  

PubMed Central

The tongue has been frequently characterized as being composed of several functionally independent articulators. The question of functional regionality within the tongue was examined by quantifying the strength of coupling among four different tongue locations across a large number of consonantal contexts and participants. Tongue behavior during swallowing was also described. Vertical displacements of pellets affixed to the tongue were extracted from the x-ray microbeam database. Forty-six participants recited 20 vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) combinations and swallowed 10 ccs of water. Tongue-surface movement patterns were quantitatively described by computing the covariance between the vertical time-histories of all possible pellet pairs. Phonemic differentiation in vertical tongue motions was observed as coupling varied predictably across pellet pairs with place of articulation. Moreover, tongue displacements for speech and swallowing clustered into distinct groups based on their coupling profiles. Functional independence of anterior tongue regions was evidenced by a wide range of movement coupling relations between anterior tongue pellets. The strengths and weaknesses of the covariance-based analysis for characterizing tongue movement are considered. PMID:12765399

Green, Jordan R.; Wang, Yu-Tsai

2009-01-01

105

Epidemiología de la patología de la mucosa oral más frecuente en niños Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of fin- ding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic

Rafael Rioboo García

106

Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-06-01

107

Detection of tongue cancer in primary care.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing, and survival has not improved since the majority of patients present at an advanced stage. Patient delay has remained the same over the years and is difficult to influence. Much less is known about the delay in diagnosis caused by physicians and dentists. AIM: To investigate the detection of tongue cancer in primary care in Northern Finland and to examine the consultation prevalence of oral symptoms in primary care in Finland. STUDY: Analysis of data from medical records of tongue cancer patients kept between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1994 for the general health insurance scheme. SETTING: The two northernmost provinces of Finland (population of 700,000). METHOD: Data were collected on demographic and clinical variables and on the first medical visit on 75 tongue cancer patients. In addition, primary care physicians recorded all patient visits during four weeks in 25 health centres randomly selected throughout Finland in 1996. RESULTS: At the initial visit, the tongue cancer patient was correctly referred for further examinations in 49 (65%) cases. In 12 (16%) of cases the patient was not referred but was scheduled for a follow-up visit, and was neither referred nor followed-up in 14 (19%). When compared with the referred patients the median professional delay was somewhat longer for the unreferred patients but increased dramatically if no follow-up was arranged (0.6 months [range = 0.1-2.4] versus 1.2 [range = 0.3-2.2] versus 5.2 [range = 0.7-18.2], P < 0.001). Compared with the referred patients the adjusted relative hazard of death for the non-referred followed-up patients was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.31-6.5) and that for the non-referred/not followed-up patients 6.3 (95% CI = 1.7-22.9). The high-risk patients included those who sought an early professional evaluation, those who made the appointment for a completely different reason and only mentioned the symptom suggestive of cancer incidentally, those that had a small ulcerative lesion, and blue-collar workers. Oral symptoms were a rare cause of visits (0.55% of all visits) in primary care in Finland. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis of tongue cancer at the initial professional evaluation often leads to a fatal delay if the patient is left without any follow-up. PMID:11217621

Kantola, S; Jokinen, K; Hyrynkangas, K; Mäntyselkä, P; Alho, O P

2001-01-01

108

Proposal for a New Noncontact Method for Measuring Tongue Moisture to Assist in Tongue Diagnosis and Development of the Tongue Image Analyzing System, Which Can Separately Record the Gloss Components of the Tongue  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS), which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously.

Takeda, Kanako; Ishikawa, Yuya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ueda, Keigo; Nagamine, Koichi; Namiki, Takao; Miyake, Yoichi

2015-01-01

109

Specialized bat tongue is a hemodynamic nectar mop  

PubMed Central

Nectarivorous birds and bats have evolved highly specialized tongues to gather nectar from flowers. Here, we show that a nectar-feeding bat, Glossophaga soricina, uses dynamic erectile papillae to collect nectar. In G. soricina, the tip of the tongue is covered with long filamentous papillae and resembles a brush or mop. During nectar feeding, blood vessels within the tongue tip become engorged with blood and the papillae become erect. Tumescence and papilla erection persist throughout tongue retraction, and nectar, trapped between the rows of erect papillae, is carried into the mouth. The tongue tip does not increase in overall volume as it elongates, suggesting that muscle contraction against the tongue’s fixed volume (i.e., a muscular hydrostat) is primarily responsible for tip elongation, whereas papilla erection is a hydraulic process driven by blood flow. The hydraulic system is embedded within the muscular hydrostat, and, thus, intrinsic muscle contraction may simultaneously increase the length of the tongue and displace blood into the tip. The tongue of G. soricina, together with the tongues of nectar-feeding bees and hummingbirds, which also have dynamic surfaces, could serve as valuable models for developing miniature surgical robots that are both protrusible and have highly dynamic surface configurations. PMID:23650382

Harper, Cally J.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

2013-01-01

110

A new extended supracricoid laryngectomy technique for tongue base and hyoid bone involvement: crico-glosso-mandibulopexy technique.  

PubMed

In the conventional supracricoid laryngectomy technique, tumors extending beyond the lingual surface of the epiglottis with tongue base invasion are contraindicated due to the requirement of the hyoid bone resection. The loss of the hyoid bone causes intractable aspiration and renders the cricoidal pexy process impossible. Therefore, surgeons tend to treat such tumors with total or subtotal laryngectomies or organ preservation protocols. In this article, a new supracricoid partial laryngectomy technique for tumors requiring resection of the hyoid bone and the base of the tongue was described. PMID:25010810

Haf?z, Günter; Ba?aran, Bora; Ulusan, Murat; Como?lu, Senol

2014-01-01

111

Cytolysins Augment Superantigen Penetration of Stratified Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes colonize mucosal surfaces of the human body to cause disease. A group of virulence factors known as superantigens are produced by both of these organisms, which allows them to cause serious diseases from the vaginal (staphylococci) or oral mucosa (streptococci) of the body. Superantigens interact with T cells and antigen presenting cells to cause massive cytokine release to mediate the symptoms collectively known as toxic shock syndrome. Here we demonstrate that another group of virulence factors, cytolysins, aid in the penetration of superantigens across vaginal mucosa as a representative nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelial surface. The staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin and the streptococcal cytolysin streptolysin O enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A, respectively, across porcine vaginal mucosa in an ex vivo model of superantigen penetration. Upon histological examination, both cytolysins caused damage to the uppermost layers of the vaginal tissue. In vitro evidence using immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated that although both superantigens were proinflammatory, only the staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin induced a strong immune response from the cells. Streptolysin O damaged and killed the cells quickly, allowing only a small release of interleukin-1?. Two separate models of superantigen penetration are proposed: staphylococcal ? toxin induces a strong proinflammatory response from epithelial cells to disrupt the mucosa enough to allow for enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, whereas streptolysin O directly damages the mucosa to allow for penetration of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and possibly viable streptococci. PMID:19201891

Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Mantz, Mary J.; Squier, Christopher A.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

2009-01-01

112

Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans.  

PubMed

Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; P<0.05). Across all tongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume. PMID:25481541

Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

2015-01-15

113

Reflection Removal of Tongue Image via Total Variation-Based Image Inpainting  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the progress in image processing and pattern recognition, computerized tongue diagnosis has received considerable recent research interest. In computerized tongue diagnosis, reflection is unavoidable in the acquisition of tongue images. Correct detection of the highlight area and removal of reflection in tongue images is requisite and would greatly affect the performance of tongue texture analysis. In this paper, we

Danbing Jia; Naimin Li; Chunjie Li; Shiwei Li; Wangmeng Zuo

2010-01-01

114

Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

Bressmann, Tim

2006-01-01

115

The patient with a pierced tongue.  

PubMed

Patients with a pierced tongue are appearing with increasing frequency in our anaesthetic practice and much has been written in the literature over the past decade. Some patients are reluctant to remove their piercing when requested to do so. The literature suggests that it can take between 4 and 6 weeks to consolidate the tract, and patients often complain that removing piercings before this time leads to rapid healing due to the highly vascular nature of the tongue (Marenzi 2004). A telephone survey of our local body piercing establishments suggested that even an established tract can heal in a matter of a few hours. A new tract can certainly become functionally closed within an hour. We have recently seen two cases in our practice which highlighted interesting learning points. PMID:21834285

Clapham, Edward; Crooke, James

2011-05-01

116

Sensing Basic Tastes by Electronic Tongue Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing demand to develop method for simulating the human taste perception by objective instruments1. The task was to develop method for the assessment of definite taste attributes. Therefore, our objective was to develop complete method for sensing different taste attributes. The subject of this work was to test the Specific Sensor Array for taste screening developed by Alpha M.O.S. Different brands of carrot juices were analyzed by an Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue (ET) and a trained sensory panel. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the different carrot juice samples were significantly different from each other in some taste attributes. The electronic tongue was able to distinguish the tested samples according to the measurement results evaluated by multivariate statistics. Furthermore, the relevant taste attributes of carrot juice samples such as sour taste could be predicted by definite sensors of the electronic tongue. Based on our results we concluded that the selected sensors of the Specific Sensor Array could be an appropriate tool for estimating important taste attributes of the tested carrot juice samples.

Kovács, Zoltán; Szöll?si, Dániel; Fekete, András; Isz, Sandrine

2011-09-01

117

Colorimetric artificial tongue for protein identification.  

PubMed

Artificial tongue systems are multisensory devices which are highly desirable for the analysis and recognition of complicated composition samples. Herein, a low-cost and simple colorimetric sensor array for identification and quantification of proteins were reported. Using prophyrin, porphyrin derivatives (mainly metalloporphyrins) and chemically responsive dyes as the sensing elements, the developed sensor array of artificial tongue showed a unique pattern of colorific change upon its exposure to proteins. The composite pattern for each sample was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), thus providing a clustering map for more practical visualization. All the pure and mixed proteins, as well as denatured proteins, gave distinct patterns, thus resulting in their unambiguous identification. The PCA analysis also suggested that the unique pattern of colorific change may be due to the change of protein conformation and local environmental pH. These results demonstrate that the developed colorimetric artificial tongue system is an excellent sensing platform for identification and quantitative analysis of protein samples. PMID:21546237

Hou, Changjun; Dong, Jiale; Zhang, Guoping; Lei, Yu; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Yuchan; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Suyi; Huo, Danqun

2011-06-15

118

Tongue movement kinematics in long and short Japanese consonants  

PubMed Central

This paper examines tongue movements in stop and fricative consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction for the consonant is varied for linguistic purposes. Native speakers of Japanese served as subjects. The linguistic material consisted of Japanese word pairs that only differed in the duration of the lingual consonant, which was either long or short. Recordings were made of tongue movements using a magnetometer system. Results show a robust difference in closure duration between the long and short consonants. Overall, the path of the tongue movement during the consonant was longer for the long than for the short consonant. All speakers decreased the speed of the tongue movement during the long consonant. These adjustments in tongue movements were most likely made to maintain the contact between the tongue and the palate for the closure and constriction. PMID:17614508

Löfqvist, Anders

2010-01-01

119

Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in human gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites in human gastric mucosa were analyzed directly by using radioligand binding techniques\\u000a with the specific muscarinic antagonist3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) as ligand. Specific binding of3H-QNB to membrane preparations from human gastric mucosa was saturable, of high affinity (Kd=4.17±1.94 nM, Bmax=0.37±0.04\\u000a pmol\\/mg protein) and selectively inhibited by muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) and agonists (acetylcholine,\\u000a pilocarpine). These findings provide

Takao Tokunaga; Reiki Nishimura; Masanobu Akagi

1984-01-01

120

Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao

2014-01-01

121

Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012). The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene. PMID:23414605

2013-01-01

122

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products...Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue Spread,”...

2012-01-01

123

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products...Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue Spread,”...

2014-01-01

124

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products...Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue Spread,”...

2010-01-01

125

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products...Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue Spread,”...

2011-01-01

126

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products...Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue Spread,”...

2013-01-01

127

Monitoring of freshness of milk by an electronic tongue on the basis of voltammetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an electronic tongue which consists of a reference electrode, an auxiliary electrode and five wires of different metals (gold, iridium, palladium, platinum and rhodium) as working electrodes. The measurement principle is based on pulsed voltammetry, in which successive voltage pulses of gradually changing amplitudes are applied to the working electrodes connected in a standard three-electrode configuration. The five working electrodes were successively connected and corresponding current-response transients are recorded. The electronic tongue was used to follow the deterioration of the quality of milk due to microbial growth when milk is stored at room temperature. The data obtained were treated with principal component analysis and the deterioration process could clearly be followed in the diagrams. To make models for predictions, projections to latent structure and artificial neural networks were used. When they had been trained, both models could satisfactorily predict the course of bacterial growth in the milk samples.

Winquist, F.; Krantz-Rülcker, C.; Wide, P.; Lundström, I.

1998-12-01

128

Effect of snuff on nasal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe inhalation of nasal snuff (powdered tobacco) is a common addiction in the Indian subcontinent. In the western world, there is a resurgence of interest in nasal snuff because it does have the morbidity associated with smoked tobacco. Very few studies have reported the long-term effects of snuff on nasal mucosa. The objective of the present study was to investigate

Suja Sreedharan; Mulki Panduranga Kamath; Urmila Khadilkar; Mahesh Chandra Hegde; Rajeev M. Kumar; Ravikumar Raju Mudunuri; Satish Chandra Tripuraneni

2005-01-01

129

Induction of Tolerance via the Respiratory Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunological tolerance is defined as a state of specific non-responsiveness to a particular antigen induced by previous exposure to that same antigen. The mucosal surfaces comprise the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the gastrointestinal tract and the urogenitary tract, and are a major site of antigenic challenge. The immune system associated with the mucosa has the extraordinary potential to discriminate

Jacqueline A. Lowrey; Nigel D. L. Savage; Deborah Palliser; Marta Corsin-Jimenez; Lynn M. G. Forsyth; Gillian Hall; Susannah Lindey; Gareth A. Stewart; Karen A. L. Tan; Gerard F. Hoyne; Jonathan R. Lamb

1998-01-01

130

Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

1986-01-01

131

Collagen types in the middle ear mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various collagen types — in particular that of type 11 as the major collagen in cartilage — in normal auricular structures is discussed with reference to a 1994 report by Ovesen describing the presence of collagen type II in normal middle ear mucosa. In contrast to this report, no collagen type 11 is normally found in the

A. G. Nerlich

1995-01-01

132

Early stage carcinoma of oral tongue: prognostic factors for local control and survival.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess prognostic factors, treatment outcomes and patterns of relapse in patients with early stage (T1-2 N0) squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue treated primarily by surgery. The medical records of all patients with early stage (T1-2 N0) oral tongue cancer, radically treated at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center between January 1980 and December 1997, were reviewed. Eighty-five patients were identified for analysis, 38 male and 47 female. With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 64 months, 5-year actuarial overall, disease-specific (DSS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 71, 75, and 63%, respectively. Univariate analysis for DSS showed survival advantage for patients with tumor thickness (TT) of < or =10 mm (P=0.0002) and distance from resection margin (DFRM) of > 5 mm (P=0.005). The effect of TT of < or =10 mm was maintained (P=0.001) on multivariate analysis. Higher RFS was observed with TT of < or =10 mm (P=0.0002), DFRM of > 5 mm (P=0.0002) and DFRM of >10 mm (P=0.007). On multivariate analysis higher RFS was also found for TT < or =10 mm (P=0.01) and DFRM >5 mm (P=0.01). Salvage of local tongue recurrence was higher than neck node failure, with 5-year DSS of 71 and 19%, respectively (P=0.007). Time interval for recurrence showed no significant impact on outcome. In T1-2 N0 oral tongue cancer, TT, and DFRM are significant prognostic factors for both local control and survival. Neck node recurrence is associated with poor prognosis and low salvage rate. PMID:11036243

Al-Rajhi, N; Khafaga, Y; El-Husseiny, J; Saleem, M; Mourad, W; Al-Otieschan, A; Al-Amro, A

2000-11-01

133

Atypical tongue-tie due to congenital tongue-palate fusion.  

PubMed

We are presenting a case report of a male neonate brought in an emergency room with feeding inability and signs of respiratory difficulty due to oral passage blockade - a developmental anomaly caused by tongue-palate fusion. Surgical correction instantly relieved respiratory distress and established the normal oral feeding mechanism. PMID:12921684

Din, Saif Ud

2003-08-01

134

Brain imaging of tongue-twister sentence comprehension: Twisting the tongue  

E-print Network

the neural basis of the tongue-twister effect in a sen- tence comprehension task. Participants silently read not only the reading times and comprehension performance, but also the amount of activation seen found for the reading of extended texts for comprehension in both English (Ayres, 1984

135

[Intraarterial concomitant chemoradiation for tongue cancer: analysis of 20 patients].  

PubMed

Subjects were 20 patients with tongue cancer treated between April 1996 and December 2002 with intraarterial infusion of cisplatin (60-120 mg/m2) (and docetaxel 10-30 mg/m2) and intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulfate followed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (800-1000 mg/m2) for 3 to 5 days. All patients underwent radiation (50-80 Gy). Ten had stage II, 4 stage III, and 6 stage IV A disease. Complete response at the primary site was achieved in 50% for T2, 67% for T3, and 0% for T4 lesions in those undergoing IA cisplatin followed by systemic 5-FU with concurrent radiation. Complete response at the primary site was achieved in all patients given IA cisplatin and docetaxel followed by systemic 5-FU with concurrent radiation. Disease-specific survival was 75% and overall survival 69% at 5 years. Side effects of treatment were tolerable, except for grade three radiomucositis in 70% of patients and grade three bone marrow depression in one treated with weekly IA chemotherapy. PMID:16001727

Endo, Sohei; Suzuki, Shin; Tsuji, Kenzo; Niwa, Hideo; Noguchi, Yugo; Yoshida, Kenji; Kida, Akinori; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Himi, Kazuhisa; Takemoto, Akiko

2005-06-01

136

Case report of bacteremia due to Neisseria mucosa.  

PubMed

Neisseria mucosa, a Gram-negative diplococcus, is part of normal nasopharyngeal flora. We report a case of bacteremia caused by N. mucosa in a 50-year-old neutropenic patient suffering from non-secretory multiple myeloma stage IIIA. This case underscores that mostly nonpathogenic N. mucosa can cause bacteremia in neutropenic patients who developed mucositis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23905778

Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Baaboura, Rekaya; Ouertani, Hela; Lakhal, Amal; Torjemane, Lamia; Othman, Tarek Ben; Hassen, Assia Ben

2014-04-01

137

Surgery beats chemotherapy for tongue cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with tongue cancer who started their treatment with a course of chemotherapy fared significantly worse than patients who received surgery first, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. This is contrary to protocols for larynx cancer, in which a single dose of chemotherapy helps determine which patients fare better with chemotherapy and radiation and which patients should elect for surgery. In larynx cancer, this approach, which was pioneered and extensively researched at U-M, has led to better patient survival and functional outcomes. But this new study, which appears in JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, describes a clear failure.

138

Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne

2014-01-01

139

Three-dimensional tongue surfaces from ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents 3D tongue surfaces reconstructed from sixty cross-sectional slices of the tongue. Surfaces were reconstructed for sustained vocalizations of 18 American English sounds. Electropalatography (EPG) data also were collected for the sounds to compare tongue surface shape with tongue-palate contact patterns. The ultrasound data were grouped into four tongue shape categories. These classes were front raising, complete channel, back raising, two-point displacement. The first three categories contained both vowels and consonants, the last only consonants. The EPG data indicated three categories of tongue-palate contact: bilateral, cross-sectional, combination of the two. Vowels used only the first pattern, consonants used all three. The EPG data provided an observably distinction in contact pattern between consonants and vowels. The ultrasound tongue surface data did not. The conclusion was that the tongue actually has a limited repertoire of shapes, and positions them against the palate in different ways for consonants vs. vowels to create narrow channels, divert airflow and produce sound.

Stone, Maureen; Lundberg, Andrew

1996-04-01

140

Lingual Electromyography Related to Tongue Movements in Swedish Vowel Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)

Hirose, Hajime; And Others

1979-01-01

141

Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

2012-01-01

142

Analysing Normal and Partial Glossectomee Tongues Using Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at identifying underlying parameters that govern the shape of the tongue. A functional topography of the tongue surface was developed based on three-dimensional ultrasound scans of sustained speech sounds in ten normal subjects. A principal component analysis extracted three components that explained 89.2% of the variance…

Bressmann, Tim; Uy, Catherine; Irish, Jonathan C.

2005-01-01

143

Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…

Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.

2007-01-01

144

Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the expanded version of the advocacy brief "Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls" [ED495413]. It highlights in more detail the correlations between girls, language and marginality, and shows that there are indeed positive links between the use of mother tongue in education and female participation and achievement in…

Benson, Carol

2005-01-01

145

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

146

Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor  

PubMed Central

Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months. PMID:24963257

Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal

2014-01-01

147

Tongue Fat Infiltration in Obese Versus Lean Zucker Rats  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obesity is the most important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and the effects of obesity may be mediated by tongue fat. Our objective was to examine the effects of obesity on upper airway structures in obese (OBZ) and non-obese (NBZ) Zucker rats. Design: Animal study. Setting: Academic Medical Center. Participants: OBZ (638.2 ± 39 g; 14.9 ± 1.1 w) and age-matched NBZ Zucker (442.6 ± 37 g, 15.1 ± 1.5 w) rats. Interventions: Tongue fat and volume and were assessed using: in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), magnetic resonance imaging including Dixon imaging for tongue fat volume, ex vivo biochemistry (fat quantification; triglyceride (mg)/tissue (g), and histology (Oil Red O stain). Measurements and Results: MRS: overall OBZ tongue fat/water ratio was 2.9 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002) with the anterior OBZ tongue up to 3.3 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002). Biochemistry: Triglyceride (TG) in the tongue was 4.4 times greater in OBZ versus NBZ (P < 0.0006). TG was greater in OBZ tongue (3.57 ± 1.7 mg/g) than OBZ masseter muscle (0.28 ± 0.1; P < 0.0001) but tongue and masseter TG were not different in NBZ rats (0.82 ± 0.3 versus 0.28 ± 0.1 mg/g, P = 0.67). Dixon fat volume was significantly increased in OBZ (56 ± 15 mm3) versus NBZ (34 ± 5 mm3, P < 0.004). Histology demonstrated a greater degree of intracellular muscle fat and extramuscular fat infiltration in OBZ versus NBZ rats. Conclusions: Genetically obese rats had a large degree of fat infiltration in the tongue compared to both skeletal muscle and tongue tissues of the non-obese age-matched littermates. The significant fat increase and sequestration in the obese tongue may play a role in altered tongue neuromuscular function, tongue stiffness or metabolic function. Citation: Brennick MJ, Delikatny J, Pack AI, Pickup S, Shinde S, Zhu JX, Roscoe I, Kim DY, Buxbaum LU, Cater JR, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat infiltration in obese versus lean Zucker rats. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1095-1102. PMID:24882904

Brennick, Michael J.; Delikatny, James; Pack, Allan I.; Pickup, Stephen; Shinde, Sarika; Zhu, Jing-Xu; Roscoe, Ivana; Kim, David Y.; Buxbaum, Laurence U.; Cater, Jacqueline R.; Schwab, Richard J.

2014-01-01

148

Evaluation of the maximum isometric tongue force of healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The forces of specific muscle groups have been well described for nearly all parts of the human body. Interestingly, data for the tongue and its forces are rare. In light of ongoing development of systems for managing the tongue (retaining, advancing, suspending or stabilizing), especially in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, knowledge of the maximum tongue force is important for the conceptual design of those systems. The maximum tongue force in a sagittal direction was documented using a custom-built device that included a tongue clamp and a piezoelectric sensor to capture force measurements. Once positioned securely in the device, participants were asked to move the tongue in a posterior sagittal direction, with maximum force, in each of three test positions. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (29 male) were included in the study. Tongue force measurements were collected three times in three different tongue positions. Thirty-three participants had repeated measurements to investigate any potential learning effect. The maximum force of the human tongue in a posterior sagittal direction showed high inter-individual variation and ranged from 3.2 to 52.4 Newton (N; mean 14.1 ± 7.5 N), when measured from a "neutral protrusion or resting" tongue position. The "retracted" and "maximal protrusion" testing positions yielded lower maximum tongue forces. Men (m) showed statistically significantly higher tongue forces than women (w) (m: 16.0 ± 8.4 N, w: 11.0 ± 4.3 N), and there was a positive correlation with BMI and a negative correlation with age. Comparing the first measurement session with the second session (per patient) showed higher mean maximum forces in the second session, but with no statistical significance. The maximum tongue force data showed substantial inter- and intra-individual variability and gender dependency. Some male individuals produced very high forces. These forces should be considered for the future conception and development of tongue management systems and the mechanical stress to which these systems may be exposed. PMID:24970288

Ulrich Sommer, J; Birk, Richard; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

2014-11-01

149

Hairlike variations of filiform papillae in the human tongue.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural characteristics of the hairlike variations of filiform papillae in the human tongue were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscope gives evidence of a three-dimensional image of abnormally long secondary papillae with the epithelial cells arranged like roof tiles. These are partly adhering, partly detached, and then protruding from the core, thus forming the hairlike structure. Transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections shows single or partly adhering, orthokeratinized epithelial surface cells, mostly with distinct signs of degradation, surrounded by microorganisms. The pathomorphologic picture of elongated, hairlike filiform papillae was observed on the tongue coating of patients with clinically diagnosed hairy tongue but also on some small areas of the tongue of infants. These latter findings cannot be characterized by the clinical term "hairy tongue" but must be considered to be hairlike variations of filiform papillae. PMID:264354

Svejda, J; Skach, M; Placková, A

1977-01-01

150

Giant Vascular Hamartoma of the Tongue  

PubMed Central

We present one of the largest lingual hamartomas of the tongue base to have been reported, along with a review of the current literature and a description of the management of this case, as well as insights into the histopathology of the lesion. A 21-year-old woman presented with a mass on the base of her tongue, extending to the vallecula. The mass was found to be over 4 cm and enhancing on computed tomography. The size, vascularity, and site of the lesion merited its excision using the suprahyoid pharyngotomy approach. Histopathology confirmed the mass to be a vascular hamartoma. In reviewing the literature, we encountered 61 reported cases of lingual hamartomas, which are described with a number of pathological variants and sites of occurrence and with different methods of surgical excision. The size, vascularity, and site of the lesion we found merited a different approach from the conventional transoral approach that was used in all of the previous reports. Also, our study agrees with current world literature that histopathological examination plays an important role in the final diagnosis. PMID:24876812

VASHISHTH, Ashish; MATHUR, Neeraj Narayan; CHOUDHARY, Santosha Ram; KHANNA, Geetika

2014-01-01

151

Interlaboratory testing of Insent e-tongues.  

PubMed

The first interlaboratory testing of electronic taste sensing systems was performed within five participating centers, each working with the Insent (Insent Inc., Atsugi-Shi, Japan) e-tongue. Preparation of the samples for the comprised four experiments, shipping of the samples and evaluation of the results was performed at the University of Duesseldorf. The sensitivity (in this case the difference between lowest and highest sensor response) and slope of the regression line values, obtained within Experiment 1 and 2, have been found to serve as applicable evaluation criterions for interlaboratory comparability. Modified sensor responses could be attributed to aged sensors, but did not influence the results of either Experiment 3, dealing with the evaluation of film formulations, or Experiment 4, dealing with the evaluation of minitablet formulations, in a great amount. Presented PCA Score and Loading Scatter Plots as well as Euclidean distance patterns based on the raw sensor responses confirmed the comparable performance of Insent e-tongues of the participating centers. PMID:24560640

Pein, Miriam; Gondongwe, Xolani Dereck; Habara, Masaaki; Winzenburg, Gesine

2014-08-01

152

Drift correction of electronic tongue responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, drift correction algorithms were used in order to remove linear drift in multivariate spaces of two data sets obtained by an electronic tongue based on voltammetry. The electronic tongue consisted of various metal electrodes (Au, Ir, Pt, Rh) combined with pattern recognition tools, such as principal component analysis. The first data set contained different types of liquid, from well defined to more complex solutions. The second data set contained different black and green teas. Component correction (CC) was compared to a simple additive correction. In CC, the drift direction of measured reference solutions in a multivariate space was subtracted from other types of solution. In additive correction, responses from reference samples were subtracted from other samples. CC showed similar or better performance in reducing drift compared to additive correction for the two data sets. The additive correction method was dependent on the fact that the differences in between samples of a reference solution were similar to the changes in between samples of other liquids, which was not the case with CC.

Holmin, Susanne; Krantz-Rülcker, Christina; Lundström, Ingemar; Winquist, Fredrik

2001-08-01

153

Tongue piercing by a Yogi: QEEG observations.  

PubMed

: This study reports on the QEEG observations recorded from a yogi during tongue piercing in which he demonstrated voluntary pain control. The QEEG was recorded with a Lexicor 1620 from 19 sites with appropriate controls for impedence and artifacts. A neurologist read the data for abnormalities and the QEEG was analyzed by mapping, single and multiple hertz bins, coherence, and statistical comparisons with a normative database. The session included a meditation baseline and tongue piercing. During the meditative baseline period the yogi's QEEG maps suggesting that he was able to lower his brain activity to a resting state. This state showed a predominance of slow wave potentials (delta) during piercing and suggested that the yogi induced a state that may be similar to those found when individuals are under analgesia. Further research should be conducted with a group of individuals who demonstrate exceptional self-regulation to determine the underlying mechanisms, and whether the skills can be used to teach others how to manage pain. PMID:17082994

Peper, Erik; Wilson, Vietta E; Gunkelman, Jay; Kawakami, Mitsumasa; Sata, Misa; Barton, William; Johnston, James

2006-12-01

154

Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in trigeminal ganglion neurons contributes tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the mechanisms underlying tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation. Method Using mechanical and temperature stimulation following dental surgery, we have demonstrated that dental inflammation and hyperalgesia correlates with increased immunohistochemical staining of neurons for TLR4 and HSP70. Results Mechanical or heat hyperalgesia significantly enhanced in the ipsilateral tongue at 1 to 9 days after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) application to the left lower molar tooth pulp compared with that of sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats. The number of fluorogold (FG)-labeled TLR4-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly larger in CFA-applied rats compared with sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats to the molar tooth. The number of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70-IR neurons in trigeminal ganglion (TG) was significantly increased on day 3 after CFA application compared with sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats to the molar tooth. About 9.2% of TG neurons were labeled with DiI applied to the molar tooth and FG injected into the tongue, and 15.4% of TG neurons were labeled with FG injected into the tongue and Alexa-labeled Hsp70-IR applied to the tooth. Three days after Hsp70 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application to the tooth in naive rats, mechanical or heat hyperalgesia was significantly enhanced compared with that of saline-applied rats. Following successive LPS-RS, an antagonist of TLR4, administration to the TG for 3 days, the enhanced mechanical or heat hyperalgesia was significantly reversed compared with that of saline-injected rats. Noxious mechanical responses of TG neurons innervating the tongue were significantly higher in CFA-applied rats compare with sham rats to the tooth. Hsp70 mRNA levels of the tooth pulp and TG were not different between CFA-applied rats and sham rats. Conclusions The present findings indicate that Hsp70 transported from the tooth pulp to TG neurons or expressed in TG neurons is released from TG neurons innervating inflamed tooth pulp, and is taken by TG neurons innervating the tongue, suggesting that the Hsp70-TLR4 signaling in TG plays a pivotal role in tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation. PMID:24267924

2013-01-01

155

Buccal mucosa urethroplasty for adult urethral strictures  

PubMed Central

Urethral strictures are difficult to manage. Some treatment modalities for urethral strictures are fraught with high patient morbidity and stricture recurrence rates; however, an extremely useful tool in the armamentarium of the Reconstructive Urologist is buccal mucosal urethroplasty. We like buccal mucosa grafts because of its excellent short and long-term results, low post-operative complication rate, and relative ease of use. We utilize it for most our bulbar urethral stricture repairs and some pendulous urethral stricture repairs, usually in conjunction with a first-stage Johanson repair. In this report, we discuss multiple surgical techniques for repair of urethral stricture disease. Diagnosis, evaluation of candidacy, surgical techniques, post-operative care, and complications are included. The goal is to raise awareness of buccal mucosa grafting for the management urethral stricture disease. PMID:22022061

Zimmerman, W. Britt; Santucci, Richard A.

2011-01-01

156

Defense mechanisms of the gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

The chemical and physical architecture of the apical membranes of the surface epithelial cells and of the tight junctions which bind the cells together, are such that water and water soluble substances are very slowly admitted. This impermeability is the most important factor in the defense of the gastric mucosa against damaging agents. The barrier provided by this impermeability can be measured by determining the rate of passage of substances from gastric contents to blood. Damage to the barrier will be reflected in an increase in this rate. The common ions, H+, Na+, K+, Cl- and HCO3- and water provide suitable yardsticks for the estimate. The rate of entry of H+ is the most important for it is the common agent producing serious damage to mucosal cells. The state of the barrier is not static. It can be lowered or raised. Barrier breakers are fat soluble, e.g. ethanol, bile, aspirin. They enter the apical membranes of the surface epithelial cells and in doing so permit H+ and other ions to penetrate at accelerated rates. Exposure to a damaging agent can, however, produce an increase in the resistance of the mucosa to subsequent exposures. Increased resistance of the mucosa can be accomplished also by pretreatment with prostaglandins or epidermal growth factor. Both inhibit acid secretion and this is an important element in limiting mucosal damage. Prostaglandins and some barrier breakers also increase the production of HCO3- and of mucus by the mucosa. Both may aid in disposal of damaging agents. Increases in mucosal circulation can also contribute by ridding the submucosa of damaging substances. Protective factors can also increase the impermeability of the membrane but how this is accomplished is unknown. PMID:7017894

Code, C F

1981-01-01

157

[Optimizing biopsies of the oral mucosa].  

PubMed

We had for aim to describe and illustrate the artefacts observed in biopsies of the oral mucosa, as well as the impact of sending non-representative histological material to a laboratory. This article was based on an international literature review, as well as on our experience. We analysed the problems raised, for the pathologists and the histology lab-technicians, by these artefacts as well as their impact on the pathology report patient management. We suggest simple solutions. PMID:23017279

Raybaud, H; Voha, C; Cardot-Leccia, N; Monteil, R A

2012-11-01

158

Penetration of cefaclor into bronchial mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Bronchial mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained during fibreoptic bronchoscopy in 30 patients receiving a new oral cephalosporin antibiotic, cefaclor (10 had 250 mg, 10 had 500 mg, and 10 had 1000 mg every eight hours). In 10 patients (from all dosage groups) cefaclor was undetectable in the bronchial mucosa but in every case the serum concentration was low, suggesting incomplete absorption. The mean (SD) bronchial mucosal concentration after 250 mg was 3.78 (1.77) micrograms/g (range 2.1-5.8 micrograms/g, n = 4), after 500 mg 4.43 (2.04) micrograms/g (range 2.0-7.1 micrograms/g, n = 8), and after 1000 mg 7.73 (2.76) micrograms/g (range 5.0-12.7 micrograms/g, n = 6). A significantly higher concentration in the bronchial mucosa was achieved with 1000 mg than with 250 mg (p less than 0.05) or 500 mg (p less than 0.025). These concentrations should be effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae, most strains being inhibited below 1.0 microgram/ml. The concentrations were within one dilution of the minimal inhibitory concentration for Haemophilus influenzae, most strains being inhibited below 4.0 micrograms/ml. Some strains of H influenzae will not be inhibited by the concentrations of cefaclor found in the bronchial mucosa, particularly those that are ampicillin resistant. PMID:6505987

Marlin, G E; Nicholls, A J; Funnell, G R; Bradbury, R

1984-01-01

159

The Effect of Jaw Position on Measures of Tongue Strength and Endurance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of tongue strength and endurance is common in research and clinical contexts. It is unclear whether the results reveal discrete function by the tongue or combined abilities of the tongue and jaw. One way to isolate the movement of the tongue is to constrain the jaw kinematically by using a bite block. In this study, 10 neurologically…

Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Munson, Benjamin

2004-01-01

160

[Tongue cancer: an ongoing problem which needs new therapeutic approaches].  

PubMed

Oral cancer together with oropharyngeal cancer constitutes the tenth most common malignancy in men worldwide. In spite of a general trend of mild decreases in the frequency of oral and pharyngeal cancers, there appears to be an increasing trend in the occurrence of oral tongue cancer (Localized in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue). Furthermore, in recent years, tongue cancer is on the rise in young patients (fifth decade and less). Tongue cancer is the most frequent type of malignancy in the oral cavity and is characterized by remarkable aggressive biological behavior. The 5-year survival rate in patients with tongue cancer has steadily remained lower than 50% during the last 40 years. This is in contrast to the considerable improvement in the survival rates that have been achieved in patients with solid tumors in other parts of the body, due to the introduction of advanced diagnostic means and new treatment modalities. Our recent studies have shown an important role that components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) play in the proliferation, invasion and local and distant spread of tongue cancer, which is not less than that of the cancer cells. The results of these studies suggest the development of new therapeutic modalities in tongue cancer, which should combine anti-cancer and anti-TME agents. PMID:23885469

Vered, Marilena; Dayan, Dan

2013-06-01

161

Electronic Tongue for Quantitation of Contaminants in Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory

2004-01-01

162

Primary clear cell sarcoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

Clear cell sarcoma shares features with melanoma, but frequently shows EWSR1 rearrangements. It is an aggressive tumor typically occurring in the soft tissues of the extremities, with a gastrointestinal variant with less consistent melanocytic differentiation. It is extremely rare in the head and neck region, with no reported cases in the oral cavity. We report a case of an 82-year-old woman with a clear cell sarcoma arising in the tongue, with cervical lymph node metastases. Histologically, the tumor showed some features of gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma. No osteoclast-type giant cells were present. The tumor cells were positive for S100 protein and negative for other melanocytic markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed rearrangements of EWSR1 and ATF1. This case expands the spectrum of clear cell sarcoma with a gastrointestinal-like variant in a novel site, emphasizing the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis to melanoma in mucosal sites. PMID:24168510

Kraft, Stefan; Antonescu, Cristina R; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Deschler, Daniel G; Nielsen, G Petur

2013-11-01

163

Midline pyogenic granuloma of the tongue: two case studies.  

PubMed

Characteristically, pyogenic granuloma of the tongue is more common on the lateral side of the tongue. The reasons for this are unclear, but may be related to trauma from adjacent teeth or dentures. This article was prompted by the presentation of two patients with lesions in the midline of the anterior surface of the dorsum of the tongue. Both lesions were successfully removed surgically, and histology revealed them to be pyogenic granulomas. There has been no evidence of recurrence in the 6th month of the follow-up period. PMID:12761638

Croton, Elizabeth; Kale, Uday

2003-11-01

164

A missing tongue stud: an unusual appendicular foreign body.  

PubMed

Appendicitis caused by foreign bodies after body piercing is rare. Previous reports have described a variety of foreign bodies that were either found incidentally in the appendix or were felt to be responsible for appendicitis. We report a case where a patient known to have previously ingested a "tongue stud" after a tongue piercing presented with chronic right iliac fossa pain. The missing "tongue stud" had impacted in the appendix and was successfully removed by laparoscopic appendicectomy with resolution of patient's symptoms. We review the literature covering the clinical management of patients presenting with foreign bodies in the appendix. PMID:16774178

Hadi, H I A; Quah, H M; Maw, A

2006-01-01

165

Iridium 192 implantation of T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both

J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; V. Benck; G. Marinello; M. Martin; M. Raynal; E. Haddad; R. Peynegre; J. P. Le Bourgeois; W. Walop

1990-01-01

166

Morphological analysis of the tongue and the digestive tube of saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, LINNAUES 1766) apprehended by CETAS/IBAMA-PB.  

PubMed

The saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis) is a Passeriforme of the Brazilian wildlife. There are scarcely any morphological studies on it, although it is frequently trafficked for its birdsong abilities. Its peculiarities, such as territorialism and developed syrinx that provides outstanding song, draw attention towards its domestication. Thus, this study aimed to morphologically describe the tongue and digestive tube organs of this species to furnish subsidies for nutritional, clinical and conservation studies. Forty-one birds from the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS)/Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA)/city of Cabedelo, state of Paraíba (PB) were used. Samples were collected, identified and sent to standard light microscopy; samples of proventriculus and gizzard were sent to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The samples showed stratification similar to that of other domestic and wild birds, confirmed in the scanning electron microscopy; however, they differed in the absence of dermal papillae in the tongue, lack of ingluvial glands and lack of muscular mucosa and sub-mucosa in the large intestine. PMID:23464601

Silva Siqueira, R A; Luna, A C L; Cavalcanti, T A; Rici, R E G; Miglino, M A; Guerra, R R

2014-02-01

167

Site-specific distribution of epithelial cell-surface carbohydrates in rat oral mucosa.  

PubMed

The binding of two fluorescein-labelled lectins to epithelial cell surfaces was examined microspectrofluorimetrically in rat oral mucosa. Griffonia simplicifolia (GS-I-B4), which is specific for alpha-D-galactosyl end groups, labelled only basal cells, while Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), which is specific for alpha-L-fucosyl groups, labelled only spinous cells. The degree of binding of the lectins was dependent on the lectin concentration and the lectin pH. Different sites were examined. The labelling of basal cells by GS-I-B4 was maximal on the lateral borders of the tongue, and the fluorescence diminished medially; in contrast, the UEA-I labelling of the corresponding spinous cells was of undiminished intensity in the mediolateral direction across the entire lingual epithelium. There was a gradual increase in the binding of GS-I-B4 and UEA-I towards the posterior aspect of the tongue. In the mid-palate, there was stronger staining both of basal cells by GS-I-B4 and of spinous cells by UEA-I in the gingivae as compared to the centre of the palate. In anteroposterior sections of the fore- and mid-palate, the fluorescence intensity of basal cells was inversely related to that of spinous cells, with maximal labelling of basal cells by GS-I-B4 and corresponding minimal binding of spinous cells by UEA-I being evident at the crests of the transverse rugae, and the opposite pattern of staining by both lectins being noted at the bases of the rugae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3732656

Prime, S S; Rosser, T J; Scully, C

1986-01-01

168

Effects of dietary lipids on cell proliferation of murine oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of certain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induces perturbation in cell proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation that could be linked to an increased protumorigenic trend. Contrarily, n-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) arrest cell proliferation in several tumor models. According to the concept of field cancerization, multiple patches of abnormal epithelial proliferation may coexist in the vicinity of oropharyngeal neoplasms. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether certain dietary PUFAs differentially modulate the patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis at non-tumoral sites of the oral mucosa in mice bearing DMBA induced salivary tumors. After weaning, BALB/c mice were assigned to four diets: Control (C), Corn Oil (CO), Fish (FO) and Olein (O). Two weeks later, DMBA was injected into the submandibular area. The animals were sacrificed between 94 and 184 days at 4–6 PM. Fixed samples of lip, tongue and palate were stained using H-E and a silver technique. A quantification of AgNORs in the basal (BS) and suprabasal stratum (SBS) of the covering squamous epithelia as well as of mitosis and apoptosis was performed. Results Analysis of Variance showed greater proliferation in tongue than in palate or lip. According to the diet, a significant difference was found in the Fish Oil, in which palate exhibited fewer AgNOR particles than that of the control group, both for BS and SBS (p < 0.05 and 0.152, respectively), indicating a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions These results corroborate and reaffirm that the patterns of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of the oral stratified squamous epithelium may be differentially modulated by dietary lipids, and arrested by n-3 fatty acids, as shown in several other cell populations. PMID:12617749

Actis, AB; Joekes, S; Cremonezzi, D; Morales, G; Eynard, AR

2002-01-01

169

Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa. PMID:23580171

Suzuki, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

170

11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR SIDING IN LIVING QUARTERS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

171

Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to  

E-print Network

and the tongue coating microbiome using next-generation sequencing. The study included 19 gastritis patients including cancer8 , gastritis and precancerous lesions9,10 have been explored. However, the biological bases

Chen, Ting

172

Dental and oral complications of lip and tongue piercings.  

PubMed

Piercing of the tongue and perioral regions is an increasingly popular expression of body art, with more patients coming in for a routine check-up with tongue and/or lip piercings. Several complications of oral piercing have been reported, some of which are life-threatening. In the present clinical survey the prevalence of both tongue and lip piercing complications in oral health was assessed in a group of 50 patients. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of the teeth, especially in association with tongue piercing. Gingival recession was seen as a result of lip piercing with studs. Post-procedural complications included oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be given more authority to advise patients with oral and facial piercings or those who plan to acquire this type of body art. PMID:16244618

De Moor, R J G; De Witte, A M J C; Delmé, K I M; De Bruyne, M A A; Hommez, G M G; Goyvaerts, D

2005-10-22

173

The hummingbird's tongue: a self-assembling capillary syphon  

PubMed Central

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of drinking in ruby-throated hummingbirds. In vivo observations reveal elastocapillary deformation of the hummingbird's tongue and capillary suction along its length. By developing a theoretical model for the hummingbird's drinking process, we investigate how the elastocapillarity affects the energy intake rate of the bird and how its open tongue geometry reduces resistance to nectar uptake. We note that the tongue flexibility is beneficial for accessing, transporting and unloading the nectar. We demonstrate that the hummingbird can attain the fastest nectar uptake when its tongue is roughly semicircular. Finally, we assess the relative importance of capillary suction and a recently proposed fluid trapping mechanism, and conclude that the former is important in many natural settings. PMID:23075839

Kim, Wonjung; Peaudecerf, François; Baldwin, Maude W.; Bush, John W. M.

2012-01-01

174

4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED IN DAM CONSTRUCTION, NORTH EAST OF EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTH - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

175

E-tongue 2 REDOX response to heavy metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

E-Tongue 2 an array of electrochemical sensors including REDOX electrodes for Cylic Voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry measurements, Galvanic cells for corrosion measurements, and Ion Selective Electrodes.

Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Kounaves, S. P.

2002-01-01

176

Brief Communication "The 2013 Erebus Glacier Tongue calving event"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Erebus Glacier Tongue, a small floating glacier in southern McMurdo Sound, is one of the best-studied ice tongues in Antarctica. Despite this, its calving on the 27 February 2013 (UTC) was around 10 yr earlier than previously predicted. The calving was likely a result of ocean currents and the absence of fast ice. The subsequent trajectory of the newly created iceberg supports previous descriptions of the surface ocean circulation in southern McMurdo Sound.

Stevens, C. L.; Sirguey, P.; Leonard, G. H.; Haskell, T. G.

2013-09-01

177

Osseous Choristoma of the Tongue: A Review of Etiopathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. In the oral region lingual localization occurs more frequently and the mass is generally localized on the dorsum of the tongue. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after histopathologic examination. The etiology remains already debatable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. In this paper we present a case of tongue osseous choristoma and a review of the literature. PMID:25580337

Gorini, Edoardo; Migliorini, Luca

2014-01-01

178

Bolus propulsive activity of the tongue in dysphagic cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Videofluoroscopic recordings were analyzed for liquid swallows in dysphagic patients with cancer involving the pharynx. Temporal\\u000a measurements were made for the tongue stripping action in relation to velar and hyoid function. Dysphagic subjects as a group\\u000a displayed an altered sequence of activity compared to normal controls, with the onset of stripping occurring after velar closure.\\u000a Tongue stripping action and hyoid

Sandra Hamlet; Lewis Jones; Robert Mathog; Maureen Bolton; Robin Patterson

1988-01-01

179

Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography  

PubMed Central

Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated. PMID:23922786

Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranj?i?, Josip; Kneževi?, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

2013-01-01

180

The function of oscillatory tongue-flicks in snakes: insights from kinematics of tongue-flicking in the banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata).  

PubMed

Tongue-flicking is an important sensory behavior unique to squamate reptiles in which chemical stimuli gathered by the tongue are delivered the vomeronasal organ situated in the roof of the mouth. Because tongue-flick numbers can easily be quantified, this behavior has been widely used as a measure of vomeronasal sampling in snakes using related variables such as tongue-flick rate or tongue-flick/attack score. Surprisingly, the behavior itself and especially the function of the oscillatory tongue-flicks remains poorly understood. To describe the overall kinematics of tongue-flicking in the colubrid snake Nerodia fasciata and to test predictions on the function of oscillatory tongue-flicks, we filmed the tongue-flicks of 8 adult Nerodia fasciata using 4 synchronized high-speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematic and performance variables were extracted from the videos in order to quantify tongue movements. Based on the kinematic analysis, we demonstrate the existence of 2 functional and behavioral tongue-flick categories. Tongue-flicks with oscillations meet all the criteria for being adapted to the collection of odorants; simple downward extensions appear better suited for the rapid pick up of nonvolatile chemical stimuli from the substrate or a food item. External stimuli such as tactile and/or vomeronasal stimulation can induce a shift between these categories. PMID:22942105

Daghfous, Gheylen; Smargiassi, Maïté; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Wattiez, Ruddy; Bels, Vincent

2012-11-01

181

Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure…

Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.

2008-01-01

182

Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2012-01-01

183

Selective loss of resistant alleles at p15INK4B and p16INK4A genes in chemically-induced rat tongue cancers.  

PubMed

We previously reported that susceptibility to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced tongue cancer in Dark-Agouti (DA) and Wistar/Furth (WF) rats was determined by a number of quantitative trait loci. In this article, we further scrutinized one of the quantitative trait loci at a suggestive level on rat chromosome 5. Analyzing a DNA panel of 130 (DAxWF) F2 rats treated with 4NQO showed a quantitative trait loci, containing p15INK4B and p16INK4A. To study the possible relevance of these genes in the development of tongue cancer, we examined 45 4NQO-induced tongue cancers in 100 (DAxWF) F1 rats for loss of heterozygosity. The incidence of loss of heterozygosity at p15INK4B and p16INK4A genes in large advanced tongue cancers was 37.8% and 40.0%, respectively, and the WF allele was selectively lost. Accumulation of loss of heterozygosity and methylation of the promoter regions in the tumour suppressor genes in advanced tumours suggests that they may play a role in tongue cancer progression. PMID:16527513

Ogawa, Kotaro; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Masato; Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Semba, Ichiro; Shisa, Hayase; Kitano, Motoo

2006-08-01

184

Tongue force and tongue motility are differently affected by unilateral vs bilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion in rats  

PubMed Central

In addition to its cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, resting tremor and postural disturbances, Parkinson’s disease (PD) also affects orolingual motor function. Orolingual motor deficits can contribute to dysphagia, which increases morbidity and mortality in this population. Previous preclinical studies describing orolingual motor deficits in animal models of PD have focused on unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion. In this study we compared the effects of unilateral vs bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced DA depletion in rats trained to lick water from an isometric force-sensing disc. Rats received either unilateral or bilateral 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle and were tested for four weeks post-lesion. Dependent variables included task engagement (the number of licks per session), tongue force (mean and maximum), and tongue motility (the number of licks per second). While both lesion groups exhibited decreased tongue force output, tongue motility deficits were present in only the group that received unilateral nigrostriatal DA depletion. Task engagement was not significantly diminished by 6-OHDA. Analysis of striatal DA tissue content revealed that DA depletion was ~97% in the unilateral group and ~90% in the bilateral group. These results suggest that while nigrostriatal DA depletion affects tongue force output, deficits in tongue motility may instead result from a functional imbalance in neural pathways affecting this midline structure. PMID:22796604

Nuckolls, Andrea L.; Worley, Cole; Leto, Christopher; Zhang, Hongyu; Morris, Jill K.; Stanford, John A.

2012-01-01

185

Plumbagin induces the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Plumbagin, a quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of Plumbago zeylanica L., has been proven to possess anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Cell proliferation ability was detected by EdU incorporation assay and colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cellular apoptosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blotting was applied to assay the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Results Plumbagin inhibited the growth and proliferation of Tca8113 cells in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycles of plumbagin-treated Tca8113 cells were arrested at the G2/M phase. Cells treated with plumbagin presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was raised by plumbagin in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions These results indicate that plumbagin induces the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells through mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:23982457

Qiu, Jia-xuan; He, Yuan-qiao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ru-liang; Qin, You; Shen, Xiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Mao, Zong-fu

2013-01-01

186

[Local complications of lip and tongue piercing -- report of the cases].  

PubMed

Piercing, which is the form of puncturing parts of the human body and creating openings where jewelry can be worn, is together with tattoos, body drawings or make-up, one of the oldest way of decorating of the human body. Piercing can be performed in each part of the body. In the recent years face piercing (nose, eyebrows, lip region) and in the oral cavity (tongue, lips, cheek, mentolabial sulcus, labial frenulum) is becoming particularly popular. The procedure of piercing itself may potentially lead to serious systemic and local complications. The aim of the study was to present three clinical cases of the patients who referred to the Dental University Clinic in Krakow for the treatment of lesions on the oral mucosa after piercing. Clinicians who examine patients with such body decorations should pay particular attention to the sites which can be injured by the jewelry. Medical staff should also make patients realize the risk of general complications after piercing. This will allow on the early removal of the jewelry and prevention of possible complications. PMID:24455839

?azarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

187

Protective effect of Astragalus membranaceus on intestinal mucosa reperfusion injury after hemorrhagic shock in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the protective effect of Astragalus membranaceus on intestinal mucosa reperfusion injury and its mechanism after hemorrhagic shock in rats. METHODS: A total of 32 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8, each group): normal group, model group, low dosage group (treated with 10 g/kg Astragalus membranaceus) and high dosage group (treated with 20 g/kg Astragalus membranaceus). The model of hemorrhagic shock for 60 min and reperfusion for 90 min was established. Therapeutic solution (3 mL) was administrated before reperfusion. At the end of the study, the observed intestinal pathology was analyzed. The blood concentrations of lactic acid (LD), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in intestinal mucosa were determined. RESULTS: The intestinal mucosa pathology showed severe damage in model group and low dosage group, slight damage in high dosage group and no obvious damage in normal group. The Chiu’s score in low dose group and high dose group was significantly lower than that in model group. The content of MDA in model group was higher than that in low and high dose groups, while that in high dose group was almost the same as in normal group. The activity of SOD and GSH-PX was the lowest in model group and significantly higher in high dose group than in normal and low dose groups. The concentrations of LD and ET-1 in model group were the highest. The concentrations of NO in model group and low dose group were significantly lower than those in high dose group and normal group. CONCLUSION: High dose Astragalus membranaeus has much better protective effect on hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion injury of intestinal mucosa than low dose Astragalus membranaceus. The mechanism may be that Astragalus membranaceus can improve antioxidative effect and regulate NO/ET level during hemorrhagic reperfusion. PMID:16124050

Hei, Zi-Qing; Huang, He-Qing; Zhang, Jing-Jun; Chen, Bing-Xue; Li, Xiao-Yun

2005-01-01

188

[Methodological study on digitalization of tongue image in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis].  

PubMed

This is a research aimed at proposing a computerized tongue analysis method based on computerized image processing for quantizing the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The chromatic algorithm and 2-D Gabor wavelet transformation are applied to segmenting tongue from original image. The statistical method is adopted in identifying the colors of each pixel, which are attributed to the tongue substance and coating respectively. Thickness of tongue coating is determined by energy of 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients (GWTE). The distribution of GWTE and invariant moment algorithm are used to judge the tongue texture. The experiment result shows that all methods proposed in this paper are effective. PMID:15646332

Zhou, Yue; Yang, Jie; Shen, Li

2004-12-01

189

Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the ge- nital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even

Yolanda Jiménez; Carmen Gavaldá; Enrique Carbonell; María Margaix; Gracia Sarrión

190

Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue  

PubMed Central

Abstract Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species. PMID:12171472

Iwasaki, Shin-ichi

2002-01-01

191

Geographic Tongue and Fissured Tongue in 348 Patients with Psoriasis: Correlation with Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

Geographic tongue (GT) and fissured tongue (FT) are the more frequent oral lesions in patients with psoriasis. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of GT/FT between psoriasis group (PG) and healthy controls (HC) and investigate the correlation between GT/FT and psoriasis severity using the PASI and age of psoriasis onset. Three hundred and forty-eight PG and 348 HC were selected. According to the age of psoriasis onset, the individuals were classified as having early psoriasis and late psoriasis. The severity of vulgaris psoriasis was determined according to PASI. A follow-up was conducted in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV) with GT to evaluate the progression of oral and cutaneous lesions. The FT and GT were more frequent in PG than in HC. The incidence of GT was higher in patients with early psoriasis and that of FT in late-psoriasis. There is association between psoriasis intensity and GT; and a higher monthly decrease of PASI score in patients without GT. The presence of GT and FT is higher in PG than in the HC. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity.

Picciani, Bruna L. S.; Souza, Thays T.; Santos, Vanessa de Carla B.; Domingos, Tábata A.; Carneiro, Sueli; Avelleira, João Carlos; Azulay, David R.; Pinto, Jane M. N.; Dias, Eliane P.

2015-01-01

192

[Differential diagnosis: blue gastric mucosa. Post-mortem staining of the gastric mucosa with methylene blue].  

PubMed

An intense discoloration of the gastric mucosa or the gastrointestinal tract found at autopsy gives rise to the question of its cause. Such discolorations are mostly described in the context of intoxications. However, traditional foods and diagnostic procedures using indicator dyes can also lead to an unusual discoloration of the mucous membranes. The authors report on the autopsy findings in a man who died from a bleeding gastric ulcer and whose gastric mucosa showed intense blue discoloration. Experimental postmortem examinations (on stomachs) were performed with methylene blue, a dye used in gastroenterology, resulting in a blue discoloration resembling the appearance of the stomach in the autopsy case. Together with the outcome of the toxicological analyses, the experiments pointed to a diagnostic procedure using methylene blue (chromoendoscopy). PMID:22924277

Osterwald, Anna; Scholz, Jula; Gehl, Axel; Püschel, Klaus

2012-01-01

193

Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

2008-11-01

194

Bioactivation of the Nasal Toxicant 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile: An Assessment of Metabolic Activity in Human Nasal Mucosa and Identification of Indicators of Exposure and Potential Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologs of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa, and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal-mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal-mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal-mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN, and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans. PMID:23360412

Xie, Fang; D’Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin

2013-01-01

195

Study of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The research has the following aims: 1: to verify the applicability of capillaroscopic investigation to oral mucosa; 2: to propose oral mucosa as an alternative to the fingernail fold for capillaroscopic investigation; 3: to describe the characteristics of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects. 100 healthy patients were examined. The characteristics of the micro-circulation in the areas of gum mucosa and the mucosa covering of the lower lip were examined using computerised videomicroscopic techniques. For each patient we evaluated the visibility, the course, the density, the tortuosity and any images characteristic of capillary loops, besides the possible presence of microhaemorrhages, the average calibre of capillary loops and the number of capillary loops visible per square millimetre. The investigation was simple, non invasive and repeatable for each patient. An investigation of gum mucosa has revealed a course of capillary loops both parallel and perpendicular to the surface: often the tops of the capillary loops appear as regularly distributed dots or commas. Microcirculatory architecture in the area of the mucosa covering is characterised by capillary loops with a variable diameter, course and length; next to typical capillary loops with the appearance of horse stirrups, there are other loops similar to hairpins, commas and cork screws; there are also rare microhaemorrhages with the aspect of reddish stains, that could be caused by microtraumas. Visibility was very good in the area of the mucosa covering of the lower lip: mediocre in the area of gum mucosa. Our research has highlighted, that today it is possible to carry out a capillaroscopic investigation of oral mucosa in a simple and reliable way. Future research could evaluate how "normal microcirculation", that we describe in this paper, is modified during pathology PMID:12737514

Scardina, Giuseppe Alessandro; Messina, Pietro

2003-01-01

196

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a Patient with Tongue Cancer: A Report of a Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Background. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but life-threatening complication of neuroleptic drugs, which are used widely in head and neck cancer (HANC) patients who develop delirium. Methods and Results. Postoperative delirium in a 39-year-old man with tongue cancer was treated with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Three days after the first administration of antipsychotics, the patient exhibited elevated body temperature, autonomic and extrapyramidal symptoms, and impaired consciousness. A definitive diagnosis was made using the research diagnostic criteria for NMS in the DSM-IV, and the antipsychotics were immediately discontinued. The patient was given dantrolene and bromocriptine to treat the NMS. The patient's hyperthermia, elevated creatinin kinase (CK), and muscle rigidity improved gradually, with all symptoms of NMS resolving completely by 13 days after the diagnosis. Conclusions. HANC surgeons must be alert for early signs of NMS and use antipsychotics conservatively to avoid NMS and its potentially fatal outcome. PMID:23853728

Yamagata, Kenji; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Tamaoka, Akira; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Yanagawa, Toru; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki

2013-01-01

197

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products...and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured meat food...

2010-01-01

198

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products...and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured meat food...

2014-01-01

199

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products...and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured meat food...

2012-01-01

200

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products...and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured meat food...

2013-01-01

201

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products...and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured meat food...

2011-01-01

202

Analysis of vision-based Text Entry using morse code generated by tongue gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a Text Entry Interface based on the detection of tongue protrusion gestures using Computer Vision methods. The system uses a common webcam to acknowledge gestures made with the tongue, which are inter­ preted as the \\

Luis Ricardo Sapaico; Makoto Sato

2011-01-01

203

A Comparative Study of Contemporary Color Tongue Image Extraction Methods Based on HSI  

PubMed Central

Tongue image with coating is of important clinical diagnostic meaning, but traditional tongue image extraction method is not competent for extraction of tongue image with thick coating. In this paper, a novel method is suggested, which applies multiobjective greedy rules and makes fusion of color and space information in order to extract tongue image accurately. A comparative study of several contemporary tongue image extraction methods is also made from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. As the experimental results show, geodesic active contour is quite slow and not accurate, the other 3 methods achieve fairly good segmentation results except in the case of the tongue with thick coating, our method achieves ideal segmentation results whatever types of tongue images are, and efficiency of our method is acceptable for the application of quantitative check of tongue image. PMID:25505903

Zhu, Mingfeng; Du, Jianqiang; Ding, Chenghua

2014-01-01

204

Tongue protrusion as an indicator of vital burning.  

PubMed

In the forensic assessment of burned bodies, the question of whether the victim was exposed to the fire before or after death is of crucial importance. Several external signs have been used in the past to indicate heat exposure prior to the death of the victim but these did not include tongue protrusion. The internal signs of heat exposure are generally regarded as much more important than those observed externally. No one factor has been found to be totally reliable. This study found a statistically significant dependence between tongue protrusion and presence of soot in the respiratory tract and stomach, the latter being a good indicator of vital burning. The results of this study confirm that tongue protrusion can be used as an additional indicator of vital burning. PMID:23609218

Bernitz, Herman; van Staden, Paul J; Cronjé, Christine M; Sutherland, René

2014-03-01

205

Tongue entrapment by chew toys in two dogs.  

PubMed

Compression of a chew toy during regular play activity can create a vacuum effect eventually causing entrapment of oral tissues. Two cases of tongue entrapment are described, which resulted in severe tissue swelling, oedema and vascular obstruction. In the first dog, the toy was removed by the veterinary surgeon under general anaesthesia. Damage to the tongue proved to be reversible and the dog recovered uneventfully. In the second patient, the toy was forcefully removed by the owner. The resulting tongue necrosis required partial amputation. Treatment of this emergency condition consists of elimination of the negative pressure inside the toy by piercing it or even by insufflation of positive pressure inside the toy, and of an atraumatic manipulation to prevent further damage to the compromised tissues. PMID:21029100

Rubio, A; Van Goethem, B; Verhaert, L

2010-10-01

206

[Tongue image color recognition in traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The problem of color recognition of substances and coats in tongue images was decomposed into two steps, i. e. region separation and color recognition. In the first step, a new method based on the JSEG and the k-NN algorithms was proposed to separate coats and substances, where a prior template and some standard color patches were designed to assist the classification. Color recognition in a fine scale was carried out by the nearest neighbour method on the basis of the first step. The experiments showed the method proposed in this paper was simple and highly robust, and can be applied to tongue characterization effectively. In addition, the two important preprocessing algorithms namely color calibration and segmentation of tongue images were improved to obtain better results than the former. PMID:16422079

Wang, Yonggang; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Yiqin

2005-12-01

207

Incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago and the greater West Indies is unknown; therefore, the present study examines the frequency of tongue carcinoma cases, drawing comparisons to worldwide and regional data. A retrospective analysis of all confirmed cases of tongue carcinoma was conducted using eight years of data from the pathology records at the Port of Spain General Hospital (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago). A total of 26 cases were confirmed, of which 21 were male (81%) and five were female (19%). The age range was 29–86 years, with a mean age of 57 years, and the most common group affected was the 61–70 years age group. In addition, the number of newly diagnosed cases per year ranged between one and seven, with an average of 3.25 new cases per year and a peak incidence of seven new cases in the year of 2009. In the 19 cases where the degree of differentiation was recorded, histological analysis revealed the extent of differentiation as follows: Five cases (26%) were poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); eight cases (42%) were moderately-differentiated SCC; and six cases (32%) were well-differentiated SCC. In addition, one case of chronic inflammatory process and one case of mucoepidermoid adenocarcinoma of the tongue in a 57-year-old female were identified. Overall, the incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago appears to be low, estimated at 0.46/100,000 individuals/year. The male:female ratio is 4:1 and SCC is the dominant cancer type (96% of cases). The peak age of occurrence is at 61–70 years. These findings are in agreement with previously determined global data, however, additional research of the risk factors and outcomes of surgery as a treatment strategy for tongue carcinoma is required. PMID:25663924

RAMDASS, MICHAEL J.; HARRACKSINGH, AVIND; MAHARAJ, KHEMANAND; SING, QUILLAN YOUNG; MOOTEERAM, JUSTIN; BARROW, SHAHEEBA

2015-01-01

208

Neural substrates for tongue-flicking behavior in snakes.  

PubMed

Snakes deliver odorants to the vomeronasal organ by means of tongue-flicks. The rate and pattern of tongue-flick behavior are altered depending on the chemical context. Accordingly, olfactory and vomeronasal information should reach motor centers that control the tongue musculature, namely, the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIN); however, virtually nothing is known about the circuits involved. In the present work, dextran amines were injected into the tongue of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) to identify the motoneurons of the XIIN. Tracers were then delivered into the XIIN to identify possible afferents of chemical information. Large injections into the XIIN yielded retrograde labeling in two chemosensory areas: the medial amygdala (MA) and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus (LHN). Smaller injections only yielded labeled neurons in the LHN. In fact, the MA, which receives afferents from the accessory olfactory bulb, the rostroventral lateral cortex, and the nucleus sphericus, projects to the LHN. Injections into the MA did not show terminal labeling in the XIIN but in an area lateral to it. However, injections into the LHN gave rise not only to labeled fibers in the XIIN but also to retrograde labeling in the MA, thus confirming the chemosensory input to LHN. Injecting different fluorescent tracers into the tongue and into the LHN corroborated the projection from the LHN to the XIIN. The present report investigates further connections of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems and describes the afferent connections to XIIN in a nonmammalian vertebrate. The circuit for tongue-flicking behavior described herein should be evaluated using functional studies. PMID:11241378

Martínez-Marcos, A; Ubeda-Bañón, I; Halpern, M

2001-03-26

209

Expressions of junB and c-fos are enhanced in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue cancers.  

PubMed

Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor activated in many tumors. Using 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue cancers (TC), the present study investigated the expression levels of genes that encode the components of AP-1, the jun gene family (c-jun, junB and junD) and the fos gene family (c-fos, fra-1, fra-2 and fosB). Expression levels of junB and c-fos mRNAs in TC were significantly elevated compared with those in epithelial tissue of control rat tongue, although only c-fos mRNA levels tended to be elevated in dysplastic tongue epithelium. Histologically, all 4NQO-induced rat TC were well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Immunostaining for JunB and c-Fos proteins was positive in the nuclei of tumor cells of all TC. It is noteworthy that JunB was negative, but c-Fos was positive in the dysplastic tongue epithelium of the 4NQO-treated rats. Immunostaining for both proteins was negative in tongue mucosal epithelium of control rats. There were no mutations in the coding regions of either junB or c-fos in all the TC examined. These results suggest the possibility that the expressions of junB and c-fos were enhanced stepwise in 4NQO-induced carcinogenesis of rat tongue, and that the coexpression of JunB and c-Fos might play an important role in the establishment of TC. PMID:14674993

Ohyama, Masanobu; Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Masato; Semba, Ichiro; Shisa, Hayase; Hiai, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Kazumasa; Kitano, Motoo

2004-01-01

210

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rare Tumor in the Tongue  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is composed of myofibroblast and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tissue. Malign transformation and recurrence rate of this tumor is rare and accepted as benign fibroinflammatory disease. The main etiology is unclear, but infection, trauma, and immunologic event are accused. In this study, we presented a 75-year-old man with a mass on his tongue, which was diagnosed as “inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.” This type of tumor is rarely seen in the tongue and might be difficult to diagnose. Complete mass excision was provided for an adaquete treatment. PMID:23607022

Yucel Ekici, Nur; Bayindir, Tuba; Kizilay, Ahmet; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin

2013-01-01

211

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: a rare tumor in the tongue.  

PubMed

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is composed of myofibroblast and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tissue. Malign transformation and recurrence rate of this tumor is rare and accepted as benign fibroinflammatory disease. The main etiology is unclear, but infection, trauma, and immunologic event are accused. In this study, we presented a 75-year-old man with a mass on his tongue, which was diagnosed as "inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor." This type of tumor is rarely seen in the tongue and might be difficult to diagnose. Complete mass excision was provided for an adaquete treatment. PMID:23607022

Yucel Ekici, Nur; Bayindir, Tuba; Kizilay, Ahmet; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin

2013-01-01

212

Impedance e-tongue instrument for rapid liquid assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a compact and easy to handle instrument developed to perform rapid analysis of liquids utilizing an "electronic tongue" system. Briefly, the e-tongue used here is based on impedance measurements of an array of sensing units fabricated with ultrathin films of different materials deposited onto gold interdigitated electrodes. The instrument has the capability of measuring up to eight different sensor sets, each comprising an array of eight sensing units, and can perform a series of measurements in less than half of an hour. Additionally, there is a user-friendly software interface for instrument control, allowing the statistical correlation of samples using principal component analysis.

Cabral, Flávio P. A.; Bergamo, Bruno B.; Dantas, Cleber A. R.; Riul, A.; Giacometti, José A.

2009-02-01

213

Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

2011-01-01

214

Comparison of Isometric Contractile Properties of the Tongue Muscles in Three Species of Frogs, Litoria caerulea,  

E-print Network

Comparison of Isometric Contractile Properties of the Tongue Muscles in Three Species of Frogs the isometric contractile properties of these tongue muscles among three frog species that represent each differences were found in the isometric contractile properties of tongue muscles, and the greatest differences

Nishikawa, Kiisa

215

Optically Sensing Tongue Gestures for Computer Input T. Scott Saponas1  

E-print Network

to track complex movements by instrumenting the tongue with metallic piercings or magnetic attachments [4Optically Sensing Tongue Gestures for Computer Input T. Scott Saponas1 , Daniel Kelly2 , Babak A retain the use of their cranial nerves, which control the eyes, jaw, and tongue. While researchers have

Anderson, Richard

216

Influences of tongue biomechanics on speech movements during the production of velar stop consonants  

E-print Network

1 Influences of tongue biomechanics on speech movements during the production of velar stop and tongue biomechanics Abbreviated Title: On loops and tongue biomechanics Contact : Pascal Perrier ICP with the palate during consonantal closure. The study uses an anatomically based two-dimensional biomechanical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

2012-01-01

218

Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

2014-06-01

219

Minor salivary gland mucinous adenocarcinoma of buccal mucosa - case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract but head and neck localisations are very rare. This article presents the case of a 67-year-old patient suffering from a minor salivary gland MAC of the left buccal mucosa, who was treated in the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery in Krakow due to multiple recurrences of the tumour. The results of immunohistochemical staining, the course of surgical treatment and follow-up, as well as a review of literature are also discussed. PMID:24375048

Wyszy?ska-Pawelec, G; Koryczan, P; Zapa?a, J; Gontarz, M; Opach, M; Ku?nierz, P; Kosowski, B; Adamek, D

2013-12-01

220

Pulmonary C-fiber activation attenuates respiratory-related tongue movements  

PubMed Central

The functional impact of pulmonary C-fiber activation on upper airway biomechanics has not been evaluated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pulmonary C-fiber activation alters the respiratory-related control of tongue movements. The force produced by tongue movements was quantified in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized adult rats before and after stimulation of pulmonary C fibers via intrajugular delivery of capsaicin (0.625 and 1.25 ?g/kg). Brief occlusion of the trachea was used to increase the respiratory drive to the tongue muscles, and hypoglossal (XII) nerve branches were selectively sectioned to denervate the protrusive and retrusive tongue musculature. Tracheal occlusion triggered inspiratory-related tongue retrusion in rats with XII nerves intact or following section of the medial XII nerve branch, which innervates the genioglossus muscle. Inspiratory-related tongue protrusion was only observed after section of the lateral XII branch, which innervates the primary tongue retrusor muscles. The tension produced by inspiratory-related tongue movement was significantly attenuated by capsaicin, but tongue movements remained retrusive, unless the medial XII branch was sectioned. Capsaicin also significantly delayed the onset of tongue movements such that tongue forces could not be detected until after onset of the inspiratory diaphragm activity. We conclude that altered neural drive to the tongue muscles following pulmonary C-fiber activation has a functionally significant effect on tongue movements. The diminished tongue force and delay in the onset of tongue movements following pulmonary C-fiber activation are potentially unfavorable for upper airway patency. PMID:22936725

Fuller, David D.; Hwang, Ji-Chuu

2012-01-01

221

[Hyperspectral acquisition system for tongue inspection based on X-Y scanning galvanometer].  

PubMed

Hyperspectral was used for tongue inspection in the present work to resolve the problem that information of current research for tongue inspection was inadequate. A hyperspectral acquisition system based on X-Y scanning galvanometer was also proposed due to the high cost of the current hyperspectral apparatus. An experiment was made to test the ability of this system. By collecting the hyperspectral information of color pictures with size similar to the tongue, the results of experiment showed that this system can acquire more information of tongue than other methods, and this method can provide a new way for tongue inspection. PMID:22295792

Li, Gang; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju

2011-12-01

222

MRI in differentiation of benign and malignant tongue tumors.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tongue tumors is crucial to treatment and prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality for the evaluation of tongue carcinomas. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI can reflect the density, integrity, and leakiness of tumor vasculature, and the time-intensity curve (TIC) patterns derived from DCE-MRI results can differentiate benign from malignant tumors based on differences in vascular structure. Diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI is based on the random thermal motion of water molecules and can provide information on the cellular and tissue microstructure of the tumor. A low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from DW-MRIs may indicate a malignant tumor. Thus, ADC values and TIC parameters yield complementary information on tumors that may improve diagnostic accuracy. Indeed, the combination of DCE-MRI and DW-MRI is a comprehensive reflection of the pathological status of the tongue tumor, so utilization of these MRI modalities may facilitate the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant tumors of the tongue. PMID:25553468

Liu, Xinli; Cheng, Dongfeng; Wang, Wen

2015-01-01

223

MASTER BEDROOM. NOTE THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MASTER BEDROOM. NOTE THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

224

Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mother tongue-based education perpetuates equity in education, especially among girls who are often regarded as disadvantaged in access to education. The Asia and Pacific region is characterized by its rich ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity. Such diversity is found missing in many school systems in the region which often leads to gaps in…

Benson, Carol

2005-01-01

225

Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

2011-01-01

226

AIPSLite: ParselTongue extension for distributed AIPS processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AIPSLite is an extension for ParselTongue (ascl:1208.020) that allows machines without an AIPS (ascl:9911.003) distribution to bootstrap themselves with a minimal AIPS environment. This allows deployment of AIPS routines on distributed systems, which is useful when data can be easily be split into smaller chunks and handled independently.

Bourke, Stephen; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; Torstensson, Karl; Golden, Aaron

2013-10-01

227

9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN WATER CONTROL BOX. THIS SAME PLANKING IS USED AS CRIBBING FOR BOTH EAST DAM AND WEST DAM - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

228

Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

2014-01-01

229

Westward shift of the Yellow Sea warm salty tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow

Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su

2005-01-01

230

Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

2013-01-01

231

Determination of Amylose content in rice using electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A voltammetric Electronic Tongue consisting of novel metal base electrode array for classification of Amylose present in rice samples was developed. The electrode array consisting of Gold, Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium and Iridium as working electrode has been used for transforming information of Amylose content in rice into electric signal. The electrodes output shows different pattern of electrical signal for rice

Subrata Sarkar; Nabarun Bhattacharyya; Subhankar Mukherjee

2011-01-01

232

BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

233

Virtual water quality tests with an electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the “electronic tongue” has been used in some experiments to establish the needs of fast and virtual monitoring of aqueous samples, e.g., in the monitoring of drinking water quality. More specifically, the performance of a proposed multi-electrode sensor system, used for voltammetric analysis of aqueous samples, is described. It is, for example, shown how such an “electronic

Malin Lindquist; Peter Wide

2001-01-01

234

A rare complication of tracheal intubation: tongue perforation.  

PubMed

Aim. To describe the subsequent treatment of airway trauma sustained during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Methods. A rare injury occurring during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation that resulted in perforation of the tongue by an endotracheal tube and the subsequent management of this unusual complication are discussed. A 65-year-old female with intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage with rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration had the airway secured prior to arrival at the referral institution. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was noted to have pierced through the base of the tongue and entered the trachea, and the patient underwent operative laryngoscopy to inspect the injury and the ETT was replaced by tracheostomy. Results. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the ETT to perforate the base of the tongue. The airway was secured with tracheostomy and the ETT was removed. Conclusions. A wide variety of complications resulting from direct and video-assisted laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation have been reported. Direct perforation of the tongue with an ETT and ability to ventilate and oxygenate subsequently is a rare injury. PMID:23056962

Lollo, Loreto; Meyer, Tanya K; Grabinsky, Andreas

2012-01-01

235

A Case of Angiomyolipoma Arising in the Tongue  

PubMed Central

A 61-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a mass in the left proglossis. The lesion was excised with a provisional diagnosis of hemangioma. The mass was well-demarcated and easily dissected with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator. The histopathologic diagnosis was angiomyolipoma arising in the tongue. There were no signs of recurrence at followup at 18 months. PMID:22937390

Yura, Shinya; Terahata, Shintaro; Sugiguchi, Shun

2011-01-01

236

[Study on illuminant spectrum qualifications for collecting tongue condition].  

PubMed

The traditional light sources in the diagnostic method of tongue collection such as daylight or even candles are easily affected by weather and environment. It isn't favorable for doctors to obtain the accurate information of the tongue condition. The authors' introduce the electric light sources to compensate or replace daylight to obtain stable and real tongue image and scientific results. Lighted by lamps with different radiation spectrum power distribution property, various color rendition and color temperature, the same object will indicate different colors. In this study, spectrum analysis is carried out on four fluorescent lamps and the research is based on iamge identification techniques of tongue color. Applying the methods of spectrum analysis, choose the best one in four illuminants with their specific spectrum by testing instruments and comparing with the results using several spectrum parameters and chromatic coordinates tolerance ellipses. Result showed PHILIPS YPZ220/18-3U. RR. D (with the correlative color temperature 6 500 K) lamp which has the most similar spectrum property with daylight can be used as standard lamp. The research provides the theoretic and experimental basis for choosing electric light sources to replace daylight. PMID:18720782

Song, Xian-Jie; Xu, Chen-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Gu; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

2008-05-01

237

Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

Iskarous, Khalil

2005-01-01

238

Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development  

PubMed Central

Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the initiation of tongue formation, through papilla placode appearance and taste papilla development. The Wnt5a mutant tongue is severely shortened, with an ankyloglossia, and lingual mesenchyme is disorganized. However, fungiform papilla morphology, number and innervation are preserved, as is expression of the papilla marker, Shh. These data demonstrate that the genetic regulation for tongue size and shape can be separated from that directing lingual papilla development. Preserved number of papillae in a shortened tongue results in an increased density of fungiform papillae in the mutant tongues. In tongue organ cultures, exogenous Wnt5a profoundly suppresses papilla formation and simultaneously decreases canonical Wnt signaling as measured by the TOPGAL reporter. These findings suggest that Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling to dictate papilla number and spacing. In all, distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue size, fungiform papilla patterning and development are shown and a necessary balance between non-canonical and canonical Wnt paths in regulating tongue growth and fungiform papillae is proposed in a model, through the Ror2 receptor. PMID:22024319

Liu, Hong-Xiang; Grosse, Ann S.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Mishina, Yuji; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

2012-01-01

239

Insulin but not leptin protects olfactory mucosa from apoptosis.  

PubMed

The mammalian olfactory mucosa (OM) is continually renewed throughout life. Owing to their position in the nasal cavity, OM cells are exposed to multiple insults, including high levels of odourants that can induce their death. OM regeneration is therefore essential to maintain olfactory function, and requires the tight control of both cell death and proliferation. Apoptosis has been implicated in OM cell death. Olfaction is one of the senses involved in food intake and depends on individual nutritional status. We have previously reported the influence of hormones related to nutritional status on odour perception and have shown that the OM is a target of insulin and leptin, two hormones known for their anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential anti-apoptotic effect of these metabolic hormones on OM cells. Both Odora cells (an olfactive cell line) and OM cells treated with etoposide, a p53 activity inducer, exhibited mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis that was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Insulin, but not leptin, impaired this apoptotic effect. Insulin addition to the culture medium reduced p53 phosphorylation, caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage, and caspase-3 enzymatic activity induced by etoposide. The apoptotic wave observed in the OM after interruption of the neuronal connections between the OM and the olfactory bulb by bulbectomy was impaired by intranasal insulin treatment. These findings suggest that insulin may be involved in OM cellular dynamics, through endocrine and/or paracrine-autocrine effects of circulating or local insulin, respectively. PMID:21554433

Lacroix, M-C; Rodriguez-Enfedaque, A; Grébert, D; Laziz, I; Meunier, N; Monnerie, R; Persuy, M-A; Riviere, S; Caillol, M; Renaud, F

2011-07-01

240

Severe Pulmonary Suppuration with Infection-Induced Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome following Tongue Cancer Surgery in a Patient Undergoing Tocilizumab Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis treated by tocilizumab (TCZ) presented with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. While surgery was performed without any complications the aspiration pneumonia rapidly worsened by postoperative day 2 and severe pulmonary suppuration in the right lung field with infection-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was diagnosed. Antibiotic and respirator treatment improved her condition. The anti-inflammatory effect of TCZ may mask the symptoms and signs of severe infection with SIRS. PMID:24872899

Yamagata, Kenji; Shimojo, Nobutake; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ijima, Junya; Hasegawa, Shogo; Yanagawa, Toru; Mizutani, Taro; Bukawa, Hiroki

2014-01-01

241

Molecular Detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the Etiological Agent of a Chronic Tongue Ulcer in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient  

PubMed Central

Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect “American histoplasmosis.” A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin. PMID:16081997

Heym, Beate; Gehanno, Pierre; Friocourt, Véronique; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Le Moal, Michèle; Husson, Corinne; Leibowitch, Jacques; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

2005-01-01

242

Molecular detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the etiological agent of a chronic tongue ulcer in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient.  

PubMed

Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect "American histoplasmosis". A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin. PMID:16081997

Heym, Beate; Gehanno, Pierre; Friocourt, Véronique; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Le Moal, Michèle; Husson, Corinne; Leibowitch, Jacques; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

2005-08-01

243

Short-course hypofractionated radiochemotherapy for unresectable locally advanced cancer of the base of tongue: palliation only? A case report and short review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We present a case of unresectable cancer of the base of tongue treated with hypofractionated 3D conformal radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy. Based on the excellent tumour response in this radiotherapy regimen and international experience in short course treatments we shortly reviewed, we propose that this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting for patients unsuitable for the a standard long course radiochemotherapy schedule. PMID:25061579

Kalogeridi, Maria-Aggeliki; Kouloulias, Vassilios; Zygogianni, Anna

2014-01-01

244

Chronic nicotine intake causes vascular dysregulation in the rat gastric mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Chronic cigarette smoking has adverse effects on peptic ulcer disease because the healing of ulcers is delayed and the incidence of relapses is enhanced. Short term intake of nicotine induces vascular damage in the rat gastric mucosa, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of nicotine's action in the stomach are largely unknown. In this study rats were treated with nicotine, added to their drinking water, for 50 days. They were then anaesthetised and their stomachs perfused with acidified acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Chronic nicotine treatment failed to change the effects of acidified ASA to induce gastric mucosal acid back diffusion, haemorrhagic damage and bleeding. Basal blood flow in the gastric mucosa was also unchanged by chronic nicotine intake, whereas the mucosal hyperaemia evoked by ASA induced acid back diffusion was averted. The concentrations of sulfidoleukotrienes were significantly augmented in the gastric wall of nicotine treated rats. These data show that chronic nicotine intake causes dysregulation of the gastric microcirculation, an effect that is associated with biochemical changes in the stomach. This study thus substantiates the adverse effects of smoking on gastric mucosal pathophysiology. These data suggest that inappropriate regulation of gastric mucosal blood flow inhibits recovery from gastric mucosal injury in smokers. PMID:8282257

Battistel, M; Plebani, M; Di Mario, F; Jocic, M; Lippe, I T; Holzer, P

1993-01-01

245

Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth  

PubMed Central

The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and ramus height, the anterior dental arch and midface width. These results suggest that reducing tongue body volume in young animals slows craniofacial skeletal growth and anterior dental arch expansion during rapid growth. The mandible, in particular its symphysis portion, and the anterior dental arch width are most affected. These effects may in part contribute to the decrease of functional loads in the anterior mouth by a volume-reduced tongue. PMID:18579119

Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A.

2008-01-01

246

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

247

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

248

Longlasting Remission of Primary Hepatic Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Achieved by Radiotherapy Alone  

PubMed Central

Primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disorder representing less than 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. Histological examination of a primary hepatic lymphoma usually reveals a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; there have been few reports of primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. A 67-year-old man was being treated for a duodenal ulcer; while receiving therapy for the ulcer, a liver mass was incidentally found on abdominal ultrasonography. The pathologic diagnosis of the hepatic mass was an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The patient underwent radiotherapy with a total of 4,140 cGy delivered. The patient achieved complete remission and has been followed for 6 years with no recurrence of the disease. This report reviews the case of a primary hepatic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT successfully treated by radiotherapy alone. PMID:16913444

Shin, Sang Yun; Kim, Jin Seok; Lim, Jong Keun; Yang, Woo Ick; Suh, Chang Ok

2006-01-01

249

Evaluating the Tongue-Hold Maneuver Using High-Resolution Manometry and Electromyography  

PubMed Central

The tongue-hold maneuver is a widely used clinical technique designed to increase posterior pharyngeal wall movement in individuals with dysphagia. It is hypothesized that the tongue-hold maneuver results in increased contraction of the superior pharyngeal constrictor. However, an electromyographic study of the pharynx and tongue during the tongue-hold is still needed to understand whether and how swallow muscle activity and pressure may change with this maneuver. We tested eight healthy young participants using simultaneous intramuscular electromyography with high-resolution manometry during three task conditions including (a) saliva swallow without maneuver, (b) saliva swallow with the tongue tip at the lip, and (c) saliva swallow during the tongue-hold maneuver. We tested the hypothesis that tongue and pharyngeal muscle activity would increase during the experimental tasks, but that pharyngeal pressure would remain relatively unchanged. We found that the pre-swallow magnitude of tongue, pharyngeal constrictor, and cricopharyngeus muscle activity increased. During the swallow, the magnitude and duration of tongue and pharyngeal constrictor muscle activity each increased. However, manometric pressures and durations remained unchanged. These results suggest that increased superior pharyngeal constrictor activity may serve to maintain relatively stable pharyngeal pressures in the absence of posterior tongue movement. Thus, the tongue-hold maneuver may be a relatively simple but robust example of how the medullary swallow center is equipped to dynamically coordinate actions between tongue and pharynx. Our findings emphasize the need for combined modality swallow assessment to include high-resolution manometry and intramuscular electromyography to evaluate the potential benefit of the tongue-hold maneuver for clinical populations. PMID:24969727

Hammer, Michael J.; Jones, Corinne A.; Mielens, Jason D.; Kim, Chloe H.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

2014-01-01

250

Observations of the time-course of the inflammatory response of rectal mucosa to gliadin challenge in gluten-sensitive subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of endothelial adhesion molecules is a key factor in localizing inflammatory processes. We have evaluated the time-course expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in rectal mucosae from coeliac patients (CD) with T-lymphocyte sensitization to wheat (gliadin) protein. Ten treated, eight untreated CD patients and five disease controls underwent a dynamic 4 h rectal gluten challenge. Seven treated CD patients

A. Ensari; A. Ager; M. N. Marsh; S. Morgan; K. Moriarty

1993-01-01

251

Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

2009-05-01

252

Tongue reconstruction with the gracilis myocutaneous free flap.  

PubMed

We describe our experience in tongue reconstruction using the transverse gracilis myocutaneous (TMG) free flap after major demolitive surgery for advanced cancer. This technique was used in 10 patients: seven underwent total glossectomy and three partial glossectomy. In eight patients we performed motor reinnervation attempting to maintain muscular trophism and gain long-term volumetric stability. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 28 months. The overall flap survival was 100%. Nine out of 10 patients resumed oral intake. Our preliminary experience shows that this flap is a good reconstructive option for total glossectomy patients, whereas it is less suited for reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects. Functional and objective evaluation of the tongue reconstructed with TMG free flap requires further and standardized evaluation. PMID:21503974

Calabrese, Luca; Saito, Akira; Navach, Valeria; Bruschini, Roberto; Saito, Noriko; Zurlo, Valeria; Ostuni, Angelo; Garusi, Cristina

2011-07-01

253

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of oral mucosa cells of crack cocaine users.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from crack cocaine users by micronucleus test. A total of 30 crack cocaine users and 30 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative, and dropped in clean slides, which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p?mucosa cells from crack cocaine users. Exposure to crack cocaine caused an increase of other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyolysis in oral cells as well. In summary, these data indicate that crack cocaine is able to induce chromosomal breakage and cellular death in oral mucosa cells of users. PMID:24430497

das Graças Alonso de Oliveira, Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Oliveira, Nara Rejane Cruz; da Costa Padovani, Ricardo; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-04-01

254

Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

2011-01-01

255

DETAILED VIEW OF THE CARPORT WITH TWO TONGUE AND GROOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAILED VIEW OF THE CARPORT WITH TWO TONGUE AND GROOVE DOORS TO THE STORAGE CLOSET. REPLACEMENT VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IS VISIBLE IN THIS SHOT - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

256

Application of Electronic Tongue in Identification of Soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soybean is a product of great importance in the global economy and recognized by its great nourishing value with high protein content. In this work, a conducting polymer-based electronic tongue (ET) is employed to identify and discriminate five different soybeans cultivars with genetically distinct characteristics. Combination of electrical measurements and data analysis (PCA and PLS), permitted the ET system to discriminate the five different types of soybeans in accordance with a previous analysis performed by a human sensory panel.

Gregorut, Camila; Silva, Josemeyre B.; Wiziack, Nadja K. L.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Panizzi, Mercedes C. C.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

2009-05-01

257

Periodontal attachment loss due to applying force by tongue piercing.  

PubMed

This report describes lingual cortical plate loss of the two lower central incisors with second degree mobility in an 18.5-year-old patient. Seven millimeters of clinical attachment losses were detected. For the last 4.5 years, the patient has worn a tongue ornament. The spheres were pressed directly against the periodontal lesion. The metal bar was bent as empirical evidence of the excessive force. Dental practitioners should educate their patients about the risk of oral piercing. PMID:17941300

Zadik, Yehuda; Sandler, Vadim

2007-08-01

258

Multiple dental fractures following tongue barbell placement: a case report.  

PubMed

The number of adolescents and young adults undergoing intra-oral piercing, is increasing worldwide. There have been several case reports documenting oral and systemic complications of this practice. These include damage to the dentition, gingivae, infection, speech impediments and nerve damage. The case presented here draws attention to the possibility of multiple tooth fracture as a result of trauma incurred from a barbell inserted into the tongue. PMID:16422758

Brennan, Maire; O'Connell, Brian; O'Sullivan, Michael

2006-02-01

259

Cavernous Hemangioma of Tongue: Management of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are benign tumours of infancy and childhood, most commonly located in the head and neck region and occur more frequently in the lips, tongue and palate. The treatment depends upon lesion location, size and evolution stage and the patient’s age. This paper describes the management of cavernous hemangioma in a 2 -year -old child and 14 -year -old child using different approaches. PMID:25478463

Puppala, Niharika; Deshmukh, Sudhanwa N; B, Jagadesh; S, Anuradha

2014-01-01

260

Hound's-tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) poisoning in a calf.  

PubMed

Cynoglossum officinale was believed to be responsible for the death of one calf and possibly 5 other calves in a group of 9 calves being fed chopped hay contaminated by this plant. The plant, commonly known as hound's tongue, contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids and has been determined to be toxic to horses fed contaminated hay, but was fed to cattle at the same time with no effect. PMID:2703425

Baker, D C; Smart, R A; Ralphs, M; Molyneux, R J

1989-04-01

261

Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

1995-03-01

262

Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

1994-10-01

263

A comparative study of chemically induced DNA damage in isolated nasal mucosa cells of humans and rats assessed by the alkaline comet assay.  

PubMed

Single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay was used to study genotoxic effects in human nasal mucosa cells and rat nasal and ethmoidal mucosa cells in vitro. Human cells were obtained from tissue samples of 10 patients (3 females/7 males), who underwent surgery (conchotomy) for treatment of nasal airway obstruction. Rat nasal mucosa cells were derived from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cells were exposed for 1 h to either N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), epichlorohydrin (EPI), 1,2-epoxybutane (EPB), ethylene dibromide (EDB), or 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as negative control. Alkaline comet assay was performed according to a standard protocol and DNA damage was quantified as Olive tail moment using image analysis system. All test substances induced an increase in DNA damage in human and rat cells. The absolute amount of DNA damage in rat nasal mucosa cells was usually higher than in ethmoidal mucosa cells. Human nasal mucosa cells were found to be less sensitive than rat mucosa cells to the genotoxic activities of DBCP (lowest effective concentration in human cells [LEC(human)]: 1.5, in rat cells [LEC(rat)]: 0.01 mM) and NDELA (LEC(human): 25, LEC(rat): 12.5 mM), whereas EPB-treated cells were almost equal (LEC(human) and LEC(rat) 0.78 mM). NDELA induced a marked concomitant cytotoxicity. For EPI (LEC(human) and LEC(rat): 0.097 mM) and EDB (LEC(human): 0.195, LEC(rat): 0.048 mM), pronounced interindividual differences were observed in human samples. PMID:18569599

Holzer, Jurgen; Voss, Bruno; Karroum, Saida; Hildmann, Henning; Wilhelm, Michael

2008-01-01

264

The mucosa beyond the polyps in juvenile polyposis.  

PubMed

Little is known of early histologic changes in the mucosa of the colon aside from the polyps in Juvenile Polyposis. Provided with a surgical specimen of a total colectomy of a 6-year-old boy with this condition, this report describes those changes. The mucosa depicted a peculiar serrated profile of the uppermost part of the crypts due to elongation of them, dilated openings, and scant stroma. Also present were frequent aberrant crypts. Early juvenile polyps presented associated with lympho-glandular sites as distorted and microcystically dilated crypts containing granular and filamentous mucoid material. The findings possibly represent the abnormal cytologic potential of this genetic condition. PMID:22050186

Drut, Ricardo

2012-02-01

265

Variations in development of the ruminal mucosae of sheep  

E-print Network

content 29 mucous tissue of the tunica propria or submucosa to show a noticeable difference in dry weight of the mucosa. Despite the fact. that terminal rate of gain is highly significantly correlated with both the percent of mucosa and with the total... and ideas did much to initiate the original thinking of thi. s study, to Mr. J. D. Robbins who provided feed and gain data for the animals used, and to Messrs. P. E. Tutt and Earl Whittaker for their assistance in collecting and preparing tissues...

Sinclair, John Henry

2012-06-07

266

MRI ANALYSIS OF 3D NORMAL AND POST-GLOSSECTOMY TONGUE MOTION IN SPEECH  

PubMed Central

Measuring the internal muscular motion and deformation of the tongue during natural human speech is of high interest to head and neck surgeons and speech language pathologists. A pipeline for calculating 3D tongue motion from dynamic cine and tagged Magnetic Resonance (MR) images during speech has been developed. This paper presents the result of a complete analysis of eleven subjects’ (seven normal controls and four glossectomy patients) global tongue motion during speech obtained through MR imaging and processed through the tongue motion analysis pipeline. The data is regularized into the same framework for comparison. A generalized two-step principal component analysis is used to show the major difference between patients’ and controls’ tongue motions. A test is performed to demonstrate the ability of this process to distinguish patient data from control data and to show the potential power of quantitative analysis that the tongue motion pipeline can achieve. PMID:24443691

Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z.; Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

267

High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

2014-05-01

268

/sup 192/Ir pharyngoepiglottic fold interstitial implants. The key to successful treatment of base tongue carcinoma by radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-eight patients with squamous carcinomas of the base tongue were seen and evaluated in a conjoint Head and Neck Tumor Board at Stanford between 1976 and 1982. Fourteen patients were treated by combined external beam and interstitial irradiation, 11 of whom had Stage III and IV carcinomas (American Joint Committee). An initial dose of 5000 to 5500 rad was first delivered by external beam irradiation in 5 to 5.5 weeks, followed approximately 3 weeks later by an iridium 192 interstitial implant boost by the trocar and loop technique. The key to successful treatment of these neoplasms was found to be the use of a lateral percutaneous cervical technique, which placed horizontal loops through the oropharyngeal wall above and below the hyoid bone; the superior loop included the pharyngoepiglottic fold and the tonsilloglossal groove. Standard multiple loop implants (submentally inserted) of the base tongue from the vallecula anteriorly to the circumvallate papillae were also used routinely. This approach has been successful, since 10 of the 14 patients (71%) remain without evidence of disease (mean follow-up, 32 months). There have been only two local recurrences, both on the pharyngoepiglottic fold in patients who did not receive the now standard pharyngoepiglottic fold/lateral pharyngeal wall implants. No patients have relapsed after 18 months. The other 14 patients were treated prospectively during the same period by combining initial resection, radical neck dissection, and postoperative irradiation.

Goffinet, D.R.; Fee, W.E. Jr.; Wells, J.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Clarke, D.; Mariscal, J.M.; Goode, R.L.

1985-03-01

269

Progress in animation of an EMA-controlled tongue model for acoustic-visual speech synthesis  

E-print Network

We present a technique for the animation of a 3D kinematic tongue model, one component of the talking head of an acoustic-visual (AV) speech synthesizer. The skeletal animation approach is adapted to make use of a deformable rig controlled by tongue motion capture data obtained with electromagnetic articulography (EMA), while the tongue surface is extracted from volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Initial results are shown and future work outlined.

Steiner, Ingmar

2012-01-01

270

Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. [Department of ENT, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, E.Y.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A.-J. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.T.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

2007-02-01

271

The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present study compared and evaluated the effects of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on existing plaque levels in children. The investigation was a single blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who performed either tongue scraping or tongue brushing along with tooth brushing or only tooth brushing twice daily under professional supervision for a 21 day period. Dental plaque was recorded using the plaque index described by Silness and Loe at baseline, on day 10 and on day 21. All data was subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Sum Test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The results of the present study show that the tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in plaque levels after 10 days and also after 21 days. It was also noted that both tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing the plaque load in children. How to cite this article: Winnier JJ, Rupesh S, Nayak UA, Reddy V, Rao AP. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):188-192. PMID:25206220

Winnier, J Jasmin; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Prasad Rao, Arun

2013-01-01

272

Evidence of an anti-apoptotic effect of qinghuobaiduyin on intestinal mucosa following burn injury.  

PubMed

Burn injuries are common in wartime and in times of peace. The prevention and therapy of ischemia-reperfusion injury to the organs, in particular the intestine, during the burn shock and recovery process has become a popular yet challenging area of research. Studies concerning the apoptosis of the cells of the burned intestinal mucosa have gained considerable attention. Qinghuobaiduyin (QHBDY) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used as a clinical prescription since 1995 to treat burn patients due to its opsonization function in the immune system and favorable clinical therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QHBDY on the apoptosis of intestinal mucosa following burn injury. An animal model was constructed comprising severely burned rats that were treated with various dosages of QHBDY. Tissues from the small intestine were collected to investigate the apoptosis rate by TUNEL assay and the protein expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. In addition, IEC-18 cells treated with QHBDY and burn serum were investigated. The cell apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM), the protein expression levels of Hsp70 were measured by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activity was analyzed by a colorimetric assay. The results showed that in animal experiments, compared with the burned group, the apoptosis rates in the treatment group was decreased, the protein expression level of Hsp70 was increased while Caspase-3 was decreased. In cell experiments, after treatment with QHBDY, the cell apoptosis rate was lower than that of the burn serum group. In addition, Hsp70 protein expression was upregulated and caspase-3 activity was decreased. QHBDY may play an important role in the prevention of apoptosis at the whole animal and cellular levels. PMID:24255668

Zhu, Jie; Wang, Ping; He, Quanyong; Zhou, Jianda; Luo, Chengqun

2013-12-01

273

Urocortin in Human Gastric Mucosa: Relationship to Inflammatory Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of CRH and urocortin (Ucn), members of the CRH family of neuropeptides, was examined in human gastric biopsies from normal controls and in patients with active gastritis from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and after eradi- cation treatment. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of the Ucn transcript in biopsies (obtained by gastroscopy) from nor- mal and inflamed gastric mucosa,

E. Chatzaki; I. CHARALAMPOPOULOS; C. LEONTIDIS; I. A. MOUZAS; M. TZARDI; C. TSATSANIS; A. N. MARGIORIS; A. GRAVANIS

2003-01-01

274

Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

275

Mimicking the biological olfactory system: a Portable electronic Mucosa.  

PubMed

In this study the authors report on the development of a new type of electronic nose (e-nose) instrument, which the authors refer to as the Portable electronic Mucosa (PeM) as a continuation of previous research. It is designed to mimic the human nose by taking significant biological features and replicating them electronically. The term electronic mucosa or simply e-mucosa was used because our e-nose emulates the nasal chromatographic effect discovered in the olfactory epithelium, located within the upper turbinate. The e-mucosa generates spatio-temporal information that the authors believe could lead to improved odour discrimination. The PeM comprises three large sensor arrays each containing a total of 576 sensors, with 24 different coatings, to increase the odour selectivity. The nasal chromatographic effect provides temporal information in the human olfactory system, and is mimicked here using two-coated retentive channels. These channels are coated with polar and non-polar compounds to enhance the selectivity of the instrument. Thus, for an unknown sample, the authors have both the spatial information (as with a traditional e-nose) and the temporal information. The authors believe that this PeM may offer a way forward in developing a new range of low-cost e-noses with superior odour specificity. PMID:22559706

Che Harun, F K; Covington, J A; Gardner, J W

2012-06-01

276

HIV Infection of the Genital Mucosa in Women  

E-print Network

which it more easily penetrates the mucosa. At any rate, the picture is emerging that in many cases the female genital tract. Stud- ies using human explant tissues and in vivo animal studies have improved our the inability to directly observe these activities in the virus's natural human host, our knowl- edge

Dever, Jennifer A.

277

Inflammatory cells in nasal mucosa and nasal polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Since some controversy exists concerning the frequency of inflammatory cells in nasal polyps, we have compared the frequency of tissue inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells) including 11 kinds of lymphocyte subsets in the same specimens of nasal mucosa and nasal polyps. Methods: Histopathological observations and flow cytometric analyses were performed on eight mucosal specimens of the

Setsuko Morinaka; Hiroyuki Nakamura

2000-01-01

278

Cytoprotective effect of copper(II) complexes against ethanol-induced damage to rat gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

The cytoprotective effect of various copper(II) complexes on the gastric mucosa damage induced by acute intragastric administration of ethanol was investigated. For in vitro experiments, the following copper(II) complexes were tested: Cu(II)(L-Trp)(L-Phe), Cu(II)(L-Leu)Cu(II)(L-Leu-Leu)(L-Leu), Cu(II)(L-Phe-L-Leu), Cu(II)(Gly-His-Lys), and Cu(II)(cyHis)2(ClO4)2. Inorganic copper such as CuSO4 was also tested. The free radical generating system, acting for 2 hr on cardial and fundic mucosa scrapings or mucosal microsomes, was Fe++ (20 microM)/ascorbate (0.25 mM). We found a marked inhibition to 75% of lipid peroxidation in the range 10-100 mM, regardless of whether copper was given in complexed or inorganic form. The results suggest that nontoxic copper(II)-amino acid complexes are able to neutralize oxygen-derived free radicals. In addition, copper(II) complexes suppressed membrane lipid peroxidation when mucosa homogenates were exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide (1-20 microM) plus Fe++ (50 microM). In vivo experiments on rat stomachs, pretreated p.o. by gavage either with Cu(II)(L-Trp)(L-Phe) as paradigmatic agent or with copper sulphate at equivalent doses in the range 3-30 mg/kg body weight showed a significant decrease (30 min after 95% ethanol administration) in the number and severity of mucosal hemorrhagic lesions. In the gastric mucosa scrapings of copper-treated rats after ethanol exposure, we found that malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels were unchanged compared to those of untreated controls; five enzyme activities released from lysosomes were near control values. In isolated mucosal cells, whether or not pretreated with 200 microM solution of either Cu(II)(L-Trp)(L-Phe) or CuSO4, the release of cathepsin D activity was also unmodified. The results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of Cu(II) complexes against ethanol-induced mucosal lesions was not associated in vivo to lipid peroxidation. PMID:1619401

Alberghina, M; Lupo, G; La Spina, G; Mangiameli, A; Gulisano, M; Sciotto, D; Rizzarelli, E

1992-03-01

279

Effect of Cholera Enterotoxin on Ion Transport across Isolated Ileal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The effects of cholera enterotoxin on intestinal ion transport were examined in vitro. Addition of dialyzed filtrate of Vibrio cholerae (crude toxin) to the luminal side of isolated rabbit ileal mucosa caused a delayed and gradually progressive increase in transmural electric potential difference (PD) and shortcircuit current (SCC). A similar pattern was observed upon addition of a highly purified preparation of cholera toxin, although the changes in PD and SCC were smaller. Na and Cl fluxes across the short-circuited mucosa were determined with radioisotopes 3-4 hr after addition of crude toxin or at a comparable time in control tissues. The toxin caused a net secretory flux of Cl and reduced to zero the net absorptive flux of Na. Similar flux changes were observed when either crude or purified toxin was added in vivo and tissues were mounted in vitro 3-4 hr later. Additon of D-glucose to the luminal side of toxin-treated mucosa produced a large net absorptive flux of Na without altering the net Cl and residual ion fluxes. Adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic phosphate (cyclic AMP) and theophylline had previously been shown to cause a rapid increase in SCC and ion flux changes similar to those induced by cholera toxin. Pretreatment of ileal mucosa with either crude or purified cholera toxin greatly reduced the SCC response to theophylline and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, which, together with the flux data, suggest that both cyclic AMP and cholera toxin stimulate active secretion by a common pathway. Inhibition of the SCC response to theophylline was observed after luminal but not after serosal addition of toxin. In vitro effects of cholera toxin correlated closely with in vivo effects: heating toxin destroyed both; two V. cholerae filtrates which were inactive in vivo proved also to be inactive in vitro; PD and volume flow measurements in isolated, in vivo ileal loops of rabbit revealed that the PD pattern after addition of toxin is similar to that seen in vitro and also correlates closely with changes in fluid movement. The results suggest that stimulation by cholera toxin of a cyclic AMP-dependent active secretory process of the intestinal epithelial cells is a major cause of fluid loss in cholera. PMID:4335444

Field, Michael; Fromm, David; Al-Awqati, Qais; Greenough, William B.

1972-01-01

280

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 32:367376 (2003) Autofluorescence Characteristics of Healthy Oral Mucosa  

E-print Network

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 32:367­376 (2003) Autofluorescence Characteristics of Healthy Oral and alcoholics can cause long-term damage of the oral mucosa (``condemned mucosa'') which can lead to ``field

Duin, Robert P.W.

281

Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

Gerbino, Andrea, E-mail: gerbino@biologia.uniba.i [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curci, Silvana [VA Boston Healthcare System and the Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury MA 02132 (United States); Colella, Matilde [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy)

2010-06-01

282

Morphology and fibre-type distribution in the tongue of the Pogona vitticeps lizard (Iguania, Agamidae).  

PubMed

Agamid lizards use tongue prehension for capturing all types of prey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional relationship between tongue structure, both surface and musculature, and function during prey capture in Pogona vitticeps. The lack of a detailed description of the distribution of fibre-types in the tongue muscles in some iguanian lizards has hindered the understanding of the functional morphology of the lizard tongue. Three methodological approaches were used to fill this gap. First, morphological analyses were performed (i) on the tongue surface through scanning electron microscopy, and (ii) on the lingual muscle by histological coloration and histochemistry to identify fibre-typing. Secondly, kinematics of prey capture was quantified by using high-speed video recordings to determine the movement capabilities of the tongue. Finally, electromyography (EMG) was used to identify the motor pattern tongue muscles during prey capture. Morphological and functional data were combined to discuss the functional morphology of the tongue in agamid lizards, in relation to their diet. During tongue protraction, M. genioglossus contracts 420 ± 96 ms before tongue-prey contact. Subsequently, Mm. verticalis and hyoglossus contract throughout tongue protraction and retraction. Significant differences are found between the timing of activity of the protractor muscles between omnivorous agamids (Pogona sp., this study) and insectivorous species (Agama sp.), despite similar tongue and jaw kinematics. The data confirm that specialisation toward a diet which includes more vegetal materials is associated with significant changes in tongue morphology and function. Histoenzymology demonstrates that protractor and retractor muscles differ in fibre composition. The proportion of fast glycolytic fibres is significantly higher in the M. hyoglossus (retractor muscle) than in the M. genioglossus (protractor muscle), and this difference is proposed to be associated with differences in the velocity of tongue protrusion and retraction (5 ± 5 and 40 ± 13 cm s(-1) , respectively), similar to Chamaeleonidae. This study provides a way to compare fibre-types and composition in all iguanian and scleroglossan lizards that use tongue prehension to catch prey. PMID:25109482

Zghikh, Leïla-Nastasia; Vangysel, Emilie; Nonclercq, Denis; Legrand, Alexandre; Blairon, Bernard; Berri, Cécile; Bordeau, Thierry; Rémy, Christophe; Burtéa, Carmen; Montuelle, Stéphane J; Bels, Vincent

2014-10-01

283

Bcl-xL overexpression and its association with the progress of tongue carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis-related protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) has a crucial role in the control of cell death through its inhibition of apoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the expression of Bcl-xL in relation to the development of tongue carcinoma and whether it has potential as a marker for the clinical diagnosis of tongue carcinoma and as a therapeutic target to evaluate the dynamic of tongue carcinoma progression. A statistical analysis of 100 cases oral tongue carcinoma tissue specimens were performed using pathological grading and clinical TNM staging, and 14 cases corresponding non-tumor tissues as control. The changes in Bcl-xL mRNA expression between different pathological grades and clinical TNM stages of tissue were analyzed by RT-PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemical SP method and Western blot assays were employed to detect changes in Bcl-xL protein expression in different tongue carcinoma tissues. The results showed the expression of Bcl-xL was significantly higher in tongue carcinoma tissues than in normal tongue tissues and was positively associated with the degree of differentiation and the clinical TNM staging, but negatively correlated with the degree of malignancy of the tumor. There was higher expression of Bcl-xL in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) tissues compared with oral tongue adenocarcinoma (OTA) tissues, but Bcl-xL expression in tissue with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that without lymph node metastasis. Thus, Bcl-xL overexpression may be closely related to the dynamic of the pathogenesis and development of tongue carcinoma. It may be a useful marker for clinical diagnosis and an aid to evaluating the efficacy of therapeutics in tongue carcinoma. PMID:25550772

Zhang, Kailiang; Jiao, Kangli; Xing, Zhankui; Zhang, Li; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xiaodong; Yang, Lan

2014-01-01

284

[Cancers of the oral and genital mucosa].  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinomas account for over 90 % of cancers of the oral cavity in France. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Delay in diagnosis is unfortunately frequent. The management of the cancer is based on surgery, possibly associated to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate at 5 years does not exceed 30-40%. We hope to see a decrease in the number of oral cancer thanks to the development of preventive medicine (alcohol and tobacco cessation and early detection of potentially malignant lesions). Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease which traditionally affect elderly woman but continues to rise in incidence especially in younger women. There are at least 2 forms of genital squamous cell carcinoma. The most common form is found on older women arising in a background of lichen sclerosus and the second is associated with "high risk" human papillomavirus infection affecting younger women. A biopsy is usually required for diagnosis. Attempts to reduce genital cancer must focus on treating precursor lesions, namely lichen sclerosus and HPV-related intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and PIN). Most genital cancer occur on undiagnosed or untreated lichens sclerosus, vulvar inspection when women attend for their cervical smears or seeking about significance of any chronic genital symptom by a clinical examination. PMID:24167879

Dehen, Laure; Schwob, Emilie; Pascal, Francis

2013-09-01

285

Internal Kinematics of the Tongue During Feeding in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Six ultrasonic crystals (Ø2 mm) were implanted into the tongue body to form a wedge-shaped configuration in six 12-week-old Yucatan mini-pigs. These crystals allow recording of the distance changes in bilateral lengths (RL/LL) and base thicknesses (RT/LT), and anterior (AW) and posterior (dorsal and ventral, PDW and PVW) widths during natural feeding. Results indicated that changes in all measured dimensions were stereotypical with considerable regularity. The greatest dimensional changes during chewing were seen in the AW (33.3%), significantly larger than those in other dimensions (P < 0.05–0.001). During ingestion, change in all widths and thicknesses reduced significantly compared with those during chewing (P < 0.05), but changes in the lengths (RL/LL) were significantly larger than those during chewing (P < 0.01). During drinking, overall dimensional changes reduced and amplitudes were symmetrically distributed in all dimensions. The timing analysis indicated that, during chewing, the reversal of dimensional decrease to increase in the PVW occurred first, followed by those of PDW, AW, RT/LT, and RL/LL (P < 0.05). During ingestion, the AW started widening first. Time sequence of these reversals during drinking was similar to that during chewing, but RT/LT thickening was behind RL/LL lengthening. These results suggested that during natural feeding, regional tongue deformations are rhythmic and stereotypical similar to jaw movement. The reversals of expansion–contraction of various dimensions are not synchronous, but occur in a sequential manner in timing. Tongue internal deformations are task-specific in both timing and amplitude. The dimensional expansions–contractions are dominant in the transverse and sagittal planes during chewing and ingestion, respectively, but are smaller and more symmetrically distributed across various dimensions during drinking. Anat Rec, 290:1288–1299, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:17722090

SHCHERBATYY, VOLODYMYR; LIU, ZI-JUN

2007-01-01

286

Psychoanalytic peregrinations. III: Confusion of tongues, psychoanalyst as translator.  

PubMed

A variety of problems cause a confusion of tongues between the psychoanalyst and the patient. In this sense the psychoanalyst faces the same problems as the translator of a text from one language to another. Examples are given of confusion due cultural differences, confusion due translation differences among translators, confusion due translator prejudice or ignorance, confusion due ambiguous visual cues and images, and confusion due to an inherently ambiguous text. It is due to this unavoidable confusion that the humanistic sciences cannot in principle achieve the mathematical exactness of the natural sciences and should not be expected to do so or condemned because they do not. PMID:12389512

Chessick, Richard D

2002-01-01

287

Electronic Tongue on a way towards the universal bitterness scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the development and application of the artificial sensory system (Electronic Tongue) to quantification of the bitter taste of various chemically dissimilar substances and suggests a universal approach for artificial sensory evaluation of bitterness, irrespective of chemical nature of the substance eliciting bitter taste. This approach to artificial quantification of bitterness is practically feasible and may be particularly useful on the early stages of development of novel API in pharmaceutical research and for flavour control of various pharmaceutical compositions, healthcare products and food ingredients.

Legin, Andrey; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Seleznev, Boris; Legin, Evgeny; Papieva, Irina; Clapham, David; Saunders, Ken; Richardson, Marie

2011-09-01

288

Might silicon surface be used for electronic tongue application?  

PubMed

An electronic tongue concept based on 2D mapping of photogenerated charge carrier lifetimes in silicon put in contact with different liquids is reported. Such method based on intrinsic sensitivity of the silicon surface states to the surrounding studied liquids allows creation of their characteristic electronic fingerprints. To increase recognition reliability, a set of characteristic fingerprints for a given liquid/silicon interface is proposed to be recorded at different bias voltages. The applicative potential of our sensing concept was demonstrated for different spirits and water samples. PMID:25333469

Litvinenko, S V; Bielobrov, D; Lysenko, V; Nychyporuk, T; Skryshevsky, V A

2014-11-12

289

Overview of complications secondary to tongue and lip piercings.  

PubMed

In recent years, intraoral and perioral piercings have grown in popularity among teenagers and young adults. This is of concern to dental and medical professionals because of the risks and complications for oral, dental and general health. The risks and complications associated with tongue and lip piercings range from abnormal tooth wear and cracked tooth syndrome to gingival recession and systemic infections. In this report, we provide an overview of possible problems associated with oral piercings that may be encountered by dentists. PMID:17484798

Maheu-Robert, Léo-François; Andrian, Elisoa; Grenier, Daniel

2007-05-01

290

Mother tongue lost while second language intact: insights into aphasia.  

PubMed

Cortical representations of the native language and a second language may have different anatomical distribution. The relationships between the phonologic and orthographic forms of words continue to be debated. We present a bilingual patient whose competence in his mother tongue was disrupted following brain ischaemia. Semantic units were accessible only as isolated letters in written as well as oral language presentation. His second language appeared completely unaffected. Whole word system disturbance of both orthography and phonology pathways of the native language could explain this presentation. It is a great opportunity to learn about the language neural network when a bilingual subject presents with brain ischaemia. PMID:22315644

Garcia, Ana M; Egido, Jose A; Barquero, Maria Sagrario

2010-01-01

291

[Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].  

PubMed

Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds. PMID:15340302

Abakarova, D S

2004-01-01

292

Extreme Microstomia in an 8-Month-Old Infant: Bilateral Commissuroplasty Using Rhomboid Buccal Mucosa Flaps  

PubMed Central

Objective: A case of extreme microstomia in an 8-month-old infant is presented. As a result of caustic acid ingestion at the age of a few weeks, the male infant developed progressive stricture of the perioral region preventing him from normal food intake. Methods: The patient was treated by bilateral commissurotomies and a total of 4 rhomboid flaps based in the buccal mucosa. Results: We were able to enlarge the mouth aperture and subsequently cover the created soft tissue defects, with good esthetic result. The patient learned to suck the feeding bottle and was able to demonstrate oral dynamics, including laughing and crying. Conclusion: We present our surgical technique, the postoperative functional and esthetic outcome, and a brief literature review. Only few publications deal with the same matter and none with a similar life-threatening case. PMID:20076787

Jaminet, Patrick; Werdin, Frank; Kraus, Armin; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan; Sinis, Nektarios

2010-01-01

293

Histological study of the effects of three anti-inflammatory preparations on the gastric mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Patients with osteoarthritis were entered into a single-blind trial comparing the effects on the gastric mucosa of a four week course of indomethacin, sulindac and a compound of paracetamol and dextropropoxyphene (Distalgesic). The presence and severity of both acute and chronic gastritis were assessed by histological examination of endoscopic biopsy specimens taken from five standard sites in th stomach of each patient before and at the end of the four week period. The presence and severity of chronic gastritis was not affected by the treatment in any of the groups. The pattern of acute gastritis was complex, many of the patients having acute inflammatory changes in their initial biopsy specimens. At least one patient in each treatment group developed marked acute gastritis during the treatment period, but a significant overall increase in the severity of these changes was only found in the group treated with sulindac. Images PMID:7276205

McIntyre, R L; Irani, M S; Piris, J

1981-01-01

294

Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans  

SciTech Connect

During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. (Meyerstein Institute of Radiotherapy, Middlesex Hospital, London (England))

1991-04-01

295

[How to diagnose and how to treat diseases of the genital mucosa?].  

PubMed

The genital area in women is covered by a keratinized squamous stratified epithelium outside the body (vulva), and a non keratinized epithelium inside the body (vagina). These characteristics can have an effect on the clinical aspects of the diseases and/or on the choice of the treatment. Symptoms (itching, pain, vaginal discharge), preferential localisation of skin diseases (psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis, irritative dermatitis) and the aspect of primary lesions are to be investigated. The implication of this region in sexual activity places it at risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and dyspareunia. These have numerous causes that have to be sought and taken care of, often by multidisciplinary teams. After a careful history and clinical examination, additional tests allow to exclude infections or confirm a skin condition or neoplasia by a skin biopsy. If contact dermatitis is suspected, specific allergy testing is done. Treatment starts with correction of harmful habits (excessive use of soaps, inappropriate cosmetic products,...) that add to the local irritation. Patients are then reassured of common misconception regarding cancer, STD's and fertility. In the vast majority of cases, the treatment will target an infection (fungal, bacterial, STD's), will relieve irritation by the use of local immunosuppressant drugs (local corticosteroids) and/or relief itching symptoms with anti-histamine drugs. PMID:19899385

Parent, D

2009-09-01

296

Efficient 3D Finite Element Modeling of a Muscle-Activated Tongue  

E-print Network

speeds which are within a factor 10 of real-time rates at the expense of a small loss in accuracy. MuscleEfficient 3D Finite Element Modeling of a Muscle-Activated Tongue Florian Vogt1 , John E. Lloyd1 of a muscle-activated human tongue. Our method uses a linear stiffness-warping scheme to achieve simulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Ground water use in an energy development area: the Tongue River basin, southeastern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water, of relatively good quality, occurs throughout southeastern Montana's Tongue River basin and can be procured cheaply and easily. The widespread occurrence of springs and the development of shallow aquifers enables settlement to occur away from perennial streams and allows for extensive grazing of the range. Ground water in the Tongue River basin occurs in five aquifers ranging from

David H. Hickcox

1982-01-01

298

Viscoelastic properties of the tongue and soft palate using MR elastography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomechanical properties of the human tongue are needed for finite element models of the upper airway and may be important to elucidate the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apneoa. Tongue viscoelastic properties have not been characterized previously. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging imaging technique that can measure the viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in-vivo. In this study, MRE was

S. Cheng; S. C. Gandevia; M. Green; R. Sinkus; L. E. Bilston

2011-01-01

299

Beyond Fear and Loathing in SG: The Real Mother Tongues and Language Policies in Multilingual Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the real mother tongues of Singapore, namely the Chinese "dialects" and Singlish, the linguistic varieties which, respectively, arrived with the original immigrants to the rapidly developing British colony, and evolved in the dynamic multilingual ecology over the decades. Curiously these mother tongues have been regarded with…

Lim, Lisa

2009-01-01

300

Electropalatographic Assessment of Tongue-to-Palate Contact Patterns and Variability in Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the developmental time course of tongue-to-palate contact patterns during speech from childhood to adulthood using electropalatography (EPG) and a comprehensive profile of data analysis. Method: Tongue-to-palate contacts were recorded during productions of /t/, /l/, /s/, and /k/ in 48 children, adolescents and adults (aged…

Cheng, Hei Yan; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Goozee, Justine V.; Scott, Dion

2007-01-01

301

Two prey capture strategies are generally recognised in lizards: tongue and jaw prehension (Schwenk and  

E-print Network

the prey adheres to the tongue of iguanid lizards during capture is thought to be based on adhesive bonding. Although the chameleon tongue is generally considered to be an example of an adhesive bonding system to capture large, smooth prey (Schwenk, 1983). Indeed, because the strength of the adhesive bond is limited

Nishikawa, Kiisa

302

The Effect of Anatomic Factors on Tongue Position Variability during Consonants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the…

Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana

2013-01-01

303

Copyright 2013 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Swallow Function After Tongue Cancer  

E-print Network

Association. All rights reserved. O ral and oropharyngeal cancers are the sixth most com- mon cancer After Tongue Cancer Treatment Using Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging A Pilot Study Yihe Zu, MD, Ph in the evaluation of swallow function of patients with tongue cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Real

Southern California, University of

304

Effect of chemical compounds on electronic tongue response to citrus juices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The electronic tongue system mimics the process of taste detection by human taste buds and recognition by the brain, hence helping in prediction of taste. With this unique capability, the electronic tongue has been used for taste detection of a wide range of food products. As a preliminary step in p...

305

PoS(8thEVN)066 Analysing very large datasets with ParselTongue  

E-print Network

PoS(8thEVN)066 Analysing very large datasets with ParselTongue S. Bourke,a H. J. van Langevelde,b L and correlators, the task of analysing the resulting datasets grows accordingly. The EVN was recently used very large datasets with ParselTongue Figure 1: Plots produced from automated processing. 1. Dataset

van Langevelde, Huib Jan

306

Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

2009-01-01

307

A large hypertrophic-keloid lesion associated with tongue piercing: case report.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old woman had a hypertrophic lesion of the tongue (25 mm in diameter) associated with a recent piercing. She was concerned because the tissue looked like "another tongue." Diagnosis and practical therapy for this case is discussed and the post-treatment status is described. PMID:16494122

Neiburger, Ellis

2006-01-01

308

On Mother and Other Tongues: Sociolinguistics, Schools, and Language Ideology in Northern India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an expanded version of a paper given at a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa from December 11-13, 2008 entitled "The Native Speaker and the Mother Tongue." In keeping with the conference's themes of exploring and interrogating the notions of "mother tongue" and "native speaker," I consider constructions of languages emergent from…

LaDousa, Chaise

2010-01-01

309

Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the…

Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

2014-01-01

310

PROGRESS IN ANIMATION OF AN EMA-CONTROLLED TONGUE MODEL FOR ACOUSTIC-VISUAL SPEECH SYNTHESIS  

E-print Network

PROGRESS IN ANIMATION OF AN EMA-CONTROLLED TONGUE MODEL FOR ACOUSTIC-VISUAL SPEECH SYNTHESIS Ingmar data obtained with electromagnetic artic- ulography (EMA), while the tongue surface is extracted from articulography (EMA). Our AV synthesizer1 is based on a non-uniform unit-selection TTS system for French [4], con

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Towards an articulatory tongue model using 3D EMA Ingmar Steiner1,2  

E-print Network

Towards an articulatory tongue model using 3D EMA Ingmar Steiner1,2 , Slim Ouni1,3 1 LORIA Speech by 3D electromagnetic articulography (EMA) data through an animation interface, providing realistic- lography (EMA). Most specifically, Engwall (2003) presents a MRI-adapted, 3D para- metric tongue model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Optimal Leaf Sequencing with Elimination of Tongue-and-Groove Underdosage  

E-print Network

Optimal Leaf Sequencing with Elimination of Tongue-and-Groove Underdosage Srijit Kamath, Sartaj in intensity modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct

Sahni, Sartaj K.

313

Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

2010-01-01

314

Viscoelastic properties of the tongue and soft palate using MR elastography.  

PubMed

Biomechanical properties of the human tongue are needed for finite element models of the upper airway and may be important to elucidate the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apneoa. Tongue viscoelastic properties have not been characterized previously. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging imaging technique that can measure the viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in-vivo. In this study, MRE was used to measure the viscoelastic properties of the tongue and soft palate in 7 healthy volunteers during quiet breathing. Results show that the storage shear modulus of the tongue and soft palate is 2.67±0.29 and 2.53±0.31 kPa (mean ± SD), respectively. This is the first study to investigate the mechanical properties of the tongue using MRE, and it provides necessary data for future studies of patient groups with altered upper airway function. PMID:21040923

Cheng, S; Gandevia, S C; Green, M; Sinkus, R; Bilston, L E

2011-02-01

315

Mineral Water Taste Attributes Evaluated By Sensory Panel And Electronic Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the current research was to determine relationships between sensory evaluation and measurement results obtained by electronic tongue for mineral waters. Furthermore, the purpose was to predict the sensory characteristics of the mineral waters measured by the electronic tongue and to determine taste differences that cannot be detected by the sensory evaluation. Two mineral waters were definitely different from the others according to the sensory attributes based on profile analysis. With the electronic tongue measurements the PCA and CDA analysis were found to be able to discriminate mineral waters having chemical composition similar to each other. Very good correlation was found between the sensory attributes and the electronic tongue measurements. However, the results of the measurements performed with the electronic tongue showed a more accurate discrimination of the different mineral waters than the sensory evaluation.

Kovacs, Zoltan; Sipos, Laszlo; Kantor, David B.; Kokai, Zoltan; Fekete, Andras

2009-05-01

316

Operational impact of tongue piercing on French military pilots during overseas deployments: a case report.  

PubMed

Piercing in general and particularly tongue piercing is gaining popularity in the Western world. The French army and so the French air force are concerned by this phenomenon. A case report of a pilot suffering from dental pain with operational consequences due to a dental fracture during Operation Trident (Kosovo) is presented. The dental examination highlighted the fact that the dental fracture was directly due to the presence of a tongue piercing. Tongue piercing and wearing tongue jewelry have numerous adverse effects, especially frequent dental complications. If these complications do not result in death, they can generate sufficient pain to disturb the vigilance and concentration of pilots and can have a major impact on flight security. For these reasons, tongue piercing is in total contradiction to a professional army and particularly to military pilots and aircrews. PMID:20968270

Gunepin, Mathieu; Derache, Florence; Audoual, Thomas

2010-10-01

317

Role of the tongue and senses in feeding of naive and experienced garter snakes.  

PubMed

Prey attack behavior was studied in two species of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and T. radix). Newborn, ingestively naive, and experienced snakes had their tongues severed surgically, while control groups retained their tongues. Attack latency, tongue flick frequency and an orientation-interest measure were recorded for each subject on responses to extracts prepared from species-characteristic prey. Feeding, as well as responses to prey extracts, were found to be suppressed almost totally in the tongueless naive snakes. A detongued adult, however, readily ate although its behavior was abnormal. Temporary blind and anosmic conditions did not have a significant effect on response rates of the tongueless or control groups. While importance of the tongue-Jacobson's organ system is demonstrated, the length of tongue removed and presurgery experience are important factors. PMID:1161823

Burghardt, G M; Pruitt, C H

1975-02-01

318

Towards a magnetic localization system for 3-D tracking of tongue movements in speech-language therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new magnetic localization system based on a compact triangular sensor setup and three different optimization algorithms, intended for tracking tongue motion in the 3-D oral space. A small permanent magnet, secured on the tongue by tissue adhesives, will be used as a tracer. The magnetic field variations due to tongue motion are detected by a 3-D

Chihwen Cheng; Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo

2009-01-01

319

Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

2012-01-01

320

The segmentation of the body of the tongue based on the improved snake algorithm in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segmentation of the body of tongue is a premise to establishing a system of automatic diagnosis by the features of the tongue in traditional Chinese medicine, whose qualities affect the performance of tongue diagnosis. In order to overcome two key difficulties with the initialization and boundary concavities, a new active contour model is introduced as a segmentation method. We

Wenshu Li; Changle Zhou; Zhifeng Zhang

2004-01-01

321

Modulation of wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative toxicity in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat by melatonin.  

PubMed

It is well known that oxidative stress induces larynx cancer, although antioxidants induce modulator role on etiology of the cancer. It is well known that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induces oxidative stress in different cell systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of melatonin on oxidative stress induced by Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) EMR in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat. For this purpose, 32 male rats were equally categorized into four groups, namely controls, sham controls, EMR-exposed rats, EMR-exposed rats treated with melatonin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Except for the controls and sham controls, the animals were exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation during 60 min/day for 28 days. The lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the radiation-exposed groups than in the control and sham control groups. The lipid peroxidation level in the irradiated animals treated with melatonin was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in those that were only exposed to Wi-Fi radiation. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was lower in the irradiated-only group relative to control and sham control groups but its activity was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the groups treated with melatonin. The reduced glutathione levels in the mucosa of rat did not change in the four groups. There is an apparent protective effect of melatonin on the Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the laryngotracheal mucosa of rats by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the glutathione peroxidase antioxidant system. PMID:23479077

Aynali, Giray; Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Do?an, Mustafa; Yar?kta?, Murat; Yasan, Hasan

2013-05-01

322

Computerized tongue image segmentation via the double geo-vector flow  

PubMed Central

Background Visual inspection for tongue analysis is a diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Owing to the variations in tongue features, such as color, texture, coating, and shape, it is difficult to precisely extract the tongue region in images. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate tongue diagnosis via automatic tongue segmentation. Methods Experiments were conducted using a clinical image dataset provided by the Laboratory of Traditional Medical Syndromes, Shanghai University of TCM. First, a clinical tongue image was refined by a saliency window. Second, we initialized the tongue area as the upper binary part and lower level set matrix. Third, a double geo-vector flow (DGF) was proposed to detect the tongue edge and segment the tongue region in the image, such that the geodesic flow was evaluated in the lower part, and the geo-gradient vector flow was evaluated in the upper part. Results The performance of the DGF was evaluated using 100 images. The DGF exhibited better results compared with other representative studies, with its true-positive volume fraction reaching 98.5%, its false-positive volume fraction being 1.51%, and its false-negative volume fraction being 1.42%. The errors between the proposed automatic segmentation results and manual contours were 0.29 and 1.43% in terms of the standard boundary error metrics of Hausdorff distance and mean distance, respectively. Conclusions By analyzing the time complexity of the DGF and evaluating its performance via standard boundary and area error metrics, we have shown both efficiency and effectiveness of the DGF for automatic tongue image segmentation. PMID:24507094

2014-01-01

323

Command Detection and Classification in Tongue Drive Assistive Technology  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a new assistive technology that enables individuals with severe disabilities such as those with spinal cord injury (SCI) to regain environmental control using their tongue motion. We have developed a new sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm which uses four 3-axial magneto-resistive sensor outputs to accurately detect and classify between seven different user-control commands in stationary as well as mobile conditions. The new algorithm employs a two-stage classification method with a combination of 9 classifiers to discriminate between 4 commands on the left or right side of the oral cavity (one neutral command shared on both sides). Evaluation of the new SSP algorithm on five able-bodied subjects resulted in true positive rates in the range of 70–99% with corresponding false positive rates in the range of 5–7%, showing a notable improvement in the resulted true-false (TF) differences when compared to the previous algorithm. PMID:22255574

Sadeghian, Elnaz Banan; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2013-01-01

324

The permeability of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

The intercellular permeability barrier of neonatal rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture for periods up to 24 days was studied ultrastructurally using the tracers horseradish peroxidase and lanthanum nitrate. At all time intervals examined the limit of penetration of the tracers corresponded to the level at which the membrane-coating granules were being discharged. However, in the cultured mucosa, extrusion of granules occurred closer to the granular cell-keratin junction after 6 and 12 days in vitro than at other time intervals. This probably is a reflexion of the higher rate of tissue turnover at these times. It is concluded that a permeability barrier comparable with that described in vivo is produced by the epithelium during maintenance inorgan culture and is further evidence of the functional integrity of the tissue in vitro. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:422477

Hill, M W; Squier, C A

1979-01-01

325

The ultrastructure of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was examined by electron microscopy after maintenance in a chemically defined medium in organ culture for periods up to 24 days. Throughout the culture period there was little overall change in the explants. Apart from limited disturbances of the basal lamina complex early in the culture period, and the presence of occasional degenerating keratinocytes after 18 days in vitro, the epithelium displayed an ultrastructure comparable with that at the time of explantation. The connective tissue showed greater changes, but despite considerable cell death a viable cell population apparently capable of both phagocytosis and synthesis of extracellular material was maintained. It is concluded that this organ culture system is a valid model for experimental investigations into the behaviour of oral mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:744746

Hill, M W

1978-01-01

326

Mechanisms of lipid loss from the small intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Many water-soluble compounds have been shown to pass from the small intestinal mucosa into the lumen. In this work, the loss of lipids from the mucosa was investigated by perfusion experiments in rats, using 0-15M NaCl or buffer solutions over range of pH, with or without the addition of 5-7 or 11-4mM taurocholic acid. Perfusates were extracted for the estimation of individual lipids and for DNA, which is a measure of cell loss. The results suggest that free fatty acids reach the lumen by diffusion and that their solubility in the luminal fluid is a factor determining their rate of loss. Triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidly choline are present onlyas the result of desquamation of mucosal cells. Images Fig 1 PMID:236212

Waldram, R

1975-01-01

327

Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

Hausmann, K.

1981-12-01

328

Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

Röhrkasten, A.

1983-06-01

329

Substance P and neurokinin A in human nasal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) were studied in human inferior turbinate nasal mucosa by radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and autoradiography and for their effect upon mucus release in an in vitro culture system in order to infer their potential functions in the upper respiratory tract. Similar amounts of SP (1.03 +/- 0.12 pmol/g wet weight; mean +/- SEM; n = 26) and NKA (0.76 +/- 0.23; n = 7) were found. NKA and SP immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in the walls of arterioles, venules, and sinusoids and as individual fibers in gland acini, near the basement membrane, and in the epithelium. ({sup 125}I)SP bound to arterioles, venules, and glands. ({sup 125}I)NKA bound only to arterioles. In short-term explant culture of fragments of human nasal mucosa, both 1 microM SP and 1 microM NKA stimulated release of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine-labeled respiratory glycoconjugates. These results indicate that SP and NKA have similar distributions in nociceptive sensory nerves in human nasal mucosa. The distribution of ({sup 125}I)SP binding sites is consistent with a role for SP as a vasodilator and mucous secretagogue. The presence of ({sup 125}I) NKA binding sites on vessels suggests a primary role for NKA in regulating vasomotor tone.

Baraniuk, J.N.; Lundgren, J.D.; Okayama, M.; Goff, J.; Mullol, J.; Merida, M.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Kaliner, M.A. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-03-01

330

Microbial amyloids induce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 responses via Toll-like receptor 2 activation in the intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/TLR1 receptor complex responds to amyloid fibrils, a common component of biofilm material produced by members of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. To determine whether this TLR2/TLR1 ligand stimulates inflammatory responses when bacteria enter intestinal tissue, we investigated whether expression of curli amyloid fibrils by the invasive enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium contributes to T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses by measuring cytokine production in the mouse colitis model. A csgBA mutant, deficient in curli production, elicited decreased expression of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 in the cecal mucosa compared to the S. Typhimurium wild type. In TLR2-deficient mice, IL-17A and IL-22 expression was blunted during S. Typhimurium infection, suggesting that activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway contributes to the expression of these cytokines. T cells incubated with supernatants from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with curli fibrils released IL-17A in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. Lower levels of IL-6 and IL-23 production were detected in the supernatants of the TLR2-deficient BMDCs treated with curli fibrils. Consistent with this, three distinct T-cell populations-CD4(+) T helper cells, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, and ?? T cells-produced IL-17A in response to curli fibrils in the intestinal mucosa during S. Typhimurium infection. Notably, decreased IL-6 expression by the dendritic cells and decreased IL-23 expression by the dendritic cells and macrophages were observed in the cecal mucosa of mice infected with the curli mutant. We conclude that TLR2 recognition of bacterial amyloid fibrils in the intestinal mucosa represents a novel mechanism of immunoregulation, which contributes to the generation of inflammatory responses, including production of IL-17A and IL-22, in response to bacterial entry into the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23027540

Nishimori, Jessalyn H; Newman, Tiffanny N; Oppong, Gertrude O; Rapsinski, Glenn J; Yen, Jui-Hung; Biesecker, Steven G; Wilson, R Paul; Butler, Brian P; Winter, Maria G; Tsolis, Renee M; Ganea, Doina; Tükel, Çagla

2012-12-01

331

Prominent features of allergic angioedema on oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Angioedema indicates acute subcutaneous edema that characterizes improperly restricted cutaneous or mucous membrane swelling, which can occur only once or be relapsing. Edema usually occurs in the periorbital area, lips, tongue, extremities and intestinal wall. It has turned out that angioedema is usually caused by the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) or allergies to certain allergens (allergic or IgE-mediated angioedema), followed by C1 inhibitor deficiency (hereditary and acquired angioedema), or the cause is unknown (idiopathic angioedema). It has been shown that patients with angioedema often have urticaria, which is noted in approximately 50% of cases. Usually there is a type I allergic reaction to some food allergens or drugs or insect stings. The most common causes of allergic angioedema are bee and wasp stings, reactions to medications or injections for sensitivity testing, and certain foods (especially eggs, shellfish and nuts). In diagnostic terms, it is important to determine the potential allergen, which is commonly performed with cutaneous tests, such as prick test, etc. The main risk of angioedema is swelling of the tongue, larynx and trachea, which can lead to airway obstruction and death, therefore tracheotomy is indicated in such cases. The initial treatment of patients with most forms of angioedema included administration of antihistamines and glucocorticoids, while epinephrine is given if there is fear from laryngeal edema. PMID:22649883

Duvanci?, Tomislav; Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija; Brekalo, Ante; Situm, Mirna; Sinkovi?, Ana

2011-12-01

332

Dental and periodontal complications of labial and tongue piercing.  

PubMed

Piercing is the practice of puncturing some parts of the body to apply ornamental objects. The presence of oral and perioral piercings are a risk factor for many acute and chronic complications, such as chipping of the dental enamel, periodontal lesions and infection. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of lip and tongue piercing complications in the dental and periodontal tissues in a sample of young adults. Twenty-five adult patients were examined (test group: 11 males and 14 females with an average age of 23.4+/-3.6 years) who had had a minimum of one labial or tongue piercing for at least 1 year and were compared with 25 subjects (control group: 11 males - 44 percent, and 14 females - 56 percent) without any lingual or labial piercing. A questionnaire was compiled for each patient and a clinical examination was performed. The following parameters were examined by the same operator: abnormal toothwear, tooth chipping or cracking, clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PD) and gingival recession (GR, classified by using Miller s classification). The data were analyzed using X2 or Fisher s exact test for small numbers and non-parametric Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis tests to examine for differences in continuity; the level of significance was p less than 0.05. According to the results found in the present study the prevalence of abnormal tooth wear and tooth chipping was higher in the subjects with labial or lingual piercing. Moreover, patients with tongue or labial piercing exhibited a higher GR in comparison to control subjects without any oral piercing. No differences were observed between the two groups as regards CAL and PD. A significant association between the duration of piercing and dental defects was found in the group of patients with piercings with greater prevalence of tooth and periodontal defects in the group of 13 subjects who had had the piercings for a period less than or equal to 4 years. PMID:23034275

Giuca, M R; Pasini, M; Nastasio, S; D' Ercole, S; Tripodi, D

2012-01-01

333

Treating Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with placebo. The doctors gave medication (or ... al. compared antibiotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...

334

Development of the tongue coating analyzer based on concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tongue coating diagnosis is an important part in tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).The change of the thickness and color of the tongue coating can reflect the pathological state for the patient. By observing the tongue coating, a Chinese doctor can determine the nature or severity of disease. Because some limitations existed in the tongue diagnosis method of TCM and the method based on the digital image processing, a novel tongue coating analyzer(TCA) based on the concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument is developed in this paper. This analyzer consists of the light source system, check cavity, optical fiber probe, concave grating monochrometer, spectrum detector system based on CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card, signal processing circuit system, computer and data analysis software based on LabVIEW, etc. Experimental results show that the novel TCA's spectral range can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this TCA uses the back-split-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with the TCA based on the image processing technology, this TCA has many advantages, such as, compact volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and real-time handle data and display the result, etc. Therefore, it has the greatly potential values in the fields of the tongue coating diagnosis for TCM.

Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Wenping

2010-10-01

335

A novel approach based on OCT for tongue inspection in traditional Chinese medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this report is to establish a tongue inspection method based on OCT imaging for quantifying the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The measurement was performed in the model of rats suffering with Spleen-Stomach Dampness-Heat Syndrome using OCT equipment, OCT image and histology estimates of the glossal layer of microstructure were obtained, and the accurate thickness and moisture degree of the tongue coating were analyzed. These OCT image showed that tongue every layer matched the histology estimates of the glossal microstructure, and compared with normal control group the thickness of tongue coating increased in rats suffering with Spleen-Stomach Dampness-Heat Syndrome than normal control rats (P<0.01), yet the moisture degree of tongue body of model group decreased (P<0.01). Therefore, OCT image technique may be benefit and helpful as a tool to provide an objective diagnostic standard for study on tongue inspection in the clinical practice and research of TCM.

Dong, Haixin; Guo, Zhouyi; Zeng, Changchun; Zhong, Huiqing; Gong, Xin; He, Yonghong; Wang, Ruikang K.; Liu, Songhao

2007-11-01

336

Quantitative and Comparative Assessment of Learning in a Tongue-Operated Computer Input Device  

PubMed Central

Tongue drive system (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments to access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device in four tasks, commonly known as horizontal, vertical, center-out, and multidirectional rapid tapping, based on Fitts' law and ISO9241-9 Standard. Nine able-bodied subjects, who already had tongue piercing, participated in this trial over five sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects wore tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare-earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Participants performed the same tasks with a mouse (only in the first session) as a reference as well as a standard keypad for benchmarking. Six performance measures were considered, including throughput, error rate, and reaction time, all of these improved significantly from the first to the last session, and some of these plateaued over the course of the experiment. The comparison between tongue–TDS versus index-finger–keypad provides valuable insights into tongue human factors, which can lead the way in improving the usability of the TDS and similar tongue-operated assistive technologies. PMID:21652288

Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

337

Quantitative and comparative assessment of learning in a tongue-operated computer input device.  

PubMed

Tongue drive system (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments to access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device in four tasks, commonly known as horizontal, vertical, center-out, and multidirectional rapid tapping, based on Fitts' law and ISO9241-9 Standard. Nine able-bodied subjects, who already had tongue piercing, participated in this trial over five sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects wore tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare-earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Participants performed the same tasks with a mouse (only in the first session) as a reference as well as a standard keypad for benchmarking. Six performance measures were considered, including throughput, error rate, and reaction time, all of these improved significantly from the first to the last session, and some of these plateaued over the course of the experiment. The comparison between tongue-TDS versus index-finger-keypad provides valuable insights into tongue human factors, which can lead the way in improving the usability of the TDS and similar tongue-operated assistive technologies. PMID:21652288

Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-09-01

338

Qualitative assessment of tongue drive system by people with high-level spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a minimally invasive, wireless, and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their environments using tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures into commands by sensing the magnetic field created by a small magnetic tracer applied to the user's tongue. We have previously quantitatively evaluated the TDS for accessing computers and powered wheelchairs, demonstrating its usability. In this study, we focused on its qualitative evaluation by people with high-level spinal cord injury who each received a magnetic tongue piercing and used the TDS for 6 wk. We used two questionnaires, an after-scenario and a poststudy, designed to evaluate the tongue-piercing experience and the TDS usability compared with that of the sip-and-puff and the users' current ATs. After study completion, 73% of the participants were positive about keeping the magnetic tongue-barbell in order to use the TDS. All were satisfied with the TDS performance and most said that they were able to do more things using TDS than their current ATs (4.22/5). PMID:25019667

Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Rowles, Diane; Holbrook, Jaimee; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P; Laumann, Anne E; Roth, Elliot; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

339

Submarine melting of the 1985 Jakobshavn Isbræ floating tongue and the triggering of the current retreat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photogrammetric reanalysis of 1985 aerial photos has revealed substantial submarine melting of the floating ice tongue of Jakobshavn Isbræ, west Greenland. The thickness of the floating tongue determined from hydrostatic equilibrium tapers from ˜940 m near the grounding zone to ˜600 m near the terminus. Feature tracking on orthophotos shows speeds on the July 1985 ice tongue to be nearly constant (˜18.5 m d-1), indicating negligible dynamic thinning. The thinning of the ice tongue is mostly due to submarine melting with average rates of 228 ± 49 m yr-1 (0.62 ± 0.13 m d-1) between the summers of 1984 and 1985. The cause of the high melt rate is the circulation of warm seawater (thermal forcing of up to 4.2°C) beneath the tongue with convection driven by the substantial discharge of subglacial freshwater from the grounding zone. We believe that this buoyancy-driven convection is responsible for a deep channel incised into the sole of the floating tongue. A dramatic thinning, retreat, and speedup began in 1998 and continues today. The timing of the change is coincident with a 1.1°C warming of deep ocean waters entering the fjord after 1997. Assuming a linear relationship between thermal forcing and submarine melt rate, average melt rates should have increased by ˜25% (˜57 m yr-1), sufficient to destabilize the ice tongue and initiate the ice thinning and the retreat that followed.

Motyka, Roman J.; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Mortensen, John; Rysgaard, SøRen; Howat, Ian

2011-03-01

340

The early study on the inspection of tongue of the traditional Chinese medicine using optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspection of tongue is an age-old technique used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners to determine a patient's health status. Because tongue examination is a subjective and inaccurate diagnostic method, a scientific tool which can provide objective and accurate information is needed to assist the TCM practitioners in their practice. The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of developing a glossoscopy from an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. In the present study, an OCT system was used to examine the tongue of the rat. After examination, the tongue was surgically removed, sectioned by a microtome and put on a glass slide for histological examination. The slides were examined under a bright-field microscope. Results of the OCT imaging studies showed that the OCT system was capable of showing the images of three distinct regions of the tongue: the tongue coating layers, the interface between the tongue coating and the tongue body, and the tongue body. It was also possible to assign an index number to each of the coating layers. When the tongue tissue was examined under a microscope, three separate regions of the tongue also were visible. Results of this pilot study shows that the OCT potentially can be developed into a glossoscopy for clinical application in TCM practice.

Zhong, Hui-Qing; Zeng, Chang-Chun; Guo, Zhou-Yi; He, Yong-Hong; Wang, Rui-Kang; Liu, Song-Hao

2007-05-01

341

Three-dimensional tongue surface shapes of English consonants and vowels.  

PubMed

This paper presents three-dimensional tongue surfaces reconstructed from multiple coronal cross-sectional slices of the tongue. Surfaces were reconstructed for sustained vocalizations of the American English sounds [symbol: see text]. Electropalatography (EPG) data were also collected for the sounds to compare tongue surface shapes with tongue-palate contact patterns. The study was interested also in whether 3-D surface shapes of the tongue were different for consonants and vowels. Previous research and speculation had found that there were differences in production, acoustics, and linguistic usage between the two groups. The present study found that four classes of tongue shape were adequate to categorize all the sounds measured. These classes were front raising, complete groove, back raising, and two-point displacement. The first and third classes have been documented before in the midsagittal plane [cf. R. Harshman, P. Ladefoged, and L. Goldstein, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 693-707 (1976)]. The first three classes contained both vowels and consonants, the last only consonants. Electropalatographic patterns of the sounds indicated three categories of tongue-palate contact: bilateral, cross-sectional, and combination of the two. Vowels used only the first pattern, consonants used all three. The EPG data provided an observable distinction in contact pattern between consonants and vowels. The ultrasound tongue surface data did not. The conclusion was that the tongue actually has a limited repertoire of shapes and positions them against the palate in different ways for consonants versus vowels to create narrow channels, divert airflow, and produce sound. PMID:8655804

Stone, M; Lundberg, A

1996-06-01

342

Tongue palate contact patterns of velar stops in normal adult English speakers.  

PubMed

This paper provides a more detailed description of normal tongue palate contact patterns for the occlusion phase of velar stops than currently exists. The study used electropalatography (EPG) to record seven normally speaking adults' contact patterns of voiceless velar stops in nine VkV contexts. A variety of EPG indices measured: per cent complete closures across the palate; place of articulation; articulatory distance between /k/ and /t/; and amount of contact. Complete EPG closure occurred in the majority (81%) of tokens. Some speakers almost always had complete closures regardless of context, whereas other speakers produced them only with high front vowels. As expected, place of articulation and amount of contact were heavily influenced by vowel context. The most fronted and most contact occurred in /i/ contexts and the most retracted and least contact in /a/ contexts. There was considerable interspeaker variability on all measures, particularly in the precise location of velar placement and articulatory distance between alveolar and velar placement. The implications for diagnosing and treating abnormal velar articulations are discussed. PMID:18253872

Liker, Marko; Gibbon, Fiona E

2008-02-01

343

LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).  

PubMed

The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. PMID:25137178

Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

2014-12-01

344

Congenital Tongue Base Cyst Presenting with Laryngeal Stridor in Youth: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Tongue base cyst is an uncommon but potentially dangerous cause of stridor in neonates and infants. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 2-month-old Arabic male infant with a congenital tongue base cyst revealed by inspiratory stridor and recurrent respiratory distress. Diagnosis of cyst was suspected at endoscopy and confirmed by MRI imaging. The cyst was marsupialized with CO2 laser. One year later, the child remains asymptomatic without recurrence of the mass. Conclusion. Tongue base cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis in new borns with stridor, respiratory difficulties, or swallowing problems. Definitive therapy requires large marsupialization under general anesthesia. PMID:22953100

Zaki, Zouheir; Ouattassi, Naouar; Alami, Noureddine

2012-01-01

345

Alveolar soft part sarcoma of tongue in 14-year-old boy  

PubMed Central

Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, aggressive malignancy of uncertain histological origin with propensity of vascular invasion and distant metastasis. ASPS demonstrates strong predilection for adolescents and young adults with a female preponderance. The head and neck region is the commonly affected region in the pediatric population with orbit and tongue being most common. The indolent clinical course and asymptomatic nature often leads to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. Herein, we present a case of ASPS affecting the tongue in 14-year-old boy which clinically mimicked hemangioma, common benign vascular tumor of tongue.

Kinger, Mallika; Chakrabarti, Preeti; Varma, Amit; Doshi, Bhavesh

2014-01-01

346

New Ergonomic Headset for Tongue-Drive System with Wireless Smartphone Interface  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue-operated assistive technology (AT), developed for people with severe physical disabilities to control their environment using their tongue motion. We have developed a new ergonomic headset for the TDS with a user-friendly smartphone interface, through which users will be able to wirelessly control various devices, access computers, and drive wheelchairs. This headset design is expected to act as a flexible and multifunctional communication interface for the TDS and improve its usability, accessibility, aesthetics, and convenience for the end users. PMID:22256035

Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Hwang, In-O

2013-01-01

347

[How to push the limits in the transverse dimension? Facial asymmetry, palatal volume and tongue posture in children with unilateral posterior cross bite: a three-dimensional evaluation of early treatment].  

PubMed

Unilateral posterior crossbites have been reported to be one of the most prevalent malocclusions of the primary dentition in Caucasian children. Facial asymmetry due to lateral mandibular displacement in unilateral posterior crossbite, if not treated in the primary dentition period, may lead to an undesirable growth modification which results in facial asymmetry of skeletal origin. Irregular tongue function and posture have also been diagnosed as important etiological factors. Early orthodontic treatment seems to be profitable and desirable to create conditions for normal dental, functional and skeletal development of the orofacial region. Treatment success after correction of unilateral posterior crossbite in the primary dentition is highly questionable, as it is very difficult to objectively assess correction of facial asymmetry and irregular tongue function and posture in small, growing children. Although facial photography is an important diagnostic tool in orthodontics, its main disadvantage is that it represents a three dimensional subject in two dimensions. Tongue posture and function during clinical examination are difficult to assess and is therefore unreliable. Contemporary 3D diagnostics in unilateral posterior crossbite enables uninvasive, valid and objective assessment of facial morphology, palatal volume, tongue function and posture. It can, therefore, become in the future an important part of morphological and functional diagnostics in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics before, during and after orthodontic treatment. PMID:24923214

Ovsenik, Maja; Primoži?, Jasmina

2014-06-01

348

Eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa: clinical, pathological and epidemiological relevance in children: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) shows eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa and can present with symptoms indistinguishable from gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The authors describe the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological features of all cases of histological EO presenting during 2007–2008 with a 2-year follow-up. The incidence of paediatric EO and the features of a subgroup with features of both GORD and EO (‘overlap’ syndrome (OS)) are described. Design Biopsies with an average of 15 eosinophils/high-power field (HPF) were reviewed in the cohort. OS was suggested when there was coexistence of clinical and histological features of EO and GORD (abnormal pH study), which improved with proton pump inhibitors. Setting Tertiary care. Participants All cases with ?15 eosinophils/HPF entered the study. Primary outcome measures Patients with EO had an average of 15 eosinophils/HPF. Secondary outcome measures Other histological features of EO included microabscesses, dilated intercellular spaces, basal cell hyperplasia, papillary elongation, etc. Results 24 cases of EO were identified, 13 men and 11 women. The incidence of paediatric oesophageal eosinophilia in the region was 9/100?000 children. 11 of the 24 patients (46%) presented with some form of allergy, six with poor feeding/food aversion, five with dysphagia and four with vomiting. After follow-up, 56.5% were confirmed to have EO, 30.5% responded to treatment for GORD and were categorised as OS, 9% developed eosinophilic gastroenteritis and 4% did not have further upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis of EO, especially the differentiation from GORD, requires appropriate clinicopathological correlation. A significant proportion of patients with eosinophilia in the mucosa also have GORD (OS). These patients improve after treating the underlying GORD. The study was registered as a Service Evaluation with the Trust (number SE74). PMID:22240650

Rao, Prithviraj; Thomson, Mike; Al-Adnani, Mudher

2012-01-01

349

Three-dimensional architecture of the ovine oviductal mucosa.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to establish for the first time a complete three-dimensional model of the ovine oviductal mucosa. The oviducts of 15 cyclic ewes were examined combining the direct examination of the mucosa, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology, with the SEM observation of resin moulds of the oviductal lumen. Around the ostium abdominale, all longitudinal primary folds and wide secondary are seen to form cul-de-sacs, with their opening pointing in the ovarian direction were observed. At the connection of the ampulla to the isthmus, there is a sharp change in the morphology, from a high folded structure to a smoother one. In the utero-tubal junction, the primary folds broaden and become more voluminous, the lumen has a slit-like appearance, and secondary folds form cul-de-sacs with their opening oriented towards the uterus. The areas between the folds throughout the lumen of the oviduct show a high degree of complexity. The presence of crypts was observed in all the regions studied, branched in the ampulla and spiniform in the isthmus. Marked variations were observed in the oviductal epithelium depending on the oviductal segment and the basal or apical areas of the folds. The variations found regarding the phase of the oestrous cycle were similar to those described in studies of other species. The anatomy of the oviductal mucosa provides a complex system that seems to be designed to regulate the movement of fluids and the passage of cells within the oviductal canal. PMID:23848134

Yániz, J L; Carretero, T; Recreo, P; Arceiz, E; Santolaria, P

2014-10-01

350

Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa.  

PubMed

Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:22147048

Galletta, Vivian C; Artico, Gabriela; Dal Vechio, Aluana M C; Lemos Jr, Celso A; Migliari, Dante A

2011-01-01

351

[Neuropeptides and nasal mucosa: a general review and update].  

PubMed

Following a review of the literature, the authors focused their interest on the sensitive physiology of the biochemistry of the nasal mucosa. After a general presentation of the neurotransmitter molecules studied (the tachykinins), the authors have determined their presence in the sensitive afferent nerves of the pituitary gland, evidencing their co-existence with various other neuropeptides. The distribution of these molecules was studied, given their capacity of acting on peripheral tissular receptors. The widespread distribution and the considerable potential of such neuropeptides reveal the important they play in nasal physiology. PMID:8734258

Duroux, S; Stoll, D

1996-01-01

352

Localization and Differential Activity of P-glycoprotein in the Bovine Olfactory and Nasal Respiratory Mucosae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is localized in the olfactory mucosa and is capable of limiting the nose-to-brain transport of substrates. Bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosae were compared to both localize P-gp and to measure its activity within the epithelia. Methods. Immunolocalization was performed on the bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosa

Karunya K. Kandimalla; Maureen D. Donovan

2005-01-01

353

Distribution of galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the rat nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Galanin-like immunoreactivity was found in nerve fibers beneath and within the epithelium of the rat mucosa by the use of immunohistochemical techniques. Immunoreactive fibers were also noted close to blood vessels and seromucous glands in the lamina propria. Fast blue applied to the nasal mucosa underwent retrograde transport to some immunoreactive neurons of the trigeminal ganglion. Thus, the rat nasal mucosa was shown to be innervated by galanin-containing sensory nerves. PMID:1707721

Matsuda, Y; Inagaki, S; Nakai, Y; Takagi, H

1990-12-17

354

A wireless tongue-computer interface using stereo differential magnetic field measurement.  

PubMed

We have developed an enhanced prototype of the new Tongue Drive system (TDS), which is a noninvasive, unobtrusive wireless magnetic tongue-computer interface for people with severe disabilities. A small permanent magnet secured on the tongue using tissue adhesives, implantation, or piercing is utilized as a tracer to track tongue movements. The magnetic field variations due to the tracer movements are detected by a pair of 3-axial linear magnetic sensor modules mounted bilaterally on a headset near the user's cheeks. The sensors stereo outputs are processed and translated into user control commands after being wirelessly transmitted to a portable computer. These commands have been used in human trials to access the computer by substituting mouse functions. Measurement results showed a response time of less than 1.0 s with 99.9% accuracy for 6 direct commands, yielding an information transfer rate (ITR) of 150 bits/min. PMID:18003312

Huo, Xueliang; Wang, Jia; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2007-01-01

355

Preliminary Assessment of Tongue Drive System in Medium Term Usage for Computer Access and Wheelchair Control  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device using ISO9241-9 standard tasks for pointing and selecting, based on the well known Fitts' Law, and as a powered wheelchair controller through an obstacle course navigation task. Nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing participated in this trial over 5 sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects worn tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Comparing the results between 1st and 5th sessions showed that subjects' performance improved in all the measures through 5 sessions, demonstrating the effects of learning. PMID:22255650

Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2013-01-01

356

Preliminary assessment of Tongue Drive System in medium term usage for computer access and wheelchair control.  

PubMed

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device using ISO9241-9 standard tasks for pointing and selecting, based on the well known Fitts' Law, and as a powered wheelchair controller through an obstacle course navigation task. Nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing participated in this trial over 5 sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects worn tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Comparing the results between 1(st) and 5(th) sessions showed that subjects' performance improved in all the measures through 5 sessions, demonstrating the effects of learning. PMID:22255650

Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

357

Treatment of singultus by traction on the tongue: an eponym revised.  

PubMed

Sir William Osler (1849-1919) is associated with a long list of contributions and eponymous entities including filaria, maneuvers, nodules, syndromes, and triads. Among the less known ones is the Oslerian pulling of the tongue for termination of obstinate hiccup (singultus). Janet Travell (1901-1977) , physician to two United States presidents, attributed the tongue-pulling maneuver to Osler. Dr. Travell cites Osler's Principles and Practice of Medicine from 1912, where mention of the remedy can be found. The therapy, however, is much older and (perhaps not surprisingly) of French origin. It can be viewed as a spin-off of attempts by Jean Laborde (1830-1903) to resuscitate the "presque morts" (almost dead) via rhythmic traction of the tongue. Lesser known physicians involved in the treatment of singultus by traction of the tongue are Jean Viaud (1862-1946) and Raphaël Lépine (1840-1919). PMID:23586546

Petroianu, Georg A

2013-01-01

358

Realistic Deformable Models for Simulating the Tongue during Laryngoscopy M. A. F. Rodrigues  

E-print Network

to a variety of loading conditions. The results show that, within a specific set of tongue material parameters a probe to measure the extent of the view of the vocal cords. #12;One of the key research issues

Gillies, Duncan

359

Treating Sludges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

Josephson, Julian

1978-01-01

360

Human Newborns Match Tongue Protrusion of Disembodied Human and Robotic Mouths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No evidence had been provided so far of newborns' capacity to give a matching response to 2D stimuli. We report evidence from 18 newborns who were presented with three types of stimuli on a 2D screen. The stimuli were video-recorded displays of tongue protrusion shown by: (a) a human face, (b) a human tongue from a disembodied mouth, and (c) an…

Soussignan, Robert; Courtial, Alexis; Canet, Pierre; Danon-Apter, Gisele; Nadel, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

361

Do meaning-related blockers induce tip-of-the-tongue states? / by Stephen Paul Balfour  

E-print Network

DO MEANING-RELATED BLOCKERS INDUCE TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE STATES? A Thesis by STEPHEN PAUL BALFOUR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ak. M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Psychology DO MEANING-RELATED BLOCKERS INDUCE TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE STATES? A Thesis by STEPHEN PAUL BALFOUR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment...

Balfour, Stephen Paul

2012-06-07

362

Three-dimensional observation of mouse tongue muscles using micro-computed tomography.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to obtain information about the mouse tongue muscle rendered using micro-computed tomography (?CT) at low, middle, and high magnifications. Three-dimensional (3D) ?CT is used in various fields. Most ?CT observations are restricted to hard tissue in biomaterial samples. Recently, with the use of osmium tetroxide, ?CT has been effectively employed to observe soft tissue; it is now believed that ?CT observation of soft tissue is feasible. On the other hand, the structure of the tongue muscle has been well studied, but cross-sectional imaging enhanced by 3D rendering is lacking. We chose the mouse tongue as a soft tissue case study for ?CT and generated cross-sectional images of the tongue enhanced by 3-D image rendering with histological resolution. During this observation, we developed new methods of low-magnification observation to show the relation between the tongue muscles and surrounding tissues. We also applied high-resolution ?CT in high-magnification observation of muscle fiber fascicles. Our methodological techniques give the following results: (1) For low-magnification observation (field of view: 12,000 ?m), pretreatment with decalcification and freeze drying is suitable for observing the area between the muscle of the tongue and the bone around the tongue using ?CT. (2) For middle-magnification observation (Field of view: 3,500 ?m), the use of osmium tetroxide to observe the muscle arrangement of the tongue by ?CT is suitable. (3) For high-magnification observation (Field of view: 450 ?m), high-resolution ?CT is suitable for observation of the transversus muscle fiber fascicles. PMID:23975065

Aoyagi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kenzirou

2015-01-01

363

Posttranslational regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in tongue epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is high in tongue epithelium, but its exact function is still unknown. It may be related either to the high proliferation rate of this tissue or to protection against oxidative stress. To elucidate its exact role, we localized quantitatively G6PD activity, protein and mRNA using image analysis in tongue epithelium of rat and

Enrica Biagiotti; K. S. Bosch; P. Ninfali; W. M. Frederiks; Noorden van C. J. F

2000-01-01

364

Long-term effects of tongue piercing — a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth and periodontal damage in subjects wearing a tongue piercing (TP) in comparison\\u000a to matched control subjects without tongue piercing. Members of the German Federal Armed Forces who had TP (group TP) and\\u000a a matched control group (group C) volunteered to take part in the study. The time in situ, localization and

Dirk Ziebolz; Aick Hildebrand; Peter Proff; Sven Rinke; Else Hornecker; Rainer F. Mausberg

365

Advances of Knowledge on Allergic Inflammation and the Oral Mucosa.  

PubMed

Allergic diseases are common worldwide and are prevalently caused by an inflammatory pathophysiology induced by the exposure to the specific allergen(s). The development of inflammation requires the involvement of regulatory cells that include antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes, respectively orientating and orchestrating the immunological response, and the activity of cells such as mast cells and basophils, that release the typical mediators of allergic reactions, and eosinophils, which sustain the protracted inflammation. Differently from other sites of contact with allergen(s) such as respiratory or gastrointestinal tissues, the oral mucosa, based on the abundance of dendritic cells and their interaction with T cells, is apparently working as a tolerogenic site concerning the response to allergen molecules. of The other pivotal aspect of the oral mucosa is the minimal presence of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils and mast cells. These characteristics play a crucial role in the sublingual administration of allergen immunotherapy, which in fact is easier to tolerate than injective immunotherapy, taking into account recent studies highlighting the important role of the Waldeyer's ring in developing tolerance to the sublingually administered allergen. Some patents addressing the identification of therapeutic agents for allergic inflammation are also summarized. PMID:25487260

Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Fuiano, Nicola; Frati, Franco; Marcucci, Francesco

2014-12-01

366

Histochemical studies on rectal mucosa in active intestinal schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Thirty patients suffering from active intestinal S. mansoni infection, were classified into 3 groups. The first group: 13 cases with early active intestinal schistosomiasis without hepatosplenomegaly. The second group: 11 cases with hepatosplenomegaly and the third group: 6 cases with splenomegaly and ascites. Also 10 normal individuals were included as a normal control group. Histopathological examination of rectal mucosa showed hyperaemia with extravasation of blood in early cases and granulomatous lesions in the second group with hepatosplenomegaly. The structural changes were severe in the late ascitic group. In this group the rectal mucosal glands showed distorted irregular tubular branching in addition to the granulomatous and the fibrous reactions. Histochemical studies including periodic acid schiff, alkaline phosphatase and acetyl cholinestrase reactions were done. Using the periodic acid shiff stain, the goblet cells showed strong reaction for neutral mucin in cases of group I (early cases) and group II (late hepatosplenomegalic cases). In group III (late ascitic cases) the goblet cells were faintly stained. A notable difference was observed between the lightly and heavily infected patients of this group. No alkaline phosphatase reactivity could be identified in rectal crypts of patients and controls. Alkaline phosphatase reactivity was sharply localised in S. mansoni egg shell. There was obvious decrease in the acetyl cholinesterase stained nerve fibres in the rectal mucosa of all studied patients. The decrease was more in chronic and heavily infected cases rather than in the acute and lightly infected ones. PMID:1908499

el-Din, S S; Massoud, M M; Hossny, S; el-Gindy, I M; Arafa, M A; Labib, H

1991-08-01

367

Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Strains of Bacteroides fragilis producing a 20 kDa protein toxin (B fragilis toxin (BFT) or fragilysin) are associated with diarrhoea in animals and humans. Although in vitro results indicate that BFT damages intestinal epithelial cells in culture, the effects of BFT on native human colon are not known. ?AIMS—To examine the electrophysiological and morphological effects of purified BFT-2 on human colonic mucosa in vitro. ?METHODS—For resistance (R) measurements, colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers was exposed to luminal or serosal BFT-2 (1.25-10 nM) and after four hours morphological damage was measured on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using morphometry. F actin distribution was assessed using confocal microscopy. ?RESULTS—Serosal BFT-2 for four hours was four-, two-, seven-, and threefold more potent than luminal BFT-2 in decreasing resistance, increasing epithelial 3H-mannitol permeability, and damaging crypt and surface colonocytes, respectively (p<0.05). Confocal microscopy showed reduced colonocyte F actin staining intensity after exposure to BFT-2. ?CONCLUSIONS—BFT-2 increases human colonic permeability and damages human colonic epithelial cells in vitro. These effects may be important in the development of diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation caused by B fragilis in vivo. ?? Keywords: B fragilis toxin; toxin mediated colonocyte damage; actin filaments; transepithelial resistance; morphometry PMID:10075957

Riegler, M; Lotz, M; Sears, C; Pothoulakis, C; Castagliuolo, I; Wang, C; Sedivy, R; Sogukoglu, T; Cosentini, E; Bischof, G; Feil, W; Teleky, B; Hamilton, G; LaMont, J; Wenzl, E

1999-01-01

368

Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2013-01-01

369

[Hemorrhagic stress lesions in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Incidence and therapy].  

PubMed

We have observed 428 patients with hemorrhages of the upper gastrointestinal tract; 7% of patients with stress lesions of the gastroduodenal mucosa being the cause of hemorrhages (4.9% were erosional stress hemorrhages and 2.1% were stress ulcera). Surgery is the most common cause of stress hemorrhages of the stomach and duodenum. They occur during the first 5 days after the surgery, whereas 70.59% (n = 12) occur during the first 72 hours. The localization of erosional hemorrhages of the stomach mucosa is mostly diffuse and that is why they are numerous (78.6% of the third degree) and hemorrhages are mostly heavy (the case with stress hemorrhages). Chronic peptic ulcera, especially duodenal (62.5% duodenal ulcera and 37.5% stomach ulcera) present an expressed risk factor for the occurrence of hemorrhagic erosions under the influence of the stress factor. The most common localization of the stress hemorrhagic ulcus is duodenum (66.7%) which is a potential danger for occurrence of the heaviest arterial hemorrhages. After major surgeries and during postoperative periods patients must be preventively protected by "antiulcus therapy" (especially patients with ulcera). PMID:7565340

Radovanovi?, D; Stojanovi?, D; Kalaba, J

1995-01-01

370

Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

Soref, Cheryl M.

2015-01-01

371

Collagenase-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-8) plays a protective role in tongue cancer  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is the most common cancer in the oral cavity and has a high mortality rate. A total of 90 mobile tongue SCC samples were analysed for Bryne's malignancy scores, microvascular density, and thickness of the SCC sections. In addition, the staining pattern of cyclooxygenase-2, ?v?6 integrin, the laminin-5 ?2-chain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -7, -8, -9, -20, and -28 were analysed. The expression of MMP-8 (collagenase-2) was positively associated with improved survival of the patients and the tendency was particularly prominent in females. No sufficient evidence for a correlation with the clinical outcome was found for any other immunohistological marker. To test the protective role of MMP-8 in tongue carcinogenesis, MMP-8 knockout mice were used. MMP-8 deficient female mice developed tongue SCCs at a significantly higher incidence than wild-type mice exposed to carcinogen 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide. Consistently, oestrogen-induced MMP-8 expression in cultured HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells, and MMP-8 cleaved oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ?. According to these data, we propose that, contrary to the role of most proteases produced by human carcinomas, MMP-8 has a protective, probably oestrogen-related role in the growth of mobile tongue SCCs. PMID:18253113

Korpi, J T; Kervinen, V; Mäklin, H; Väänänen, A; Lahtinen, M; Läärä, E; Ristimäki, A; Thomas, G; Ylipalosaari, M; Åström, P; Lopez-Otin, C; Sorsa, T; Kantola, S; Pirilä, E; Salo, T

2008-01-01

372

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2011-09-01

373

Semi-automatic segmentation for 3D motion analysis of the tongue with dynamic MRI.  

PubMed

Dynamic MRI has been widely used to track the motion of the tongue and measure its internal deformation during speech and swallowing. Accurate segmentation of the tongue is a prerequisite step to define the target boundary and constrain the tracking to tissue points within the tongue. Segmentation of 2D slices or 3D volumes is challenging because of the large number of slices and time frames involved in the segmentation, as well as the incorporation of numerous local deformations that occur throughout the tongue during motion. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic approach to segment 3D dynamic MRI of the tongue. The algorithm steps include seeding a few slices at one time frame, propagating seeds to the same slices at different time frames using deformable registration, and random walker segmentation based on these seed positions. This method was validated on the tongue of five normal subjects carrying out the same speech task with multi-slice 2D dynamic cine-MR images obtained at three orthogonal orientations and 26 time frames. The resulting semi-automatic segmentations of a total of 130 volumes showed an average dice similarity coefficient (DSC) score of 0.92 with less segmented volume variability between time frames than in manual segmentations. PMID:25155697

Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

2014-12-01

374

A magneto-inductive sensor based wireless tongue-computer interface.  

PubMed

We have developed a noninvasive, unobtrusive magnetic wireless tongue-computer interface, called "Tongue Drive," to provide people with severe disabilities with flexible and effective computer access and environment control. A small permanent magnet secured on the tongue by implantation, piercing, or tissue adhesives, is utilized as a tracer to track the tongue movements. The magnetic field variations inside and around the mouth due to the tongue movements are detected by a pair of three-axial linear magneto-inductive sensor modules mounted bilaterally on a headset near the user's cheeks. After being wirelessly transmitted to a portable computer, the sensor output signals are processed by a differential field cancellation algorithm to eliminate the external magnetic field interference, and translated into user control commands, which could then be used to access a desktop computer, maneuver a powered wheelchair, or control other devices in the user's environment. The system has been successfully tested on six able-bodied subjects for computer access by defining six individual commands to resemble mouse functions. Results show that the Tongue Drive system response time for 87% correctly completed commands is 0.8 s, which yields to an information transfer rate of approximately 130 b/min. PMID:18990653

Huo, Xueliang; Wang, Jia; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2008-10-01

375

The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube  

PubMed Central

Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, we show that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. We also show that the tongue–fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap. Our results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Our findings have ramifications for the study of feeding mechanics in other nectarivorous birds, and for the understanding of the evolution of nectarivory in general. We propose a conceptual mechanical explanation for this unique fluid-trapping capacity, with far-reaching practical applications (e.g., biomimetics). PMID:21536916

Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A.

2011-01-01

376

Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb  

PubMed Central

Purpose Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow recording of muscle contractile properties of tongue and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in the hindlimb. In the same animals, the following measurements were made: (a) twitch contraction time (CT; in milliseconds), (b) half decay time (HDT; in milliseconds), (c) maximum twitch force (in grams), (d) tetanic force, and (e) fatigue index determined from repetitive stimulation of the muscles. Results No significant differences were observed in young versus old groups in retrusive tongue forces, whereas a significant (p < .05) decrement in EDL tetanic forces was found in old rats. Slower CT in old rats was observed only in the tongue. Old and young groups were not significantly different in fatigue index or HDT for tongue or EDL. Conclusions Old animals generated equivalent maximum tongue forces with stimulation, but they were slower in achieving these forces than young animals. Limb and cranial muscles were not affected equally by aging. As such, information derived from limb muscle studies may not easily generalize to the cranial motor system. PMID:18658053

Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

2010-01-01

377

Outcomes after tongue-lip adhesion or mandibular distraction osteogenesis in infants with Pierre Robin sequence and severe airway obstruction.  

PubMed

The objective was to review and compare outcomes after tongue-lip adhesion (TLA) and mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) in infants with severe breathing difficulties related to Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). A single-centre retrospective (2002-2012) study was carried out; 18 infants with severe breathing difficulties related to PRS resistant to conservative treatment, who underwent TLA or MDO to correct airway obstruction, were enrolled. The primary outcome measures were successful weaning from respiratory support and resumption of full oral feeding. Nine underwent TLA and nine MDO. Eight of the nine infants who underwent MDO and all those treated with TLA were successfully weaned from respiratory support. After discharge, residual respiratory distress was diagnosed more commonly after TLA than after MDO (6/9 vs 1/9, P=0.050). Infants resumed oral feeding sooner after MDO than after TLA (mean days after surgery to full oral feeds 44±24 vs 217±134, P<0.003). The length of hospital stay was longer for infants treated with MDO than for those treated with TLA. The rate of complications was similar. Infants with severe airway obstruction related to PRS can benefit safely from either TLA or MDO. Although MDO lengthens the time to discharge, this option stabilizes airway patency of infants with PRS more efficiently and achieves full oral feeding more rapidly than TLA. PMID:23978696

Papoff, P; Guelfi, G; Cicchetti, R; Caresta, E; Cozzi, D A; Moretti, C; Midulla, F; Miano, S; Cerasaro, C; Cascone, P

2013-11-01

378

Co-activation of tongue protrudor and retractor muscles during chemoreceptor stimulation in the rat  

PubMed Central

Our primary purpose was to test the hypothesis that the tongue protrudor (genioglossus, GG) and retractor (styloglossus, SG and hyoglossus, HG) muscles are co-activated when respiratory drive increases, and that co-activation will cause retraction of the tongue. This was addressed by performing two series of experiments using a supine, anaesthetized, tracheotomized rat in which tongue muscle force and the neural drive to the protrudor and retractor muscles could be measured during spontaneous breathing. In the first series of experiments, respiratory drive was increased progressively by occluding the tracheal cannula for thirty respiratory cycles; in the second series of experiments, the animals were subjected to hyperoxic hypercapnia and poikilocapnic hypoxia. Airway occlusion for thirty breaths caused progressive, quantitatively similar increases in efferent motor nerve activity to protrudor and retractor tongue muscles. Net tongue muscle force was always consistent with tongue retraction during occlusion, and peak force rose in parallel with the neural activites. When airway occlusion was repeated following section of the lateral XIIth nerve branch (denervation of retractor muscles) the tongue either protruded (15/21 animals; 10 ± 2 mN at the 30th occluded breath) or retracted weakly (6/21 animals; 6 ± 2 mN at 30th occluded breath). To ensure that our findings were not the result of damage to the muscle nerves, occlusion experiments were also done in eight animals in which GG EMG activity was recorded instead of nerve activities. Changes in peak integrated GG electryomyogram (EMG) activity and peak retraction force during occlusion were highly correlated (r2= 0.86, slope = 1.05). In separate experiments in fourteen rats, we found that hyperoxic hypercapnia and poikilocapnic hypoxia also result in parallel increases in the respiratory-related EMG activity of the GG and HG muscles. Also, as in the occlusion experiments, augmentations of protrudor and retractor muscle EMG activities were associated with parallel changes in tongue retraction force. These studies in anaesthetized rats demonstrate that tracheal occlusion and independent stimulation of central or peripheral chemoreceptors results in inspiratory-related co-activation of the protrudor and retractor muscles, and proportional changes in tongue retraction force. These observations also demonstrate that recording GG EMG activity in isolation could lead to erroneous conclusions about respiratory-related movements of the tongue. PMID:9490849

Fuller, David; Mateika, Jason H; Fregosi, Ralph F

1998-01-01

379

Effects of age and radiation treatment on function of extrinsic tongue muscles.  

PubMed

BackgroundRadiation treatment for head and neck cancer often results in difficulty swallowing. Muscle weakness and fibrosis have been identified clinically as possible etiologies for swallowing problems following radiation. Aging may compound the effects of radiation on swallowing because radiation-induced damage to muscles and other tissues critical for the oropharyngeal swallow is overlaid on a declining sensorimotor system. However, there have been no investigations of the manner in which aging and radiation treatment effects combine to impact tongue muscles, which are critical effectors of the oropharyngeal swallow.MethodsThirty-seven male Fisher 344/Brown Norway rats were divided into four groups; young adults (9 month old), old (32 months old), young radiation (9 months), and old radiation (32 months old). Two fractions of 11 Gy on consecutive days was delivered by external beam radiation to the ventral side of the rat¿s body over the anterior portion (20 X 30 mm area) of the anterior digastric muscle. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the effects of age and radiation and their interaction on muscle contractile properties. Post-hoc testing was completed using Fisher¿s least significant differences (LSD).ResultsRadiation was associated with a significant decrease in tongue force production and reduced speed of tongue muscle contraction. However, radiation treatment did not lead to muscle atrophy and fibrosis formation in the GG muscle. Radiation treatment did not exacerbate atrophic changes observed with aging, or lead to additional fibrosis formation in the GG muscle from that observed in the other groups.ConclusionsThe purpose of this research was to determine the effect of radiation on muscles of the tongue and to determine whether aging altered the extent of radiation injury to tongue muscles. Radiation was associated with a significant decrease in tongue force production and reduced speed of tongue muscle contraction, and the reduction in the speed of tongue muscle contraction was exacerbated in the aged-rat tongue. This work provides a foundation for future investigations of treatments for concurrent effects of aging and radiation on muscles of the tongue and swallowing. PMID:25472556

Russell, John A; Connor, Nadine P

2014-12-01

380

Co-activation of tongue protrudor and retractor muscles during chemoreceptor stimulation in the rat.  

PubMed

1. Our primary purpose was to test the hypothesis that the tongue protrudor (genioglossus, GG) and retractor (styloglossus, SG and hyoglossus, HG) muscles are co-activated when respiratory drive increases, and that co-activation will cause retraction of the tongue. This was addressed by performing two series of experiments using a supine, anaesthetized, tracheotomized rat in which tongue muscle force and the neural drive to the protrudor and retractor muscles could be measured during spontaneous breathing. In the first series of experiments, respiratory drive was increased progressively by occluding the tracheal cannula for thirty respiratory cycles; in the second series of experiments, the animals were subjected to hyperoxic hypercapnia and poikilocapnic hypoxia. 2. Airway occlusion for thirty breaths caused progressive, quantitatively similar increases in efferent motor nerve activity to protrudor and retractor tongue muscles. Net tongue muscle force was always consistent with tongue retraction during occlusion, and peak force rose in parallel with the neural activites. When airway occlusion was repeated following section of the lateral XIIth nerve branch (denervation of retractor muscles) the tongue either protruded (15/21 animals; 10 +/- 2 mN at the 30th occluded breath) or retracted weakly (6/21 animals; 6 +/- 2 mN at 30th occluded breath). 3. To ensure that our findings were not the result of damage to the muscle nerves, occlusion experiments were also done in eight animals in which GG EMG activity was recorded instead of nerve activities. Changes in peak integrated GG electryomyogram (EMG) activity and peak retraction force during occlusion were highly correlated (r2 = 0.86, slope = 1.05). 4. In separate experiments in fourteen rats, we found that hyperoxic hypercapnia and poikilocapnic hypoxia also result in parallel increases in the respiratory-related EMG activity of the GG and HG muscles. Also, as in the occlusion experiments, augmentations of protrudor and retractor muscle EMG activities were associated with parallel changes in tongue retraction force. 5. These studies in anaesthetized rats demonstrate that tracheal occlusion and independent stimulation of central or peripheral chemoreceptors results in inspiratory-related co-activation of the protrudor and retractor muscles, and proportional changes in tongue retraction force. These observations also demonstrate that recording GG EMG activity in isolation could lead to erroneous conclusions about respiratory-related movements of the tongue. PMID:9490849

Fuller, D; Mateika, J H; Fregosi, R F

1998-02-15

381

Sustained cortical and subcortical neuromodulation induced by electrical tongue stimulation  

PubMed Central

This pilot study aimed to show that information-free stimulation of the tongue can improve behavioral measures and induce sustained neuromodulation of the balance-processing network in individuals with balance dysfunction. Twelve balance-impaired subjects received one week of cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM). Before and after the week of stimulation, postural sway and fMRI activation were measured to monitor susceptibility to optic flow. Nine normal controls also underwent the postural sway and fMRI tests but did not receive CN-NINM. Results showed that before CN-NINM balance-impaired subjects swayed more than normal controls as expected (p?0.05), and that overall sway and susceptibility to optic flow decreased after CN-NINM (p?0.005 & p?0.05). fMRI showed upregulation of visual sensitivity to optic flow in balance-impaired subjects that decreased after CN-NINM. A region of interest analysis indicated that CN-NINM may induce neuromodulation by increasing activity within the dorsal pons (p?0.01). PMID:20614202

Tyler, Mitchell E.; Danilov, Yuri P.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Meyerand, Mary E.

2010-01-01

382

Beer classification by means of a potentiometric electronic tongue.  

PubMed

In this work, an electronic tongue (ET) system based on an array of potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for the discrimination of different commercial beer types is presented. The array was formed by 21 ISEs combining both cationic and anionic sensors with others with generic response. For this purpose beer samples were analyzed with the ET without any pretreatment rather than the smooth agitation of the samples with a magnetic stirrer in order to reduce the foaming of samples, which could interfere into the measurements. Then, the obtained responses were evaluated using two different pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed identifying some initial patterns, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in order to achieve the correct recognition of sample varieties (81.9% accuracy). In the case of LDA, a stepwise inclusion method for variable selection based on Mahalanobis distance criteria was used to select the most discriminating variables. In this respect, the results showed that the use of supervised pattern recognition methods such as LDA is a good alternative for the resolution of complex identification situations. In addition, in order to show an ET quantitative application, beer alcohol content was predicted from the array data employing an artificial neural network model (root mean square error for testing subset was 0.131 abv). PMID:23870992

Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Calvo, Daniel; del Valle, Manel

2013-12-01

383

Modified Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and Coblation Channeling of the Tongue for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Multi-Centre Australian Trial  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the surgical outcomes and efficacy of modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (mod UPPP) and Coblation channelling of the tongue (CCT) as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Adult patients with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea were treated with combined modified UPPP, bilateral tonsillectomy, and CCT (N = 48). Full polysomnography was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Postoperative clinical assessment, sleep questionnaires, and patient demographics including body mass index were compared to preoperative data. All polysomnograms were re-scored to AASM recommended criteria by 2 sleep professionals. Results: The preoperative AHI (median and interquartile range) of 23.1 (10.4 to 36.6) was lowered to a postoperative AHI of 5.6 (1.9 to 10.4) (p < 0.05). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score fell from 10.5 (5.5 to 13.5) to 5.0 (3.09 to 9.5) (p < 0.05). Morbidity of the surgery was low, with no long-term complications recorded. Conclusions: Modified UPPP combined with CCT is a highly efficacious intervention for OSA with minimal morbidity. It should be considered for individuals who fail or are intolerant of CPAP or other medical devices. Citation: MacKay SG; Carney AS; Woods C; Antic N; McEvoy RD; Chia M; Sands T; Jones A; Hobson J; Robinson S. Modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and coblation channeling of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea: a multi-centre australian trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):117–124. PMID:23372463

MacKay, Stuart G.; Carney, A. Simon; Woods, Charmaine; Antic, Nick; McEvoy, R. Doug; Chia, Michael; Sands, Terry; Jones, Andrew; Hobson, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel

2013-01-01

384

The ovine nasal mucosa: An alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by

Bradley J. Sedgmen; Shari A. Lofthouse; Els N. T. Meeusen

2006-01-01

385

Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

386

IMMUNOCHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE SPECIES ORIGIN OF INTESTINAL MUCOSA USED FOR HEPARIN PURIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species specific antisera against bovine, ovine, and porcine serum albumin were produced in order to control the absence of bovine, ovine, or caprine tissues in the porcine intestinal mucosa used for heparin production. Two immunoassays were developed. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was very sensitive down to 1 ng\\/mL bovine albumin or 10 ppm bovine intestinal mucosa in porcine

Didier Levieux; Annie Levieux

2001-01-01

387

Ultrastructure and development of the nephridia in Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different developmental stages (trochophores, nectochaetae, non-mature and mature adults) of Anaitides mucosa were investigated ultrastructurally. A. mucosa has protonephridia throughout its life; during maturity a ciliated funnel is attached to these organs. The protonephridial duct cells are multiciliated, while the terminal cells are monociliated. The single cilium is surrounded by 14 microvilli which extend into the duct lumen without coming

Thomas Bartolomaeus

1989-01-01

388

Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and gastric mucosa: correlation revisited.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) related gastric infection is highly prevalent in developing countries. Prevalence of bacterium in dental plaque from these regions is also reported to be high, but association between simultaneous colonization of H. pylori in both these sites has not been established yet. Aim of this paper is to review possible association between simultaneous oral and gastric H. pylori colonization in dyspeptic patients. Pertinent literature was reviewed and all available evidence collected from Medline and PakMedinet. Studies conducted in the developing world show conflicting results. Some report a positive relation between oral and gastric H. pylori colonization while others deny any association. This may be due to the population sampled or methodology applied. Further studies are recommended to confirm the association between concurrent presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients using sensitive and specific tests for detection of bacterium in oral samples. PMID:18988394

Chaudhry, Saima; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Izhar, Mateen; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Akhter, M Waheed; Izhar, Faisal; Mirza, Kamran Masood

2008-06-01

389

An electron microscopic study of human olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Two intranasal biopsies of human olfactory mucosa were studied with the electron microscope, after confirming with the light microscope that they were in fact from the olfactory region. It was noted that the end of the dendrite of the human olfactory cell is flat or dome-shaped, and is not a bulb-like projection (olfactory vesicle). Moreover, the cilia are in the long axis of the olfactory cell, perpendicular to the epithelial surface, and do not lie parallel to it as described in some species. The supporting cells had multiple long microvilli, and definite points of contact with the olfactory cells; they appeared to spread their secretion over the microvilli in a novel manner, producing a layer of regularly spaced, spike-like granules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:422486

Polyzonis, B M; Kafandaris, P M; Gigis, P I; Demetriou, T

1979-01-01

390

Pyogenic Granuloma on the Upper Labial Mucosa: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is thought to represent an exuberant tissue response to a local irritation or trauma. It is a reactional response to constant minor trauma and it might be related to hormonal changes. Clinically, these lesions usually present as single nodules or sessile papules with smooth or lobulated surfaces. These may be seen in any size, from a few millimetres to several centimetres. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva more commonly (75% of all the cases). An extragingival occurrence of pyogenic granuloma is rare. This paper has described an extragingival pyogenic granuloma which occurred on the upper labial mucosa in a 30 years old female patient. PMID:23905151

K A, Kamala; Ashok, L.; G P, Sujatha

2013-01-01

391

Irritable bowel syndrome: is the colonic mucosa to blame?  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered gastrointestinal function of unknown etiology. Studies of colonic mucosal biopsies from patients with IBS have suggested altered immune system function as a potential mechanism in the pathophysiology of IBS, but efforts to identify the mucosal mediators responsible for the manifestation of symptoms that define the disorder have been limited. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Buhner et al. and Balestra et al. report findings from studies linking increased excitability of the enteric nervous system with mucosal mediators released from biopsies of patients with IBS. These studies provide evidence for the concept that mediators present in the colonic mucosa may contribute to the manifestation of clinical symptoms present in IBS. PMID:23176660

Hoffman, Jill M

2012-12-01

392

Polymers with embedded chemical indicators as an artificial olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed

Physiological investigations suggest that the olfactory mucosa probably plays an ancillary role in the recognition of odours introducing a sort of chromatographic separation that, together with the zonal distribution of olfactory receptors, gives place to selective spatio-temporal response patterns. It has been recently suggested that this behaviour may be simulated by chemical sensors embedded in continuous polymer layers. In this paper, in analogy to the biology of olfaction, a simple and compact platform able to separate and detect gases and vapours on the basis of their diffusion properties is proposed. In such a system, broadly selective colour indicators, such as metalloporphyrins, are embedded in continuous layers of polymers with different sorption properties. The exposure to various alcohols and amines shows that the porphyrins are mainly responsible for the recognition of the molecular family, while the occurring spatio-temporal signal patterns make possible the identification of the individual chemical species. PMID:20405062

Dini, Francesca; Filippini, Daniel; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Lundström, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

2010-06-01

393

Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

2013-01-01

394

Tongue forces and handgrip strength in normal individuals: association with swallowing  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate tongue force and grip strength measures and to verify the association of these measures with water swallowing in different age groups. METHOD: Tongue force was evaluated using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and grip strength using the Hand Grip in 90 normal individuals, who were divided into three groups: young (18-39 years old), adult (40-59 years old) and elderly (above 60 years old) individuals. The time and number of swallows required for the continuous ingestion of 200 ml of water were also measured. RESULTS: A reduction in tongue force and grip strength, as well as an increase in the time required to drink 200 ml of water, were observed with increasing participant age. There was no difference in the number of swallows among the three groups. A correlation was observed between reductions in tongue force and grip strength in the groups of young and elderly individuals. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the measures of tongue force in young, adult and elderly individuals. Greater variations within these differences were observed when repeated movements were performed; in addition, a decrease in strength was associated with an increase in age. The decrease in tongue force among the elderly was offset by the increase in time needed to swallow the liquid. There was an association between the measures of tongue force and grip strength in the different age groups. The results of this study can be applied clinically and may act as a basis for guidelines in healthy or vulnerable elderly populations. PMID:25672428

Mendes, Amanda Elias; Nascimento, Liz; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Filho, Wilson Jacob

2015-01-01

395

The lingual dorsal surface of the blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua scincoides).  

PubMed

The blue-tongue lizard (Tiliqua scincoides) is a variety of large skink common throughout Australia. There are seven species of Tiliqua and all of them have long bodies, short limbs and short and robust tails. T. scincoides occurs in a wide range of habitats; its diet is omnivorous. When threatened, it opens the mouth and protrudes its characteristic large fleshy cobalt blue tongue. It is currently found as a popular species and also as a pet animal in the European countries. No data are available in literature about the morphology of the tongue of T. scincoides; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate by means of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, the anatomy of the dorsal lingual surface. Our results demonstrate the presence of a tongue tip with a smooth surface without papillae. The foretongue was characterized by a stratified epithelium with foliate-like papillae and deep inter-papillar spaces in the middle part and cylindrical papillae with a flat surface in the lateral parts. All the posterior area of the tongue was characterized by more compacted papillae and the inter-papillar spaces were very narrow. Light microscopy showed the presence of melanin throughout the tongue. No taste buds were recognized on the lingual dorsal surface. Therefore, the papillae probably have a mechanical function showing an important role in the swallowing phase. The morphology of the tongue surface can be correlated to the diet and, different roles, as in other examined species, can be hypothesized for different areas. PMID:19769569

Abbate, F; Latella, G; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Germanà, G P; Levanti, M B

2009-10-01

396

Segmentation of tongue muscles from super-resolution magnetic resonance images.  

PubMed

Imaging and quantification of tongue anatomy is helpful in surgical planning, post-operative rehabilitation of tongue cancer patients, and studying of how humans adapt and learn new strategies for breathing, swallowing and speaking to compensate for changes in function caused by disease, medical interventions or aging. In vivo acquisition of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) images with clearly visible tongue muscles is currently not feasible because of breathing and involuntary swallowing motions that occur over lengthy imaging times. However, recent advances in image reconstruction now allow the generation of super-resolution 3D MR images from sets of orthogonal images, acquired at a high in-plane resolution and combined using super-resolution techniques. This paper presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt towards automatic tongue muscle segmentation from MR images. We devised a database of ten super-resolution 3D MR images, in which the genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles were manually segmented and annotated with landmarks. We demonstrate the feasibility of segmenting the muscles of interest automatically by applying the landmark-based game-theoretic framework (GTF), where a landmark detector based on Haar-like features and an optimal assignment-based shape representation were integrated. The obtained segmentation results were validated against an independent manual segmentation performed by a second observer, as well as against B-splines and demons atlasing approaches. The segmentation performance resulted in mean Dice coefficients of 85.3%, 81.8%, 78.8% and 75.8% for the second observer, GTF, B-splines atlasing and demons atlasing, respectively. The obtained level of segmentation accuracy indicates that computerized tongue muscle segmentation may be used in surgical planning and treatment outcome analysis of tongue cancer patients, and in studies of normal subjects and subjects with speech and swallowing problems. PMID:25487963

Ibragimov, Bulat; Prince, Jerry L; Murano, Emi Z; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

2015-02-01

397

The maintenance of rat palatal mucosa in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was maintained under organ culture conditions in a chemically defined medium for periods up to 28 days. The histological state of the cultured palatal mucosa was compared with that of control tissue from growing animals of comparable age. The control tissues showed an increase in epithelial thickness, first noticeable at 17 days. Whilst the general structure of the tissues in organ culture was preserved for the duration of the experiment, some changes in epithelial behavior were evident. There was an increase in epithelial thickness up to 6 days, followed by a reduction in the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium to a thickness comparable with that at the start of the experiment. There was a loss of epithelial glycogen within the first day, with occasional reappearance of patchy and irregular deposits. Whereas the control of epithelial thickness appeared to be restored after 10 days in vitro, disturbances in the maturation of the keratinocytes, manifested as epithelial pearls and dyskeratotic cells, were evident at subsequent stages. Epiboly never occurred. The connective tissue component showed continued development, indicated by an increase in the thickness of collagen fibres. The overall palatal growth seen in vivo did not occur in organ culture. We suggest that the improved maintenance reported is partly the result of explanting tissues in such a way as to minimize trauma, and partly the result of incorporating serum albumin into the chemically defined medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1010792

Hill, M W; Miles, A E

1976-01-01

398

Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 ..mu..M and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.

1986-03-01

399

Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

2004-06-30

400

Photodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer and elastic scattering spectroscopy of the duodenal mucosa for the detection of pancreaticobiliary malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnosis and treatment of pancreaticobiliary malignancy is of major interest to our group. Building on prior work, we undertook a phase I study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, pancreatic cancer. We also initiated an optical diagnostic study using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) of the normal-appearing periampullary duodenal mucosa in vivo to investigate the hypothesis of a field effect in pancreaticobiliary malignancy. In a phase I dose escalation study, patients were treated with interstitial verteporfin PDT via a single fibre, to determine its general safety profile and the optimum treatment parameters needed to achieve effective and safe necrosis of tumour, With increasing light doses, there was a linear increase in the extent of tumour necrosis around the fibre, without serious adverse events. Follow-on studies using multiple fibres are planned. In 30 patients with benign or malignant pancreaticobiliary disease undergoing clinically-indicated endoscopy, ESS spectra were collected from the normal-appearing duodenum and antrum and a diagnostic algorithm generated by principle component and linear discriminant analysis. Pooled data from duodenal sites distal to the ampulla gave a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 72% (82% AUC) for the detection of malignancy, whereas those from the periampullary region had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 61% (72% AUC); antral measurements were not able to discriminate with such accuracy. These early results suggest that ESS of the duodenal mucosa could represent a novel minimally invasive diagnostic test for pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

Huggett, M. T.; Baddeley, R. N. B.; Sandanayake, N. S.; Webster, G. J. M.; Bown, S. G.; Lovat, L. B.; Gillams, A.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

2011-02-01

401

A method to preserve extracellular surfactant-like phospholipids on the luminal surface of rodent gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Previous results from our laboratory employing the phospholipid-selective cytochemical stain iodoplatinate (IP) suggest that surfactant-like phospholipids (SLPL) are intracellularly contained within rodent gastric mucous cells and are occasionally seen extracellularly within the mucous gel layer. This hydrophobic lipid coating may provide the stomach with a protective water-repellent lining against the corrosive gastric juice in the lumen. Extracellular SLPL are frequently removed during tissue processing for electron microscopy. In this study, we developed a simple method employing an agarose-embedding technique to retain these extracellular SLPL in gastric mucosa excised from rats pre-treated with prostaglandin (to stimulate gastric surfactant/mucus secretion). With the help of polypropylene supporting screens and cassette carriers, thin slices of agarose-embedded gastric mucosa were well preserved and uniformly stained with IP. Extracellular myelin figures were well retained over the interfoveolar surface as well as in the pit region. The IP-reactive substances were seen within or coating the surface of the mucous gel. Our results also indicate that agarose is useful not only for supporting soft tissue while preparing sections with a microslicer but also for preservation of extracellular lipoidal material for electron microscopic observation. PMID:1689341

Kao, Y C; Lichtenberger, L M

1990-03-01

402

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviate nasal mucosa radiation damage in a Guinea pig model.  

PubMed

Nasal complications after radiotherapy severely affect the quality of life of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, and there is a compelling need to find novel therapies for nasal epithelial cell radiation damage. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in guinea pig model of nasal mucosa radiation damage and explored its therapeutic mechanism. Cultured hUC-MSCs were injected intravenously immediately after radiation in the nasal mucosa-radiation-damage guinea pig model. Migration of hUC-MSCs into the nasal mucosa and the potential for differentiation into nasal epithelial cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence. The therapeutic effects of hUC-MSCs were evaluated by mucus clearance time (MCT), degree of nasal mucosa edema, and the nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio. Results indicate that the hUC-MSCs migrated to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and did not differentiate into nasal epithelial cells in this model. The MCT and degree of mucosal edema were improved at 1 week and 1 month after radiation, respectively, but no difference was found at 3 months and 6 months after radiation. The nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio was not improved 6 months after radiation. Thus, hUC-MSCs can migrate to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and improve MCT and mucosa edema within a short time period, but these cells are unable to differentiate into nasal epithelial cells and improve nasal epithelial regeneration in the nasal mucosa radiation damage guinea pig model. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 331-338, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25209829

Duan, Hong-Gang; Ji, Fang; Zheng, Chun-Quan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing

2015-02-01

403

Role of neutrophilic elastase in ethanol induced injury to the gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Intragastric administration of ethanol (at concentrations likely to be encountered by the mucosa during acute intoxication) produces gastritis. Recent studies have implicated neutrophils in the gastric mucosal injury induced by luminal ethanol. The objective of the present study was to assess whether neutrophilic elastase contributes to the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented for perfusion of the gastric lumen with saline or ethanol. Mucosal injury was quantitated by continuously measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The experimental protocol consisted of a 40 minute control period (saline perfusion) followed by three successive 40 minute experimental periods (ethanol perfusion). During the three experimental periods the concentration of ethanol was progressively increased to 10, 20, and 30%. The experiments were performed in untreated animals and in animals pretreated with either Eglin c (an inhibitor of elastase and cathepsin G activity) or L 658 (a specific inhibitor of elastase activity). The effects of ethanol on EDTA clearance (x control) in untreated (n = 9) and L658 treated (n = 5) animals are shown in the Table below. Pretreatment with L 658 significantly attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in EDTA clearance. Pretreatment with Eglin c (n = 6) also provided some protection against ethanol-induced injury, but not to the extent as that provided by L658. The results of the authors studies suggest that neutrophilic elastase contributes to a gastric mucosal injury induced by luminal perfusion of the stomach with physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol.

Kvietys, P.R.; Carter, P.R. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport (United States))

1990-02-26

404

90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in heavily pretreated patients with mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Radioimmunotherapy using (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan has predominantly been used in patients with follicular lymphoma, but little is known about its activity in patients with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). A total of six patients progressing/relapsing following conventional therapy for MALT lymphoma were treated with (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan at our institution. Two patients had gastric MALT lymphoma, one suffered from orbital MALT lymphoma, and two had cutaneous MALT lymphoma, while one patient had a widely disseminated lymphoma involving the stomach, lungs, lymph nodes, and salivary glands. All patients were at least in third relapse following various forms of therapy including Helicobacter pylori-eradication, radiation, chemotherapy, and application of rituximab. Following two doses of rituximab at 250?mg/m(2) at an interval of 1 week, (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan was given immediately at a dose of 0.4?mCi/kg body weight. Treatment was well tolerated apart from one episode of pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Four patients developed a complete remission (ongoing now for 4, 16, 23, and 24 months), one patient had a partial response lasting for 5 months, and one patient had stable disease for 13 months. After a follow-up of 9-29 months, all patients are alive. Application of (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is active and safe in heavily pretreated patients with MALT lymphoma. PMID:21133720

Hoffmann, Martha; Troch, Marlene; Eidherr, Harald; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Jonak, Constanze; Muellauer, Leonhard; Raderer, Markus

2011-01-01

405

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.  

PubMed

In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100). PMID:24106763

Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2013-10-01

406

[Development of spectrometer for tongue diagnosis based on plane holography concave grating].  

PubMed

The traditional tongue inspection method should be urgently improved due to the relative large diagnosis error probability caused by the excessive dependence on the Chinese physician's experience and judgment. But the application of tongue diagnosis based on image processing is limited by some factors including the performance of light source, image acquisition device and the low recognition rate of similar color for different diseases. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the spectroscopy method was employed to analyze the tongue by using the unique fingerprint effect of tongue spectrum. A spectrometer for tongue diagnosis (STD) was developed to achieve this goal in this paper. Meanwhile, to overcome the shortcomings of traditional light-splitting devices, a plane holographic concave grating was used as the diffractive grating, which not only can improve the luminous flux efficiency and miniaturize system, but also improve the spectral imaging quality and resolution. Experimental results demonstrated that the spectral range of STD reached 340-850 nm, and its spectral resolution is better than 2 nm. And the result of simulation experiment validated the feasibility of spectrometer's system. PMID:24369678

Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guo-dong; Huang, Zhen

2013-09-01

407

THEMIS and PTPRK in celiac intestinal mucosa: coexpression in disease and after in vitro gliadin challenge.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune mediated, polygenic disorder, where HLA-DQ2/DQ8 alleles contribute around 35% to genetic risk, but several other genes are also involved. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and the more recent immunochip genotyping projects have fine-mapped 39 regions of genetic susceptibility to the disease, most of which harbor candidate genes that could participate in this disease process. We focused our attention to the GWAS peak on chr6: 127.99-128.38?Mb, a region including two genes, thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection (THEMIS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, kappa (PTPRK), both of which have immune-related functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of these two genes in duodenal mucosa of active and treated CD patients and in controls, and to determine whether SNPs (rs802734, rs55743914, rs72975916, rs10484718 and rs9491896) associated with CD have any influence on gene expression. THEMIS showed higher expression in active CD compared with treated patients and controls, whereas PTPRK showed lower expression. Our study confirmed the association of this region with CD in our population, but only the genotype of rs802734 showed some influence in the expression of THEMIS. On the other hand, we found a significant positive correlation between THEMIS and PTPRK mRNA levels in CD patients but not in controls. Our results suggest a possible role for both candidate genes in CD pathogenesis and the existence of complex, regulatory relationships that reside in the vast non-coding, functional intergenic regions of the genome. Further investigation is needed to clarify the impact of the disease-associated SNPs on gene function. PMID:23820479

Bondar, Constanza; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Irastorza, Iñaki; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca; Chirdo, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

2014-03-01

408

The Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess radiotherapy for patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with respect to survival, treatment response, and complications. Materials and Methods Enrolled into this study were 48 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma from January 2000 to September 2012. Forty-one patients had low grade and seven had mixed component with high grade. Helicobacter pylori eradication was performed in 33 patients. Thirty-four patients received radiotherapy alone. Ten patients received chemotherapy before radiotherapy, and three patients underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One patient received surgery followed by radiotherapy. All patients received radiotherapy of median dose of 30.6 Gy. Results The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 to 158 months (median, 48 months). Five-year overall survival and cause-specific survival rates were 90.3% and 100%. All patients treated with radiotherapy alone achieved pathologic complete remission (pCR) in 31 of the low-grade and in three of the mixed-grade patients. All patients treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery prior to radiotherapy achieved pCR except one patient who received chemotherapy before radiotherapy. During the follow-up period, three patients developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the stomach, and one developed gastric adenocarcinoma after radiotherapy. No grade 3 or higher acute or late complications developed. One patient, who initially exhibited gastroptosis, developed mild atrophy of left kidney. Conclusion These findings indicate that a modest dose of radiotherapy alone can achieve a high cure rate for low-grade and even mixed-grade gastric MALT lymphoma without serious toxicity. Patients should be carefully observed after radiotherapy to screen for secondary malignancies. PMID:24520221

Nam, Taek-Keun; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Kim, Yong-Hyeob; Yoon, Mee Sun; Song, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ja

2014-01-01

409

Characterization of the motor inhibitory role of colonic mucosa under chemical stimulation in mice.  

PubMed

The main roles of the colonic mucosa are the absorption of water and electrolytes and the barrier function that preserves the integrity of the colonic wall. The mediators and mechanisms to accomplish these functions are under continuous investigation, but little attention has been paid to a possible control of colonic motility by the mucosa that would fine tune the relationship between absorption and motility. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the mucosa in the control of induced colonic contractility. Young ICR-CD1 mice (3-5 mo old) were studied. Isometric tension transducers were used to record contractility in full-thickness (FT) and mucosa-free (MF) strips from proximal colon. Proximal FT strips showed lower KCl- and bethanechol-induced responses than MF strips. The difference was not due to mechanical artefacts since the contractile response of FT strips to electrical field stimulation was around 50% lower than in MF. The inhibitory effects of the mucosa on FT strips were mimicked by immersion of separate strips of mucosa in the organ bath but not by addition of mucosal extract, suggesting gaseous molecules as mediators of this effect. Incubation of MF strips with synthase inhibitors of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide abolished the inhibition caused by addition of the mucosal strip, indicating that mucosal gasotransmitters are the mediators of these effects. This suggests that the control of colonic motility exerted by the mucosa could fine tune the balance between transit and absorption. PMID:24525019

Martín-Cano, Francisco E; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

2014-04-01

410

Effects of topical nasal steroids and diclofenac on the nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a double-blind experimental study.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate nasal mucosal changes and efficiency of nasal steroids and diclofenac on nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment. Forty adult Albino-Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. Group 1 (control group) (n = 10) not exposed to hyperbaric or enhanced oxygen concentrations; group 2 (HBO group) (n = 10) underwent only HBO treatment; group 3 (n = 10) received HBO and intranasal mometasone furoate (10 ?l/day); group 4 (n = 10) treated with HBO and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg/day ip). Specimens of nasal mucosa were collected after sacrificing and dissection of animals. The specimens were processed for light microscopic evaluation, and then evaluated histopathologically for fibroblastic proliferation and inflammation. Regarding the scores of inflammation, the level of inflammation in the control group was significantly less severe than the other groups (p < 0.05). Evaluation of the fibrosis scores showed that the scores of both groups 2 and 4 were significantly increased (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups 2, 3, and 4 as for fibrosis and inflammation (p > 0.05). Chronic HBO treatment induced mild inflammation of the nasal mucosa. These effects cannot be prevented adequately by administration of nasal steroids and diclofenac. PMID:24362587

Vuralkan, Erkan; Cobanoglu, Hatice Bengu; Arslan, Abdullah; Arslan, Selcuk; Mungan, Sevdegul; Tatar, Selcuk; Toklu, Ak?n Savas

2014-08-01

411

Changes monitoring of the Drygalski Ice Tongue front during 1973 to 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drygalski Ice Tongue is the largest outlet glacier in the Victoria Land part of the East Antarctic ice sheet with an area of 224,000 km2, and it is the seaward extension of David Glacier, located on the Scott Coast, in the northern part of McMurdo Sound of Antarctica's Ross Dependency. The supply of the David Glacier-Drygalski Ice Tongue comes from two main flows, a northern one from the Talos Dome and a southern one from Dome C. The importance of this glacier is due to the fact that it is the most massive drainage glacier in the Victoria Land part of East Antarctica sector. In addition, the ice tongue forms the southern coastline of Terra Nova Bay and the maximum eastward extent of the Terra Nova Bay polynya is limited by the length of the ice tongue. In this study, we extracted the boundaries of the Drygalski Ice Tongue front from 1973-2012 using a time series of ENVISAT ASAR and Landsat TM/ETM+ data. To quantify the ice tongue front changes, we measured the length of the ice tongue along two ice flowlines in the southern and northern side from the latest grounding line data. In January 2005, the Drygalski Ice Tongue was about 147 km and 114 km long in the southern and northern side. In March 2005, the giant 120 km long iceberg known as B15A collided with the end of the ice tongue breaking off two large pieces (the western one is 70.38 km2 and the eastern one is 91.76 km2). A year later in March 2006 another giant iceberg known as C16 broke another piece off of ~105.3 km2 in size. Since then the ice tongue started another steady propagation and amounted to be around 134 km and 111 km along the southern and northern flow. By calculating the distance of coastlines in different years, we found that the average propagation rate of the ice tongue front along the south flowline is 600 m a-1, while that along the north flowline is 596 m a-1. It indicates that the velocity of the southern flow is almost same as that of the northern one, which is different from the velocity near the grounding line where the southern velocity (580 ± 30 m a-1) is larger than the northern one (259 ± 30 m a-1). Besides, the results suggest that velocities of both the southern and northern flow in the front remained relatively constant from about 1973 to 2012, and show a similar change trend. The average velocity of the ice front between 1960 and 1993 was approximately 800 m a-1, faster than 600 m a-1 during 1973 to 2012, which also proved that the propagation rate of the ice tongue was slowing down.

Zhao, Chen; Cheng, Xiao; Hui, Fengming

2014-05-01

412

Abnormal patterns of tongue-palate contact in the speech of individuals with cleft palate.  

PubMed

Individuals with cleft palate, even those with adequate velopharyngeal function, are at high risk for disordered lingual articulation. This article attempts to summarize current knowledge of abnormal tongue-palate contact patterns derived from electropalatographic (EPG) data in speakers with cleft palate. These data, which have been reported in 23 articles published over the past 20 years, have added significantly to our knowledge about cleft palate speech. Eight abnormal patterns of tongue-palate contact are described and illustrated with data from children and adults with repaired cleft palate. The paper also discusses some of the problems in interpreting EPG data from speakers with abnormal craniofacial anatomy and emphasizes the importance of quantifying relevant aspects of tongue-palate contact data. Areas of research requiring further investigation are outlined. PMID:15259573

Gibbon, Fiona E

2004-01-01

413

Methodology for three-dimensional reconstruction of the tongue surface from ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional ultrasound imaging system was developed for studying tongue configurations during speech and swallowing. A sequence of two-dimensional ultrasound B- mode images was acquired by moving the ultrasound transducer under the subject's chin. A six-degree-of-freedom electromagnetic position sensor was used in order to determine the spatial position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer during the scanning. Registration of image slices was achieved by using a time code generator to synchronize ultrasound images with the spatial information. Techniques were developed for 3D reconstruction of the tongue surface from multi-planar ultrasound scans using both commercial software and NIH- developed programs for PC and Macintosh computers. The system demonstrated its potential to quickly acquire and reconstruct 3D tongue images, and to assist speech pathologists and radiologists in speech and swallowing disorder diagnosis.

Wang, Cheng; Sonies, Barbara C.

1995-05-01

414

The Improved Data Processing Method For Electronic Tongue Based On Multi-Ion LAPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an improved data processing method for multi-ion detection and feature recognition of electronic tongue for in situ application. Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor (LAPS) with its peripheral units can be easily integrated into portable applications and sensor networks. Sensitive components, such as Pb-Ag-As-S and Cu-Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses are deposited onto the surface of LAPS. I-V curves have been studied, and features of different ions were extracted and successfully classified. Methods of Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Relevant Vector Machine (RVM) were effectively applied to provide a new approach for electronic tongue to recognize the varieties of data sequences, which benefit electronic tongue a lot for double checking the validity of data sequences.

Li, Yi; Cai, Wei; Gao, Xiaoming; Guo, Hongsun; Zhao, Huixin; Wang, Ping

2009-05-01

415

Leiomyosarcoma of the tongue with multiple metastases: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Leiomyosarcoma of the tongue is an extremely rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasm and only 25 cases have been described in the English-language literature, 22 of which were primary lesions. A case is presented of a 54-year-old female patient diagnosed with primary leiomyosarcoma of the tongue with lung and multiple soft tissue metastases. This case is especially unusual because widespread soft tissue metastases resulted, involving the lung and skeletal muscle in 3 separate sites. Unfortunately, curative treatment was not possible. Chemotherapy using a combination of ifosfamide and doxorubicin was, therefore, provided as palliation, with a good response after a 3-week cycle of therapy. Currently available literature on primary and secondary leiomyosarcoma of the tongue was reviewed for a better understanding of this rare mesenchymal neoplasm. To the investigators' knowledge, there are no other reported cases in the literature that have previously been managed with chemotherapy alone. PMID:21856059

Ahn, John HyunBaek; Mirza, Tahir; Ameerally, Phillip

2012-07-01

416

Perforation of the small bowel due to metastasis from tongue cancer.  

PubMed

Distant small bowel metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are extremely rare, and tongue cancer metastasizing to the small bowel has not been previously reported. We describe a 40-year-old male patient who underwent subtotal gross laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in February 2007 and then presented in November 2008 with severe abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and X-rays revealed free air, suggesting intestinal perforation. Emergency surgery revealed a 10-mm perforation at the ileum and a palpable hard tumor at the perforation site. The ileum was resected, and pathologic findings showed squamous cell carcinoma at the perforation site, which was consistent with metastasis from tongue cancer. PMID:21675628

Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Keiji; Shimada, Ryu; Horiuchi, Atsushi; Shibuya, Hajime; Nakamura, Keisuke; Iinuma, Hisae; Hayama, Tamuro; Yamada, Hideki; Nozawa, Keijiro; Ishihara, Soichiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

2011-01-01

417

Using Speech Recognition to Enhance the Tongue Drive System Functionality in Computer Access  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue operated assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe physical disabilities to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs using their volitional tongue movements. TDS offers six discrete commands, simultaneously available to the users, for pointing and typing as a substitute for mouse and keyboard in computer access, respectively. To enhance the TDS performance in typing, we have added a microphone, an audio codec, and a wireless audio link to its readily available 3-axial magnetic sensor array, and combined it with a commercially available speech recognition software, the Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways for text entry. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the combined TDS and speech recognition technologies can provide end users with significantly higher performance than using each technology alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry, such as web surfing. PMID:22255801

Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2013-01-01

418

Body piercing and airway management: photo guide to tongue jewelry removal techniques.  

PubMed

Body modification has been practiced in cultures around the world for thousands of years. The ramifications of body piercing on anesthesia practice and airway management have become more evident in recent years. This article reviews the techniques for removal of tongue jewelry and options for maintaining oral piercing patency. To remove or not to remove...that is the question. In the emergency medicine and anesthesia literature, there are arguments both for and against the routine removal of oral jewelry for intubation. Some practitioners feel that if people can eat, drink, talk, and sleep with the jewelry in place, they probably can be intubated safely without removing it. Most case reports present the opinion that tongue jewelry should be removed before oral intubation to minimize jewelry aspiration, bleeding, and medical-legal risks to the anesthetist. This article's focus is to illustrate suggested tongue jewelry removal techniques for awake and unconscious patients from the health practitioner's and body piercer's perspectives. PMID:18323315

DeBoer, Scott; McNeil, Michelle; Amundson, Troy

2008-02-01

419

Squamous cell carcinoma and piercing of the tongue - a case report.  

PubMed

Tongue piercings can be associated with local and systemic complications. Local complications occur frequently immediately after the surgery but also long-term local effects can cause problems such as speech and swallowing difficulties. Aspiration, transmission of infectious diseases, hypersensitivity reaction belong to the systemic complications. In the presented paper an unusual case of cancer development in a 26-year-old man who had a metal piercing inserted for 5 years in the right anterior third of the tongue. Despite of intense concommitant chemoradiotherapy the patient died 18 months from the first symptoms. In prevention of various complications it would be the best solution spread information about the risks of the tongue piercing especially within teenage population. PMID:21700470

Stanko, Peter; Poruban, Dusan; Mracna, Jozef; Holly, Dusan; Janicek, Branislav; Pinakova, Zuzana; Porubska, Miriam; Galbavy, Stefan

2012-06-01

420

Using speech recognition to enhance the Tongue Drive System functionality in computer access.  

PubMed

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue operated assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe physical disabilities to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs using their volitional tongue movements. TDS offers six discrete commands, simultaneously available to the users, for pointing and typing as a substitute for mouse and keyboard in computer access, respectively. To enhance the TDS performance in typing, we have added a microphone, an audio codec, and a wireless audio link to its readily available 3-axial magnetic sensor array, and combined it with a commercially available speech recognition software, the Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways for text entry. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the combined TDS and speech recognition technologies can provide end users with significantly higher performance than using each technology alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry, such as web surfing. PMID:22255801

Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

421

Relationship between trefoil factor 1 expression and gastric mucosa injuries and gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is associated with mucosa healing and carcinoma suppression, we assess the expression of trefoil factor 1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa. METHODS: TFF1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical method, and the average positive A was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software. RESULTS: Increased TFF1 was detected in gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer compared with normal mucosa. The same result could be seen in multiple and compound ulcer compared with simple ulcer. There was no significant difference between gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis and simple ulcer respectively. Increased TFF1 was detected in the peripheral mucosa of the gastric adenocarcinoma compared with normal mucosa. The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma, the weaker the expression of TFF1. There was no TFF1 expressed in low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in middle and highly differentiated adenocarcinoma was a little lower than that in normal mucosa. But there was no significant difference. No TFF1 was assessed in esophageal squamous carcinoma and peripheral tissue. There was no significant difference between male and female. CONCLUSION: The expression of TFF1 was higher in gastritis and peptic ulcer than that in normal mucosa, and was also higher in multiple and compound ulcer than in simple ulcer. It seems that TFF1 plays a role in gastric mucosa protection and epithelial restitution. Increased expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue suggests that TFF1 is associated with mechanism of carcinoma suppression and differentiation. Decreased expression of TFF1 in carcinoma and its relativity to the differentiation suggests that TFF1 is related to gland and cell destruction of carcinoma. PMID:15849833

Ren, Jian-Lin; Luo, Jin-Yan; Lu, Ya-Pi; Wang, Lin; Shi, Hua-Xiu

2005-01-01

422

Early effect of low-dose endotoxin on rat cecal mucosa ex vivo.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that endotoxin triggers translocation of intestinal bacteria in vivo, either by directly damaging intestinal mucosa or by inducing a systemic inflammatory reaction that leads to mucosal disruption. To address this issue, we examined the immediate effect of extraluminal endotoxin on structure and function of isolated rat cecal mucosa without other inflammatory cells in vitro. The cecal mucosa of 12 male Wistar rats was mounted in modified Ussing chambers filled with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and the ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli HB101:K12 incubated on the mucosal side. Endotoxin was added to the submucosal side at concentrations of 1 and 10 EU/ml, respectively. Under gassing with carbogene at 37 degreesC, the potential difference across the mucosa was measured continuously. Samples of the mucosal and submucosal solutions were removed at 60, 120, and 180 min and plated out on McConkey ampicillin-agar. After 180 min, the mucosal specimens were retrieved and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. No significant change in potential difference was observed in control or endotoxin-incubated mucosa within the observation period. Neither light nor scanning electron microscopy showed a significant change in the structure of the epithelium, mucosa, or submucosa. No significant translocation of the E. coli across the mucosa was seen. We concluded that endotoxin alone does not induce immediate structural and functional damage to rat cecal mucosa in vitro. Therefore, it seems unlikely that a short endotoxemia alone directly triggers bacterial translocation by disrupting intestinal mucosa, but rather, entotoxin induces a local and systemic inflammatory reaction that leads to mucosal disruption. PMID:9878322

Mayer, J M; Dolch, M; Rozdzinski, E; Schoenberg, M H; Beger, H G

1998-12-01

423

Limited smoothelin expression within the muscularis mucosae: validation in bladder diverticula.  

PubMed

Smoothelin, a marker of differentiated smooth muscle, is diffusely expressed by bladder muscularis propria and is negative to only weakly and focally expressed in muscularis mucosae. We used bladder diverticula, which lack muscularis propria and frequently demonstrate hyperplastic muscularis mucosae, to evaluate the use of smoothelin immunoreactivity in diagnostic pathology. Diverticula from 40 patients (21 with benign features, 19 with neoplastic features) were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using smoothelin antibody (clone R4A, 1:150 dilution; Abcam, Cambridge, MA); and tissue was scored as 0 (no expression), 1+ (moderate expression b10% of cells), 2+ expression (moderate expression N10% of cells), and 3+ (robust diffuse expression). All diverticula contained muscularis mucosae of varying caliber; staining in diverticular muscularis mucosae was compared with historic results in the muscularis mucosae of cystectomy specimens. Hyperplastic muscularis mucosae occurred in 31 (78%) of 40 cases. Smoothelin immunoreactivity in the diverticular muscularis mucosae included 0 (16/40, or 40%); 1+ (11/40, or 27.5%); 2+ (13/40, or 32.5%); and 3+ (0/40, or 0%), with a slightly higher 2+ expression level in hyperplastic versus nonhyperplastic muscularis mucosae (35% versus 22%). Adjacent normal muscularis propria, present in 12 specimens, demonstrated 3+ muscularis propria immunoreactivity. Comparison between diverticula with benign and neoplastic features showed no significant difference in smoothelin immunoreactivity. No correlation was evident with smoothelin immunohistochemistry and muscle caliber. Smoothelin immunoreactivity in bladder diverticula confirms the limited nature of smoothelin expression in the muscularis mucosae and represents a useful ancillary technique in the proper histopathologic evaluation of diverticular and nondiverticular bladder carcinomas. A strong and robust staining of smooth, rounded muscle with smoothelin remains a useful diagnostic adjunct in the reliable recognition of muscularis propria. PMID:21683983

Hansel, Donna E; Paner, Gladell P; Nese, Nalan; Amin, Mahul B

2011-11-01

424

An Arch-Shaped Intraoral Tongue Drive System with Built-in Tongue-Computer Interfacing SoC  

PubMed Central

We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user's mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw magnetic sensor data and sends it wirelessly to an external TDS universal interface (TDS-UI) via an inductive coil or a planar inverted-F antenna. A built-in transmitter (Tx) employs a dual-band radio that operates at either 27 MHz or 432 MHz band, according to the wireless link quality. A built-in super-regenerative receiver (SR-Rx) monitors the wireless link quality and switches the band if the link quality is below a predetermined threshold. An accompanying ultra-low power FPGA generates data packets for the Tx and handles digital control functions. The custom-designed TDS-UI receives raw magnetic sensor data from the iTDS-2, recognizes the intended user commands by the sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm running in a smartphone, and delivers the classified commands to the target devices, such as a personal computer or a powered wheelchair. We evaluated the iTDS-2 prototype using center-out and maze navigation tasks on two human subjects, which proved its functionality. The subjects' performance with the iTDS-2 was improved by 22% over its predecessor, reported in our earlier publication. PMID:25405513

Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

425

The Connection between the Teaching and Learning of the Mother Tongue and the Teaching and Learning of other Modern Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the symposium held on the teaching and learning of the mother tongue and of other modern languages. The aims were: (1) to examine the general connections between the teaching and learning of the mother tongue and of other modern languages in mono-, bi-, and multilingual communities in Europe; (2) to consider the bearing of…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Committee for General and Technical Education.

426

Multisensor systems of the electronic tongue type as novel opportunities in design and application of chemical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main types of modern multisensor systems of the electronic tongue type as well as the sensitive materials and sensors (transducers) employed in such systems are considered. The most commonly used analytical applications of the electronic tongue including recognition and classification of various liquid media, quantitative analysis, process monitoring and taste assessment of foodstuffs are discussed.

Vlasov, Yuri G.; Legin, Andrey V.; Rudnitskaya, Alisa M.

2006-02-01

427

Evaluation of Italian wine by the electronic tongue: recognition, quantitative analysis and correlation with human sensory perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic tongue based on a sensor array comprising 23 potentiometric cross-sensitive chemical sensors and pattern recognition and multivariate calibration data processing tools was applied to the analysis of Italian red wines. The measurements were made in 20 samples of Barbera d’Asti and in 36 samples of Gutturnio wine. The electronic tongue distinguished all wine samples of the same denomination

A. Legin; A. Rudnitskaya; L. Lvova; Yu. Vlasov; C. Di Natale; A. D’Amico

2003-01-01

428

The Nyae Nyae Village Schools 1994-2010: An Indigenous Mother-Tongue Education Project after 15 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of a mother-tongue education project for the Ju|'hoansi of Nyae Nyae in Namibia--the village schools. These schools are the only places in southern Africa where an Indigenous San community has access to mother-tongue education for 3 years; and are, thus, an important example in the region. However, there are some…

Cwi, Cwisa; Hays, Jennifer

2011-01-01

429

German-American Bilingualism: Cui Malo? Mother Tongue and Socioeconomic Status among the Second Generation in 1940.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizes language data from the 1940 Census Public Law Sample to measure the socioeconomic impact of a foreign mother tongue by comparing second-generation Germans who grew up speaking German and English, respectively. Results show that the disadvantages of a foreign mother tongue proved to be negligible for this group. (GR)

Kamphoefner, Walter D.

1994-01-01

430

Reduction of Tongue Protrusion of a 24-Year-Old Woman with Down Syndrome through Self-Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tongue protrusion of a 24-year-old moderately retarded woman with Down syndrome was reduced through self-monitoring. A series of six, 30-minute audio cassette tapes, with decreasing numbers of beep tones, served as cues to self-monitor. This reduction of tongue protrusion was maintained when the self-monitoring procedures were gradually faded and…

Rudrud, Eric H.; And Others

1984-01-01

431

Capillary supply in relation to myosin heavy chain fibre composition of human intrinsic tongue muscles.  

PubMed

The capillary supply and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of three different intrinsic tongue muscles was analysed in the anterior and posterior regions of the human tongue with biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Mean capillary density for the whole tongue was 796 ± 82 cap/mm², without regional differences. The overall number of capillaries around each fibre (CAF) was higher in the posterior than in the anterior region (2.5 vs. 2.1, p = 0.009). However, correcting for regional differences in fibre size, CAF per fibre area was higher in the anterior region (4.3 vs. 3.0, p < 0.001). Muscle fibres containing fast MyHCs predominated in the anterior region (78.7%), consisting of MyHCIIa (58.5%), MyHCIIx (1.0%), MyHCIIa+MyHCIIx (11.3%) and MyHCI+MyHCIIa (7.9%). Fibres containing slow MyHC predominated in the posterior region (65.2%), consisting of MyHCI (45.5%) and MyHCI+MyHCIIa (19.7%). A minor fibre population (<2%) contained unusual MyHC isoforms, namely MyHC foetal, MyHC slow-tonic, MyHC ?-cardiac or MyHC embryonic. The microvascularization of the human tongue was twice as high as in human limb muscles. Regional similarities in capillary supply, but differences in fibre phenotype composition, suggest that human tongue muscle fibres are fatigue resistant independently of MyHC content. High frequency of hybrid fibres, that is fibres co-expressing two or more MyHC isoforms, indicates a wider spectrum of fibre contractile properties than in limb muscles. In conclusion, human intrinsic tongue muscles showed internal specialization in distribution of MyHC isoforms and capillary supply, but not in the expression of unusual MyHCs. PMID:20616532

Granberg, I; Lindell, B; Eriksson, P-O; Pedrosa-Domellöf, F; Stål, P

2010-01-01

432

Cell reconstruction of the rectal mucosa in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: endoscopy, morphology, immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

We propose a new surgical approach to the treatment of familial colorectal adenomatous polyposis implying preservation of a portion of the rectum with removed mucosa. For reconstruction of the rectum, allotransplantation of the mixed culture of fetal allogenic somatic cells of the intestinal epithelium and mesenchymal cells of various origin is used. The mechanisms of mucosa reparation were studied in 34 patients. Endoscopic, morphological, and immunohistochemical studies showed that cell transplantation considerably accelerated reparation of the mucosa in mucosectomized rectum. The proposed treatment of familial colorectal adenomatous polyposis allows delaying the development of rectal polyps and cancer for many years. PMID:25257440

Kogan, E A; Vyshegorodtsev, D V; Faizullina, N M; Demura, T A; Kuz'minov, A M; Shelygin, Yu A; Sukhikh, G T

2014-09-01

433

Wagner-Meissner-like corpuscles in gastric mucosa: a brief report.  

PubMed

Wagner-Meissner corpuscles are touch receptors that are located in dermal papillae and are usually absent in gastrointestinal mucosa. Wagner-Meissner-like corpuscles have been reported in association with benign neural neoplasm. A case of Wagner-Meissner-like corpuscles in endoscopically normal gastric mucosa biopsy of a 48-year-old woman is presented here. The corpuscles were positive for S-100 and clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis was negative. From a review of the literature, only 2 cases of tactile corpuscle-like structures in gastric mucosa are available. PMID:24583834

Reale, Domenico; Ballotta, Maria R; Borghi, Laura; Lisato, Laura C; Rasi, Annalisa; Menegatti, Maria T

2014-09-01

434

Cynoglossum officinale (hound's-tongue)--a cause of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

The death of 10 horses was attributed to feeding dried grass hay containing hound's-tongue, Cynoglossum officinale. Affected horses developed weight loss, icterus, photosensitization, and hepatic encephalopathy. Histologic examination of the liver of 3 of the horses revealed megalocytosis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis characteristic of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning. Hound's-tongue was found to contain large quantities (0.6% to 2.1%, dry matter basis) of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which, when fed to a pony for 20 days, caused liver fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia. PMID:6490488

Knight, A P; Kimberling, C V; Stermitz, F R; Roby, M R

1984-09-15

435

Potentiometric Electronic Tongues for Foodstuff and Biosample Recognition—An Overview  

PubMed Central

Potentiometric sensors are attractive tools for the fabrication of various electronic tongues that can be used in wide area of applications, ranging from foodstuff recognition to environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. Their main advantages are the ability to modify their selectivity (including cross-sensitivity effects) and the possibility of miniaturization using appropriate construction methods for the transducer part (e.g., with the use of solid-state technology). In this overview various examples of the design, performance, and applications of potentiometric electronic tongues are presented. The results summarize recent research in the field conducted in the Department of Microbioanalytics, Warsaw University of Technology (WUT). PMID:22163870

Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

436

Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

2011-09-01

437

A Longitudinal Acoustic Study of the Effects of the Radial Forearm Free Flap Reconstruction on Sibilants Produced by Tongue Cancer Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acoustic properties of 980 tokens of sibilants /s, z, [approximately]/ produced by 17 Canadian English-speaking female and male tongue cancer patients were studied. The patients had undergone tongue resection and tongue reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap (RFFF). The spectral moments (mean, skewness) and frication duration were analysed…

Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Rieger, Jana; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi

2011-01-01

438

Role of the tongue base suspension suture with The Repose System bone screw in the multilevel surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Repose System (tongue base suspension) is a new, minimally invasive technique for tongue base suspension in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The purpose of this project was to describe our preliminary experience using this tongue base suspension system in conjunction with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in the multilevel surgical approach to the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Study

Frank R. Miller; Daniel Watson; David Malis

2002-01-01

439

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy  

PubMed Central

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up.

Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

2014-01-01

440

[Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the larynx].  

PubMed

A 63-year-old female suffering from hepatitis C virus infection and manic depression was admitted with a 4-month history of hoarseness. Endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a neoplasm with a smooth surface in the left supraglottic region extending to the left false vocal cord. Based on the histological findings, together with the results of systemic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as having a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in clinical stage IE, according to the Ann Arbor classification. After one month of follow-up, the patient presented with involvement of multiple subcutaneous regions in the left neck area, etc. Biopsies revealed the same type of lymphoma as that in the supraglottis. The disease was considered to have progressed to clinical stage IV. Six courses of R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone) treatment resulted in complete remission of all lesions. Primary MALT lymphoma in the larynx is extremely rare. Since the first description by Diebold et al in 1990, only 43 cases have been reported. Among these reported cases, only 7 (16%) with progressive stages were described. The R-CVP regimen appears to be effective for the treatment of progressive primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx. Furthermore, hepatitis C virus infection is thought to be closely associated with the aggressive malignant process and subcutaneous dissemination. PMID:24681938

Hua, Jian; Iwaki, Yasunobu; Inoue, Morihiro; Takiguchi, Yoichiro; Ota, Yasunori; Hagihara, Masao

2014-03-01

441

Vibrio cholerae Represses Polysaccharide Synthesis To Promote Motility in Mucosa.  

PubMed

The viscoelastic mucus layer of gastrointestinal tracts is a host defense barrier that a successful enteric pathogen, such as Vibrio cholerae, must circumvent. V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to penetrate the mucosa and colonize the epithelial surface of the small intestine. In this study, we found that mucin, the major component of mucus, promoted V. cholerae movement on semisolid medium and in liquid medium. A genome-wide screen revealed that Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production was inversely correlated with mucin-enhanced motility. Mucin adhesion assays indicated that VPS bound to mucin. Moreover, we found that vps expression was reduced upon exposure to mucin. In an infant mouse colonization model, mutants that overexpressed VPS colonized less effectively than wild-type strains in more distal intestinal regions. These results suggest that V. cholerae is able to sense mucosal signals and modulate vps expression accordingly so as to promote fast motion in mucus, thus allowing for rapid spread throughout the intestines. PMID:25561707

Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuning; Liu, Shengyan; Sheng, Ying; Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Wang, Hui; Li, Jie; Gu, Frank X; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao; Zhu, Jun

2015-03-01

442

Do Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement Collaborate in the Intestinal Mucosa?  

PubMed Central

It is well understood that multiple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are constitutively deployed by the epithelium to bolster the innate defenses along the entire length of the intestines. In addition to this constitutive/homeostatic production, AMPs may be inducible and levels changed during disease. In contrast to this level of knowledge on AMP sources and roles in the intestines, our understanding of the complement cascade in the healthy and diseased intestines is rudimentary. Epithelial cells make many complement proteins and there is compelling evidence that complement becomes activated in the lumen. With the common goal of defending the host against microbes, the opportunities for cross-talk between these two processes is great, both in terms of actions on the target microbes but also on regulating the synthesis and secretion of the alternate family of molecules. This possibility is beginning to become apparent with the finding that colonic epithelial cells possess anaphylatoxin receptors. There still remains much to be learned about the possible points of collaboration between AMPs and complement, for example, whether there is reciprocal control over expression in the intestinal mucosa in homeostasis and restoring the balance following infection and inflammation. PMID:25688244

Kopp, Zoë A.; Jain, Umang; Van Limbergen, Johan; Stadnyk, Andrew W.

2015-01-01

443

Surveillance of the gastrointestinal mucosa by sensory neurons.  

PubMed

A dense network of extrinsic and intrinsic sensory neurons supplies the gastrointestinal tract. Intrinsic sensory neurons provide the enteric nervous system with the kind of information that this brain of the gut requires for its autonomic control of digestion, whereas extrinsic afferents notify the brain about processes that are relevant to energy and fluid homeostasis and the sensation of discomfort and pain. The sensory repertoire of afferent neurons is extended by their responsiveness to mediators released from enteroendocrine and immune cells, which act like "taste buds" of the gut and serve as interface between the gastrointestinal lumen and the sensory nerve terminals in the lamina propria of the mucosa. Functional bowel disorders such as non-ulcer dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are characterized by abdominal discomfort or pain in the absence of an identifiable organic cause. It is hypothesized with good reason that infection, inflammation or trauma causes sensory pathways to undergo profound phenotypic and functional alterations that outlast the acute insult. The pertinent changes involve an exaggerated sensitivity of the peripheral afferent nerve fibres as well as a distorted processing and representation of the incoming information in the brain. This concept identifies a number of receptors and ion channels that are selectively expressed by primary afferent neurons as important molecular targets at which to aim novel therapies for functional bowel disorders. PMID:11787755

Holzer, P; Michl, T; Danzer, M; Jocic, M; Schicho, R; Lippe, I T

2001-12-01

444

Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-12-01

445

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy.  

PubMed

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

2014-12-28

446

Defective Expression of Scavenger Receptors in Celiac Disease Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten sensitive enteropathy characterized by a marked infiltration of the mucosa with immune cells, over-production of inflammatory cytokines and epithelial cell damage. The factors/mechanisms that sustain and amplify the ongoing mucosal inflammation in CD are not however fully understood. Here, we have examined whether in CD there is a defective clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, a phenomenon that helps promote tolerogenic signals thus liming pathogenic responses. Accumulation of apoptotic cells and bodies was more pronounced in the epithelial and lamina propria compartments of active CD patients as compared to inactive CD patients and normal controls. Expression of scavenger receptors, which are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, namely thrombospondin (TSP)-1, CD36 and CD61, was significantly reduced in active CD as compared to inactive CD and normal mucosal samples. Consistently, lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) of active CD patients had diminished ability to phagocyte apoptotic cells. Interleukin (IL)-15, IL-21 and interferon-?, cytokines over-produced in active CD, inhibited the expression of TSP-1, CD36, and CD61 in normal intestinal LPMC. These results indicate that CD-related inflammation is marked by diminished clearance of apoptotic cells/bodies, thus suggesting a role for such a defect in the ongoing mucosal inflammation in this disorder. PMID:24971453

Cupi, Maria Laura; Sarra, Massimiliano; De Nitto, Daniela; Franzè, Eleonora; Marafini, Irene; Monteleone, Ivan; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Di Fusco, Davide; Gentileschi, Paolo; Ortenzi, Angela; Colantoni, Alfredo; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

2014-01-01

447

Amylolytic activity in fish intestinal mucosa: temperature effects.  

PubMed

The activity, temperature characteristics and energy of activation of amylolytic enzymes in the intestinal mucosa were studied in six species of fish living in a boreal zone [burbot (Lota lota L.), northern pike (Exos lucius L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), bream (Abramis brama L.), roach (Rutilis rutilis L.), and carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)] and in three species from tropical and subtropical areas [pilchard (Sardina pilchardus W.), jack mackerel (Trachurus trecae C.) and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita V.)]. The amylolytic activity correlated with the feeding habits: it was essentially lower in predators. The enzyme activity at low temperature, relative to the maximal activity, was correlated with the natural environmental temperature where the species lived. At low temperature the relative activity was higher in boreal fish than in tropical and subtropical fish. We found a breakpoint in the Arrhenius plots in all fish species, except for jack mackerel. The energy of activation in predators decreased below the breakpoint in the low-temperature region. The energy of activation in benthophages of the Aral-Ponto-Caspian area was lower at higher temperatures above the breakpoint. A reduction in activation energy in the range of physiological temperatures might indicate adaptation to the environmental temperature. PMID:12628384

Kuz'mina, V; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A

2003-03-01

448