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1

Morphogenesis of the tongue mucosa in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica) during the late embryonic stages.  

PubMed

The tongue in domestic duck, as in other Anseriformes, is characterized by wide variety of shape and mechanical papillae and they fulfill different function during food collection. The present work aims to describe morphological features of the tongue as well as the pace formation of the mechanical papillae during embryonic period. The results may allow to answer whether the tongue in duck is ready to fulfill feeding function after hatching. The study revealed that the particular part of the tongue and the conical papillae of the body develop between 10th and 16th day of incubation, from the caudal part of the body into the rostral part of the tongue. The conical papillae of the lingual prominence in the first row are formed from 11th to 16th day and in the second row at the turn of the 15th and 16th day of incubation. These papillae developed symmetrically from the median part of the lingual prominence, to its edges. The lingual comb, which is used during transport of the food particles, is formed between 16th and 19th day. The present study indicated the morphological changes of the particular part of the tongue and the mechanical papillae were varied between the developmental stages. The morphology of the tongue in the domestic duck is fully developed before hatching and ready to collect food by pecking and grazing. However, filter-feeding mechanism is not still obvious. PMID:24909127

Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Kontecka, Helena

2014-09-01

2

Quality of life in patients younger than 40 years treated for anterior tongue squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

This study investigated the quality of life in patients younger than 40 years with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. We used the University of Washington Head and Neck Quality of Life scale to compare the quality of life outcomes between young and old patients. Cases were patients younger than 40 years who were treated for anterior tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Controls were patients older than 40 years who were matched to the cases regarding diagnosis, sex, and TNM classification. Two controls were matched for each case; thus, 21 cases and 42 controls were selected. Twenty-one of 33 questionnaires (63.6%) were returned. The median follow-up duration was 3.7 years (range, 1-12 y). In the group of young patients, the best-scoring domains were pain, chewing, and swallowing, whereas the lowest scores were for appearance, mood, and anxiety. Young patients (40 years or younger) reported better function, notably regarding activity, recreation, shoulder, taste, and saliva compared with the old patients with anterior tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The patients younger than 40 years tend to have a good quality of life. Most of them were not significantly affected by pain. Quality of life should be used as part of our treatment of anterior tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24220465

Zhang, Xu; Fang, Qi-Gen; Li, Zhen-Ning; Li, Wen-Lu; Liu, Fa-Yu; Sun, Chang-Fu

2013-11-01

3

Primary B cell lymphoma of the tongue: a case report.  

PubMed

Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity is rare and of the tongue even rarer. Location of oral lymphomas is more frequent in masticatory mucosa than in movable mucosa; the lingual and buccal mucosa is rarely involved; whereas the gingival vestibule and Waldeyer's ring seem to be the most frequent site of occurrence. We describe a 78 year old male who presented with a mass lesion primarily involving the base of tongue and was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The lesion was completely disappeared). He has currently remained disease free for 16 months. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation, histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen may aid in the diagnosis and thus, help in proper management. PMID:22826730

Hmidi, Mounir; Touiheme, Nabil; Elboukhari, Ali; Kettani, Mounir; Elmejareb, Charafeddine; Messary, Abdelhamid

2012-01-01

4

Primary B cell Lymphoma of the tongue: a case report  

PubMed Central

Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity is rare and of the tongue even rarer. Location of oral lymphomas is more frequent in masticatory mucosa than in movable mucosa; the lingual and buccal mucosa is rarely involved; whereas the gingival vestibule and Waldeyer's ring seem to be the most frequent site of occurrence. We describe a 78 year old male who presented with a mass lesion primarily involving the base of tongue and was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The lesion was completely disappeared). He has currently remained disease free for 16 months. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation, histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen may aid in the diagnosis and thus, help in proper management. PMID:22826730

Hmidi, Mounir; Touiheme, Nabil; Elboukhari, Ali; Kettani, Mounir; Elmejareb, Charafeddine; Messary, Abdelhamid

2012-01-01

5

Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

2013-01-01

6

Tongue Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. You also use it to speak. Your tongue is made up of many muscles. The upper surface contains your taste buds. Problems with the tongue include Pain Swelling ...

7

Fissured Tongue  

MedlinePLUS

... to remove any food debris from the fissures. Cleansing of the tongue helps prevent irritation and possible ... patients by making recommendations concerning devices for tongue cleansing. Q: Who can get fissured tongue? A: Anyone ...

8

Your Tongue  

MedlinePLUS

... talking and tasting! Tongue Twister Has anyone ever told you that the tongue is a muscle? Well, that's ... anchored to the bottom of your mouth, so you could never swallow your tongue even if you tried! Continue ...

9

Tongue Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lip and Tongue Disorders Lip Disorders Tongue Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Mouth and Dental Disorders > Lip and ...

10

Tongue problems  

MedlinePLUS

... which allow you to taste. The tongue moves food to help you chew and swallow. The tongue ... result in: Breastfeeding problems in newborns Difficulty moving food during chewing and swallowing Speech problems Taste Problems ...

11

Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.  

PubMed

The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III. PMID:19143682

Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

2009-02-01

12

Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters. PMID:24179524

Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

2013-11-01

13

Traditional chinese medicine (tongue acupuncture) in children with drooling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue acupuncture is an innovative technique in traditional Chinese medicine. We have demonstrated that specific tongue acupoints are related to various functional domains. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of tongue acupuncture in children with neurologic disability who had severe drooling problems. We conducted an intent-to-treat study in a cohort of 10 children. A continuous course of tongue acupuncture

Virginia Wong; J. G Sun; Wilfred Wong

2001-01-01

14

Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/ inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation. PMID:25050571

Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Mori, Takayuki; Watanabe, Naoki; Naiki, Takafumi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

2014-01-01

15

Scrotal Tongue  

MedlinePLUS

... or bits of food. This can lead to bad breath or fungal infections of the tongue. Diagnosis Generally, people don't even know they ... dentist if the grooves become uncomfortable. Prognosis ... does not cause discomfort or problems. Last updated September 16, 2013 © ...

16

Tongue diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When you eat food, the food dissolves in saliva. The individual food molecules come into contact with taste buds and a nerve fiber on the taste bud. The nerve fiber converts the molecule into a signal. Taste buds work together to come up with an accurate message for the brain to interpret into a taste. Certain areas of the tongue can detect specific properties of a food better than others.

Werner Lang (None; )

2005-11-27

17

Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

2014-01-01

18

Responsiveness of microcirculation and local cold vasodilation to capsaicin in the intact and chronically denervated canine tongue.  

PubMed

Lingual blood flow and its distribution were determined at rest and in response to local cooling of the tongue (32 degrees C) in 6 anaesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated dogs before and after two intraarterial (i.a.) injections of capsaicin (2.5 mg) at an interval of about 40 min. In 3 dogs, the same protocol was performed after degeneration of the chorda-lingual and glossopharyngeal nerves due to prior transection. In general the first i.a. injection of capsaicin resulted in a marked and the second injection in a smaller decrease of lingual blood flow. Local cooling of the tongue induced significant increases in lingual blood flow before as well as after capsaicin treatment, regardless of whether sensory innervation was intact or degenerated. In both the untreated and capsaicin treated dogs the increase in lingual blood flow during local cooling of the tongue was solely due to an increase in blood flow through the arteriovenous anastomoses, while blood flow through the capillaries of the mucosa and muscles even decreased. The findings suggest that capsaicin-induced vasoconstriction of the tongue vessels is due to a direct effect on vascular receptors. It is further suggested that cold vasodilatation of the canine tongue is not mediated by axon collaterals releasing substance P. Direct thermal effects on the intramural ganglia and the postganglionic vasomotor efferents innervating the AVAs, or on AVAs basal tone itself are suggested as the underlying mechanism. PMID:3661218

Pleschka, K; Diebold, K; Hardt, R; Meyer, J U

1987-01-01

19

Gliadin intake alters the small intestinal mucosa in indomethacin-treated HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an enteropathy caused by the ingestion of wheat gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. A complete understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms in CD has been hindered because of the lack of adequate in vivo models. In the present study, we explored the events after the intragastric administration of gliadin and of the albumin/globulin fraction from wheat in human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 transgenic mice (DQ8 mice) treated with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs). After 10 days of treatment, mice showed a significant reduction of villus height, increased crypt depth, increased number of lamina propria-activated macrophages, and high basal interferon-? secretion in mesenteric lymph nodes, all of which were specifically related to gliadin intake, whereas the albumin/globulin fraction of wheat was unable to induce similar changes. Cotreatment with NS-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, also induced the intestinal lesion. Enteropathy onset was further characterized by high levels of oxidative stress markers, similar to CD. Biochemical assessment of the small intestine revealed the specific activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, high caspase-3 activity, and a significant increase of tissue transglutaminase protein levels associated with the intestinal lesion. Notably, after 30 days of treatment, enteropathic mice developed serum antibodies toward gliadin (IgA) and tissue transglutaminase (IgG). We concluded that gliadin intake in combination with COX inhibition caused a basal inflammatory status and an oxidative stress condition in the small intestine of DQ8 mice, thus triggering the mucosal lesion and, subsequently, an antigen-specific immunity. PMID:24924747

Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; Luongo, Diomira; Rotondi Aufiero, Vera; Bozzella, Giuseppina; Palmieri, Gianna; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; David, Chella; Rossi, Mauro

2014-08-01

20

The blood supply of dorsal tongue flaps.  

PubMed

Current advice on the design of dorsal tongue flaps is conflicting because of insufficient understanding of the blood supply. A detailed study of the vascular anatomy shows that the dorsal mucosa has a distinctive vascular pattern that commends the choice of a posteriorly-based midline flap for closure of defects in the soft palate and posterior part of the hard palate. More anterior defects are more easily closed with an anteriorly-based midline flap. PMID:7296138

Bracka, A

1981-10-01

21

Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

2012-03-15

22

Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.  

PubMed

The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-Holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

2014-09-10

23

A scanning electron microscopic study of fissured tongue.  

PubMed

In this study, scanning electron microscopy was used to describe the surface morphology of fissured tongue. Tissue samples from the anterior part of the tongue were taken from 15 patients with fissured tongue. The formalin-fixed samples were processed routinely for scanning electron microscopy. Typically, the surface of a fissured tongue was covered with hairless papillae of various sizes. The biggest papillae were larger than the body of a normal filiform papilla, and the apex was rounded and rough. On the other hand, some of these papillae had a few hairs and resembled normal filiform papillae, but were flatter. In addition some papillae formed only slight elevations on the tongue mucosa, which was smooth and contained some desquamating cells. The walls of the fissure found in macroscopical examination consisted of very low elevations of the smooth mucosa with some desquamating cells. At high magnification the superficial cells of the epithelium were polygonal. On their surface there were branching or parallel microplicae, which were often broken. Only occasionally superficial cells of the large papillae had a pitted appearance. The knob-like structures found among the microplicae and small cracks between the epithelial cells are discussed from the standpoint of the pathogenesis of fissured tongue. PMID:3083069

Kullaa-Mikkonen, A; Sorvari, T E

1986-02-01

24

Linezolid induced black hairy tongue.  

PubMed

Black hairy tongue (BHT) also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc) are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed database. Here we report a case, where significant association of linezolid intake with BHT was found in a 10-year-old boy, who was treated with tablet linezolid for post surgical infection of left side radial neck fracture. This case is reported for the rarity of occurrence with linezolid therapy. According to Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) causality scale, the association of BHT due to linezolid in our case was probable. PMID:25538341

Balaji, Govindan; Maharani, B; Ravichandran, Velappan; Parthasarathi, Thiyagarajan

2014-01-01

25

Linezolid induced black hairy tongue  

PubMed Central

Black hairy tongue (BHT) also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc) are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed database. Here we report a case, where significant association of linezolid intake with BHT was found in a 10-year-old boy, who was treated with tablet linezolid for post surgical infection of left side radial neck fracture. This case is reported for the rarity of occurrence with linezolid therapy. According to Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) causality scale, the association of BHT due to linezolid in our case was probable. PMID:25538341

Balaji, Govindan; Maharani, B.; Ravichandran, Velappan; Parthasarathi, Thiyagarajan

2014-01-01

26

Tongue Area Extraction in Tongue Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of tongue area from digital photos is essential to an automatic tongue diagnostic system in traditional Chinese medicine. Simple segmentation methods couldn't be effective due to the weak edge of tongue and the details on the tongue's surface. In this paper, we propose a unique segmentation method based on the combination of the watershed transform and active contour

Jia Wu; Yonghong Zhang; Jing Bai

2005-01-01

27

Localized Tongue Amyloidosis in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Localized Amyloidosis (AL) may rarely involve oral mucosa. This is the first known reported case describing the development\\u000a of tongue AL in a 30-year-old patient with Neurofibromatosis (NF) type-2.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  A female patient presented with a painless, well-circumscribed nodule of the tongue. Her medical history included NF type-2\\u000a with chromosome-22 abnormal karyotype (mosaicism), multiple intracranial and spinal meningiomas\\/schwannomas and unilateral\\u000a blindness\\/deafness.

Dimitrios Andreadis; Athanasios Poulopoulos; Petros Papadopoulos; Apostolos Epivatianos

28

Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)  

MedlinePLUS

... the following associated characteristics are common: V-shaped notch at the tip of the tongue Inability to ... recommends surgery, an otolaryngologist?head and neck surgeon (ear, nose, and throat specialist), can perform a surgical ...

29

Tongue coating and tongue brushing: a literature review.  

PubMed

The present paper reviews the role of the tongue as a habitat for oral microorganisms and the potential need for tongue cleaning as part of daily oral hygiene. In addition tongue coating is described. Many microorganisms have been found colonizing the dorsum of the tongue. Some studies find a positive effect to tongue brushing on bacterial counts on the tongue. On the other hand there are also studies that do not find any differences in bacterial counts before or after tongue brushing. Bacteria colonizing the tongue and periodontal pockets play an important role in the production of volatile sulphur compounds in periodontal health and disease. These compounds can be the cause of oral malodour. The amount of tongue coating in patients complaining of halitosis was significantly greater than in patients without halitosis. Tongue brushing on a regular basis, particular aiming at removing the coating on the dorsum of the tongue, has been found to be fruitful in reducing oral malodour. Studies investigating the role of tongue brushing and plaque accumulation or gingival inflammation show conflicting results. It is clear that the tongue forms the largest niche for microorganims in the oral cavity. However, on the basis of literature, there appears to be no data to justify the necessity to clean the tongue on a regular basis. One exception would be oral malodour. PMID:16451515

Danser, M M; Gómez, S Mantilla; Van der Weijden, G A

2003-08-01

30

Quantitative determinations of sensory and pain thresholds on human oral mucosa by argon laser stimulation.  

PubMed

High-energy light from an argon laser was applied to human oral mucosa in order to investigate regional pain sensitivity. Significant regional differences in sensory and pain thresholds were observed between the test sites on the hard and soft palatal mucosa, the buccal mucosa, the tongue, the lower lip, and the skin on the hand. Pain thresholds were lowest on the tip of the tongue and highest on the hard palate. Sensory and pain thresholds were influenced by different stimulus parameters: pulse duration and laser beam diameter. Blackening of the mucosa in regions with high optical reflectance, such as the hard palate, increased light absorption and, hence, reduced both thresholds significantly. Reflectance spectrophotometric measurements indicated that the hard palatal mucosa reflected argon laser light about 1.5 times more than the tip of the tongue. The different threshold values could, in part, be ascribed to different reflectance and absorption properties of the mucosal areas but also indicated substantial regional variation in pain sensitivity of the human oral mucosa. Measurement of laser thresholds is an appropriate and standardized method for investigating sensory differences in human oral mucosa and may be used to study various pain conditions, e.g., burning mouth syndrome. PMID:1608647

Svensson, P; Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Kaaber, S

1992-05-01

31

[Changes in the oral mucosa in the aging patient].  

PubMed

The most frequently observed diseases of the oral mucosa in ageing patients are: leucoplacic changes, lichen ruber planus, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigoid and the Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome. However, there are other affections which are described in their characteristic symptomatology: --whitish changes--changes by pigments--aphtous or aphtoid changes--bullous and erosive changes--tongue burning and glossodynia--tumorous and exulcerative changes. The different diagnostic aspects are particularly explained. PMID:333576

Maeglin, B

1977-09-01

32

Simulation of tongue muscle deformation  

E-print Network

The tongue is an intricately configured muscular organ that undergoes a stereotypical set of deformations during the course of normal human swallowing. The tongue's myoarchitecture consists of a large array of variably ...

Liang, Alvin Y

2008-01-01

33

Science Nation: Tongue Driver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past four years, Maysam Ghovanloo has been working with a team at Georgia Institute of Technology to improve life for quadriplegics. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), they have devised a headset that responds to a magnet. Using a laptop, a wireless connection and navigation software, the headset is programmed to allow someone to steer a wheelchair by moving his tongue. Since the tongue driver could help control any number of devices like the TV or a computer, it could one day mean even more of the most precious commodity of all: independence.

34

Treatment and retention of relapsed anterior open-bite with low tongue posture and tongue-tie: A 10-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current report is to present 6-year long-term stability and 10-year follow-up data for an adult patient who was treated with a tongue elevator for relapsed anterior open-bite. The 19-year-old male patient presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing his food. Collectively, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed an anterior open-bite, low tongue posture, and tongue-tie. The patient opted for orthodontic treatment alone, without any surgical procedure. A lingual frenectomy was recommended to avoid the risk of relapse, but the patient declined because he was not experiencing tongue discomfort. Initial treatment of the anterior open-bite with molar intrusion and tongue exercises was successful, but relapse occurred during the retention period. A tongue elevator was used for retreatment, because the approach was minimally invasive and suited the patient's requirements regarding discomfort, cost, and time. The appliance changed the tongue posture and generated an altered tongue force, which ultimately resulted in intrusive dentoalveolar effects, and a subsequent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. The results showed long-term stability and were maintained for six years through continual use of the tongue elevator. The results of this case indicated that a tongue elevator could be used not only as an alternative treatment for open-bite, but also as an active retainer. PMID:25133135

Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Su-Jung; Munkhshur, Janchivdorj; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ngan, Peter

2014-01-01

35

The Effects of Glossectomy on Anterior and Posterior Motion of the Tongue during Speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech debilitation in patients with glossectomy due to squamous cell carcinoma eradication has been described qualitatively by previous researchers. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the changes in tongue motion in glossectomy patients by comparing them to normal controls to help clarify the effects of the tongue resection/reconstruction on normal motion of the tongue during speech. Eight glossectomy patients, including one with a flap reconstruction, and nine normal controls had MRI recorded in the mid-sagittal plane while uttering "a souk" to evaluate the effects of tumor/resection size, closure procedure used, the level of motor control, and s-type on the velocity and displacement of the tongue tip and body at one or more points in time. No statistically significant differences in tongue motion or motor control were found between normal controls and glossectomy patients, suggesting retention of tongue mobility post-glossectomy. Patients with larger resections were found to have more difficulty with tongue tip motion during speech and one patient treated with flap reconstruction also showed highly altered tongue motion. S-type was not found to have a statistically significant effect on tongue motion. This study suggests that post-glossectomy debility in speech revealed previously most likely cannot be attributed to quantitative changes in tongue motion, but rather qualitative changes in tongue motion.

Reichard, Rachel E.

36

Black hairy tongue syndrome.  

PubMed

Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

2014-08-21

37

Black hairy tongue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

2014-01-01

38

Impact of tongue biofilm removal on mechanically ventilated patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943 PMID:23887759

Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes

2013-01-01

39

Enteric Duplication Cyst Located at the Posterior Tongue: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The lingual localization of an enteric duplication is extremely rare but may present with respiratory and feeding problems that require emergency intervention. A 7-month-old boy was brought to our clinic with feeding difficulties and tongue swelling. Physical examination showed a cystic lesion located near the left side of the tongue base that caused tongue protrusion to the contralateral side. During surgery, a 3-cm diameter opaque thick-walled cyst was found to be very closely adherent to the base of tongue, which was excised in its entirety. Following surgery, the patient fed during the early postoperative period and no complications were observed other than hypersalivation. On histological examination, a cystic lesion lined with intestinal mucosa and goblet cells was found. We present the rare case of a duplication cyst of the posterior tongue, with a literature review.

Savran, Bircan; Kucur, Cuneyt; Kocak, Cengiz; Ozbay, Isa; Metineren, Mehmet Huseyin; Karakus, Yasin Tugrul

2015-01-01

40

Functional Segments in Tongue Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tongue is a deformable object, and moves by compressing or expanding local functional segments. For any single phoneme, these functional tongue segments may move in similar or opposite directions, and may reach target maximum synchronously or not. This paper will discuss the independence of five proposed segments in the production of speech.…

Stone, Maureen; Epstein, Melissa A.; Iskarous, Khalil

2004-01-01

41

Evaluation of Cytological Alterations of Oral Mucosa in Smokers and Waterpipe Users  

PubMed Central

Objective: Oral mucosal epithelia of smokers and waterpipe users are more susceptible to malignant alterations. The aim of this study was morphometric evaluation of the effects of using waterpipe on normal oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, cytologic smear samples from the following three different areas: buccal mucosa, lateral surface of the tongue, and floor of the mouth (right) were taken from 40 smokers, 40 waterpipe users, and 40 normal individuals. They were then stained using Papanicolaou staining technique. Quantitative cytologic alterations such as nuclear and cytoplasmic size, nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, Feret ratio (FR), percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, two or multilobed nuclei, inflammation, and candida were evaluated. Quantitative evaluation was performed using MoticPlus 2 software, and 50 cells in each slide were studied. Practitioners were matched with age and sex in three groups. Results: An increase in nuclear size, the N/C ratio, and F.R, while a decrease in cytoplasm size were observed in lateral surface of the tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth of smokers, waterpipe users and normal individuals, respectively (p?0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, and two or multilobed nuclei in oral mucosa of smokers, waterpipe users (p=0.8), and normal individuals (p=0.9) in buccal mucosa, tongue, and mouth floor areas. However, the percentage of inflammation and candida in smokers (p<0.001) and waterpipe users (p=0.002) were higher than normal individuals. Conclusion: Smoking and using waterpipe are effective in creating some quantitative cytometric alterations in oral mucosa; however, smoking shows greater effect in the cytometric alterations than using waterpipe. Role of cytology in screening and detection of oral mucosa malignancies in smokers and waterpipe users needs further studies. PMID:24381854

Seifi, Safoura; Feizi, Farideh; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Khafri, Soraya; Ahmadi, Behrang

2014-01-01

42

Our Mother Tongues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Frequently when one hears about the Native American experience in the United States, the focus is on the loss of traditions, folkways, and language. In contrast, this website was created to highlight a recent documentary by Anne Makepeace that focuses on the ways in which Native American languages have recovered and thrived in recent times. On the site, visitors should start by clicking on the interactive "Language Map." Here visitors can learn about twelve different languages, including Crow, Cherokee, Dakota, Euchee, and Lakota. Clicking on the "Voices" area gives visitors the opportunity to listen to Native Americans from different tribal communities speaking in their mother tongues. Additionally, visitors can send an electronic postcard from the site, read the site blog, and learn more about the project and the documentary.

2012-01-06

43

Prion Infection of Skeletal Muscle Cells and Papillae in the Tongue  

PubMed Central

The presence of the prion agent in skeletal muscle is thought to be due to the infection of nerve fibers located within the muscle. We report here that the pathological isoform of the prion protein, PrPSc, accumulates within skeletal muscle cells, in addition to axons, in the tongue of hamsters following intralingual and intracerebral inoculation of the HY strain of the transmissible mink encephalopathy agent. Localization of PrPSc to the neuromuscular junction suggests that this synapse is a site for prion agent spread between motor axon terminals and muscle cells. Following intracerebral inoculation, the majority of PrPSc in the tongue was found in the lamina propria, where it was associated with sensory nerve fibers in the core of the lingual papillae. PrPSc staining was also identified in the stratified squamous epithelium of the lingual mucosa. These findings indicate that prion infection of skeletal muscle cells and the epithelial layer in the tongue can be established following the spread of the prion agent from nerve terminals and/or axons that innervate the tongue. Our data suggest that ingestion of meat products containing prion-infected tongue could result in human exposure to the prion agent, while sloughing of prion-infected epithelial cells at the mucosal surface of the tongue could be a mechanism for prion agent shedding and subsequent prion transmission in animals. PMID:15194754

Mulcahy, Ellyn R.; Bartz, Jason C.; Kincaid, Anthony E.; Bessen, Richard A.

2004-01-01

44

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of pre- and post-treated oral submucous fibrosis: an in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a high risk precancerous condition characterized by changes in the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts leading to stiffness of the mucosa and restricted mouth opening, fibrosis of the lining mucosa of the upper digestive tract involving the oral cavity, oro- and hypo-pharynx and the upper two-thirds of the oesophagus. Optical reflectance measurements have been used to extract diagnostic information from a variety of tissue types, in vivo. We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantitatively monitor tumour response to chemotherapy. Twenty patients with submucous fibrosis were diagnosed with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and treated with the chemotherapy drug, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Hyaluronidase injection for seven weeks and after the treatment they were again subjected to the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The major observed spectral alterations on pre and post treated submucous fibrosis is an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 600 nm. Normal mucosa has showed higher reflectance when compared to the pre and post-treated cases. The spectral changes were quantified and correlated to conventional diagnostic results viz., maximum mouth opening, tongue protrusion and burning sensation. The results of this study suggest that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may also be considered as complementary optical techniques to monitor oral tissue transformation.

Sivabalan, S.; Ponranjini Vedeswari, C.; Jayachandran, S.; Koteeswaran, D.; Pravda, C.; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

2010-02-01

45

Tongue biofilm areal density and tongue coating index.  

PubMed

Two methods have been employed to measure the amount of tongue biofilm in humans: (1) areal density of microbes (cfu cm(-2)) (tongue scrape from a known/measured area), or (2) a tongue-coating index, where a human judge assesses the amount of 'coating' by visual inspection. The two methods were compared, both on human volunteers and on artificial biofilms. Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Streptococcus mutans (Sm) and Peptostreptococcus micros (Pm) were obtained from stock cultures. Tongue scrape samples were obtained from four human volunteers in order to inoculate the in vitro matrices. A further 16 individuals (total n = 20) were co-measured for both visible tongue coating and quantitative biofilm (cfu cm(-2)). Tongue scrape suspensions were used to inoculate a cellulose matrix resting on a BHI-blood agar plate, periodically hydrated with sterile BHI and incubated for 10 days. Visual coating density images were recorded by camera. The relative light absorbance of standard suspensions of cells (pure species) was obtained by spectrophotometry across the visible spectrum. Biomatrix yields (log cfu cm(-2) ± SD) for Fn, Pi, Sm and Pm were 7.07 (±0.04), 7.38 (±0.07), 7.25 (±0.10) and 7.41 (±0.011). Higher yields were obtained for tongue-scrape mixed cultures, ranging from 7.47 to 7.76. Biofilms (in vitro and in vivo) had different appearances when measured by human judges in terms of colour, pigmentation and opacity. There was no correlation (R(2) < 0.02) between the two methods. Biofilm matrices of similar population densities (ca ? log 7.5) had widely different opacities depending on the species present. PMID:21386152

Saad, Saliha; Greenman, John

2008-03-01

46

Cutaneous Metastasis from Squamous Carcinoma of the Base of Tongue  

PubMed Central

Context: Cutaneous metastasis from head and neck cancer is uncommon and it is seen from laryngeal cancer. Cutaneous metastasis from the base of tongue is relatively rare. Case Report: A 55-year-old male, who was a treated case of squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue presented with metastatic nodule on the skin of face and thigh. But, there was complete resolution of the tumor at the primary site. In the present case, clinically obvious cutaneous nodules with metastasis appeared soon after the completion of treatment with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. The metastasis to the skin of face clinically appeared like an inflammatory lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis of metastasis to skin at both the sites. Conclusion: Our case has highlighted that there could be associated occult skin metastasis at the time of diagnosis in squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue. PMID:25709975

Rahman, Tashnin; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Sarma, Anupam; Kumar, Mahesh; Kataki, Amal C.

2015-01-01

47

Lymphangioma of the Tongue - A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537

V, Usha; Sivasankari, T.; Jeelani, S.; Parthiban, J.

2014-01-01

48

Lymphangioma of the tongue - a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537

V, Usha; Sivasankari, T; Jeelani, S; Asokan, G S; Parthiban, J

2014-09-01

49

[Exfoliatio areata linguae et mucosae oris: a mucous membrane manifestation of psoriasis pustulosa?].  

PubMed

Lesions of the oral mucosa are frequently described in association with psoriasis, particularly in the pustular type. Controversy surrounds the question whether mucosal lesions can be considered as oral manifestation of psoriasis. Two patients presented with concurrent pustular psoriasis and mucosal lesions with the characteristic picture of geographic tongue. Histopathology of the mucosa showed typical features of psoriasis such as marked acanthosis, clubbing of the rete ridges, focal parakeratosis and neutrophilic infiltrates. There was parallel improvement of the skin and the mucosal lesions with systemic retinoid treatment. On the basis of the histopathological features and the clinical course we favour the hypothesis that geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of pustular psoriasis. PMID:9879485

Casper, U; Seiffert, K; Dippel, E; Zouboulis, C C

1998-11-01

50

Recent advances in electronic tongues.  

PubMed

This minireview describes the main developments of electronic tongues (e-tongues) and taste sensors in recent years, with a summary of the principles of detection and materials used in the sensing units. E-tongues are sensor arrays capable of distinguishing very similar liquids employing the concept of global selectivity, where the difference in the electrical response of different materials serves as a fingerprint for the analysed sample. They have been widely used for the analysis of wines, fruit juices, coffee, milk and beverages, in addition to the detection of trace amounts of impurities or pollutants in waters. Among the various principles of detection, electrochemical measurements and impedance spectroscopy are the most prominent. With regard to the materials for the sensing units, in most cases use is made of ultrathin films produced in a layer-by-layer fashion to yield higher sensitivity with the advantage of control of the film molecular architecture. The concept of e-tongues has been extended to biosensing by using sensing units capable of molecular recognition, as in films with immobilized antigens or enzymes with specific recognition for clinical diagnosis. Because the identification of samples is basically a classification task, there has been a trend to use artificial intelligence and information visualization methods to enhance the performance of e-tongues. PMID:20730141

Riul, Antonio; Dantas, Cléber A R; Miyazaki, Celina M; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

2010-10-01

51

Hamartomatous tongue lesions in children.  

PubMed

The incidence and spectrum of tongue lesions in children, in particular tongue hamartomas, is relatively unknown. We report a retrospective review of all tongue lesions seen at a major tertiary care children's hospital over an 18-year period with an emphasis on describing tongue hamartomas. A total of 135 tongue lesions were identified. Vascular/lymphatic lesions (36/135) were the most common followed by mucus extravasation phenomenon (22/135). Interestingly, hamartomatous lesions (18/135) were the third most common lesion category identified. Lingual hamartomas were predominantly submucosal in location and were classified histologically by tissue composition as follows: neurovascular (2/18), smooth muscle predominant (5/18), fat predominant (1/18), and smooth muscle and fat containing (10/18). All 5 smooth muscle predominant hamartomas also contained vasculature, and 1 case additionally contained salivary gland tissue. The single fat predominant hamartoma additionally contained vessels and salivary gland. The final 10 hamartomas contained varying amounts of both smooth muscle and fat, and also admixed combinations of vessels, nerves, and salivary glands. Two of these 10 cases additionally contained foci of choristomatous elements, including cutaneous adnexal structures and cartilage. Most patients with hamartomatous lesions were young, 2 years or less. Eight cases were congenital in origin. Females outnumbered males by 2:1. The majority of lesions (16/18) were dorsal in location, and 4 patients had a syndromic association, all oral-facial-digital syndrome. PMID:17667541

Kreiger, Portia A; Ernst, Linda M; Elden, Lisa M; Kazahaya, Ken; Alawi, Faizan; Russo, Pierre A

2007-08-01

52

Wireless control of smartphones with tongue motion using tongue drive assistive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a noninvasive, wireless and wearable assistive technology that helps people with severe disabilities control their environments using their tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures to commands by detecting a small permanent magnetic tracer on the users' tongue. We have linked the TDS to a smartphone (iPhone\\/iPod Touch) with a customized wireless module, added to

Jeonghee Kim; Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo

2010-01-01

53

Reduction glossectomy for large tongues  

PubMed Central

Pathological enlargement of tongue is caused by several conditions and diseases. In several instances, surgery remains the only viable option for complete cure. Persistent bleeding, compromised neuro-motor-sensory functions during the postoperative period are the most common complaints encountered after macroglossia correction. The tongue is a muscular organ, whose complex neuroanatomy is being unraveled slowly. Various types of macroglossia resections in unique clinical situations have been proposed by several clinicians till date. There has never been unanimously accepted resection for the treatment of macroglossia. This review article attempts to preview the cosmetic and functional components for resection designs. PMID:24205477

Balaji, S. M.

2013-01-01

54

Reduction glossectomy for large tongues.  

PubMed

Pathological enlargement of tongue is caused by several conditions and diseases. In several instances, surgery remains the only viable option for complete cure. Persistent bleeding, compromised neuro-motor-sensory functions during the postoperative period are the most common complaints encountered after macroglossia correction. The tongue is a muscular organ, whose complex neuroanatomy is being unraveled slowly. Various types of macroglossia resections in unique clinical situations have been proposed by several clinicians till date. There has never been unanimously accepted resection for the treatment of macroglossia. This review article attempts to preview the cosmetic and functional components for resection designs. PMID:24205477

Balaji, S M

2013-07-01

55

Histomorphological and Histochemical Observations of the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) Tongue  

PubMed Central

Common myna tongue was studied histomorphologically and histochemically. Four tongues of adult birds were carried out macroscopically and microscopically. The tongue was triangular; the dorsum of the body had median groove. Two to three backward directed papillae were located on each side of the body-base junction. A single transverse row of pharyngeal papillae was located behind the laryngeal cleft. The parakeratinized mucosa covered the entire surface of the tongue except clearly keratinized band on the ventrolateral surface and the conical papillae. Compared with the lateral group (LG), the secretory cells of the medial group (MG) of the anterior lingual glands (ALG) and the posterior lingual glands (PLG) contained large amount of mucin. It was neutral mucin. However, the LG had weak acid mucin with carboxylated group. Meanwhile, the MG of the ALG and the PLG had strong acid mucin with both carboxylated and sulphated groups. In conclusion, the morphological observation of the common myna tongue showed some variation from the other birds. Histochemical results indicated the differences between the LG and MG of the anterior lingual glands. However, no difference was observed between the latter and the PLG. PMID:23738140

Kadhim, Khalid Kamil; Hameed, AL-Timmemi; Abass, Thamir A.

2013-01-01

56

Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

2007-01-01

57

So You Want to Pierce Your Tongue?  

MedlinePLUS

... It is not unusual for the tongue to swell after being punctured, but in some cases the tongue swells so much that it can cut off your ... it enough room to heal when your tongue swells. If you decide to keep the piercing, make ...

58

Prostaglandin Levels in Human Colorectal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent colorectal cancer. The mechanism of action of NSAIDs in chemoprevention is unknown but may be linked to their effect on mucosal prostaglandin levels. Levels of five major prostaglandin metabolites were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in biopsy specimens of flat rectal mucosa from four patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) before and after sulindac therapy and from five healthy individuals. The prostaglandin present at highest concentration in rectal mucosa from FAP and control subjects was prostaglandin E2. The concentration of thromboxane B2 alone was significantly elevated in FAP patients compared to controls (P = 0.016). In FAP patients treated with sulindac, all prostaglandin metabolite levels were significantly reduced compared to pretreatment levels (P < 0.05) except prostaglandin D2 (P = 0.07). Prostaglandins D2, E2, F2?, and 6-ke to-F1? levels also were significantly reduced in FAP patients on sulindac compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). However, interpatient heterogeneity of response to sulindac was evident with changes ranging from +19% to ?89%, and the patient with the greatest reductions after sulindac developed colorectal cancer after 35 months of therapy. Sulindac treatment, at drug doses shown to regress colorectal adenomas in FAP patients, has heterogeneous effects on the level of major prostaglandins in their rectal mucosa and may not prevent colorectal cancer due to uncoupling of prostaglandin levels and carcinogenesis. PMID:9512123

GIARDIELLO, FRANCIS M.; SPANNHAKE, ERNST W.; DUBOIS, RAYMOND N.; HYLIND, LINDA M.; ROBINSON, C. RAHJ; HUBBARD, WALTER C.; HAMILTON, STANLEY R.; YANG, VINCENT W.

2009-01-01

59

Time evolution of magmatic tongues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the shape of a tongue of extremely viscous fluid (i.e. magma) evolving from a point flow source under the effect of gravity. Previous work by Huppert, Baloga and Pieri valid for a flat bottom and/or a constant viscosity coefficient is generalized. The general equations of motion are derived and some physically interesting analytic solutions are presented.

Dalu, Gianni; Salusti, Ettore; Zirilli, Francesco

1988-01-01

60

Does Bilingualism Twist Your Tongue?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical…

Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew

2012-01-01

61

Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

62

Anatomical and histological structure of the tongue and histochemical characteristics of the lingual salivary glands in the Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar, Gray 1830).  

PubMed

1. The aim of the study was to examine the morphology of the tongue and the histochemical features of the lingual salivary glands in this species. 2. The tongue was elongated, terminating in a rather sharp, dagger-like apex. On the surface of the tongue and situated between the body and root of the tongue, two rows of conical papillae, the sharp apices of which pointed towards the posterior part of the tongue, were observed. The keratinised epithelium lining the dorsal surface lacked typical gustatory papillae. However, it was observed that taste buds were present in the epithelium of the lingual body and root. The tongue was supported by a structure composed of hyaline cartilage, the paraglossum, which extended from the lingual root to the apex. Simple branched tubular glands, which were encapsulated by connective tissue, were embedded within the submucosa in the body (anterior salivary glands) and root (posterior salivary glands) of the tongue. It was observed that the secretion of the lingual glands contained neutral mucins, proteoglycans containing carboxylic acid, weak and strong sulphated groups, N-acetylated sialomucins, but lacked glycogen. 3. It was demonstrated that, the general morphological features, papillary distribution of the tongue and the histological structure of the mucosa epithelium and the supportive elements displayed similarity to those of other domestic avian species. It was also determined that, in view of the particular feeding types, in the partridge, the presence of the papillary crest was not correlated with diet. PMID:22978586

Erdo?an, S; Sa?söz, H; Akbalik, M E

2012-01-01

63

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

64

Effects of beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol on nasal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Rhinoscopic examination and histological studies of the nasal mucosa in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis treated with beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol provided no evidence that this form of treatment, given for one year, produced any harmful effects, such as atrophic rhinitis. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:588407

Mygind, N.

1977-01-01

65

[Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].  

PubMed

The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25474963

Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

2014-08-01

66

[Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].  

PubMed

The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25508742

Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

2014-08-01

67

Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?  

PubMed

This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

Griffiths, D Mervyn

2004-11-01

68

Somatosensory Processing of the Tongue in Humans  

PubMed Central

We review research on somatosensory (tactile) processing of the tongue based on data obtained using non-invasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Technical difficulties in stimulating the tongue, due to the noise elicited by the stimulator, the fixation of the stimulator, and the vomiting reflex, have necessitated the development of specialized devices. In this article, we show the brain activity relating to somatosensory processing of the tongue evoked by such devices. More recently, the postero-lateral part of the tongue has been stimulated, and the brain response compared with that on stimulation of the antero-lateral part of the tongue. It is likely that a difference existed in somatosensory processing of the tongue, particularly around primary somatosensory cortex, Brodmann area 40, and the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:21423377

Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Kakigi, Ryusuke

2010-01-01

69

Persistent monoclonality after histological remission in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery: influence of t(11;18)(q21;q21).  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to study retrospectively the molecular response and outcome of 19 gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma patients achieving histological remission after chemotherapy or surgery. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IgV(H)) gene rearrangements were studied by PCR in biopsies obtained at diagnosis and follow-up. Presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) was studied by FISH or RT-PCR. Sequencing analysis of three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive and two negative lymphomas with persistent monoclonal IgV(H) rearrangements was also performed. Long-term IgV(H) monoclonality was demonstrated in 11/19 patients (58%); in five of them monoclonal rearrangements were present in all samples throughout the follow-up. Persistent IgV(H) monoclonality was detected a median of 49 months after the achievement of histological response and did not condition histological relapse in most cases. All three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive patients had maintained IgV(H) monoclonality and sequencing analyses revealed the same mutated IgV(H) alleles in the diagnostic and the follow-up samples. Over half of the patients with gastric MALT lymphoma with histological response after chemotherapy and/or surgery have long-term persistent monoclonality. The presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) seems to condition long-term persistence of the initial lymphoma clone.trade mark. PMID:18766964

Santón, Almudena; García-Cosio, Mónica; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Patricia; Cristóbal, Eva; Serrano, Sergio; Besses, Carlos; Abraira, Victor; Salar, Antonio; Montalbán, Carlos

2008-08-01

70

Giant plexiform schwannoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and neck region is a relatively common location for schwannomas, but tongue schwannomas are considered to be rare and pose the problem of both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of tongue masses. PMID:22937374

Nisa, Lluís; von Büren, Toni; Tiab, Amine; Giger, Roland

2011-01-01

71

Giant Plexiform Schwannoma of the Tongue  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and neck region is a relatively common location for schwannomas, but tongue schwannomas are considered to be rare and pose the problem of both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of tongue masses. PMID:22937374

Nisa, Lluís; von Büren, Toni; Tiab, Amine; Giger, Roland

2011-01-01

72

Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.

1980-01-01

73

Effect of saccades in tongue electrotactile stimulation for vision substitution applications.  

PubMed

The visual substitution paradigm aims to facilitate the life of blind people. Generally one uses electro-stimulating devices where electrodes are arranged into arrays to stimulate the skin or the tongue mucosa to send signals of visual type to the subjects. When an electro-stimulation signal is applied continuously (e.g. when static visual scenes are displayed for a long period of time), the receptors of the affected region can get saturated and the patient may lose the displayed information. We propose here some mechanisms that ameliorate the quality of perception of the electro-stimulation information. The electrical signal is encoded as 2D scenes projected onto the tongue via a Tongue Display Unit, i.e. an electro-tactile stimulator formed by a 12×12 matrix of electrodes. We propose to apply stochastic saccades on this signal. Our assumption is that this eye-inspired mechanism should make the visual substitution more efficient (by improving the perception) because of the reduction of the tactile receptors saturation. The influence of saccades was evaluated by a series of experiments. Results revealed a benefit on the persistence of perception due to saccades. This work helps to prevent the saturation of receptors on the tongue. Therefore increasing the quality of vision by the way of the electro-stimulation. It allows new enhancement features to retinal prosthesis devices which suffer from the same phenomenon. PMID:24110494

Chekhchoukh, A; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y; Glade, N

2013-01-01

74

A fish that uses its hydrodynamic tongue to feed on land.  

PubMed

To capture and swallow food on land, a sticky tongue supported by the hyoid and gill arch skeleton has evolved in land vertebrates from aquatic ancestors that used mouth-cavity-expanding actions of the hyoid to suck food into the mouth. However, the evolutionary pathway bridging this drastic shift in feeding mechanism and associated hyoid motions remains unknown. Modern fish that feed on land may help to unravel the physical constraints and biomechanical solutions that led to terrestrialization of fish-feeding systems. Here, we show that the mudskipper emerges onto land with its mouth cavity filled with water, which it uses as a protruding and retracting 'hydrodynamic tongue' during the initial capture and subsequent intra-oral transport of food. Our analyses link this hydrodynamic action of the intra-oral water to a sequence of compressive and expansive cranial motions that diverge from the general pattern known for suction feeding in fishes. However, the hyoid motion pattern showed a remarkable resemblance to newts during tongue prehension. Consequently, although alternative scenarios cannot be excluded, hydrodynamic tongue usage may be a transitional step onto which the evolution of adhesive mucosa and intrinsic lingual muscles can be added to gain further independence from water for terrestrial foraging. PMID:25788596

Michel, Krijn B; Heiss, Egon; Aerts, Peter; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

2015-04-22

75

A scanning electron microscopic study of the dorsal surface of the human tongue.  

PubMed

To study the dorsal surface of the human tongue using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tissue specimens were taken from the anterior part of the tongues of 15 individuals aged from 21- to 28-years-old. The formalin-fixed samples were processed routinely for SEM. With SEM the surface of the normal tongue mucosa was shown to be rather evenly covered by filiform papillae, with some fungiform papillae scattered among them. Filiform papillae consisted of two parts: the body and hairs. The mucosal surface of the body was smooth; the squamous epithelial cells were polygonal, and their boundaries were prominent. On the surface of the superficial epithelial cells were parallel or branching microplicae. Each filiform papilla had 6-10 hairs, which were scaled and covered by an extensive plaque of microorganism. The upper surface of the fungiform papillae was smooth; only a few desquamating cells were seen. The superficial cells had a pitted appearance and cell boundaries overlapped. Taste pores, up to 3 pores in a single papilla, were found on the upper surface. Desquamation was more pronounced on the base of the fungiform papillae than on the upper surface. In almost all fungiform papillae some hairs protruded from the base. Parallel microplicae were found on the surface of the superficial cells of the base. The structure and function of the human tongue, as well as the microplicae of its superficial cells, are compared to those of various species of animals. PMID:4061027

Kullaa-Mikkonen, A; Sorvari, T E

1985-01-01

76

Systemic lupus erythematosus, pregnancy and carcinoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

We present a case which describes a 29-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who was treated aggressively with cytotoxic immunosuppression. Five years later and approximately 12 weeks pregnant, she is confirmed as having carcinoma of the tongue. Not wishing to consider termination of her pregnancy, she underwent surgical resection, which included partial glossectomy with microvascular reconstruction. Good oral function (speech and swallowing) was restored within 2 weeks. The pregnancy proceeded relatively uneventfully to 37 weeks gestation when proteinuric hypertension necessitated induction of labour. She remains well with no evidence of recurrence. This case highlights the options available in the treatment of carcinoma of the tongue during pregnancy together with the ethical considerations required, balanced against optimising maternal outcomes. PMID:23729701

Unsworth, Jeffrey David; Baldwin, Andrew; Byrd, Louise

2013-01-01

77

Effects of tongue cleaning on bacterial flora in tongue coating and dental plaque: a crossover study  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of tongue cleaning on reconstruction of bacterial flora in dental plaque and tongue coating itself are obscure. We assessed changes in the amounts of total bacteria as well as Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue coating and dental plaque specimens obtained with and without tongue cleaning. Methods We conducted a randomized examiner-blind crossover study using 30 volunteers (average 23.7 ± 3.2 years old) without periodontitis. After dividing randomly into 2 groups, 1 group was instructed to clean the tongue, while the other did not. On days 1 (baseline), 3, and 10, tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected after recording tongue coating score (Winkel tongue coating index: WTCI). After a washout period of 3 weeks, the same examinations were performed with the subjects allocated to the alternate group. Genomic DNA was purified from the samples and applied to SYBR® Green-based real-time PCR to quantify the amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum. Results After 3 days, the WTCI score recovered to baseline, though the amount of total bacteria in tongue coating was significantly lower as compared to the baseline. In plaque samples, the bacterial amounts on day 3 and 10 were significantly lower than the baseline with and without tongue cleaning. Principal component analysis showed that variations of bacterial amounts in the tongue coating and dental plaque samples were independent from each other. Furthermore, we found a strong association between amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum in specimens both. Conclusions Tongue cleaning reduced the amount of bacteria in tongue coating. However, the cleaning had no obvious contribution to inhibit dental plaque formation. Furthermore, recovery of the total bacterial amount induced an increase in F. nucleatum in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Thus, it is recommended that tongue cleaning and tooth brushing should both be performed for promoting oral health. PMID:24423407

2014-01-01

78

Electronic Tongues Employing Electrochemical Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents recent advances concerning work with electronic\\u000a tongues employing electroanalytical sensors. This new concept in the\\u000a electroanalysis sensor field entails the use of chemical sensor arrays\\u000a coupled with chemometric processing tools, as a mean to improve sensors\\u000a performance. The revision is organized according to the\\u000a electroanalytical technique used for transduction, namely:\\u000a potentiometry, voltammetry\\/amperometry or electrochemical impedance. The\\u000a significant

Manel del Valle

2010-01-01

79

ASSESSMENT OF TONGUE WEAKNESS AND FATIGUE  

PubMed Central

Assessment of nonspeech tongue function is common in speech-language pathology. This paper reviews techniques used to determine tongue strength and endurance, and describes a constant-effort task. These techniques are intended to reveal and quantify the presence of weakness or fatigue of the tongue. The consequences of performing these tasks with and without a bite block, used to fix jaw position, are considered. Whether nonspeech tongue impairment is associated with speech dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease is another topic of interest. Past studies indicated reduced tongue strength and endurance in Parkinson’s disease, but these measures did not correlate with speech measures. It was hypothesized that weakness and fatigue need to be impaired to a “critical” level before speech is perceptibly affected. To examine whether experimentally induced tongue fatigue affects speech, normal speakers performed prolonged strenuous tongue exercise. Speech deteriorated following these exercises. A new investigation examines whether 1 hour of speech-like tongue exercise (rapid syllable repetitions) affects dysarthric speech. Preliminary data from 6 participants with Parkinson’s disease, 1 person with bulbar ALS, and 6 neurologically normal control subjects indicate that sentences sound more precise but less natural after the exercises. Surprisingly, results did not differ significantly between the groups. Continued collection of data and refinement of tasks will contribute to our understanding of the potential relationships between weakness, fatigue, and speech. PMID:15832858

Solomon, Nancy Pearl

2012-01-01

80

Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue  

SciTech Connect

The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

Robbins, E.I.

1987-01-01

81

Human Oral Mucosa and Gingiva  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential. Aside from their regenerative role, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that MSCs are capable of potent immunomodulatory effects on a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. In this article, we will review recent experimental studies on the characterization of a unique population of MSCs derived from human oral mucosa and gingiva, especially their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions and their application in the treatment of several in vivo models of inflammatory diseases. The ease of isolation, accessible tissue source, and rapid ex vivo expansion, with maintenance of stable stem-cell-like phenotypes, render oral mucosa- and gingiva-derived MSCs a promising alternative cell source for MSC-based therapies. PMID:22988012

Zhang, Q.Z.; Nguyen, A.L.; Yu, W.H.; Le, A.D.

2012-01-01

82

Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

Buehler, Martin

2007-01-01

83

Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

2014-01-01

84

Subtotal glossectomy preserving half the tongue base prevents taste disorder in patients with tongue cancer.  

PubMed

Most patients diagnosed with tongue carcinoma undergo surgical resection and reconstructive surgery to preserve tongue mobility and swallowing functions. Twenty-four patients who underwent a total or subtotal glossectomy and surgical reconstruction were evaluated for residual taste sensation. The graded filter paper test for all four tastes (sweet, salt, sour, and bitter) was performed on the posterior wall of the oropharynx and on tongue remnants if they were visible from the mouth. Eleven of the 24 patients were aware of their taste disorder after surgery. Four patients with more than 1/2 residual tongue base had no taste complaints, whereas seven of 14 patients with less than 1/3 residual tongue base reported taste abnormalities. Patients who could only tolerate a poor diet or tube feeding tended to have taste complaints (P=0.017). The taste test showed that the taste threshold of the residual tongue was significantly lower compared to controls. The taste threshold was significantly correlated with the remaining volume of tongue base. Patients with >1/2 the tongue base remaining had good taste sensation, whereas those with <1/3 residual tissue had impaired taste. This study suggests that glossectomy strategies aimed at preserving at least half the tongue base may substantially reduce dysgeusia in the patients. PMID:24735717

Tomita, S; Terao, Y; Hatano, T; Nishimura, R

2014-09-01

85

The human tongue slows down to speak: muscle fibers of the human tongue.  

PubMed

Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of four neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2-year-old human, a newborn human, an adult with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and a macaque monkey. The average percentage of slow MFs in adult and the 2-year-old muscle specimens was 54%, the IPD was 45%, while the neonatal human (32%) and macaque monkey (28%) had markedly fewer slow MFs. In contrast, the tongue muscles of the rat and cat have been reported to have no slow MFs. There was a marked spatial gradient in the distribution of slow MFs with the highest percentages found medially and posteriorly. Normal adult tongue muscles were found to have a variety of uniquely specialized features including MF-type grouping (usually found in neuromuscular disorders), large amounts of loose connective tissue, and short branching MFs. In summary, normal adult human tongue muscles have by far the highest proportion of slow MFs of any mammalian tongue studied to date. Moreover, adult human tongue muscles have multiple unique anatomic features. As the tongue shape changes that are seen during speech articulation are unique to humans, we hypothesize that the large proportion of slow MFs and the anatomical specializations observed in the adult human tongue have evolved to perform these movements. PMID:23929762

Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai; Amirali, Asif; Su, Hungxi; Sobotka, Stanislaw

2013-10-01

86

Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to determine tongue coating microbiome  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is a unique method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first investigation on the association between traditional tongue diagnosis and the tongue coating microbiome using next-generation sequencing. The study included 19 gastritis patients with a typical white-greasy or yellow-dense tongue coating corresponding to TCM Cold or Hot Syndrome respectively, as well as eight healthy volunteers. An Illumina paired-end, double-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing protocol was designed to profile the tongue-coating microbiome, from which approximately 3.7 million V6 tags for each sample were obtained. We identified 123 and 258 species-level OTUs that were enriched in patients with Cold/Hot Syndromes, respectively, representing "Cold Microbiota" and "Hot Microbiota". We further constructed the tongue microbiota-imbalanced networks associated with Cold/Hot Syndromes. The results reveal an important connection between the tongue-coating microbiome and traditional tongue diagnosis, and illustrate the potential of the tongue-coating microbiome as a novel holistic biomarker for characterizing patient subtypes. PMID:23226834

Jiang, Bai; Liang, Xujun; Chen, Yang; Ma, Tao; Liu, Liyang; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Shao

2012-01-01

87

Ganglioneuroma, base of tongue: a rare entity.  

PubMed

We have discussed the case of a solitary polypoid ganglioneuroma in a 45-year-old male patient, at the base of tongue, which mimicked a malignancy. The interest of this case lay in the rarity of its incidence at the base of tongue and its gross resemblance to the more common malignant polypoidal growths at this site. The presence of neural elements and ganglion cells at this site makes it important for an inexperienced histopathologist to differentiate it from other neural lesions of the tongue, in order to avoid a misdiagnosis and this can prevent the clinician from administering an inappropriate treatment. Exhaustive search revealed only a very few case reports on the tongue. PMID:24179925

Mahajan, Nidhi; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Singh, Meeta; Agarwal, Swapnil; Khurana, Nita

2013-09-01

88

Sensory changes after tongue reduction for macroglossia.  

PubMed

We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656

Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken

2014-01-01

89

Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

2014-01-01

90

Recurrent tongue tip constriction in a captive giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).  

PubMed

A male giant anteater (Myrmecophage tridactyla) was treated twice for tongue tip constrictions. Clinical signs were partial anorexia, soft stool, bleeding from the mouth, and intermittent lingual discomfort. In the first presentation, wood fibers constricting the distal part of the tongue were detected by endoscopy and were removed. In the second presentation, bands of collagenous fibers were identified and resected. Dietary elements were responsible for both cases: elongated wood fibers were present in peat, which was included as a supplement to improve stool consistency, and collagenous fibers originated from fascias of lean meat, which served as a protein source in this diet. Preventive measures included sieving of the peat to eliminate long fibers and grinding of the meat, respectively, prior to diet presentation. A homogenous diet, utilizing cellulose rather than peat and dry cat food rather than meat, will avoid tongue tip constriction as described in these cases. PMID:17469293

Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Clauss, Marcus; Feige, Karsten; Thio, Tanja; Isenbügel, Ewald; Hatt, Jean-Michel

2007-03-01

91

Tongue color analysis and discrimination based on hyperspectral images.  

PubMed

Human tongue is one of the important organs of the body, which carries abound of information of the health status. Among the various information on tongue, color is the most important factor. Most existing methods carry out pixel-wise or RGB color space classification in a tongue image captured with color CCD cameras. However, these conversional methods impede the accurate analysis on the subjects of tongue surface because of the less information of this kind of images. To address problems in RGB images, a pushbroom hyperspectral tongue imager is developed and its spectral response calibration method is discussed. A new approach to analyze tongue color based on spectra with spectral angle mapper is presented. In addition, 200 hyperspectral tongue images from the tongue image database were selected on which the color recognition is performed with the new method. The results of experiment show that the proposed method has good performance in terms of the rates of correctness for color recognition of tongue coatings and substances. The overall rate of correctness for each color category was 85% of tongue substances and 88% of tongue coatings with the new method. In addition, this algorithm can trace out the color distribution on the tongue surface which is very helpful for tongue disease diagnosis. The spectrum of organism can be used to retrieve organism colors more accurately. This new color analysis approach is superior to the traditional method especially in achieving meaningful areas of substances and coatings of tongue. PMID:19157779

Li, Qingli; Liu, Zhi

2009-04-01

92

Long-term regional control after radiation therapy and neck dissection for base of tongue carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Minimal literature exists with 10-year data on neck control in advanced head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine long-term regional control for base of tongue carcinoma patients treated with primary radiation therapy plus neck dissection.Methods and Materials: Between 1981–1996, primary radiation therapy was used to treat 68 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the

Henry J. Lee; Michael J. Zelefsky; Dennis H. Kraus; David G. Pfister; Elliot W. Strong; Adam Raben; Jatin P. Shah; Louis B. Harrison

1997-01-01

93

Wireless control of powered wheelchairs with tongue motion using tongue drive assistive technology.  

PubMed

Tongue Drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated unobtrusive wireless assistive technology, which can potentially provide people with severe disabilities with effective computer access and environment control. It translates users' intentions into control commands by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motion utilizing a small permanent magnet, secured on the tongue, and an array of magnetic sensors mounted on a headset outside the mouth or an orthodontic brace inside. We have developed customized interface circuitry and implemented four control strategies to drive a powered wheelchair (PWC) using an external TDS prototype. The system has been evaluated by five able-bodied human subjects. The results showed that all subjects could easily operate the PWC using their tongue movements, and different control strategies worked better depending on the users' familiarity with the TDS. PMID:19163638

Huo, Xueliang; Wang, Jia; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2008-01-01

94

Preliminary observations on the effects in vivo and in vitro of low dose laser on the epithelia of the bladder, trachea and tongue of the mouse  

SciTech Connect

The effects of low dose CW laser were studied by in vivo and in vitro systems. The experimental tissues that were used included bladders, tracheas and tongues as experimental tissues. Buddings (round surface projections) from the transitional epithelium of bladder were frequently observed 3 days after laser treatment in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The trachea and tongue were less affected. In both the in vivo and in vitro systems, some epithelial cells of the trachea showed decreased microvilli and cilia 3 days after treatment whereas the epithelial cells of the tongue revealed no response to laser treatment in both systems. Low dose laser, however, appeared to promote the rate of healing of experimental tongue ulcer: healing was about 1 day earlier in the laser treated than non-treated animals and vessel infiltration and epithelialization were detected earlier in the treated.

Mok, Y.C.; Pang, K.M.; Au, C.Y.; Yew, D.T.

1988-03-01

95

Granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6-year-old girl--a case report.  

PubMed

Granular cell tumor is a relatively uncommon benign hamartomatous lesion occurring in almost any part of the body. The tongue and the buccal mucosa are common intra oral sites. Granular cell lesions may be found in other diverse sites such as the jaw, skin, gastro intestinal tract and respiratory tract. The histogenesis of the lesion still remains unknown. However, histochemical and ultra structural studies propose the origin of the lesion from schwann cells, striated muscle, mesenchymal cells, histiocytes and epithelial cells. The tumor generally occurs in middle or older aged adults. The lesion is typically seen as an uninflammed asymptomatic mass measuring about two cms in diameter with a yellowish surface coloration. As most of the granular cell tumors are benign, surgical excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice. We describe a case of granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6 year old girl along with a brief review of literature on granular cell tumors. PMID:16505796

Nagaraj, Praveen Birur; Ongole, Ravikiran; Bhujanga-Rao, Balaji Rao

2006-03-01

96

A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles  

PubMed Central

The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI

2013-01-01

97

Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool  

PubMed Central

Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields. PMID:22470887

Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P. K.

2012-01-01

98

Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.  

PubMed

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-12-01

99

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

100

Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 ?g/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 ?g/kg bw/day; E3: 1 ?g/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases. PMID:25655413

Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; ?lencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

2015-03-01

101

Tongue-rudder: a glossokinetic-potential-based tongue-machine interface.  

PubMed

Glossokinetic potentials (GKPs) are electric potential responses generated by tongue movement. In this study, we use these GKPs to automatically detect and estimate tongue positions, and develop a tongue-machine interface. We show that a specific configuration of electrode placement yields discriminative GKPs that vary depending on the direction of the tongue. We develop a linear model to determine the direction of tongue from GKPs, where we seek linear features that are robust to a baseline drift problem by maximizing the ratio of intertask covariance to intersession covariance. We apply our method to the task of wheelchair control, developing a tongue-machine interface for wheelchair control, referred to as tongue-rudder. A teeth clenching detection system, using electromyography, was also implemented in the system in order to assign teeth clenching as the stop command. Experiments on off-line cursor control and online wheelchair control confirm the unique advantages of our method, such as: 1) noninvasiveness, 2) fine controllability, and 3) ability to integrate with other EEG-based interface systems. PMID:22049361

Nam, Yunjun; Zhao, Qibin; Cichocki, Andrzej; Choi, Seungjin

2012-01-01

102

[Tongue coating, mouth odor, gustatory sense disorder - earlier and new treatment options by means of tongue scraper].  

PubMed

The tongue is said to be the mirror of physical health. The tongue dorsum is most delicate regarding the sense of touch. Pathologic coating of the tongue accounts for paresthesia during chewing, swallowing, speaking, tasting, and also may result in mouth odor. Tongue coating can result from increased formation or decreased natural abrasion, and from xerostomia or dyschylia. In clinical otorhinolaryngology pathologic tongue coating often is idiopathic or present after surgery of the oral cavity or pharynx. Critical analysis of published studies reveals that effectivity and justification to administer xenobiotics or vitamins in that condition is doubtful. Recently, it has been shown that tongue fur was able to be reduced by an easy-to-handle mechanical tongue cleaner or tongue scraper. Due to its simple use, tongue scrapers could be a welcome supplement for the treatment of tongue fur, mouth odor, and in particular cases, to enhance gustatory sense. Preliminary results of an ongoing prospective trial showed that tongue scrapers can effectively be applied after surgery of the oral cavity or pharynx. After tonsillectomy, tongue fur seemed to be reduced and gustatory sense to be enhanced when tongue scrapers were applied during postoperative care. After confirming these promising results in further investigations, an inexpensive and simple option for the treatment of a large amount of patients in clinical otorhinolaryngology would exist. PMID:18654938

Kostka, E; Wittekindt, C; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2008-08-01

103

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and  

E-print Network

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production: Master of Resource Management Report Number: 529 Title of Research Project: Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory

104

Tongue movement and syllable onset complexity: ultrasound study   

E-print Network

In this study ultrasound was used to investigate tongue movements in syllables with different number and type of onset consonants. Ultrasound recordings provided the information of the distance the tongue travels over a target, and audio recordings...

Kocjancic, Tanja

2008-01-01

105

Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

2009-05-01

106

The tongue as an excitable medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic tongue (GT) is a medical condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known out-of-equilibrium phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics, chemically driven reaction-diffusion systems and morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Here we identify GT as a novel example of excitable media dynamics and explore the evolution of the condition from a dynamical systems perspective. We focus on two characteristic aspects of GT in particular: anisotropic expansion of lesions and re-entry of the inflammation into recovering regions. Our investigation sheds light on the evolution of the inflammation and suggests a practical way to classify the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

Seiden, Gabriel; Curland, Sofia

2015-03-01

107

Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

2014-03-15

108

Anatomic study of tongue architecture based on fetal histological sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue muscles are difficult to study by dissection and imaging methods because of the intermeshing of the muscular fibers.\\u000a The study of the architecture of the tongue was based on 853 tongue sections of a fetus aged 32 weeks after conception. The\\u000a analysis of the sections allowed demonstration of the different intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue, to determine\\u000a their

G. Touré; C. Vacher

2006-01-01

109

New method for evaluation of tongue-coating status.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Tongue Coating Index, which is a new method for evaluating tongue-coating status. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of our new evaluation criteria (Score 0: Tongue coating not visible; Score 1: Tongue coating thin, papillae of tongue visible; Score 2: Tongue coating very thick, papillae of tongue not visible), 10 observers evaluated 20 photographs of tongues. Each tongue surface was divided into nine sections. Observers evaluated each section according to our new criteria and each score for tongue-coating status was recorded in the pertinent section of the Tongue Coating Record form. They repeated the same evaluation 2 weeks after the first evaluation. The relationship between the scores obtained and number of oral microorganisms was investigated in 50 edentulous patients. Tongue coating was collected from the tongue surface after evaluation of tongue-coating status. The total number of anaerobic bacteria and the number of Candida species were counted from the specimens collected. Interobserver agreement and intraobserver agreement were 0.66 and 0.80 by Cohen's kappa, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the number of Candida species among the three scores. The number of total anaerobic bacteria, however, was significantly different among the scores (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that our method for evaluating tongue-coating status offers new criteria that are superior in reliability and reproducibility, and that also reflect the total number of anaerobic bacteria present on the dorsum of the tongue. PMID:17518979

Shimizu, T; Ueda, T; Sakurai, K

2007-06-01

110

Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (24.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

1992-01-01

111

Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (25.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

1993-01-01

112

A three-dimensional atlas of human tongue muscles.  

PubMed

The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue's anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai

2013-07-01

113

Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

Ouni, Slim

2014-01-01

114

Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

2015-01-01

115

POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses April 27th POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses April 27th  

E-print Network

POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses April 27th 2006 1 #12;POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses, we ought always to talk and not to sleep at mid-day...! #12;POETRY NIGHT: 3 Tongues of the Muses, the most handsome among the immortal gods, dissolver of flesh, who overcomes the reason and purpose

116

A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

Zharkova, Natalia

2013-01-01

117

Wireless Control of Smartphones with Tongue Motion Using Tongue Drive Assistive Technology  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a noninvasive, wireless and wearable assistive technology that helps people with severe disabilities control their environments using their tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures to commands by detecting a small permanent magnetic tracer on the users’ tongue. We have linked the TDS to a smartphone (iPhone/iPod Touch) with a customized wireless module, added to the iPhone. We also migrated and ran the TDS sensor signal processing algorithm and graphical user interface on the iPhone in real time. The TDS-iPhone interface was evaluated by four able-bodied subjects for dialing 10-digit phone numbers using the standard telephone keypad and three methods of prompting the numbers: visual, auditory, and cognitive. Preliminary results showed that the interface worked quite reliably at a rate of 15.4 digits per minute, on average, with negligible errors. PMID:21096049

Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang

2010-01-01

118

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

119

Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

McCarty, Teresa L.

2008-01-01

120

Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a discussion of the concept of heritage mother

Teresa L. McCarty

2008-01-01

121

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC'S "Swimming Tongue" Catfish Sense  

E-print Network

Aquarium The keen senses of smell, taste, hearing, and vibration detection of the sea catfish, Plotosus active and searching for food. Many animals can sense pH changes, even humans. Our ability to tasteNATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC'S "Swimming Tongue" Catfish Sense Chemicals in Prey's Breath Posted by Mary

Hart, Craig M.

122

Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

2005-01-01

123

Relation Between Psoriasis and Geographic Tongue  

PubMed Central

The aim this article is to investigate the link between geographic tongue and psoriasis skin disease. Our review paper of the literature will handle strict study about the relation between geographic tongue and psoriasis. Our search has identified only limited studies available in English written literature starting from 2006-2013 using pubMed – indexed for MEDLINE. The result of this review suggests that geographic tongue may be an oral manifestation of psoriasis.There is no clear evidence in literature about association with gender and aetiology except one study which shows that benign migratory glossitis is more prevalent in young, nonsmoker and atopic or allergic individuals. Treatment for oral lesions is not standardized. A geographic tongue is significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients but only a limited data is available to date to strongly validate the association between these two entities.We recommend the general practitioner to have a good understanding about the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this lesion. Psoriatic patients should be encouraged to undergo routine dental checkups. PMID:25584342

Umair, Ayesha; Babaker, Zynab; SN, Azzeghaiby; Gazal, Giath; Sarraj, Faysal

2014-01-01

124

Analytical chemistry Sweet tasting electronic tongue  

E-print Network

, according to Suslick, who believes that that modified versions might be able to monitor blood glucose levels of detection at pH 7.4 for glucose were less than 1mM, which is below physiologically important levels step in the development of a fully functional electric tongue, said Christopher Musto, a student

Suslick, Kenneth S.

125

Mother Tongue Education: The West African Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the rapidly changing political, economic, and social life of West Africa, there is a renewed interest in cultural identity. This book describes the developments and the difficulties experienced by different West African countries in the use of mother tongues in multi-lingual society. The book was commissioned to give scholars, educators, and…

Bamgbose, Ayo, Ed.

126

Mother tongue education: necessary? Possible? Sustainable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues affecting pre-school education in a rural area of Kenya are highlighted in a study of a mother tongue education (MTE) programme in one indigenous language group, the Pokomo. Factors supporting the introduction of MTE include official support for MTE, the welcoming of non-government stakeholder involvement in education, the presence of individuals and organisations committed to MTE and the willingness

Barbara Elaine Graham

2010-01-01

127

Lectin histochemistry of normal human gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the saccharides expressed in gastric mucosa is mostly limited to the glycan content of gastric mucins and\\u000a there are only a few studies of the glycoprofiling of the constituent cells and their components. Knowledge of the glycan\\u000a expression of normal gastric mucosa is necessary for the interpretation of the significance of changes of expression in disease.\\u000a \\u000a A lectin

Chong Jiang; Sheena F. McClure; Robert W. Stoddart; John McClure

2003-01-01

128

Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.  

PubMed

Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels. PMID:24921415

Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N

2014-01-01

129

Epidemiología de la patología de la mucosa oral más frecuente en niños Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of fin- ding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic

Rafael Rioboo García

130

Using Buccal Mucosa for Urethral Reconstruction in Primary and Re-Operative Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Urethral reconstruction using buccal mucosa grafts finds increased broader use in patients with congenital or acquired urethral defects. The authors present their experience of 20 such treated patients. 12 repeatedly operated patients (11 congenital defects, 1 war injury) showed urethral defects of 4.5–20 cm in length. In 8 patients, 6 with hypospadias and 2 with prior straightening of the

D. Kröpfl; A. Tucak; D. Prlic; A. Verweyen

1998-01-01

131

Response of Human and Rat Small Intestinal Mucosa to Oral Administration of Saccharomyces boulardii  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the response of the small intestinal mucosa to Saccharomyces boulardii (S.b.), a yeast widely used in some countries as an adjuvant drug with oral antimicrobial therapy, seven healthy adult volunteers were treated with high doses of lyophilized S.b. (250 mg four times per day) for 2 wk. A peroral jejunal suction biopsy was performed on days 0 and

JEAN-PAUL BUTS; PAUL BERNASCONI; MARIE-PAULE Van CRAYNEST; PAUL MALDAGUE; ROGER De MEYER

1986-01-01

132

Detection of tongue cancer in primary care.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing, and survival has not improved since the majority of patients present at an advanced stage. Patient delay has remained the same over the years and is difficult to influence. Much less is known about the delay in diagnosis caused by physicians and dentists. AIM: To investigate the detection of tongue cancer in primary care in Northern Finland and to examine the consultation prevalence of oral symptoms in primary care in Finland. STUDY: Analysis of data from medical records of tongue cancer patients kept between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1994 for the general health insurance scheme. SETTING: The two northernmost provinces of Finland (population of 700,000). METHOD: Data were collected on demographic and clinical variables and on the first medical visit on 75 tongue cancer patients. In addition, primary care physicians recorded all patient visits during four weeks in 25 health centres randomly selected throughout Finland in 1996. RESULTS: At the initial visit, the tongue cancer patient was correctly referred for further examinations in 49 (65%) cases. In 12 (16%) of cases the patient was not referred but was scheduled for a follow-up visit, and was neither referred nor followed-up in 14 (19%). When compared with the referred patients the median professional delay was somewhat longer for the unreferred patients but increased dramatically if no follow-up was arranged (0.6 months [range = 0.1-2.4] versus 1.2 [range = 0.3-2.2] versus 5.2 [range = 0.7-18.2], P < 0.001). Compared with the referred patients the adjusted relative hazard of death for the non-referred followed-up patients was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.31-6.5) and that for the non-referred/not followed-up patients 6.3 (95% CI = 1.7-22.9). The high-risk patients included those who sought an early professional evaluation, those who made the appointment for a completely different reason and only mentioned the symptom suggestive of cancer incidentally, those that had a small ulcerative lesion, and blue-collar workers. Oral symptoms were a rare cause of visits (0.55% of all visits) in primary care in Finland. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis of tongue cancer at the initial professional evaluation often leads to a fatal delay if the patient is left without any follow-up. PMID:11217621

Kantola, S; Jokinen, K; Hyrynkangas, K; Mäntyselkä, P; Alho, O P

2001-01-01

133

Proposal for a New Noncontact Method for Measuring Tongue Moisture to Assist in Tongue Diagnosis and Development of the Tongue Image Analyzing System, Which Can Separately Record the Gloss Components of the Tongue  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS), which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously. PMID:25699260

Takeda, Kanako; Ishikawa, Yuya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ueda, Keigo; Nagamine, Koichi; Namiki, Takao; Miyake, Yoichi

2015-01-01

134

[Observation of the ultrastructure of the tongue coating].  

PubMed

An observational study was conducted to clarify the morphological features of the fine structure of the tongue coating, which is one of the main causes of halitosis. Tongue specimens from cadavers, whom dental students had practiced on for anatomy class, were used as materials to observe the surface structure. Tongue coatings were obtained from patients who were referred to the Fresh Breath Clinic, Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. After macroscopic observation of the tongue surface, tongue coating and examination of halitosis, the tongue coating was scraped carefully, following which it was observed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results obtained were as follows. The tongue coating consisted mainly of bacteria and desquamated keratinized epithelium which originated chiefly from the filiform papilla. The desquamated keratinized epithelium was also composed of degenerated epithelium of every level, from a comparatively normal epithelium to a fragmented altered epithelium. In addition, the level of degeneration of the keratinized epithelium differed according to the state of distribution and the revitalization of bacteria located in its surroundings. The intensity of halitosis increased with the amount of tongue coating. Increased amounts of tongue coating, however, did not necessarily correlate with increased halitosis in the patients. It was suggested that the severity of halitosis was probably associated with the level of bacterial invasion-related degeneration of the desquamated keratinized epithelium (tongue coating's quality). PMID:16629468

Watanabe, Hideaki

2006-03-01

135

Specialized bat tongue is a hemodynamic nectar mop  

PubMed Central

Nectarivorous birds and bats have evolved highly specialized tongues to gather nectar from flowers. Here, we show that a nectar-feeding bat, Glossophaga soricina, uses dynamic erectile papillae to collect nectar. In G. soricina, the tip of the tongue is covered with long filamentous papillae and resembles a brush or mop. During nectar feeding, blood vessels within the tongue tip become engorged with blood and the papillae become erect. Tumescence and papilla erection persist throughout tongue retraction, and nectar, trapped between the rows of erect papillae, is carried into the mouth. The tongue tip does not increase in overall volume as it elongates, suggesting that muscle contraction against the tongue’s fixed volume (i.e., a muscular hydrostat) is primarily responsible for tip elongation, whereas papilla erection is a hydraulic process driven by blood flow. The hydraulic system is embedded within the muscular hydrostat, and, thus, intrinsic muscle contraction may simultaneously increase the length of the tongue and displace blood into the tip. The tongue of G. soricina, together with the tongues of nectar-feeding bees and hummingbirds, which also have dynamic surfaces, could serve as valuable models for developing miniature surgical robots that are both protrusible and have highly dynamic surface configurations. PMID:23650382

Harper, Cally J.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

2013-01-01

136

Proposal for a new noncontact method for measuring tongue moisture to assist in tongue diagnosis and development of the tongue image analyzing system, which can separately record the gloss components of the tongue.  

PubMed

Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS), which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously. PMID:25699260

Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Takeda, Kanako; Ishikawa, Yuya; Oji, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ueda, Keigo; Nagamine, Koichi; Namiki, Takao; Miyake, Yoichi

2015-01-01

137

Clinical evaluation of Lugol's iodine staining in the treatment of stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often surrounded by epithelial dysplasia; leaving it unresected can result in local recurrence. Staining with Lugol's iodine solution detects epithelial dysplasia in oral mucosa, but whether it decreases local recurrence after OSCC surgery is unknown. This study investigated local recurrence rates in patients with early tongue cancer who underwent surgery using Lugol's staining. 93 patients with T1-2N0 tongue SCC underwent partial glossectomy using Lugol's staining during surgery. Resection was performed at least 5mm from the margin of the unstained area. Patients were investigated retrospectively for local recurrence status. Postoperative histology revealed negative surgical margins for SCC or epithelial dysplasia in 81 patients, close margins for SCC in 5, positive margins for mild epithelial dysplasia in 6, and a positive margin for SCC in one. Those with a positive or a close margin for SCC underwent additional resection 2-4 weeks after surgery; one was proved histologically to have residual SCC. No patients developed local recurrence, but 2 died of neck metastasis and 2 of distant metastasis. The 5-year disease specific survival rate was 93.8%. Lugol's staining during surgery can reduce local recurrence and improve survival in patients with early tongue SCC. PMID:21334851

Umeda, M; Shigeta, T; Takahashi, H; Minamikawa, T; Komatsubara, H; Oguni, A; Shibuya, Y; Komori, T

2011-06-01

138

Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans.  

PubMed

Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; P<0.05). Across all tongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume. PMID:25481541

Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

2015-01-15

139

Isolated cysticercosis of tongue: a case report.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis of the tongue is a rare disease caused by infestation with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) in which man acts as a secondary host rather than a primary host. Most of these lesions are asymptomatic. The patient usually reports to the physician with the complaint of swelling. The solitary swelling in the tongue of this young 12-year-old girl was not suspected clinically for cysticercosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology, used for pre-operative diagnosis, suggested the possibility of cysticercosis. Detailed medical evaluation was carried out which ruled out neural cysticercosis and other extraneural lesions. The complete removal of the lesion was achieved by simple excision. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of lingual cysticercosis. PMID:24610792

Khare, Pratima; Chauhan, Nidhi; Dogra, Rajeev; Kala, Pooja; Chand, Priyanka

2014-08-01

140

Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

Bressmann, Tim

2006-01-01

141

Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the ?-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). Results: The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology. PMID:25538382

Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

2014-01-01

142

EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW TOOTHBRUSH DESIGN VERSUS A CONVENTIONAL TONGUE SCRAPER IN IMPROVING BREATH ODOR AND REDUCING TONGUE MICROBIOTA  

PubMed Central

For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30) had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05). When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group). The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning. PMID:19089259

Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; de Carvalho, Tatiane Cruz; Panzeri, Heitor; Lavrador, Marco Aurélio Sichirolli; Pires-De-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

2008-01-01

143

Effectiveness of a new toothbrush design versus a conventional tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing tongue microbiota.  

PubMed

For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30) had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05). When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group). The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning. PMID:19089259

Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; de Carvalho, Tatiane Cruz; Panzeri, Heitor; Lavrador, Marco Aurélio Sichirolli; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

2008-01-01

144

Differential effects of targeted tongue exercise and treadmill running on aging tongue muscle structure and contractile properties  

PubMed Central

Age-associated changes in tongue muscle structure and strength may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. Tongue exercise is a current treatment option. We hypothesized that targeted tongue exercise and nontargeted exercise that activates tongue muscles as a consequence of increased respiratory drive, such as treadmill running, are associated with different patterns of tongue muscle contraction and genioglossus (GG) muscle biochemistry. Thirty-one young adult, 34 middle-aged, and 37 old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats received either targeted tongue exercise, treadmill running, or no exercise (5 days/wk for 8 wk). Protrusive tongue muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition in the GG were examined at the end of 8 wk across groups. Significant age effects were found for maximal twitch and tetanic tension (greatest in young adult rats), MHCIIb (highest proportion in young adult rats), MHCIIx (highest proportion in middle-aged and old rats), and MHCI (highest proportion in old rats). The targeted tongue exercise group had the greatest maximal twitch tension and the highest proportion of MHCI. The treadmill running group had the shortest half-decay time, the lowest proportion of MHCIIa, and the highest proportion of MHCIIb. Fatigue was significantly less in the young adult treadmill running group and the old targeted tongue exercise group than in other groups. Thus, tongue muscle structure and contractile properties were affected by both targeted tongue exercise and treadmill running, but in different ways. Studies geared toward optimizing dose and manner of providing targeted and generalized tongue exercise may lead to alternative tongue exercise delivery strategies. PMID:23264540

Kletzien, Heidi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen E.

2013-01-01

145

ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AND PSEUDOMONADACEAE ON THE DORSUM OF THE HUMAN TONGUE  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. Material and Methods: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux). Results: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001) and non-smokers (p=0.0485). Conclusions: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures. PMID:19936511

Conti, Simone; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2009-01-01

146

Amyloidosis of the Tongue-Report of A Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Amyloid involvement of the tongue is almost always secondary to systemic amyloidosis. Isolated amyloidosis of the tongue is relatively rare and it accounts for less than 9% of all types of amyloidosis. We are presenting a case of a 54–year–old male patient who complained of an enlarged tongue and bilateral multiple swellings on the lateral borders of the tongue, which had been there since one year. Bilaterally symmetrical, violaceous, purpuric patches interspersed with nodules were seen surrounding the eyes. Histopathologically, the lesion exhibited homogenous eosinophilic amyloid-like material. Special staining with Congo red showed amyloid material as peach red colour under light microscopy and as apple green birefringence under polarized light. Based on these observations, a definitive diagnosis of amyloidosis of tongue was made. Amyloidosis of tongue is uncommon and its features resemble those of a benign tumour. A battery of tests is necessary to differentiate localized amyloidosis from its systemic forms PMID:24551740

Babburi, Suresh; B, Ramya; RV, Subramanyam; V, Aparna; Srivastava, Gautam

2013-01-01

147

Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.  

PubMed Central

Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

1989-01-01

148

Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012). The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene. PMID:23414605

2013-01-01

149

Production of tongue twisters by speakers with partial glossectomy.  

PubMed

Abstract A partial glossectomy can affect speech production. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of a tumour as well as the glossectomy surgery on the patients' production of tongue twisters with the sounds [t] and [k]. Fifteen patients with tongue cancer and 10 healthy controls took part in the study. The outcome measures were the patients' speech acceptability, rate of errors, the time needed to produce the tongue twisters, pause duration between item repetitions and the tongue shape during the production of the consonants [t] and [k] before and after surgery. The patients' speech acceptability deteriorated after the surgery. Compared to controls, the patients' productions of the tongue twisters were slower but not more errorful. Following the surgery, their speed of production did not change, but the rate of errors was higher. Pause duration between items was longer in the patients than in the controls but did not increase from before to after surgery. Analysis of the patients' tongue shapes for the productions of [t] and [k] indicated a higher elevation following the surgery for the patients with flap reconstructions. The results demonstrated that the surgical resection of the tongue changed the error rate but not the speed of production for the patient. The differences in pause duration also indicate that the tumour and the surgical resection of the tongue may impact the phonological planning of the tongue twister. PMID:25046430

Bressmann, Tim; Foltz, Anouschka; Zimmermann, Jana; Irish, Jonathan C

2014-12-01

150

Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao

2014-01-01

151

Glycophenotypic Alterations Induced by Pteridium aquilinum in Mice Gastric Mucosa: Synergistic Effect with Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewisx. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process. PMID:22719879

Gomes, Joana; Magalhães, Ana; Carvalho, Ana S.; Hernandez, Gilberto E.; Papp, Suzanne L.; Head, Steven R.; Michel, Valérie; David, Leonor; Gärtner, Fátima; Touati, Eliette; Reis, Celso A.

2012-01-01

152

Human07, Vuillerme et al. 1 Artificial Tongue-Placed Tactile Biofeedback  

E-print Network

Human07, Vuillerme et al. 1 Artificial Tongue-Placed Tactile Biofeedback for perceptual with disabilities, using artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback systems. Proposed applications are dealing--Handicap; Biofeedback; Tactile display; Tongue Proprioception; Postural control; Human disability; Biomedical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

[Tongue base reduction with hyoid-epiglottoplasty. A surgical alternative in severe sleep apnea syndromes].  

PubMed

We present preliminary results and indications of tongue base reduction with hyo-epiglottoplasty for the treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) due to isolated hyolingual abnormalities. The procedure consists in a subtotal resection of the tongue base after identification and derouting of the lingual neurovascular bundle. Hypopharyngeal enlargement, epiglottis verticalization, floor of the mouth tension and hyoid bone repositioning are also performed during the procedure. 14 severe OSAS male patients (mean apnea-hypopnea index of 71) were treated in our institution from November 1992 to February 1996. Indications were determined after a cephalometric analysis and a magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Results were evaluated on clinical and polysomnographic criteria. No neurovascular complications occurred. Clinical results were excellent but success rate based on polysomnography was 50%. These preliminary results led us to change some of the steps in the technique. We also identified a predictive factor of success on the cephalometrics: an oropharyngeal area greater than 25 cm2. PMID:9922828

Chabolle, F; Wagner, I; Séquert, C; Lachiver, X; Coquille, F; Fleury, B; Blumen, M

1998-12-01

154

Lack of effect of tongue piercing on an evidential breath alcohol test.  

PubMed

Defendants in several driving under the influence cases have asserted that the presence in the mouth of a metal stud through a hole pierced in the tongue invalidates the breath alcohol test because of the prohibition against foreign substances in the mouth, and because of the potential for the jewelry to retain alcohol and interfere with the breath test. Rates of mouth alcohol elimination were evaluated in two subjects with pierced tongues and in two control subjects. No differences in the mouth alcohol elimination patterns were observed. The 15 min alcohol deprivation period prior to the test ensures no effect from residual mouth alcohol. For the purposes of breath alcohol testing, oral jewelry should be treated in the same manner as dental work, and may be left in place during the test without affecting its outcome. PMID:9456556

Logan, B K; Gullberg, R G

1998-01-01

155

Lipomatous tumors of the oral mucosa: histomorphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical features.  

PubMed

We conducted a comprehensive study of all lipomatous tumors of the oral mucosa (1996-2008) accessioned at the Department of Oral Pathology, Tel Aviv University, collected demographic data and analyzed multiple histomorphological features. Furthermore, we examined the immunostaining of aP2 (adipocyte lipid binding protein) and the polarization colors of picrosirius red (PSR)-stained collagen fibers in order to test their potential in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. All cases were immunohistochemically stained with aP2 antibody; only tumors with considerable collagenous stroma were selected for the PSR staining. A total of 77 tumors were included in the study, 91% benign and 9% malignant. Fibrolipoma (37.7%) and lipoma (36.4%) were the most frequent tumors. Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT) was the only type of malignancy. The most common location for the benign tumors was the buccal mucosa and for ALT, the tongue. Histomorphological features characteristic of malignant tumors were occasionally present also in the benign entities. Expression of aP2 was similar in all tumors, while the polarization colors of the PSR-stained collagen fibers differed significantly between ALT and benign tumors (p<0.05). Benign and malignant tumors occasionally show overlapping histomorphological features that require a meticulous examination. PSR staining with polarization microscopy could aid in differentiating malignant from benign tumors in equivocal cases. PMID:21376375

Allon, Irit; Aballo, Sara; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena

2011-12-01

156

Bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.  

PubMed

Two new bioactive Annonaceous acetogenins, rollitacin (1) and rollinacin (2), along with one known acetogenin, javoricin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rollinia mucosa. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective inhibitory effects among six human solid tumour cell lines. The structural elucidations of 1 and 2 were achieved by various spectroscopic analyses and chemical derivatizations. PMID:9195761

Shi, G; MacDougal, J M; McLaughlin, J L

1997-06-01

157

Lignans from leaves of Rollinia mucosa.  

PubMed

A new furofuranic lignan named (+)-epimembrine together with known (+)-epieudesmine and (+)-epimagnoline were isolated from leaves of R. mucosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data. Palmitone and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated. PMID:11926539

Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Alvarez, Ana Laura; López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Rocha, Luisa; Heinze, Gerardo; Moreno, Julia; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

2002-01-01

158

Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

1986-01-01

159

New spiral bacterium in gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new spiral bacterium, distinct from Campylobacter pylori, was found in the gastric mucosa of six patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients had chronic active type B gastritis and four had oesophagitis. Culture and microscopy for C pylori infection was negative. These unculturable spiral organisms were probably an incidental finding in patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but it is

C A McNulty; J C Dent; A Curry; J S Uff; G A Ford; M W Gear; S P Wilkinson

1989-01-01

160

Surgery beats chemotherapy for tongue cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with tongue cancer who started their treatment with a course of chemotherapy fared significantly worse than patients who received surgery first, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. This is contrary to protocols for larynx cancer, in which a single dose of chemotherapy helps determine which patients fare better with chemotherapy and radiation and which patients should elect for surgery. In larynx cancer, this approach, which was pioneered and extensively researched at U-M, has led to better patient survival and functional outcomes. But this new study, which appears in JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, describes a clear failure.

161

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue base: a case for the case-report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A 60 year old lady was referred to the Princess Alexandra Hospital (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) tertiary Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Unit from a peripheral hospital for investigation and management of a tumour at the base of the tongue. Biopsy of the tumour revealed it to be an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the base of the tongue. This is an extremely rare tumour in this location with only 2 other case reports in the world literature: the patients were treated with chemo-radiotherapy and surgery respectively. Our patient was made aware of the world literature and was able to make a fully informed decision on her choice of treatment modality and was treated with radiotherapy. Increasingly journals are limiting publication of case reports to "world firsts" only. We present a case where such a policy would have denied patient choice and possibly led to detrimental treatment.We review the world literature of tongue base epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:20181065

Peters, Peter; Repanos, Costa; Earnshaw, James; Stark, Patrick; Burmeister, Bryan; McGuire, Lloyd; Jeavons, Susanne; Coman A M, William B

2010-01-01

162

Force Amplitude Modulation of Tongue and Hand Movements  

E-print Network

Figure 19. Spatial Extent of Activation in Left Posterior Cingulate Cortex (Tongue VOI 9) ………………………………………………………….…... 62 Figure 20. Spatial Extent of Activation in Left Putamen (Tongue VOI 12) ……………..…. 62 Figure 21. Spatial Extent... of Activation in Left Anterior Cingulate Cortex (Syllable VOI 8) ………………………………………………………………….…. 64 Figure 22. Spatial Extent of Activation in Left Posterior Cingulate Cortex (Syllable VOI 11) ……………………………………………………………………. 64 Figure 23. Spatial Extent...

Dietsch, Angela M.

2011-12-31

163

Lingual Electromyography Related to Tongue Movements in Swedish Vowel Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)

Hirose, Hajime; And Others

1979-01-01

164

Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

2015-01-01

165

Modulation of neural connectivity during tongue movement and reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a novel connectivity analysis method termed within-condition interregional covariance analysis (WICA) was introduced for investigation into brain modulation during tongue movement and reading Chinese pinyins and logographic characters. We found that performing a horizontal tongue movement task generated a specific brain module with hierarchical orders of neural computation. Such functional modularity was

Alex G. He; Li Hai Tan; Yiyuan Tang; G. Andrew James; Paul Wright; Mark A. Eckert; Peter T. Fox; Yijun Liu

2003-01-01

166

Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to  

E-print Network

testified by clinical practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for at least 3,000 years (Fig. 1A, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Tongue diagnosis is a unique method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first investigation on the association between traditional tongue diagnosis

Chen, Ting

167

Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

2012-01-01

168

Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne

2014-01-01

169

Policy and Experiment in Mother Tongue Literacy in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses Nigeria's efforts to achieve mother-tongue literacy for its citizens. Describes Nigeria's complicated sociolinguistic landscape, national language policies, and the Ife experimental project, studying the use of the mother tongue in primary schools. Points to nonlinguistic factors in educational success, including parental background,…

Akinnaso, F. Niyi

1993-01-01

170

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

171

Analysing Normal and Partial Glossectomee Tongues Using Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at identifying underlying parameters that govern the shape of the tongue. A functional topography of the tongue surface was developed based on three-dimensional ultrasound scans of sustained speech sounds in ten normal subjects. A principal component analysis extracted three components that explained 89.2% of the variance…

Bressmann, Tim; Uy, Catherine; Irish, Jonathan C.

2005-01-01

172

Tongue movements and syllable onset complex-ity: Ultrasound study  

E-print Network

Tongue movements and syllable onset complex- ity: Ultrasound study Tanja Kocjancic1 1 Speech of Edinburgh, UK Abstract In this study ultrasound was used to investigate tongue movements in syllables with different number and type of onset consonants. Ultrasound recordings provided the information

Edinburgh, University of

173

Implications of the Wnt5a/CaMKII pathway in retinoic acid-induced myogenic tongue abnormalities of developing mice.  

PubMed

Although proper tongue development is relevant to other structures in the craniofacial region, the molecular details of muscle development in tongue remain poorly understood. Here, we report that pregnant mice treated with retinoic acid (+RA) produce embryos with tongue malformation and a cleft palate. Histological analyses revealed that at E14.5, the tongues of +RA fetuses failed to descend and flatten. Ultrastructural analysis showed that at perinatal stage E18.5, the myofilaments failed to form normal structures of sarcomeres, and arranged disorderly in the genioglossus. The proliferation and levels of myogenic determination markers (Myf5 and MyoD) and myosin in the genioglossus were profoundly reduced. Wnt5a and Camk2d expressions were down-regulated, while levels of Tbx1, Ror2, and PKC? were up-regulated in the tongues of +RA fetuses. In mock- and Wnt5a-transfected C2C12 (Wnt5a-C2C12) cells, Wnt5a overexpression impaired proliferation, and maintained Myf5 at a relative high level after RA treatment. Furthermore, Wnt5a overexpression positively correlated with levels of Camk2d and Ror2 in C2C12 cells after RA exposure. These data support the hypothesis that the Wnt5a/CaMKII pathway is directly involved in RA-induced hypoplasia and disorder of tongue muscles. PMID:25124193

Cong, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Shuqing; Sun, Mingzhong; Liu, Han; Yang, Yue; Wang, Ru; Xiao, Jing

2014-01-01

174

Tongue Fat Infiltration in Obese Versus Lean Zucker Rats  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obesity is the most important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and the effects of obesity may be mediated by tongue fat. Our objective was to examine the effects of obesity on upper airway structures in obese (OBZ) and non-obese (NBZ) Zucker rats. Design: Animal study. Setting: Academic Medical Center. Participants: OBZ (638.2 ± 39 g; 14.9 ± 1.1 w) and age-matched NBZ Zucker (442.6 ± 37 g, 15.1 ± 1.5 w) rats. Interventions: Tongue fat and volume and were assessed using: in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), magnetic resonance imaging including Dixon imaging for tongue fat volume, ex vivo biochemistry (fat quantification; triglyceride (mg)/tissue (g), and histology (Oil Red O stain). Measurements and Results: MRS: overall OBZ tongue fat/water ratio was 2.9 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002) with the anterior OBZ tongue up to 3.3 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002). Biochemistry: Triglyceride (TG) in the tongue was 4.4 times greater in OBZ versus NBZ (P < 0.0006). TG was greater in OBZ tongue (3.57 ± 1.7 mg/g) than OBZ masseter muscle (0.28 ± 0.1; P < 0.0001) but tongue and masseter TG were not different in NBZ rats (0.82 ± 0.3 versus 0.28 ± 0.1 mg/g, P = 0.67). Dixon fat volume was significantly increased in OBZ (56 ± 15 mm3) versus NBZ (34 ± 5 mm3, P < 0.004). Histology demonstrated a greater degree of intracellular muscle fat and extramuscular fat infiltration in OBZ versus NBZ rats. Conclusions: Genetically obese rats had a large degree of fat infiltration in the tongue compared to both skeletal muscle and tongue tissues of the non-obese age-matched littermates. The significant fat increase and sequestration in the obese tongue may play a role in altered tongue neuromuscular function, tongue stiffness or metabolic function. Citation: Brennick MJ, Delikatny J, Pack AI, Pickup S, Shinde S, Zhu JX, Roscoe I, Kim DY, Buxbaum LU, Cater JR, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat infiltration in obese versus lean Zucker rats. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1095-1102. PMID:24882904

Brennick, Michael J.; Delikatny, James; Pack, Allan I.; Pickup, Stephen; Shinde, Sarika; Zhu, Jing-Xu; Roscoe, Ivana; Kim, David Y.; Buxbaum, Laurence U.; Cater, Jacqueline R.; Schwab, Richard J.

2014-01-01

175

Evaluation of the maximum isometric tongue force of healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The forces of specific muscle groups have been well described for nearly all parts of the human body. Interestingly, data for the tongue and its forces are rare. In light of ongoing development of systems for managing the tongue (retaining, advancing, suspending or stabilizing), especially in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, knowledge of the maximum tongue force is important for the conceptual design of those systems. The maximum tongue force in a sagittal direction was documented using a custom-built device that included a tongue clamp and a piezoelectric sensor to capture force measurements. Once positioned securely in the device, participants were asked to move the tongue in a posterior sagittal direction, with maximum force, in each of three test positions. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (29 male) were included in the study. Tongue force measurements were collected three times in three different tongue positions. Thirty-three participants had repeated measurements to investigate any potential learning effect. The maximum force of the human tongue in a posterior sagittal direction showed high inter-individual variation and ranged from 3.2 to 52.4 Newton (N; mean 14.1 ± 7.5 N), when measured from a "neutral protrusion or resting" tongue position. The "retracted" and "maximal protrusion" testing positions yielded lower maximum tongue forces. Men (m) showed statistically significantly higher tongue forces than women (w) (m: 16.0 ± 8.4 N, w: 11.0 ± 4.3 N), and there was a positive correlation with BMI and a negative correlation with age. Comparing the first measurement session with the second session (per patient) showed higher mean maximum forces in the second session, but with no statistical significance. The maximum tongue force data showed substantial inter- and intra-individual variability and gender dependency. Some male individuals produced very high forces. These forces should be considered for the future conception and development of tongue management systems and the mechanical stress to which these systems may be exposed. PMID:24970288

Ulrich Sommer, J; Birk, Richard; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

2014-11-01

176

Study of Factors Involved in Tongue Color Diagnosis by Kampo Medical Practitioners Using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and Tongue Color Images  

PubMed Central

In traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine), tongue color is important in discerning a patient's constitution and medical conditions. However, tongue color diagnosis is susceptible to the subjective factors of the observer. To investigate factors involved in tongue color diagnosis, both color discrimination and tongue color diagnosis were researched in 68 Kampo medical practitioners. Color discrimination was studied by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, and tongue color diagnosis was studied by 84 tongue images. We found that overall color discrimination worsened with aging. However, the color discrimination related to tongue color regions was maintained in subjects with 10 or more years of Kampo experience. On the other hand, tongue color diagnosis significantly differed between subjects with <10 years of experience and ?10 years of experience. Practitioners with ?10 years of experience could maintain a consistent diagnosis of tongue color regardless of their age. PMID:24808919

Oji, Takeshi; Namiki, Takao; Ueda, Keigo; Takeda, Kanako; Nakamura, Michimi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro

2014-01-01

177

Buccal mucosa urethroplasty for adult urethral strictures  

PubMed Central

Urethral strictures are difficult to manage. Some treatment modalities for urethral strictures are fraught with high patient morbidity and stricture recurrence rates; however, an extremely useful tool in the armamentarium of the Reconstructive Urologist is buccal mucosal urethroplasty. We like buccal mucosa grafts because of its excellent short and long-term results, low post-operative complication rate, and relative ease of use. We utilize it for most our bulbar urethral stricture repairs and some pendulous urethral stricture repairs, usually in conjunction with a first-stage Johanson repair. In this report, we discuss multiple surgical techniques for repair of urethral stricture disease. Diagnosis, evaluation of candidacy, surgical techniques, post-operative care, and complications are included. The goal is to raise awareness of buccal mucosa grafting for the management urethral stricture disease. PMID:22022061

Zimmerman, W. Britt; Santucci, Richard A.

2011-01-01

178

New annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.  

PubMed

Four new compounds, a mixture of 20,23-cis-2,4-trans-bullatalicinone (1) and 20,23-cis-2,4-cis-bullatalicinone (2), rollimusin (3), and rolliacocin (4), along with eight known acetogenins, were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the unripe fruits of Rollinia mucosa. The structures and stereochemistry of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. PMID:10654411

Liaw, C C; Chang, F R; Chen, Y Y; Chiu, H F; Wu, M J; Wu, Y C

1999-12-01

179

Granular cell tumor presenting as a tongue nodule: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Granular cell tumor is an uncommon neoplasm that can occur in any part of the body, including the orofacial region. The tumor is usually benign, but there are reports of cases in which the tumor shows a locally aggressive behavior, malignancy, and distant metastases. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that granular cell tumor arises from the altered metabolism of Schwann cells. The tumor is typically asymptomatic and appears as a nodule that does not exceed 3 cm. Case presentation In case 1, a 26-year-old Caucasian man was seen at the Oral Medicine out-patient clinic of the São José dos Campos Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, with a 'small blister on the tongue', which he had noted approximately three years ago. The nodule was located on the dorsum of the tongue, measured about 1.5 cm in diameter, and was not tender to palpation. Treatment consisted of an excisional biopsy performed on the basis of the diagnostic hypothesis of granular cell tumor, which was confirmed by microscopic analysis. In case 2, a 31-year-old Caucasian woman attended the out-patient clinic of the São José dos Campos Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, with a five-year history of a 'painful lump on the tongue'. Intra-oral examination revealed the presence of a nodular lesion measuring approximately 0.8 cm in diameter, which was located deep in the submucosa of the right lateral margin of the tongue. Treatment consisted of an excisional biopsy performed on the basis of the differential diagnosis of neurofibroma and granular cell tumor. Microscopic analysis defined the final diagnosis of granular cell tumor. Conclusions Granular cell tumor is an uncommon tumor that must be carefully diagnosed and treated correctly. PMID:22325570

2012-01-01

180

Staged buccal mucosa urethroplasty in reoperative hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Repeated attempts at surgical repair of serious complications involving either the partial or complete breakdown of the hypospadias repair are less likely to succeed because the penis is densely scarred, or significantly shortened, and the skin over the penis is immobile and hypovascular. Buccal mucosa (BM) has become the preferred material for reconstruction, whenever a child with skin-deficient hypospadias needs reoperation. We report the results of our surgical experience with staged reoperation using BM, in the repair of hypospadias in children with complications after multiple failed repairs. Materials and Methods: Children needing reoperation for hypospadias underwent a staged repair using buccal mucosa. The complications were noted. Results: Twenty-one children aged 3 – 16 years underwent this staged repair during the period May 2000 – April 2010. Two of these 21 children had a failed first stage. One child developed a urethro-cutaneous fistula following the second stage, which was corrected in an additional stage. Conclusions: The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in a child with hypospadias, needing a reoperation, is a successful method, with a low incidence of complications. PMID:21814309

Nerli, R. B.; Neelagund, S. E.; Guntaka, Ajay; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Siddayya C.; Jali, Sujata M.; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

2011-01-01

181

Electronic Tongue for Quantitation of Contaminants in Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory

2004-01-01

182

The Effect of Jaw Position on Measures of Tongue Strength and Endurance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of tongue strength and endurance is common in research and clinical contexts. It is unclear whether the results reveal discrete function by the tongue or combined abilities of the tongue and jaw. One way to isolate the movement of the tongue is to constrain the jaw kinematically by using a bite block. In this study, 10 neurologically…

Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Munson, Benjamin

2004-01-01

183

Oral supplementation with vitamin C improves intestinal mucosa morphology in the pulmonary hypertensive broiler chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The aim of this study was to determine the effects of added dietary vitamin C on the intestinal mucosa morphology in pulmonary hypertensive broiler chickens.2.?One-day-old chickens were reared at high altitude and treated with 400, 800 or 1200 mg vitamin C\\/l of drinking water for 48 d. Segments from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for morphometric analysis.3.?The duodenum

A. K. Zamani Moghaddam; H. Hassanpour; A. Mokhtari

2009-01-01

184

Immunomodulated anterior chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced tongue cancer: An Institutional experience  

PubMed Central

Context: Sequential induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) along with interferon-alpha2b and concurrent chemoradiation offers superior loco-regional control for locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate the beneficial role of induction PF chemotherapy and interferon-alpha2b followed by chemoradiation over definitive chemoradiation only for patients with locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue. Settings and Design: Phase II randomized, prospective, open-labeled, single-institutional study. Methods and Material: Fifty patients were randomized into 2 arms. Arm A patients were treated with induction chemotherapy with PF regimen for 3 cycles and interferon alpha 2b, 3MU biweekly for 6 such followed by chemoradiation with cisplatin 30 mg/ m2/ week and external radiotherapy. Arm B patients received chemoradiation only, in the same dose schedule as in Arm A. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical correlation between the two arms. For plotting the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for the two arms, Kaplan-Meier method was used. Results: The loco-regional response rate of patients treated with interferon containing induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation was superior to concurrent chemoradiation only. However the toxicities and treatment interruption were more in patients treated with induction chemotherapy. Conclusions: In locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue, induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) along with interferon alpha 2b followed by concurrent chemoradiation may produce superior loco-regional control with manageable toxicities that needs to be validated by more randomized trials with adequate number of patients.

Chhatui, Bappaditya; Devleena; Roy, Sanjoy; Maji, Tapas; Lahiri, Debarshi; Biswas, Jaydip

2015-01-01

185

Primary clear cell sarcoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

Clear cell sarcoma shares features with melanoma, but frequently shows EWSR1 rearrangements. It is an aggressive tumor typically occurring in the soft tissues of the extremities, with a gastrointestinal variant with less consistent melanocytic differentiation. It is extremely rare in the head and neck region, with no reported cases in the oral cavity. We report a case of an 82-year-old woman with a clear cell sarcoma arising in the tongue, with cervical lymph node metastases. Histologically, the tumor showed some features of gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma. No osteoclast-type giant cells were present. The tumor cells were positive for S100 protein and negative for other melanocytic markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed rearrangements of EWSR1 and ATF1. This case expands the spectrum of clear cell sarcoma with a gastrointestinal-like variant in a novel site, emphasizing the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis to melanoma in mucosal sites. PMID:24168510

Kraft, Stefan; Antonescu, Cristina R; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Deschler, Daniel G; Nielsen, G Petur

2013-11-01

186

Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lsw@amc.seoul.kr; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-15

187

Incidental pathologically proven pulmonary hamartoma in a patient with carcinoma tongue  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hamartomas are usually clinically silent and found incidentally on chest radiographs. They can lead to diagnostic confusion especially in patients who have been previously treated for primary cancers at other sites. This can lead to consideration of metastatic malignancy as the primary diagnostic possibility. In this case, evaluation of a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) in a patient with carcinoma of tongue led to the diagnosis of pulmonary chondroid hamartoma. This highlights the fact that a pulmonary nodule in a patient with progressive cancer at another site does not always indicate pulmonary metastasis. PMID:23531937

Jindal, Aditya; Madan, Karan; Nijhawan, Raje; Singh, Navneet

2013-01-01

188

4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED IN DAM CONSTRUCTION, NORTH EAST OF EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTH - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

189

E-tongue 2 REDOX response to heavy metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

E-Tongue 2 an array of electrochemical sensors including REDOX electrodes for Cylic Voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry measurements, Galvanic cells for corrosion measurements, and Ion Selective Electrodes.

Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Kounaves, S. P.

2002-01-01

190

Predicting Tongue Shapes from a Few Landmark Locations   

E-print Network

ground-truth tongue contours derived from ultrasound data and drastically improves over spline interpolation. We also determine the optimal locations of the landmarks, and the number of landmarks required to achieve a desired prediction error: 3...

Qin, C.; Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Richmond, Korin; Wrench, Alan; Renals, Steve

2008-01-01

191

Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10(-5) (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa. PMID:23580171

Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

192

Bolus propulsive activity of the tongue in dysphagic cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Videofluoroscopic recordings were analyzed for liquid swallows in dysphagic patients with cancer involving the pharynx. Temporal\\u000a measurements were made for the tongue stripping action in relation to velar and hyoid function. Dysphagic subjects as a group\\u000a displayed an altered sequence of activity compared to normal controls, with the onset of stripping occurring after velar closure.\\u000a Tongue stripping action and hyoid

Sandra Hamlet; Lewis Jones; Robert Mathog; Maureen Bolton; Robin Patterson

1988-01-01

193

Adenocarcinoma of the anterior tongue: a case report.  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland more commonly involves the palate and base of tongue but rarely presents in the anterior tongue. We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland located in the anterior togue of a 74-year-old man. Furthermore, we discuss the histopathological features of this neoplasm, the treatment plan, and a literature review of the current standard of care. PMID:23993709

Gehani, Neal C; Liu, Yi-Chun Carol; Stepnick, David W

2013-01-01

194

Aberrant Crypts: Putative Preneoplastic Foci in Human Colonie Mucosa1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant crypts were identified for the first time in whole-mount preparations of normal-appearing human colonie mucosa after staining with méthylène blue. The foci of aberrant crypts varied from single altered glands to plaques of greater than 30 crypts. The mean proportion of colonie mucosa altered and the number of foci with aberrant crypts per cm2of colonie mucosa were (a) higher

Theresa P. Pretlow; Betty J. Barrow; Scott Ashton; Thomas G. Pretlow; Joseph A. Jurcisek; Thomas A. Stellato

195

A unique complication of radiofrequency therapy to the tongue base  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radiofrequency ablation treatment of the tongue base can be used either alone or as part of a multilevel approach in the treatment of snoring. This involves the generation of thermal energy around the circumvallate papillae of the tongue. Potential complications include ulceration, dysphagia, haematoma and abscess formation. Presentation of case We present the case of a 50-year-old patient who developed an anterior neck swelling following a second application of radiofrequency ablation therapy to the tongue base for snoring. This was secondary to an infection of a previously undiagnosed thyroglossal cyst. The patient made a full recovery following intravenous antibiotic therapy and ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Discussion Thyroglossal tract remnants are thought to be present in seven percent of the adult population. An infection in a thyroglossal tract cyst has not previously been reported following radiofrequency ablation of the tongue base. Given the relatively high complication rate of tongue base radiofrequency ablation in some series, this complication may be under-recognised. Conclusion An infected thyroglossal tract cyst should be suspected in patients with anterior neck swellings following radiofrequency ablation therapy to the tongue base. We advise caution when performing this procedure on patients with known thyroglossal tract remnants though there is insufficient evidence to suggest that this procedure is contraindicated. PMID:25603484

Tornari, Chrysostomos; Wong, Gentle; Arora, Asit; Kotecha, Bhik

2015-01-01

196

Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography  

PubMed Central

Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated. PMID:23922786

Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranj?i?, Josip; Kneževi?, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

2013-01-01

197

The function of oscillatory tongue-flicks in snakes: insights from kinematics of tongue-flicking in the banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata).  

PubMed

Tongue-flicking is an important sensory behavior unique to squamate reptiles in which chemical stimuli gathered by the tongue are delivered the vomeronasal organ situated in the roof of the mouth. Because tongue-flick numbers can easily be quantified, this behavior has been widely used as a measure of vomeronasal sampling in snakes using related variables such as tongue-flick rate or tongue-flick/attack score. Surprisingly, the behavior itself and especially the function of the oscillatory tongue-flicks remains poorly understood. To describe the overall kinematics of tongue-flicking in the colubrid snake Nerodia fasciata and to test predictions on the function of oscillatory tongue-flicks, we filmed the tongue-flicks of 8 adult Nerodia fasciata using 4 synchronized high-speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematic and performance variables were extracted from the videos in order to quantify tongue movements. Based on the kinematic analysis, we demonstrate the existence of 2 functional and behavioral tongue-flick categories. Tongue-flicks with oscillations meet all the criteria for being adapted to the collection of odorants; simple downward extensions appear better suited for the rapid pick up of nonvolatile chemical stimuli from the substrate or a food item. External stimuli such as tactile and/or vomeronasal stimulation can induce a shift between these categories. PMID:22942105

Daghfous, Gheylen; Smargiassi, Maïté; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Wattiez, Ruddy; Bels, Vincent

2012-11-01

198

Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure…

Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.

2008-01-01

199

Functional reconstruction after subtotal glossectomy in the surgical treatment of an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm in this location: Primary malignant melanoma in the base of the tongue  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm, especially on the tongue. We report a case of mucosal melanoma at the base of the tongue, an extremely rare location (only about 30 cases have been reported in literature). The extension study doesn´t revealed distant metastatic lesions. The patient was treated by subtotal glossectomy and bilateral functional neck dissection. Tongue is one of the most difficult structures to reconstruct, because of their central role in phonation, swallowing and airway protection. The defect was reconstructed with anterolateral thigh free flap. Surgical treatment was supplemented with adjuvant immunotherapy. The post-operative period was uneventful. At present, 24 months after surgery, patient is asymptomatic, there isn´t evidence of recurrence of melanoma and he hasn´t any difficulty in swallowing or phonation. Key words:Malignant mucosal melanoma, anterolateral thigh free flap, phonation, swallowing. PMID:25593674

Manzano-Solo-de-Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Hernández-Vila, Cristina; Ramírez-Pérez, Francisco-Alejandro; González-Ballester, David; Ruíz-Laza, Luis; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio

2014-01-01

200

Functional reconstruction after subtotal glossectomy in the surgical treatment of an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm in this location: Primary malignant melanoma in the base of the tongue.  

PubMed

Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm, especially on the tongue. We report a case of mucosal melanoma at the base of the tongue, an extremely rare location (only about 30 cases have been reported in literature). The extension study doesn´t revealed distant metastatic lesions. The patient was treated by subtotal glossectomy and bilateral functional neck dissection. Tongue is one of the most difficult structures to reconstruct, because of their central role in phonation, swallowing and airway protection. The defect was reconstructed with anterolateral thigh free flap. Surgical treatment was supplemented with adjuvant immunotherapy. The post-operative period was uneventful. At present, 24 months after surgery, patient is asymptomatic, there isn´t evidence of recurrence of melanoma and he hasn´t any difficulty in swallowing or phonation. Key words:Malignant mucosal melanoma, anterolateral thigh free flap, phonation, swallowing. PMID:25593674

Rubio-Correa, Isidoro; Manzano-Solo-de-Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Hernández-Vila, Cristina; Ramírez-Pérez, Francisco-Alejandro; González-Ballester, David; Ruíz-Laza, Luis; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio

2014-10-01

201

Morphologic and histologic outcomes of tongue reduction surgery in an animal model  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the effect of anterior tongue reduction surgery on tongue size, morphology and histology. Design Prospective experiment. Materials Twenty-two 12 week old Yucatan minipigs. Methods Six sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group B) or sham surgery (Group A), and underwent euthanasia the day of surgery. Five sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group D) or sham surgery (Group C), and were raised for 4 weeks. Data collected included: changes in tongue morphology, histology and animal response to surgery. Results All animals tolerated surgery and maintained their weight. Tongue size was uniformly reduced in all animals as compared to sham surgery. Tongue reduction was stable long-term in Group D. All animals had normal wound healing and neurovascular structure preservation. Fibrosis occurred at the repair site. Conclusion Midline tongue reduction resulted in uniform tongue reduction in all dimensions and volume, without damaging neurovascular structures. Localized fibrosis is a sequelae of healing. PMID:18656732

Perkins, Jonathan A.; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Zi-Jun.

2008-01-01

202

Treatment of tongue cavernous haemangioma with direct puncture and sclerotization with ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Haemangiomas of tongue are rare type of malformations. They can be treated mostly conservatively but in some cases they need more aggressive treatment with preoperative intra arterial embolization and surgical resection. Lesions of tongue that are localized superficially can also be treated with direct puncture and injection of sclerosing agent (absolute ethanol). Case report We present a case of a 48 years old female patient, where we performed embolization of cavernous haemangioma with mixture of absolute ethanol and oil contrast. After the procedure the patient received analgetics and antioedematous therapy. After the sclerotization the planed surgery was abandoned. Control MRI examinations 6 and 12 months after the procedure showed only a small remnant of haemangioma and no signs of a larger relapse. Conclusions In our case the direct puncture of haemangioma and sclerotherapy with ethanol proved to be a safe and effective method to achieve preoperative devascularization of the lesion. Direct puncture of the lesion is not limited by the anatomy of the vessels or vasospasm, which can occur during the intra-arterial approach.

Seruga, Tomaz; Lucev, Jernej; Jevsek, Marko

2015-01-01

203

Plumbagin induces the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Plumbagin, a quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of Plumbago zeylanica L., has been proven to possess anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Cell proliferation ability was detected by EdU incorporation assay and colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cellular apoptosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blotting was applied to assay the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Results Plumbagin inhibited the growth and proliferation of Tca8113 cells in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycles of plumbagin-treated Tca8113 cells were arrested at the G2/M phase. Cells treated with plumbagin presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was raised by plumbagin in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions These results indicate that plumbagin induces the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells through mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:23982457

Qiu, Jia-xuan; He, Yuan-qiao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ru-liang; Qin, You; Shen, Xiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Mao, Zong-fu

2013-01-01

204

Neurologic toxicity of lidocaine during awake intubation in a patient with tongue base abscess. Case report.  

PubMed

Lidocaine is commonly used for topical anesthesia of the upper airway in patient with anticipated difficult tracheal intubation undergoing awake fiberoptic intubation. Lidocaine toxicity is dose related and proportional to its plasma level. Although neurologic toxicity has been frequently observed with intravenous use, it has also been reported for topical use. We report on a case of a patient with base tongue abscess who developed sudden seizures and coma during application of topical anesthesia with lidocaine for awake fiberoptic intubation. The presence of a deep neck infection that causes hyperemia and edema of the pharyngolaryngeal mucosa may enhance transmucosal systemic absorption of local anesthetic. Moreover, conditions such as hypercarbia, dysphagia, or hepatic diseases are known to facilitate onset of lidocaine neurologic toxicity with serum concentration lower than normal. These findings should be kept in mind before administering topical anesthesia of the upper airway. In the presence of any of these conditions above, either the total dose of local anesthetic or its concentration should be reduced as much as possible. PMID:24120692

Giordano, Davide; Panini, Alessandro; Pernice, Carmine; Raso, Maria Gabriella; Barbieri, Verter

2014-01-01

205

Osteogenic cell fractions isolated from mouse tongue muscle.  

PubMed

The use of stem cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of bone defects. However, successful treatments rely upon the availability of cells that are easily obtained and that appropriately differentiate into osteoblasts. The tongue potentially represents a source of autologous cells for such purposes. In the present study, the ability of stem cell antigen?1 (Sca?1) positive cells derived from tongue muscle to differentiate into osteoblasts was investigated. The tongue muscles were excised from Jcl?ICR mice and tongue muscle?derived Sca?1?positive cells (TDSCs) were isolated from the tongue muscle using a magnetic cell separation system with microbeads. TDSCs were cultured in plastic dishes or gelatin sponges of ??tricalcium phosphate (??TCP) with bone differentiation?inducing medium. The expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and osteopontin) was investigated in cultured TDSCs by western blot analysis. The formation of mineralized matrices was examined using alizarin red S and Von Kossa staining. Bone formation was investigated in cultured TDSCs by hematoxylin?eosin staining and immunohistochemstry. In the present study, the expression of Sca?1 in mouse tongue muscle was demonstrated and TDSCs were isolated at high purity. TDSCs differentiated into cells of osteoblast lineage, as demonstrated by the upregulation of osteoblastic marker expression. The formation of mineralized matrices was confirmed by alizarin red S or Von Kossa staining in vitro. Bone formation was observed in the gelatin sponges of ??TCP, which were subsequently implanted under the skin of the backs of nude mice. These results suggested that TDSCs retain their osteogenic differentiation potential and therefore the tongue muscle may be used as a source of stem cells for bone regeneration. PMID:25684092

Harada, Koji; Harada, Toyoko; Ferdous, Tarannum; Takenawa, Takanori; Ueyama, Yoshiya

2015-07-01

206

Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue  

PubMed Central

Abstract Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species. PMID:12171472

Iwasaki, Shin-ichi

2002-01-01

207

Geographic Tongue and Fissured Tongue in 348 Patients with Psoriasis: Correlation with Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

Geographic tongue (GT) and fissured tongue (FT) are the more frequent oral lesions in patients with psoriasis. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of GT/FT between psoriasis group (PG) and healthy controls (HC) and investigate the correlation between GT/FT and psoriasis severity using the PASI and age of psoriasis onset. Three hundred and forty-eight PG and 348 HC were selected. According to the age of psoriasis onset, the individuals were classified as having early psoriasis and late psoriasis. The severity of vulgaris psoriasis was determined according to PASI. A follow-up was conducted in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV) with GT to evaluate the progression of oral and cutaneous lesions. The FT and GT were more frequent in PG than in HC. The incidence of GT was higher in patients with early psoriasis and that of FT in late-psoriasis. There is association between psoriasis intensity and GT; and a higher monthly decrease of PASI score in patients without GT. The presence of GT and FT is higher in PG than in the HC. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity. PMID:25685842

Picciani, Bruna L. S.; Souza, Thays T.; Santos, Vanessa de Carla B.; Domingos, Tábata A.; Carneiro, Sueli; Avelleira, João Carlos; Azulay, David R.; Pinto, Jane M. N.; Dias, Eliane P.

2015-01-01

208

Immunological and morphogenic basis of gastric mucosa atrophy and metaplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic gastritis with gastric mucosa atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia are alterations with an increased risk for the development of gastric neoplasias. Immunological studies in autoimmune gastritis, in atrophic Helicobacter pylori gastritis and in studies with transgenic mice point to a central role of the parietal cell in the development of gastric mucosa atrophy. Destruction of gastric epithelial

Gerhard Faller; Thomas Kirchner

2005-01-01

209

Substance-P-containing nerve fibers in the nasal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve fibers displaying SP immunoreactivity were detected in the nasal mucosa of several mammals. The fibers were seen around small blood vessels, seromucous glands, and beneath and sometimes within the surface epithelium. In the pterygopalatine ganglion and the trigeminal ganglion, known to innervate the nasal mucosa, SP-positive nerve cell bodies were seen. Sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or bilateral cervical

R. Uddman; L. Malm; F. Sundler

1983-01-01

210

High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer: preliminary results of a dose reduction trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the outcome of our facility with another about the shortened schedule (60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions) of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer. Material and methods Eighteen patients were treated with HDR ISBT as a monotherapy in dose reduction schedule with some unique technique to determine the border of tumor accuracy (lugol's staining and metal marker), and to minimize adverse effect (lead-lined silicon block) at our facility. Results The 2-year local and regional control rates and cause-specific survival rate were 82%, 80%, and 83% and moderate to severe late complications occurred in five patients (28%), which were almost the same treatment results achieved by another facility. Conclusions We recommend 54 Gy in 9 fractions over 7 days as a feasible treatment to reduce patient discomfort in mobile tongue cancer patients. PMID:24790616

Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Masui, Koji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Arika, Takumi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eiichi

2014-01-01

211

Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

1996-11-01

212

Schwannoma base tongue: Case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. These are rare in the oral cavity (1%). The most common site of involvement in oral cavity is the tongue. Posterior third of tongue is not frequently involved. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of base tongue schwannoma and review literature of this rare tumor. Data from literature were analyzed for age, gender, presenting symptom, size at presentation, and surgical approach. We report a case of 26 year-old male who presented with swelling posterior 1/3rd tongue and change in quality of voice. He was evaluated for the same with MR and incision biopsy and was planned for surgery. Surgery was abandoned at a district hospital due to difficulty in intubation. At our center he underwent fibro optic bronchoscopy guided intubation followed by general anesthesia. He underwent excision of mass using left paramedian lip spitting approach with mandibulotomy and mandibular swing. Tumor was excised in toto. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Literature review between 2001 and 2012 was done. 15 cases of base tongue schwannoma were identified. The most common age group involved was between 30-40 years. There was a slightly higher incidence in females. All patients were symptomatic at presentation. Most common complaints were related to swallowing and throat pain. Most patients underwent transoral excision of the tumor. PMID:25316399

George, N A; Wagh, M; Balagopal, P G; Gupta, S; Sukumaran, R; Sebastian, P

2014-07-01

213

Morphometric growth relationships of the immature human mandible and tongue.  

PubMed

The masticatory apparatus is a highly adaptive musculoskeletal complex comprising several relatively independent structural components, which assist in functions including feeding and breathing. We hypothesized that the tongue is elemental in the maintenance of normal ontogeny of the mandible and in its post-natal growth and development, and tested this using a morphometric approach. We assessed tongue and mandibular measurements in 174 (97 male) human cadavers. Landmark lingual and mandibular data were gathered individuals aged between 20 gestational weeks and 3 yr postnatal. In this analysis, geometric morphometrics assisted in visualizing the morphometrical growth changes in the mandible and tongue. A linear correlation in conjunction with principal component analysis further visualized the growth relationship between these structures. We found that the growth of the tongue and mandible were intrinsically linked in size and shape between 20 gestational weeks and 24 months postnatal. However, the mandible continued to change in shape and size into the 3rd yr of life, whereas the tongue only increased in size over this same period of time. These findings provide valuable insights into the allometric growth relationship between these structures, potentially assisting the clinician in predicting the behaviour of these structures in the assessment of malocclusions. PMID:24712417

Hutchinson, Erin F; Kieser, Jules A; Kramer, Beverley

2014-06-01

214

Combined bipolar radiofrequency surgery of the tongue base and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of combined bipolar radiofrequency surgery of the tongue base (RFBT) and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in a single session for obstructive sleep apnea and whether this combination is safe and well tolerated. Material and methods Seventy-nine patients with obstructive sleep apnea and both palatal and retroglossal obstruction underwent UPPP with bipolar RFBT. The control group consisted of 35 patients treated by UPPP alone. Results The apnea-hypopnea index significantly decreased from 28.7 to 14.1. The oxygen desaturation index decreased from 15.1 to 10.3. Mean oxygen saturation was unchanged. Subjectively, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was significantly improved from 10.6 to 7.3, and the snoring level decreased from 8.4 to 6.0. The overall treatment success rate increased from 41.9% for UPPP alone to 51.7% for UPPP + RFBT. No serious adverse events occurred. Two patients had postoperative bleeding from the tonsillar bed after UPPP. Four patients had ulceration of the base of the tongue after RFBT with spontaneous cure. One patient had a taste change in half of the tongue that resolved within two months. Conclusions Combined bipolar RFBT and UPPP in a single session is well tolerated and safe surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. It is effective in reducing respiratory parameters and subjective symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Further advantages are a single session, simple feasibility, bipolar technique and short time of the procedure. PMID:24482656

Zabrodsky, Michal; Kastner, Jan; Betka, Jaroslav; Klozar, Jan

2013-01-01

215

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319...OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and...

2010-01-01

216

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319...OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and...

2011-01-01

217

A Comparative Study of Contemporary Color Tongue Image Extraction Methods Based on HSI  

PubMed Central

Tongue image with coating is of important clinical diagnostic meaning, but traditional tongue image extraction method is not competent for extraction of tongue image with thick coating. In this paper, a novel method is suggested, which applies multiobjective greedy rules and makes fusion of color and space information in order to extract tongue image accurately. A comparative study of several contemporary tongue image extraction methods is also made from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. As the experimental results show, geodesic active contour is quite slow and not accurate, the other 3 methods achieve fairly good segmentation results except in the case of the tongue with thick coating, our method achieves ideal segmentation results whatever types of tongue images are, and efficiency of our method is acceptable for the application of quantitative check of tongue image. PMID:25505903

Zhu, Mingfeng; Du, Jianqiang; Ding, Chenghua

2014-01-01

218

Analysis of vision-based Text Entry using morse code generated by tongue gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a Text Entry Interface based on the detection of tongue protrusion gestures using Computer Vision methods. The system uses a common webcam to acknowledge gestures made with the tongue, which are inter­ preted as the \\

Luis Ricardo Sapaico; Makoto Sato

2011-01-01

219

Development and preliminary evaluation of an intraoral Tongue Drive System.  

PubMed

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue-operated assistive technology (AT), developed for people with severe physical impediments to control their environments using their tongue motion. We have developed a new intraoral TDS (iTDS) in a form of a dental retainer, which can tightly clasp onto the upper teeth, completely hidden inside the mouth, using commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS). The iTDS retainer was tested by two healthy subjects and their performance was compared with that of an external TDS (eTDS) implemented in the form of a headset. The iTDS retainer showed comparable performance with the eTDS headset. The iTDS is expected to improve the stability and robustness of the TDS, while giving users a certain degree of privacy. PMID:23366102

Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2012-01-01

220

Tongue protrusion as an indicator of vital burning.  

PubMed

In the forensic assessment of burned bodies, the question of whether the victim was exposed to the fire before or after death is of crucial importance. Several external signs have been used in the past to indicate heat exposure prior to the death of the victim but these did not include tongue protrusion. The internal signs of heat exposure are generally regarded as much more important than those observed externally. No one factor has been found to be totally reliable. This study found a statistically significant dependence between tongue protrusion and presence of soot in the respiratory tract and stomach, the latter being a good indicator of vital burning. The results of this study confirm that tongue protrusion can be used as an additional indicator of vital burning. PMID:23609218

Bernitz, Herman; van Staden, Paul J; Cronjé, Christine M; Sutherland, René

2014-03-01

221

Speech rehabilitation in total paralysis of the tongue.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old woman attempted suicide by cutting her throat. In doing so, she severed the hypoglossal nerves bilaterally. The patient received full speech rehabilitation following nerve suture and logopedic training. The surgeon who is faced with deep wounds of the anterior part of the neck, especially cut wounds (due to accident, suicide, or murder), should be aware of the possibility of a severance of the hypoglossal nerve, and perform surgical exploration of the tongue later when a paralysis of the tongue has been diagnosed with the aim of doing a nerve suture. With modern technique, interfascicular suture under the microscope, not only tonus of the tongue is likely to be recovered, but also some degree of more differentiated motility that would shorten the period of convalescence and reduce the need for logopedic training. PMID:7150074

Siemssen, S J

1982-12-01

222

Adenocarcinoma Involving the Tongue and the Epiglottis in a Horse  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis. PMID:24284972

LAUS, Fulvio; ROSSI, Giacomo; PAGGI, Emanuele; BORDICCHIA, Matteo; FRATINI, Margherita; TESEI, Beniamino

2013-01-01

223

Incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago and the greater West Indies is unknown; therefore, the present study examines the frequency of tongue carcinoma cases, drawing comparisons to worldwide and regional data. A retrospective analysis of all confirmed cases of tongue carcinoma was conducted using eight years of data from the pathology records at the Port of Spain General Hospital (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago). A total of 26 cases were confirmed, of which 21 were male (81%) and five were female (19%). The age range was 29–86 years, with a mean age of 57 years, and the most common group affected was the 61–70 years age group. In addition, the number of newly diagnosed cases per year ranged between one and seven, with an average of 3.25 new cases per year and a peak incidence of seven new cases in the year of 2009. In the 19 cases where the degree of differentiation was recorded, histological analysis revealed the extent of differentiation as follows: Five cases (26%) were poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); eight cases (42%) were moderately-differentiated SCC; and six cases (32%) were well-differentiated SCC. In addition, one case of chronic inflammatory process and one case of mucoepidermoid adenocarcinoma of the tongue in a 57-year-old female were identified. Overall, the incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago appears to be low, estimated at 0.46/100,000 individuals/year. The male:female ratio is 4:1 and SCC is the dominant cancer type (96% of cases). The peak age of occurrence is at 61–70 years. These findings are in agreement with previously determined global data, however, additional research of the risk factors and outcomes of surgery as a treatment strategy for tongue carcinoma is required. PMID:25663924

RAMDASS, MICHAEL J.; HARRACKSINGH, AVIND; MAHARAJ, KHEMANAND; SING, QUILLAN YOUNG; MOOTEERAM, JUSTIN; BARROW, SHAHEEBA

2015-01-01

224

An engineered 3D human airway mucosa model based on an SIS scaffold.  

PubMed

To investigate interrelations of human obligate airway pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, and their hosts test systems with high in vitro/in vivo correlation are of urgent need. Using a tissue engineering approach, we generated a 3D test system of the airway mucosa with human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (hTEC) and fibroblasts seeded on a clinically implemented biological scaffold. To investigate if hTEC display tumour-specific characteristics we analysed Raman spectra of hTEC and the adenocarcinoma cell line Calu-3. To establish optimal conditions for infection studies, we treated human native airway mucosa segments with B. pertussis. Samples were processed for morphologic analysis. Whereas our test system consisting of differentiated epithelial cells and migrating fibroblasts shows high in vitro/in vivo correlation, hTEC seeded on the scaffold as monocultures did not resemble the in vivo situation. Differences in Raman spectra of hTEC and Calu-3 were identified in distinct wave number ranges between 720 and 1662 cm(-1) indicating that hTEC do not display tumour-specific characteristics. Infection of native tissue with B. pertussis led to cytoplasmic vacuoles, damaged mitochondria and destroyed epithelial cells. Our test system is suitable for infection studies with human obligate airway pathogens by mimicking the physiological microenvironment of the human airway mucosa. PMID:24912816

Steinke, Maria; Gross, Roy; Walles, Heike; Gangnus, Rainer; Schütze, Karin; Walles, Thorsten

2014-08-01

225

DNA Damage in Oral Mucosa Cells of Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective: The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test. Results: The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336). Conclusion: Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells. PMID:24910659

Heravi, Farzin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Merati, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Ahrari, Farzaneh

2013-01-01

226

Geraniol-a flavoring agent with multifunctional effects in protecting the gastric and duodenal mucosa.  

PubMed

Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol commonly used as a flavoring agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate antiulcerogenic effects of geraniol and to determine the possible mechanisms involved in this action. In the model of the ethanol-induced ulcer, treatment of rats with geraniol by oral route significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 70 % (7.50 mg/kg) to 99 % (200 mg/kg). Analysis of the gastric tissue of rats treated with geraniol (7.50 mg/kg) revealed that total glutathione content levels (GSH) increased and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased in the gastric mucosa. Oral treatment with geraniol significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury by 71 % and the duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine by 68 %. The action of geraniol was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors such as the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endogenous prostaglandins, increased mucus production, increased sulfhydryl compounds, antioxidant properties and the stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV). The multifaceted gastroprotective mechanisms of geraniol represent a promising option for the treatment of gastric and duodenal mucosa injury. PMID:24337826

de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid Moraes; Bonamin, Flavia; Dos Santos, Raquel Cássia; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; da Rocha, Lucia Regina Machado; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia Akiko

2014-04-01

227

Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

2009-01-01

228

Relevance of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection to carcinogenesis of oral tongue cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is controversial as a causative factor in oral tongue cancer. This study aimed to clarify whether HPV directly affects the carcinogenesis and biological behaviour of oral tongue cancer by analyzing HPV prevalence, the physical status of the virus and clinicopathological parameters. Archival tissue was obtained from 36 patients diagnosed with T1 and T2 oral tongue

S. Y. Lee; N. H. Cho; E. C. Choi; S. J. Baek; W. S. Kim; D. H. Shin; S.-H. Kim

2010-01-01

229

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the tongue: report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon disorder manifested as solitary or multiple nodules in dermis and subcutaneous tissue of head and neck region. ALHE affecting tongue is very rare. We report a 56-year-old man with ALHE of the tongue and review the previously reported cases of ALHE of the tongue. PMID:11755828

Park, Yangsoon; Chung, Jaegul; Cho, Chang-Gun

2002-01-01

230

Neuromuscular Organization of the Superior Longitudinalis Muscle in the Human Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper tongue function is essential for respiration and mastication, yet we lack basic information on the anatomical organization underlying human tongue movement. Here we use microdissection, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, silver staining of nerves, alpha bungarotoxin binding and immunohistochemistry to describe muscle fiber architecture and motor endplate (MEP) distribution of the human superior longitudinalis muscle (SL). The human SL extends from tongue

Katrina Slaughter; Haiyan Li; Alan J. Sokoloff

2005-01-01

231

The Bi-Elliptical Deformable Contour and Its Application to Automated Tongue Segmentation in Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated tongue image segmentation, in Chinese medicine, is difficult due to two special factors: 1) there are many pathological details on the surface of the tongue, which have a large influence on edge extraction; 2) the shapes of the tongue bodies captured from various persons (with different diseases) are quite different, so they are impossible to describe properly using a

Bo Pang; David Zhang; Kuanquan Wang

2005-01-01

232

Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature  

E-print Network

Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature Christopher that an elastically powered movement, ballistic tongue projection in chameleons, maintains high performance over a 20). We find that, unlike these other dynamic movements, bal- listic tongue projection in chameleons

Anderson, Christopher V.

233

Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

2012-01-01

234

Soft Tissue Management and Prosthetic Rehabilitation in a Tongue Cancer Patient  

PubMed Central

One major challenge in treating head and neck oncologic patients is to achieve an acceptable recovery of physiologic functions compatible with the complete tumor excision. However, after tumor resection, some patients present a surgically altered anatomy incompatible with prosthetic rehabilitation, unless some soft tissue correction is carried out. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall mandibular prosthetic rehabilitation of a postoncologic patient focusing on the possibility of soft tissue correction as a part of the treatment. A 72-year-old woman, who undergone a hemiglossectomy for squamous cell carcinoma several years before, was referred to our department needing a new prosthesis. The patient presented partial mandibular edentulism, defects in tongue mobility, and a bridge of scar tissue connecting one side of the tongue to the alveolar ridge. A diode laser (980?nm) was used to remove the fibrous scar tissue. After reestablishing a proper vestibular depth and soft tissue morphology, two implants were placed in the interforaminal region of the mandible to support an overdenture. PMID:24319601

Romeo, Umberto; Laurito, Domenica; Cugnetto, Riccardo

2013-01-01

235

Histological Changes in the Gastric Mucosa of Magnesium Deficient Rats  

PubMed Central

The gastric mucosa of Sprague-Dawley male rats was studied histologically following a magnesium-deficient diet fed for 4, 8, 16, 30, 45 or 60 days. Control animals were given either the same diet supplemented with magnesium sulphate or Purina Laboratory Chow. Magnesium deficient animals showed the following prominent changes: vasodilatation, fewer surface mucous cells, as well as a diminution of theintracellular and the extracellular mucus, and structural disorganization of the upper third of the mucosa. No changes were noted in the controls. A possible interrelation of magnesium deficiency, histamine production and gastric mucosa is proposed. ImagesFigs. 5-7Figs. 1-4 PMID:5547657

Artizzu, Maria; Messier, B.

1971-01-01

236

Mucous secretion in rat colonic mucosa during carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine. A morphological and histochemical study.  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies, in specimens of large intestine resected for carcinoma, have shown abnormal patterns of mucous secretion in areas of apparently "normal" mucosa, where goblet cells produce mainly sialomucins as compared with the true normal colonic mucosa in which sulphomucins predominate. In the present work, large bowel cancer was induced in rats by the administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-2HCl (DMH). We attempted to study the sequential histological and secretory abnormalities which developed in the colonic epithelium during carcinogenesis, and to correlate these changes with those described above in the human. The microscopical and histological lesions observed in the colonic mucosa of DMH treated rats confirmed the findings of other authors and resembled the human colorectal cancer. The earliest changes detected were small foci of hyperplasia accompanied from the 6th week onwards by several foci of dysplasia. Carcinoma in situ appeared at the 15th week and finally invasive carcinoma developed from the 19th week onwards. Changes in the type of mucous secretion, with predominance of sialomucins, were observed in the majority of the areas showing mild to moderate dysplasia whilst the surrounding normal epithelium produced suphated material. Mucous depletion was a common feature in areas of severe dysplasia and carcinoma. These findings correlated well with the similar variations in the mucin composition observed in human colonic mucosa in carcinoma and further supported our previous hypothesis that mucin changes characterized by an increase in sialomucins might reflect early malignant transformation. If this hypothesis proved to be correct, the use of a simple method for the identification of mucins in large bowel biopsies would be of great help in detecting early malignancy. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 p67-a Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:1174451

Filipe, M. I.

1975-01-01

237

Experimental reconstruction of teat mucosa by vestibular mucosal graft in cows. A histopathologic and radiographic study.  

PubMed

Injuries to the teat in dairy cows can result in partial or complete obstruction of the teat lumen. Different treatment techniques have been used to restore normal function in injured teats, one of which is autogenous mucosal grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vestibular mucosa as a replacement for teat mucosa in severe teat injuries. Sixteen teats of four healthy, mature, non-gravid Jersey cows were randomly divided into two equal groups. Under high epidural analgesia and after surgical preparation a 1 x 1.5 cm piece of teat mucosa was removed. In group 1, the defect was replaced by a 2 x 2.5 cm vestibular mucosa, whereas in group 2, the defect was left open. In both groups, a sterile disposable teat cannula was inserted into the teat cistern following surgery. To evaluate luminal diameter, double contrast radiography with constant air pressure was performed every 25 days till day 125, after which the animals were slaughtered and teats removed for histopathological study (H&E staining). On the basis of radiographic examination, luminal narrowing in group 2 was significantly more severe than in group 1. Histopathologically, the entire mucosal grafts of group 1 were taken and a good adhesion could be seen between the graft and the host epithelium. In group 2, severe submucosal fibrosis and mucosal papilloid hyperplasia resulted in severe narrowing of the teat cistern. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that using vestibular mucosal grafts with temporary insertion of teat cannula can be considered as a method of treating teat mucosal injuries. PMID:12440794

Molaei, M M; Oloumi, M M; Maleki, M; Abshenas, J

2002-09-01

238

Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy in 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results obtained with {sup 192}Ir low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Between December 1979 and January 1998, 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma were treated by exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy, with or without neck dissection. {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy was performed according to the 'Paris system' with a median total dose of 60 Gy (median dose rate, 0.5 Gy/h). Results: Overall survival was 74.3% and 46.6% at 2 and 5 years. Local control was 79.1% at 2 years and regional control, respectively, 75.9% and 69.5% at 2 and 5 years (Kaplan-Meier method). Systematic dissection revealed 44.6% occult node metastases, and histologic lymph node involvement was identified as the main significant factor for survival. Complication rate was 16.5% (Grade 3, 2.9%). Half of the patients presented previous and/or successive malignant tumor (ear-nose-throat, esophagus, or bronchus). Conclusion: Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for T2 tongue carcinoma. Regional control and survival are excellent in patients undergoing systematic neck dissection, which is mandatory in our experience because of a high rate of occult lymph node metastases.

Bourgier, Celine [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Coche-Dequeant, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Fournier, Charles [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Castelain, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Prevost, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Lefebvre, Jean-Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Lartigau, Eric [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France)]. E-mail: e-lartigau@o-lambret.fr

2005-10-01

239

Quality of life in patients after resection of pT3 lateral tongue carcinoma: Microvascular reconstruction vs. primary closure.  

PubMed

Background: Controversy exists regarding the functional advantages of free-flap reconstruction after partial glossectomy as compared to primary closure. Methods: Forty patients were included in this retrospective study after resection of a pT3 lateral tongue carcinoma. Twenty patients received a free forearm flap and 20 patients had a primary closure. All patients had adjuvant chemoradiation, were free of disease at least 1 year after therapy and completed the German versions of the EORTC questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35. Results: Mean time between surgery and quality of life assessment was 16.2 ± 3.4 months. The average resection was 41.60 % (reconstruction) of the oral tongue, and 39.1 % (primary closure). After reconstruction, patients had significantly (p>0.05) fewer problems with the swallowing, speech and social eating subdomains of the EORTC QLQ-H&N35. All other items showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that free flaps might be useful when treating pT3 tongue cancer. Head Neck, 2014. PMID:25224592

Canis, Martin; Weiss, Bernhard G; Ihler, Friedrich; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Matthias, Christoph; Wolff, Hendrik A

2014-09-15

240

Apple peel polyphenols protect against gastrointestinal mucosa alterations induced by indomethacin in rats.  

PubMed

The stability of an apple peel polyphenol extract (APPE) with powerful antioxidant activity was evaluated under acidic conditions in vitro, and its protective effect against gastrointestinal damage was investigated in rats treated with indomethacin. The antioxidant activity of APPE remained stable at pH 2.0 for 4 h. In rats treated with indomethacin (40 mg/kg ig), the previous administration of APPE protected the gastric, intestinal, and colonic mucosa from oxidative stress by preventing increased malondialdehyde concentrations and decreasing the GSH/GSSG ratio. APPE also displayed anti-inflammatory effects by preventing neutrophil infiltration in the mucosa, as evidenced by the lower myeloperoxidase activity. These protective effects of APPE resulted in the prevention of macro- and microscopic damage and of barrier dysfunction along the gastrointestinal tract of the indomethacin-treated animals. This study supports the concept that apple peel polyphenols may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated side effects. PMID:21548634

Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán; Brunser, Oscar; Pastene, Edgar; Gotteland, Martin

2011-06-22

241

Electronic tongue for sensing taste changes with apricots during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is aimed at application of electronic tongue (ET) to the recognition of different apricot varieties and detecting taste changes during storage. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage on ripeness and taste of fruits was also investigated. Three apricot varieties and four different CA conditions were studied. The pH and Brix measurement were used

David B. Kantor; Geza Hitka; Andras Fekete; Csaba Balla

2008-01-01

242

An Efficient Biomechanical Tongue model for Speech Florian Vogt1  

E-print Network

ANSYS. 1. Introduction and Contributions Basic speech motor control issues such as: the control biomechanical tongue model (Figure 1), originally developed in the standard Finite Ele- ment Package ANSYS the accuracy of our faster approach by comparing it to the model computed using ANSYS. The contributions of our

Payan, Yohan

243

Vision of tongue movements bias auditory speech perception.  

PubMed

Audiovisual speech perception is likely based on the association between auditory and visual information into stable audiovisual maps. Conflicting audiovisual inputs generate perceptual illusions such as the McGurk effect. Audiovisual mismatch effects could be either driven by the detection of violations in the standard audiovisual statistics or via the sensorimotor reconstruction of the distal articulatory event that generated the audiovisual ambiguity. In order to disambiguate between the two hypotheses we exploit the fact that the tongue is hidden to vision. For this reason, tongue movement encoding can solely be learned via speech production but not via others? speech perception alone. Here we asked participants to identify speech sounds while matching or mismatching visual representations of tongue movements which were shown. Vision of congruent tongue movements facilitated auditory speech identification with respect to incongruent trials. This result suggests that direct visual experience of an articulator movement is not necessary for the generation of audiovisual mismatch effects. Furthermore, we suggest that audiovisual integration in speech may benefit from speech production learning. PMID:25172391

D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Berry, Jeffrey James; Fadiga, Luciano

2014-10-01

244

Tongue Cooling: A New Reward for Thirsty Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirsty rodents will persistently lick a stream of dry air pumped through a standard drinking tube. This air-licking is attenuated by experimental manipulations which reduce the evaporative cooling of the tongue and mouth produced by the airstream. This suggests that such cooling is itself an effective reward for thirsty rodents. We tested this hypothesis by presenting thirsty rodents with a

Joseph Mendelson; Dana Chillag

1970-01-01

245

Westward shift of the Yellow Sea warm salty tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow

Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su

2005-01-01

246

Reconstruction of High Resolution Tongue Volumes from MRI  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the tongue have been used in both clinical studies and scientific research to reveal tongue structure. In order to extract different features of the tongue and its relation to the vocal tract, it is beneficial to acquire three orthogonal image volumes—e.g., axial, sagittal, and coronal volumes. In order to maintain both low noise and high visual detail and minimize the blurred effect due to involuntary motion artifacts, each set of images is acquired with an in-plane resolution that is much better than the through-plane resolution. As a result, any one data set, by itself, is not ideal for automatic volumetric analyses such as segmentation, registration, and atlas building or even for visualization when oblique slices are required. This paper presents a method of super-resolution volume reconstruction of the tongue that generates an isotropic image volume using the three orthogonal image volumes. The method uses preprocessing steps that include registration and intensity matching and a data combination approach with the edge-preserving property carried out by Markov random field optimization. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated on fifteen clinical datasets, preserving anatomical details and yielding superior results when compared with different reconstruction methods as visually and quantitatively assessed. PMID:23033324

Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

247

9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN WATER CONTROL BOX. THIS SAME PLANKING IS USED AS CRIBBING FOR BOTH EAST DAM AND WEST DAM - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

248

Tongue Movements and Their Acoustic Consequences in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The relations between acoustic measures and their articulatory bases have rarely been tested in dysarthria but are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. We tested the association between acoustic measures of F2 range and F2 slope with kinematic measures of tongue movement displacement and speed in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls speaking at normal and slow rates. Relations between acoustic and kinematic measures and speech intelligibility were examined. Results As healthy controls reduced their speaking rate, their F2 slopes and movement speeds decreased. In talkers with ALS, acoustic and kinematic variables were associated with changes in speaking rate, characteristic of disease progression. Participants with slow rate had shallower F2 slopes and slower movement speeds than those with normal rate. Relations between F2 range and tongue displacement were weaker. F2 slope, displacement, and duration were correlated with speech intelligibility most consistently. Conclusion Findings suggested that F2 slope is a useful marker for tracking disease progression in ALS. F2 slope reflects changes in tongue function with disease progression and is linked to speech intelligibility. Changes in movement speed, however, might be the earliest sign of disease in the tongue. PMID:22555651

Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Greenwood, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

2012-01-01

249

BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

250

Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

2013-01-01

251

A wireless embedded tongue tactile biofeedback system for balance control  

Microsoft Academic Search

a b s t r a c t We describe the architecture of an original biofeedback system for balance improvement for fall prevention and present results of a feasibility study. The underlying principle of this biofeedback consists of providing supplementary information related to foot sole pressure distribution through a wireless embedded tongue-placed tactile output device. Twelve young healthy adults voluntarily

Nicolas Vuillerme; Nicolas Pinsault; Olivier Chenu; Anthony Fleury; Yohan Payan; Jacques Demongeot

2009-01-01

252

Mother Tongue Maintenance Among North American Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research among groups of immigrants to the United States and Canada has isolated a number of possible factors for both loss and persistence of the mother tongue in subsequent generations. These include practice of the religion of the homeland, residential concentration, within-group marriage, occupational specialization, visits to the homeland, and others. The research reported in this article is based on

Robert W. Schrauf

1999-01-01

253

Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

2014-01-01

254

Functional tongue reconstruction with the anterolateral thigh flap  

PubMed Central

Background A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the advantages of anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap in tongue reconstruction. Method From September 2008 to February 2012, patients receiving ALT flap tongue reconstruction were included in the study. Patients undergoing ALT flap were compared with those undergoing similar surgery with radial forearm flap (RFF). The medical records of the included patients were reviewed, and a questionnaire was used to assess acceptability of the surgery. Results All flaps (both ALT and RFF) were successful In the ALT group, most patients were satisfied with the appearance of the reconstructed tongue and the intelligibility of their speech, and there were fewer complications with this technique compared with the RFF. Conclusion The ALT flap is an ideal method for tongue reconstruction. The thickness and volume of the ALT flap can be adjusted based on the individual extent of the defect, and it can not only provide bulk but also ensure mobility, and it has other advantages also, including a long pedicle and low donor site morbidity. PMID:24274671

2013-01-01

255

[Study on illuminant spectrum qualifications for collecting tongue condition].  

PubMed

The traditional light sources in the diagnostic method of tongue collection such as daylight or even candles are easily affected by weather and environment. It isn't favorable for doctors to obtain the accurate information of the tongue condition. The authors' introduce the electric light sources to compensate or replace daylight to obtain stable and real tongue image and scientific results. Lighted by lamps with different radiation spectrum power distribution property, various color rendition and color temperature, the same object will indicate different colors. In this study, spectrum analysis is carried out on four fluorescent lamps and the research is based on iamge identification techniques of tongue color. Applying the methods of spectrum analysis, choose the best one in four illuminants with their specific spectrum by testing instruments and comparing with the results using several spectrum parameters and chromatic coordinates tolerance ellipses. Result showed PHILIPS YPZ220/18-3U. RR. D (with the correlative color temperature 6 500 K) lamp which has the most similar spectrum property with daylight can be used as standard lamp. The research provides the theoretic and experimental basis for choosing electric light sources to replace daylight. PMID:18720782

Song, Xian-Jie; Xu, Chen-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Gu; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

2008-05-01

256

Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mother tongue-based education perpetuates equity in education, especially among girls who are often regarded as disadvantaged in access to education. The Asia and Pacific region is characterized by its rich ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity. Such diversity is found missing in many school systems in the region which often leads to gaps in…

Benson, Carol

2005-01-01

257

English Is Crazy. Limericks and Tongue Twisters for Short Vowels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limericks and tongue twisters for learning short vowel sounds in English are presented in this illustrated booklet for speakers with limited English proficiency. After proclaiming that "English is so crazy it makes you want to cry," the book presents first the sounds of the English alphabet, then long and short vowels, a limerick for each of the…

Keller, Rosanne

258

The Microbiota of Young Children from Tooth and Tongue Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the frequency with which 38 microbial species were detected in 171 randomly selected children from 6 to 36 months of age. Children were sampled and dental caries measured. Oral samples were assayed by means of a checkerboard DNA probe assay. The detection frequencies from tongue samples in children under 18 mos were: S. mutans 70%, S. sobrinus

A. C. R. Tanner; P. M. Milgrom; R. Kent; S. A. Mokeem; R. C. Page; C. A. Riedy; P. Weinstein; J. Bruss

2002-01-01

259

Education in the Mother Tongue and Educational Achievement in Paraguay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that the use of the mother-tongue (Guarani) as a medium of instruction with students in Paraguay is the most significant determining factor in the acquisition of knowledge. The discrepancy between educational ideology and educational policies in Paraguay regarding the implementation of bilingual education programs negatively affects…

Corvalan, Grazziella

1984-01-01

260

Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

Iskarous, Khalil

2005-01-01

261

Mast cell density in cardio-esophageal mucosa.  

PubMed

Mast cells are related to certain gastrointestinal complaints. Mast cell density has not been studied in cardio-esophageal region to the best of our knowledge. In this study we wanted to obtain an estimate of mast cell density in this region and compare it with mast cell density in antrum. From April 2007 till March 2010, we chose children (<14 years old) who underwent upper endoscopy and from whom the taken biopsy was stated to be from lower third of esophagus, but in microscopic examination either cardio- esophageal mucosa or only cardiac mucosa was seen. Mast cells were counted by Giemsa stain at ×1000 magnification in 10 fields. 71 children (<14 years old) were included in this study of which, 63.4% (n=45) were female and 36.6% (n=26) were male. The mean age of patients was 7.20±4.21 years (range: 0.2 -14 years). The most common clinical manifestations were recurrent abdominal pain (64.8%) and vomiting (23.9%) followed by symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disorder, poor weight gain, hematemesis and dysphagia. The mean mast cell density in the cardiac mucosa was 33.41±32.75 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-155), which was two times of that in antral mucosa. We found a significant but weak positive correlation at the 0.05 level between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum. Higher mast cell counts were seen in cardiac mucosa in this study. Significant positive correlation between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum could hint to a single underlying etiology for the inflammatory process in gastro- esophageal junction and gastric mucosa. PMID:25148804

Mahjoub, Fatemeh E; Asefi, Hoda; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Amini, Zahra

2014-12-01

262

Mechanisms of lipid loss from the small intestinal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many water-soluble compounds have been shown to pass from the small intestinal mucosa into the lumen. In this work, the loss of lipids from the mucosa was investigated by perfusion experiments in rats, using 0-15M NaCl or buffer solutions over range of pH, with or without the addition of 5-7 or 11-4mM taurocholic acid. Perfusates were extracted for the estimation

R Waldram

1975-01-01

263

Phagocytes in cell suspensions of human colon mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Because little is known of the phagocytes of the human colon we enumerated these cells in mucosal suspensions and studied their phagocytic activity. Phagocyte rich suspensions were made by EDTA collagenase dissociation followed by elutriation centrifugation. Phagocytosis was evaluated by measuring cellular radioactivity after incubation of phagocytes with 3H-adenine labelled E coli ON2 and checked microscopically. Dissociation of normal mucosa from colorectal neoplasms yielded means of 1.9 X 10(6) eosinophils, 1.4 X 10(6) macrophages and 2 X 10(5) neutrophils per gram of mucosa. Visually normal mucosa of inflammatory states yielded 2.2 X 10(6) eosinophils, 2.3 X 10(6) macrophages and 7 X 10(5) neutrophils per gram of mucosa. Phagocyte rich suspensions of normal mucosa from tumour patients phagocytosed 21.8% of a pool of opsonised tritiated E coli ON2 and by microscopy 100% of mucosal neutrophils ingested bacteria, 83% of eosinophils were phagocytic, and 53% of macrophages contained bacteria. These results suggest that in the human colonic mucosa, the eosinophil is more abundant than the macrophage and the per cent of those cells exhibiting phagocytosis is intermediate between that of the macrophage and the neutrophil. Thus these three types of cells are actively phagocytic and share the potential for a major role in host defence against invasive enteric bacteria. PMID:3666566

Beeken, W; Northwood, I; Beliveau, C; Gump, D

1987-01-01

264

Tongue deformation, jaw movement and muscle activity during mastication in pigs  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to address the lack of information about tongue functional deformation in relation to jaw movement and muscle activity. Dimensional changes in tongue anterior and base widths, body length and base thickness were measured using six ultrasonic crystals implanted into the tongue in eight Yucatan minipigs. Jaw movements were captured on videotape and digitized, and electromyography (EMG) of tongue intrinsic (verticalis/transversus [V/T], superior and inferior longitudinalis [SL, IL]), extrinsic (genioglossus and styloglossus [GG, SG) and jaw (masseter and digastricus [MA, DI]) muscles were recorded. Signals from these three sources were synchronized. Tongue dimensions showed stereotyped and rhythmic changes during chewing cycles, with the largest changes in the body length and base thickness of the contralateral (non-working) side. The anterior tongue widened during jaw opening while the tongue base widened and thickened during jaw closing. The body lengthening accompanied base widening and ended at early power stroke, while base thickening lasted through most of the power stroke. Significant associations were found between changes of anterior width, body length and base thickness and integrated EMGs of VT, SL, SG, GG, MA and DI, but not IL. Thus, majority of tongue dimensional expansions occur during jaw closing. Intrinsic tongue muscle activities are not correlated more with tongue dimensional changes than are extrinsic tongue and jaw muscle activities. PMID:17210116

Liu, Zi-Jun; Kayalioglu, Mustafa; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Seifi, Amir

2007-01-01

265

Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon.  

PubMed

Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s(-1) and accelerations 350 m s(-2), with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s(-1) with an acceleration of 573 m s(-2) while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators. PMID:21422504

Debray, Alexis

2011-06-01

266

Tongue squamous cell carcinoma in young nonsmoking and nondrinking patients: 3 clinical cases of orthodontic interest.  

PubMed

Oral squamous cell carcinoma traditionally affects older men who smoke and drink. A change in this profile has been reported because of an increased incidence in young nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. The purpose of this article was to describe a series of young nonsmoking and nondrinking patients diagnosed with tongue squamous cell carcinoma who had recently received orthodontic treatment or evaluation. Details regarding diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and disease evolution are presented, with a review of the pertinent literature. Orthodontists often treat young adults, who have frequent dental appointments and long-term follow-ups. Thus, practitioners should pay special attention to young patients during dental consultations, since the incidence of malignant oral lesions in this segment of the population seems to be increasing. PMID:24373660

Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Carvalho Andrade, Marco Aurelio; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

2014-01-01

267

Insulin but not leptin protects olfactory mucosa from apoptosis.  

PubMed

The mammalian olfactory mucosa (OM) is continually renewed throughout life. Owing to their position in the nasal cavity, OM cells are exposed to multiple insults, including high levels of odourants that can induce their death. OM regeneration is therefore essential to maintain olfactory function, and requires the tight control of both cell death and proliferation. Apoptosis has been implicated in OM cell death. Olfaction is one of the senses involved in food intake and depends on individual nutritional status. We have previously reported the influence of hormones related to nutritional status on odour perception and have shown that the OM is a target of insulin and leptin, two hormones known for their anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential anti-apoptotic effect of these metabolic hormones on OM cells. Both Odora cells (an olfactive cell line) and OM cells treated with etoposide, a p53 activity inducer, exhibited mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis that was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Insulin, but not leptin, impaired this apoptotic effect. Insulin addition to the culture medium reduced p53 phosphorylation, caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage, and caspase-3 enzymatic activity induced by etoposide. The apoptotic wave observed in the OM after interruption of the neuronal connections between the OM and the olfactory bulb by bulbectomy was impaired by intranasal insulin treatment. These findings suggest that insulin may be involved in OM cellular dynamics, through endocrine and/or paracrine-autocrine effects of circulating or local insulin, respectively. PMID:21554433

Lacroix, M-C; Rodriguez-Enfedaque, A; Grébert, D; Laziz, I; Meunier, N; Monnerie, R; Persuy, M-A; Riviere, S; Caillol, M; Renaud, F

2011-07-01

268

Internal kinematics of the tongue in relation to muscle activity and jaw movement in the pig  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY To explore the coordinative characteristics of tongue deformation, muscle activity and jaw movement during feeding, six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue body of ten 12-week-old Yucatan minipigs 1 week before the recording. These crystals formed a wedge-shaped configuration to allow recording dimensional changes in lengths, anterior and posterior widths and posterior thicknesses of the tongue body during feeding. Wire electromyographic activities (EMG) of superior and inferior longitudinalis, verticalis/transversus, genioglossus, styloglossus, masseter and digastricus and jaw movements were recorded simultaneously. Signals from these three sources were synchronized for real-time analyses. The results indicate: (i) dimensional changes were stereotypical in relation to each cycle of all three feeding behaviours; (ii) during chewing, expansion of tongue widths mainly occurred in the occlusal phase of jaw movement and was less coupled with the activity of tongue muscles, but the expansions of length and thickness were seen in the opening and closing phases and were better coupled with the activity of tongue muscles (P < 0·05); (iii) ingestion was characterized by the two-phased jaw opening, early expansion of anterior width prior to the occlusal phase and strong associations between tongue deformation and muscle activity; (iv) during drinking, the duration of the opening and closing phases was significantly prolonged (P < 0·01), the durations of tongue widening and lengthening were significantly shortened (P < 0·05) and anterior widening was predominant in the opening rather than in the closing or occlusal phases as compared with chewing and ingestion; and (v) the intrinsic tongue muscles did not show more or stronger correlations with the tongue deformation than did the extrinsic tongue muscles. These results suggest that (i) regional widening, lengthening and thickening of the tongue body occurs sequentially in relation to jaw movement phases, but the initiation of tongue dimensional expansions does not correspond with the activation of tongue muscles simultaneously; (ii) there is a better coupling between tongue deformations and tongue muscle activations in the sagittal (lengthening and thickening) than the transverse (widening) planes; and (iii) the patterns and ranges of tongue deformation and their relations to muscle activity and jaw movement are task-specific and the expansion magnitudes of tongue deformation does not have closer correlations with the amount of EMG activity in the intrinsic than the extrinsic tongue or jaw muscles. PMID:19650859

LIU, Z.-J.; SHCHERBATYY, V.; KAYALIOGLU, M.; SEIFI, A.

2012-01-01

269

Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

1984-10-01

270

Severe Pulmonary Suppuration with Infection-Induced Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome following Tongue Cancer Surgery in a Patient Undergoing Tocilizumab Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis treated by tocilizumab (TCZ) presented with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. While surgery was performed without any complications the aspiration pneumonia rapidly worsened by postoperative day 2 and severe pulmonary suppuration in the right lung field with infection-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was diagnosed. Antibiotic and respirator treatment improved her condition. The anti-inflammatory effect of TCZ may mask the symptoms and signs of severe infection with SIRS. PMID:24872899

Yamagata, Kenji; Shimojo, Nobutake; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ijima, Junya; Hasegawa, Shogo; Yanagawa, Toru; Mizutani, Taro; Bukawa, Hiroki

2014-01-01

271

Middle ear gas loss in inflammatory conditions: the role of mucosa thickness and blood flow.  

PubMed

Several middle ear (ME) pathologies are associated with ME gas deficit. These include in particular the chronic otitis media diseases that are associated with inflammation (hence, increased ME mucosal blood flow) and/or reduced Eustachian tube (ET) function. The present study models the trans-mucosal gas exchange in normal and inflamed middle ears of rats. The model evaluates the role of the gas diffusion path in the ME mucosa using mucosa thickness as its index and the role of the mucosal blood flow rate on ME gas economy in order to compare between normal and inflamed MEs. An experimental method employing ME gas volume changes at constant pressure due to trans-mucosal gas exchange, and blood gas values from the literature, was used in anaesthetized rats to corroborate the model. Mucosa thickness was measured as an index of the gas diffusion path between the ME space and the ME circulation. ME inner surface area was estimated from its measured gas volume. Inflammation was inflicted by applying lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into one ear. The contralateral ear served as control. ME gas volume decreased significantly faster with time (p=0.02) in inflamed ears (-0.107 microL min(-1) +/- 0.034 S.D., n=10) versus control ears (-0.067 microL min(-1) +/- 0.036 S.D., n=10). Mucosa thickness was significantly thicker in inflamed ears (48.4 microm +/- 11.0 S.D.) versus controls (20.5 microm +/- 10.1 S.D.). The mathematical model, the experimental results, and the blood gas values were used to estimate the relative effective mucosal blood flow rate. The model predicts that in spite of almost doubling mucosa thickness in LPS treated ears, the increased gas loss in inflamed ears may be explained by increased mucosal blood flow rate. We suggest that the ability to estimate ME blood flow as obtained by applying the model to the measurements, is relevant to medical management of inflamed ME. PMID:16781203

Ar, Amos; Herman, Philippe; Lecain, Eric; Wassef, Michel; Huy, Patrice Tran Ba; Kania, Romain E

2007-02-15

272

Roles of intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles in feeding  

PubMed Central

The performance of tongue muscles in various feeding behaviours is not well defined. This study was undertaken to examine the role of the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles during natural drinking, food ingestion and chewing. Ten 12-week-old Yucatan miniature pigs (5 in each gender) were used. Under anesthesia, fine-wire electrodes were inserted into three intrinsic (verticalis and transversus [V/T]; superior and inferior longitudinalis [SL and IL]) and two extrinsic (genioglossus [GG] and styloglossus [SG]) tongue muscles and two jaw muscles (masseter [MA] and anterior digastricus [DI]). Electromyogram (EMG) and jaw movement were recorded and synchronized when pigs were drinking water, ingesting and chewing food freely. Chewing frequency (CF), onset of activation, burst duration and integrated activity (IEMG) were assessed quantitatively, and EMG activities during drinking and ingestion were examined qualitatively. Results indicate that during chewing, the V/T and GG had one phase of activity starting at early jaw opening, and the V/T activity lasted through late of jaw closing. The SL, IL and SG had double phases with the first starting at jaw opening and the second at late jaw closing phases. The three intrinsic tongue muscles and the SG were active during 35-48% of the chewing cycle. IEMG values of the SL, IL and SG of both sides were significantly greater compared to the other muscles (p < 0.05-0.01). Both the SL and the IL showed significantly higher activities in the contralateral than ipsilateral sides (p < 0.05). The timing sequences of both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles were similar between ingestion and chewing, but amplitudes of the GG and IL were greatly enhanced and those of the MA and SL were reduced during ingestion. The simultaneous activation of the MA, GG and V/T were seen during drinking, along with major activity in the GG and V/T. These results suggested that the majority of activity in the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles occurred during jaw opening and the occlusal phases of chewing. The activity of the GG and IL played a major role during ingestion, whereas simultaneous activation of jaw, extrinsic and intrinsic tongue muscles and major activity in the GG and V/T occurred during drinking. PMID:17350586

Kayalioglu, Mustafa; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Seifi, Amir; Liu, Zi-Jun

2007-01-01

273

Possible enhancing activity of diacylglycerol on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced carcinogenesis of the tongue in human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats.  

PubMed

1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) is involved in cell proliferation as an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and has been shown to stimulate growth of cancer cells, raising the possibility of a role in tumor promotion. Ingested DAG oil, containing 70% 1,3-DAG and 30% 1,2-DAG, is digested and considered to be safe as edible oil. However, DAG may directly contact with oral cavity mucosa in undigested form. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of DAG oil on carcinogenesis in c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic (Tg) rats administered 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO, 10 ppm) in their drinking water for 10 weeks for initiation of mainly upper digestive organs. DAG oil added in basal diet at 5.5%, 2.75%, 1.38% and 0% with total fat made up to 5.5% with triacylglycerol (TAG) was administered during the initiation and post-initiation period. The study was terminated at week 12 (Tg females) and 20 (Tg males, wild females and males). The fatty acid composition of DAG oil was similar to TAG (linoleic acid 46.6% and oleic acid 38.9%). In Tg male rats, DAG oil administration was associated with significant increase (P<0.05) in the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the tongue (5.5% DAG, 43.8%; 2.75% DAG, 20%; 1.38% DAG, 14.3%; 0%, 12.3%) with the Cochran-Armitage trend test and also number of tumors in coefficients for linear contrast trend tests. Tongue SCC induction of wild males and all females was not significant. The present results suggest that DAG oil may have enhancing and/or promotion potential for tongue carcinogenesis in male Tg featuring elevated ras expression. PMID:17258375

Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Iigo, Masaaki; Takasuka, Nobuo; Ueda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Yutaka; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Hirano, Sachiko; Matsuda, Eiji; Wakabayashi, Keiji

2007-06-01

274

Tongue rotation for reconstruction after rostral hemiglossectomy for excision of a liposarcoma of the rostral quadrant of the tongue in a dog  

PubMed Central

A 15-year-old female beagle dog was presented for a lingual liposarcoma. Full staging of the disease did not show any evidence of metastasis. A tongue rotation for reconstruction after rostral hemiglossectomy was performed after removal of the mass. This surgical technique may be useful in tongue reconstruction after trauma or tumor excision. PMID:24155451

Montinaro, Vincenzo; Boston, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

275

Evaluating the Tongue-Hold Maneuver Using High-Resolution Manometry and Electromyography  

PubMed Central

The tongue-hold maneuver is a widely used clinical technique designed to increase posterior pharyngeal wall movement in individuals with dysphagia. It is hypothesized that the tongue-hold maneuver results in increased contraction of the superior pharyngeal constrictor. However, an electromyographic study of the pharynx and tongue during the tongue-hold is still needed to understand whether and how swallow muscle activity and pressure may change with this maneuver. We tested eight healthy young participants using simultaneous intramuscular electromyography with high-resolution manometry during three task conditions including (a) saliva swallow without maneuver, (b) saliva swallow with the tongue tip at the lip, and (c) saliva swallow during the tongue-hold maneuver. We tested the hypothesis that tongue and pharyngeal muscle activity would increase during the experimental tasks, but that pharyngeal pressure would remain relatively unchanged. We found that the pre-swallow magnitude of tongue, pharyngeal constrictor, and cricopharyngeus muscle activity increased. During the swallow, the magnitude and duration of tongue and pharyngeal constrictor muscle activity each increased. However, manometric pressures and durations remained unchanged. These results suggest that increased superior pharyngeal constrictor activity may serve to maintain relatively stable pharyngeal pressures in the absence of posterior tongue movement. Thus, the tongue-hold maneuver may be a relatively simple but robust example of how the medullary swallow center is equipped to dynamically coordinate actions between tongue and pharynx. Our findings emphasize the need for combined modality swallow assessment to include high-resolution manometry and intramuscular electromyography to evaluate the potential benefit of the tongue-hold maneuver for clinical populations. PMID:24969727

Hammer, Michael J.; Jones, Corinne A.; Mielens, Jason D.; Kim, Chloe H.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

2014-01-01

276

Interdisciplinary approach to treat dyskeratosis congenita associated with severe aplastic anemia: a case report.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a 4-year-old male who had dyskeratosis congenita and who acquired severe aplastic anemia. The patient developed hyperpigmentation of the face, neck and chest region, arms, shoulders and legs. In addition, he had dry skin, deformed fingernails and toenails, sparse hair and eyebrows and hyperkeratosis of the dorsum of the hands and feet. Laboratory and histological analysis revealed severe pancytopenia and dyserythropoiesis of red blood cells, hypocellularity of white blood cells and decreased megakaryocytes with dysplasia. The intraoral examination identified bleeding gums; petechiae of the palate, tongue and cheek mucosa; and an atrophic, smooth and shining dorsal surface of the tongue. There were deep carious lesions in the deciduous mandibular molars and maxillary anterior teeth; as well as mobility of mandibular left canine, which had bone loss. The treatment for oral lesions included diet changes, improved oral hygiene, and extraction of the deciduous teeth destroyed by caries. PMID:16681244

Fernandes Gomes, Mônica; Pinheiro de Abreu, Paula; de Freitas Banzi, Caroline; de Oliveira Nogueira, Terezinha

2006-01-01

277

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

278

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

279

Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.  

PubMed

Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro. PMID:18650554

Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

2008-08-01

280

Dynamic multileaf collimation without `tongue-and-groove' underdosage effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In all commercially available multileaf collimators, a `tongue-and-groove' - or similar - construction is used for reduction of leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. These constructions can cause serious underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams. A method for leaf trajectory calculation for dynamic multileaf collimation, which fully avoids these underdosage effects, is presented. The method is based on pairwise synchronizations of trajectories of adjacent leaf pairs, such that the delivered beam intensity in each `tongue-and-groove' region is always equal to the smallest of the two prescribed intensities for the two corresponding leaf pairs. The effectiveness of the method has been proven for a large number of intensity-modulated fields, using the dynamic multileaf collimation mode of our MM50 Racetrack Microtron. Compared to dynamic multileaf collimation without synchronization, beam-on times are always equal or longer. For the cases that we studied, the beam-on time was typically increased by 5 to 15%.

van Santvoort, J. P. C.; Heijmen, B. J. M.

1996-10-01

281

Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

2009-05-01

282

Brain plasticity: 'visual' acuity of blind persons via the tongue.  

PubMed

The 'visual' acuity of blind persons perceiving information through a newly developed human-machine interface, with an array of electrical stimulators on the tongue, has been quantified using a standard Ophthalmological test (Snellen Tumbling E). Acuity without training averaged 20/860. This doubled with 9 h of training. The interface may lead to practical devices for persons with sensory loss such as blindness, and offers a means of exploring late brain plasticity. PMID:11454331

Sampaio, E; Maris, S; Bach-y-Rita, P

2001-07-27

283

Cavernous hemangioma of tongue: management of two cases.  

PubMed

Hemangiomas are benign tumours of infancy and childhood, most commonly located in the head and neck region and occur more frequently in the lips, tongue and palate. The treatment depends upon lesion location, size and evolution stage and the patient's age. This paper describes the management of cavernous hemangioma in a 2 -year -old child and 14 -year -old child using different approaches. PMID:25478463

V, Pranitha; Puppala, Niharika; Deshmukh, Sudhanwa N; B, Jagadesh; S, Anuradha

2014-10-01

284

Cavernous Hemangioma of Tongue: Management of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are benign tumours of infancy and childhood, most commonly located in the head and neck region and occur more frequently in the lips, tongue and palate. The treatment depends upon lesion location, size and evolution stage and the patient’s age. This paper describes the management of cavernous hemangioma in a 2 -year -old child and 14 -year -old child using different approaches. PMID:25478463

Puppala, Niharika; Deshmukh, Sudhanwa N; B, Jagadesh; S, Anuradha

2014-01-01

285

Tongue muscle plasticity following hypoglossal nerve stimulation in aged rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Age-related decreases in tongue muscle mass and strength have been reported. It may be possible to prevent age-related tongue muscle changes using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Our hypothesis was that alterations in muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain composition would be found following NMES. Methods Fifty-four young, middle-aged and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats were included. Twenty-four rats underwent bilateral electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves for 8 weeks and were compared with control or sham rats. Muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) in the genioglossus (GG), styloglossus (SG) and hyoglossus (HG) muscles were examined. Results In comparison with unstimulated control rats, we found reduced muscle fatigue, increased contraction and half decay times and increased twitch and tetanic tension. Increased Type I MHC was found, except for GG in old and middle-aged rats. Discussion Transitions in tongue muscle contractile properties and phenotype were found following NMES. PMID:23169566

Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Kletzien, Heidi; Wang, Hao; Schaser, Allison J.; Leverson, Glen E.; Zealear, David L.

2012-01-01

286

Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

1995-03-01

287

Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

2011-01-01

288

Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty  

PubMed Central

Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

2014-01-01

289

MRI ANALYSIS OF 3D NORMAL AND POST-GLOSSECTOMY TONGUE MOTION IN SPEECH  

PubMed Central

Measuring the internal muscular motion and deformation of the tongue during natural human speech is of high interest to head and neck surgeons and speech language pathologists. A pipeline for calculating 3D tongue motion from dynamic cine and tagged Magnetic Resonance (MR) images during speech has been developed. This paper presents the result of a complete analysis of eleven subjects’ (seven normal controls and four glossectomy patients) global tongue motion during speech obtained through MR imaging and processed through the tongue motion analysis pipeline. The data is regularized into the same framework for comparison. A generalized two-step principal component analysis is used to show the major difference between patients’ and controls’ tongue motions. A test is performed to demonstrate the ability of this process to distinguish patient data from control data and to show the potential power of quantitative analysis that the tongue motion pipeline can achieve. PMID:24443691

Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z.; Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

290

MRI ANALYSIS OF 3D NORMAL AND POST-GLOSSECTOMY TONGUE MOTION IN SPEECH.  

PubMed

Measuring the internal muscular motion and deformation of the tongue during natural human speech is of high interest to head and neck surgeons and speech language pathologists. A pipeline for calculating 3D tongue motion from dynamic cine and tagged Magnetic Resonance (MR) images during speech has been developed. This paper presents the result of a complete analysis of eleven subjects' (seven normal controls and four glossectomy patients) global tongue motion during speech obtained through MR imaging and processed through the tongue motion analysis pipeline. The data is regularized into the same framework for comparison. A generalized two-step principal component analysis is used to show the major difference between patients' and controls' tongue motions. A test is performed to demonstrate the ability of this process to distinguish patient data from control data and to show the potential power of quantitative analysis that the tongue motion pipeline can achieve. PMID:24443691

Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z; Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

2013-12-31

291

Glanuloplasty with Oral Mucosa Graft following Total Glans Penis Amputation  

PubMed Central

This is a report on the technique of neoglans reconstruction in a patient with amputated glans penis following guillotine neonatal circumcision. A 4?cm long and 2?cm wide lower lip oral mucosa graft was harvested and used to graft the distal 2?cm of the corporal bodies after 2?cm of the distal penile skin had been excised. One edge of the lower lip oral mucosa graft was anastomosed to the urethral margins distally and proximally to the skin. At six months of followup, patient had both satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25184073

Appiah, Kwaku; Amoah, George; Azorliade, Roland; Gyasi-Sarpong, Kofi; Aboah, Ken; Nyamekye, Baah; Maison, Patrick; Twumasi-Frimpong, Benjamin; Opoku Antwi, Issac; Yenli, Edwin

2014-01-01

292

Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

2012-01-01

293

Impact of Graft Position on Failure of Single-Stage Bulbar Urethroplasties with Buccal Mucosa Graft  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine whether patency rates after bulbar urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft onlay differ based on whether the graft is placed ventrally or dorsally. METHODS This was a retrospective, single-center study of all single-stage bulbar urethroplasties performed from 2001- 2011 by two surgeons in which buccal mucosa was used as an onlay graft. Failure was defined as the need for endoscopic or open revision of the reconstruction, or placement of a suprapubic catheter for urinary retention. RESULTS A total of 103 patients were reviewed; 41 underwent dorsal onlay, and 62 underwent ventral onlay. Mean age was 40.8 years. Most (84%) patients underwent a prior procedure, which consisted of DVIU in 69%, dilation in 53%, and urethroplasty in 14%. Mean stricture length was 3.9cm. At a mean follow-up of 36 months, failure occurred in 19 patients (12 ventral, 7 dorsal). The vast majority of these patients (79%) were successfully treated with a single dilation or DVIU. There was no difference in failure rate or time to failure according to whether graft position was ventral or dorsal. In multivariate analysis, diabetes was predictive of failure (OR 8.7, 95% CI 1.6-46.5, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Single-stage bulbar urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft is an effective procedure for patients with a bulbar urethral stricture that is not amenable to primary anastomosis. From our experience, we cannot conclude that dorsal or ventral graft position is inherently superior. Patients with diabetes may be more likely to require additional procedures following bulbar urethroplasty with buccal grafting. PMID:24055240

Figler, Bradley D; Malaeb, Bahaa S; Dy, Geolani W.; Voelzke, Bryan B; Wessells, Hunter

2014-01-01

294

High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

2014-05-01

295

Training-induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue-training paradigms.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue-training paradigms: (1) therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), (2) playing computer games with the tongue using the Tongue Drive System (TDS) and (3) tongue-protrusion task (TPT). Forty-eight participants were randomized into three groups with 1h of TTE, TDS, or TPT. Stimulus-response curves of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and motor cortex mapping for tongue muscles and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation at three time-points: (1) before tongue-training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales after training. The resting motor thresholds of tongue MEPs were lowered by training with TDS and TPT (P<0.011) but not by TTE (P=0.167). Tongue MEP amplitudes increased after training with TDS and TPT (P<0.030) but not with TTE (P=0.302). Men had higher MEPs than women in the TDS group (P<0.045) at all time-points. No significant effect of tongue-training on FDI MEPs was observed (P>0.335). The tongue cortical motor map areas were not significantly increased by training (P>0.142). Training with TDS was most motivating and fun (P<0.001) and TTE was rated the most painful (P<0.001). Fatigue level was not different between groups (P>0.071). These findings suggest a differential effect of tongue-training paradigms on training-induced cortical plasticity and subject-based scores of fun, motivation and pain in healthy participants. PMID:23632170

Kothari, M; Svensson, P; Jensen, J; Kjærsgaard, A; Jeonghee, K; Nielsen, J F; Ghovanloo, M; Baad-Hansen, L

2013-08-29

296

Transoral Robotic Tongue Base Resection in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-Hypopnoea Syndrome: A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the Study:To evaluate the feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of tongue base management by means of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in patients suffering from the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) primarily related to hypertrophy of the tongue base. Procedure:Seventeen patients with OSAHS principally related to tongue base hypertrophy were managed by means of TORS (Intuitive da Vinci®). Patients with

Claudio Vicini; Iacopo Dallan; Pietro Canzi; Sabrina Frassineti; Maria Grazia La Pietra; Filippo Montevecchi

2010-01-01

297

Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. [Department of ENT, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, E.Y.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A.-J. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.T.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

2007-02-01

298

Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild–moderate tongue-tie  

PubMed Central

Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2?weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a ‘standard care’ comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5?days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8?weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcome—Latch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5?days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8?weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8?weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5?days. PMID:24249695

Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair

2014-01-01

299

The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present study compared and evaluated the effects of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on existing plaque levels in children. The investigation was a single blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who performed either tongue scraping or tongue brushing along with tooth brushing or only tooth brushing twice daily under professional supervision for a 21 day period. Dental plaque was recorded using the plaque index described by Silness and Loe at baseline, on day 10 and on day 21. All data was subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Sum Test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The results of the present study show that the tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in plaque levels after 10 days and also after 21 days. It was also noted that both tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing the plaque load in children. How to cite this article: Winnier JJ, Rupesh S, Nayak UA, Reddy V, Rao AP. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):188-192. PMID:25206220

Winnier, J Jasmin; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Prasad Rao, Arun

2013-01-01

300

Verruca vulgaris of the tongue: a case report with literature review  

PubMed Central

Verruca vulgaris (common warts) is a benign lesion of skin and mucous membranes caused by human papillomovirus (HPV). The lesions are typically self-limited but may vary in size and number. The occurrence on the tongue is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only one verruca vulgaris existing in the tongue had been reported in the literature. Case presentation: A rare case of verruca vulgaris of the tongue occurring in a 36-year-old Caucasian male is presented with a discussion on ethiopathogenesis and the treatment methods. Verruca vulgaris must be remembered in the differential diagnosis of tongue lesions and surgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcomes. PMID:25172971

Ural, Ahmet; Arslan, Selçuk; Ersöz, ?afak; De?er, Betül

2014-01-01

301

Fast marching over the 2D Gabor magnitude domain for tongue body segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tongue body segmentation is a prerequisite to tongue image analysis and has recently received considerable attention. The existing tongue body segmentation methods usually involve two key steps: edge detection and active contour model (ACM)-based segmentation. However, conventional edge detectors cannot faithfully detect the contour of the tongue body, and the initialization of ACM suffers from the edge discontinuity problem. To address these issues, we proposed a novel tongue body segmentation method, GaborFM, which initializes ACM by performing fast marching over the two-dimensional (2D) Gabor magnitude domain of the tongue images. For the enhancement of the contour of the tongue body, we used the 2D Gabor magnitude-based detector. To cope with the edge discontinuity problem, the fast marching method was utilized to connect the discontinuous contour segments, resulting in a closed and continuous tongue body contour for subsequent ACM-based segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative results showed that GaborFM is superior to the other methods for tongue body segmentation.

Cui, Zhenchao; Zhang, Hongzhi; Zhang, David; Li, Naimin; Zuo, Wangmeng

2013-12-01

302

GLP-1 Receptor Is Expressed in Human Stomach Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The stomach is a target organ of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the cellular expression and glandular distribution of its receptor (GLP-1R) in human gastric mucosa are not known. We determined the expression of GLP-1R in different regions of human stomach mucosa and its specific cellular association and distribution within gastric glands. Tissue samples from stomach body and antrum were obtained from 20 patients during routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy. mRNA encoding GLP-1R protein expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Determination of cell types bearing GLP-1R, their localization, and their frequency in gastric glands in different gastric regions were estimated by immunohistochemical morphological analysis. Levels of GLP-1R mRNA were similar in body and antrum. GLP-1R immunoreactivity was found throughout the gastric mucosa in various types of glandular cells. The highest frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells was found in the neck area of the principal glands in cells morphologically identified as parietal cells. GLP-1R immunostaining was also found on enteroendocrine-like cells in the pyloric glands. This study provides the first description of GLP-1R expression in human gastric glands and its specific cellular association. Our data suggest that GLP-1 may act directly on the gastric mucosa to modulate its complex functions. PMID:23803499

Broide, Efrat; Bloch, Olga; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim

2013-01-01

303

Bcl-xL overexpression and its association with the progress of tongue carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis-related protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) has a crucial role in the control of cell death through its inhibition of apoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the expression of Bcl-xL in relation to the development of tongue carcinoma and whether it has potential as a marker for the clinical diagnosis of tongue carcinoma and as a therapeutic target to evaluate the dynamic of tongue carcinoma progression. A statistical analysis of 100 cases oral tongue carcinoma tissue specimens were performed using pathological grading and clinical TNM staging, and 14 cases corresponding non-tumor tissues as control. The changes in Bcl-xL mRNA expression between different pathological grades and clinical TNM stages of tissue were analyzed by RT-PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemical SP method and Western blot assays were employed to detect changes in Bcl-xL protein expression in different tongue carcinoma tissues. The results showed the expression of Bcl-xL was significantly higher in tongue carcinoma tissues than in normal tongue tissues and was positively associated with the degree of differentiation and the clinical TNM staging, but negatively correlated with the degree of malignancy of the tumor. There was higher expression of Bcl-xL in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) tissues compared with oral tongue adenocarcinoma (OTA) tissues, but Bcl-xL expression in tissue with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that without lymph node metastasis. Thus, Bcl-xL overexpression may be closely related to the dynamic of the pathogenesis and development of tongue carcinoma. It may be a useful marker for clinical diagnosis and an aid to evaluating the efficacy of therapeutics in tongue carcinoma. PMID:25550772

Zhang, Kailiang; Jiao, Kangli; Xing, Zhankui; Zhang, Li; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xiaodong; Yang, Lan

2014-01-01

304

Bcl-xL overexpression and its association with the progress of tongue carcinoma.  

PubMed

Apoptosis-related protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) has a crucial role in the control of cell death through its inhibition of apoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the expression of Bcl-xL in relation to the development of tongue carcinoma and whether it has potential as a marker for the clinical diagnosis of tongue carcinoma and as a therapeutic target to evaluate the dynamic of tongue carcinoma progression. A statistical analysis of 100 cases oral tongue carcinoma tissue specimens were performed using pathological grading and clinical TNM staging, and 14 cases corresponding non-tumor tissues as control. The changes in Bcl-xL mRNA expression between different pathological grades and clinical TNM stages of tissue were analyzed by RT-PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemical SP method and Western blot assays were employed to detect changes in Bcl-xL protein expression in different tongue carcinoma tissues. The results showed the expression of Bcl-xL was significantly higher in tongue carcinoma tissues than in normal tongue tissues and was positively associated with the degree of differentiation and the clinical TNM staging, but negatively correlated with the degree of malignancy of the tumor. There was higher expression of Bcl-xL in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) tissues compared with oral tongue adenocarcinoma (OTA) tissues, but Bcl-xL expression in tissue with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that without lymph node metastasis. Thus, Bcl-xL overexpression may be closely related to the dynamic of the pathogenesis and development of tongue carcinoma. It may be a useful marker for clinical diagnosis and an aid to evaluating the efficacy of therapeutics in tongue carcinoma. PMID:25550772

Zhang, Kailiang; Jiao, Kangli; Xing, Zhankui; Zhang, Li; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xiaodong; Yang, Lan

2014-01-01

305

Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

Gerbino, Andrea, E-mail: gerbino@biologia.uniba.i [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curci, Silvana [VA Boston Healthcare System and the Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury MA 02132 (United States); Colella, Matilde [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy)

2010-06-01

306

Elective Neck Dissection in patients with stage T1-T2N0 carcinoma of the anterior tongue  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The presence of neck metastases represents one of the most important prognostic factors for carcinomas of the anterior tongue, the five-year survival rate being under 20% in patients with regional metastases. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of prophylactic selective neck dissection in patients without detectable nodal metastases. Materials and Methods: A matched case-control study with prospective follow up was conducted in ENT Department of Coltea Clinical Hospital for 86 patients with T1-T2N0 stage carcinoma of the anterior tongue surgically treated between January 2000 and January 2005 with or without concurrent selective supraomohyoid neck dissection (SND). The patients were divided in two groups, comparable in age and sex distribution. Descriptive statistics, risk of recurrences, Kaplan Maier five-year survival curves and the global and specific mortality rates were performed using EpiInfo software. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. Results: After a mean follow-up time of 90.5 months, for all variables considered as outcomes of SND efficacy evaluation, significance differences (p < 0.05) were registered between groups: the frequency of patients who developed neck metastases was lower in the group of subjects who underwent prophylactic selective neck dissection; the all-cause mortality rate at the end of the follow-up period was three times lower in SND study group compared with controls; the specific mortality rate due to regional recurrences was five times lower in test-group compared with controls. Conclusions: Our study suggest that prophylactic selective neck dissection could be indicated for patients with T1-T2N0 carcinomas of the anterior tongue in order to increase both overall and free of recurrence survival time, respectivelly. PMID:25336873

Mirea, D; Grigore, R; Safta, D; Mirea, L; Popescu, CR; Popescu, B; Berte?teanu, SVG

2014-01-01

307

Effect of mouth-rinse formulations on oral malodour processes in tongue-derived perfusion biofilm model.  

PubMed

An in vitro matrix biofilm perfusion model of tongue-derived microcosms for studying volatile sulfur compound (VSC) biogenesis has been previously described. The model was modified in order to monitor H(2)S in situ by use of a specialized electrode assembly based on microbial fuel cell technology. This system was designed to give real-time measurements expressed as electrode power output, which were proportional to H(2)S levels, measured by other means. In addition to the model modifications, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the biofilm responses following single or multiple exposure to biocidal, biostatic or VSC-inhibiting active compounds used in products. Tongue-derived biofilms (n = 6 per experiment) were perfused with one-fifth strength BHI at 20 ml h(-1) pH 7.2 and pulsed with putative treatment agent, placebo and controls including Zn(2+) ions and chlorhexidine (CHX). Compared with their pre-treatment conditions, all biofilms responded to the treatments in terms of reductions in hydrogen sulfide generation (as detected by the biofilm-electrode response) and other microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as detected using a selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry analyser. The microbiological analysis of the treated and control biofilms show that test products (formulations with active agents) all gave reduced cell populations compared to the control biofilm. An order of effects (magnitude and duration) suggests that both the test agent and CHX produced the strongest reductions, distinct from the responses obtained for the placebo and water controls, which were largely similar. It is concluded that the in vitro perfusion model may be used to replicate many of the activities and reactions believed to be occurring by the tongue biofilm microflora within a real mouth, including H(2)S and VOC biogenesis and their inhibition by exposure to active agents. PMID:22234955

Saad, S; Hewett, K; Greenman, J

2012-03-01

308

The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

Starzewski, Jacek J. [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Pajak, Jacek T. [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Pawelczyk, Iwona [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lange, Dariusz [Department of Tumor Pathology, Comprehensive Cancer Center Division, Gliwice (Poland); Golka, Dariusz [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lorenc, Zbigniew [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland)

2006-03-01

309

DORSAL ONLAY GRAFT URETHROPLASTY USING PENILE SKIN OR BUCCAL MUCOSA IN ADULT BULBOURETHRAL STRICTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePreputial skin graft is used routinely for urethral reconstruction in patients with stricture disease. Alternative donor sites include extrapenile skin, bladder mucosa and buccal mucosa. Recently buccal mucosa graft has been suggested when local epithelial tissue is not available. We describe our experience with 37 patients undergoing 1-stage correction of bulbar urethral stricture using a penile skin (31) or buccal

GUIDO BARBAGLI; ENZO PALMINTERI; MICHELANGELO RIZZO

1998-01-01

310

Electronic Tongue on a way towards the universal bitterness scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the development and application of the artificial sensory system (Electronic Tongue) to quantification of the bitter taste of various chemically dissimilar substances and suggests a universal approach for artificial sensory evaluation of bitterness, irrespective of chemical nature of the substance eliciting bitter taste. This approach to artificial quantification of bitterness is practically feasible and may be particularly useful on the early stages of development of novel API in pharmaceutical research and for flavour control of various pharmaceutical compositions, healthcare products and food ingredients.

Legin, Andrey; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Seleznev, Boris; Legin, Evgeny; Papieva, Irina; Clapham, David; Saunders, Ken; Richardson, Marie

2011-09-01

311

77 FR 64592 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 30186] Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT AGENCY: Surface...SUMMARY: On October 16, 2012, Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc. (TRRC)...

2012-10-22

312

CAN A PLANTAR PRESSUREBASED TONGUE-PLACED ELECTROTACTILE BIOFEEDBACK IMPROVE POSTURAL  

E-print Network

CAN A PLANTAR PRESSURE­BASED TONGUE-PLACED ELECTROTACTILE BIOFEEDBACK IMPROVE POSTURAL CONTROL pressure­ based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback on postural control during quiet standing under and Extended head postures and two conditions of No- biofeedback and Biofeedback. The underlying principle

Payan, Yohan

313

SENSORY SUPPLEMENTATION SYSTEM BASED ON ELECTROTACTILE TONGUE BIOFEEDBACK OF HEAD POSITION  

E-print Network

1 SENSORY SUPPLEMENTATION SYSTEM BASED ON ELECTROTACTILE TONGUE BIOFEEDBACK OF HEAD POSITION. for various contributions. Key-words: Balance; Biofeedback; Centre of foot pressure; Sensory re at investigating the effects of an artificial head position-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback

Boyer, Edmond

314

RESEARCH ARTICLE How a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE How a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback modifies postural the effects of a plantar pressure-based, tongue- placed tactile biofeedback on postural control mechanisms with their eyes closed in two conditions of No-biofeedback and Biofeed- back. Centre of foot pressure (Co

Payan, Yohan

315

Tongue movements in vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sequences: The effect of consonant length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effect of consonant duration on the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel in VCV sequences, where the consonant is a short or long labial nasal consonant. Lip, tongue, and jaw movements were recorded in native speakers of Japanese using a magnetometer system. Measurements were made of the duration, path, and speed of the tongue movement trajectory between the two vowels. The coordination of the onsets of the lip closing and tongue movements was also studied, as well as the relative part of the trajectory that occurred during the consonant and the vowels. Preliminary results show a robust difference in duration between the long and short consonants, with the long ones about twice as long. The duration of the tongue movement was longer in the long than the short consonants. Both the peak and average speed of the tongue movement were slower in the long consonants. The tongue movement path was slightly longer in the long consonants. These results suggest that speakers adjust the tongue movement trajectory so that a similar relationship between the movement and the consonant closure is maintained in both the long and the short consonants. [Work supported by NIH.

Lofqvist, Anders

2005-09-01

316

The Influence of Stimulus Taste and Chemesthesis on Tongue Movement Timing in Swallowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids: water,…

Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

2012-01-01

317

Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

2010-01-01

318

Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

McLeod, Sharynne

2011-01-01

319

Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the…

Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

2014-01-01

320

On Mother and Other Tongues: Sociolinguistics, Schools, and Language Ideology in Northern India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an expanded version of a paper given at a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa from December 11-13, 2008 entitled "The Native Speaker and the Mother Tongue." In keeping with the conference's themes of exploring and interrogating the notions of "mother tongue" and "native speaker," I consider constructions of languages emergent from…

LaDousa, Chaise

2010-01-01

321

JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 199:223-243 (1989) Kinetics of Tongue Projection in Ambystoma tigrinum: Quantitative  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 199:223-243 (1989) Kinetics of Tongue Projection in Ambystoma tigrinum Ambystoma tigrinum. Six kinematic variables were quantified from high-speed films of adult A. tigrinum such as Ambystoma tigrinum have partially pro- trusible tongues and a buccal pump mech- anism that is used

Lauder, George V.

1989-01-01

322

Effect of chemical compounds on electronic tongue response to citrus juices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The electronic tongue system mimics the process of taste detection by human taste buds and recognition by the brain, hence helping in prediction of taste. With this unique capability, the electronic tongue has been used for taste detection of a wide range of food products. As a preliminary step in p...

323

Establishment of a highly metastatic tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line from New Zealand White rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePrior to this study, the widely used tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines could only initiate tumours in immunodeficient mice, which greatly delayed studies on immune function during carcinogenesis. This study established a new tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line named ‘RSCC-1’, which can initiate tumours in both immunocompetent rabbits and immunodeficient nude mice and has high metastatic ability.

Jin Wulong; Liang Zhou; Zhou Xiaojian; Tian Jie; Guo Huilin

2008-01-01

324

Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

2010-01-01

325

Ultrasound investigation of tongue movements in syllables with different onset Tanja Kocjancic  

E-print Network

Ultrasound investigation of tongue movements in syllables with different onset structure Tanja ultrasound also in terms of the distance the tongue travels over a syllable by us- ing ultrasound changes. 1 Introduction Ultrasound is a safe and non-invasive imaging technique that enables visualisation

Edinburgh, University of

326

Spatiotemporal Visualization of the Tongue Surface Using Ultrasound and Kriging (SURFACES)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing the motion of the human tongue surface provides valuable information about speech and swallowing. One method to analyse this motion is to acquire two-dimensional ultrasound images and extract the tongue surface contours from them. Quantitative and statistical analysis of these extracted contours is made difficult because of the absence…

Parthasarathy, Vijay; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

2005-01-01

327

Role of the tongue and senses in feeding of naive and experienced garter snakes.  

PubMed

Prey attack behavior was studied in two species of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and T. radix). Newborn, ingestively naive, and experienced snakes had their tongues severed surgically, while control groups retained their tongues. Attack latency, tongue flick frequency and an orientation-interest measure were recorded for each subject on responses to extracts prepared from species-characteristic prey. Feeding, as well as responses to prey extracts, were found to be suppressed almost totally in the tongueless naive snakes. A detongued adult, however, readily ate although its behavior was abnormal. Temporary blind and anosmic conditions did not have a significant effect on response rates of the tongueless or control groups. While importance of the tongue-Jacobson's organ system is demonstrated, the length of tongue removed and presurgery experience are important factors. PMID:1161823

Burghardt, G M; Pruitt, C H

1975-02-01

328

Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery. PMID:23304595

Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

329

Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors  

PubMed Central

An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

2010-01-01

330

Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6 ± 46.52 vs 680.6 ± 30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4 ± 5.19 vs 291.1 ± 6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes mellitus with or without supplementation with AA. PMID:19030205

de Freitas, Priscila; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Pereira, Renata Virginia Fernandes; Neto, Marcilio Hubner Miranda; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis

2008-01-01

331

The segmentation of the body of the tongue based on the improved snake algorithm in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segmentation of the body of tongue is a premise to establishing a system of automatic diagnosis by the features of the tongue in traditional Chinese medicine, whose qualities affect the performance of tongue diagnosis. In order to overcome two key difficulties with the initialization and boundary concavities, a new active contour model is introduced as a segmentation method. We

Wenshu Li; Changle Zhou; Zhifeng Zhang

2004-01-01

332

Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

2012-01-01

333

The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

2012-01-01

334

Enhanced Transferrin Receptor Expression by Proinflammatory Cytokines in Enterocytes as a Means for Local Delivery of Drugs to Inflamed Gut Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is often associated with adverse effects related to drug distribution into non-diseased tissues, a situation which attracts a rational design of a targeted treatment confined to the inflamed mucosa. Upon activation of immune cells, transferrin receptor (TfR) expression increases at their surface. Because TfR is expressed in all cell types we hypothesized that its cell surface levels are regulated also in enterocytes. We, therefore, compared TfR expression in healthy and inflamed human colonic mucosa, as well as healthy and inflamed colonic mucosa of the DNBS-induced rat model. TfR expression was elevated in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients in both the basolateral and apical membranes of the enterocytes. Increased TfR expression was also observed in colonocytes of the induced colitis rats. To explore the underlying mechanism CaCo-2 cells were treated with various proinflammatory cytokines, which increased both TfR expression and transferrin cellular uptake in a mechanism that did not involve hyper proliferation. These findings were then exploited for the design of targetable carrier towards inflamed regions of the colon. Anti-TfR antibodies were conjugated to nano-liposomes. As expected, iron-starved Caco-2 cells internalized anti-TfR immunoliposomes better than controls. Ex vivo binding studies to inflamed mucosa showed that the anti-TfR immunoliposomes accumulated significantly better in the mucosa of DNBS-induced rats than the accumulation of non-specific immunoliposomes. It is concluded that targeting mucosal inflammation can be accomplished by nano-liposomes decorated with anti-TfR due to inflammation-dependent, apical, elevated expression of the receptor. PMID:21915296

Harel, Efrat; Rubinstein, Abraham; Nissan, Aviram; Khazanov, Elena; Nadler Milbauer, Mirela; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tirosh, Boaz

2011-01-01

335

A Study of Tongue and Pulse Diagnosis in Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients Based on Quantification Theory Type II  

PubMed Central

In traditional Korean medicine (TKM), pattern identification (PI) diagnosis is important for treating diseases. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the relationship between the PI type and tongue diagnosis or pulse diagnosis variables. The study included 1,879 stroke patients who were admitted to 12 oriental medical university hospitals from June 2006 through March 2009. The status of the pulse and tongue was examined in each patient. Additionally, to investigate relatively important indicators related to specialist PI, the quantification theory type II analysis was performed regarding the PI type. In the first axis quantification of the external criteria, the Qi-deficiency and the Yin-deficiency patterns were located in the negative direction, while the dampness-phlegm (DP) and fire-heat patterns were located in the positive direction. The explanatory variable with the greatest impact on the assessment was a fine pulse. In the second axis quantification, the external criteria were divided into either the DP or non-DP patterns. The slippery pulse exhibited the greatest effect on the division. This study attempted to build a model using a statistical method to objectively quantify PI and various indicators that constitute the unique diagnosis system of TKM. These results should assist the development of future diagnostic standards in stroke PI. PMID:23662140

Park, Tae-Yong; Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Jungsup; Lee, Myeong Soo

2013-01-01

336

Command Detection and Classification in Tongue Drive Assistive Technology  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a new assistive technology that enables individuals with severe disabilities such as those with spinal cord injury (SCI) to regain environmental control using their tongue motion. We have developed a new sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm which uses four 3-axial magneto-resistive sensor outputs to accurately detect and classify between seven different user-control commands in stationary as well as mobile conditions. The new algorithm employs a two-stage classification method with a combination of 9 classifiers to discriminate between 4 commands on the left or right side of the oral cavity (one neutral command shared on both sides). Evaluation of the new SSP algorithm on five able-bodied subjects resulted in true positive rates in the range of 70–99% with corresponding false positive rates in the range of 5–7%, showing a notable improvement in the resulted true-false (TF) differences when compared to the previous algorithm. PMID:22255574

Sadeghian, Elnaz Banan; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2013-01-01

337

Long-term subjective tongue function after partial glossectomy.  

PubMed

There have been limited studies of subjective tongue function over long-term follow-up in spite of swallowing and articulation disorders are common complications of glossectomy. To assess long-term subjective swallowing and articulation function after partial glossectomy. A total of 63 patients with the mobile tongue cancer who underwent partial glossectomy without reconstruction were interviewed to score their swallowing and articulation function on a 100-point scale. The relation of this subjective scoring to the perioperative data was subjected to multivariate analysis. The mean patient age was 53·4 (19-81) years, and the mean follow-up duration was 78·9 (14-277) months. Mean swallowing and articulation function score was 87·7 ± 6·1 and 88·6 ± 5·4. Age, follow-up duration, T stage and resection volume were significantly correlated with swallowing function (P = 0·026, 0·029, 0·016, 0·002, respectively); follow-up duration was correlated with articulation function (P = 0·039). Patients who undergo partial glossectomy without reconstruction generally demonstrate good function on long-term follow-up. Subjective dysfunction was correlated with larger resection volume, older age and shorter follow-up duration. PMID:24913460

Lee, D Y; Ryu, Y-J; Hah, J H; Kwon, T-K; Sung, M-W; Kim, K H

2014-10-01

338

The ultrastructure of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was examined by electron microscopy after maintenance in a chemically defined medium in organ culture for periods up to 24 days. Throughout the culture period there was little overall change in the explants. Apart from limited disturbances of the basal lamina complex early in the culture period, and the presence of occasional degenerating keratinocytes after 18 days in vitro, the epithelium displayed an ultrastructure comparable with that at the time of explantation. The connective tissue showed greater changes, but despite considerable cell death a viable cell population apparently capable of both phagocytosis and synthesis of extracellular material was maintained. It is concluded that this organ culture system is a valid model for experimental investigations into the behaviour of oral mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:744746

Hill, M W

1978-01-01

339

The permeability of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

The intercellular permeability barrier of neonatal rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture for periods up to 24 days was studied ultrastructurally using the tracers horseradish peroxidase and lanthanum nitrate. At all time intervals examined the limit of penetration of the tracers corresponded to the level at which the membrane-coating granules were being discharged. However, in the cultured mucosa, extrusion of granules occurred closer to the granular cell-keratin junction after 6 and 12 days in vitro than at other time intervals. This probably is a reflexion of the higher rate of tissue turnover at these times. It is concluded that a permeability barrier comparable with that described in vivo is produced by the epithelium during maintenance inorgan culture and is further evidence of the functional integrity of the tissue in vitro. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:422477

Hill, M W; Squier, C A

1979-01-01

340

Laryngeal lymphoma derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed

Extranodal lymphomas account for as many as 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and most arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but other mucosal organs may be involved, especially the upper aerodigestive tract. Low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosae have been found to recapitulate the structure and cytologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histologically low-grade MALT lymphomas are characterized by centrocyte-like B-cells with a phenotype similar to that of so-called marginal zone B-cells. Tumors evolving from MALT are generally rare among lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, but a few cases of laryngeal lymphomas derived from MALT have been reported. Primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx should always be considered in tumors with histopathologic features of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, or so-called pseudolymphoma. PMID:8678438

Horny, H P; Ferlito, A; Carbone, A

1996-07-01

341

Effect of nitric oxide on integrity, blood flow and cyclic GMP levels in the rat gastric mucosa: modulation by sialoadenectomy.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of the nitrosothiol, S-nitroso N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) which liberates nitric oxide (NO), on ethanol-mediated gastric damage, blood flow and cyclic GMP levels in siaoloadenectomized (SALX) rats have been investigated. 2. Intraluminal instillation of ethanol (5-50% w/v) dose-dependently induced haemorrhagic damage and decreased NO synthase activity in the gastric mucosa. Both the extent of mucosal damage and inhibition of NO synthase activity were exacerbated in SALX rats. 3. Epidermal growth factor administration (5 and 10 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) reduced mucosal damage but did not restore NO synthase activity in ethanol-treated SALX rats. 4. SNAP infusion (0.01-1.0 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.) attenuated haemorrhagic damage in ethanol-treated rats. The reduction in mucosal damage was significantly greater in SALX rats. 5. SNAP administration also caused an increase in gastric mucosal blood flow and cyclic GMP levels in control rats and both responses were augmented in SALX animals. 6. These data suggest that SALX is associated with increases in mucosal susceptibility to ethanol-mediated damage and reduces mucosal NO synthase activity. Epidermal growth factor does not appear to influence mucosal NO synthase in ethanol-treated rats. Furthermore, SALX augments the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to NO administration. Therefore, factors from the salivary glands influence gastric NO formation and mucosal responsiveness to a NO donor. PMID:7545520

Tripp, M. A.; Tepperman, B. L.

1995-01-01

342

Comparative clinical wettability of teeth and intraoral mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed reduced adhesiveness of human intraoral mucosa, as compared with adjacent teeth, was determined for 14 healthy humans to correlate with differing measured intraoral contact angles for a variety of otherwise non-interacting test liquids on these two equally water-wettable surfaces under clinical conditions. Measurements were made on the front maxillary tooth surfaces and the-inner lower lip mucosal surfaces of

PER-OLOF J. Glantz; Robert E. Baier; Rolf Attstrom; Anne E. Meyer; Hermann Gucinski

1991-01-01

343

Hormone-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Human Colonic Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colonic adenylate cyclase has been shown to be sensitive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and prostaglandins of the E- and F-type. Maximal activation of enzyme activity averaged 200% for VIP and 300–350% for the E-prostaglandins. Both classes of hormones had an additive effect on enzyme activity indicating the existence of two distinct hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclases in human colonic mucosa.Copyright

B. Simon; P. Czygan; G. Spaan; J. Dittrich; H. Kather

1978-01-01

344

Effects of alendronate on gastric and duodenal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This single-center, double-blind, randomized study assessed the effect of alendronate 5 and 10 mg on the gastroduodenal mucosa. Methods: Overall, 95 postmenopausal women without a recent history of major upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease and not taking gastric-irritant drugs, were screened with an upper GI endoscopy. Fourteen women (15% of the total) were found to have baseline endoscopic gastric and\\/or

Frank Lanza; Mary Frances Rack; Thomas J Simon; Antonio Lombardi; Robert Reyes; Shailaja Suryawanshi

1998-01-01

345

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) remains undefined. We began a controlled\\u000a clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the most common therapies. Two hundred and forty-one patients with gastric\\u000a low-grade MALT lymphoma in early stage (IE and IIE) were randomized to surgery (80 cases), radiotherapy (78 cases), and chemotherapy\\u000a (83 cases). With a

Agustin Avilés; María Jesús Nambo; Natividad Neri; Alejandra Talavera; Sergio Cleto

2005-01-01

346

Pharmacological Retention of Oral Mucosa Progenitor\\/Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosa progenitor\\/stem cells reside as a small-sized cell population that eventually differentiates concurrently with an increase in cell size. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to an increase in cell size. We hypothesized that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, will maintain primary human oral keratinocytes as a small-sized, undifferentiated cell population capable of retaining their

K. Izumi; K. Inoki; Y. Fujimori; C. L. Marcelo; S. E. Feinberg

2009-01-01

347

Antiplatelet activity of N-methoxycarbonyl aporphines from Rollinia mucosa.  

PubMed

Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stems of Rollinia mucosa led to the isolation of new N-methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids, romucosine A (1), romucosine B (2), romucosine C (3), and romucosine D (4), along with the known alkaloid, N-methoxylcarbonyl-nornuciferine (5). Alkaloids 1 and 4 exhibited significant inhibition of collagen, arachidonic acid, and platelet activating factor-induced platelet aggregation, and alkaloid 3 also showed an inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation. PMID:11393523

Kuo, R Y; Chang, F R; Chen, C Y; Teng, C M; Yen, H F; Wu, Y C

2001-06-01

348

Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers.

Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

2014-01-01

349

Skin and oral mucosa equivalents: construction and performance.  

PubMed

The skin and the oral mucosa act as a barrier against the external environment. Loss of this barrier function causes dehydration and a high risk of infection. For the treatment of extensive skin wounds such as in severe burns, autologous skin for transplantation is often not available in sufficient amounts. Reconstructions in the oral cavity, as required after tumor resections or cleft palate repair, are often complicated by similar problems. In the last two decades, the field of tissue engineering has provided new solutions to these problems. Techniques have been developed for the culture of epithelial grafts, dermal substitutes, and the combination of these two to a 'functional' skin or mucosa equivalent. The present review focuses on developments in the field of tissue engineering of skin and oral mucosa. The performance of different types of engineered grafts in animal models and clinical studies is discussed. Recent developments such as the use of epithelial stem cells, and gene therapy with transduced skin grafts are also discussed. PMID:20078790

Liu, J; Bian, Z; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

2010-02-01

350

ErbB2 and fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in 102 squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue: correlation with clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

The oncoprotein ErbB2 (HER-2/neu) is a tyrosine kinase cell surface receptor overexpressed in several human malignancies, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). ErbB2 was recently shown to regulate the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), a multifunctional enzyme complex responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids. Here we evaluated the relationship between the immunohistochemical expression of ErbB2, FAS, and Ki-67 with the clinicopathologic characteristics of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). One hundred and two patients with tongue SCC treated from 1990 to 1995 were studied. Clinical and treatment data were obtained from the medical records and histopathological features revised. Paraffin-embedded tissues were submitted to standard immunohistochemical reactions for ErbB2, FAS and Ki-67. A strong positive correlation between ErbB2 labeling at the cell membrane and FAS expression was found in the tongue SCC samples (p<0.0001). The intracytoplasmatic expression of ErbB2 as well as Ki-67 nuclear staining were significantly associated with a high risk of recurrence by predicting both disease free survival (log-rank test, p=0.0096 and p=0.0047, respectively) and overall survival (log-rank test, p=0.0029 and p=0.0001, respectively). Taken together, our results suggest that the immunolocalization of ErbB2 at the cell surface of malignant oral keratinocytes is linked to FAS expression whereas the intracytoplasmatic ErbB2 or Ki-67 staining predict high risk of recurrence of tongue SCC. PMID:17825601

Silva, Sabrina D; Perez, Danyel E; Alves, Fabio A; Nishimoto, Inês N; Pinto, Clóvis A L; Kowalski, Luiz P; Graner, Edgard

2008-05-01

351

Histologic Characteristics and Mucin Immunohistochemistry of Cystic Fibrosis Sinus Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the histologic characteristics of paranasal sinus mucosa of a disease control population and children with chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis (CRS/CF) (1) to determine whether goblet cell (GC) hyperplasia and/or submucosal gland (SMG) hyperplasia occur in pediatric CRS/CF and (2) to compare expression and localization ofMUC5ACand MUC5B mucins in the sinus mucosa of both cohorts. Design Histologic and morphometric analyses of paranasal sinus mucosa were used to quantify the number of GCs and mucin-expressing cells. Digital imaging was used to evaluate the SMG area. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify the cellular localization of MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins, and confocal microscopy was used to determine whether MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins were expressed in the same secretory cells. Setting Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC. Participants Twenty-one children with CRS/CF who underwent endoscopic sinus surgical procedures and 18 children who underwent craniofacial resection or neurosurgical procedures for abnormalities other than sinusitis. Results A statistically significant increased area (4.4-fold) of SMGs was detected in the sinus mucosa of patients with CRS/CF compared with the controls (P = .02). Neither GC hyperplasia nor increased expression of MUC5AC was observed in the CRS/CF group. MUC5AC was expressed only in a subpopulation of GCs in both cohorts, and MUC5B was expressed in a subpopulation of GCs as well as in SMGs. There was a positive trend toward increased glandular MUC5B expression in the CRS/CF cohort. Colocalization of MUC5AC and MUC5B expression was observed in a subset of GCs. Conclusions Significant SMG hyperplasia and a trend toward increased glandular MUC5B expression exist in children with CRS/CF. This suggests that SMG hyperplasia and glandular MUC5B mucin contribute to mucus overproduction in the sinus mucosa of this population. PMID:21502478

Wu, Xiaofang; Amorn, Melissa M.; Aujla, Pawandeep K.; Rice, Shannon; Mimms, Remy; Watson, Alan M.; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R.; Rose, Mary C.; Peña, Maria T.

2014-01-01

352

Structure of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue and meridional flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized method is developed to determine the position of the northern cold tongue front in the equatorial Atlantic from satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data. The methodology is based on a median frontal SST and frontal characteristics are generally consistent with tropical instability waves (TIWs). Application to drifter observations shows how the new methodology can be used to better understand circulation features near the northern cold tongue front: A drifter pair deployed on the eastern side of a passing TIW crest north of the front revealed that the trajectories of the drifters were clearly influenced by the shape of the front and - in agreement with model studies in both the Atlantic and Pacific - they did not cross the front, but rather stayed close together approximately 2° north of the front. At the western edge of the cold tongue, the longer-transmitting drifter entered the northern branch of the South Equatorial Current (nSEC) and rapidly moved westward. Analyses in an along- and cross-frontal frame of reference complement isopycnal coordinate mapping; for example, tropical Atlantic drifter velocities averaged in frontal coordinates indicate a broadened shear zone between the nSEC and North Equatorial Countercurrent as well as meridional convergence near the front. This new methodology will be used to examine aspects of the near-frontal circulation such as the flow associated with the shallow overturning cells known as tropical cells (TCs) from two-dimensional observations. Shipboard and lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements collected in the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic during the past sixteen years are for the first time utilized to describe the mean cross-equatorial structure of the meridional currents associated with the TCs. These meridional currents are an order of magnitude smaller than velocity fluctuations associated with transient phenomena in the region like TIWs, and to date individual in situ current measurements have been too sparse in their temporal and spatial coverage to estimate their mean without large uncertainties. Due to surface reflections, the currents between 30 m and the ocean surface are typically not resolved by the ADCP measurements and 15-m currents from the drifter annual climatology are used to derive those currents.

Hormann, V.; Perez, R. C.; Lumpkin, R.; Brandt, P.; Johns, W. E.; Hernandez, F.; Schmid, C.; Bourlès, B.

2012-12-01

353

Qualitative assessment of tongue drive system by people with high-level spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a minimally invasive, wireless, and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their environments using tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures into commands by sensing the magnetic field created by a small magnetic tracer applied to the user's tongue. We have previously quantitatively evaluated the TDS for accessing computers and powered wheelchairs, demonstrating its usability. In this study, we focused on its qualitative evaluation by people with high-level spinal cord injury who each received a magnetic tongue piercing and used the TDS for 6 wk. We used two questionnaires, an after-scenario and a poststudy, designed to evaluate the tongue-piercing experience and the TDS usability compared with that of the sip-and-puff and the users' current ATs. After study completion, 73% of the participants were positive about keeping the magnetic tongue-barbell in order to use the TDS. All were satisfied with the TDS performance and most said that they were able to do more things using TDS than their current ATs (4.22/5). PMID:25019667

Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Rowles, Diane; Holbrook, Jaimee; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P; Laumann, Anne E; Roth, Elliot; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

354

Tongue and Hyoid Musculature and Functional Morphology of a Neonate Gray Whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus).  

PubMed

Little is known about the anatomy and musculature of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), especially related to the anatomy of the tongue and hyoid region. The recovery of an extremely fresh head of a neonatal female gray whale provided an opportunity to conduct the first in-depth investigation of the musculoskeletal features of the tongue and hyoid apparatus. Unlike other mysticetes, the gray whale tongue is strong, muscular, and freely mobile inside the buccal cavity. In particular, the genioglossus and hyoglossus muscles are extremely large and robust making up the majority of the body of the tongue. In addition, the genioglossus had a unique position and fiber orientation in the tongue compared to other mammals. The structure of the hyoid apparatus differs between E. robustus and other mysticete species, although there are similarities among individual elements. We provide the first documentation of fungiform papillae that may be associated with taste buds in Mysticeti. The highly mobile, robust tongue and the presence of well-defined tongue and hyoid musculature are in keeping with observations of gray whale feeding that suggest this group of whales utilize oral suction to draw benthic prey into the buccal cavity. Anat Rec, 298:660-674, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25736921

Kienle, Sarah S; Ekdale, Eric G; Reidenberg, Joy S; Deméré, Tom A

2015-04-01

355

Using unconstrained tongue motion as an alternative control mechanism for wheeled mobility.  

PubMed

Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers users' intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the tongue motion as an alternative control input for wheeled mobility. We tested the eTDS performance in driving PWCs on 12 able-bodied human subjects, of which 11 were novice. The results showed that all subjects could complete navigation tasks by operating the PWC using their tongue motions. Despite little prior experience, the average time using the eTDS and the tongue was only approximately three times longer than using a joystick and the fingers. Navigation time was strongly dependant on the number of issued commands, which reduced by gaining experience. Particularly, the unintended issued commands (the Midas touch problem) were rare, demonstrating the effectiveness of the tongue tracking and external magnetic field cancellation algorithms as well as the safety of the TDS for wheeled mobility. PMID:19362901

Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2009-06-01

356

Development of the tongue coating analyzer based on concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tongue coating diagnosis is an important part in tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).The change of the thickness and color of the tongue coating can reflect the pathological state for the patient. By observing the tongue coating, a Chinese doctor can determine the nature or severity of disease. Because some limitations existed in the tongue diagnosis method of TCM and the method based on the digital image processing, a novel tongue coating analyzer(TCA) based on the concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument is developed in this paper. This analyzer consists of the light source system, check cavity, optical fiber probe, concave grating monochrometer, spectrum detector system based on CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card, signal processing circuit system, computer and data analysis software based on LabVIEW, etc. Experimental results show that the novel TCA's spectral range can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this TCA uses the back-split-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with the TCA based on the image processing technology, this TCA has many advantages, such as, compact volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and real-time handle data and display the result, etc. Therefore, it has the greatly potential values in the fields of the tongue coating diagnosis for TCM.

Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Wenping

2010-10-01

357

Effect of tongue stimulation on nystagmus eye movements in blind patients.  

PubMed

We have observed dramatic effects of tactile tongue stimulation on nystagmus eye movements in patients with acquired blindness, and we report these results. Six adult subjects (3 subjects with light perception or worse vision and 3 normal subjects) were included in this study. Causes of blindness included traumatic explosion, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and central retinal artery occlusion. Duration of blindness was 15, 3 and 1.5 years, respectively. A video eye tracking system (Eyelink 1000) was used to record eye movements. The eye movement recording (EMR) was repeated four times in a span of 20 min. Two of the EMRs were performed without tongue stimulation and two with tongue stimulation in randomized order. A tongue stimulus was applied to the surface of the tongue using a Brainport device that produces an electrical tactile stimulus. The nystagmus waveform characteristics and frequency were analyzed. We found that all blind subjects showed continuous jerk nystagmus with slow and quick phases, mainly in horizontal plane in their primary eye positions. The recorded nystagmus waveforms were jerk with linear velocity slow phases. When the tongue stimulus was applied, the frequency of nystagmus was significantly reduced by 47, 40, and 11%, and relative amplitude was reduced by 43, 45, and 6% for three blind subjects, respectively. In conclusion, we think our results that tongue stimulation influences nystagmus eye movements support a link between non-visual sensory input and ocular motor activity. PMID:22350083

Nau, Amy; Hertle, Richard W; Yang, Dongsheng

2012-07-01

358

Protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death: Two cases of arson to cover homicide.  

PubMed

In the forensic assessment of burned bodies, the question of whether the victim was exposed to fire before or after death is of crucial importance. Many authors consider tongue protrusion in cases of burned bodies to be a post-mortem phenomenon. Deep-heating effects of fire are sufficient to cook muscle. The muscle becomes shortened by dehydration and protein denaturation. Exposure to heat causes flexion of the extremities on the contraction of muscles and tendons - heat rigour. The flexors, being bulkier than the extensors, contract more and force the limbs into the position of general flexion. The genioglossus is the major muscle of the tongue and is responsible for protruding or sticking out the tongue: by means of its inferior fibres, it draws the root of the tongue forward and protrudes the apex from the mouth. Similar to the action of limb flexors exposed to heat and the appearance of post-mortem general flexion of a burned body due to heat rigour, perhaps the geniglossus could be shortened by heat, causing post-mortem tongue protrusion to appear as heat rigour of the tongue. In this paper, we present two such cases of protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death - cases of arson to cover homicide. PMID:25013164

Nikoli?, Slobodan; Zivkovi?, Vladimir

2014-07-01

359

The relationship between physiologic halitosis and periodontopathic bacteria of the tongue and gingival sulcus.  

PubMed

To determine the influence of oral status on halitosis, the relationship between halitosis and periodontopathic bacteria present in plaque on the tongue and the subgingival sulcus was examined in 62 periodontally healthy adults. Halitosis indicators used were the organoleptic score; gas chromatography results [total volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) = H(2)S + CH(3)SH + (CH(3))(2)S]; Halimeter values; and the results of three clinical tests, plaque control record (PlCR), plaque index (PlI), and tongue coat status. Significant correlations with organoleptic scores was observed for PlCR, PlI, tongue coat status, VSC amounts, and Halimeter values, indicating that halitosis in periodontally healthy subjects tended to originate from tongue plaque deposits. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect six periodontopathic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola) from the tongue and subgingival plaque. Significant effects on the organoleptic scores, tongue coat status, total VSC, H(2)S and CH(3)SH amounts, and Halimeter values were observed only for T. denticola and F. nucleatum and only in the tongue plaque, not in the subgingival plaque. Thus, therapies developed to inhibit the growth of these bacteria may lead to future treatments of halitosis. PMID:20155507

Yasukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohmori, Misaki; Sato, Soh

2010-02-01

360

Quantitative and Comparative Assessment of Learning in a Tongue-Operated Computer Input Device  

PubMed Central

Tongue drive system (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments to access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device in four tasks, commonly known as horizontal, vertical, center-out, and multidirectional rapid tapping, based on Fitts' law and ISO9241-9 Standard. Nine able-bodied subjects, who already had tongue piercing, participated in this trial over five sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects wore tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare-earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Participants performed the same tasks with a mouse (only in the first session) as a reference as well as a standard keypad for benchmarking. Six performance measures were considered, including throughput, error rate, and reaction time, all of these improved significantly from the first to the last session, and some of these plateaued over the course of the experiment. The comparison between tongue–TDS versus index-finger–keypad provides valuable insights into tongue human factors, which can lead the way in improving the usability of the TDS and similar tongue-operated assistive technologies. PMID:21652288

Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

361

Prominent features of allergic angioedema on oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Angioedema indicates acute subcutaneous edema that characterizes improperly restricted cutaneous or mucous membrane swelling, which can occur only once or be relapsing. Edema usually occurs in the periorbital area, lips, tongue, extremities and intestinal wall. It has turned out that angioedema is usually caused by the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) or allergies to certain allergens (allergic or IgE-mediated angioedema), followed by C1 inhibitor deficiency (hereditary and acquired angioedema), or the cause is unknown (idiopathic angioedema). It has been shown that patients with angioedema often have urticaria, which is noted in approximately 50% of cases. Usually there is a type I allergic reaction to some food allergens or drugs or insect stings. The most common causes of allergic angioedema are bee and wasp stings, reactions to medications or injections for sensitivity testing, and certain foods (especially eggs, shellfish and nuts). In diagnostic terms, it is important to determine the potential allergen, which is commonly performed with cutaneous tests, such as prick test, etc. The main risk of angioedema is swelling of the tongue, larynx and trachea, which can lead to airway obstruction and death, therefore tracheotomy is indicated in such cases. The initial treatment of patients with most forms of angioedema included administration of antihistamines and glucocorticoids, while epinephrine is given if there is fear from laryngeal edema. PMID:22649883

Duvanci?, Tomislav; Lugovi?-Mihi?, Liborija; Brekalo, Ante; Situm, Mirna; Sinkovi?, Ana

2011-12-01

362

Condyloma acuminata in the tongue and palate of a sexually abused child: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Condyloma acuminata caused by human papilloma viruses, (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) appearing most frequently as soft, pink cauliflower like growths in moist areas, such as the genitalia, mouth and other places. The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. In children, the isolation of a sexually transmitted organism may be the first indication that an abuse has occurred. Although the presence of a sexually transmissible agent from a child beyond the neonatal period is suggestive of sexual abuse, exceptions do exist. Case presentation The authors report the clinical case of a five-year-old Caucasian male with lesions located in the dorsal surfaces of the posterior tongue and palate. Both lesions had a firm consistency, reddish appearance and presence of whitish areas and regions of ulceration. During the interview, the mother reported that the boy had been sexually abused. Conclusion Sexually transmitted disease may occur during sexual abuse. Dentists as well as pediatricians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. The diagnosis is essentially clinical (anamnesis and physical examination), but also the use of cytology eventually resorts to biopsy of the suspicious lesions for histological examination. The therapeutic option was the excision of the lesions. PMID:25053204

2014-01-01

363

Treating Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... 2012;79;e190-e192 Neurology Steven Karceski Treating meningitis This information is current as of November 26, ... infections http://www.neurology.org//cgi/collection/meningitis Meningitis http://www.neurology.org//cgi/collection/fungal_infections ...

364

Gliadin induced changes in the expression of MHC-class II antigens by human small intestinal epithelium. Organ culture studies with coeliac disease mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Jejunal biopsies from 16 treated coeliac disease patients and from nine controls were cultured with and without a peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin. Cultures with a peptic-tryptic digest of maize prolamins were also undertaken. Frozen sections of baseline and cultured mucosa were stained by immunofluorescence with an anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody. Before culture the villous epithelium from both controls and treated coeliac disease expressed DR molecules while the crypt epithelium did not. When biopsies from treated coeliac disease were cultured with gliadin the expression of DR was enhanced in the crypt epithelium in eight of 14 cultures and in 11 of 14 was reduced or absent on the villous epithelium. No change was observed in control cultures. We conclude that gliadin is capable of inducing HLA-DR on the crypt epithelium of in vitro cultured coeliac disease mucosa, providing indirect evidence that gliadin may activate cell mediated immune mechanisms within the small bowel mucosa. This model could prove useful in identifying the immunogenic sequence(s) of gliadins and related prolamins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1582589

Fais, S; Maiuri, L; Pallone, F; De Vincenzi, M; De Ritis, G; Troncone, R; Auricchio, S

1992-01-01

365

LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).  

PubMed

The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. PMID:25137178

Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

2014-12-01

366

Virtual Instrument for an Automated Potentiometric e-Tongue Employing the SIA Technique  

PubMed Central

In this work we report the design, construction, and applications of an electronic tongue (abbreviated e-tongue) based on an array of potentiometric sensors employing the Sequential Injection Analysis technique (SIA) operated as a Virtual Instrument implemented in LabVIEW6.1™. The system can use transient and stationary responses as the measured input information for e-tongues. The new concepts applied, lead to different advantages to be obtained, such as complete automation, easy handling, saving time, reliability and modularity.

Durán, Alejandro; Cortina, Montserrat; Velasco, Lya; Rodríguez, José Antonio; Alegret, Salvador; del Valle, Manuel

2006-01-01

367

Alveolar soft part sarcoma of tongue in 14-year-old boy  

PubMed Central

Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, aggressive malignancy of uncertain histological origin with propensity of vascular invasion and distant metastasis. ASPS demonstrates strong predilection for adolescents and young adults with a female preponderance. The head and neck region is the commonly affected region in the pediatric population with orbit and tongue being most common. The indolent clinical course and asymptomatic nature often leads to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. Herein, we present a case of ASPS affecting the tongue in 14-year-old boy which clinically mimicked hemangioma, common benign vascular tumor of tongue. PMID:25593886

Kinger, Mallika; Chakrabarti, Preeti; Varma, Amit; Doshi, Bhavesh

2014-01-01

368

Wasted tongue in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders due to hypoglossal nerve involvement.  

PubMed

We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with hypoglossal nerve involvement resulting in a wasted tongue associated with other brainstem symptoms of hypogeusia, hypersalivation, hiccough, increased sweating, hyperemesis and myelitis (in the second patient). This occurred due to involvement of the hypoglossal, tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal nuclei. Though the myelitis and other brainstem signs recovered the hypoglossal nerve involvement resulting in a unilateral wasted tongue did not. It is important to consider neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders in the differential diagnosis of a wasted tongue though its occurrence is rare. PMID:24948685

Viswanathan, Shanthi

2015-04-01

369

Oxygen tongues and zonal currents in the equatorial Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equatorial zonal currents and associated oxygen distributions are studied using shipboard hydrographic data, trajectories from isopycnic floats drifting at about 300 m depth, and velocity time series from the upper 1100 m obtained at two equatorial moorings located at 35°W and 23°W. Mean profiles of zonal velocity measured by moored acoustic Doppler current profilers yielded a westward flowing Equatorial Intermediate Current (EIC) below the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) at both locations. The EIC consists of two westward current cores at about 250 and 450 m. The upper core of the EIC deepens by about 30 m from 23°W, where it has a mean velocity of 6 ± 2 cm s-1, to 35°W, where the mean is 5 ± 3 cm s-1. The lower core of the EIC is about twice as strong with 12 ± 1 cm s-1 at 23°W and 9 ± 2 cm s-1 at 35°W. The flow below the EUC is characterized by substantial interannual variability. From May to December 2005 a strong, zonally coherent eastward jet occurred at 300 to 350 m depth, found to be an expression of shallow stacked jets superimposed on the mean EIC. Shipboard hydrographic observations in June-July 2006 revealed the existence of a high-oxygen tongue that can be traced from 35°W to 10°W in the depth range of the eastward jet prevailing during the preceding year. On the basis of an advection-diffusion balance, it is suggested that the oxygen decrease from 35°W to 10°W within the oxygen tongue is mainly balanced by lateral eddy diffusivity and oxygen consumption, with diapycnal turbulent diffusivity playing only a minor role.

Brandt, Peter; Hormann, Verena; BourlèS, Bernard; Fischer, Jürgen; Schott, Friedrich A.; Stramma, Lothar; Dengler, Marcus

2008-04-01

370

Macrophages Modulate Migration and Invasion of Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has a high mortality rate and the incidence is rising worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, the disease lacks specific prognostic markers and treatment modality. The spreading of OTSCC is dependent on the tumor microenvironment and involves tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Although the presence of TAMs is associated with poor prognosis in OTSCC, the specific mechanisms underlying this are still unknown. The aim here was to investigate the effect of macrophages (Mfs) on HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells and NF-kappaB activity. We polarized THP-1 cells to M1 (inflammatory), M2 (TAM-like) and R848 (imidazoquinoline-treated) type Mfs. We then investigated the effect of Mfs on HSC-3 cell migration and NF-kappaB activity, cytokine production and invasion using several different in vitro migration models, a human 3D tissue invasion model, antibody arrays, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry and a mouse invasion model. We found that in co-culture studies all types of Mfs fused with HSC-3 cells, a process which was partially due to efferocytosis. HSC-3 cells induced expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta in co-cultures with M2 Mfs. Direct cell-cell contact between M2 Mfs and HSC-3 cells induced migration and invasion of HSC-3 cells while M1 Mfs reduced HSC-3 cell invasion. M2 Mfs had an excess of NF-kappaB p50 subunit and a lack of p65 subunits both in the presence and absence of HSC-3 cells, indicating dysregulation and pro-tumorigenic NF-kappaB activation. TAM-like cells were abundantly present in close vicinity to carcinoma cells in OTSCC patient samples. We conclude that M2 Mfs/TAMs have an important role in OTSCC regulating adhesion, migration, invasion and cytokine production of carcinoma cells favouring tumor growth. These results demonstrate that OTSCC patients could benefit from therapies targeting TAMs, polarizing TAM-like M2 Mfs to inflammatory macrophages and modulating NF-kappaB activity. PMID:25811194

Pirilä, Emma; Väyrynen, Otto; Sundquist, Elias; Päkkilä, Kaisa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Pääkkönen, Virve; Pesonen, Paula; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Salo, Tuula

2015-01-01

371

Upregulation of inflammatory genes in the nasal mucosa of patients undergoing endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy  

PubMed Central

Background Epiphora is a common complaint of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) in adults. The precise pathogenesis of NLDO is still unknown, but inflammatory processes are believed to be predisposing factors. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR) is an effective surgical technique for treating symptomatic NLDO. The purpose of the procedure is to relieve the patient’s symptoms by creating an opening, ie, a rhinostoma, between the lacrimal sac and the nasal cavity. Although the success rates after EN-DCR are high, the procedure sometimes fails due to onset of a fibrotic process at the rhinostomy site. The aim of this prospective comparative study was to investigate inflammation-related gene expression in the nasal mucosa at the rhinostomy site. Methods Ten participants were consecutively recruited from eligible adult patients who underwent primary powered EN-DCR (five patients) or septoplasty (five controls). Nasal mucosa specimens were taken from the rhinostomy site at the beginning of surgery for analysis of gene expression. Specimens were taken from the same site on the lateral nasal wall for controls. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for the inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, and CCL2, and because of a clear trend of increased inflammation in the EN-DCR samples, a wider PCR array was performed to compare inflammation-related gene expression in EN-DCR subjects and corresponding controls. Results Our qRT-PCR results revealed a clear trend of increased transcription of IL-6, IL-1?, and CCL2 (P=0.03). The same trend was also evident in the PCR array, which additionally revealed notable differences between EN-DCR subjects and controls with regard to expression of several other inflammation-related mediators. At 6-month follow-up, the success rate after primary EN-DCR was 60%, ie, in three of five patients. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that there is an intense inflammation gene expression response in the nasal mucosa of patients undergoing EN-DCR. PMID:24851037

Penttilä, Elina; Hyttinen, Juha MT; Hytti, Maria; Kauppinen, Anu; Smirnov, Grigori; Tuomilehto, Henri; Seppä, Juha; Nuutinen, Juhani; Kaarniranta, Kai

2014-01-01

372

[How to push the limits in the transverse dimension? Facial asymmetry, palatal volume and tongue posture in children with unilateral posterior cross bite: a three-dimensional evaluation of early treatment].  

PubMed

Unilateral posterior crossbites have been reported to be one of the most prevalent malocclusions of the primary dentition in Caucasian children. Facial asymmetry due to lateral mandibular displacement in unilateral posterior crossbite, if not treated in the primary dentition period, may lead to an undesirable growth modification which results in facial asymmetry of skeletal origin. Irregular tongue function and posture have also been diagnosed as important etiological factors. Early orthodontic treatment seems to be profitable and desirable to create conditions for normal dental, functional and skeletal development of the orofacial region. Treatment success after correction of unilateral posterior crossbite in the primary dentition is highly questionable, as it is very difficult to objectively assess correction of facial asymmetry and irregular tongue function and posture in small, growing children. Although facial photography is an important diagnostic tool in orthodontics, its main disadvantage is that it represents a three dimensional subject in two dimensions. Tongue posture and function during clinical examination are difficult to assess and is therefore unreliable. Contemporary 3D diagnostics in unilateral posterior crossbite enables uninvasive, valid and objective assessment of facial morphology, palatal volume, tongue function and posture. It can, therefore, become in the future an important part of morphological and functional diagnostics in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics before, during and after orthodontic treatment. PMID:24923214

Ovsenik, Maja; Primoži?, Jasmina

2014-06-01

373

Eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa: clinical, pathological and epidemiological relevance in children: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) shows eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa and can present with symptoms indistinguishable from gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The authors describe the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological features of all cases of histological EO presenting during 2007–2008 with a 2-year follow-up. The incidence of paediatric EO and the features of a subgroup with features of both GORD and EO (‘overlap’ syndrome (OS)) are described. Design Biopsies with an average of 15 eosinophils/high-power field (HPF) were reviewed in the cohort. OS was suggested when there was coexistence of clinical and histological features of EO and GORD (abnormal pH study), which improved with proton pump inhibitors. Setting Tertiary care. Participants All cases with ?15 eosinophils/HPF entered the study. Primary outcome measures Patients with EO had an average of 15 eosinophils/HPF. Secondary outcome measures Other histological features of EO included microabscesses, dilated intercellular spaces, basal cell hyperplasia, papillary elongation, etc. Results 24 cases of EO were identified, 13 men and 11 women. The incidence of paediatric oesophageal eosinophilia in the region was 9/100?000 children. 11 of the 24 patients (46%) presented with some form of allergy, six with poor feeding/food aversion, five with dysphagia and four with vomiting. After follow-up, 56.5% were confirmed to have EO, 30.5% responded to treatment for GORD and were categorised as OS, 9% developed eosinophilic gastroenteritis and 4% did not have further upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis of EO, especially the differentiation from GORD, requires appropriate clinicopathological correlation. A significant proportion of patients with eosinophilia in the mucosa also have GORD (OS). These patients improve after treating the underlying GORD. The study was registered as a Service Evaluation with the Trust (number SE74). PMID:22240650

Rao, Prithviraj; Thomson, Mike; Al-Adnani, Mudher

2012-01-01

374

Determination of the glycosylation-pattern of the middle ear mucosa in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

In the present study the glycosylation pattern of the middle ear mucosa (MEM) of guinea pigs, an approved model for middle ear research, was characterized with the purpose to identify bioadhesive ligands which might prolong the contact time of drug delivery systems with the middle ear mucosa (MEM). To assess the utility of five fluorescein labeled plant lectins with different carbohydrate specificities as bioadhesive ligands, viable MEM specimens were incubated at 4°C and the lectin binding capacities were calculated from the MEM-associated relative fluorescence intensities. Among all lectins under investigation, fluorescein-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) emerged as the highest bioadhesive lectin. In general, the accessibility of carbohydrate moieties of the MEM followed the order: sialic acid and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (WGA)>mannose and galactosamine (Lensculinaris agglutinin)>N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (Solanumtuberosum agglutinin)>fucose (Ulexeuropaeus isoagglutinin I)>terminal mannose ?-(1,3)-mannose (Galanthusnivalis agglutinin). Competitive inhibition studies with the corresponding carbohydrate revealed that F-WGA-binding was inhibited up to 90% confirming specificity of the F-WGA-MEM interaction. The cilia of the MEM were identified as F-WGA binding sites by fluorescence imaging as well as a z-stack of overlays of transmission, F-WGA- and nuclei-stained images of the MEM. Additionally, co-localisation experiments revealed that F-WGA bound to acidic mucopolysaccharides of the MEM. All in all, lectin-mediated bioadhesion to the MEM is proposed as a new concept for drug delivery to prolong the residence time of the drug in the tympanic cavity especially for successful therapy for difficult-to-treat diseases such as otitis media. PMID:25724132

Engleder, Elisabeth; Demmerer, Elisabeth; Wang, Xueyan; Honeder, Clemens; Zhu, Chengjing; Studenik, Christian; Wirth, Michael; Arnoldner, Christoph; Gabor, Franz

2015-04-30

375

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured...

2011-01-01

376

Lateral bracing of the tongue during the onset phase of alveolar stops: An EPG study.  

PubMed

Abstract Although raising the sides of the tongue to form a seal with the palate and upper teeth - lateral bracing - plays a key role in controlling airflow direction, providing overall tongue stability and building up oral pressure during alveolar consonant production, details of this articulatory gesture remain poorly understood. This study examined the dynamics of lateral bracing during the onset of alveolar stops /t/, /d/, /n/ produced by15 typical English-speaking adults using electropalatography. Percent tongue palate contact in the lateral regions over a 150-ms period from the preceding schwa to stop closure was measured. Rapid rising of the sides of the tongue from the back towards the front during the 50-ms period before closure was observed, with oral stops showing significantly more contact than nasal stops. This feature corresponds to well-documented formant transitions detectable from acoustic analysis. Possible explanations for increased contact for oral stops and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25495013

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; Oebels, Judith

2015-03-01

377

Relationship between oral poor hygiene and broken teeth with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Previous studies on etiology of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue have reported results with respect to long term exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for SCC of the tongue in a set of patients with minimum exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol. Sixty four cases with diagnosis of oral tongue SCC were reviewed in this study. The patients underwent surgical management at the educational and therapeutic centers, Imam and Buali Hospitals (Hamedan, Iran) between the dates of January 1990 and December 2006. Eighty five percent of patients were older than 40 years of age. Most of patients had poor oral hygiene, dental decay and halitosis. It appears that poor oral hygiene and nutritional deficiency can be considered as risk factors for the SCC of the tongue in west of Iran. PMID:21681703

Behnoud, Fatholah; Torabian, Saadat; Zargaran, Maasoumeh

2011-01-01

378

Myokymia and neuromyotonia of the tongue: a case report of complication of irradiation.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old man has suffered from progressive dysarthria since 1989. He himself noted slight weakness and tightness of the tongue, so that he was unable to perform motor tasks in a normal fashion. He was diagnosed as having nasopharyngeal carcinoma and had irradiation 70 Gy in 32 divided doses in 1979. Neurological examination revealed left-sided tongue atrophy and myokymia sparing of facial muscles involvement. Electrical discharges of myokymia and neuromyotonia were observed in the tongue muscles, suggesting hypoglossal nerve lesion with hyperexcitability of the axon membrance. Computed tomogram of brain did not show any evidence of recurrence of tumor; indicating that irradiation was the pathologic basis. Our report revealed that myokymia and neuromyotonia of the tongue was an unusual complication of irradiation. PMID:8299045

Wang, V; Liao, K K; Ju, T H; Lin, K P; Wang, S J; Wu, Z A

1993-12-01

379

Long-term effects of tongue piercing — a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth and periodontal damage in subjects wearing a tongue piercing (TP) in comparison\\u000a to matched control subjects without tongue piercing. Members of the German Federal Armed Forces who had TP (group TP) and\\u000a a matched control group (group C) volunteered to take part in the study. The time in situ, localization and

Dirk Ziebolz; Aick Hildebrand; Peter Proff; Sven Rinke; Else Hornecker; Rainer F. Mausberg

380

Diversity of Bacterial Populations on the Tongue Dorsa of Patients with Halitosis and Healthy Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the microbial profiles of the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects and subjects with halitosis by using culture-independent molecular methods. Our overall goal was to determine the bacterial diversity on the surface of the tongue dorsum as part of our ongoing efforts to identify all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of the

C. E. Kazor; P. M. Mitchell; A. M. Lee; L. N. Stokes; W. J. Loesche; F. E. Dewhirst; B. J. Paster

2003-01-01

381

Treating Sludges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

Josephson, Julian

1978-01-01

382

Effect of freezing and type of mucosa on ex vivo drug permeability parameters.  

PubMed

The porcine esophageal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies mainly due to its large surface area as well as its easier preparation. Therefore, this study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of two drugs (carmabazepine (CBZ) and triamcinolone acetonide (TAC)) with different permeabilities and physicochemical properties through buccal and esophageal mucosae using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were also evaluated by comparing them when fresh and frozen tissues were used. The barrier properties were not affected by the freezing process since the obtained parameters for both drugs were similar in frozen and fresh tissues (buccal and esophageal mucosae). However, an increase of CBZ retention was shown in frozen tissues. Fresh and frozen esophageal mucosae provided higher permeation of TAC than on buccal mucosae while the obtained permeability parameters for CBZ were similar on both mucosae. According to our results, porcine esophageal mucosa could be used as a substitute for buccal mucosa on ex vivo studies involving CBZ but not TAC. Frozen tissues could be used as substitute for fresh tissues in both cases. However, any substitution should be done with care and only if previous tests were performed, because the results could differ depending on the tested drug. PMID:21541829

Caon, Thiago; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

2011-06-01

383

Antacid talcid activates in gastric mucosa genes encoding for EGF and its receptor. The molecular basis for its ulcer healing action.  

PubMed

In previous studies [Gut 35 (1994) 896-904], we demonstrated that antacid talcid (TAL) accelerates gastric ulcer healing and provides better quality of mucosal restoration within the scar than the omeprazole (OME). However, the mechanisms of TAL-induced ulcer healing are not clear. Since growth factors promote cell proliferation, re-epithelization, angiogenesis and ulcer healing, we studied whether TAL and/or OME affect expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors (EGF-R) in both normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae. Rats with or without acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers (n = 64) received i.g. twice daily 1 mL of either: A) placebo (PLA); B) TAL 100 mg; or C) OME 50 mg x kg(-1) for 14 d. Studies of gastric specimens: 1) ulcer size; 2) quantitative histology; 3) expression of EGF mRNAs was determined by RT/PCR; 4) gastric sections were immunostained with antibodies against EGF and its receptors. In non-ulcerated gastric mucosa of placebo or omeprazole treated group, EGF expression was minimal, while EGF-R was localized to few cells in the mucosal proliferative zone. Gastric ulceration triggered overexpression of EGF and its receptor in epithelial cells of the ulcer margin and scar. In ulcerated gastric mucosa TAL treatment significantly enhanced (versus PLA and omeprazole) expression of EGF and EGF-R. OME treatment reduced expression of EGF in ulcerated mucosa by 55 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). It is concluded that: 1) treatment with TAL activates genes for EGF and its receptor in normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae; 2) since EGF promotes growth of epithelial cells and their proliferation and migration, the above actions of TAL provide the mechanism for its ulcer healing action and improved (versus OME) quality of mucosal restoration. PMID:10791688

Tarnawski, A S; Tomikawa, M; Ohta, M; Sarfeh, I J

2000-01-01

384

Collagenase-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-8) plays a protective role in tongue cancer  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is the most common cancer in the oral cavity and has a high mortality rate. A total of 90 mobile tongue SCC samples were analysed for Bryne's malignancy scores, microvascular density, and thickness of the SCC sections. In addition, the staining pattern of cyclooxygenase-2, ?v?6 integrin, the laminin-5 ?2-chain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -7, -8, -9, -20, and -28 were analysed. The expression of MMP-8 (collagenase-2) was positively associated with improved survival of the patients and the tendency was particularly prominent in females. No sufficient evidence for a correlation with the clinical outcome was found for any other immunohistological marker. To test the protective role of MMP-8 in tongue carcinogenesis, MMP-8 knockout mice were used. MMP-8 deficient female mice developed tongue SCCs at a significantly higher incidence than wild-type mice exposed to carcinogen 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide. Consistently, oestrogen-induced MMP-8 expression in cultured HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells, and MMP-8 cleaved oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ?. According to these data, we propose that, contrary to the role of most proteases produced by human carcinomas, MMP-8 has a protective, probably oestrogen-related role in the growth of mobile tongue SCCs. PMID:18253113

Korpi, J T; Kervinen, V; Mäklin, H; Väänänen, A; Lahtinen, M; Läärä, E; Ristimäki, A; Thomas, G; Ylipalosaari, M; Åström, P; Lopez-Otin, C; Sorsa, T; Kantola, S; Pirilä, E; Salo, T

2008-01-01

385

Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the peregrine falcon and common kestrel.  

PubMed

The dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The length of the tongue in the peregrine falcon was about 2.5 cm. The length of the tongue in the common kestrel was about 1.5 cm. The tips of the tongues of the peregrine falcon and common kestrel were bifid. Three parts were distinguished in the tongues of the peregrine falcon and common kestrel: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The region of the openings of the lingual glands between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area in each bird. There were carpet-shaped epithelium in the lingual apex in each bird. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root in each bird. The morphological characteristics of the tongues in the peregrine falcon and common kestrel were similar to each other. PMID:18833907

Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

2008-05-01

386

Tactile-'visual' acuity of the tongue in early blind individuals.  

PubMed

This study compares the 'tactile-visual' acuity of the tongue for 15 early blind participants with that of 24 age-matched and sex-matched sighted controls. Snellen's tumbling E test was used to assess 'visual' acuity using the tongue display unit. The tongue display unit is a sensory substitution device that converts a visual stimulus grabbed by a camera into electro-tactile pulses delivered to the tongue via a grid made out of electrodes. No overall significant difference was found in thresholds between early blind (1/206) and sighted control (1/237) participants. We found, however, a larger proportion of early blind in the two highest visual acuity categories (1/150 and 1/90). These results extend earlier findings that it is possible to measure visual acuity in the blind individuals using the tongue. Moreover, our data demonstrate that a subgroup of early blind participants is more efficient than controls in conveying visual information through the tongue. PMID:18007183

Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Rainville, Constant; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

2007-12-01

387

The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube  

PubMed Central

Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, we show that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. We also show that the tongue–fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap. Our results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Our findings have ramifications for the study of feeding mechanics in other nectarivorous birds, and for the understanding of the evolution of nectarivory in general. We propose a conceptual mechanical explanation for this unique fluid-trapping capacity, with far-reaching practical applications (e.g., biomimetics). PMID:21536916

Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A.

2011-01-01

388

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2011-09-01

389

Handy measurement for tongue motion and coordination with laryngeal elevation at swallowing.  

PubMed

At the oral stage of swallowing, the tongue plays a major role and proper tongue performance is necessary to form the bolus and transfer it to the pharynx. For the present study we built a prototype device for safe and handy objective estimation of tongue motion and coordination with laryngeal elevation at swallowing. The device records tongue pressure by means of two strain gauge pressure transducers aligned 20 mm apart on a brass strap placed along the palatal midline. Laryngeal vibration is recorded with piezo-electric acceleration transducers. Time differences between pressure onset at the anterior and posterior transducers and the first spike from laryngeal vibration are measured. Ten healthy subjects were asked five times to swallow 5 mL of water. Pressure onset at the anterior transducer preceded posterior pressure by 294 +/- 164 ms. Given the distance between the transducers, the tongue contracted (squeezed) at a speed of 93 +/- 60 mm s(-1). Laryngeal vibration occurred 671 +/- 175 ms after the onset of anterior pressure. There was considerable variation in these parameters between subjects. Though the data is limited, the device successfully and easily revealed certain aspects of tongue motion and coordination with laryngeal elevation. PMID:12974857

Tsuga, K; Hayashi, R; Sato, Y; Akagawa, Y

2003-10-01

390

Epithelial responses of rabbit tongues and their involvement in taste transduction.  

PubMed

The response of rabbit tongue, placed in a modified Ussing chamber, to salts [KCl, NaCl, NH4Cl, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl)], sweeteners (D-glucose, sucrose), acid (HCl), and a bitter tastant, quinine, was investigated for the first time. These experiments were conducted to further explore the new paradigm of taste transduction that correlates changes in the electrical behavior of lingual epithelia with neural responses. In addition, the responses of rabbit tongue data were compared with previously published data on dog and frog tongues. When increases in short-circuit current (Isc) for rabbit tongue induced by hyperosmotic concentrations of several salts were compared, the following sequence was found: KCl greater than NH4Cl greater than NaCl greater than TEACl. These results are consistent with previously published integrated chorda tympani responses (ICTR) as well as behavioral studies that showed that rabbits prefer KCl to NaCl with their natural diet. Pharmacological studies using ouabain and amiloride suggest that K and Na are traversing rabbit tongue through different pathways. The maximal stimulation of Isc by D-glucose and sucrose (in 50 mM NaCl) was significantly smaller than those measured for KCl and NaCl. The rabbit tongue was sensitive to HCl at concentrations less than 1 mM in agreement with ICTR measurements. PMID:3752289

Simon, S A; Robb, R; Garvin, J L

1986-09-01

391

Treatment of c-kit positive adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tongue: A case report  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) or ‘cylindroma’ is a malignant tumor that often occurs in the areas of the head and neck, affecting the secretory glands and the major and minor salivary glands. The present study describes a case of a patient who presented with a posterior tongue lesion. The case is of a 71-year-old female with an asymptomatic volume growth of the posterior left tongue perceived 8 months prior, and neoplastic cells positive for c-kit. A computed tomography of the head and neck showed asymmetry of the base of the tongue, which was enlarged in the left portion. A physical examination revealed a nodule on the posterior left tongue of ~3 cm in diameter, while the cervical lymph node chain had a normal size and consistency. Surgical exeresis of the tongue lesion and cervical lymph node dissection were performed. Subsequent to surgical removal of the cancer cells and adjuvant radiotherapy, the patient showed excellent health, although the follow-up remains in progress. ACC, one of the most biologically destructive tumors of the head and neck, is locally aggressive and gives rise to distant metastases. The tongue is the place of origin in 3.4–17.1% of cases. The treatment for ACC consists of primary surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. To prevent the risk for distant metastasis, it is necessary to remove the first echelon nodes and monitor the patient with a long-term follow-up. PMID:24959267

MESOLELLA, MASSIMO; LUCE, AMALIA; MARINO, ANNA; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; IENGO, MAURIZIO

2014-01-01

392

Changes in composition of whole saliva in patients with fissured tongue.  

PubMed

Both resting and paraffin-stimulated whole saliva were studied in 25 patients with fissured tongue and in their age and sex-matched healthy controls. The groups did not differ in dental or periodontal health. No significant differences were found between the groups in the salivary secretion rate, pH and buffer capacity, or in the frequency of lactobacilli and yeasts in saliva samples and scrapings from tongue surface. In patients with fissured tongue, unstimulated whole saliva displayed significantly elevated levels of sodium, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and all immunoglobulins (isotypes A, G and M) when compared with the controls. These changes most likely reflect the inflammation frequently seen in the biopsies of fissured tongue. No differences between the groups existed in the amounts of salivary potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphate, amylase and total protein. Our study shows that in patients with fissured tongue the salivary secretion and composition are normal. However, components from plasma and inflammatory cells are diagnostically elevated in the whole saliva samples of patients with fissured tongue when compared with the healthy controls. PMID:3868014

Kullaa-Mikkonen, A; Tenovuo, J; Sorvari, T

1985-12-01

393

Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

Soref, Cheryl M.

2015-01-01

394

Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2013-01-01

395

Effects of chlorhexidine on a tongue-flora microcosm and VSC production using an in vitro biofilm perfusion model.  

PubMed

An in vitro perfusion biofilm model, derived from tongue-scrape microflora removed from one individual, was employed to study sulfide biogenesis and the effects of repeated exposure to chlorhexidine (CHX). Volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) were measured using a carbon veil electrode within the biofilm and a halimeter for liquid and gas phase levels, respectively. The microflora of the perfusate and the biofilm were assessed by microbiological techniques and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to estimate diversity. Biofilms treated with a 1 mL pulse of 0.1% CHX twice a day for three days showed (1) a large reduction in viable count (>90% kill), (2) a (slow) reduction in the VSC production rate, consistent with the reduction in microbes rather than direct inhibitory effects on the biotransformation steps, and (3) a preferential reduction of strict anaerobes. Treated biofilms allowed to recover over 3-5 days showed a nominal amount of regrowth in some experiments, although population numbers were still well below those found in untreated controls. The microbiological composition of biofilms treated but allowed to recover was markedly different from the controls, with proportionally fewer strict anaerobes. Thus, CHX treatment caused detectable ecological shifts with consequent long-term effects on the response of the biofilm in terms of VSC generation, consistent with clinical observations. The model appears highly suited for testing the efficacy of putative anti-malodour or antimicrobial agents. PMID:21386192

Greenman, J; McKenzie, C; Saad, S; Wiegand, B; Zguris, J C

2008-12-01

396

Alkanolamine treating  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the chemistry, engineering and operational aspects of the primary and secondary amines utilized in syngas purification are explored. The gas treating chemistry is followed by the analysis of reactivity of chemicals involved with H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ which constitute main impurities in gas streams. Other topics discussed include - capacity versus corrosivity; heat of reaction; reboiler duty, metallurgy; chemical degradation of amines; solvent purification; hydrocarbon solubility; mercaptane removed; freezing point of amine solutions. 27 refs.

Butwell, K.F.; Kubek, D.J.; Sigmund, P.W.

1982-03-01

397

Effects of age and radiation treatment on function of extrinsic tongue muscles.  

PubMed

BackgroundRadiation treatment for head and neck cancer often results in difficulty swallowing. Muscle weakness and fibrosis have been identified clinically as possible etiologies for swallowing problems following radiation. Aging may compound the effects of radiation on swallowing because radiation-induced damage to muscles and other tissues critical for the oropharyngeal swallow is overlaid on a declining sensorimotor system. However, there have been no investigations of the manner in which aging and radiation treatment effects combine to impact tongue muscles, which are critical effectors of the oropharyngeal swallow.MethodsThirty-seven male Fisher 344/Brown Norway rats were divided into four groups; young adults (9 month old), old (32 months old), young radiation (9 months), and old radiation (32 months old). Two fractions of 11 Gy on consecutive days was delivered by external beam radiation to the ventral side of the rat¿s body over the anterior portion (20 X 30 mm area) of the anterior digastric muscle. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the effects of age and radiation and their interaction on muscle contractile properties. Post-hoc testing was completed using Fisher¿s least significant differences (LSD).ResultsRadiation was associated with a significant decrease in tongue force production and reduced speed of tongue muscle contraction. However, radiation treatment did not lead to muscle atrophy and fibrosis formation in the GG muscle. Radiation treatment did not exacerbate atrophic changes observed with aging, or lead to additional fibrosis formation in the GG muscle from that observed in the other groups.ConclusionsThe purpose of this research was to determine the effect of radiation on muscles of the tongue and to determine whether aging altered the extent of radiation injury to tongue muscles. Radiation was associated with a significant decrease in tongue force production and reduced speed of tongue muscle contraction, and the reduction in the speed of tongue muscle contraction was exacerbated in the aged-rat tongue. This work provides a foundation for future investigations of treatments for concurrent effects of aging and radiation on muscles of the tongue and swallowing. PMID:25472556

Russell, John A; Connor, Nadine P

2014-12-01

398

Sustained cortical and subcortical neuromodulation induced by electrical tongue stimulation  

PubMed Central

This pilot study aimed to show that information-free stimulation of the tongue can improve behavioral measures and induce sustained neuromodulation of the balance-processing network in individuals with balance dysfunction. Twelve balance-impaired subjects received one week of cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM). Before and after the week of stimulation, postural sway and fMRI activation were measured to monitor susceptibility to optic flow. Nine normal controls also underwent the postural sway and fMRI tests but did not receive CN-NINM. Results showed that before CN-NINM balance-impaired subjects swayed more than normal controls as expected (p?0.05), and that overall sway and susceptibility to optic flow decreased after CN-NINM (p?0.005 & p?0.05). fMRI showed upregulation of visual sensitivity to optic flow in balance-impaired subjects that decreased after CN-NINM. A region of interest analysis indicated that CN-NINM may induce neuromodulation by increasing activity within the dorsal pons (p?0.01). PMID:20614202

Tyler, Mitchell E.; Danilov, Yuri P.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Meyerand, Mary E.

2010-01-01

399

Beer classification by means of a potentiometric electronic tongue.  

PubMed

In this work, an electronic tongue (ET) system based on an array of potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for the discrimination of different commercial beer types is presented. The array was formed by 21 ISEs combining both cationic and anionic sensors with others with generic response. For this purpose beer samples were analyzed with the ET without any pretreatment rather than the smooth agitation of the samples with a magnetic stirrer in order to reduce the foaming of samples, which could interfere into the measurements. Then, the obtained responses were evaluated using two different pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed identifying some initial patterns, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in order to achieve the correct recognition of sample varieties (81.9% accuracy). In the case of LDA, a stepwise inclusion method for variable selection based on Mahalanobis distance criteria was used to select the most discriminating variables. In this respect, the results showed that the use of supervised pattern recognition methods such as LDA is a good alternative for the resolution of complex identification situations. In addition, in order to show an ET quantitative application, beer alcohol content was predicted from the array data employing an artificial neural network model (root mean square error for testing subset was 0.131 abv). PMID:23870992

Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Calvo, Daniel; del Valle, Manel

2013-12-01

400

Modified Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and Coblation Channeling of the Tongue for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Multi-Centre Australian Trial  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the surgical outcomes and efficacy of modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (mod UPPP) and Coblation channelling of the tongue (CCT) as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Adult patients with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea were treated with combined modified UPPP, bilateral tonsillectomy, and CCT (N = 48). Full polysomnography was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Postoperative clinical assessment, sleep questionnaires, and patient demographics including body mass index were compared to preoperative data. All polysomnograms were re-scored to AASM recommended criteria by 2 sleep professionals. Results: The preoperative AHI (median and interquartile range) of 23.1 (10.4 to 36.6) was lowered to a postoperative AHI of 5.6 (1.9 to 10.4) (p < 0.05). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score fell from 10.5 (5.5 to 13.5) to 5.0 (3.09 to 9.5) (p < 0.05). Morbidity of the surgery was low, with no long-term complications recorded. Conclusions: Modified UPPP combined with CCT is a highly efficacious intervention for OSA with minimal morbidity. It should be considered for individuals who fail or are intolerant of CPAP or other medical devices. Citation: MacKay SG; Carney AS; Woods C; Antic N; McEvoy RD; Chia M; Sands T; Jones A; Hobson J; Robinson S. Modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and coblation channeling of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea: a multi-centre australian trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):117–124. PMID:23372463

MacKay, Stuart G.; Carney, A. Simon; Woods, Charmaine; Antic, Nick; McEvoy, R. Doug; Chia, Michael; Sands, Terry; Jones, Andrew; Hobson, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel

2013-01-01

401

Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

402

In vitro genotoxicity of ethanol and acetaldehyde in human lymphocytes and the gastrointestinal tract mucosa cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ethanol and acetaldehyde on DNA in human lymphocytes, gastric mucosa (GM) and colonic mucosa (CM) was investigated by using the comet assay. All kinds of cells were exposed to ethanol and acetaldehyde in two regimens: the cells were incubated with either chemical and analysed or they were exposed first to ethanol, washed and then exposed to acetaldehyde

J Blasiak; A Trzeciak; E Malecka-Panas; J Drzewoski; M Wojewódzka

2000-01-01

403

Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

2003-01-01

404

Effect of intermittent acid and pepsin exposure on burned esophageal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine if gastroesophageal reflux affects the healing of esophageal mucosa damaged by alkaline substances.Materials and Methods: In a rabbit model, the effects of intermittent acid and pepsin exposure (thereby mimicking gastroesophageal reflux) on post-caustic-burn esophageal mucosa were examined. Exposures were group I (n = 9), sodium hydroxide exposure alone; group II (n = 9), daily acid and pepsin

Anna H. Messner; J. Dale Browne; Kim R. Geisinger

1996-01-01

405

FattyAcid-stimulated Oxidationof Methylazoxymethanol by RatColonie Mucosa1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined fatty acid-initiated metabolism of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) to formaldehyde (HCHO) by the 10,000 x g soluble fraction of rat colonie mucosa, and the role of prostaglandin synthase and lipoxygenase activities in mediat ing this process. Incubation of MAM with soluble fractions of rat colonie mucosa, in the absence of arachidonate, resulted in significant HCHO production compared to

Patricia A. Craven; Martin Neidig; Frederick R. DeRubertis

406

Neoplastic transformation of the pelvic pouch mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) receiving an ileal pelvic pouch with ileoanal anastomosis (IPAA) develop persistent severe villous atrophy in the pouch mucosa. To investigate if mucosal atrophy indicates a risk for subsequent neoplastic transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa, a follow-up study was undertaken. METHODS: Seven patients with UC and an IPAA in whom persistent

K Gullberg; D Stahlberg; L Liljeqvist; B Tribukait; FP Reinholt; B Veress; R Lofberg

1997-01-01

407

Adhesion of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to pediatric intestinal mucosa in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Organ cultures of small- and large-intestinal mucosa from children were used to examine the interactions of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) with human intestine. Mucosae from patients aged between 3 and 190 months were cultured with five EAEC strains isolated from infants with diarrhea in the United Kingdom and with two well-described prototype EAEC strains, 17-2 and 221. The prototype strains adhered to jejunal, ileal, and colonic mucosae. The wild-type strains also adhered to this tissue but showed a variable pattern of adhesion: two adhered to all intestinal levels, one adhered to jejunum and ileum, one adhered to ileum only, and one adhered to ileum and colon. Adherence was in an aggregative or stacked-brick pattern, resembling that seen on HEp-2 cells. Electron microscopy of infected small intestinal mucosa revealed bacteria in association with a thick mucus layer above an intact enterocyte brush border, which contained extruded cell fragments. This mucus layer was not present on controls. EAEC adherence to colonic mucosa was associated with cytotoxic effects including microvillous vesiculation (but without evidence of an attaching/effacing lesion), enlarged crypt openings, the presence of intercrypt crevices, and increased epithelial cell extrusion. These results demonstrate that in vitro organ culture of intestinal mucosa from children can be used to investigate EAEC pathogenesis in childhood directly. EAEC strains appear able to colonize many regions of the gastrointestinal tract, without overt changes to small intestinal mucosa but with cytotoxic effects on colonic mucosa. PMID:8890236

Hicks, S; Candy, D C; Phillips, A D

1996-01-01

408

Interrelationship between colonic muscularis mucosae activity and changes in transmucosal potential difference.  

PubMed

This in vitro study investigated the relationship between rabbit colonic muscularis mucosae motor activity and changes in transmucosal potential difference. Spontaneous muscle contractions and potential difference oscillations occurred independently and were not neurally driven. ACh and histamine directly stimulated the muscularis mucosae, but their mucosal effects were largely indirect, suggesting that muscularis mucosae contractions promote epithelial secretion. 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium iodide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide induced large potential difference changes but small muscularis mucosae contractions, demonstrating mucosal secretion without significant muscle activity. Lowered intraluminal pH directly stimulated the muscle, whereas a bile salt-lipid mixture evoked TTX- and atropine-sensitive increases in its contractile activity. Increased intraluminal pressure and hypertonic luminal perfusion did not elicit muscularis mucosae excitation. Thus under basal conditions muscle and mucosal activities are independent, but evoked muscularis mucosae contractions can stimulate epithelial secretion. In response to specific luminal stimuli, muscularis mucosae motor activity is increased via the activation of cholinergic nerves. These data suggest that muscularis mucosae and mucosal functions are physiologically linked and that their activities can be coordinated by multiple mechanisms. PMID:11447028

Percy, W H; Brunz, J T; Burgers, R E; Fromm, T H; Merkwan, C L; van Dis, J

2001-08-01

409

Oral Diseases / Review Oral mucosa lesions in hypereosinophilic syndrome: an update  

E-print Network

: Hypereosinophilic syndrome and oral ulcers Keywords: hypereosinophilic syndrome, oral ulcers, myeloproliferative. Oral mucosa ulcerations can be early clinical signs in severe forms. They are discrete, round or oval, sometimes confluent ulcers or erosions, located on non-keratinized, unattached oral mucosa. In the last

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Tongue forces and handgrip strength in normal individuals: association with swallowing  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate tongue force and grip strength measures and to verify the association of these measures with water swallowing in different age groups. METHOD: Tongue force was evaluated using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and grip strength using the Hand Grip in 90 normal individuals, who were divided into three groups: young (18-39 years old), adult (40-59 years old) and elderly (above 60 years old) individuals. The time and number of swallows required for the continuous ingestion of 200 ml of water were also measured. RESULTS: A reduction in tongue force and grip strength, as well as an increase in the time required to drink 200 ml of water, were observed with increasing participant age. There was no difference in the number of swallows among the three groups. A correlation was observed between reductions in tongue force and grip strength in the groups of young and elderly individuals. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the measures of tongue force in young, adult and elderly individuals. Greater variations within these differences were observed when repeated movements were performed; in addition, a decrease in strength was associated with an increase in age. The decrease in tongue force among the elderly was offset by the increase in time needed to swallow the liquid. There was an association between the measures of tongue force and grip strength in the different age groups. The results of this study can be applied clinically and may act as a basis for guidelines in healthy or vulnerable elderly populations. PMID:25672428

Mendes, Amanda Elias; Nascimento, Liz; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Filho, Wilson Jacob

2015-01-01

411

Three-dimensional image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer  

PubMed Central

To investigate the influence of a 3D image-based treatment-planning method for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer, we analyzed dose–volume histogram results for the clinical target volume (CTV) and the mandible. Between October 2010 and November 2011, one and four patients having T2 and T3 tumors, respectively, were treated with HDR-ISBT. Multiplane implantation using 9–15 treatment applicators was performed. Lugol's iodine staining, metal markers, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to identify the contours of the gross tumor volume (defined as the CTV). The results of the image-based treatment plan were compared with those of the conventional simulated plan on the basis of a reference point 5 mm from the applicator position. The mean D90(CTV) and V100(CTV) were 112% of the prescribed dose (PD) and 98.1%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 113%PD and 97.2%PD, respectively, for the conventional plan. The median CTVref/Vref was 0.23 for the image-based plan and 0.16 for the conventional plan (P = 0.01). The mean D0.1 cm3 (mandible), D1 cm3 (mandible), and D2 cm3 (mandible) were 80.1%PD, 62.5%PD, and 55.7%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 109.1%PD (P = 0.02), 82.4%PD (P = 0.005), and 74%PD (P = 0.004), respectively, for the conventional plan). Image-based treatment planning may achieve high-conformity radiotherapy for the CTV and decrease irradiated doses to the mandible. PMID:23732769

Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi; Akiyama, Hironori; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Mineo; Masui, Koji; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Baek, SungJae; Uesugi, Yasuo; Shimbo, Taiju; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Arika, Takumi; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Eiichi

2014-01-01

412

Three-dimensional image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of a 3D image-based treatment-planning method for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer, we analyzed dose-volume histogram results for the clinical target volume (CTV) and the mandible. Between October 2010 and November 2011, one and four patients having T2 and T3 tumors, respectively, were treated with HDR-ISBT. Multiplane implantation using 9-15 treatment applicators was performed. Lugol's iodine staining, metal markers, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to identify the contours of the gross tumor volume (defined as the CTV). The results of the image-based treatment plan were compared with those of the conventional simulated plan on the basis of a reference point 5 mm from the applicator position. The mean D90(CTV) and V100(CTV) were 112% of the prescribed dose (PD) and 98.1%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 113%PD and 97.2%PD, respectively, for the conventional plan. The median CTVref/Vref was 0.23 for the image-based plan and 0.16 for the conventional plan (P = 0.01). The mean D0.1 cm(3) (mandible), D1 cm(3) (mandible), and D2 cm(3) (mandible) were 80.1%PD, 62.5%PD, and 55.7%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 109.1%PD (P = 0.02), 82.4%PD (P = 0.005), and 74%PD (P = 0.004), respectively, for the conventional plan). Image-based treatment planning may achieve high-conformity radiotherapy for the CTV and decrease irradiated doses to the mandible. PMID:23732769

Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi; Akiyama, Hironori; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Mineo; Masui, Koji; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Baek, Sungjae; Uesugi, Yasuo; Shimbo, Taiju; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Arika, Takumi; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Eiichi

2014-01-01

413

Epithelioid hemangioma (angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia) in the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with an eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare benign entity whose etiology and pathogenesis is under debate. Clinically, it is characterised by cutaneous papules or nodules on the head and neck. Literature reveals very few cases of this entity in the oral mucosa. Here, we report a case of ALHE in a 25 year-old woman, who presented with a painless, 5mm x 5mm, sub mucosal erythematous nodule on left angle of mouth at lower lip. Histological examination of lip biopsy specimens revealed an increase in small vessels. The vascular walls consist of prominent endothelial cells with a histiocytoid appearance, which protruded into the lumen. Many eosinophils and lymphocytes were also seen around the vessels. The diagnosis of ALHE was made from the above findings. PMID:22945722

Aggarwal, Anshul; Keluskar, Vaishali

2012-01-01

414

Effect of dietary fat on the small intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed Central

The presence of food within the small intestinal lumen promotes mucosal cell proliferation. To define the trophic role of triglycerides, three groups of eight female Wistar rats were isocalorically fed for four weeks with either Vivonex, or Vivonex with 50% calorie substitution with an essential fatty acid mixture, or Vivonex with 50% calorie substitution with a saturated fatty acid mixture. Although Vivonex caused greater body weight gain, both essential fatty acids and saturated fatty acids increased small intestinal weight, mucosal weight, protein and DNA overall, and in each of three intestinal segments (proximal, middle and distal), compared with Vivonex. Mucosal indices were similar for essential fatty acids and saturated fatty acids. These results show that triglycerides, regardless of essential fatty acid content, are trophic to the rat small intestinal mucosa. PMID:2806993

Maxton, D G; Cynk, E U; Jenkins, A P; Thompson, R P

1989-01-01

415

Neurosecretory effect of ouabain on isolated rabbit ileal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Ouabain, when added to fluid bathing rabbit ileal mucosa mounted in a flux chamber, transiently increases short circuit current, implying a paradoxical secretory response. To determine the cause of this change, the authors studied unidirectional fluxes of /sup 36/Cl and /sup 23/Na and the effects of ion substitution, of reduced Ca concentration, verapamil, tetrodotoxin and atropine. Ouabain 0.1 mM, transiently increased the serosal to mucosal flux of Cl and Na, increased Isc and PD and reduced ion conductance. The Isc response to ouabain was diminished by reducing the bath fluid concentration of CL, of Ca, and by adding verapamil. Tetrodotoxin both delayed and reduced the maximal Isc response; atropine had no effect. They conclude that ouabain acts by releasing a neurotransmitter of unknown identity and by increasing the serosal to mucosal flux to Cl.

Hubel, K.A.; Renquist, K.S.

1988-01-01

416

Cell proliferation of pericryptal fibroblasts in the rat colon mucosa.  

PubMed Central

The turnover of pericryptal fibroblasts in the rat colon mucosa was analysed after in vivo incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Thirty-six rats were serially killed one hour to 21 days after intraperitoneal injection of the radionuclide. At one hour, the labelling index of pericryptal fibroblasts was only 2.44%; labelled fibroblasts were slightly predominant along the lower two-thirds of the crypts. Within 24 hours, most underwent at least one cell division. No migration was observed and a significant proportion of labelled fibroblasts was still present after three weeks. It is concluded that those fibroblasts constitute a slowly renewing cell population. The data failed to confirm the hypothesis of an 'en bloc' migration of fibroblasts in synchrony with the epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 PMID:499917

Maskens, A P; Rahier, J R; Meersseman, F P; Dujardin-Loits, R M; Haot, J G

1979-01-01

417

Gastric mucosa analysis using speckle patterns: a medical diagnosis alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speckle techniques have been extensively employed in biomedical applications. It has been shown, that these non invasive optical techniques are useful to discriminate healthy tissues from those presenting some type of pathology. In this work we analyze speckle patterns from histological samples of gastric mucosa obtained by means of digestive endoscopies with three different histopathological confirmed diagnoses: atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia. We studied biopsies from 27 patients and formed groups following the corresponding speckle contrast features. Three different groups according to the speckle contrast were established: higher for intestinal metaplasia, intermediate for gastric dysplasia and low for gastric atrophy. The comparison with histopathology shows a high value of concordance between both tests, making this methodology emerges as a possible new classification system for qualitative and quantitative gastric biopsy using optical techniques.

Andrade Eraso, Carlos Augusto; Patiño Velasco, Mario Milver; Vásquez Lopez, Jairo Alfonso; Tellez, Jaury Leon; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo

2011-08-01

418

NEW CONCEPTS OF NEURAL REGULATION IN HUMAN NASAL MUCOSA  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

2014-01-01

419

Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

2004-06-30

420

The maintenance of rat palatal mucosa in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was maintained under organ culture conditions in a chemically defined medium for periods up to 28 days. The histological state of the cultured palatal mucosa was compared with that of control tissue from growing animals of comparable age. The control tissues showed an increase in epithelial thickness, first noticeable at 17 days. Whilst the general structure of the tissues in organ culture was preserved for the duration of the experiment, some changes in epithelial behavior were evident. There was an increase in epithelial thickness up to 6 days, followed by a reduction in the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium to a thickness comparable with that at the start of the experiment. There was a loss of epithelial glycogen within the first day, with occasional reappearance of patchy and irregular deposits. Whereas the control of epithelial thickness appeared to be restored after 10 days in vitro, disturbances in the maturation of the keratinocytes, manifested as epithelial pearls and dyskeratotic cells, were evident at subsequent stages. Epiboly never occurred. The connective tissue component showed continued development, indicated by an increase in the thickness of collagen fibres. The overall palatal growth seen in vivo did not occur in organ culture. We suggest that the improved maintenance reported is partly the result of explanting tissues in such a way as to minimize trauma, and partly the result of incorporating serum albumin into the chemically defined medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1010792

Hill, M W; Miles, A E

1976-01-01

421

Characteristics of the gastric mucosa in patients with intestinal metaplasia.  

PubMed

Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) occurs in response to different injuries, some of which involve increased risk for gastric cancer, whereas others may not. The background in which IM arises has not been systematically investigated. This study was designed to determine the relative prevalence of the histopathologic conditions of the gastric mucosa associated with IM in a large cohort. We extracted from a database patients who had undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy with gastric biopsies between January 2008 and December 2013 in endoscopy centers throughout the United States. For each subject we recorded demographic, clinical, and histopathologic information. We stratified patients according to the presence of IM and compared the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, reactive gastropathy, minimal inflammatory and gastropathy changes, mucosal atrophy, gastric polyps, cancer, and lymphoma in the 2 groups. IM, present in 8.4% of the 810,821 unique patients, increased with age and was more common in male than in female individuals. Compared with other Americans, East Asian ancestry was associated with a 5-fold risk for IM. Helicobacter gastritis and its sequelae were present in 42.2% of patients with IM, and reactive gastropathy in 17.3%. In >50% of patients under the age of 30 and in 26% of older adults, foci of IM occurred in an almost normal gastric mucosa. Thus, approximately half of the patients with IM had no histopathologic evidence of current or previous Helicobacter gastritis, whereas almost one fifth had a background of reactive gastropathy. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the relative risk for gastric cancer in patients with IM associated and not with Helicobacter infection. PMID:25602799

Genta, Robert M; Sonnenberg, Amnon

2015-05-01

422

Gliadin activates mucosal cell mediated immunity in cultured rectal mucosa from coeliac patients and a subset of their siblings  

PubMed Central

Background—CD3 and ?? cells in the rectal mucosa increase after local instillation of gluten in children with coeliac disease and in half of their siblings. ?Aim—To establish an in vitro system for assessing immunological changes induced by gluten in the rectum. ?Patients and Methods—Rectal biopsy specimens obtained from 13 treated coeliac children, nine of their siblings, and nine controls were cultured in vitro with a peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin or ovalbumin. CD3 and CD25 cells were counted, and the expression of adhesion molecules evaluated. ?Results—In the lamina propria of coeliac biopsy samples cultured with gliadin, but not in those from controls, the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was enhanced, and the number of CD25 cells was significantly higher than in those cultured in medium alone; the density of intraepithelial CD3 cells was also significantly higher. No differences were noted in coeliac biopsy specimens cultured with ovalbumin. A discriminant analysis allowed correct classification of all controls and all coeliacs but one, but three of nine siblings were allocated to the coeliac group. ?Conclusions—Our data confirm that gliadin is able to activate cell mediated immunity in the rectal mucosa in coeliac patients and in a subset of their first degree relatives. ?? Keywords: coeliac disease; gliadin; rectum; organ culture; mucosal immunity PMID:9824574

Troncone, R; Mazzarella, G; Leone, N; Mayer, M; De Vincenzi, M; Greco, L; Auricchio, S

1998-01-01

423

Photodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer and elastic scattering spectroscopy of the duodenal mucosa for the detection of pancreaticobiliary malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnosis and treatment of pancreaticobiliary malignancy is of major interest to our group. Building on prior work, we undertook a phase I study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, pancreatic cancer. We also initiated an optical diagnostic study using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) of the normal-appearing periampullary duodenal mucosa in vivo to investigate the hypothesis of a field effect in pancreaticobiliary malignancy. In a phase I dose escalation study, patients were treated with interstitial verteporfin PDT via a single fibre, to determine its general safety profile and the optimum treatment parameters needed to achieve effective and safe necrosis of tumour, With increasing light doses, there was a linear increase in the extent of tumour necrosis around the fibre, without serious adverse events. Follow-on studies using multiple fibres are planned. In 30 patients with benign or malignant pancreaticobiliary disease undergoing clinically-indicated endoscopy, ESS spectra were collected from the normal-appearing duodenum and antrum and a diagnostic algorithm generated by principle component and linear discriminant analysis. Pooled data from duodenal sites distal to the ampulla gave a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 72% (82% AUC) for the detection of malignancy, whereas those from the periampullary region had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 61% (72% AUC); antral measurements were not able to discriminate with such accuracy. These early results suggest that ESS of the duodenal mucosa could represent a novel minimally invasive diagnostic test for pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

Huggett, M. T.; Baddeley, R. N. B.; Sandanayake, N. S.; Webster, G. J. M.; Bown, S. G.; Lovat, L. B.; Gillams, A.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

2011-02-01

424

White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

2004-01-01

425

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.  

PubMed

In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100). PMID:24106763

Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2013-10-01

426

Tongue-palate contact during selected vowels in children with speech sound disorders.  

PubMed

There is evidence that complete tongue-palate contact across the palate during production of vowels can be observed in some children with speech disorders associated with cleft palate in the English-speaking and Japanese-speaking populations. Although it has been shown that this is not a feature of typical vowel articulation in English-speaking adults, tongue-palate contact during vowel production in typical children and English-speaking children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have not been reported in detail. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether complete tongue-palate contact occurs during production of five selected vowels in 10 children with SSD and eight typically-developing children. The results showed that none of the typical children had complete contact across the palate during any of the vowels. However, of the 119 vowels produced by the children with SSD, 24% showed complete contact across the palate during at least a portion of the vowel segment. The results from the typically-developing children suggest that complete tongue-palate contact is an atypical articulatory feature. However, the evidence suggests that this pattern occurs relatively frequently in children with SSD. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence, cause, and perceptual consequence of complete tongue-palate contact. PMID:24345004

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; Kearney, Elaine; Murphy, Doris

2014-12-01

427

Form perception with a 49-point electrotactile stimulus array on the tongue: a technical note.  

PubMed

Form perception with the tongue was studied with a 49-point electrotactile array. Five sighted adult human subjects (3M/2F) each received 4 blocks of 12 tactile patterns, approximations of circles, squares, and vertex-up equilateral triangles, sized to 4x4, 5x5, 6x6, and 7x7 electrode arrays. Perception with electrical stimulation of the tongue is better than with fingertip electrotactile stimulation, and the tongue requires 3% (5-15 V) of the voltage. The mean current for tongue subjects was 1.612 mA. Tongue shape recognition performance across all sizes was 79.8%. The approximate dimensions of the electrotactile array and the dimensions of compartments built into dental retainers have been determined. The goal is to develop a practical, cosmetically acceptable, wireless system for blind persons, with a miniature TV camera, microelectronics, and FM transmitter built into a pair of glasses, and the electrotactile array in a dental orthodontic retainer. PMID:10220221

Bach-y-Rita, P; Kaczmarek, K A; Tyler, M E; Garcia-Lara, J

1998-10-01

428

[Development of spectrometer for tongue diagnosis based on plane holography concave grating].  

PubMed

The traditional tongue inspection method should be urgently improved due to the relative large diagnosis error probability caused by the excessive dependence on the Chinese physician's experience and judgment. But the application of tongue diagnosis based on image processing is limited by some factors including the performance of light source, image acquisition device and the low recognition rate of similar color for different diseases. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the spectroscopy method was employed to analyze the tongue by using the unique fingerprint effect of tongue spectrum. A spectrometer for tongue diagnosis (STD) was developed to achieve this goal in this paper. Meanwhile, to overcome the shortcomings of traditional light-splitting devices, a plane holographic concave grating was used as the diffractive grating, which not only can improve the luminous flux efficiency and miniaturize system, but also improve the spectral imaging quality and resolution. Experimental results demonstrated that the spectral range of STD reached 340-850 nm, and its spectral resolution is better than 2 nm. And the result of simulation experiment validated the feasibility of spectrometer's system. PMID:24369678

Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guo-dong; Huang, Zhen

2013-09-01

429

Prognostic significance of Flotillin1 expression in clinically N0 tongue squamous cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of Flotillin1 (FLOT1) in clinically N0 tongue squamous cell cancer (cN0 TSCC). Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses were carried out to examine FLOT1 expression in four tongue squamous cell cancer cell lines, primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells, and eight matched pairs of oral tongue cancer samples and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine FLOT1 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 181 cN0 TSCC patients. Statistical analyses evaluated the diagnostic value and the associations of FLOT1 expression with clinical parameters. Results: FLOT1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in tongue squamous cell cancer cell lines and cancerous tissues compared with that in TEC and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. The level of FLOT1 protein was positively correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.001), T classification (P = 0.009), N classification (P = 0.001) and recurrence (P = 0.018). Patients with higher FLOT1 expression had shorter overall survival times. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overexpression of FLOT1 can be found in patients with higher pathological stage, T classification, N classification or recurrence. FLOT1 expression is associated with cN0 TSCC progression and may be valuable for the prognostic evaluation of cN0 TSCC. PMID:24695539

Li, Huan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Shu-Wei; Li, Feng-Jiao; Zhuang, Shi-Min; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Ji; Song, Ming

2014-01-01

430

Determining functional units of tongue motion via graph-regularized sparse non-negative matrix factorization.  

PubMed

Tongue motion during speech and swallowing involves synergies of locally deforming regions, or functional units. Motion clustering during tongue motion can be used to reveal the tongue's intrinsic functional organization. A novel matrix factorization and clustering method for tissues tracked using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI) is presented. Functional units are estimated using a graph-regularized sparse non-negative matrix factorization framework, learning latent building blocks and the corresponding weighting map from motion features derived from tissue displacements. Spectral clustering using the weighting map is then performed to determine the coherent regions--i.e., functional units--efined by the tongue motion. Two-dimensional image data is used to ver-fy that the proposed algorithm clusters the different types of images ac-urately. Three-dimensional tMRI data from five subjects carrying out simple non-speech/speech tasks are analyzed to show how the proposed approach defines a subject/task-specific functional parcellation of the tongue in localized regions. PMID:25485373

Woo, Jonghye; Xing, Fangxu; Lee, Junghoon; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

2014-01-01

431

A Cochrane systematic review finds tongue scrapers have short-term efficacy in controlling halitosis.  

PubMed

The Cochrane systematic review promotes evidence-based outcome studies. This review was conducted to determine reliable evidence concerning the effectiveness of tongue scraping or cleaning, compared with other interventions for controlling halitosis. A competent search strategy was developed and used across several databases--including the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar--to identify randomized controlled trials that compared different methods of tongue cleaning to reduce mouth odor in adults with halitosis. Methodological quality of studies was assessed based on criteria defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. Clinical outcome (expressed in terms of a reduction in mouth odor in adults with halitosis) was examined. The review included two trials involving a total of 40 participants. Based on the independent data from these two trials, the tongue cleaner or the tongue scraper demonstrated a statistically significant difference in reducing levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) when compared with the toothbrush. The findings indicate a small but statistically significant difference in reduction of VSC levels when tongue scrapers or cleaners, rather than toothbrushes, are used to reduce halitosis in adults. PMID:17004573

Outhouse, Trent L; Fedorowicz, Zbigniew; Keenan, James V; Al-Alawi, Rashad

2006-01-01

432

Role of neutrophilic elastase in ethanol induced injury to the gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Intragastric administration of ethanol (at concentrations likely to be encountered by the mucosa during acute intoxication) produces gastritis. Recent studies have implicated neutrophils in the gastric mucosal injury induced by luminal ethanol. The objective of the present study was to assess whether neutrophilic elastase contributes to the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented for perfusion of the gastric lumen with saline or ethanol. Mucosal injury was quantitated by continuously measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The experimental protocol consisted of a 40 minute control period (saline perfusion) followed by three successive 40 minute experimental periods (ethanol perfusion). During the three experimental periods the concentration of ethanol was progressively increased to 10, 20, and 30%. The experiments were performed in untreated animals and in animals pretreated with either Eglin c (an inhibitor of elastase and cathepsin G activity) or L 658 (a specific inhibitor of elastase activity). The effects of ethanol on EDTA clearance (x control) in untreated (n = 9) and L658 treated (n = 5) animals are shown in the Table below. Pretreatment with L 658 significantly attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in EDTA clearance. Pretreatment with Eglin c (n = 6) also provided some protection against ethanol-induced injury, but not to the extent as that provided by L658. The results of the authors studies suggest that neutrophilic elastase contributes to a gastric mucosal injury induced by luminal perfusion of the stomach with physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol.

Kvietys, P.R.; Carter, P.R. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport (United States))

1990-02-26

433

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach: results of a controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Treatment of patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) remains undefined. We began a controlled clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the most common therapies. Two hundred and forty-one patients with gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma in early stage (IE and IIE) were randomized to surgery (80 cases), radiotherapy (78 cases), and chemotherapy (83 cases). With a median follow-up of 7.5 yr, actuarial curves at 10 yr showed that event-free survival was 52% in patients treated with surgery, 52% in radiotherapy arm, and 87% in the chemotherapy group (p < 0.01). However, overall survival did not showed any statistical differences: 80%, 75% and 87%, respectively (p = 0.4). Acute and late toxicities were mild. No death-related treatments were observed. No clear differences were observed between the most common therapies in patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma in early stages, probably because this type of lymphoma has an high response rate to salvage treatment after failure to local treatment (surgery and radiotherapy). Thus considered, chemotherapy alone is an effective and safe therapeutic approach in this setting of patients. Surgery or radiotherapy will be reserved to patients that are not candidates for chemotherapy. PMID:15750197

Avilés, Agustin; Nambo, María Jesús; Neri, Natividad; Talavera, Alejandra; Cleto, Sergio

2005-01-01

434

Enhanced production of interleukin 1-beta by mononuclear cells isolated from mucosa with active ulcerative colitis of Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells isolated from normal and active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa was studied. Significantly more IL1-beta was produced spontaneously by mononuclear cells from the inflamed mucosa compared with those from normal colonic mucosa (median 190 pg\\/ml (range 45-700) v 20 pg\\/ml (0-165)). Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide enhanced IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells from active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa

Y R Mahida; K Wu; D P Jewell

1989-01-01

435

In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa.  

PubMed

It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal r