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Sample records for tongue mucosa treated

  1. Biomonitoring of oral epithelial cells in petrol station attendants: comparison between buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A da Silva; Aguiar, Odair; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2009-10-01

    Owing to the influence of geno- and cytotoxicity on chemical carcinogenesis, studies have demonstrated that petroleum derivatives are able to induce genetic damage and cellular death with conflicting results so far. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants using two different anatomic buccal sites: cheek mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. A total of 23 gas petrol attendants and 23 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek and lateral border of the tongue mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p<0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants for both oral sites evaluated. In the same way, petroleum derivate exposure was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis, being the most pronunciated effects as those found in the lateral border of the tongue. No interaction was observed between smoking and petroleum exposure. In summary, these data indicate that gas petrol attendants comprise a high risk group for DNA damage and cellular death. It seems that the lateral border of the tongue is a more sensitive site to geno- and cytotoxic insult induced by petroleum derivates. PMID:19559482

  2. Tongue function in patients treated for malignancies in tongue and/or floor of mouth; a one year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, C M; van der Bilt, A; van der Glas, H W; Koole, R; Merkx, M A W

    2011-12-01

    Progress in (reconstructive) surgery and radiotherapy tends to improve survival and reduce oral functional deficits. Despite the growing sophistication of cancer treatment, patients still report deterioration in tongue function. Sensory function, mobility, and force of the tongue were determined in 45 patients with a carcinoma of tongue and/or floor of mouth. Measurements were performed before surgery, shortly after surgery, shortly after radiotherapy, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Surgery had a negative impact on tongue sensory function and mobility. Post-surgery radiotherapy did not further deteriorate sensory function, mobility, or force of the tongue. Patients in the surgery-radiotherapy group (SRG) had significantly worse tongue sensory function and mobility than patients in the surgery group (SG), probably caused by more advanced tumour stage and more extensive reconstructions and related scar tissue. The tongue force in patients in both groups significantly increased in the first 6 months after surgery, but this increase disappeared in the next 6 months. The authors conclude that surgery had a significant negative influence on tongue function, especially in the group of patients treated with radiotherapy. No further deterioration of tongue function was observed after post-surgical radiotherapy within the first year after surgery. PMID:22000956

  3. Cytokine mRNA expression in the mucosa of treated coeliac patients after wheat peptide challenge.

    PubMed

    Kontakou, M; Przemioslo, R T; Sturgess, R P; Limb, G A; Ellis, H J; Day, P; Ciclitira, P J

    1995-07-01

    This study investigated the presence of mRNA coding for interferon gamma (IFN gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and interleukins 2 (IL2) and 6 (IL6), in the mucosa of four coeliac patients in remission who had been challenged with either gliadin or synthetic gliadin oligopeptides. Jejunal biopsy specimens from these patients, taken before and at two, four, and six hours after challenge, were hybridised with specific 35S-labelled DNA oligonucleotide probes. The lamina propria of all the patients contained significantly increased numbers of cytokine mRNA expressing cells four hours after challenge with gliadin or an oligopeptide corresponding to amino acids 31-49 of A-gliadin (peptide A). No significant changes were seen with the peptides corresponding to aminoacids 202-220 (peptide B) or 3-21 (peptide C) of A-gliadin, with the exception of one patient who showed a significant increase in the number of TNF alpha mRNA expressing cells four hours after challenge with peptide B. In vivo studies in coeliac disease have shown that significant histological changes occur in the mucosa of treated coeliac patients four hours after challenge with either gliadin or peptide A. These findings suggest that the histological changes seen previously in the mucosa of coeliac patients after wheat peptide challenge may be caused by increased expression of cytokines within the mucosa. PMID:7672681

  4. Involvement of peripheral artemin signaling in tongue pain: possible mechanism in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Takeda, Mamoru; Honda, Kuniya; Maruno, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Ayano; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely tongue pain hypersensitivity. We found that the mRNA expression of Artemin (Artn) in the tongue mucosa of patients with burning mouth syndrome was significantly higher than that of control subjects, and we developed a mouse model of burning mouth syndrome by application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) diluted with 50% ethanol to the dorsum of the tongue. TNBS treatment to the tongue induced persistent, week-long, noninflammatory tongue pain and a significant increase in Artn expression in the tongue mucosa and marked tongue heat hyperalgesia. Following TNBS treatment, the successive administration of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 or neutralizing anti-Artn antibody completely inhibited the heat hyperalgesia. The number of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor ?3 (GFR?3)-positive and TRPV1-positive trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the tongue significantly increased following TNBS treatment and was significantly reduced by successive administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody. The capsaicin-induced current in TG neurons innervating the tongue was enhanced following TNBS treatment and was inhibited by local administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody to the tongue. These results suggest that the overexpression of Artn in the TNBS-treated tongue increases the membrane excitability of TG neurons innervating the tongue by increasing TRPV1 sensitivity, which causes heat hyperalgesia. This model may be useful for the study of tongue pain hypersensitivity associated with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:26270588

  5. Resolution of tongue lesions caused by Leishmania infantum in a dog treated with the association miltefosine-allopurinol

    PubMed Central

    Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Paparcone, Rosa; Cappiello, Silvia; De Santo, Roberta; Bianciardi, Paolo; Oliva, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a severe systemic disease caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Leishmania infantum, an obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages, transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies. The infection in dogs might occur without any clinical signs or might be characterised by chronic viscerocutaneous signs, such as lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, splenomegaly, onychogryphosis, and renal as well as ocular damage due to immunocomplex deposition. In atypical cases the parasites can be found in the striated musculature, the central nervous system, the endocrine glands or gonads, with or without functional damage. Leishmania infection might seldom induce oral lesions, particularly on the tongue. The authors describe the clinical case of a four-year old mongrel dog with tongue lesions caused by L. infantum. The dog was presented due to diarrhoea, lack of appetite and hypersalivation. Examination of the oral cavity revealed the presence of multiple red, nodular lesions on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue. Definite diagnosis of an infection with L. infantum was obtained by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by the cytological identification of the parasite in nodular, lingual lesions and bone marrow aspirates. The dog was treated with a combination of miltefosine (Milteforan®, Virbac), 2 mg/kg orally once a day for four weeks and allopurinol (Ziloric®, GlaxoSmithKline), 10 mg/kg orally twice a day for six months. At the end of the treatment, the animal showed full remission of clinical signs. The authors outline the atypical manifestations in the oral cavity in combination with a L. infantum infection and discuss the therapeutic potential of the combination treatment of miltefosine and allopurinol in canine leishmaniosis. PMID:19426445

  6. Fissured Tongue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to remove any food debris from the fissures. Cleansing of the tongue helps prevent irritation and possible ... patients by making recommendations concerning devices for tongue cleansing. Q: Who can get fissured tongue? A: Anyone ...

  7. Tongue Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lip Swelling Tongue Discoloration Tongue Discomfort Tongue "Hairiness" Merck and the Merck Manuals Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global ... health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a ...

  8. Two cases with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma successfully treated with clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Atsuko; Hara, Shintaro; Amenomori, Misato; Fujita, Hanako; Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2010-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman with a history of sinobronchial syndrome was admitted to the hospital because of a cough, sputum, and abnormal chest shadow. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (p-MALToma) based on results of a pathologic examination and the gene rearrangements in the Ig heavy chain on Southern blot hybridization. Although p-MALToma did not regress with conventional therapy, it was reduced after long-term treatment with clarithromycin (CAM) (200 mg/d). A 57-year-old woman with a history of Sjögren syndrome and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia had a mass lesion in the left lower lung field. CT image-guided biopsy established a diagnosis of p-MALToma. The p-MALToma regressed with long-term treatment with CAM (200 mg/d), whereas Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy was not effective in concurrent atrophic gastritis with HP. It is suggested that CAM, a macrolide antibiotic, may be effective in some patients with p-MALToma. PMID:20822996

  9. Cysticercosis of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B P; Gaunt, F; Sigdel, B

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human being acts as the intermediate host of Taenia solium, a pork tape worm. The oral mucosa is an uncommonly involved site. A rurally living 35 year old vegetarian female presented with a swelling over the right side of her tongue of seven months duration. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Diagnosis of cysticercosis was clinically unsuspected. The patient was referred to the general medical clinic for further treatment. PMID:25575011

  10. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

    2009-02-01

    The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III. PMID:19143682

  11. Histological findings in gastric mucosa in patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, M; LaCorte, R; DeCarlo, L; Aleotti, A; Trevisani, L; Ruina, M; Trotta, F; Alvisi, V

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To identify distinguishing and general histological features related to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). METHODS--Slides from gastric antral biopsies of 50 patients with osteoarthritis taking NSAID were compared with slides from antral biopsies of 50 control cases matched for age, sex, and race. Semithin sections stained with toluidine blue were used. RESULTS--Chronic gastritis was seen in 76% of the patients taking NSAID and in 58% of the control cases; active inflammation was detected in 10% of the NSAID treated patients and in 24% of the control cases, and it appeared closely related with Helicobacter pylori infection. Some histological features common to all slides of patients taking NSAID were recognised. These consisted of focal erosions of the gastric epithelium and macroerosions, and they seemed to represent successive steps of a process of "desquamation". CONCLUSIONS--Some distinguishing morphological aspects appeared prominent; it is suggested that these may be related to the pathogenesis of NSAID linked peptic ulceration. On the other hand, epithelial damage due to NSAID appears very different from that due to Helicobacter pylori, another important factor involved in the aetiopathogenesis of peptic disease. Images PMID:7665699

  12. Tongue problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... alcohol use Possible causes of smooth tongue: Anemia Vitamin B12 deficiency Possible causes of red (ranging from pink to reddish-purple) tongue: Folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency Pellagra Pernicious anemia Plummer-Vinson syndrome Sprue ...

  13. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters. PMID:24179524

  14. [Rare complications in surgically treated rectal and anal atresia with submucous pull-through of the rectal mucosa].

    PubMed

    von Bodmann, J; Hecker, W C

    1988-02-01

    Two rare complications after Rehbein's pull-through operation are reported. The first case is a four-year-old child producing at two times a urethral-rectal-muscle cuff fistula, the rectal muscle cuff being filled with urine. The second case deals with a now fourteen-year-old boy in whom a mucosa-regenerated rectal muscle cuff led to an enterogenous cyst of double fist size. PMID:3376596

  15. Your Tongue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taste buds , so you can taste everything from apples to zucchini! People are born with about 10, ... onion slice under your nose while eating an apple. What do you taste? Your tongue also gets ...

  16. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo; Azumi, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  17. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

  18. MODELING THE CONSEQUENCES OF TONGUE SURGERY ON TONGUE

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    ). Two examples of tongue surgery, which are quite common in the treatment of cancers of the oral cavityMODELING THE CONSEQUENCES OF TONGUE SURGERY ON TONGUE MOBILITY S. Buchaillard1, 3 , M. Brix2 , P Tronche - France INTRODUCTION Tongue surgery can have severe consequences on tongue mobility and tongue

  19. The multiple forms and kinetic properties of the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidases from colonic tumours and mucosa of rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed Central

    Mian, N; Herries, D G; Cowen, D M; Batte, E A

    1979-01-01

    The separation and purification of the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase activities from tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat colon and from colonic mucosa of tumour-bearing animals are reported. Mucosa contained N-acetylhexosaminidases A and B, as well as a third form whose properties with regard to electrophoretic mobility and thermostability lay between those of A and B. Tumours contained only N-acetylhexosaminidase A and B activities. Each form possessed both N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) and N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.53) activities, which could not be separated by a variety of techniques. The alteration of the ratio of the two specific activities in each form during purification, together with differences in the kinetic inhibition constants and behaviour during inactivation by various reagents or a temperature of 50 degrees C, supported the belief that each form contains the two enzyme activities, glucosaminidase and galactosaminidase, at separate active sites. This model is in contrast with that reported for these activities from a number of other sources. A variety of treatments reported to cause the conversion of form A into a form resembling B failed to produce such an effect on the rat colonic hexosaminidases. PMID:34391

  20. Geographic tongue and tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Marinho, Rui Tato; Velosa, José; Costa, João Borges

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B was started on tenofovir. One month after initiating the new medication, he developed severe symptomatology with odynophagia and a very painful tongue. The physical examination reveals multiple erythematous patches on his tongue and a biopsy was performed. It allowed the diagnosis of benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue. The patient was kept on tenofovir, but had to start topical corticoid therapy. Geographic tongue is a common condition that may be caused by drug idiosyncrasy, but has never before been associated to tenofovir. It is usually asymptomatic, but sometimes it causes severe symptoms, being an important impairment of quality of life. PMID:23598934

  1. Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue--Case report.

    PubMed

    Didona, Dario; Paolino, Giovanni; Donati, Michele; Didona, Biagio; Calvieri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is a rare, self-limiting, chronic and benign lesion of unknown pathogenesis that affects the oral mucosa. We present the case of a 65 year-old Caucasian female with a five month history of a painful ulcer on the lateral side of her tongue. The ulcer was not adhered to the underlying structures and there was no evidence of regional lymph node involvement. Laboratory examinations and X-rays revealed no abnormalities. Topical treatments had been performed without any improvement. Histopathological examination showed an ulcerated surface and mixed inflammatory infiltrate with several eosinophils extending into the mucosa and submucosa. No cellular atypia was observed. Based on the patient-s history and mucosal biopsy, a final diagnosis of eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa was made. PMID:26312683

  2. Tongue acupuncture in treatment of post-stroke dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haiyan; Ma, Benxu; Gao, Xia; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    Tongue acupuncture is a technique that treats illness through acupuncture applied to the tongue. This study was designed to assess its therapeutic effects in the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia. A clinical control study was conducted with randomly selected 180 patients with post-stroke dysphagia. The patients were assigned into 2 groups: 90 in the Tongue acupuncture group received tongue acupuncture on the basis of conventional medication, 90 in the conventional acupuncture group received acupuncture on the neck and wrist. Acupoints in the tongue are Juanquan (EX-HN10) (at the midpoint of dorsal raphe of the tongue) and Haiquan (EX-HN11) (Sublingual frenulum midpoint). Acupoits on the body are Fengchi (GB20) and Neiguan (PC6). The effective rate, the national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS), TV X-ray fluoroscopy swallowing function (VFSS), the incidence rate of pneumonia were used to evaluate the efficacy after 4 weeks treatment. The NIHSS and VFSS of tongue acupuncture group were improved significantly than that of the conventional group (P < 0.01, respectively). The incidence rate of pneumonia decreased (P < 0. 01). The effective rate of the tongue acupuncture group was higher than that of conventional group (96.67% vs. 66.67%, P < 0. 01). On the basis of the conventional medication, tongue acupuncture would effectively improve the swallow functions, decrease the neurological deficit and reduce the incidence of pneumonia in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. PMID:26550374

  3. Curcumin inhibits tongue carcinoma cells migration and invasion through downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 10.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Raymond King-Yin; Tang, Whitney Wing-Yan; Gao, Wei; Ho, Wai-Kuen; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Wei, William Ignace; Wong, Thian-Sze

    2012-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of tongue is an aggressive head and neck cancer with high propensity of regional spreading and invasion. Tongue carcinoma cells treated with curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, demonstrated reduction in adhesion, migration, and invasion ability. High-throughput microarray analysis indicated that curcumin treatment suppressed matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10) expression. MMP10 is overexpressed in tongue carcinoma tissues in comparison with the normal epithelia. Curcumin treatment on tongue carcinoma cell lines suppressed MMP10 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggested that curcumin is a promising inhibitor to tongue cancer cells migration and invasion. PMID:22624612

  4. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIN; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; QIU, LIHUA; PANG, LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521

  5. Dysphagia in Tongue Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yu Ri; Kim, Tae Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for dysphagia in tongue cancer patients. Dysphagia is a common complication of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in tongue cancer patients. Previous studies have attempted to identify risk factors for dysphagia in patients with head and neck cancer, but no studies have focused specifically on tongue cancer patients. Methods This study was conducted on 133 patients who were diagnosed with tongue cancer and who underwent a videofluoroscopy swallowing study (VFSS) between January 2007 and June 2012 at the Asan Medical Center. Data collected from the VFSS were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with aspiration were identified. Results Patients showed a higher incidence of inadequate tongue control, inadequate chewing, delayed oral transit time, aspiration or penetration, vallecular pouch and pyriform residue, and inadequate laryngeal elevation after surgery. Moreover, male gender, extensive tumor resection, a higher node stage, and more extensive lymph node dissection were major risk factors for aspiration in tongue cancer patients. Conclusion Tongue cancer patients have difficulties in the pharyngeal phase as well as the oral phase of swallowing. These difficulties can worsen after tongue cancer surgery. Gender, the extent of tumor resection, and lymph node metastasis affect swallowing in tongue cancer patients. Physicians should take these risk factors into account when administering swallowing therapy to tongue cancer patients. PMID:25932417

  6. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  7. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  8. Modeling the consequences of tongue surgery on tongue mobility

    E-print Network

    Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the current achievements of a long term project aiming at predicting and assessing the impact of tongue and mouth floor surgery on tongue mobility. The ultimate objective of this project is the design of a software with which surgeons should be able (1) to design a 3D biomechanical model of the tongue and of the mouth floor that matches the anatomical characteristics of each patient specific oral cavity, (2) to simulate the anatomical changes induced by the surgery and the possible reconstruction, and (3) to quantitatively predict and assess the consequences of these anatomical changes on tongue mobility and speech production after surgery.

  9. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  10. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  11. How Is Angina Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor prescribes, especially if you have diabetes . Medicines Nitrates are the medicines most commonly used to treat ... GLIS-er-in) is the most commonly used nitrate for angina. Nitroglycerin that dissolves under your tongue ...

  12. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps.

    PubMed

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A

    2015-08-22

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue-fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  13. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the posterior tongue.

    PubMed

    Gumusay, Ozge; Yilmaz, Guldal; Aydil, Utku; Ozet, Ahmet; Tufan, Gulnihal; Erdem, Ozlem; Kizil, Yusuf; Benekli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In the head and neck mucosa, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the oral cavity is rare. Herein, we present the first report of a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 54-year-old man on the right lateral posterior tongue. It is important to remember that although neuroendocrine small cell carcinomas (SCCs) are most commonly seen in the lung, they rarely may arise in the extrapulmonary sites, including salivary glands, as well. As there is not any standard therapeutic regimen already existing, it is important to be aware of and to know how to deal with such rare cases. PMID:26458628

  14. Literacy and the Mother Tongue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  15. Evaluation of different pig oral mucosa sites as permeability barrier models for drug permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, Michelle; Serpe, Luciano; Martinelli, Claudia Cristina Maia; da Silva, Camila Batista; Santos, Cleiton Pita Dos; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Volpato, Maria Cristina; de Paula, Eneida; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of preparation and storage conditions on the histology and permeability of different parts of porcine oral mucosa used for in vitro studies of transbuccal formulations. Fresh and frozen (-20°C and -80°C, with or without cryoprotectant) epithelia of porcine palatal, gingival, dorsum of the tongue, and buccal mucosa were submitted for histological analyses to determine the effects of storage conditions on barrier integrity. Permeation of lidocaine hydrochloride (used as a hydrophilic model drug) across fresh and previously frozen oral epithelium was measured in order to evaluate the barrier function. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the oral epithelium was successfully separated from the connective tissue, except for gingival mucosa. After storage under different conditions, all tissues presented desquamation of superficial layers and spherical spaces induced by the freezing process. The permeability of lidocaine hydrochloride varied among the fresh oral mucosa and generally increased after freezing. In conclusion, fresh epithelium from the buccal and dorsum of the tongue mucosa should be used for in vitro studies investigating hydrophilic drug transport when these are the desired clinical application sites. However, when the palate is the target site, both fresh and frozen (for up to 4weeks, without addition of cryoprotectant) samples could be used. The addition of glycerol as a cryoprotectant should be avoided due to increased lidocaine hydrochloride permeability. PMID:26435216

  16. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Araujo da Costa, Ana Sofia; Schmitz, Teresa Rivera; Lago, Pedro Vaamonde

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the last decades. It is estimated that up to 20% of tuberculosis cases affect extra-pulmonary organs. In the ENT area, soft palate and tongue are the least probable locations. Case Report: A 62-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment with corticosteroids and Adalimumab, developed a foreign body sensation in the pharynx accompanied by a sore throat and halitosis. The laryngoscopy with a 70 degree rigid telescope showed an ulcerated hypertrophic lesion in the right vallecula of about 2-3 cm in the base of the tongue. Acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were found positive for M. tuberculosis, through the Ziehl Neelsen method and Löwenstein culture the patient was treated with tuberculostatic medication. Conclusion: TB is a possible diagnosis when in the presence of an ulcerated lesion at the base of the tongue, accompanied by sore throat, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation. PMID:26082907

  17. Permeation of quinine across sublingual mucosa, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ong, Charlene M Y; Heard, Charles M

    2009-01-21

    Quinine is the first line treatment in severe P. falciparum malaria and nocturnal leg cramps and a fast, convenient delivery method of this drug quinine is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the sublingual route for the delivery of quinine. Permeation studies were carried out with Franz diffusion cells containing sublingual mucosa membranes with PBS receptor phase and dosed with solutions of quinine hydrochloride or quinine/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexes. Receptor phase samples were taken 2 hourly over a 12h period and quinine was determined by reverse-phase HPLC analysis. The ventral surface of the tongue was significantly more permeable than porcine floor of the mouth (p<0.05) and there was no significant effect of freezing on the ventral surface of the tongue (p 0.2444). The presence of saliva caused a decrease in the permeation of quinine across the ventral surface of the tongue by up to 68%. Inclusion complexation between quinine and 2-HP-beta-CD was supported by (1)H NMR spectral data, and an ethanol vehicle provided the highest quinine flux from the inclusion complex solutions compared to deionised water and PEG. Overall, the data support further investigations into the clinical use of sublingual quinine, particularly for children with falciparum malaria or patients with nocturnal leg cramps. Use of quinine/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes may circumvent compliance issues due to bitter taste. PMID:18835345

  18. Tongue piercing: a concern for the dentist.

    PubMed

    Maibaum, W W; Margherita, V A

    1997-01-01

    "Body art" is a relatively recent fashion in the western world, but appears to be gaining in popularity. It involves tattooing, scarification, and the wearing of jewelry in unconventional places on the body. This article discusses one form of "body art"--tongue piercing. The presence of metal jewelry in the oral cavity presents oral hygiene problems, as well as the risk of the development of undesirable sequelae. It may become the responsibility of the dentist to advise the patient on the care and maintenance of this jewelry, and to treat complications. PMID:9515419

  19. Tongue piercing (oral body art).

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Chen, M

    1994-02-01

    Oral body art is a relatively recent fashion in the West where jewelry is inserted in the oral soft tissues. A patient who had tongue-piercing is presented, and the subject of oral piercing reviewed. PMID:8136338

  20. Lymphangioma of the Tongue - A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    V, Usha; Sivasankari, T.; Jeelani, S.; Parthiban, J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537

  1. Pthlh, a promising cancer modifier gene in rat tongue carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Hirohiko; Hirano, Masato; Kawarada, Kouji; Nagayama, Motohiko; Ehara, Michiko; Muraki, Tomonari; Shisa, Hayase; Sugiyama, Aiko; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kitano, Motoo; Tanuma, Jun-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibly to the induction of rat tongue cancer (TC) by oral 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) exposure is a polygenic trait. Among several quantitative trait loci identified by crosses between TC-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and TC-resistant Wistar-Furth (WF) rats, we focused on tongue cancer susceptibility locus (Tcas3) of chromosome 4. We examined tongue carcinogenesis in the reciprocal congenic strains DA.WF-Tcas3 and WF.DA-Tcas3 and in their parental strains. The Tcas3DA allele, and not the Tcas3WF allele, significantly favored tumor latency, incidence and TC number/size. In genomic DNA of TCs induced in (DA x WF) F1 rats, the resistant Tcas3WF allele was frequently and selectively lost, particularly in larger tumors. Thus, we searched the possible candidate genes in the Tcas3 region using microarray analysis of TCs in F1 rats and revealed significant upregulation of 2 cancer-related genes, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) and Kras2. The relevance of the WF allele of Pthlh as a cancer modifier was indicated by 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to this strain. In contrast, no consistent strain-specific variations were found in Kras2. Moreover, the plasma Ca2+ level was consistently higher in DA rats when compared to the level in WF rats bearing TCs; moreover, the Pthlh-mRNA expression level was >30-fold higher in TCs when compared to this level in the normal tongue mucosa. Immunostaining experiments showed strong PTHrP protein expression in TCs of DA rats, and the signal was intensified in larger TCs. Kras2 was also upregulated in TCs, but to a lesser degree than PTHrP. Thus, Pthlh is a promising candidate modifier gene in the development and progression of rat TCs. PMID:24253735

  2. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath? ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ...

  3. Relationship between squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and the position of dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki-Yong; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue has a relatively high incidence of all oral cancers. Some studies have reported a relationship between intraoral dental prosthesis and SCC of the tongue; however, this relationship remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SCC of the tongue and the positional aspects of dental prosthesis using a retrospective analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 439 patients with SCC of the tongue were diagnosed and treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Seoul National University Dental Hospital. Patients were treated over a 12.5-year period ranging from January 1, 2001 to June 30, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed to examine potential differences between the groups. RESULTS The number of patients with a crown and/or a bridge (134, 63.5%) was significantly different than the number of patients without a prosthesis (77, 36.5%). Even after accounting for different types of prostheses such as crowns, bridges, and dentures, no significant differences were observed between the position of the prosthesis and the location of the SCC of the tongue, with significance defined as a P-value less than .05 by the Pearson-Chi square test. CONCLUSION Patients with crowns and/or bridges exhibited more frequent SCC of the tongue compared with patients without these prosthesis. These data support the hypothesis that mechanical trauma and galvanic phenomena play a role in the etiology of SCC of the tongue. PMID:25932311

  4. From the tongue to the gut.

    PubMed

    Negri, Rossella; Morini, Gabriella; Greco, Luigi

    2011-12-01

    The physiology of human taste experienced an unprecedented expansion of knowledge brought forward by modern genetics and molecular biology. In the last 10 years, the cellular organization of taste receptors from taste buds distributed in the various papillae of the tongue and the soft palate was enlightened. This molecular revolution rapidly expanded over and above the tongue because several papers reporting the presence of taste receptors in nongustatory tissues (eg, gut, brain) appeared. Hence, the issue of perception of food molecules is no longer confined to the field of nutrition and food preferences, but is rapidly expanding to gastrointestinal (GI) function and, possibly, to gut dysfunction. In children, functional GI diseases are strictly correlated to food preference and food aversion and up to now, the tools to address these kinds of problems were basic nutritional requirements, familial good sense, and a lot of patience: blunt tools to face extremely common and disturbing complaints. The fact that taste receptors are expressed down the whole of the intestinal tract is of particular interest because of their possible role in digestive behavior and absorption of nutrients; therefore, recent and future discoveries in this field will make possible the fine-tuning of new, sharper tools to treat children with functional GI diseases. PMID:21832948

  5. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  6. Tongue pressure generation during tongue-hold swallows in young healthy adults measured with different tongue positions.

    PubMed

    Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Ken-ichi; Kondo, Jyugo; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Ono, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    Tongue-hold swallow (THS) has the potential to be a resistance exercise not only for the pharyngeal constrictor but for the tongue muscles. To elucidate the physiological mechanisms of THS, this study investigated intraoral pressure generation during THS in relation to different extents of tongue protrusion. Tongue pressure was measured by a 5-point pressure sensor sheet placed onto the hard palate of 18 healthy young subjects who performed three swallow tasks: normal dry swallow, THS with slight tongue protrusion, and THS with greater tongue protrusion. Subjects randomly repeated each task five times. Maximum range of tongue protrusion was also measured in each subject to estimate lingual flexibility. With an increase in the extent of tongue protrusion, pressure generation patterns became irregular and variable. Duration of pressure generation increased with statistical significance in the posterior circumferential parts of the hard palate (p < 0.05). Maximal magnitude and integrated value of the pressure recorded at these locations increased in eight subjects as the extent of tongue protrusion increased, but it decreased in nine. The former group showed greater lingual flexibility, while the latter group exhibited less flexibility. THS may place different amounts of load on the tongue muscles by adjusting the degree of tongue protrusion. PMID:23728858

  7. Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

    2010-01-01

    Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk. PMID:21358880

  8. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  9. Cross-activation and detraining effects of tongue exercise in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Schaser, Allison J; Ciucci, Michelle R; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-01-15

    Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people. PMID:26477376

  10. Somatosensory processing of the tongue in humans.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2010-01-01

    We review research on somatosensory (tactile) processing of the tongue based on data obtained using non-invasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Technical difficulties in stimulating the tongue, due to the noise elicited by the stimulator, the fixation of the stimulator, and the vomiting reflex, have necessitated the development of specialized devices. In this article, we show the brain activity relating to somatosensory processing of the tongue evoked by such devices. More recently, the postero-lateral part of the tongue has been stimulated, and the brain response compared with that on stimulation of the antero-lateral part of the tongue. It is likely that a difference existed in somatosensory processing of the tongue, particularly around primary somatosensory cortex, Brodmann area 40, and the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:21423377

  11. Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

  12. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... accurate joystick. The system employs a magnetic tongue stud worn by the user to wirelessly relay the ... a joystick. Tongue Drive System headset, magnetic tongue stud and smartphone. Source: Maysam Ghovanloo, Georgia Institute of ...

  13. Inhibition of Tongue Coat and Dental Plaque Formation by Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Vs Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse: A Randomized, Triple Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Vineet Vaman; Padhye, Ashvini

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an oxidizing agent with known bactericidal, viricidal and fungicidal properties. Its efficacy in reducing the halitosis has been established by previous literature. However, data evaluating its antiplaque property is scarce. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered as the gold standard and an effective adjunctive to mechanical plaque removal. However, it is associated with few reversible side effects. Therefore a study was conducted to assess the antiplaque property of ClO2 containing mouthrinse against CHX mouthrinse. Aims and Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of stabilized chlorine dioxide containing mouthrinse and CHX containing mouthrinse in inhibition of tongue coat accumulation and dental plaque formation using a four day plaque regrowth model clinically and microbiologically in a healthy dental cohort. Materials and Methods A Single Center, Randomized, Triple blinded, Microbiological clinical trial was conducted involving 25 healthy dental students volunteers (11 males, 14 females). Two commercially available mouthrinse: Mouthrinse A – Aqueous based ClO2 mouthrinse Freshchlor® and Mouthrinse B - Aqueous based 0.2% CHX mouthrinse Hexidine® were selected as the test products. Subjects were asked to rinse and gargle for 1 minute with the allocated mouthrinse under supervision after supragingival scaling, polishing and tongue coat removal. After four hours, smears were taken from the buccal mucosa and tooth surface. On the fifth day from baseline of four day non brushing plaque regrowth model the samples were again taken from buccal mucosa and tooth surface followed by recording of plaque scores by Rastogi Modification of Navy Plaque index, extent of tongue coat by Winkel’s tongue coating index and measuring tongue coat wet weight in grams. The samples collected were subjected to microbial analysis and the results were expressed as colony forming units (CFUs) per sample. Statistical Analysis The Data was analysed using SPSS 16.00 and presented using descriptive statistics. Independent t-test was used for the comparison between mouthrinse A groups & mouthrinse B group. Results The plaque scores and Winkels tongue coat scores, wet tongue coat weight recorded on the fifth day after the use of the two mouthrinse didn’t show a statistically significant difference. The CFU per sample from tooth and mucosa after four hours revealed low bacteria count with respect to mouthrinse B however the CFU obtained on the fifth day did not show a statistically significant difference between the two mouthrinse. Conclusion The clinical antiplaque efficacy of CHX and ClO2 mouthwash is comparable and so is the efficacy in reducing the oral bacterial load. PMID:26501017

  14. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  15. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) for the mu rhythm (8–13 Hz) and beta (13?25 Hz) bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance. PMID:26441599

  16. Mother Tongue, Language Policy and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szepe, Gyorgy

    1984-01-01

    It is of prime importance that children begin their education in their mother tongue, as this will provide the optimum conditions for the development of the personality and will improve their social chances. Mother-tongue education is beginning to be accepted in a number of European countries. (RM)

  17. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction?Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives?Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report?A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion?Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach. PMID:26491486

  18. Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

  19. Tongue to palate contact during speech in subjects with and without a tongue thrust.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Ladan; Leilazpour, Amir Peyman

    2006-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the location and movements of the tongue on the palate during pronunciation of Persian consonants and selected words in subjects with and without a tongue thrust (TT). Ten patients with a TT and 10 control subjects, 9-13 years of age, matched for age, gender, ethnicity, type and severity of malocclusion, with no history of orthodontic treatment, surgery, or systemic disease were selected. Maxillary alginate impressions were taken to construct upper removable appliances with 12 electrodes. Fine wires connected the electrodes to a specially designed electropalatovision (EPU) device. The removable appliance was inserted in the upper arch and then the Persian consonants and some selected words were pronounced by both groups. An electromechanical marker was included on each electrode which showed the tongue movements on the palate. Tongue movements, the quantity of the tongue contacts, and the location of the tongue were compared using t- and Chi-square tests. In the TT group, the tongue had more contact with the palate on six electrodes (P < 0.001). When pronouncing the consonants, the tongue made contact anteriorly on the palate in the TT group. The quantity of tongue contacts with the palate was similar in both groups. During pronunciation of selected words, the contact points of the tongue to the palate were similar in both groups. PMID:17000716

  20. Oral mucosa stem cells alleviates spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) deteriorates various physical functions, in particular, bladder problems occur as a result of damage to the spinal cord. Stem cell therapy for SCI has been focused as the new strategy to treat the injuries and to restore the lost functions. The oral mucosa cells are considered as the stem cells-like progenitor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oral mucosa stem cells on the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death and cell proliferation. Results The contraction pressure and the contraction time in the urinary bladder were increased after induction of SCI, in contrast, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells decreased the contraction pressure and the contraction time in the SCI-induced rats. Induction of SCI initiated apoptosis in the spinal cord tissues, whereas treatment with the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed the SCI-induced apoptosis. Disrupted spinal cord by SCI was improved by transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells, and new tissues were increased around the damaged tissues. In addition, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed SCI-induced neuronal activation in the voiding centers. Conclusions Transplantation of oral mucosa stem cells ameliorates the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms by inhibiting apoptosis and by enhancing cell proliferation. As the results, SCI-induced neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers was suppressed, showing the normalization of voiding function. PMID:24884998

  1. Frog tongue acts as muscle-powered adhesive tape

    PubMed Central

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-01-01

    Frogs are well known to capture fast-moving prey by flicking their sticky tongues out of the mouth. This tongue projection behaviour happens extremely fast which makes frog tongues a biological high-speed adhesive system. The processes at the interface between tongue and prey, and thus the mechanism of adhesion, however, are completely unknown. Here, we captured the contact mechanics of frog tongues by filming tongue adhesion at 2000 frames per second through an illuminated glass. We found that the tongue rolls over the target during attachment. However, during the pulling phase, the tongue retractor muscle acts perpendicular to the target surface and thus prevents peeling during tongue retraction. When the tongue detaches, mucus fibrils form between the tongue and the target. Fibrils commonly occur in pressure-sensitive adhesives, and thus frog tongues might be a biological analogue to these engineered materials. The fibrils in frog tongues are related to the presence of microscopic papillae on the surface. Together with a layer of nanoscale fibres underneath the tongue epithelium, these surface papillae will make the tongue adaptable to asperities. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we are able to integrate anatomy and function to explain the processes during adhesion in frog tongues. PMID:26473054

  2. Determination of thickness of palatal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kolliyavar, Bharati; Setty, Swati; Thakur, Srinath L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The palatal masticatory mucosa is widely used as a donor material in periodontal plastic surgery. The thickness of graft tissue is an important factor for the graft survival. The purpose of this study was to determine the thickness of palatal mucosa by a bone sounding technique. The association of age and gender with the thickness of palatal mucosa was also examined. Materials and Methods: Twenty four healthy subjects had participated in the study. The younger age group of 16-30 years consisted of 12 subjects of 7 females and 5 males, and the older age group of 31-54 years consisted of 12 subjects, of 5 females and 7 males. A bone sounding method using a periodontal probe was done to assess the thickness of palatal mucosa at 15 measurement sites defined according to the gingival margin and palatal line. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the difference in mucosal thickness between both the groups. Results: The younger age group had thinner mucosa ranged from 2 to 3.1 mm in thickness than the older age group which ranged from 3.2 to 3.7 mm. In the same age group, females had thinner mucosa than males in the same age group. The mean thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa ranged from 2.5 to 3.7 mm. Conclusion: The younger subjects had thinner mucosa than older subjects. The canine and premolar areas appeared to be the most appropriate donor site for grafting procedures. PMID:22628968

  3. Neuroregulation of Human Nasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons. Modulation of these families of proteins, excitatory and inhibitory autoreceptors, and combinations of neurotransmitters introduces a new level of complexity and subtlety to nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air-temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19686200

  4. Neuroregulation of human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

    2009-07-01

    Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons. Modulation of these families of proteins, excitatory and inhibitory autoreceptors, and combinations of neurotransmitters introduces a new level of complexity and subtlety to nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air-temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants ("aromatherapy"), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19686200

  5. Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

  6. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

  7. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5kPa and 10kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (P<0.005), and there was also a significant increase in tongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles. PMID:26399776

  8. Variations of Tongue Coating Microbiota in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Han, Shuwen; Chen, Yan; Ji, Zhaoning

    2015-01-01

    The physical status of humans can be estimated by observing the appearance of the tongue coating, known as tongue diagnosis. The goals of this study were to reveal the relationship between tongue coating appearance and the oral microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and to open a novel research direction supporting tongue diagnosis. We used a tongue manifestation acquisition instrument to analyse the thickness of the tongue coating of patients with gastric cancer and that of healthy controls, and high-throughput sequencing was used to describe the microbial community of the tongue coating by sequencing the V2–V4 region of the 16S rDNA. The tongue coatings of 74 patients with gastric cancer were significantly thicker than those of 72 healthy controls (343.11 ± 198.22 versus 98.42 ± 48.25, P < 0.001); 51.35% of the patients were assessed as having thick tongue coatings, whereas all healthy controls were assessed as having thin tongue coatings. Thick tongue coatings presented lower microbial community diversity than thin tongue coatings. The tongue coating bacterial community is associated with the appearance of the tongue coating. The tongue coating may be a potential source for diagnosing gastric cancer, but its sensitivity needs to be further improved. PMID:26457297

  9. Effect of saccades in tongue electrotactile stimulation for vision substitution applications

    E-print Network

    Chekhchoukh, Abdessalem; Payan, Yohan; Glade, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The visual substitution paradigm aims to facilitate the life of blind people. Generally one uses electro-stimulating devices where electrodes are arranged into arrays to stimulate the skin or the tongue mucosa to send signals of visual type to the subjects. When an electro-stimulation signal is applied continuously (e.g. when static visual scenes are displayed for a long period of time), the receptors of the affected region can get saturated and the patient may lose the displayed information. We propose here some mechanisms that ameliorate the quality of perception of the electro-stimulation information. The electrical signal is encoded as 2D scenes projected onto the tongue via a Tongue Display Unit, i.e. an electro-tactile stimulator formed by a 12x12 matrix of electrodes. We propose to apply stochastic saccades on this signal. Our assumption is that this eye-inspired mechanism should make the visual substitution more efficient (by improving the perception) because of the reduction of the tactile receptors ...

  10. RESONANCE TONGUES IN THE QUASIPERIODIC HILLSCHR

    E-print Network

    Puig. Joaquim

    tongues get out of control. They are restless and evil, and always spreading deadly poison''. (James 3, 6 is that they are natural generalizations of the classical Hill's equations which appear in the study of the stability

  11. [Dental and oncological status of patients with tongue carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Davydov, A B; Lebedev, S N; Lebedeva, Iu V; Davydova, O B

    2015-01-01

    After the supervision over patients with cancer of mucous membrane of oral cavity (MMOC) admitted for treatment in the Tver Regional Clinical Oncological Hospital (TRCOH), the analysis of 427 primary revealed cases of cancer of mobile part of the tongue MPoT (S 02) was carried out. The study included retrospective analysis of case records of 237 patients treated from 1997 to 2013 with the diagnosis of MPoT and prospective examination of 190 patients treated by authors in specialized departments of TRCOH. On the basis of questioning of 67 III-IV stages tongue carcinoma patients at the age of 50-59 years clinical course features, cancer risk factors and oral care patterns were studied. It was revealed that patients often make decision to see an oncologist to meet relatives wishes, prefer self-treatment, trust hearings and quacks or simply hope for self-recovery. Studying of dental status revealed high prevalence and intensity of caries. All males and the majority of sampled women weren't informed about additional methods of oral cavity hygiene (dental floss, mouthwashes, gels) and had unsatisfactory or bad level of Fedorov-Volodkina hygienic index. We revealed a high necessity in treatment of caries and its complications, an average of 3.61 and 2.73 teeth needed filling and 4,43 and 1.77 teeth - extraction in male and female patients, correspondently. The received data identify a great need for dental treatment and patient education in patients with tongue malignancy. PMID:25909610

  12. Autogenous hard palate mucosa: the ideal lower eyelid spacer?

    PubMed Central

    Wearne, M.; Sandy, C.; Rose, G.; Pitts, J; Collin, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Raising a displaced lower eyelid frequently involves recession of the lower eyelid retractors with interposition of a "spacer," and several materials for this purpose have been described. This study reviewed the results of autogenous palatal mucosa in the treatment of lower eyelid displacement, including assessment of any donor site morbidity.?METHODS—A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients treated at Moorfields Eye Hospital between 1993 and 1998. All patients underwent insertion of hard palate mucosa between the inferior border of the tarsus and the recessed conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors. Parameters studied included the underlying diagnosis, measurements of lower lid displacement or retraction, related previous surgery, the experience of the operating surgeon, intraoperative and postoperative complications, surgical outcome, and length of follow up. The main outcome measure was the position of the lower eyelid relative to the globe in primary position of gaze.?RESULTS—102 lower eyelids of 68 patients were included and a satisfactory lid position was achieved in 87/102 (85%), with inadequate lengthening or significant recurrence of displacement occurring in 15 cases. Donor site haemorrhage requiring treatment in the early postoperative period occurred in seven patients (10%).?CONCLUSION—Autogenous hard palate mucosa is an effective eyelid spacer and provides good long term support for the lower eyelid. Donor site complications are the main disadvantage, but may be minimised by attention to meticulous surgical technique and appropriate postoperative management.?? PMID:11567962

  13. Confocal endomicroscopic imaging of normal and neoplastic human tongue tissue using ALA-induced-PPIX fluorescence: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Harris, Martin; Kho, Kiang Wei; Thong, Patricia S P; Hibbs, Alan; Olivo, Malini; Soo, Khee Chee

    2004-08-01

    Confocal endomicroscopy is a novel and non-invasive microscopic technique that enables surface and subsurface imaging of living tissues or cells in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of utilizing a rigid confocal endomicroscope (RCE) system developed for detecting morphological changes in living normal and neoplastic human tongue tissue in combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence. Three patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue were examined using the novel RCE system with the excitation wavelength at 488 nm from an argon-ion laser and the detection wavelengths of the tissue fluorescence above 515 nm. Patients were topically applied with 0.4% of 5-ALA rinsing solution to the oral mucosa for approximately 15 min, and then the confocal endomicroscopic imaging of tissue PPIX fluorescence was performed on the lesion sites of the tongue after an optimal incubation period of 90-120 min. For comparison purposes, ALA-PPIX fluorescence confocal endomicroscopic imaging was also carried out on the normal sites of the tongue in vivo from two healthy volunteers. Image distortions due to tissue motion can be minimized using a specially designed tissue stabilizer attached to the RCE probe. Good quality ALA-mediated confocal fluorescence images of the tongue can be acquired in real-time, providing well-defined micro-morphological structures (e.g., filiform papillae, keratinized epithelium and fungiform papillae) of the tongue in vivo. Changes of tissue structures in oral tissue associated with cancer transformation can also be clearly identified using the RCE imaging. Preliminary results obtained in this study suggest that ALA-mediated rigid confocal endomicroscopy may have a significant potential for the rapid, non-invasive diagnosis and evaluation of early oral cancers in vivo. PMID:15254708

  14. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  15. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-12-16

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  16. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  17. The Versatility of the Tongue Flap in the Closure of Palatal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Vasishta, Sathish M.S.; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y.S.; Desai, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery. PMID:23997859

  18. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds. PMID:488012

  19. Preliminary observations on the effects in vivo and in vitro of low dose laser on the epithelia of the bladder, trachea and tongue of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Y.C.; Pang, K.M.; Au, C.Y.; Yew, D.T.

    1988-03-01

    The effects of low dose CW laser were studied by in vivo and in vitro systems. The experimental tissues that were used included bladders, tracheas and tongues as experimental tissues. Buddings (round surface projections) from the transitional epithelium of bladder were frequently observed 3 days after laser treatment in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The trachea and tongue were less affected. In both the in vivo and in vitro systems, some epithelial cells of the trachea showed decreased microvilli and cilia 3 days after treatment whereas the epithelial cells of the tongue revealed no response to laser treatment in both systems. Low dose laser, however, appeared to promote the rate of healing of experimental tongue ulcer: healing was about 1 day earlier in the laser treated than non-treated animals and vessel infiltration and epithelialization were detected earlier in the treated.

  20. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons between them. Paired BTAT assessments were obtained from eight midwives who were using the new assessment tool. Results There was acceptable internal reliability for the four-item BTAT (Cronbach's ?=0.708) and the eight midwives who used it showed good correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.760). The BTAT showed a strong and significant correlation (0.89) with the ATLFF, indicating that the simpler BTAT could be used in place of the more detailed assessment tool to score the extent of a tongue-tie. Midwives found it quick and easy to use and felt that it would be easy to teach to others. Conclusions The BTAT provides an objective, clear and simple measure of the severity of a tongue-tie, to inform selection of infants for frenotomy and to monitor the effect of the procedure. PMID:25877288

  1. Force Amplitude Modulation of Tongue and Hand Movements

    E-print Network

    Dietsch, Angela M.

    2011-12-31

    for tongue movement control in individuals with neurological disease. Group differences in motor control mechanisms may help explain differential response of limb and tongue movements to medical interventions (as occurs in Parkinson disease) and ultimately...

  2. Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and

    E-print Network

    Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production: Master of Resource Management Report Number: 529 Title of Research Project: Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory

  3. Predicting Tongue Shapes from a Few Landmark Locations 

    E-print Network

    Qin, C.; Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Richmond, Korin; Wrench, Alan; Renals, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for predicting the midsagittal tongue contour from the locations of a few landmarks (metal pellets) on the tongue surface, as used in articulatory databases such as MOCHA and the Wisconsin XRDB. Our ...

  4. The tongue as an excitable medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiden, Gabriel; Curland, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    Geographic tongue (GT) is a medical condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known out-of-equilibrium phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics, chemically driven reaction-diffusion systems and morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Here we identify GT as a novel example of excitable media dynamics and explore the evolution of the condition from a dynamical systems perspective. We focus on two characteristic aspects of GT in particular: anisotropic expansion of lesions and re-entry of the inflammation into recovering regions. Our investigation sheds light on the evolution of the inflammation and suggests a practical way to classify the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

  5. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    SciTech Connect

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  6. Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

    2009-05-01

    As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

  7. Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (25.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

  8. Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (24.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

  9. [Substances harmful for the gastric mucosa].

    PubMed

    Ponce, J; Bixquert, M; Hinojosa, J; Garrigues, V

    1991-10-01

    Gastroduodenal mucosa has a self-defense capacity against a wide range of potentially harmful exogenous and endogenous agents. It has been proven that certain diet compounds damage gastric mucosa, which explains--at lest partially--the regional variations in the incidence of peptic ulcer. Ethanol blocks the defense mechanisms of gastric mucosa and induces the onset of acute lesions, but there is no definite proof to show that ethanol ingestion helps produce the onset of peptic ulcer. It has been confirmed that tobacco negatively affects the healing and relapse of ulcers. From an epidemiological point of view, the controversy of the relationship between tobacco abuse and peptic ulcer genesis is still ongoing. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory non-acid soluble produces lesions acute and chronic) in gastroduodenal mucosa. They can reactivate old lesions and increased the risk of complications. Aspirin is the most harmful compound in this pharmacologic group. Paracetamol is the compound which has the safest spectrum. The harmfulness of steroids is still being discussed, however, it is accepted that they have a rapid effect on gastric mucosa in relation to dosage and duration of treatment. PMID:1751693

  10. Cytolysins Augment Superantigen Penetration of Stratified Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Mantz, Mary J.; Squier, Christopher A.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes colonize mucosal surfaces of the human body to cause disease. A group of virulence factors known as superantigens are produced by both of these organisms, which allows them to cause serious diseases from the vaginal (staphylococci) or oral mucosa (streptococci) of the body. Superantigens interact with T cells and antigen presenting cells to cause massive cytokine release to mediate the symptoms collectively known as toxic shock syndrome. Here we demonstrate that another group of virulence factors, cytolysins, aid in the penetration of superantigens across vaginal mucosa as a representative nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelial surface. The staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin and the streptococcal cytolysin streptolysin O enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A, respectively, across porcine vaginal mucosa in an ex vivo model of superantigen penetration. Upon histological examination, both cytolysins caused damage to the uppermost layers of the vaginal tissue. In vitro evidence using immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated that although both superantigens were proinflammatory, only the staphylococcal cytolysin ? toxin induced a strong immune response from the cells. Streptolysin O damaged and killed the cells quickly, allowing only a small release of interleukin-1?. Two separate models of superantigen penetration are proposed: staphylococcal ? toxin induces a strong proinflammatory response from epithelial cells to disrupt the mucosa enough to allow for enhanced penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, whereas streptolysin O directly damages the mucosa to allow for penetration of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and possibly viable streptococci. PMID:19201891

  11. Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouni, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

  12. Intermingled fractal Arnold tongues V. Paar and N. Pavin

    E-print Network

    Pavin, Nenad

    Intermingled fractal Arnold tongues V. Paar and N. Pavin Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at low dissipation and weak forcing: Strips of 2 2 Arnold tongues form a truncated fractal structure and the tonguelike regions in between are filled by finely intermingled fractal-like 1 1 and 3 3 Arnold tongues

  13. Wireless Control of Smartphones with Tongue Motion Using Tongue Drive Assistive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang

    2010-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a noninvasive, wireless and wearable assistive technology that helps people with severe disabilities control their environments using their tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures to commands by detecting a small permanent magnetic tracer on the users’ tongue. We have linked the TDS to a smartphone (iPhone/iPod Touch) with a customized wireless module, added to the iPhone. We also migrated and ran the TDS sensor signal processing algorithm and graphical user interface on the iPhone in real time. The TDS-iPhone interface was evaluated by four able-bodied subjects for dialing 10-digit phone numbers using the standard telephone keypad and three methods of prompting the numbers: visual, auditory, and cognitive. Preliminary results showed that the interface worked quite reliably at a rate of 15.4 digits per minute, on average, with negligible errors. PMID:21096049

  14. Role of tongue pressure production in oropharyngeal swallow biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Magara, Jin; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Li, Qiang; Ono, Takahiro; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The tongue is important for orofacial movements, including swallowing. Although numerous studies have focused on tongue pressure against the palate, its physiological role has not been fully evaluated. The tongue pressure generation may have the temporal coordination with the swallowing relational organs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological mechanisms of tongue pressure and to investigate the temporal relationship among tongue pressure, supra-hyoid muscle activity, and videofluorographic (VF) images during swallowing. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated. Tongue pressure measured using a sensor sheet with five channels, electromyographic EMG, and VF was recorded synchronously during 4-ml barium swallowing. Swallowing behavior in VF images with and without the sensor sheet was compared. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between events measured from tongue pressure, EMG, and VF was evaluated. Swallowing behavior on VF images was not affected by placement of the sensor sheet. Tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral point of the hard palate tended to have biphasic peaks. Tongue pressure production with a monophasic pattern appeared during the same period as the second peak in the biphasic pattern. The onset of tongue pressure was later than the start of hyoid movement and onset of EMG, and offset was observed between the hyoid at the up-forward position and reposition. Onset of tongue pressure at the anterior area was correlated with the start of slight hyoid elevation. Offset of tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral points was strongly time locked with the hyoid at the up-forward position. The present results suggested the temporal coordination of tongue pressure generation with the swallowing-related organs. That is, the tongue pressure was produced for bolus propulsion, and was closely related to hyoid movement temporally during swallowing. These results may contribute to clarify the clinical state with the disorder of tongue kinetics. PMID:24400166

  15. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  16. The Tongue Map, Real or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Students need practice in proposing hypotheses, developing experiments that will test these hypotheses, and generating data that they will analyze to support or refute them. I describe a guided-inquiry activity based on the "tongue map" concept, appropriate for middle school and high school students.

  17. Significant Geometry Features in Tongue Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bob; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    The shape of a human tongue and its relation to a patients' state, either healthy or diseased (and if diseased which disease), is quantitatively analyzed using geometry features by means of computerized methods in this paper. Thirteen geometry features based on measurements, distances, areas, and their ratios are extracted from tongue images captured by a specially designed device with color correction. Using the features, 5 tongue shapes (rectangle, acute and obtuse triangles, square, and circle) are defined based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Classification of the shapes is subsequently carried out with a decision tree. A large dataset consisting of 672 images comprising of 130 healthy and 542 disease examples (labeled according to Western medical practices) are tested. Experimental results show that the extracted geometry features are effective at tongue shape classification (coarse level). Even if more than one disease class belongs to the same shape, the disease classes can still be discriminated via fine level classification using a combination of the geometry features, with an average accuracy of 76.24% for all shapes. PMID:26246842

  18. Mother Tongue Education: The West African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo, Ed.

    In the rapidly changing political, economic, and social life of West Africa, there is a renewed interest in cultural identity. This book describes the developments and the difficulties experienced by different West African countries in the use of mother tongues in multi-lingual society. The book was commissioned to give scholars, educators, and…

  19. Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

  20. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  1. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease. PMID:26582902

  2. A 3 dimensional assessment of the depth of tumor invasion in microinvasive tongue squamous cell carcinoma - A case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amit-Byatnal, Aditi; Natarajan, Jayalakshmi; Shenoy, Satish; Kamath, Asha; Hunter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the depth of tumor invasion (DI) in microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) of the tongue is critical to prognosis. An arithmetic model is generated to determine a reliable method of measurement of DI and correlate this with the local recurrence. Material and Methods Tumor thickness (TT) and DI were measured in tissue sections of 14 cases of MISCC of the tongue, by manual ocular micrometer and digital image analysis at four reference points (A, B, C, and D). The comparison of TT and DI with relevant clinicopathologic parameters was assessed using Mann Whitney U test. Reliability of these methods and the values obtained were compared and correlated with the recurrence of tumors by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. 3D reconstruction of the lesion was done on a Cartesian coordinate system. X face was on the YZ plane and Z face was on the XY plane of the coordinate system. Results Computer generated 3D model of oral mucosa in four cases that recurred showed increased DI in the Z coordinate compared to the XY coordinate. The median DI measurements between XY and Z coordinates in these cases showed no significant difference (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, p = 0.068). Conclusions The assessment of DI in 3 dimensions is critical for accurate assessment of MISCC and precise DI allows complete removal of tumor. Key words:Depth of invasion, tumor thickness, microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26449426

  3. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the ?-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). Results: The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology. PMID:25538382

  4. Specialized bat tongue is a hemodynamic nectar mop

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Cally J.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Nectarivorous birds and bats have evolved highly specialized tongues to gather nectar from flowers. Here, we show that a nectar-feeding bat, Glossophaga soricina, uses dynamic erectile papillae to collect nectar. In G. soricina, the tip of the tongue is covered with long filamentous papillae and resembles a brush or mop. During nectar feeding, blood vessels within the tongue tip become engorged with blood and the papillae become erect. Tumescence and papilla erection persist throughout tongue retraction, and nectar, trapped between the rows of erect papillae, is carried into the mouth. The tongue tip does not increase in overall volume as it elongates, suggesting that muscle contraction against the tongue’s fixed volume (i.e., a muscular hydrostat) is primarily responsible for tip elongation, whereas papilla erection is a hydraulic process driven by blood flow. The hydraulic system is embedded within the muscular hydrostat, and, thus, intrinsic muscle contraction may simultaneously increase the length of the tongue and displace blood into the tip. The tongue of G. soricina, together with the tongues of nectar-feeding bees and hummingbirds, which also have dynamic surfaces, could serve as valuable models for developing miniature surgical robots that are both protrusible and have highly dynamic surface configurations. PMID:23650382

  5. Newer Classification System for Fissured Tongue: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Sree Vijayabala, G.; Samata, Y.; Ravikiran, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Fissured tongue is a commonly encountered tongue disorder in dental practice. But there is a lack of data on different pattern, severity, and association of fissuring with various systemic disorders and other tongue anomalies. This study attempts to establish a classification system for fissured tongue and to know the correlation with the systemic health and other disorders of the tongue. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 subjects between the age groups of 10 and 80 years were included in the study. Pattern of fissuring, allied systemic diseases, and related tongue anomalies were tabulated. Results. Out of 1000 subjects, 387 subjects presented with fissured tongue. Out of 387 subjects, hypertension was present in 57 cases, 18 subjects had diabetes, and 3 subjects had both hypertension and diabetes. Central longitudinal type was found to be the most common type of tongue fissuring. Conclusion. Fissured tongue has been found to be associated with certain systemic disease and further researches are required to know positive correlation. If a correlation exists, such disorders could be diagnosed earlier by identifying fissured tongue at an earlier age. PMID:26457087

  6. Subgingival and Tongue Microbiota during Early Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Paster, B.J.; Lu, S.C.; Kanasi, E.; Kent, R.; Van Dyke, T.; Sonis, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    Periodontal infections have a microbial etiology. Association of species with early disease would be useful in determining which microbes initiate periodontitis. We hypothesized that the microbiota of subgingival and tongue samples would differ between early periodontitis and health. A cross-sectional evaluation of 141 healthy and early periodontitis adults was performed with the use of oligonucleotide probes and PCR. Most species differed in associations with sample sites; most subgingival species were associated with subgingival samples. Few species were detected more frequently in early periodontitis by DNA probes. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (Tannerella forsythensis) were associated with early periodontitis by direct PCR. In conclusion, the microbiota of tongue samples was less sensitive than that of subgingival samples in detecting periodontal species, and there was overlap in species detected in health and early periodontitis. Detection of periodontal pathogens in early periodontitis suggests an etiology similar to that of more advanced disease. PMID:16567551

  7. Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

  8. Sensing Basic Tastes by Electronic Tongue Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Zoltán; Szöll?si, Dániel; Fekete, András; Isz, Sandrine

    2011-09-01

    There is an increasing demand to develop method for simulating the human taste perception by objective instruments1. The task was to develop method for the assessment of definite taste attributes. Therefore, our objective was to develop complete method for sensing different taste attributes. The subject of this work was to test the Specific Sensor Array for taste screening developed by Alpha M.O.S. Different brands of carrot juices were analyzed by an Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue (ET) and a trained sensory panel. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the different carrot juice samples were significantly different from each other in some taste attributes. The electronic tongue was able to distinguish the tested samples according to the measurement results evaluated by multivariate statistics. Furthermore, the relevant taste attributes of carrot juice samples such as sour taste could be predicted by definite sensors of the electronic tongue. Based on our results we concluded that the selected sensors of the Specific Sensor Array could be an appropriate tool for estimating important taste attributes of the tested carrot juice samples.

  9. Scrape cytology in rare case of hairy tongue

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rekha; Nayak, Suprita; Munshi, Maitryee; Bobhate, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    Hairy tongue (HT) is a benign condition that causes concern over its abnormal appearance. HT is most commonly seen in adults and is seen as an abnormal coating of the tongue due to hyperkeratosis of filiform lingual papillae. Cytological scraping of the lesion on the tongue was done which showed squamous cells, extraneous material, bacterial colonies, fungal bodies, and hair-like projections, which are the hall mark of the disease. We present a case along with its scrape cytology findings. PMID:21938163

  10. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

    1995-09-01

    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower. PMID:8591770

  11. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  12. Human keratinocyte culture from the peritonsillar mucosa.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Michel, O; Mahrle, G; Krieg, T; Stennert, E

    1996-01-01

    Tonsillectomy tissue can be used as a routine source for cultures of oropharyngeal keratinocytes. In so doing, a peritonsillar strip of unaltered mucosa was dissected in the upper submucosa. Subsequent trypsinization yielded 7.0 +/- 3.4 x 10(6) keratinocytes per bilateral tonsillectomy. Keratinocyte attachment and growth in primary culture were promoted by sublethally irradiated 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Three subcultures could be performed without a feeder layer and were characterized by a population doubling time of 4.5 days during log growth phase. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis of the third subculture revealed a strong expression of keratin pairs 5/14 and 6/16 as well as keratins 7 and 19, whereas keratins 8/18 were expressed less intensely. The lowest intensity, was found for keratin 13, which is known to be indicative of the differentiated mucosa. The culture technique thus provides an easily available in vitro model for morphological and functional studies on the epithelial compartment of human oropharyngeal mucosa. PMID:8737778

  13. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  14. Nectar uptake in bats using a pumping-tongue mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Tschapka, Marco; Gonzalez-Terrazas, Tania P.; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Many insects use nectar as their principal diet and have mouthparts specialized in nectarivory, whereas most nectar-feeding vertebrates are opportunistic users of floral resources and only a few species show distinct morphological specializations. Specialized nectar-feeding bats extract nectar from flowers using elongated tongues that correspond to two vastly different morphologies: Most species have tongues with hair-like papillae, whereas one group has almost hairless tongues that show distinct lateral grooves. Recent molecular data indicate a convergent evolution of groove- and hair-tongued bat clades into the nectar-feeding niche. Using high-speed video recordings on experimental feeders, we show distinctly divergent nectar-feeding behavior in clades. Grooved tongues are held in contact with nectar for the entire duration of visit as nectar is pumped into the mouths of hovering bats, whereas hairy tongues are used in conventional sinusoidal lapping movements. Bats with grooved tongues use a specific fluid uptake mechanism not known from any other mammal. Nectar rises in semiopen lateral grooves, probably driven by a combination of tongue deformation and capillary action. Extraction efficiency declined for both tongue types with a similar slope toward deeper nectar levels. Our results highlight a novel drinking mechanism in mammals and raise further questions on fluid mechanics and ecological niche partitioning. PMID:26601270

  15. Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012). The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene. PMID:23414605

  16. The hummingbird's tongue: a self-assembling syphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Peaudecerf, Francois; Quere, David

    2009-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the drinking technique of the hummingbird. Its long, thin tongue is dipped into nectar approximately 20 times per second. With each insertion, fluid rises along the length of the tongue through capillary action. While the tongue is open in cross-section, resembling a sliced straw, experiments demonstrate that surface tension serves to close it, with the tongue's zipping front corresponding to the rising meniscus. Supporting theoretical and analogue experimental models of this novel, natural example of capillary origami are developed and explored.

  17. Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission. PMID:24143321

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Medically Performed Tongue Piercing in People with Tetraplegia for Use with Tongue-Operated Assistive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Rowles, Diane; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis; Kim, Jeonghee; Bruce, Joy; Roth, Elliot. J; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries need effective ways to perform activities. Objectives: To develop and test a medically supervised tongue-piercing protocol and the wearing of a magnet-containing tongue barbell for use with the Tongue Drive System (TDS) in persons with tetraplegia. Methods: Volunteers with tetraplegia underwent initial screening sessions using a magnet glued on the tongue to activate and use the TDS. This was followed by tongue piercing, insertion of a standard barbell, a 4-week healing period, and an exchange of the standard barbell for a magnet-containing barbell. This was then used twice weekly for 6 to 8 weeks to perform computer tasks, drive a powered wheelchair, accomplish in-chair weight shifts, and dial a phone. Symptoms of intraoral dysfunction, change in tongue size following piercing, and subjective assessment of receiving and wearing a magnet-containing tongue barbell and its usability with the TDS were evaluated. Results: Twenty-one volunteers underwent initial trial sessions. Thirteen had their tongues pierced. One individual’s barbell dislodged during healing resulting in tongue-tract closure. Twelve had the barbell exchanged for a magnet-containing barbell. One subject withdrew for unrelated issues. Eleven completed the TDS testing sessions and were able to complete the assigned tasks. No serious adverse events occurred related to wearing or using a tongue barbell to operate the TDS. Conclusions: Using careful selection criteria and a medically supervised piercing protocol, no excess risk was associated with tongue piercing and wearing a tongue barbell in people with tetraplegia. Participants were able to operate the TDS. PMID:25762861

  19. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  20. Cat Got Your Tongue? Using the Tip-of-the-Tongue State to Investigate Fixed Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A.; Bull, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms…

  1. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue base: a case for the case-report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A 60 year old lady was referred to the Princess Alexandra Hospital (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) tertiary Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Unit from a peripheral hospital for investigation and management of a tumour at the base of the tongue. Biopsy of the tumour revealed it to be an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the base of the tongue. This is an extremely rare tumour in this location with only 2 other case reports in the world literature: the patients were treated with chemo-radiotherapy and surgery respectively. Our patient was made aware of the world literature and was able to make a fully informed decision on her choice of treatment modality and was treated with radiotherapy. Increasingly journals are limiting publication of case reports to "world firsts" only. We present a case where such a policy would have denied patient choice and possibly led to detrimental treatment. We review the world literature of tongue base epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:20181065

  2. Tongue motion averaging from contour sequences Min Li, Chandra Kambhamettu

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    ultrasound, X-ray , MRI and many others. Tongue surfaces can be extracted from images [1][2] thus 2D tongue and Orthodontics University of Maryland Dental School Baltimore, MD 21201 mstone@umaryland.edu Abstract system [1]. The problem we are trying to solve is: given a set of 2D contour sequences

  3. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  4. Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

  5. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  6. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  7. Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…

  8. Evaluation of the maximum isometric tongue force of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ulrich Sommer, J; Birk, Richard; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2014-11-01

    The forces of specific muscle groups have been well described for nearly all parts of the human body. Interestingly, data for the tongue and its forces are rare. In light of ongoing development of systems for managing the tongue (retaining, advancing, suspending or stabilizing), especially in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, knowledge of the maximum tongue force is important for the conceptual design of those systems. The maximum tongue force in a sagittal direction was documented using a custom-built device that included a tongue clamp and a piezoelectric sensor to capture force measurements. Once positioned securely in the device, participants were asked to move the tongue in a posterior sagittal direction, with maximum force, in each of three test positions. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (29 male) were included in the study. Tongue force measurements were collected three times in three different tongue positions. Thirty-three participants had repeated measurements to investigate any potential learning effect. The maximum force of the human tongue in a posterior sagittal direction showed high inter-individual variation and ranged from 3.2 to 52.4 Newton (N; mean 14.1 ± 7.5 N), when measured from a "neutral protrusion or resting" tongue position. The "retracted" and "maximal protrusion" testing positions yielded lower maximum tongue forces. Men (m) showed statistically significantly higher tongue forces than women (w) (m: 16.0 ± 8.4 N, w: 11.0 ± 4.3 N), and there was a positive correlation with BMI and a negative correlation with age. Comparing the first measurement session with the second session (per patient) showed higher mean maximum forces in the second session, but with no statistical significance. The maximum tongue force data showed substantial inter- and intra-individual variability and gender dependency. Some male individuals produced very high forces. These forces should be considered for the future conception and development of tongue management systems and the mechanical stress to which these systems may be exposed. PMID:24970288

  9. Fungiform papillae of the tongue in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Kulawik, M; Godynicki, S

    2007-01-01

    Examinations were conducted on four tongues of adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). On the basis of observations in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) it was found that fungiform papillae in the rabbit are located on the dorsal surface of the apex and body of the tongue, in the front of the torus of the tongue and on the margins of the tongue. Moreover, fungiform papillae are located laterally in relation to the torus of the tongue and are arranged linearly. Fungiform papillae are distributed among filiform papillae and are separated from them by the interpapillary epithelium. The connective tissue core of fungiform papillae is formed from the body, narrow at the base and wider at the apex and 10-17 crest-like folds arranged around them. On the dorsal surface of the connective tissue core of fungiform papillae there are impressions of taste buds and occasionally traces of lymphatic nodules. PMID:17388021

  10. Interlaboratory testing of Insent e-tongues.

    PubMed

    Pein, Miriam; Gondongwe, Xolani Dereck; Habara, Masaaki; Winzenburg, Gesine

    2014-08-01

    The first interlaboratory testing of electronic taste sensing systems was performed within five participating centers, each working with the Insent (Insent Inc., Atsugi-Shi, Japan) e-tongue. Preparation of the samples for the comprised four experiments, shipping of the samples and evaluation of the results was performed at the University of Duesseldorf. The sensitivity (in this case the difference between lowest and highest sensor response) and slope of the regression line values, obtained within Experiment 1 and 2, have been found to serve as applicable evaluation criterions for interlaboratory comparability. Modified sensor responses could be attributed to aged sensors, but did not influence the results of either Experiment 3, dealing with the evaluation of film formulations, or Experiment 4, dealing with the evaluation of minitablet formulations, in a great amount. Presented PCA Score and Loading Scatter Plots as well as Euclidean distance patterns based on the raw sensor responses confirmed the comparable performance of Insent e-tongues of the participating centers. PMID:24560640

  11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Luc G. T.; Patel, Snehal G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Ganly, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes of a pediatric cohort of patients compared with a matched cohort of adult patients, all diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue. Outcomes of oral cancer in pediatric patients have not been studied, to our knowledge. Design Retrospective matched-pair cohort study. Setting Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Patients A total of 10 pediatric and 40 adult patients diagnosed as having SCC of the oral tongue. Main Outcome Measures Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results The 5-year OS was equivalent in the 2 groups: 70% in the pediatric group and 64% in the adult group (P=.97). The 5-year DSS was also equivalent: 80% in the pediatric group and 76% in the adult group (P=.90). The 5-year RFS was 70% in the pediatric group and 78% in the adult group (P=.54). Conclusions When pediatric and adult patients were matched for sex, tobacco use history, TNM status, surgical procedure, and adjuvant radiotherapy, outcomes for OS, DSS, and RFS were equivalent. Pediatric patients with SCC of the oral tongue should be treated similarly to adult patients. PMID:20644066

  12. Tongue carcinoma in an adult Down's syndrome patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Fadi S; Geara, Fady; Natout, Mohamed; Serhal, Jamal; Daya, Walid

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer of the oral cavity is rare and unusual in Down's syndrome patient. The over all risk is similar to that in adult population. Case presentation This case report describes a 27 years old male with Down's syndrome, non-smoker, who developed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The patient underwent a hemiglossectomy without neck dissection followed by a postoperative locoregional radiation therapy to a total tumor-bed dose of 56 Gy and 45 Gy to the neck. Three months later, the patient presented with local tongue recurrence and was treated by Docetaxel and Carboplatin chemotherapy with no significant response. The patient died one month later, 9 months after his initial diagnosis. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case of tongue carcinoma arising in a patient with Down's syndrome. This unique case might not be sufficient to make a significant conclusion on the prognosis and survival of these patients but will increase the awareness about this possibility and will help in the appropriate management of Down's syndrome patients. PMID:19261193

  13. Intestinal mucosa of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    1975-02-01

    The intestinal mucosa of the platypus takes the form of numerous transverse surface folds. These folds are made up of a lamina propria covered by pseudostratified epithelium which lies on a thick modified basement membrane. The cells of the intestinal epithelium consist of columnar cells which generally resemble typical intestinal epithelium and cuboidal cells, which are undifferentiated in appearance, show few organelles and possess an electron lucent cytoplasm. Numerous desmosomes are found between the adjacent cell membranes of both cell types. Villi are absent and appear to be represented by the large surface folds. Intestinal glands are composed of columnar epithelium similar to that found in the intestinal glands of other mammalian species. Groups of these glands drain into common tubular ducts which follow a tortuous course and empty into the intestinal lumen between the surface folds. The peculiar morphological features of the platypus intestinal mucosa raise questions concerning traditional concepts of intestinal gland formation as well as the origin and migration of intestinal epithelium with regard to this particular species. PMID:1115355

  14. Luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    The upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including gastric acid, CO2 and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility. We propose the mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed to trigger mucosal defense mechanisms via mucosal acid sensors and taste receptors. Luminal acid/CO2 is sensed via ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases and ion transporters in the epithelial cells and via acid sensors on the afferent nerves in the duodenum and esophagus. Gastric acid sensing is differentially mediated via endocrine cell acid sensors and afferent nerves. Furthermore, a luminal L-glutamate signal is mediated via epithelial L-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca2+ is differently sensed via calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help activate mucosal defense mechanisms in order to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses of the upper GI tract. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the upper GI mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism, and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:20518751

  15. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine-MRI and Tagged-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help to diagnose and treat vocal tract related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. We have compared tissue tracking results from four widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to Cine-MRI with harmonic phase (HARP)-based tracking applied to tagged-MRI. Method Ten subjects repeated the words “a geese” multiple times while sagittal images of the head were collected at 26 Hz, first in a tagged-MRI data set, and then in a Cine-MRI data set. HARP tracked the motion of eight specified tissue points in the tagged data set. Four DR methods including diffeomorphic demons and free-form deformations based on cubic B-spline with three different similarity measures were used to track the same eight points in the Cine-MRI data set. Individual points were tracked and length changes of several muscles were calculated using the DR and HARP based tracking methods. Results Results showed that the DR tracking errors were non-systematic and varied in direction, amount, and timing across speakers and within speakers. Comparison of HARP and DR tracking with manual tracking showed better tracking results for HARP except at the tongue surface, where mistracking caused greater errors in HARP than DR. Conclusions Tissue point tracking using DR tracking methods contain non-systematic tracking errors within and across subjects, making it less successful than tagged-MRI tracking within the tongue. However, HARP sometimes mistracks points at the tongue surface of tagged MRI due to its limited bandpass filter and tag pattern fading, so that DR has better success measuring surface tissue points on Cine-MRI than HARP does. Therefore a hybrid method is being explored. PMID:24686470

  16. Cysteamine-induced inhibition of acid neutralization and the increase in hydrogen ion back-diffusion in duodenal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, K.; Okada, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Inoue, M.; Miyoshi, A.

    1982-03-01

    To investigate the possible impairment of defensive mechanisms in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration, the effect of cysteamine on the neutralization of acid by the duodenum and the back-diffusion of hydrogen ions into the duodenal mucosa has been studied. The results obtained were as follows. (1) The intraduodenal pH started to decrease between 3 and 4 hr after cysteamine injection. (2) By perfusion of the duodenal loop excluding the opening of bile and pancreatic ducts, the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) neutralized was found to be significantly lower in cysteamine-treated animals than in the controls. (3) the back-diffusion of luminal H+ into the duodenal mucosa, estimated by measuring the H+ disappearance from the test solution including 100 mM HCl, was significantly increased by cysteamine. From these findings, it has been concluded that cysteamine reduces the resistance of duodenal mucosa to acid coming from the stomach.

  17. An unusual tongue base mass in an infant: Tongue base sialolipoma.

    PubMed

    Teo, Dawn T; Johnson, Romaine F; McClay, John E

    2015-12-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the head and neck. We present a case arising from a minor salivary gland in an infant. The 6-month-old infant presented with difficulty swallowing, frequent reflux, and snoring that had been worsening several weeks before presentation. Physical examination showed a large mass arising from the tongue base. The patient was taken to the operating room for transoral removal of a presumed cyst. Histologic examination of the lesion showed a well-circumscribed lesion composed of lobules of mature adipose tissue and nodules of entrapped, non-neoplastic acini and ductules separated by thin, fibrous septae, consistent with a sialolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a sialolipoma at the tongue base in a child. The patient has had no evidence of recurrence at 1 year of follow-up. PMID:26670759

  18. Mood-induced variations of mandible and tongue postures.

    PubMed

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2013-06-01

    Twelve young adults in a good general health were observed during habitual posture of tongue and jaw in different emotional conditions induced by watching three video sequences. The position of the mandible was tracked by the displacements of an electromagnetic sensor glued to the chin. The tongue-to-palate distance was obtained by 2-D location of three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper midline surface. Head displacements were evaluated with a sensor fixed to an upper central incisor and were subtracted from corresponding displacements of tongue and chin sensors to obtain the real tongue and mandible positions during continuous recording sequences. Emotional conditioning by a fear movie influenced the vertical position of the mandible: the mean interarch distances during the fear movie (2·34 ± 0·24 mm) were significantly different from those measured during the tender (3·13 ± 0·35) and neutral (3·42 ± 0·80) movies, respectively (anova repeated measure, SNK; P < 0·05). anova repeated measure indicated that the tongue-to-palate distance differed significantly when the subjects were watching the conditioning movies (P = 0·003), the tip of the tongue taking a lower position during the fear movie than during the tender and neutral movies. PMID:23556417

  19. Electronic Tongue for Quantitation of Contaminants in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  20. Molecularly imprinted polymers as recognition materials for electronic tongues.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2015-12-15

    For over three decades now, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have successfully been used for selective chemical sensing because the shape and size of their imprinted molecular cavities perfectly matched those of the target analyte molecules. Moreover, orientation of recognizing sites of these cavities corresponded to those of the binding sites of the template molecules. In contrast, electronic tongue (e-tongue) is usually an array of low-affinity recognition units. Its selectivity is based on recognition pattern or multivariate analysis. Merging these two sensing devices led to a synergetic hybrid sensor, an MIP based e-tongue. Fabrication of these e-tongues permitted simultaneous sensing and discriminating several analytes in complex solutions of many components so that these arrays compensated for limitation in cross-reactivity of MIPs. Apparently, analytical signals generated by MIP-based e-tongues, compared to those of ordinary sensor arrays, were more reliable where a unique pattern or 'fingerprint' for each analyte was generated. Additionally, several transduction platforms (from spectroscopic to electrochemical) engaged in constructing MIP-based e-tongues, found their broad and flexible applications. The present review critically evaluates achievements in recent developments of the MIP based e-tongues for chemosensing. PMID:26233642

  1. Slip of the tongue: Implications for evolution and language development.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Gillian S; Rodriguez, Alina

    2015-08-01

    A prevailing theory regarding the evolution of language implicates a gestural stage prior to the emergence of speech. In support of a transition of human language from a gestural to a vocal system, articulation of the hands and the tongue are underpinned by overlapping left hemisphere dominant neural regions. Behavioral studies demonstrate that human adults perform sympathetic mouth actions in imitative synchrony with manual actions. Additionally, right-handedness for precision manual actions in children has been correlated with the typical development of language, while a lack of hand bias has been associated with psychopathology. It therefore stands to reason that sympathetic mouth actions during fine precision motor action of the hands may be lateralized. We employed a fine-grained behavioral coding paradigm to provide the first investigation of tongue protrusions in typically developing 4-year old children. Tongue protrusions were investigated across a range of cognitive tasks that required varying degrees of manual action: precision motor action, gross motor action and no motor actions. The rate of tongue protrusions was influenced by the motor requirements of the task and tongue protrusions were significantly right-biased for only precision manual motor action (p<.001). From an evolutionary perspective, tongue protrusions can drive new investigations regarding how an early human communication system transitioned from hand to mouth. From a developmental perspective, the present study may serve to reveal patterns of tongue protrusions during the motor development of typically developing children. PMID:25966841

  2. The Effect of Jaw Position on Measures of Tongue Strength and Endurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Munson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of tongue strength and endurance is common in research and clinical contexts. It is unclear whether the results reveal discrete function by the tongue or combined abilities of the tongue and jaw. One way to isolate the movement of the tongue is to constrain the jaw kinematically by using a bite block. In this study, 10 neurologically…

  3. Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa, L, Young, J & Calam, J 1990, 'Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa and investigate your claim. Download date: 05. Jul. 2015 #12;Gut, 1990, 31, 1318-1323 Pancreatic secretory trypsin

  4. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  5. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  6. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED IN DAM CONSTRUCTION, NORTH EAST OF EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTH - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  7. 11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR SIDING IN LIVING QUARTERS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. The hummingbird's tongue: a self-assembling capillary syphon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonjung; Peaudecerf, François; Baldwin, Maude W.; Bush, John W. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of drinking in ruby-throated hummingbirds. In vivo observations reveal elastocapillary deformation of the hummingbird's tongue and capillary suction along its length. By developing a theoretical model for the hummingbird's drinking process, we investigate how the elastocapillarity affects the energy intake rate of the bird and how its open tongue geometry reduces resistance to nectar uptake. We note that the tongue flexibility is beneficial for accessing, transporting and unloading the nectar. We demonstrate that the hummingbird can attain the fastest nectar uptake when its tongue is roughly semicircular. Finally, we assess the relative importance of capillary suction and a recently proposed fluid trapping mechanism, and conclude that the former is important in many natural settings. PMID:23075839

  9. E-tongue 2 REDOX response to heavy metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Kounaves, S. P.

    2002-01-01

    E-Tongue 2 an array of electrochemical sensors including REDOX electrodes for Cylic Voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry measurements, Galvanic cells for corrosion measurements, and Ion Selective Electrodes.

  10. 51. Photocopied August 1978. PREMOULDED TONGUE AND GROOVE CONCRETE BLOCKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopied August 1978. PRE-MOULDED TONGUE AND GROOVE CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR TAIL RACE AND FOREBAY WALLS AND THE CONCRETE MIXER IN MID-1900. (70) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue.

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Jurriaan H.; van Leeuwen, Johan L.

    2004-01-01

    To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s(-2). At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to power tongue projection directly during the actual fast projection of the tongue. However, high-speed recordings of Chamaeleo melleri and C. pardalis reveal that peak powers of 3000 W kg(-1) are necessary to generate the observed accelerations, which exceed the accelerator muscle's capacity by at least five- to 10-fold. Extrinsic structures might power projection via the tongue skeleton. High-speed fluoroscopy suggests that they contribute less than 10% of the required peak instantaneous power. Thus, the projection power must be generated predominantly within the tongue, and an energy-storage-and-release mechanism must be at work. The key structure in the projection mechanism is probably a cylindrical connective-tissue layer, which surrounds the entoglossal process and was previously suggested to act as lubricating tissue. This tissue layer comprises at least 10 sheaths that envelop the entoglossal process. The outer portion connects anteriorly to the accelerator muscle and the inner portion to the retractor structures. The sheaths contain helical arrays of collagen fibres. Prior to projection, the sheaths are longitudinally loaded by the combined radial contraction and hydrostatic lengthening of the accelerator muscle, at an estimated mean power of 144 W kg(-1) in C. melleri. Tongue projection is triggered as the accelerator muscle and the loaded portions of the sheaths start to slide over the tip of the entoglossal process. The springs relax radially while pushing off the rounded tip of the entoglossal process, making the elastic energy stored in the helical fibres available for a simultaneous forward acceleration of the tongue pad, accelerator muscle and retractor structures. The energy release continues as the multilayered spring slides over the tip of the smooth and lubricated entoglossal process. This sliding-spring theory predicts that the sheaths deliver most of the instantaneous power required for tongue projection. The release power of the sliding tubular springs exceeds the work rate of the accelerator muscle by at least a factor of 10 because the elastic-energy release occurs much faster than the loading process. Thus, we have identified a unique catapult mechanism that is very different from standard engineering designs. Our morphological and kinematic observations, as well as the available literature data, are consistent with the proposed mechanism of tongue projection, although experimental tests of the sheath strain and the lubrication of the entoglossal process are currently beyond our technical scope. PMID:15209111

  12. Resonance Tongues in Hill's Equations: A Geometric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broer, Henk; Simó, Carles

    2000-09-01

    The geometry of resonance tongues is considered in, mainly reversible, versions of Hill's equation, close to the classical Mathieu case. Hill's map assigns to each value of the multiparameter the corresponding Poincaré matrix. By an averaging method, the geometry of Hill's map locally can be understood in terms of cuspoid Whitney singularities. This adds robustness to the result. The algorithmic nature of the averaging method enables a pull-back to the resonance tongues of the original system.

  13. Tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Lun-Chien; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chiang, John Y; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lin, Hong-Jen; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology that causes the immune system to attack the joints (synoviums), leading to chronic inflammation. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), RA falls into the category of Impediment disease ("Bi" syndrome), that is, poor circulation of qi and blood (stasis). Tongue diagnosis is an important method of TCM to detect blood stasis. In this study, 74 RA patients, meeting the pre-set criteria, were recruited via rheumatology outpatient clinic and examined by experienced rheumatology physicians. Two images-one of the tongue and the other, sublingual vessels-of the same patient were taken by a Canon digital camera in a darkroom with uniform lighting conditions. Relevant features of the tongue were extracted by utilising image processing techniques. Every tongue was classified into corresponding patterns based on the features identified. The subjects included 62 females and 12 males with an average age of 49.86 ± 13.81 years old, an average morbidity period of 4.56 ± 3.92 years, an average rheumatoid factor (RF) of 225.3 ± 373.8 IU/mL and an average erythrocyte sedimentation rate of (ESR) 40.9 ± 31.9 m/hr. According to our study, 86% of the patients with RA have tongues with sublingual vessels with a width of more than 2.7 mm, a length of more than 3/5 from tongue tipto sublingual caruncle, or a count of sublingual vessels more than 2. Moreover, since RA index is highly correlated with blood stasis in TCM, a logistic regression is conducted to predict the probability of presence of RA using RF and ESR as explanatory variables. Also, the logistic regression analysis of RA with respect to the conventional tongue diagnosis criteria was performed. Based on the aforementioned studies, we concluded that tongue diagnosis is helpful in detecting blood stasis of RA. PMID:24311851

  14. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tongue – clinicopathological study and survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Carmona-Luna, Tania; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    Background To review the demographic data of a series of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the tongue, as well as to analyze c-kit expression, histopathologic patterns, prognostic factors, evolution, recurrences and/or persistence and survival. Methods Retrospective study from 1986 to 2006, which reviews a database of 68 patients with diagnosis of head and neck ACC. Results We found eight cases of ACC of the tongue (11.7% of all head and neck ACCs). There were 7 female (87.5%) and 1 male (12.5%) patients, with an average age of 51 years (range 33 to 67 years). Seven patients were surgically treated, three of which required adjuvant treatment. Only one female patient did not accept treatment. Average follow-up time was 5.3 years. Metastases developed in 37% of cases during the follow-up period. Histopathologically, the cribriform pattern predominated (6/8 cases). All cases presented perineural invasion, and one patient also presented vascular invasion. c-kit positivity was observed in all cases. Global survival in the seven treated cases was 51% and 34% at 5 and 10 years, respectively, while the disease-free period was of 64% at 3 years and 42% at 10 years. Conclusion ACC of the tongue is a rare neoplasm, in which early diagnosis is important because these are slowly-growing tumors that produce diffuse invasion. As the role of c-kit could not be assesed in this series, surgery continues to be the cornerstone of treatment and radiotherapy is indicated when surgical margins are compromised. Metastatic disease is still hard to handle because of the lack of adequate therapies for these tumors. Hence, survival has not changed in the last years. PMID:19480697

  15. A unique complication of radiofrequency therapy to the tongue base

    PubMed Central

    Tornari, Chrysostomos; Wong, Gentle; Arora, Asit; Kotecha, Bhik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Radiofrequency ablation treatment of the tongue base can be used either alone or as part of a multilevel approach in the treatment of snoring. This involves the generation of thermal energy around the circumvallate papillae of the tongue. Potential complications include ulceration, dysphagia, haematoma and abscess formation. Presentation of case We present the case of a 50-year-old patient who developed an anterior neck swelling following a second application of radiofrequency ablation therapy to the tongue base for snoring. This was secondary to an infection of a previously undiagnosed thyroglossal cyst. The patient made a full recovery following intravenous antibiotic therapy and ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Discussion Thyroglossal tract remnants are thought to be present in seven percent of the adult population. An infection in a thyroglossal tract cyst has not previously been reported following radiofrequency ablation of the tongue base. Given the relatively high complication rate of tongue base radiofrequency ablation in some series, this complication may be under-recognised. Conclusion An infected thyroglossal tract cyst should be suspected in patients with anterior neck swellings following radiofrequency ablation therapy to the tongue base. We advise caution when performing this procedure on patients with known thyroglossal tract remnants though there is insufficient evidence to suggest that this procedure is contraindicated. PMID:25603484

  16. The function of oscillatory tongue-flicks in snakes: insights from kinematics of tongue-flicking in the banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata).

    PubMed

    Daghfous, Gheylen; Smargiassi, Maïté; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Wattiez, Ruddy; Bels, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    Tongue-flicking is an important sensory behavior unique to squamate reptiles in which chemical stimuli gathered by the tongue are delivered the vomeronasal organ situated in the roof of the mouth. Because tongue-flick numbers can easily be quantified, this behavior has been widely used as a measure of vomeronasal sampling in snakes using related variables such as tongue-flick rate or tongue-flick/attack score. Surprisingly, the behavior itself and especially the function of the oscillatory tongue-flicks remains poorly understood. To describe the overall kinematics of tongue-flicking in the colubrid snake Nerodia fasciata and to test predictions on the function of oscillatory tongue-flicks, we filmed the tongue-flicks of 8 adult Nerodia fasciata using 4 synchronized high-speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematic and performance variables were extracted from the videos in order to quantify tongue movements. Based on the kinematic analysis, we demonstrate the existence of 2 functional and behavioral tongue-flick categories. Tongue-flicks with oscillations meet all the criteria for being adapted to the collection of odorants; simple downward extensions appear better suited for the rapid pick up of nonvolatile chemical stimuli from the substrate or a food item. External stimuli such as tactile and/or vomeronasal stimulation can induce a shift between these categories. PMID:22942105

  17. Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure…

  18. Natural defense by saliva and mucosa against oral infection by Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Asoh, Tatsuma; Saito, Mitsumasa; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Leptospirosis caused by drinking water has not been as frequently reported as percutaneous infection. Resistance to oral infection by pathogenic Leptospira was examined in an experimental hamster infection model. The results suggested some natural defenses against oral infection by Leptospira. First, we found that characteristic linear agglutination of Leptospira rapidly occurs when mixed with human saliva. That human saliva attenuated the infectivity of the treated leptospires by its agglutination activity suggested saliva to be the first line of defense against oral infection by leptospires. Second, only 10(1) Leptospira organisms caused death after submucosal injection into oral mucosa in hamsters, but oral infection with drinking water containing 10(5) organisms/mL did not cause death. This result showed that the mucosa plays the role of a physical barrier. Third, hamsters intragastrically infected by leptospires, with doses lethal to hamsters in oral infection, showed no signs of illness, which suggested that gastric acid plays an important role in preventing oral infection. Based on these results, saliva, mucosa, and gastric acid make up a natural defense, which confers high resistance to hosts against oral infection by leptospires. PMID:24861456

  19. Alisertib (MLN8237), a selective Aurora-A kinase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin; Zhang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Aurora-A kinases are overexpressed in many cancer tissues and cells. Alisertib is an investigational, orally administered, selective, small-molecule Aurora-A kinase inhibitor with preclinical activity against a broad range of tumors. Our study was aimed to detect the effects of alisertib on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (HTSCC). Treatment of a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line, HSC-3, with alisertib to inhibition of Aurora-A kinases reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by activation of the ATM/Chk2/p53 pathway. In vivo, inhibition of Aurora-A kinases in established xenografted tumors decreased tumor size and weight. Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis demonstrated that the cumulative survival time of mice without Aurora-A kinases was significantly longer than those with Aurora-A kinases. Our data provide the basis for developing alisertib to treat human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25366143

  20. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  1. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa. PMID:23422613

  2. Application of single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bing-Yang; Leng, Jian-Jun; Wan, Tao; Zhang, Wen-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the simplicity, reliability, and safety of the application of single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of patients who received pancreaticoduodenectomy completed by the same surgical group between January 2011 and April 2014 in the General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army. In total, 51 cases received single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis and 51 cases received double-layer pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. The diagnoses of pancreatic fistula and clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy were judged strictly by the International Study Group on pancreatic fistula definition. The preoperative and intraoperative data of these two groups were compared. ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze the incidences of pancreatic fistula, peritoneal catheterization, abdominal infection and overall complications between the single-layer anastomosis group and double-layer anastomosis group. Rank sum test were used to analyze the difference in operation time, pancreaticojejunal anastomosis time, postoperative hospitalization time, total hospitalization time and hospitalization expenses between the single-layer anastomosis group and double-layer anastomosis group. RESULTS: Patients with grade A pancreatic fistula accounted for 15.69% (8/51) vs 15.69% (8/51) (P = 1.0000), and patients with grades B and C pancreatic fistula accounted for 9.80% (5/51) vs 52.94% (27/51) (P = 0.0000) in the single-layer and double-layer anastomosis groups. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients with grade A pancreatic fistula, there was a significant difference in the percentage of patients with grades B and C pancreatic fistula between the two groups. The operation time (220.059 ± 60.602 min vs 379.412 ± 90.761 min, P = 0.000), pancreaticojejunal anastomosis time (17.922 ± 5.145 min vs 31.333 ± 7.776 min, P = 0.000), postoperative hospitalization time (18.588 ± 5.285 d vs 26.373 ± 15.815 d, P = 0.003), total hospitalization time (25.627 ± 6.551 d vs 33.706 ± 15.899 d, P = 0.002), hospitalization expenses (116787.667 ± 31900.927 yuan vs 162788.608 ± 129732.500 yuan, P = 0.001), as well as the incidences of pancreatic fistula [13/51 (25.49%) vs 35/51 (68.63%), P = 0.0000], peritoneal catheterization [0/51 (0%) vs 6/51 (11.76%), P = 0.0354], abdominal infection [1/51 (1.96%) vs 11/51 (21.57%), P = 0.0021], and overall complications [21/51 (41.18%) vs 37/51 (72.55%), P = 0.0014] in the single-layer anastomosis group were all lower than those in the double-layer anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Single-layer mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis appears to be a simple, reliable, and safe method. Use of this method could reduce the postoperative incidence of complications. PMID:26649157

  3. A control model of human tongue movements in speech.

    PubMed

    Sanguineti, V; Laboissière, R; Payan, Y

    1997-07-01

    Tongue movements during speech production have been investigated by means of a simple yet realistic biomechanical model, based on a finite elements modeling of soft tissues, in the framework of the equilibrium point hypothesis (lambda-model) of motor control. In particular, the model has been applied to the estimation of the "central" control commands issued to the muscles, for a data set of mid-sagittal digitized tracings of vocal tract shape, recorded by means of low-intensity X-ray cineradiographies during speech. In spite of the highly non-linear mapping between the shape of the oral cavity and its acoustic consequences, the organization of control commands preserves the peculiar spatial organization of vowel phonemes in acoustic space. A factor analysis of control commands, which have been decomposed into independent or "orthogonal" muscle groups, has shown that, in spite of the great mobility of the tongue and the highly complex arrangement of tongue muscles, its movements can be explained in terms of the activation of a small number of independent muscle groups, each corresponding to an elementary or "primitive" movement. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the tongue is controlled by a small number of independent "articulators", for which a precise biomechanical substrate is provided. The influence of the effect of jaw and hyoid movements on tongue equilibrium has also been evaluated, suggesting that the bony structures cannot be considered as a moving frame of reference, but, indeed, there may be a substantial interaction between them and the tongue, that may only be accounted for by a "global" model. The reported results also define a simple control model for the tongue and, in analogy with similar modelling studies, they suggest that, because of the peculiar geometrical arrangement of tongue muscles, the central nervous system (CNS) may not need a detailed representation of tongue mechanics but rather may make use of a relatively small number of muscle synergies, that are invariant over the whole space of tongue configurations. PMID:9309860

  4. Osteogenic cell fractions isolated from mouse tongue muscle

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, KOJI; HARADA, TOYOKO; FERDOUS, TARANNUM; TAKENAWA, TAKANORI; UEYAMA, YOSHIYA

    2015-01-01

    The use of stem cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of bone defects. However, successful treatments rely upon the availability of cells that are easily obtained and that appropriately differentiate into osteoblasts. The tongue potentially represents a source of autologous cells for such purposes. In the present study, the ability of stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) positive cells derived from tongue muscle to differentiate into osteoblasts was investigated. The tongue muscles were excised from Jcl-ICR mice and tongue muscle-derived Sca-1-positive cells (TDSCs) were isolated from the tongue muscle using a magnetic cell separation system with microbeads. TDSCs were cultured in plastic dishes or gelatin sponges of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with bone differentiation-inducing medium. The expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and osteopontin) was investigated in cultured TDSCs by western blot analysis. The formation of mineralized matrices was examined using alizarin red S and Von Kossa staining. Bone formation was investigated in cultured TDSCs by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemstry. In the present study, the expression of Sca-1 in mouse tongue muscle was demonstrated and TDSCs were isolated at high purity. TDSCs differentiated into cells of osteoblast lineage, as demonstrated by the upregulation of osteoblastic marker expression. The formation of mineralized matrices was confirmed by alizarin red S or Von Kossa staining in vitro. Bone formation was observed in the gelatin sponges of ?-TCP, which were subsequently implanted under the skin of the backs of nude mice. These results suggested that TDSCs retain their osteogenic differentiation potential and therefore the tongue muscle may be used as a source of stem cells for bone regeneration. PMID:25684092

  5. Osteogenic cell fractions isolated from mouse tongue muscle.

    PubMed

    Harada, Koji; Harada, Toyoko; Ferdous, Tarannum; Takenawa, Takanori; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2015-07-01

    The use of stem cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of bone defects. However, successful treatments rely upon the availability of cells that are easily obtained and that appropriately differentiate into osteoblasts. The tongue potentially represents a source of autologous cells for such purposes. In the present study, the ability of stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) positive cells derived from tongue muscle to differentiate into osteoblasts was investigated. The tongue muscles were excised from Jcl-ICR mice and tongue muscle-derived Sca-1-positive cells (TDSCs) were isolated from the tongue muscle using a magnetic cell separation system with microbeads. TDSCs were cultured in plastic dishes or gelatin sponges of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with bone differentiation-inducing medium. The expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and osteopontin) was investigated in cultured TDSCs by western blot analysis. The formation of mineralized matrices was examined using alizarin red S and Von Kossa staining. Bone formation was investigated in cultured TDSCs by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the expression of Sca-1 in mouse tongue muscle was demonstrated and TDSCs were isolated at high purity. TDSCs differentiated into cells of osteoblast lineage, as demonstrated by the upregulation of osteoblastic marker expression. The formation of mineralized matrices was confirmed by alizarin red S or Von Kossa staining in vitro. Bone formation was observed in the gelatin sponges of ?-TCP, which were subsequently implanted under the skin of the backs of nude mice. These results suggested that TDSCs retain their osteogenic differentiation potential and therefore the tongue muscle may be used as a source of stem cells for bone regeneration. PMID:25684092

  6. 78 FR 17752 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-In Custer, Powder River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Docket No. FD 30186] Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction...On October 16, 2012, Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc. (TRRC) filed a revised...and Tongue River III portions of the...

  7. Surface morphology of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) tongue.

    PubMed

    Crole, M R; Soley, J T

    2010-08-01

    Despite numerous morphological studies on the avian tongue, very little meaningful information is currently available on the surface features of this organ using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The only SEM description of a ratite tongue is that of the ostrich, although the descriptions are brief and superficial. This SEM study of the emu tongue confirms and compliments the comprehensive macroscopic and histological data available for this commercially important species. The tongues of five emus were fixed, cut into blocks representing the dorsum, ventrum and root and routinely processed for SEM. Three morphologically distinguishable surface types (desquamating, non-desquamating and lymphoepithelium) related to peculiarities in surface cell shape and status (desquamating or non-desquamating), cell surface modifications and distribution of gland openings, and which showed a regional distribution, could be identified. Three basic types of cell surface modifications (microplicae, microvilli and cilia) were observed, with microvilli and cilia being described for the first time in an avian tongue by SEM. The desquamating surface cells fulfil a mechanical protective function, whereas the microplicae, microvilli and cilia appear to be adaptations for the trapping and spreading of mucus which also fulfils a protective function. PMID:20491751

  8. Measures of tongue function related to normal swallowing.

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2006-04-01

    The availability of objective measures of tongue function presents a possible supplement to the clinical dysphagia evaluation. The purpose of this study was to improve our understanding of normal tongue physiology during swallowing and maximum isometric tasks, establish a preliminary database of tongue function variables, and determine if differences existed among the variables as a function of age, gender, or varied bolus consistency. Ninety subjects, divided into age and gender groups, participated in tasks that determined maximum isometric tongue pressure, mean tongue pressure during swallowing, and percentage of maximum isometric pressure used during swallowing. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and analyses of variance were computed to analyze the data. Results indicated that males had significantly higher maximum isometric pressures than females, and the youngest group had significantly higher maximum pressures than the oldest group. Mean swallowing pressures and percentage of maximum isometric pressures used during swallowing differed as a function of bolus type but did not differ as a function of age or gender. In addition, maximum isometric pressures were correlated with mean swallowing pressures, and mean swallowing pressures and percentage of maximum isometric pressures used during swallowing were correlated between consistencies. PMID:16685469

  9. A Comparative Study of Contemporary Color Tongue Image Extraction Methods Based on HSI

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingfeng; Du, Jianqiang; Ding, Chenghua

    2014-01-01

    Tongue image with coating is of important clinical diagnostic meaning, but traditional tongue image extraction method is not competent for extraction of tongue image with thick coating. In this paper, a novel method is suggested, which applies multiobjective greedy rules and makes fusion of color and space information in order to extract tongue image accurately. A comparative study of several contemporary tongue image extraction methods is also made from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. As the experimental results show, geodesic active contour is quite slow and not accurate, the other 3 methods achieve fairly good segmentation results except in the case of the tongue with thick coating, our method achieves ideal segmentation results whatever types of tongue images are, and efficiency of our method is acceptable for the application of quantitative check of tongue image. PMID:25505903

  10. Treatment of skeletal open-bite malocclusion with lymphangioma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chooryung J; Hwang, Soonshin; Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2012-05-01

    Lymphangioma of the tongue causes massive tongue enlargement, leading to difficulties in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, and skeletal deformities such as open-bite malocclusion. Early reduction of tongue volume improved the excessive open bite in a young girl, but it was not sufficient to redirect the original hyperdivergent growth pattern. Orthodontic camouflage treatment was therefore rendered. Long-term evaluation after tongue-reduction surgery and orthodontic treatment is presented. PMID:22554757

  11. Ultrasonography of the tongue in macroglossia – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kyrcz-Krzemie?, S?awomira; Cie?lik, Pawe?; Urba?ska-Krawiec, Dagmara

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to assess the usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of the enlargement of the tongue (macroglossia). The role of sonography in diagnosing local pathologies of the tongue, such as neoplasms, abscesses or granulomas, has been well-established for 20 years. Rarely is its usefulness considered with respect to diagnosing macroglossia with concomitant systemic diseases. The starting point of these considerations was the presented case of a 59-year-old patient with considerably enlarged tongue. The patient had difficulty speaking and ingesting meals. Moreover, he complained about swelling and pain in the carpal and proximal interphalangeal joints. Tongue ultrasound examination revealed blurred lingual structure with evident, irregular vascular pattern in the color Doppler. The obtained image helped to rule out local pathology of the tongue and directed our diagnostic considerations towards immunoglobulin-related diseases (deposition diseases). We believe that the presented ultrasound image of the tongue was helpful in the diagnostic process. Establishing the final, correct diagnosis was a particularly strenuous process. The suspicion of a deposition disease had been rejected during two previous stays in two hospitals. This was the consequence of a negative diagnostic test of staining tissue deposits with Congo red. An accurate diagnosis occurred to be a rare form of a deposition disease: lambda light chain disease with symptoms of amyloidosis. Such a diagnosis was based on a thorough hematological analysis. A high level of free lambda light chains in the serum was detected and the bone marrow biopsy showed 13% of plasma cells. The patient underwent chemotherapy.

  12. Entanglement tongue and quantum synchronization of disordered oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tony E.; Chan, Ching-Kit; Wang, Shenshen

    2014-02-01

    We study the synchronization of dissipatively coupled van der Pol oscillators in the quantum limit, when each oscillator is near its quantum ground state. Two quantum oscillators with different frequencies exhibit an entanglement tongue, which is the quantum analog of an Arnold tongue. It means that the oscillators are entangled in steady state when the coupling strength is greater than a critical value, and the critical coupling increases with detuning. An ensemble of many oscillators with random frequencies still exhibits a synchronization phase transition in the quantum limit, and we analytically calculate how the critical coupling depends on the frequency disorder. Our results can be experimentally observed with trapped ions or neutral atoms.

  13. Abstract: This paper presents predictions of the consequences of tongue surgery on speech

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    of tongue surgery, which are common in the treatment of cancers of the oral cavity, are modelled, namelyAbstract: This paper presents predictions of the consequences of tongue surgery on speech: biomechanical modelling, tongue surgery, glossectomy, speech production I. INTRODUCTION Resection surgery can

  14. Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Christopher V.

    Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature Christopher that an elastically powered movement, ballistic tongue projection in chameleons, maintains high performance over a 20). We find that, unlike these other dynamic movements, bal- listic tongue projection in chameleons

  15. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  16. Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

  17. Drug-induced lesions of the oesophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Lesions of the oesophageal mucosa are observed in various situations: most often with gastrooesophageal reflux disease, but also with infections, cancer, contact with a toxic substance, etc. When they are symptomatic, these lesions provoke burning sensations, dysphagia, regurgitation and sometimes dorsal pain. The changes to the oesophageal mucosa may take various forms: inflammation, erosion, ulceration or necrosis. Serious or even fatal complications can develop but are rare; they include oesophageal perforation, stricture and haemorrhage. Some oral drugs damage the oesophageal mucosa through direct contact. The symptoms often develop several hours after ingestion. The pain is of sudden onset. The resulting lesions are solitary or multiple ulcers that vary in depth and usually occur in the upper portion of the oesophagus. Various factors prolong contact between a drug and the oesophageal mucosa, in particular: swallowing the drug with insufficient liquid or just before lying down; capsule forms; and oesophageal abnormalities. The drugs most frequently implicated are tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, bisphosphonates and various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Many drugs, used in various situations, provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, sometimes causing mucosal lesions in the lower oesophagus: calcium-channel blockers, nitrates, exenatide and liraglutide, drugs with antimuscarinic effects, theophylline, etc. Some drugs affect all mucous membranes in the body, including the oesophageal mucosa, irrespective of their route of administration: cancer drugs, isotretinoin, and nicorandil. PMID:26417631

  18. Pathways and Progress in Improving Drug Delivery through the Intestinal Mucosa and Blood-Brain Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Laksitorini, Marlyn; Prasasty, Vivitri D.; Kiptoo, Paul K.; Siahaan, Teruna J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major hurdles in developing therapeutic agents is the difficulty in delivering drugs through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers (BBB). The goal here is to describe the general structures of the biological barriers and the strategies to enhance drug delivery across these barriers. Prodrug methods used to improve drug penetration via the transcellular pathway have been successfully developed, and some prodrugs have been used to treat patients. The use of transporters to improve absorption of some drugs (e.g., antiviral agents) has also been successful in treating patients. Other methods, including (a) blocking the efflux pumps to improve transcellular delivery and (b) modulation of cell-cell adhesion in the intercellular junctions to improve paracellular delivery across biological barriers are still in the investigational stage. PMID:25418271

  19. Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy in 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Fournier, Charles; Castelain, Bernard; Prevost, Bernard; Lefebvre, Jean-Louis; Lartigau, Eric . E-mail: e-lartigau@o-lambret.fr

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results obtained with {sup 192}Ir low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Between December 1979 and January 1998, 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma were treated by exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy, with or without neck dissection. {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy was performed according to the 'Paris system' with a median total dose of 60 Gy (median dose rate, 0.5 Gy/h). Results: Overall survival was 74.3% and 46.6% at 2 and 5 years. Local control was 79.1% at 2 years and regional control, respectively, 75.9% and 69.5% at 2 and 5 years (Kaplan-Meier method). Systematic dissection revealed 44.6% occult node metastases, and histologic lymph node involvement was identified as the main significant factor for survival. Complication rate was 16.5% (Grade 3, 2.9%). Half of the patients presented previous and/or successive malignant tumor (ear-nose-throat, esophagus, or bronchus). Conclusion: Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for T2 tongue carcinoma. Regional control and survival are excellent in patients undergoing systematic neck dissection, which is mandatory in our experience because of a high rate of occult lymph node metastases.

  20. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  1. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  2. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  3. Moxibustion and Acupuncture Ameliorate Crohn's Disease by Regulating the Balance between Th17 and Treg Cells in the Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Bao, Chunhui; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yifang; Wang, Siyao; Yang, Ling; Shi, Yin; Liu, Huirong; Dou, Chuanzi; Ding, Guanghong; Wang, Xiaomei; Wu, Huangan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture is beneficial to patients with Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects remains unclear. To identify the mechanism by which acupuncture treats CD, the balance between Th17 and Treg cells was assessed in CD patients. In this study, Ninety-two CD patients were randomly and equally assigned to a treatment group that were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion and acupuncture or a control group with wheat bran-partitioned moxibustion and superficial acupuncture. The effect of these treatments on Th17 and Treg cells and their related molecular markers in the intestinal mucosa were detected before (week 0) and after (week 12) treatment. The results suggested that the ratio of Th17 and Treg cells was significantly decreased after treatment and that the levels of IL-17 and ROR?t in the intestinal mucosa were obviously reduced, while the expression of FOXP3 was increased after treatment in both groups. In the treatment group, the expression of these molecules was more markedly regulated than the control group. In conclusion, moxibustion and acupuncture have been shown to regulate the ratio of Th17 and Treg cells in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients and restore the balance between these immune cell subsets. PMID:26347488

  4. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  5. Super-resolution reconstruction for tongue MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jonghye; Bai, Ying; Roy, Snehashis; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the tongue have been used in both clinical medicine and scientific research to reveal tongue structure and motion. In order to see different features of the tongue and its relation to the vocal tract it is beneficial to acquire three orthogonal image stacks-e.g., axial, sagittal and coronal volumes. In order to maintain both low noise and high visual detail, each set of images is typically acquired with in-plane resolution that is much better than the through-plane resolution. As a result, any one data set, by itself, is not ideal for automatic volumetric analyses such as segmentation and registration or even for visualization when oblique slices are required. This paper presents a method of super-resolution reconstruction of the tongue that generates an isotropic image volume using the three orthogonal image stacks. The method uses preprocessing steps that include intensity matching and registration and a data combination approach carried out by Markov random field optimization. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated on five clinical datasets, yielding superior results when compared with conventional reconstruction methods.

  6. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

  7. A Rare Complication of Tracheal Intubation: Tongue Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lollo, Loreto; Meyer, Tanya K.; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To describe the subsequent treatment of airway trauma sustained during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Methods. A rare injury occurring during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation that resulted in perforation of the tongue by an endotracheal tube and the subsequent management of this unusual complication are discussed. A 65-year-old female with intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage with rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration had the airway secured prior to arrival at the referral institution. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was noted to have pierced through the base of the tongue and entered the trachea, and the patient underwent operative laryngoscopy to inspect the injury and the ETT was replaced by tracheostomy. Results. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the ETT to perforate the base of the tongue. The airway was secured with tracheostomy and the ETT was removed. Conclusions. A wide variety of complications resulting from direct and video-assisted laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation have been reported. Direct perforation of the tongue with an ETT and ability to ventilate and oxygenate subsequently is a rare injury. PMID:23056962

  8. HALL WITH FOYER IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE TONGUE AND GROOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HALL WITH FOYER IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS, CANEC PANEL CEILING AND LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF 2' TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING IN WATER CONTROL BOX. THIS SAME PLANKING IS USED AS CRIBBING FOR BOTH EAST DAM AND WEST DAM - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  10. BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. The Geometry of Resonance Tongues: A Singularity Theory Approach

    E-print Network

    Vegter, Gert

    bifurcations of maps using singularity theory meth- ods of equivariant contact equivalence and universal' that can be understood in terms of the swallowtail catastrophe. 1 Introduction This paper focuses on resonance tongues obtained by Hopf bifurcation from a fixed point of a map. More precisely, Hopf

  12. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  13. Tongue Movements and Their Acoustic Consequences in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Greenwood, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2012-01-01

    Objective The relations between acoustic measures and their articulatory bases have rarely been tested in dysarthria but are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. We tested the association between acoustic measures of F2 range and F2 slope with kinematic measures of tongue movement displacement and speed in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls speaking at normal and slow rates. Relations between acoustic and kinematic measures and speech intelligibility were examined. Results As healthy controls reduced their speaking rate, their F2 slopes and movement speeds decreased. In talkers with ALS, acoustic and kinematic variables were associated with changes in speaking rate, characteristic of disease progression. Participants with slow rate had shallower F2 slopes and slower movement speeds than those with normal rate. Relations between F2 range and tongue displacement were weaker. F2 slope, displacement, and duration were correlated with speech intelligibility most consistently. Conclusion Findings suggested that F2 slope is a useful marker for tracking disease progression in ALS. F2 slope reflects changes in tongue function with disease progression and is linked to speech intelligibility. Changes in movement speed, however, might be the earliest sign of disease in the tongue. PMID:22555651

  14. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 ?m up to 3.2 ?m. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  15. Cat Got Your Tongue? Teaching Idioms to English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcpherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Why do questions about idioms often leave us "tongue-tied" in our classrooms? This book takes a look at learning and teaching idioms from two perspectives. First is a survey of recent work on learning and teaching idioms from diverse perspectives in the linguistics and educational research literature. The survey includes definitions of…

  16. Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskarous, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

  17. [Hyperspectral acquisition system for tongue inspection based on X-Y scanning galvanometer].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju

    2011-12-01

    Hyperspectral was used for tongue inspection in the present work to resolve the problem that information of current research for tongue inspection was inadequate. A hyperspectral acquisition system based on X-Y scanning galvanometer was also proposed due to the high cost of the current hyperspectral apparatus. An experiment was made to test the ability of this system. By collecting the hyperspectral information of color pictures with size similar to the tongue, the results of experiment showed that this system can acquire more information of tongue than other methods, and this method can provide a new way for tongue inspection. PMID:22295792

  18. High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

  19. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation).

  20. Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin

    PubMed Central

    Coquerelle, Michael; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Rojo, Rosa; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bastir, Markus

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor – the space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies. PMID:24260566

  1. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon.

    PubMed

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-06-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s(-1) and accelerations 350 m s(-2), with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s(-1) with an acceleration of 573 m s(-2) while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators. PMID:21422504

  2. Relationships among subjective and objective measures of tongue strength and oral phase swallowing impairments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather M; Henson, Pamela A; Barber, William D; Stierwalt, Julie A G; Sherrill, Michael

    2003-02-01

    A growing literature documents the relationship between tongue strength and oral phase swallowing function. Objective measures of strength have been recommended as more valid and reliable than subjective measures for the assessment of tongue function, yet subjective measures remain the more commonly used clinical method for assessing tongue strength. This study assessed the relationships among subjective and objective measures of tongue strength and oral phase swallowing impairments. Both subjective and objective measures of tongue strength were observed to be good predictors of the presence of oral phase swallowing impairments. The specific oral phase swallowing functions of bolus manipulation, mastication, and clearance were moderately correlated with subjective ratings of tongue strength. Experienced and inexperienced raters appeared to judge tongue strength differently, with the ratings of experienced raters being more predictive of swallowing function. PMID:12680812

  3. The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Anne M.; Claxton, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to…

  4. Morphology of the tongue of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). II. Histological features.

    PubMed

    Crole, M R; Soley, J T

    2009-12-01

    Although a number of brief, fragmented descriptions have been provided on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue, very few studies have documented the histological structure of this organ. This paper presents the first definitive histological description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the histology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. Five tongues were removed from heads obtained from birds at slaughter and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Appropriate longitudinal and transverse segments were removed, routinely processed for light microscopy, and sections examined after staining with H & E and PAS. The entire tongue (body and root) is invested by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The supporting connective tissue of the tongue dorsum displays only large, simple branched tubular mucus-secreting glands, whereas the caudal tongue body ventrum and tongue root, in addition to these glands, also exhibits small, simple tubular mucus-secreting glands. Herbst corpuscles are associated with the large, simple branched glands. Lymphoid tissue is restricted to the tongue ventrum and is particularly obvious at the junction of the ventral tongue body and frenulum where a large aggregation of diffuse lymphoid tissue, with nodular tissue proximally, was consistently observed. A structure resembling a taste bud was located in the epithelium on the caudal extremity of the tongue root of one bird. This is the first reported observation of taste buds in ratites. Forming the core of the tongue body is the cartilaginous paraglossum lying dorsal to the partially ossified rostral projection of the basihyale. The histological features of the emu tongue are generally similar to those described for the greater rhea and ostrich, except that taste buds were not identified in these species. The results would suggest that the emu tongue functions as a sensory organ, both for taste and touch (by virtue of taste receptors and Herbst corpuscles, respectively), as well as fulfilling an immunological function. PMID:21344785

  5. Internal kinematics of the tongue in relation to muscle activity and jaw movement in the pig

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Z.-J.; SHCHERBATYY, V.; KAYALIOGLU, M.; SEIFI, A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY To explore the coordinative characteristics of tongue deformation, muscle activity and jaw movement during feeding, six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue body of ten 12-week-old Yucatan minipigs 1 week before the recording. These crystals formed a wedge-shaped configuration to allow recording dimensional changes in lengths, anterior and posterior widths and posterior thicknesses of the tongue body during feeding. Wire electromyographic activities (EMG) of superior and inferior longitudinalis, verticalis/transversus, genioglossus, styloglossus, masseter and digastricus and jaw movements were recorded simultaneously. Signals from these three sources were synchronized for real-time analyses. The results indicate: (i) dimensional changes were stereotypical in relation to each cycle of all three feeding behaviours; (ii) during chewing, expansion of tongue widths mainly occurred in the occlusal phase of jaw movement and was less coupled with the activity of tongue muscles, but the expansions of length and thickness were seen in the opening and closing phases and were better coupled with the activity of tongue muscles (P < 0·05); (iii) ingestion was characterized by the two-phased jaw opening, early expansion of anterior width prior to the occlusal phase and strong associations between tongue deformation and muscle activity; (iv) during drinking, the duration of the opening and closing phases was significantly prolonged (P < 0·01), the durations of tongue widening and lengthening were significantly shortened (P < 0·05) and anterior widening was predominant in the opening rather than in the closing or occlusal phases as compared with chewing and ingestion; and (v) the intrinsic tongue muscles did not show more or stronger correlations with the tongue deformation than did the extrinsic tongue muscles. These results suggest that (i) regional widening, lengthening and thickening of the tongue body occurs sequentially in relation to jaw movement phases, but the initiation of tongue dimensional expansions does not correspond with the activation of tongue muscles simultaneously; (ii) there is a better coupling between tongue deformations and tongue muscle activations in the sagittal (lengthening and thickening) than the transverse (widening) planes; and (iii) the patterns and ranges of tongue deformation and their relations to muscle activity and jaw movement are task-specific and the expansion magnitudes of tongue deformation does not have closer correlations with the amount of EMG activity in the intrinsic than the extrinsic tongue or jaw muscles. PMID:19650859

  6. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  7. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  8. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  9. Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and ramus height, the anterior dental arch and midface width. These results suggest that reducing tongue body volume in young animals slows craniofacial skeletal growth and anterior dental arch expansion during rapid growth. The mandible, in particular its symphysis portion, and the anterior dental arch width are most affected. These effects may in part contribute to the decrease of functional loads in the anterior mouth by a volume-reduced tongue. PMID:18579119

  10. Effects of varying fixed lingual apex positions on tongue pressure during straw drinking.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Ishida, R; Ohkubo, M; Sugiyama, T; Abe, S

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the impact of tongue-thrusting on lingual pressure during fluid intake with a straw. In this study, 12 healthy young dentate individuals (two women and 10 men; 19-33 years) were instructed to drink 15 mL of water with a regular drinking straw at 37 °C, when indicated by the investigator. Participants drank after adjusting tongue position to one of the following patterns: (i) Holding the tip of the straw between the lips (Normal Position: NP), (ii) Sticking out the tongue to the vermilion zone of the lower lip and inserting the straw 1 cm past the front teeth (Tongue-thrusting Position: TP). Five recordings were conducted for each participant in a randomised order. To measure tongue pressure during swallowing, a specially designed 0.1-mm thick sensor sheet (Nitta, Osaka, Japan) with a tactile system for measurement of pressure distribution (I-SCAN; Nitta) was used. Duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure were analysed based on the wave of tongue pressure recorded while water was swallowed. Magnitude, duration and integrated value of tongue pressure were significantly lower in TP than in NP at the median line (Ch1-3). Magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure at the lateral part of the tongue (Ch5) were significantly lower in TP than in NP. When duration, maximal magnitude and integrated values were compared by channel, no significant differences were observed in NP, but a significant difference was found between Ch3 and the lateral areas Ch4/Ch 5 in TP. When the tongue was thrust forward, movement dynamics of the entire tongue changed and influenced contact between the tongue and palate during liquid intake with a straw. The impact was noticeably weaker on the median line than in lateral areas. PMID:24579999

  11. The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starzewski, Jacek J.; Pajak, Jacek T.; Pawelczyk, Iwona; Lange, Dariusz; Golka, Dariusz . E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika; Lorenc, Zbigniew

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

  12. Entanglement tongue and quantum synchronization of disordered oscillators

    E-print Network

    Tony E. Lee; Ching-Kit Chan; Shenshen Wang

    2014-01-31

    We study the synchronization of dissipatively-coupled van der Pol oscillators in the quantum limit, when each oscillator is near its quantum ground state. Two quantum oscillators with different frequencies exhibit an entanglement tongue, which is the quantum analogue of an Arnold tongue. It means that the oscillators are entangled in steady state when the coupling strength is greater than a critical value, and the critical coupling increases with detuning. An ensemble of many oscillators with random frequencies still exhibits a synchronization phase transition in the quantum limit, and we analytically calculate how the critical coupling depends on the frequency disorder. Our results can be experimentally observed with trapped ions or neutral atoms.

  13. Synovial Sarcoma of the Tongue: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Basile, Lauren E; Hoch, Benjamin; Dillon, Jasjit K

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the workup and management of a 55-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma of the lateral border of the tongue that was initially diagnosed as a glomus tumor. A review was performed of the literature on synovial sarcomas of the oral cavity and current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Synovial sarcomas of the tongue are rare neoplasms, with variable morphologic microscopic types and immunohistochemical profiles. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the known gene translocation also can be used in diagnosis. According to the literature, resection of the tumor is the current treatment of choice; however, owing to the rarity of this entity, diagnosis and management prove challenging for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:26212094

  14. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  15. Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. )

    1991-04-01

    During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

  16. Mutations in the K-ras oncogene induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in preneoplastic and neoplastic rat colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, R F; Llor, X; Teng, B B; Davidson, N O; Brasitus, T A

    1991-01-01

    These experiments were conducted to determine whether point mutations activating K-ras or H-ras oncogenes, induced by the procarcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), were detectable in preneoplastic or neoplastic rat colonic mucosa. Rats were injected weekly with diluent or DMH at 20 mg/kg body wt for 5, 10, 15, or 25 wk, killed, and their colons dissected. DNA was extracted from diluent-injected control animals, histologically normal colonic mucosa from carcinogen-treated animals, and from carcinomas. Ras mutations were characterized by differential hybridization using allele-specific oligonucleotide probes to polymerase chain reaction--amplified DNA, and confirmed by DNA sequencing. While no H-ras mutations were detectable in any group, K-ras (G to A) mutations were found in 66% of DMH-induced colon carcinomas. These mutations were at the second nucleotide of codons 12 or 13 or the first nucleotide of codon 59 of the K-ras gene. The same type of K-ras mutations were observed in premalignant colonic mucosa from 2 out of 11 rats as early as 15 wk after beginning carcinogen injections when no dysplasia, adenomas, or carcinomas were histologically evident, suggesting that ras mutation may be an early event in colon carcinogenesis. Images PMID:1991846

  17. Oxytocin evokes a pulsatile PGE2 release from ileum mucosa and is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Junhan; Wang, Haoyi; An, Ning; Zhou, Yuping; Fan, Jiahui; Luo, Junwen; Su, Wenlong; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) in rat ileum mucosa to identify the effect of oxytocin (OT) on mucosal secretion in small intestine. We identified a COX-2-derived pulsatile PGE2 release triggered by OT in rat ileum mucosa. OT receptors (OTR) are expressed in intestine crypt epithelial cells. Notably, OT evoked a dynamic change of [Ca2+]i in ileum crypts, which was responsible for this pulsatile release of PGE2. OT ameliorated 5-FU-, radiation- or DSS- induced injury in vivo, including the improvement of weight loss, reduced villus height and impaired survival of crypt transit-amplifying cells as well as crypt. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against intestinal injury were eliminated by coadministration of a selective inhibitor of PGE2, AH6809. Our findings strongly suggest that OT, a novel and important regulator of intestine mucosa barrier, is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury. Considering that OT is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent chemo-radiotherapy induced intestine injury or to treat IBD. PMID:26159321

  18. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis. PMID:26695307

  19. Visual Feedback of Tongue Movement for Novel Speech Sound Learning

    PubMed Central

    Katz, William F.; Mehta, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Pronunciation training studies have yielded important information concerning the processing of audiovisual (AV) information. Second language (L2) learners show increased reliance on bottom-up, multimodal input for speech perception (compared to monolingual individuals). However, little is known about the role of viewing one's own speech articulation processes during speech training. The current study investigated whether real-time, visual feedback for tongue movement can improve a speaker's learning of non-native speech sounds. An interactive 3D tongue visualization system based on electromagnetic articulography (EMA) was used in a speech training experiment. Native speakers of American English produced a novel speech sound (/?/; a voiced, coronal, palatal stop) before, during, and after trials in which they viewed their own speech movements using the 3D model. Talkers' productions were evaluated using kinematic (tongue-tip spatial positioning) and acoustic (burst spectra) measures. The results indicated a rapid gain in accuracy associated with visual feedback training. The findings are discussed with respect to neural models for multimodal speech processing. PMID:26635571

  20. /sup 192/Ir pharyngoepiglottic fold interstitial implants. The key to successful treatment of base tongue carcinoma by radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goffinet, D.R.; Fee, W.E. Jr.; Wells, J.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Clarke, D.; Mariscal, J.M.; Goode, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    Twenty-eight patients with squamous carcinomas of the base tongue were seen and evaluated in a conjoint Head and Neck Tumor Board at Stanford between 1976 and 1982. Fourteen patients were treated by combined external beam and interstitial irradiation, 11 of whom had Stage III and IV carcinomas (American Joint Committee). An initial dose of 5000 to 5500 rad was first delivered by external beam irradiation in 5 to 5.5 weeks, followed approximately 3 weeks later by an iridium 192 interstitial implant boost by the trocar and loop technique. The key to successful treatment of these neoplasms was found to be the use of a lateral percutaneous cervical technique, which placed horizontal loops through the oropharyngeal wall above and below the hyoid bone; the superior loop included the pharyngoepiglottic fold and the tonsilloglossal groove. Standard multiple loop implants (submentally inserted) of the base tongue from the vallecula anteriorly to the circumvallate papillae were also used routinely. This approach has been successful, since 10 of the 14 patients (71%) remain without evidence of disease (mean follow-up, 32 months). There have been only two local recurrences, both on the pharyngoepiglottic fold in patients who did not receive the now standard pharyngoepiglottic fold/lateral pharyngeal wall implants. No patients have relapsed after 18 months. The other 14 patients were treated prospectively during the same period by combining initial resection, radical neck dissection, and postoperative irradiation.

  1. Contact sensitivity in the murine oral mucosa. I. An experimental model of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions at mucosal surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlfors, E; Czerkinsky, C

    1991-01-01

    We have examined in a murine model, the potential of the oral mucosa (OM) to serve as inductive and/or expression site(s) of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. The expression of DTH reactions in the murine buccal mucosa was studied after topical application of oxazolone or picryl chloride onto the OM of animals previously sensitized with either hapten. Irrespective of the site of priming (skin or buccal mucosa), inflammatory cells appeared in the OM following buccal elicitation with the pertinent hapten. The density of infiltrating cells peaked at 24 h after hapten elicitation. Such inflammatory reactions, which comprised mainly mononuclear cells at 24 h, were preceded by an early inflammatory reaction that developed only in animals previously sensitized at skin sites. This early reaction, comprising mainly PMN neutrophils, peaked at 6-8 h, declined by 8-16 h, and was not observed in mice previously sensitized in the buccal mucosa. The 24 h reactions failed to develop in nude mice similarly treated, in intact unsensitized mice, as well as in animals sensitized with an irrelevant hapten. These reactions could be adoptively transferred to naive animals by LN cells but not by serum from sensitized syngeneic donors. Furthermore, LN cell suspensions depleted of T cells failed to transfer sensitization for subsequent OM DTH. Topical application of contact sensitizing haptens onto OM induced priming for subsequent DTH reactions elicited with recall antigen applied at a distant skin site or at a local buccal site. These results demonstrate that the OM has the capacity to serve both as an inductive and as an expression site for T cell-mediated inflammatory reactions, be these expressed or induced at local mucosal sites or at remote systemic (skin) sites. This animal model should be valuable for studying the regulation of T cell-mediated inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1747952

  2. Modulation of wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative toxicity in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Aynali, Giray; Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Do?an, Mustafa; Yar?kta?, Murat; Yasan, Hasan

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that oxidative stress induces larynx cancer, although antioxidants induce modulator role on etiology of the cancer. It is well known that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induces oxidative stress in different cell systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of melatonin on oxidative stress induced by Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) EMR in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat. For this purpose, 32 male rats were equally categorized into four groups, namely controls, sham controls, EMR-exposed rats, EMR-exposed rats treated with melatonin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Except for the controls and sham controls, the animals were exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation during 60 min/day for 28 days. The lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the radiation-exposed groups than in the control and sham control groups. The lipid peroxidation level in the irradiated animals treated with melatonin was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in those that were only exposed to Wi-Fi radiation. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was lower in the irradiated-only group relative to control and sham control groups but its activity was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the groups treated with melatonin. The reduced glutathione levels in the mucosa of rat did not change in the four groups. There is an apparent protective effect of melatonin on the Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the laryngotracheal mucosa of rats by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the glutathione peroxidase antioxidant system. PMID:23479077

  3. Investigation of milk proteins binding to the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Withers, Caroline A; Cook, Michael T; Methven, Lisa; Gosney, Margot A; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2013-11-01

    High protein dairy beverages are considered to be mouth drying. The drying sensation may be due to the product protein content; however the mechanism of this mouth drying is uncertain. This study investigated the potential adhesion of milk proteins to porcine oral mucosa in vitro. Purified casein and ?-lactoglobulin were fluorescently labelled, placed on porcine oral mucosal tissues and their resistance to wash out with simulated saliva was monitored using fluorescence microscopy. Casein was found to be more adhesive to porcine mucosa than ?-lactoglobulin. Some investigation into the reason for this difference in mucoadhesion was conducted by thiol-content analysis, rheology and zeta-potential measurements. The higher viscosity of casein solution and smaller zeta-potential is believed to be responsible for its better retention on mucosal surfaces. These findings suggest that casein and whey protein are both capable of binding and eliciting mouth drying in high protein dairy beverages. PMID:24092277

  4. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. |; Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. |; Wang, H.-M. |; Cheng, A.-J. |; Chang, J.T.-C. ||. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

  5. l-Menthol sprayed on gastric mucosa causes edematous change

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akihiro; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Hayashi, Shintaro; Nozaki, Masashi; Yoshida, Atsui; Ohashi, Noritsugu

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: l-Menthol (LM), sprayed on the distal gastric mucosa, is a safe antispasmodic agent used during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, it seems to affect gastric mucosal endoscopic findings. Therefore, we evaluated whether LM causes specific changes and impacts the endoscopic morphology of gastric lesions. Patients and methods: A total of 98 patients scheduled to undergo EGD were randomly assigned to receive LM solution (160?mg of 0.8?% LM added to 2.5?mL of indigo carmine [IC]; n?=?49; LM group) or decuple-diluted IC solution without LM (n?=?49; placebo group). We compared the incidence of specific mucosal changes and the difference in the endoscopic findings of several gastric lesions between these groups. Results: Annular-reticular – like mucosal changes appeared immediately after the administration of LM solution. This change was observed in 71.4?% of the LM group compared with 12.2?% of the placebo group (P?mucosa into edematous mucosa, and this occurs more frequently in atrophic gastric mucosa than in pathologic lesions. LM may facilitate the demarcation of pathologic gastric lesions without intestinal metaplasia. PMID:26135260

  6. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  7. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  8. Extensive DNA methylation in normal colorectal mucosa in hyperplastic polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Minoo, P; Baker, K; Goswami, R; Chong, G; Foulkes, W D; Ruszkiewicz, A R; Barker, M; Buchanan, D; Young, J; Jass, J R

    2006-01-01

    Background Hyperplastic polyposis of the colorectum is a precancerous condition that has been linked with DNA methylation. The polyps in this condition have been distinguished from typical small hyperplastic polyps and renamed sessile serrated adenomas. Sessile serrated adenomas also occur sporadically and appear to be indistinguishable from their counterparts in hyperplastic polyposis. Aims and methods The existence of distinguishing molecular features was explored in a series of serrated polyps and matched normal mucosa from patients with and without hyperplastic polyposis by assessing mutation of BRAF, DNA methylation in 14 markers (MINTs 1, 2 and 31, p16, MGMT, MLH1, RASSF1, RASSF2, NORE1 (RASSF5), RKIP, MST1, DAPK, FAS, and CHFR), and immunoexpression of MLH1. Results There was more extensive methylation in sessile serrated adenomas from subjects with hyperplastic polyposis (p<0.0001). A more clearcut difference in patients with hyperplastic polyposis was the finding of extensive DNA methylation in normal mucosa from the proximal colon. Conclusions A genetic predisposition may underlie at least some forms of hyperplastic polyposis in which the earliest manifestation may be hypermethylation of multiple gene promoters in normal colorectal mucosa. Additionally, some of the heterogeneity within hyperplastic polyposis may be explained by different propensities for MLH1 inactivation within polyps. PMID:16469793

  9. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  10. Local Immunoglobulin E in the Nasal Mucosa: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  11. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the owl (Strix uralensis).

    PubMed

    Emura, S; Chen, H

    2008-12-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of adult owl (Strix uralensis) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The length of the tongue was about 2 cm. The tip of the tongue of the owl was bifid. Three parts were distinguished in the tongue of the owl: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was a very wide area. There were thread-shaped processes/cells of epithelium in the lingual apex. The small or large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root. PMID:19032633

  12. Tongue pressure during swallowing is decreased in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka-Kondoh, Sato; Kondoh, Jugo; Tamine, Ken-Ichi; Hori, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Yasui, Kumiko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo; Ono, Takahiro

    2014-06-01

    Although dysphagia is a life-threatening problem in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the pathophysiology of oral stage dysphagia is yet to be understood. The present study investigated the tongue motor deficit during swallowing in patients with DMD and its relationship with disease-specific palatal morphology. Tongue pressure during swallowing water was recorded in 11 male patients with DMD and 11 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects using an intra-oral sensor with five measuring points, and the state of tongue pressure production was compared between the groups. Palatal morphology was assessed by a non-contact three-dimensional scanner on maxillary plaster models. In patients with DMD, the normal sequential order of tongue-palate contact was lost and the maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure on the mid-anterior part of palate were smaller than those in healthy subjects. The width of the palate in patients was greater than that in healthy subjects and the depth of the palate in patients had a negative correlation with tongue pressure magnitude on the median palate. Our results suggested that the deteriorated tongue motor kinetics prevented tongue movement during swallowing that was appropriate for the depth of the palate and affects the state of tongue pressure production during swallowing. PMID:24684858

  13. Differences in tongue strength across age and gender: is there a diminished strength reserve?

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Youmans, Gina L; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2009-03-01

    Maximum tongue strength was investigated and compared to mean swallowing pressure elicited by the anterior tongue to calculate the percentage of maximum tongue strength used during swallowing in 96 participants with normal swallowing, divided into three 20-year age groups. The purposes of this investigation were to investigate normal swallowing physiology and to determine whether tongue strength reserves diminished according to age or gender. The results of the study yielded significant maximum tongue strength differences between the youngest and oldest and middle and oldest age groups; the oldest group had the weakest tongues. Mean swallowing pressure did not differ based on age, but women were found to have significantly higher pressures than men. The percentage of maximum tongue strength used during swallowing did not vary as a function of age, but women used a significantly higher percentage of tongue strength to swallow than men. Based on the results, it appears that a diminishing strength reserve does not exist based on age, but it does exist based on gender. Specifically, it appears that women have a reduced tongue strength reserve compared to men. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:18690406

  14. [Choristoma of the gastric mucosa: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M; Miziara, I D; Chung, S; Miniti, A; Iriya, K

    1995-01-01

    Choristomas are tumor like masses consisting of tissues that are histologically normals but in abnormal location. These are rare in oral cavity and occur generally in tongue. There are seven categories of choristomas on the basis of types of tissues recognized. The presenting case in a gastric mucosal choristoma type, and the treatment was surgical excision. No recurrence of the mass was revealed. Special care should be taken with lingual thyroïd choristoma, because 86% of the cases is the only functional thyroide tissue in the body. PMID:8677372

  15. Analysis of the influence of parenteral cancer chemotherapy on the health condition of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Mansur; Madej-Czerwonka, Barbara; Jastrz?bska-Jamrogiewicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of oral complications in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Material and methods The study was conducted on a group of 58 patients treated with chemotherapy (study group). The control group consisted of 30 healthy patients. Dental status and oral mucosa were examined using the criteria of the National Cancer Institute Toxicity Criteria Scale. The levels of stimulated and unstimulated saliva flow were analysed. Results In the group of patients treated with chemotherapy, 59% of patients had inflammatory changes of the soft tissues of the mouth, such as erythema, erosions, or ulcers, which were discovered during dental examination. Such changes occurred in only 10% of patients in the control group. Six of the patients treated with chemotherapy reported pain with intensity was so severe that it caused swallowing difficulties. Patients in the study group frequently complained about the presence of dry mouth, taste disturbances, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms occurred in 70% of patients undergoing oncological treatment. In both stimulated and unstimulated saliva secretion, the rates were significantly lower in patients from the research group, when compared to the control group. PMID:26199575

  16. Dual-task motor performance with a tongue-operated assistive technology compared with hand operations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To provide an alternative motor modality for control, navigation, and communication in individuals suffering from impairment or disability in hand functions, a Tongue Drive System (TDS) has been developed that allows for real time tracking of tongue motion in an unobtrusive, wireless, and wearable device that utilizes the magnetic field generated by a miniature disk shaped magnetic tracer attached to the tip of the tongue. The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of a concurrent motor or cognitive task on various aspects of simple movement control between hand and tongue using the TDS technology. Methods Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed rapid and slow goal-directed movements of hand and tongue (with TDS) with and without a concurrent motor (hand or tongue) or cognitive (arithmetic and memory) task. Changes in reaction time, completion time, speed, correctness, accuracy, variability of displacement, and variability of time due to the addition of a concurrent task were compared between hand and tongue. Results The influence of an additional concurrent task on motor performance was similar between the hand and tongue for slow movement in controlling their displacement. In rapid movement with a concurrent motor task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in hand, while tongue speed during rapid continuous task was maintained. With a concurrent cognitive task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in tongue, while hand accuracy during the rapid discrete task and hand speed during the rapid continuous task were maintained. Conclusion Rapid goal-directed hand and tongue movements were more consistently susceptible to interference from concurrent motor and cognitive tasks, respectively, compared with the other movement. PMID:22244362

  17. Resource Competition Triggers the Co-Evolution of Long Tongues and Deep Corolla Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.; Llandres, Ana L.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is normally thought that deep corolla tubes evolve when a plant's successful reproduction is contingent on having a corolla tube longer than the tongue of the flower's pollinators, and that pollinators evolve ever-longer tongues because individuals with longer tongues can obtain more nectar from flowers. A recent model shows that, in the presence of pollinators with long and short tongues that experience resource competition, coexisting plant species can diverge in corolla-tube depth, because this increases the proportion of pollen grains that lands on co-specific flowers. Methodology/Principal Findings We have extended the model to study whether resource competition can trigger the co-evolution of tongue length and corolla-tube depth. Starting with two plant and two pollinator species, all of them having the same distribution of tongue length or corolla-tube depth, we show that variability in corolla-tube depth leads to divergence in tongue length, provided that increasing tongue length is not equally costly for both species. Once the two pollinator species differ in tongue length, divergence in corolla-tube depth between the two plant species ensues. Conclusions/Significance Co-evolution between tongue length and corolla-tube depth is a robust outcome of the model, obtained for a wide range of parameter values, but it requires that tongue elongation is substantially easier for one pollinator species than for the other, that pollinators follow a near-optimal foraging strategy, that pollinators experience competition for resources and that plants experience pollination limitation. PMID:18714343

  18. Electronic Tongue on a way towards the universal bitterness scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legin, Andrey; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Seleznev, Boris; Legin, Evgeny; Papieva, Irina; Clapham, David; Saunders, Ken; Richardson, Marie

    2011-09-01

    The present work deals with the development and application of the artificial sensory system (Electronic Tongue) to quantification of the bitter taste of various chemically dissimilar substances and suggests a universal approach for artificial sensory evaluation of bitterness, irrespective of chemical nature of the substance eliciting bitter taste. This approach to artificial quantification of bitterness is practically feasible and may be particularly useful on the early stages of development of novel API in pharmaceutical research and for flavour control of various pharmaceutical compositions, healthcare products and food ingredients.

  19. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  20. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

  1. The Influence of Stimulus Taste and Chemesthesis on Tongue Movement Timing in Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids: water,…

  2. Relating speech production to tongue muscle compressions using tagged and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use fourdimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two postglossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  3. The Effect of Anatomic Factors on Tongue Position Variability during Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the…

  4. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in southeastern... period). Transmit a Word version of the existing PA to current and newly designated consulting...

  5. Effect of chemical compounds on electronic tongue response to citrus juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electronic tongue system mimics the process of taste detection by human taste buds and recognition by the brain, hence helping in prediction of taste. With this unique capability, the electronic tongue has been used for taste detection of a wide range of food products. As a preliminary step in p...

  6. latch to fire. The tongue-retractor complex (see the figure) prevents the elongating ac-

    E-print Network

    Broccoli, Anthony J.

    of the tongue bone. The catapult is released at the moment when the muscle's most distal end slips off the tongue skeleton. This built-in trigger adds no extra moving parts or controls to the catapult. All, efficient, and easy to control. Conventional catapults store ten- sile energy in a rope or tendon

  7. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the tongue of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Mançanares, Celina A F; Santos, Amilton C; Piemonte, Maria V; Vasconcelos, Bruno G; Carvalho, Ana F; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Assis Neto, Antônio C

    2012-10-01

    We performed a macroscopic and microscopic study of the tongues of common opossums, Didelphis marsupialis, from South America. We studied two males and two females. We collected morphometric data on the tongue with precision calipers. For the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, we fixed tissue fragments in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde, respectively. The opossum tongues averaged 5.87 ± 0.20 cm in length, 3.27 ± 0.15 cm in width at the lingual body, and 3.82 ± 0.15 cm in width at the root. The mean thickness of the lingual body was 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, and the thickness of the root was 3.82 ± 0.15 cm. Sharp filiform papillae were scattered across the entire tongue; conical filiform papillae occurred on the lingual body and tongue tip; fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae on the lingual body and tongue tip; and there were three vallate papillae at the root of the tongue. We found two strands of papillary projections in the tongue root. Despite the low variability observed in the lingual papillae, the morphological data obtained in this study may be related to the opossum's diverse food habits and the extensive geographic distribution of the species throughout America. PMID:22581756

  8. Towards Articulatory Speech Synthesis with a Dynamic 3D Finite Element Tongue Model

    E-print Network

    van den Doel, Kees

    models. The vocal tract shape is modeled using a fast 3D finite element method (FEM) of a muscle of the vocal tract, such as the tongue, jaw, hyoid, larynx, lips, and face, have been modeled using both of a muscle-activated human tongue model, described earlier in Gerard et al. (2006); Vogt et al. (2006). Apart

  9. Towards Articulatory Speech Synthesis with a Dynamic 3D Finite Element Tongue Model

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    models. The vocal tract shape is modeled using a fast 3D finite element method (FEM) of a muscle. Introduction Different anatomical substructures of the vocal tract, such as the tongue, jaw, hyoid, larynx sounds driven by motion of a muscle-activated human tongue model, described #12;earlier in Gerard et al

  10. The Problem of Mother Tongue Competence in the Training of Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret F.

    The growing problem of English mother tongue competence is slowly being recognized by teachers in several disciplines, especially by teachers of translation. In a language degree course such as that at Heriot-Watt University (Edinburgh, Scotland), which specializes in teaching translating and interpreting, a high standard of mother tongue

  11. Why Make Them Crawl if They Can Walk? Teaching with Mother Tongue Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzkamm, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the long-standing issue over the role of the mother tongue in the foreign language classroom. In the first part it is argued that the mother tongue lays the cognitive foundations for all subsequent language learning. Double comprehension as the basic requirement for learning to take place is explained. The second part is…

  12. The polycomb group protein EZH2 is a novel therapeutic target in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jing; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Chunping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Dongmiao; Ye, Jinhai; Jiang, Hongbin; Yang, Jianrong; Cheng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    EZH2, a core member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), mediates transcriptional silencing by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27), which plays key roles in cancer initiation and progression. Here, we investigated the expression pattern and biological roles of EZH2 in tongue tumorigenesis by loss-of-function assays using small interference RNA and EZH2 inhibitor DZNep. Also we determined the therapeutic efficiency of DZNep against tongue cancer in vivo. We found that aberrantly overexpressed EZH2 was associated with pathological grade, cervical nodes metastasis and Ki-67 expression in tongue cancers. Elevated EZH2 correlated with shorter overall survival and showed significant and independent prognostic importance in patients with tongue cancer. Both genetic and pharmacological depletion of EZH2 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation and decreased CD44+ subpopulation probably in part through modulating p16, p21 and E-caherin. Moreover, DZNep enhanced the anticancer effects of 5-Fluorouracil. Furthermore, intratumoral EZH2 inhibition induced by DZNep intraperitoneal administration significantly attenuated tumor growth in a tongue cancer xenograft model. Taken together, our results indicate that EZH2 serves as a key driver with multiple oncogenic functions during tongue tumorigenesis and a new biomarker for tongue cancer diagnosis and prognostic prediction. These findings open up possibilities for therapeutic intervention against EZH2 in tongue cancer. PMID:24345883

  13. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance, while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty. Methods Twenty-two healthy adults were enrolled into two groups (ages 20-35 years & 65-82 years, each including 5M, 6F). Maximum tongue strength (Pmax) and endurance (duration 50% of Pmax could be maintained) were measured twice at baseline and once post-meal. Subjects consumed half of a bagel with peanut butter, carrot sticks and milk between measures. Results All subjects demonstrated reduced tongue strength and endurance post-meal. Young adults showed a greater decline in anterior tongue endurance compared with older adults (p=0.05). There was no evidence that changes in tongue strength, perceived effort or meal duration varied by age or gender. The three oldest subjects reported the highest effort and displayed signs of difficulty swallowing while dining. Conclusions Young and old adults demonstrated reduced tongue strength and endurance after dining, but younger subjects showed greater declines in anterior tongue endurance while older adults exhibited signs of swallowing difficulty. PMID:20689047

  14. On Mother and Other Tongues: Sociolinguistics, Schools, and Language Ideology in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDousa, Chaise

    2010-01-01

    This is an expanded version of a paper given at a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa from December 11-13, 2008 entitled "The Native Speaker and the Mother Tongue." In keeping with the conference's themes of exploring and interrogating the notions of "mother tongue" and "native speaker," I consider constructions of languages emergent from…

  15. Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the…

  16. Tongue fasciculations in an infant with spinal muscular atrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Eleni Z; Martin, Thomas; Wirth, Brunhilde; Yilmaz, Umut; Gortner, Ludwig; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Muscular hypotonia in infants may be associated with several conditions, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We report on an infant with tongue fasciculations and a rare mutation of the SMN1 gene. The presence of tongue fasciculations in combination with a thorough history may be suggestive of SMA. PMID:26509018

  17. Tongue fasciculations in an infant with spinal muscular atrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Eleni Z; Martin, Thomas; Wirth, Brunhilde; Yilmaz, Umut; Gortner, Ludwig; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    Muscular hypotonia in infants may be associated with several conditions, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We report on an infant with tongue fasciculations and a rare mutation of the SMN1 gene. The presence of tongue fasciculations in combination with a thorough history may be suggestive of SMA. PMID:26509018

  18. ROC-Boosting: A Feature Selection Method for Health Identification Using Tongue Image

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Liao, Shizhong; Wang, Hongwu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To select significant Haar-like features extracted from tongue images for health identification. Materials and Methods. 1,322 tongue cases were included in this study. Health information and tongue images of each case were collected. Cases were classified into the following groups: group containing 148 cases diagnosed as health; group containing 332 cases diagnosed as ill based on health information, even though tongue image is normal; and group containing 842 cases diagnosed as ill. Haar-like features were extracted from tongue images. Then, we proposed a new boosting method in the ROC space for selecting significant features from the features extracted from these images. Results. A total of 27 features were obtained from groups A, B, and C. Seven features were selected from groups A and B, while 25 features were selected from groups A and C. Conclusions. The selected features in this study were mainly obtained from the root, top, and side areas of the tongue. This is consistent with the tongue partitions employed in traditional Chinese medicine. These results provide scientific evidence to TCM tongue diagnosis for health identification. PMID:26543494

  19. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  20. Beyond Fear and Loathing in SG: The Real Mother Tongues and Language Policies in Multilingual Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the real mother tongues of Singapore, namely the Chinese "dialects" and Singlish, the linguistic varieties which, respectively, arrived with the original immigrants to the rapidly developing British colony, and evolved in the dynamic multilingual ecology over the decades. Curiously these mother tongues have been regarded with…

  1. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

  2. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  3. Tongue Volume Influences Lowest Oxygen Saturation but Not Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Jinna; Min, Hyun Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Hong, Jae Min; Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Cho, Hyung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify correlations between sleep apnea severity and tongue volume or posterior airway space measured via three-dimensional reconstruction of volumetric computerized tomography (CT) images in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for use in predicting OSA severity and in surgical treatment. We also assessed associations between tongue volume and Mallampati score. Methods Snoring/OSA male patients (n = 64) who underwent polysomnography, cephalometry, and CT scans were enrolled in this retrospective study. OSA was diagnosed when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was greater than 5 (mild 5–14; moderate 15–29; severe>30). The patients were also categorized into the normal-mild group (n = 22) and the moderate-severe group (n = 42). Using volumetric CT images with the three-dimensional reconstruction technique, the volume of the tongue, posterior airway space volume, and intra-mandibular space were measured. The volumes, polysomnographic parameters, and physical examination findings were compared, and independent factors that are related to OSA were analysed. Results No associations between tongue volume or posterior airway space and the AHI were observed. However, multivariate linear analyses showed that tongue volume had significantly negative association with lowest O2 saturation (r = 0.365, p = 0.027). High BMI was related to an increase in tongue volume. Modified Mallampati scores showed borderline significant positive correlations with absolute tongue volume (r = 0.251, p = 0.046) and standardized tongue volume (absolute tongue volume / intramandibular area; r = 0.266, p = 0.034). Between the normal-mild and moderate-severe groups, absolute tongue volumes were not different, although the standardized tongue volume in the moderate-severe group was significantly higher. Conclusion Absolute tongue volume showed stronger associations with lowest O2 saturation during sleep than with the severity of AHI. We also found that high BMI was a relevant factor for an increase in absolute tongue volume and modified Mallampati grading was a useful physical examination to predict tongue size. PMID:26280546

  4. Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, M; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic to man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Images PMID:2310715

  5. Osseous choristoma of the labial mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, T. S.; Selvamani, M.; Ashwin, S.; Rahul, V. K.; Cyriac, Maria Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. These are slow growing lesions that are usually completely asymptomatic and only present when there is a disruption in the function of the organ due to its large size as it grows. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after the histopathological examination. The etiology remains still questionable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. Here we report a case of choristoma in the lower labial mucosa in a 47-year-old female. PMID:26538953

  6. Hydatid cyst of the buccal mucosa: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, R M; Kamath, V V; Komali, Y; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic cyst caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus that occurs primarily in sheep grazing areas worldwide. It is a chronic disease, and the cysts can be localized in unusual anatomical and geographic locations. It is known to affect the head and neck region. Patients must undergo a thorough systemic investigation as 20-30% show multiorgan involvement. We report a case of hydatid cyst occurring in the buccal mucosa of a 45- year -old male presenting as a small asymptomatic lump and emphasize on its rarity and diagnostic issues. PMID:26392735

  7. Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2010-01-01

    An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

  8. Improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by data fusion of electronic nose and tongue sensors.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2010-01-01

    An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

  9. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  10. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  11. [The morphologic changes of gastric mucosa before and after the surgical operations].

    PubMed

    Rustamov, E A

    2012-01-01

    The article outlines the morphologic evaluation of the gastric mucosa in 159 patients with different types of pyloroduodenal ulcers. The comparative characteristics of the gastric mucosa of 80 patients before and after the gastric resection. The complete restoration of the mucosa within the year after the selective proximal vagotomy was registered. The gastric resection leads to the chronic gastritis with dystrophic changes and intestinal or pseudopyloric metaplasia. PMID:22810340

  12. Interannual variability of the Atlantic Cold Tongue heat budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planton, Yann; Voldoire, Aurore; Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy

    2015-04-01

    The processes governing the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) development are now better understood, but the mechanisms of its interannual variability are still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the mechanisms leading to the cold tongue formation during cold and warm ACT events. Cold and warm ACT events are classified statistically from several datasets following a criteria derived from Richter et al. (2013) and slightly adapted. This classification allows to analyse composites of extreme events. In particular, composites of the mixed layer heat budget have been calculated, computed online in a forced global ocean model. This mixed layer heat budget is a good tool to identify the oceanic processes which control the formation of the ACT and its variability. The results show that the turbulent mixing at the base of the mixed layer plays a dominant role controlling the ACT formation. Cold (warm) events are associated with strong increase (decrease) of the turbulent mixing from march to July. In addition horizontal the advection anomalies are opposite during cold and warm events in June-July. The positive (negative) anomalies during cold (warm) events tend to damp (enhance) the ACT. During warm events, the advection process is responsible of the ACT formation with almost the same intensity as when averaged over all.

  13. Scaling of the ballistic tongue apparatus in chameleons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher V; Sheridan, Thomas; Deban, Stephen M

    2012-11-01

    Body dimensions of organisms can have a profound impact on their functional and structural properties. We examined the morphological proportions of the feeding apparatus of 105 chameleon specimens representing 23 species in seven genera, spanning a 1,000-fold range in body mass to test whether the feeding apparatus conforms to the null hypotheses of geometric similarity that is based on the prevalence of geometric similarity in other ectothermic vertebrates. We used a phylogenetically corrected regression analysis based on a composite phylogenetic hypothesis to determine the interspecific scaling patterns of the feeding apparatus. We also determined the intraspecific (ontogenetic) scaling patterns for the feeding apparatus in three species. We found that both intraspecifically and interspecifically, the musculoskeletal components of the feeding apparatus scale isometrically among themselves, independent of body length. The feeding apparatus is thus of conserved proportions regardless of overall body length. In contrast, we found that the tongue apparatus as a whole and its musculoskeletal components scale with negative allometry with respect to snout-vent length--smaller individuals have a proportionately larger feeding apparatus than larger individuals, both within and among species. Finally, the tongue apparatus as a whole scales with negative allometry with respect to body mass through ontogeny, but with isometry interspecifically. We suggest that the observed allometry may be maintained by natural selection because an enlarged feeding apparatus at small body size may maximize projection distance and the size of prey that smaller animals with higher mass-specific metabolic rates can capture. PMID:22730103

  14. Command Detection and Classification in Tongue Drive Assistive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Elnaz Banan; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a new assistive technology that enables individuals with severe disabilities such as those with spinal cord injury (SCI) to regain environmental control using their tongue motion. We have developed a new sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm which uses four 3-axial magneto-resistive sensor outputs to accurately detect and classify between seven different user-control commands in stationary as well as mobile conditions. The new algorithm employs a two-stage classification method with a combination of 9 classifiers to discriminate between 4 commands on the left or right side of the oral cavity (one neutral command shared on both sides). Evaluation of the new SSP algorithm on five able-bodied subjects resulted in true positive rates in the range of 70–99% with corresponding false positive rates in the range of 5–7%, showing a notable improvement in the resulted true-false (TF) differences when compared to the previous algorithm. PMID:22255574

  15. Human papillomavirus and tobacco use in tongue base cancers.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Daniel L; Smaldino, Philip J; Darbary, Huferesh K; Sullivan, Maureen A; Popat, Saurin R; Hicks, Wesley L; Merzianu, Mihai; Gaile, Daniel P; Anderson, Garth R; Loree, Thom R

    2013-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) infection and tobacco use are associated with human oropharyngeal cancers. We conducted a study of the role of HPV and tobacco use in base of the tongue (BOT) cancers. DNA from 34 such cancers was subjected to HPV-16 and HPV-18-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were obtained from each patient's medical record. HPV-16 was detected in 68% of tumors. Tobacco use was the only factor found to be significantly associated with HPV status. Tumors from 100% of patients who had never used tobacco tested positive for HPV, compared with only 56% of those who had ever used tobacco (Fisher exact test, p = 0.024). All tumors were associated with either tobacco use or HPV infection. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that either tobacco use or HPV infection is necessary to the etiology of BOT tumors, and they suggest that tongue base carcinoma may be prevented by combining HPV vaccination with tobacco avoidance. PMID:23975491

  16. Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Topical Application of Black Raspberries on High At-Risk Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Blake M.; Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Accurso, Brent T.; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preclinical efficacy of topical administration of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) to inhibit the progression of premalignant oral lesions and modulate biomarkers of cancer development in high at-risk mucosa (HARM). Study Design Hamster cheek pouches (HCPs) were treated with carcinogen for six weeks to initiate a HARM microenvironment. Subsequently, right HCPs were topically administered a BRB suspension in short-term or long-term studies. After 12 weeks, SCC multiplicity, SCC incidence, and cell proliferation rates were evaluated. mRNA expression was measured in short-term treated pouches for selected oral cancer biomarkers. Results SCC multiplicity (?41.3%), tumor incidence (?37.1%), and proliferation rate (?6.9%) were reduced in HCPs receiving BRBs. Topical BRBs correlated with an increase in Rb1 expression in developing oral lesions. Conclusion Topical BRBs inhibit SCC development when targeted to HARM tissues. These results support the translational role of BRBs to prevent oral cancer development in humans. PMID:25457886

  17. Computerized tongue image segmentation via the double geo-vector flow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visual inspection for tongue analysis is a diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Owing to the variations in tongue features, such as color, texture, coating, and shape, it is difficult to precisely extract the tongue region in images. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate tongue diagnosis via automatic tongue segmentation. Methods Experiments were conducted using a clinical image dataset provided by the Laboratory of Traditional Medical Syndromes, Shanghai University of TCM. First, a clinical tongue image was refined by a saliency window. Second, we initialized the tongue area as the upper binary part and lower level set matrix. Third, a double geo-vector flow (DGF) was proposed to detect the tongue edge and segment the tongue region in the image, such that the geodesic flow was evaluated in the lower part, and the geo-gradient vector flow was evaluated in the upper part. Results The performance of the DGF was evaluated using 100 images. The DGF exhibited better results compared with other representative studies, with its true-positive volume fraction reaching 98.5%, its false-positive volume fraction being 1.51%, and its false-negative volume fraction being 1.42%. The errors between the proposed automatic segmentation results and manual contours were 0.29 and 1.43% in terms of the standard boundary error metrics of Hausdorff distance and mean distance, respectively. Conclusions By analyzing the time complexity of the DGF and evaluating its performance via standard boundary and area error metrics, we have shown both efficiency and effectiveness of the DGF for automatic tongue image segmentation. PMID:24507094

  18. Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, YUAN; SHA, XIAO-YING; BAI, YAN-XIA; QUAN, FANG; WU, SHENG-LI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E-cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25333745

  19. Treating Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A common problem that leads to male infertility, varicocele , sometimes can be treated with surgery. How are ... contains and nourishes the developing fetus during pregnancy. Varicocele: Varicose veins in the scrotum. If you have ...

  20. Treating Meningitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Treating meningitis Steven Karceski, MD WHAT DID THE AUTHORS STUDY? ... study, “ Dexamethasone and long-term survival in bacterial meningitis, ” Dr. Fritz and his colleagues carefully evaluated 2 ...

  1. Comparative endoscopic evaluation of normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae in Thoroughbred foals

    PubMed Central

    OKAI, Kazuhiko; TAHARAGUCHI, Sadao; ORITA, Yasuhiro; YOKOTA, Hiroshi; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to early diagnosis and treatment of gastric ulcer of foals, we examined the gastric mucosa of healthy and affected foals using an endoscope. In healthy foals, the characteristic changes in the development of the squamous mucosa were seen mainly in the squamous mucosa, and maturation of the squamous mucosa in the greater curvature (GC-S) occurred more slowly than that of the squamous mucosa in the lesser curvature (LC-S). Epithelial desquamation in the LC-S and GC-S was observed between 6 and 90 days but was not observed in the LC-S at about 60 days, whereas it was observed in the GC-S until 90 days old. These findings suggest that there is a difference in the development of the gastric mucosa by region and that desquamation continues over a term longer than studies have reported in the past. In the affected foals, the minimum age at which gastric ulcer was observed was 4 days old. Gastric ulcers formed predominantly in the squamous mucosa (LC-S and GC-S) of foals with an immature mucosa before the weaning period, and the peak incidence occurred between 61 and 90 days old. The differences in the ulceration sites were considered to depend on the difference in the development (maturation) stage of the squamous mucosa. The grading score of the gastric ulcer increased with the growth of the affected foals. The gastric ulcer might be enhanced greatly by stress in the weaning period. PMID:25648790

  2. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  3. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. RESULTS We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. CONCLUSIONS Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  4. Absence of zinc cytotoxicity. Effect of short-term zinc oral administration on rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L E; Mathias, C M; Siry, P; Galle, P

    1990-01-01

    Zinc ions have been reported to stabilize cellular membranes, protecting the gastric mucosa against a wide variety of ulcerative agents. The treatment with zinc sulfate intragastrically administered as one dose (20 mg/kg body weight) daily for 30 consecutive days did not modify the normal aspect of rat gastric mucosa as observed by electron scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the X-ray microanalysis of the lysosome content performed on different gastric mucosa cells did not show the zinc element. These results suggest that zinc ion is a relatively nontoxic element for the rat gastric mucosa. PMID:2101069

  5. Effects of Glyprolines on DNA Synthesis and Free Radical Oxidation in Mouse Gastric Mucosa Under Physiological Conditions and During Therapy with Oral Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, M Yu; Tolstenok, I V; Lebed'ko, O A; Andreeva, L A; Myasoedov, N F; Timoshin, S S

    2015-08-01

    Studies by (3)H-thymidin autoradiography showed that injections of Pro-Gly-Pro and Arg-Gly-Pro peptides caused no changes in the DNA synthesis processes in the gastric mucosa. Both peptides induced a reduction of free radical oxidation activity, which was shown by chemiluminescence. Indomethacin induced lesions in the gastric mucosa, triggered oxidative stress, and reduced proliferative activity. Injection of Pro-Gly-Pro peptide before indomethacin corrected disorders in oxidative status and normalized DNA synthesis. Preinjection of Arg-Gly-Pro led to enlargement (by 4.6 times) of the focus of lesions in animals treated by indomethacin and augmented oxidative stress. PMID:26388565

  6. Characterization of Gastric Mucosa Biopsies Reveals Alterations in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Andrew C; O'Donovan, Kirsty L; Ekblad, Eva; Sand, Elin; Craufurd, David; Rosser, Anne; Sanders, David; Stoy, Nicholas; Rickards, Hugh; Wierup, Nils; Bates, Gillian P.; Björkqvist, Maria; Quarrell, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is an important complication of Huntington’s disease (HD), however the mechanism for weight loss in HD is not entirely understood. Mutant huntingtin is expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and, in HD mice, mutant huntingtin inclusions are found within the enteric nervous system along the GI tract. A reduction of neuropeptides, decreased mucosal thickness and villus length, as well as gut motility impairment, have also been shown in HD mice. We therefore set out to study gastric mucosa of patients with HD, looking for abnormalities of mucosal cells using immunohistochemistry. In order to investigate possible histological differences related to gastric acid production, we evaluated the cell density of acid producing parietal cells, as well as gastrin producing cells (the endocrine cell controlling parietal cell function). In addition, we looked at chief cells and somatostatin-containing cells. In gastric mucosa from HD subjects, compared to control subject biopsies, a reduced expression of gastrin (a marker of G cells) was found. This is in line with previous HD mouse studies showing reduction of GI tract neuropeptides. PMID:26581667

  7. Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  8. Optical reconstruction of murine colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cambrian Y; Dubé, Philip E; Girish, Nandini; Reddy, Ajay T; Polk, D Brent

    2015-05-01

    The mucosal layer of the colon is a unique and dynamic site where host cells interface with one another and the microbiome, with major implications for physiology and disease. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating colonic regeneration, inflammation, dysplasia, and dysbiosis remain undercharacterized, partly because the use of thin tissue sections in many studies removes important volumetric context. To address these challenges in visualization, we have developed the deep mucosal imaging (DMI) method to reconstruct continuous extended volumes of mouse colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution. Use of ScaleA2 and SeeDB clearing agents enabled full visualization of the colonic crypt, the fundamental unit of adult colon. Confocal imaging of large colorectal expanses revealed epithelial structures involved in repair, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and stem cell function, in fluorescent protein-labeled, immunostained, paraffin-embedded, or human biopsy samples. We provide freely available software to reconstruct and explore on computers with standard memory allocations the large DMI datasets containing in toto representations of distal colonic mucosal volume. Extended-volume imaging of colonic mucosa through the novel, extensible, and readily adopted DMI approach will expedite mechanistic investigations of intestinal physiology and pathophysiology at intracrypt to multicrypt length scales. PMID:25721303

  9. Lipidomic profiling of sinus mucosa from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, Farbod; Kongmanas, Kessiri; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj; Mallen-St Clair, Jon; Gopen, Quinton; Faull, Kym F; Suh, Jeffrey D

    2015-04-01

    Sinusitis is a cause of significant morbidity, substantial healthcare costs, and negative effects on quality of life. The primary objective of this study is to characterize the previously unknown lipid profile of sinonasal mucosa from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and from controls. Sinus mucosa samples were analyzed from 9 CRS patients with concomitant nasal polyps, 11 CRS patients without polyps, and 12 controls. Ten lone polyp samples were also analyzed. Samples were subjected to a modified Bligh/Dyer lipid extraction, then high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), combined gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS), and flow-injection/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FI/ESI-MS/MS). Data was analyzed for identification and profiling of major components. HPTLC revealed an array of species reflecting the lipid complexity of the samples. GC/EI-MS revealed cholesterol and several fatty acids. FI/ESI-MSMS revealed numerous lipid species, namely a host of phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides and cholesteryl esters, but no detectable amounts of phosphatidyinositols or sulfated lipids. These results are a first step to uncover unique molecular biomarkers in CRS. PMID:25588779

  10. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  11. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals. PMID:26519447

  12. Qualitative assessment of tongue drive system by people with high-level spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Rowles, Diane; Holbrook, Jaimee; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P; Laumann, Anne E; Roth, Elliot; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a minimally invasive, wireless, and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their environments using tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures into commands by sensing the magnetic field created by a small magnetic tracer applied to the user's tongue. We have previously quantitatively evaluated the TDS for accessing computers and powered wheelchairs, demonstrating its usability. In this study, we focused on its qualitative evaluation by people with high-level spinal cord injury who each received a magnetic tongue piercing and used the TDS for 6 wk. We used two questionnaires, an after-scenario and a poststudy, designed to evaluate the tongue-piercing experience and the TDS usability compared with that of the sip-and-puff and the users' current ATs. After study completion, 73% of the participants were positive about keeping the magnetic tongue-barbell in order to use the TDS. All were satisfied with the TDS performance and most said that they were able to do more things using TDS than their current ATs (4.22/5). PMID:25019667

  13. Qualitative assessment of Tongue Drive System by people with high-level spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Rowles, Diane; Holbrook, Jaimee; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P.; Laumann, Anne E.; Roth, Elliot; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a minimally invasive, wireless, and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their environments using tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures into commands by sensing the magnetic field created by a small magnetic tracer applied to the user’s tongue. We have previously quantitatively evaluated the TDS for accessing computers and powered wheelchairs, demonstrating its usability. In this study, we focused on its qualitative evaluation by people with high-level spinal cord injury who each received a magnetic tongue piercing and used the TDS for 6 wk. We used two questionnaires, an after-scenario and a poststudy, designed to evaluate the tongue-piercing experience and the TDS usability compared with that of the sip-and-puff and the users’ current ATs. After study completion, 73% of the participants were positive about keeping the magnetic tongue-barbell in order to use the TDS. All were satisfied with the TDS performance and most said that they were able to do more things using TDS than their current ATs (4.22/5). PMID:25019667

  14. Development of the tongue coating analyzer based on concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Wenping

    2010-10-01

    The tongue coating diagnosis is an important part in tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).The change of the thickness and color of the tongue coating can reflect the pathological state for the patient. By observing the tongue coating, a Chinese doctor can determine the nature or severity of disease. Because some limitations existed in the tongue diagnosis method of TCM and the method based on the digital image processing, a novel tongue coating analyzer(TCA) based on the concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument is developed in this paper. This analyzer consists of the light source system, check cavity, optical fiber probe, concave grating monochrometer, spectrum detector system based on CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card, signal processing circuit system, computer and data analysis software based on LabVIEW, etc. Experimental results show that the novel TCA's spectral range can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this TCA uses the back-split-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with the TCA based on the image processing technology, this TCA has many advantages, such as, compact volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and real-time handle data and display the result, etc. Therefore, it has the greatly potential values in the fields of the tongue coating diagnosis for TCM.

  15. Protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death: Two cases of arson to cover homicide.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Slobodan; Živkovi?, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    In the forensic assessment of burned bodies, the question of whether the victim was exposed to fire before or after death is of crucial importance. Many authors consider tongue protrusion in cases of burned bodies to be a post-mortem phenomenon. Deep-heating effects of fire are sufficient to cook muscle. The muscle becomes shortened by dehydration and protein denaturation. Exposure to heat causes flexion of the extremities on the contraction of muscles and tendons - heat rigour. The flexors, being bulkier than the extensors, contract more and force the limbs into the position of general flexion. The genioglossus is the major muscle of the tongue and is responsible for protruding or sticking out the tongue: by means of its inferior fibres, it draws the root of the tongue forward and protrudes the apex from the mouth. Similar to the action of limb flexors exposed to heat and the appearance of post-mortem general flexion of a burned body due to heat rigour, perhaps the geniglossus could be shortened by heat, causing post-mortem tongue protrusion to appear as heat rigour of the tongue. In this paper, we present two such cases of protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death - cases of arson to cover homicide. PMID:25013164

  16. Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

  17. A Portable Sensing System for Electronic Tongue Operations

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Karen; Truemper, Andreas; Murphy, Kilian

    2006-01-01

    A portable, low cost sensing system is described which interfaces to an electronic tongue sensor. The sensor used is a voltammetric sensor which monitors electrochemical reactions that occur in solutions. The sensor is able to test a range of liquids with different electrochemical properties without any hardware adjustments to the system. The system can automatically adjust for the change in solution properties by performing a routine which uses an auto-ranging feature to determine a current-to-voltage conversion of the sensor data by using a binary search strategy. This eliminates the intervention of the user to modify the system each time a new solution is tested. The effectiveness of the calibration routine was tested by carrying out cyclic voltammetry in two different solutions, 0.1M sulfuric acid solution and the phosphate buffered solution of pH3. The sensor system was able to accurately acquire the sensor data for each solution.

  18. Macrophages Modulate Migration and Invasion of Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pirilä, Emma; Väyrynen, Otto; Sundquist, Elias; Päkkilä, Kaisa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Pääkkönen, Virve; Pesonen, Paula; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Salo, Tuula

    2015-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has a high mortality rate and the incidence is rising worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, the disease lacks specific prognostic markers and treatment modality. The spreading of OTSCC is dependent on the tumor microenvironment and involves tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Although the presence of TAMs is associated with poor prognosis in OTSCC, the specific mechanisms underlying this are still unknown. The aim here was to investigate the effect of macrophages (Mfs) on HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells and NF-kappaB activity. We polarized THP-1 cells to M1 (inflammatory), M2 (TAM-like) and R848 (imidazoquinoline-treated) type Mfs. We then investigated the effect of Mfs on HSC-3 cell migration and NF-kappaB activity, cytokine production and invasion using several different in vitro migration models, a human 3D tissue invasion model, antibody arrays, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry and a mouse invasion model. We found that in co-culture studies all types of Mfs fused with HSC-3 cells, a process which was partially due to efferocytosis. HSC-3 cells induced expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta in co-cultures with M2 Mfs. Direct cell-cell contact between M2 Mfs and HSC-3 cells induced migration and invasion of HSC-3 cells while M1 Mfs reduced HSC-3 cell invasion. M2 Mfs had an excess of NF-kappaB p50 subunit and a lack of p65 subunits both in the presence and absence of HSC-3 cells, indicating dysregulation and pro-tumorigenic NF-kappaB activation. TAM-like cells were abundantly present in close vicinity to carcinoma cells in OTSCC patient samples. We conclude that M2 Mfs/TAMs have an important role in OTSCC regulating adhesion, migration, invasion and cytokine production of carcinoma cells favouring tumor growth. These results demonstrate that OTSCC patients could benefit from therapies targeting TAMs, polarizing TAM-like M2 Mfs to inflammatory macrophages and modulating NF-kappaB activity. PMID:25811194

  19. In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa

    E-print Network

    Hartline, Jason D.

    In Vivo Risk Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Through Optical Characterization of Duodenal Mucosa,§ and Vadim Backman, PhD* Objectives: To reduce pancreatic cancer mortality, a paradigm shift in cancer) spectroscopy to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer by interrogating the duodenal mucosa. A previous ex

  20. A novel method for delineation of oral mucosa for radiotherapy dose-response studies

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jamie A; Welsh, Liam C; Gulliford, Sarah L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is currently no standard method for delineating the oral mucosa and most attempts are oversimplified. A new method to obtain anatomically accurate contours of the oral mucosa surfaces was developed and applied to 11 patients. This is expected to represent an opportunity for improved toxicity modelling of oral mucositis. PMID:25779721

  1. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  2. HMME combined with green light-emitting diode irradiation results in efficient apoptosis on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xingqiang; Ning, Fen; Xia, Xiuwen; Wang, Dujuan; Tang, Lin; Hu, Jiang; Wu, Junchao; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-01

    Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) is a novel and promising porphyrin-related photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and potential mechanism of HMME-PDT under irradiation of green light-emitting diode (LED) with wavelength of 530?±?20 nm in treating human tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells in vitro. The HMME concentrations were 1.25, 2.5, and 5 ?g/ml while the energy densities were 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, and 3.0 J/cm(2). MTT assay demonstrated that HMME-PDT significantly inhibited the proliferation of Tca8113 cells, and the cytotoxicity was improved with increased HMME concentration and light intensity. The amount of cells decreased significantly and the morphology of cells changed drastically after HMME-PDT. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that HMME-PDT induced both apoptosis and necrosis, but apoptosis was the main form of cell death. Apoptotic morphology was confirmed by Hoechst 33342 staining. Laser scanning confocal microscopy observation showed that HMME was mainly localized in mitochondria. The production of intracellular reactive oxygen species increased remarkably after PDT treatment, and both sodium azide (the singlet oxygen quencher) and D-mannitol (the hydroxyl radical scavenger) could protect Tca8113 cells from death induced by HMME-PDT. Additionally, the activity of caspase-3 also increased markedly in treated groups, and the cell death could be rescued by a reversible inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO) of caspase-3. These results demonstrated that HMME combined with green LED significantly induced apoptosis of Tca8113 cells, suggesting that HMME-PDT using green LED might be a potential therapeutic strategy for human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26210547

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of ghrelin in the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Eissa, N; Ghia, J E

    2015-11-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body and it produces a wide array of hormones and neuropeptides. Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid hormone produced mainly by the X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa, has widespread tissue distribution and diverse physiological functions such as hormonal, orexigenic, metabolic, cardiovascular, neurological and immunological activities. Recent research has implicated ghrelin in gastrointestinal pathological conditions and immune system regulation, but its contribution is controversial. Although ghrelin levels are elevated in clinical active inflammatory bowel diseases, confirmation of its exact role using experimental models remains unclear. This review discusses the conflicting effects of ghrelin on intestinal inflammation, through the different possible immune and intracellular mechanisms and highlights new findings. PMID:26503163

  4. New concepts of neural regulation in human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

    2009-03-01

    Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants ("aromatherapy"), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

  5. NEW CONCEPTS OF NEURAL REGULATION IN HUMAN NASAL MUCOSA

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

  6. Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Kumar T. S.; Ponnuswamy, Indira Annamalai; David, Maria Priscilla; Shivhare, Peeyush; Puttaranganayak, Mahalakshmi Ikkanur; Sinha, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient. PMID:23762651

  7. Separation and characteristics of two histaminocytes from rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lemmi, C A

    1984-02-01

    To determine the properties of rat gastric cells involved in histamine metabolism (histaminocytes), fundic mucosa was enzymatically dispersed prior to separation by sedimentation methods. The distribution of histamine content, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity and incorporation of radioactive histidine metabolites were used to determine the characteristics of various populations of gastric cells. All activities measured, as well as most of the dispersed gastric cells, occurred in a narrow range of density between 1.083 and 1.091 g/ml. Velocity sedimentation showed that two populations of histaminocytes can be distinguished. One population has a higher sedimentation rate, suggesting a larger size, contains histamine, HDC activity and incorporates radioactive metabolites. Another population, in fractions with lower sedimentation rates, contains little histamine, has a higher HDC activity than the previous population and also incorporates radiolabelled histidine metabolites. For the first time, two populations of viable histaminocytes have been separated that differ in their biochemical properties. PMID:6711385

  8. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

    2004-06-30

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

  9. Morphofunctional adaptations of the olfactory mucosa in postnatally developing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kavoi, Boniface M; Makanya, Andrew N; Plendl, Johanna; Johanna, Plendl; Kiama, Stephen G

    2012-08-01

    Rabbits are born blind and deaf and receive unusually limited maternal care. Consequently, their suckling young heavily rely on the olfactory cue for nipple attachment. However, the postnatal morphofunctional adaptations of olfactory mucosa (OM) are not fully elucidated. To clarify on the extent and the pattern of refinement of the OM following birth in the rabbit, morphologic and morphometric analysis of the mucosa were done at neonatal (0-1 days), suckling (2 weeks), weanling (4 weeks), and adult (6-8 months) stages of postnatal development. In all the age groups, the basic components of the OM were present. However, proliferative activity of cells of the mucosal epithelium decreased with increasing age as revealed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Diameters of axon bundles, packing densities of olfactory cells, and cilia numbers per olfactory cell knob increased progressively with age being 5.5, 2.1, and 2.6 times, respectively, in the adult as compared with the neonate. Volume fraction values for the bundles increased by 5.3% from birth to suckling age and by 7.4% from weaning to adulthood and the bundle cores were infiltrated with blood capillaries in all ages except in the adult where such vessels were lacking. The pattern of cilia projection from olfactory cell knobs also showed age-related variations, that is, arose as a tuft from the tips of the knobs in neonates and sucklings and in a radial pattern from the knob bases in weanlings and adults. These morphological changes may be attributed to the high olfactory functional demand associated with postnatal development in the rabbit. PMID:22707244

  10. Endoscopic patterns of gastric mucosa and its clinicopathological significance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Min; Chen, Lei; Fan, Yu-Lin; Li, Xiang-Hong; Yu, Xin; Fang, Dian-Chun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the correlation of magnifying endoscopic patterns and histopathology, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa. METHODS: Gastric mucosal patterns in 140 patients with chronic gastritis were studied using Olympus GIF-Q240Z magnifying endoscope. Histopathological examination, rapid urease test and Warrthin-Starry staining were taken with biopsy samples from the magnified sites of stomach. The magnifying endoscopic patterns were compared with histopathological results and H. pylori detection. RESULTS: The pit patterns of gastric mucosa were classified as types A (round spot), B (short rod), C (branched), D (reticular) and E (villus). The detection rate of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) by magnifying endoscopy was 94.3% (33/35), which was significantly higher than that by routine endoscopy (22.9%, 8/35) (P < 0.01). The pit patterns of 31 cases of intestinal metaplasia (IM) appeared as type E in 18 cases (58.1%), type D in 8 cases (25.8%) and type C in 5 cases (16.1%). Fourteen out of 18 patients (77.8%) with complete type (type I) of IM appeared as type E of pit patterns, whereas only 4 of 13 (30.8%) patients with incomplete type (types II and III) of IM appeared as type E (P < 0.05). Collecting venules in the anterior of lower part of gastric corpus were subgrouped into types R (regular), I (irregular) and D (disappeared). H. pylori infection was found in 12.2% (9/74), 60% (9/15) and 84.3% (43/51) cases in these types respectively. H. pylori infection rate in type R was significantly lower than that in other two types (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Magnifying endoscopy may have an obvious value in diagnosing chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection. PMID:14606095

  11. Characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bovine small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Virkel, G; Carletti, M; Cantiello, M; Della Donna, L; Gardini, G; Girolami, F; Nebbia, C

    2010-06-01

    The intestinal mucosa plays a capital role in dictating the bioavailability of a large array of orally ingested drugs and toxicants. The activity and the expression of several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were measured in subcellular fractions from the duodenal mucosa of male veal calves and beef cattle displaying a functional rumen but differing in both age (about 8 months vs. 18 to 24 months) and dietary regimens (i.e., milk replacer plus hay and straw vs. corn and concentrated meal). Intestinal microsomes showed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B, 2C- and 3A-mediated activities and the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins, but no proof of CYP1A expression and/or functions could be provided. Intestinal microsomes were also active in performing reactions typically mediated by carboxylesterases (indophenylacetate hydrolysis), flavin-containing monooxygenases (methimazole S-oxidation), and uridindiphosphoglucuronyltransferases (1-naphthol glucuronidation), respectively. Cytosolic fractions displayed the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-dependent conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; besides, the GST-mediated conjugation of ethacrinic acid (GSTpi) or cumene hydroperoxide (GSTalpha) was matched by the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins. Conversely, despite the lack of measurable activity with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a protein cross reacting with anti-rat GSTmu antibodies could be clearly detected. Although, as detected by densitometry, CYPs and GST isoenzymes tended to be more expressed in beef cattle than in veal calf preparations, there was a general poor correlation with the rate of the in vitro metabolism of the selected diagnostic probes. PMID:20557447

  12. Pure tocotrienol concentrate protected rat gastric mucosa from acute stress-induced injury by a non-antioxidant mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rodzian, Mohd Nor Syidiq; Aziz Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel; Nur Azlina, Mohd Fahami; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor of various major health problems, such as stress-induced gastric mucosal injury. This study was performed to investigate the action of a pure preparation of tocotrienol (T3) concentrate, made up of 90% ?-tocotrienol and 10% ?-tocotrienol, on gastric injury of rats induced by water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS). Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into two equal groups: a control group and a treated group. The treatment group received T3 concentrate at 60 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. The body weights of rats were recorded daily before the treatment was given. At the end of the treatment period, all rats were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours, following which the rats were euthanized. The stomachs were isolated and opened along the greater curvature for the examination of lesions and measurements of gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E? (PGE?) contents. The mean gastric mucosal lesion index in the treated rats was significantly lower than that in the control rats. This suggests that the T3 concentrate has the ability to confer protection to the gastric mucosa against gastric injury induced by acute stress. No significant difference was observed for changes in body weight before and after the treatment. The gastric PGE2 content in both groups was comparable. However, the gastric MDA content was significantly higher in the treated group compared to the control group, indicating that the T3 supplementation was not able to reduce the lipid peroxidation process. This study concludes that the T3 concentrate has the ability to protect the gastric mucosa from stress-induced injury by a non-antioxidant mechanism. PMID:23625601

  13. [Parameters of NO synthase system of gastric mucosa in rats under stress conditions and inhibition of cyclooxygenase].

    PubMed

    Fomenko, I S; Bondarchuk, T I; Bilets'ka, L P; Panasiuk, N B; Skliarov, O Ia

    2014-01-01

    In experiments on rats with modeled water-restrained stress, the influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of different genesis on morphological status of gastric mucosa and changes of NO-synthase system parameters have been studied Administration of nonselective cyclooxygenese inhibitor naproxen in the water-restrained stress model in rats potentiated the increase of severity of damage of gastric mucosa. At the same time, the activity of both inducible and constitutive isoforms ofNO-sythase decreased. The parameters of lipoperoxidation remained at the level observed during water-restrained stress. It was shown the advantages of the use of H2S-releasinfg nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ATB-346, which are associated with its cytoprotective effect of the drug manifested by a decreased total area of gastric damage. However, parameters of lipoperoxidation and NO-syntase system did not differ substantially from those in the group treated with napoxen, indicating the prevalence of parent molecule (naproxen) in regulation of function of NO-system Administration of dual COX/LOX inhibitor, the compound 2A5DHT, caused a decrease of gastric damage as compared to the effect ofnaproxen. The activity of iNOS remained much higher than under condition of the naproxen action. PMID:25007521

  14. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-03-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (I sc). Subsequent I sc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. I sc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  15. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-01-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (Isc). Subsequent Isc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. Isc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  16. Lateral bracing of the tongue during the onset phase of alveolar stops: an EPG study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; Oebels, Judith

    2015-03-01

    Although raising the sides of the tongue to form a seal with the palate and upper teeth--lateral bracing--plays a key role in controlling airflow direction, providing overall tongue stability and building up oral pressure during alveolar consonant production, details of this articulatory gesture remain poorly understood. This study examined the dynamics of lateral bracing during the onset of alveolar stops /t/, /d/, /n/ produced by 15 typical English-speaking adults using electropalatography. Percent tongue palate contact in the lateral regions over a 150-ms period from the preceding schwa to stop closure was measured. Rapid rising of the sides of the tongue from the back towards the front during the 50-ms period before closure was observed, with oral stops showing significantly more contact than nasal stops. This feature corresponds to well-documented formant transitions detectable from acoustic analysis. Possible explanations for increased contact for oral stops and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25495013

  17. Measuring tongue motion from tagged cine-MRI using harmonic phase (HARP) processinga)

    E-print Network

    Prince, Jerry L.

    's location deep within the vocal tract, high degrees of freedom during motion, and its rapidity of motion during speech and swallowing. A number of measurement techniques have been used to measure tongue motion

  18. Replacement of Missing Anterior Teeth in a Patient with Chronic Mouth Breathing and Tongue Thrusting

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad

    2013-01-01

    The loss of anterior teeth has serious functional, esthetic disabilities, in addition to compromising the patients' quality of life. Various etiologies can be attributed to the anterior tooth loss, including trauma, caries, and periodontal diseases. The chronic mouth breathing due to nasal adenoids is known to enhance the gingival and periodontal diseases. The dental literature proves the association of nasal breathing, tongue thrusting, and anterior open bite. Arch shape and tooth position are primarily determined by the equilibrium of the forces from tongue and perioral musculature. Increased force from tongue musculature in the tongue thrusting patient leads to flaring of anterior teeth, making them susceptible for periodontal and traumatic tooth loss. Replacement of the anterior teeth in this patient will also help in restoration of anterior guidance, which is critical for the health of temporomandibular joint, posterior teeth, and musculature. PMID:24490091

  19. Optically Sensing Tongue Gestures for Computer Input T. Scott Saponas1

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    retain the use of their cranial nerves, which control the eyes, jaw, and tongue. While researchers have and with the world around them. Fortunately, the cranial nerves, which control organs such as the eyes, jaw

  20. RESONANCE TONGUES IN THE QUASI-PERIODIC HILL-SCHRODINGER EQUATION WITH THREE

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    tongues get out of control. They are restless and evil, and always spreading deadly poison". (James 3, 6. A source of interest on these equations is that they are natural generalizations of the classical Hill

  1. Observations and temporal model of a honeybee's hairy tongue in microfluid transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenjia; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-11-01

    Nectarivorous insects are endowed with specific mouthparts, which provide an inspiration for the design of micropumps. We combined the postmortem examination and high-speed imaging to observe the kinematics of the honeybee's tongue. We found an asynchronization between the tongue movement and the glossa hair erection. We propose a physical model to describe the feeding process considering the trade-off between nectar-intake volume and energy consumption. This asynchronization is validated to be effective in maximizing the nectar-intake amount by theoretically figuring out the optimal moment when the glossal hairs began to erect. Our results reveal that the honeybee not only develops a subtle tongue with erectable glossal hairs but also preforms a highly evolved scheduled coordination between tongue movements and hair erection, which could serve as valuable models for developing miniature pumps that are both extendable and have dynamic surfaces.

  2. Absorption of triphenylmethane dyes Brilliant Blue and Patent Blue through intact skin, shaven skin and lingual mucosa from daily life products.

    PubMed

    Lucová, Marianna; Hojerová, Jarmila; Pažoureková, Silvia; Klimová, Zuzana

    2013-02-01

    Currently, there is evidence of health risks of triphenylmethane dyes after systemic absorption. This paper investigates the fate of Brilliant Blue (BB) and Patent Blue (PB) after 24-h in vitro diffusion, firstly through intact and secondly through shaven pig-ear skin (stored by freezing) from four leave-on cosmetics under in-use conditions. Both dyes showed no measurable permeation through intact skin but significant permeation was found through shaven skin. From 250 ng/cm(2) of dye in one applied dose there were found 52 ng/cm(2) of BB and 91 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-based after-shave, 39 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-free facial-cleanser, 35 ng/cm(2) of BB and 43 ng/cm(2) of PB from O/W emulsion, and no amount from W/O emulsion, as available to become systemically absorbed. Thirdly, the paper focuses on lingual mucosa after licking lollipops. Ex vivo porcine tongue dorsum was exposed to human saliva with 15,000 ng/cm(2) of dye for 20 min. 24-h diffusion resulted in 34 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB which can be directly absorbed into the blood system. Findings are troubling, particularly with regard to the frequent use of after-shave products by the male population and repeated lollipops licking by children. PMID:23127598

  3. Application of B+M-Mode Ultrasonography in Assessing Deglutitive Tongue Movements in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Li, Junlai; Zhang, Changsheng; Cao, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Song, Danfei; Yu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate tongue movements during swallowing in healthy adults using the B+M-mode ultrasonography, and to determine a common feature in the M-mode traces for quantitative measurement and individual comparison of tongue movements. Material/Methods Ninety healthy subjects were divided into 3 groups according to age (20–39, 40–59, and 60–80 years). The tongue movements during 3 saliva swallows were examined using real-time B+M-mode ultrasonography. The M-mode traces of tongue movements were recorded and evaluated. Results Both intra-individual and inter-individual differences were detected in the M-mode traces during the 3 saliva swallows. Characteristic types were seen during the individual swallowing phases of M-mode traces: 2 activity types in phase I, 2 types in phase IIb, and 3 types in phase III. However, no variations were seen during phase IIa, in which all subjects displayed a continuous upsloping trace. The average range of swallow-related tongue radial displacement during phase IIa decreased gradually with age, while the average duration of tongue movement during phase IIa increased gradually with age. These 2 trends were not statistically significant across age groups. However, differences between sexes were found in both the range of tongue radial displacement and the duration of deglutitive lingual actions during phase IIa in all 3 age groups (P<0.05). Conclusions B+M-mode ultrasonography may offer a quick and safe alternative for the preliminary evaluation of deglutitive tongue movements. PMID:26049721

  4. Human Newborns Match Tongue Protrusion of Disembodied Human and Robotic Mouths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soussignan, Robert; Courtial, Alexis; Canet, Pierre; Danon-Apter, Gisele; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    No evidence had been provided so far of newborns' capacity to give a matching response to 2D stimuli. We report evidence from 18 newborns who were presented with three types of stimuli on a 2D screen. The stimuli were video-recorded displays of tongue protrusion shown by: (a) a human face, (b) a human tongue from a disembodied mouth, and (c) an…

  5. Three-dimensional observation of mouse tongue muscles using micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kenzirou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain information about the mouse tongue muscle rendered using micro-computed tomography (?CT) at low, middle, and high magnifications. Three-dimensional (3D) ?CT is used in various fields. Most ?CT observations are restricted to hard tissue in biomaterial samples. Recently, with the use of osmium tetroxide, ?CT has been effectively employed to observe soft tissue; it is now believed that ?CT observation of soft tissue is feasible. On the other hand, the structure of the tongue muscle has been well studied, but cross-sectional imaging enhanced by 3D rendering is lacking. We chose the mouse tongue as a soft tissue case study for ?CT and generated cross-sectional images of the tongue enhanced by 3-D image rendering with histological resolution. During this observation, we developed new methods of low-magnification observation to show the relation between the tongue muscles and surrounding tissues. We also applied high-resolution ?CT in high-magnification observation of muscle fiber fascicles. Our methodological techniques give the following results: (1) For low-magnification observation (field of view: 12,000 ?m), pretreatment with decalcification and freeze drying is suitable for observing the area between the muscle of the tongue and the bone around the tongue using ?CT. (2) For middle-magnification observation (Field of view: 3,500 ?m), the use of osmium tetroxide to observe the muscle arrangement of the tongue by ?CT is suitable. (3) For high-magnification observation (Field of view: 450 ?m), high-resolution ?CT is suitable for observation of the transversus muscle fiber fascicles. PMID:23975065

  6. Comparison of pharyngeal airway dimension, tongue and hyoid bone position based on ANB angle

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashish; Autar, Ram; Pradhan, Kusum Lata; Yadav, Vijeta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to cephalometrically evaluate the pharyngeal airway dimension, tongue and hyoid position in subjects with normal nasorespiratory functions having different dentofacial patterns (A-point-nasion-B-point [ANB] >40 and ANB <40) and to find if a correlation existed. Materials and Methods: Class I and Class II Division I patients were selected randomly. Lateral head cephalograms were taken in normal head position within a lead foil attached to the tongue tip and a barium coating on the dorsal surface of tongue. The lateral cephalograms obtained were traced using lead acetate paper and measurements were taken. Different analyses were done for the pharyngeal airways, hyoid bone, and tongue. Results: The ANB angle is a significant predictor for Class I and Class II Division I malocclusion, and the mean ANB angle of Class II Division I was different and higher. The overall mean pharynx and hyoid parameters were different and lower in Class II Division I patients than in Class I patients. The mean tongue parameter almost remained the same except for the tongue position (TT-LOP), which was higher in Class II Division I. Conclusion: In general, there was no difference either in the pharyngeal airway anterioposterior dimension or in the position and relationship of the hyoid bone and tongue, between Class I and Class II Division I patients. These findings are consistent with the findings in studies. Anterioposterior dimension of the upper airway is usually maintained by adaptation of both the tongue and the hyoid bone. The result should be viewed in the light of the fact that only anterioposterior dimensions were taken into consideration; the vertical and transverse dimensions of these complex anatomical structures need to have newer three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique to find if a correlation existed between them, making future studies more comprehensive.

  7. Relating Speech Production to Tongue Muscle Compressions Using Tagged and High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use four-dimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two post-glossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies. PMID:26166932

  8. Handy measurement for tongue motion and coordination with laryngeal elevation at swallowing.

    PubMed

    Tsuga, K; Hayashi, R; Sato, Y; Akagawa, Y

    2003-10-01

    At the oral stage of swallowing, the tongue plays a major role and proper tongue performance is necessary to form the bolus and transfer it to the pharynx. For the present study we built a prototype device for safe and handy objective estimation of tongue motion and coordination with laryngeal elevation at swallowing. The device records tongue pressure by means of two strain gauge pressure transducers aligned 20 mm apart on a brass strap placed along the palatal midline. Laryngeal vibration is recorded with piezo-electric acceleration transducers. Time differences between pressure onset at the anterior and posterior transducers and the first spike from laryngeal vibration are measured. Ten healthy subjects were asked five times to swallow 5 mL of water. Pressure onset at the anterior transducer preceded posterior pressure by 294 +/- 164 ms. Given the distance between the transducers, the tongue contracted (squeezed) at a speed of 93 +/- 60 mm s(-1). Laryngeal vibration occurred 671 +/- 175 ms after the onset of anterior pressure. There was considerable variation in these parameters between subjects. Though the data is limited, the device successfully and easily revealed certain aspects of tongue motion and coordination with laryngeal elevation. PMID:12974857

  9. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow recording of muscle contractile properties of tongue and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in the hindlimb. In the same animals, the following measurements were made: (a) twitch contraction time (CT; in milliseconds), (b) half decay time (HDT; in milliseconds), (c) maximum twitch force (in grams), (d) tetanic force, and (e) fatigue index determined from repetitive stimulation of the muscles. Results No significant differences were observed in young versus old groups in retrusive tongue forces, whereas a significant (p < .05) decrement in EDL tetanic forces was found in old rats. Slower CT in old rats was observed only in the tongue. Old and young groups were not significantly different in fatigue index or HDT for tongue or EDL. Conclusions Old animals generated equivalent maximum tongue forces with stimulation, but they were slower in achieving these forces than young animals. Limb and cranial muscles were not affected equally by aging. As such, information derived from limb muscle studies may not easily generalize to the cranial motor system. PMID:18658053

  10. Glossal abscess as a complication of tongue-base suspension surgery.

    PubMed

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Lanson, Biana G; Roehm, Pamela C

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 60 cases of tongue abscess have been reported in the English-language literature over the past 30 years. We report what we believe is the first case of a glossal abscess that arose as a complication of tongue-base suspension surgery. The patient was a 31-year-old man who presented with a several-day history of odynophagia, tongue swelling, voice changes, and increased snoring. Two years earlier, he had undergone a tongue-base suspension procedure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a tongue abscess. During peroral incision and drainage, a knotted 0 Prolene suture was discovered within the abscess cavity. The suture was removed, the area was thoroughly irrigated, the drain was placed in the abscess cavity, and the incision was loosely closed. On postoperative day 5, repeat CT revealed resolution of the abscess, and the patient was discharged on oral antibiotics. Although glossal abscess is very rare, physicians should consider it in the differential diagnosis of any patient who presents with lingual swelling following tongue-base suspension surgery. PMID:22180117

  11. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  12. Semi-automatic segmentation for 3D motion analysis of the tongue with dynamic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic MRI has been widely used to track the motion of the tongue and measure its internal deformation during speech and swallowing. Accurate segmentation of the tongue is a prerequisite step to define the target boundary and constrain the tracking to tissue points within the tongue. Segmentation of 2D slices or 3D volumes is challenging because of the large number of slices and time frames involved in the segmentation, as well as the incorporation of numerous local deformations that occur throughout the tongue during motion. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic approach to segment 3D dynamic MRI of the tongue. The algorithm steps include seeding a few slices at one time frame, propagating seeds to the same slices at different time frames using deformable registration, and random walker segmentation based on these seed positions. This method was validated on the tongue of five normal subjects carrying out the same speech task with multi-slice 2D dynamic cine-MR images obtained at three orthogonal orientations and 26 time frames. The resulting semi-automatic segmentations of a total of 130 volumes showed an average dice similarity coefficient (DSC) score of 0.92 with less segmented volume variability between time frames than in manual segmentations. PMID:25155697

  13. The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, we show that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. We also show that the tongue–fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap. Our results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Our findings have ramifications for the study of feeding mechanics in other nectarivorous birds, and for the understanding of the evolution of nectarivory in general. We propose a conceptual mechanical explanation for this unique fluid-trapping capacity, with far-reaching practical applications (e.g., biomimetics). PMID:21536916

  14. Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the nontumor side in order to elevate the tongue tip and blade for /s/. Method Velocity fields were extracted from tagged magnetic resonance images in the left, middle, and right tongue of 3 patients and 10 controls. Principal components (PCs) analysis quantified motion differences and distinguished between the subject groups. Results PCs 1 and 2 represented variance in (a) size and independence of the tongue tip, and (b) direction of motion of the tip, body, or both. Patients and controls were correctly separated by a small number of PCs. Conclusions Motion of the tumor slice was different between patients and controls, but the nontumor side of the patients’ tongues did not show excessive or adaptive motion. Both groups contained apical and laminal /s/ users, and 1 patient created apical /s/ in a highly unusual manner. PMID:24023377

  15. Morphology of the tongue of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). I. Gross anatomical features and topography.

    PubMed

    Crole, M R; Soley, J T

    2009-09-01

    Despite numerous papers addressing the topic, the gross morphology of the ratite tongue and more specifically that of the emu, has been superficially or poorly described. This paper presents the first definitive macroscopic description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. Twenty-three heads obtained from birds at slaughter were used for this study. Specimens were fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin, rinsed and the gross anatomy described. The emu tongue is divided into a body and a root. The body is triangular, dorsoventrally flattened, pigmented and displays caudally directed lingual papillae on both the lateral and caudal margins. The root, a more conspicuous structure in comparison to other ratites, is triangular, with a raised bulbous component folding over the rostral part of the laryngeal fissure. Following the general trend in ratites, the emu tongue is greatly reduced in comparison to the bill length and is specifically adapted for swallowing during the cranioinertial method of feeding employed by palaeognaths. This study revealed that it is not only the shape of the tongue that differs between ratites, as previously reported, but also its colour, appearance of its margins and root, and its length in comparison to the bill, and the shape of the paraglossum. PMID:21105602

  16. Clinical features and histological description of tongue lesions in a large Northern Italian population

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Mario; Arduino, Paolo-Giacomo; Carrozzo, Marco; Conrotto, Davide; Tanteri, Carlotta; Carbone, Lucio; Elia, Alessandra; Maragon, Zaira; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Only few studies on tongue lesions considered sizable populations, and contemporary literature does not provide a valid report regarding the epidemiology of tongue lesions within the Italian population. In this report, the histopathological and clinical appearance of 1.106 tongue lesions from northern Italians are described and discussed. Material and Methods The case records of patients referred for the diagnosis and management of tongue lesions, from October 1993 to October 2013, were reviewed. Histological data were also obtained and blindly reexamined. Results For instance, a biopsy performed on a lingual ulcer has a strong predicting association with a carcinoma, whereas a biopsy on a white lesion predicts for a leukoplakia or oral lichen planus. Moreover, a biopsy of erosion is representative of bullous diseases, whereas a biopsy on a verrucous-papillary lesion is significant for fibroma. Furthermore, carcinomas occur in the majority of cases on the lingual edge or pelvis, oral lichen planus is mainly seen on the edge, and fibromas mostly on the lingual tip. Conclusions The high frequency of tongue involvement of such different diseases emphasizes the importance of histological characterization and that some diseases occur more frequently than others, with a peculiar clinical aspect and a more common area. In fact our survey can help the clinician in advancing diagnostic hypothesis, on the basis of the elementary lesion and its site of involvement. Key words:Tongue lesions, clinical appearance, histological description. PMID:26241456

  17. A Magneto-Inductive Sensor Based Wireless Tongue-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Wang, Jia; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive, unobtrusive magnetic wireless tongue-computer interface, called “Tongue Drive,” to provide people with severe disabilities with flexible and effective computer access and environment control. A small permanent magnet secured on the tongue by implantation, piercing, or tissue adhesives, is utilized as a tracer to track the tongue movements. The magnetic field variations inside and around the mouth due to the tongue movements are detected by a pair of three-axial linear magneto-inductive sensor modules mounted bilaterally on a headset near the user’s cheeks. After being wirelessly transmitted to a portable computer, the sensor output signals are processed by a differential field cancellation algorithm to eliminate the external magnetic field interference, and translated into user control commands, which could then be used to access a desktop computer, maneuver a powered wheelchair, or control other devices in the user’s environment. The system has been successfully tested on six able-bodied subjects for computer access by defining six individual commands to resemble mouse functions. Results show that the Tongue Drive system response time for 87% correctly completed commands is 0.8 s, which yields to an information transfer rate of ~130 b/min. PMID:18990653

  18. THEMIS and PTPRK in celiac intestinal mucosa: coexpression in disease and after in vitro gliadin challenge.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Constanza; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Irastorza, Iñaki; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca; Chirdo, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-03-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune mediated, polygenic disorder, where HLA-DQ2/DQ8 alleles contribute around 35% to genetic risk, but several other genes are also involved. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and the more recent immunochip genotyping projects have fine-mapped 39 regions of genetic susceptibility to the disease, most of which harbor candidate genes that could participate in this disease process. We focused our attention to the GWAS peak on chr6: 127.99-128.38?Mb, a region including two genes, thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection (THEMIS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, kappa (PTPRK), both of which have immune-related functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of these two genes in duodenal mucosa of active and treated CD patients and in controls, and to determine whether SNPs (rs802734, rs55743914, rs72975916, rs10484718 and rs9491896) associated with CD have any influence on gene expression. THEMIS showed higher expression in active CD compared with treated patients and controls, whereas PTPRK showed lower expression. Our study confirmed the association of this region with CD in our population, but only the genotype of rs802734 showed some influence in the expression of THEMIS. On the other hand, we found a significant positive correlation between THEMIS and PTPRK mRNA levels in CD patients but not in controls. Our results suggest a possible role for both candidate genes in CD pathogenesis and the existence of complex, regulatory relationships that reside in the vast non-coding, functional intergenic regions of the genome. Further investigation is needed to clarify the impact of the disease-associated SNPs on gene function. PMID:23820479

  19. THEMIS and PTPRK in celiac intestinal mucosa: coexpression in disease and after in vitro gliadin challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bondar, Constanza; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Irastorza, Iñaki; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca; Chirdo, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune mediated, polygenic disorder, where HLA-DQ2/DQ8 alleles contribute around 35% to genetic risk, but several other genes are also involved. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and the more recent immunochip genotyping projects have fine-mapped 39 regions of genetic susceptibility to the disease, most of which harbor candidate genes that could participate in this disease process. We focused our attention to the GWAS peak on chr6: 127.99–128.38?Mb, a region including two genes, thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection (THEMIS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, kappa (PTPRK), both of which have immune-related functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of these two genes in duodenal mucosa of active and treated CD patients and in controls, and to determine whether SNPs (rs802734, rs55743914, rs72975916, rs10484718 and rs9491896) associated with CD have any influence on gene expression. THEMIS showed higher expression in active CD compared with treated patients and controls, whereas PTPRK showed lower expression. Our study confirmed the association of this region with CD in our population, but only the genotype of rs802734 showed some influence in the expression of THEMIS. On the other hand, we found a significant positive correlation between THEMIS and PTPRK mRNA levels in CD patients but not in controls. Our results suggest a possible role for both candidate genes in CD pathogenesis and the existence of complex, regulatory relationships that reside in the vast non-coding, functional intergenic regions of the genome. Further investigation is needed to clarify the impact of the disease-associated SNPs on gene function. PMID:23820479

  20. Characterization of the motor inhibitory role of colonic mucosa under chemical stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cano, Francisco E; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2014-04-01

    The main roles of the colonic mucosa are the absorption of water and electrolytes and the barrier function that preserves the integrity of the colonic wall. The mediators and mechanisms to accomplish these functions are under continuous investigation, but little attention has been paid to a possible control of colonic motility by the mucosa that would fine tune the relationship between absorption and motility. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the mucosa in the control of induced colonic contractility. Young ICR-CD1 mice (3-5 mo old) were studied. Isometric tension transducers were used to record contractility in full-thickness (FT) and mucosa-free (MF) strips from proximal colon. Proximal FT strips showed lower KCl- and bethanechol-induced responses than MF strips. The difference was not due to mechanical artefacts since the contractile response of FT strips to electrical field stimulation was around 50% lower than in MF. The inhibitory effects of the mucosa on FT strips were mimicked by immersion of separate strips of mucosa in the organ bath but not by addition of mucosal extract, suggesting gaseous molecules as mediators of this effect. Incubation of MF strips with synthase inhibitors of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide abolished the inhibition caused by addition of the mucosal strip, indicating that mucosal gasotransmitters are the mediators of these effects. This suggests that the control of colonic motility exerted by the mucosa could fine tune the balance between transit and absorption. PMID:24525019

  1. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  2. Control of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in normal rabbit colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Alpers, D H; Philpott, G W

    1975-10-01

    Although cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP) is known to suppress DNA synthesis is cultured cells and experimental tumors, its role in normal intact tissue has been little explored. This study helps to define the influence of modifiers of cyclic AMP levels on DNA synthesis in rabbit colonic mucosa maintained in short term organ culture system. Base line studies showed that incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA was linear for 24 hr and predominantly in mucosal cells, as shown by autoradiography. Colon from a normal fed rabbit showed a gradient of DNA synthesis, lowest in the cecum and increasing to a maximum, 3-fold greater, at the splenic flexure. This pattern was obliterated by fasting, at which time no formed stool remained in the colon, and all colon mucosa incorporated thymidine at the lower level of the right colon. Known modifiers of intracellular cAMP were found to depress colonic DNA synthesis. Theophylline inhibited DNA synthesis by 35% at 0.5 mM concentration and increased intracellular cAMP levels. This inhibition took 10 hr to be manifest and was at least partly reversible. It was by far the most active of the methylxanthines, consistent with its potency as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. N6,02-dibutyryl cyclic AMP inhibited DNA synthesis at concentrations as low as 0.025 mM, whereas adenosine and sodium butyrate were ineffective up to 1.0 mM. 5'-AMP did inhibit DNA synthesis, but only at 0.1 mM or higher and did not elevate intracellular cAMP levels. Other modifiers of cAMP which were effective included prostaglandins E1, E2, and F2alpha (2 times 10(-6) M) and papaverine (1 muM). Thymidine uptake was not affected by any of these drugs. The intrinsic thymidine pool was estimated at 20 muM by isotope dilution, and was not altered by theophylline. DNA synthesis in rabbit colon can be suppressed by increased cAMP levels within the time period allowed by organ culture. Thus, these drugs that elevated cAMP levels did not seem to suppress DNA synthesis by decreasing intracellular thymidine concentrations. PMID:170158

  3. A Rare Case of Melanosis of the Hard Palate Mucosa in a Patient with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Umberto; Palaia, Gaspare; Fantozzi, Paolo Junior; Tenore, Gianluca; Bosco, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Imatinib Mesylate, also known as Gleevec or ST1-571, is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor used as the gold standard medication for the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); Imatinib has indeed deeply revolutionized the CML therapy allowing most patients to have a good quality of life. Despite its beneficial effects, Imatinib has significant side effects such as mucosal pigmentation. A 72-year-old female having an Imatinib induced mucosal pigmentation is presented: she has been treated with Imatinib since 2003 and only in 2014 discovered, during a routine dental visit, having a pigmented lesion on her hard palate mucosa. Histopathologically, the lesion shows the deposition of fine dark brown spherical bodies within the lamina propria and cloaked in between the collagen fibers. There was no sign of inflammation, hyperplasia, or hemorrhage in the tissue. PMID:26451262

  4. Effects of topical nasal steroids and diclofenac on the nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a double-blind experimental study.

    PubMed

    Vuralkan, Erkan; Cobanoglu, Hatice Bengu; Arslan, Abdullah; Arslan, Selcuk; Mungan, Sevdegul; Tatar, Selcuk; Toklu, Ak?n Savas

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate nasal mucosal changes and efficiency of nasal steroids and diclofenac on nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment. Forty adult Albino-Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. Group 1 (control group) (n = 10) not exposed to hyperbaric or enhanced oxygen concentrations; group 2 (HBO group) (n = 10) underwent only HBO treatment; group 3 (n = 10) received HBO and intranasal mometasone furoate (10 ?l/day); group 4 (n = 10) treated with HBO and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg/day ip). Specimens of nasal mucosa were collected after sacrificing and dissection of animals. The specimens were processed for light microscopic evaluation, and then evaluated histopathologically for fibroblastic proliferation and inflammation. Regarding the scores of inflammation, the level of inflammation in the control group was significantly less severe than the other groups (p < 0.05). Evaluation of the fibrosis scores showed that the scores of both groups 2 and 4 were significantly increased (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups 2, 3, and 4 as for fibrosis and inflammation (p > 0.05). Chronic HBO treatment induced mild inflammation of the nasal mucosa. These effects cannot be prevented adequately by administration of nasal steroids and diclofenac. PMID:24362587

  5. Vibrio cholerae Represses Polysaccharide Synthesis To Promote Motility in Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuning; Liu, Shengyan; Sheng, Ying; Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Wang, Hui; Li, Jie; Gu, Frank X.; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao

    2015-01-01

    The viscoelastic mucus layer of gastrointestinal tracts is a host defense barrier that a successful enteric pathogen, such as Vibrio cholerae, must circumvent. V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to penetrate the mucosa and colonize the epithelial surface of the small intestine. In this study, we found that mucin, the major component of mucus, promoted V. cholerae movement on semisolid medium and in liquid medium. A genome-wide screen revealed that Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production was inversely correlated with mucin-enhanced motility. Mucin adhesion assays indicated that VPS bound to mucin. Moreover, we found that vps expression was reduced upon exposure to mucin. In an infant mouse colonization model, mutants that overexpressed VPS colonized less effectively than wild-type strains in more distal intestinal regions. These results suggest that V. cholerae is able to sense mucosal signals and modulate vps expression accordingly so as to promote fast motion in mucus, thus allowing for rapid spread throughout the intestines. PMID:25561707

  6. The oral mucosa as a therapeutic target for xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Thelin, W R; Brennan, M T; Lockhart, P B; Singh, M L; Fox, P C; Papas, A S; Boucher, R C

    2008-11-01

    Autoimmune disorders, medical interventions, and aging are all known to be associated with salivary gland hypofunction, which results in the uncomfortable feeling of dry mouth (xerostomia) and significantly diminished oral health. The current therapeutic regimen includes increasing oral hydration using over-the-counter oral comfort agents and the use of systemic cholinergic drugs to stimulate salivary output. However, these approaches produce very transient relief or are associated with uncomfortable side-effects. Thus, new treatments that provide long-lasting relief from discomfort and improve oral health with minimal side-effects would benefit the therapy of this disease. The processes that mediate fluid loss from the oral cavity, such as the absorption of fluid from the oral mucosa, represent novel therapeutic targets for xerostomia. Preventing fluid absorption from the oral cavity is predicted to improve oral hydration and alleviate the clinical symptoms and discomfort associated with dry mouth. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that prevent fluid absorption should complement current approaches that increase salivary output. This review discusses the current understanding of oral fluid balance and how these processes may be manipulated to provide relief for those suffering from dry mouth. PMID:19193197

  7. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  8. Feeding Regulates the Expression of Pancreatic Genes in Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Maria Rita; Yoshioka, Mayumi; St-Amand, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    The ineffective short-term control of feeding behavior compromises energy homeostasis and can lead to obesity. The gastrointestinal tract secretes several regulatory peptides. However, little is known about the stomach peptide contribution to the acute regulation of intake. In an attempt to identify new gastric signals, the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method was used for the transcription profiling of stomach mucosa in 7 groups of mice: fasting and sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours after a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) ad libitum meal. In total, 35 genes were differentially modulated by LF and HF meals compared to fasting, including 15 mRNAs coding for digestive enzymes/secretory proteins, and 10 novel transcripts. Although the basic expression profile did not undergo substantial variations, both LF and HF meals influenced the transcription. This study represents the first global analysis of stomach transcriptome as induced by different nutritional stimuli. Further studies including the characterization of novel genes may help to identify new targets for the therapy and prevention of obesity. PMID:21234387

  9. Protective Factors of the Gastric and Duodenal Mucosa: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Yandrapu, Harathi; Sarosiek, Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    The structural and functional integrity of the gastric and duodenal mucosa represents equilibrium between aggressive factors and protective mechanisms. Mucus-buffers-phospholipid layer as pre-epithelial barrier, enhanced by prostaglandins and epidermal growth factor, remains a vanguard of mucosal protection. It maintains a neutral pH at the surface epithelial luminal interface, facing luminal pH dropping to 1.0, i.e., hydrogen ion concentration gradient equal 1,000,000. The surface epithelial cells, elaborating mucins, buffers, phospholipids, prostaglandins, trefoil peptides, peptide growth factor and their receptors, heat shock proteins, cathelicidins, and ?-defensins form the second line of defense. Endothelium exerts mucosal protection through production of potent vasodilators like nitric oxide and prostacyclins and through release of angiogenic growth factors, securing adequate blood flow and representing the third and an ultimate line of mucosal protection. This microcirculation is instrumental for supply of oxygen, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and removal of ad hoc generated toxic substances as well as for continuous mucosal cell renewal from progenitor cells, secured by growth factors accompanied by survivin preventing early apoptosis. PMID:26109006

  10. Enzymatic sulfation of mucus glycoprotein in gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Liau, Y.H.; Carter, S.R.; Gwozdzinski, K.; Nadziejko, C.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L.

    1986-05-01

    Among the posttranslational modifications that mucus glycoprotein undergo prior to secretion into the gastric lumen is the process of sulfation of the carbohydrate chains. These sulfate groups impart strongly negative charge to nucus glycoprotein and are thought to play a major role in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. The authors report here the presence and some properties of an enzyme involved in the sulfation of gastric mucus glycoprotein. The sulfotransferase activity which catalyzes the transfer of sulfate ester group from PAPS to mucus glycoprotein was located in the detergent extracts of the microsomal fraction of rat gastric mucosa. Optimum enzymatic activity for sulfation of gastric mucin was obtained using 0.5% Triton X-100 and 25mM NaF at a pH of 6.8. ATP, ADP, MgCl/sub 2/ and MnCl/sub 2/ at concentrations examined were inhibitory. Under optimal conditions, the rate of sulfate incorporation was proportional to the microsomal enzyme protein concentration up to 50..mu..g and remained constant with time of incubation for at least 1h. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for gastric mucus glycoprotein was 8.3 x 10/sup -6/M. The /sup 35/S-labeled product of the enzyme reaction cochromatographed on Bio-Gel A-50 with gastric mucin, and gave on CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation a band at the density of 1.48 in which the /sup 35/S label coincided with the glycoprotein.

  11. Mother tongue-based bilingual education in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community languages are taught as a subject and used for instruction in the first three years of formal education. English is introduced as a subject in the third year of school and becomes one of the languages of instruction, with the community language, in early primary. In grades seven and eight, teachers use only English for instruction, although community languages can still be used informally. By the early 2000s, over 400 languages were being used in PNG's formal education system. This paper describes the background to PNG's bilingual education programme, then provides an overview of its main features and the positive outcomes as well as the problems encountered since it was initiated 15 years ago.

  12. Morphological evidence of local reflex arc in the rat's tongue.

    PubMed

    Altdorfer, K; Zelles, T; Pongor, E; Fehér, Erzsébet

    2012-12-01

    Lingual components of the autonomic nervous system are considered to be the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system. Therefore our aim was to study the intrinsic nerve cell bodies and synapses using immunohisto-, immunocytochemical methods. Several small groups of ganglia with cell bodies immunoreactive (IR) for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and substance P (SP) were observed just below the gustatory epithelium. A few somatostatin and galanin IR nerve cell bodies were also found. Many IR cell bodies were also demonstrated in the glands and next to blood vessels. Some of these cell bodies were multipolar and some of them were small neurons with an ovoid shape having only one process. Cell bodies positive for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were detected neither in the superficial nor in the deep portion. Electronmicroscopical analysis demonstrated different IR nerve fibres having axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses with other immunonegative cells. In a few cases VIP IR nerve processes were found to synaptize with other VIP positive nerve cell bodies. These results support the existance of intralingual reflex in the tongue, where the ganglia might have an integrative role of the different neuropeptide containing nerve fibres. PMID:23238550

  13. Platyhelminthes in tongue--a rare case and review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D S; Goyal, Arun K; Tandon, Padam Narayan; Jurel, Sunit K; Srivastava, Shilpi; Dangi, Uday R; Singh, Sudhansu; Jain, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Humans are the only known definitive host of the tapeworm Taenia solium and become a carrier by eating undercooked pork contaminated with "Cysticercus cellulosae" (cysticerci). Pigs act as an intermediate host and acquire cysticercosis by ingestion of eggs or proglottids from human feces, which develop into cysticerci within tissue, mostly without causing clinical symptoms in the host. Cysticercosis occurs in humans in a context of "fecal peril" by ingestion of egg-contaminated soil, water, vegetation, or auto-infestation. It has been reported in the published data that the separation of swine from humans, healthy cooking, and hygienic practices would lead to the eradication of the disease. However, cysticercosis is still a major public health problem in endemic regions, with more than 50 million infected people and is now a re-emerging disease in industrialized countries owing to human migration. It is the second most common cause of seizures in tropical countries. We report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 28-year-old woman who presented with a painless swelling in the ventral portion of the tongue. An excisional biopsy was performed, and histopathologic examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm. PMID:22364857

  14. Global expression analysis of ECL cells in Mastomys natalensis gastric mucosa identifies alterations in the AP-1 pathway induced by gastrin-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Kidd, M; Hinoue, T; Eick, G; Lye, K D; Mane, S M; Wen, Y; Modlin, I M

    2004-12-15

    Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia and then irreversible neoplasia can be generated in the African rodent Mastomys natalensis using the H2 receptor blocker, loxtidine, for 8-16 wk. We used a GeneChip approach complemented by standard technologies to identify gene expression alterations in the gastric mucosa during gastrin-mediated ECL cell transformation. Gastric mucosa (mucosal scrapping) and ECL cell-enriched fractions were obtained from untreated Mastomys (controls) and from animals treated with loxtidine for 8 wk (hyperplasia). Tumor ECL cells were obtained by hand-dissection of gastric ECL cell nodules from animals treated with loxtidine for >16 wk and from a spontaneously developed ECL cell tumor. RNA was isolated, examined on rat U34A GeneChips, and comparison analysis was performed to identify altered gene expression. Alterations in gene expressions were examined further by immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR), sequencing and Western blot. GeneSpring analysis demonstrated alterations in few genes (<20) in hyperplastic and tumor mucosa. The histamine H1 receptor was consistently increased in proliferating mucosa. This gene change was confirmed by Q-RT-PCR. Other genes showing alterations included neural-(chromogranin A and somatostatin), cell-cycle-, and AP-1-associated genes. Immunostaining confirmed alterations in neural markers. Cluster analysis of ECL cell-enriched samples demonstrated that c-fos and junD were differently regulated. Q-RT-PCR and Western blot in prospectively collected gastric mucosal samples confirmed the differential expression of Fos and Jun. The negative regulators of AP-1, JunD, and Menin were decreased in tumor mucosa. A missense of unknown function was noted in the menin gene. Hypergastrinemia in an animal model of gastric carcinoids differentially altered the histamine type 1 receptor and gene expression and protein composition of AP-1. These results suggest that expression of this receptor and an altered composition of AP-1 with a loss of inhibition play a role in ECL cell transformation. PMID:15602048

  15. Effect of modification to tongue and impeller geometry on unsteady flow, pressure fluctuations, and noise in a centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, R.; Chu, S.; Katz, J.

    1997-07-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pressure, and noise measurements are used to study the effect of modifications to tongue and impeller geometries on the flow structure and resulting noise in a centrifugal pump. It is demonstrated that the primary sources of noise are associated with interactions of the nonuniform outflux from the impeller (jet/wake phenomenon) with the tongue. Consequently, significant reduction of noise is achieved by increasing the gap between the tongue and the impeller up to about 20% of the impeller radius. Further increase in the gap affects the performance adversely with minimal impact on the noise level. When the gap is narrow, the primary sources of noise are impingement of the wake on the tip of the tongue, and tongue oscillations when the pressure difference across it is high. At about 20% gap, the entire wake and its associated vorticity trains miss the tongue, and the only (quite weak) effect of nonuniform outflux is the impingement of the jet on the tongue. An attempt is also made to reduce the nonuniformity in outflux from the impeller by inserting short vanes between the blades. They cause reduction in the size of the original wakes, but generate an additional jet/wake phenomenon of their own. Both wakes are weak to a level that their impacts on local pressure fluctuations and noise are insignificant. The only remaining major contributor to noise is tongue oscillations. This effect is shown to be dependent on the stiffness of the tongue.

  16. Local safety of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide: clinical and histological aspects of nasal mucosa in the long-term treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Klossek, J M; Laliberté, F; Laliberté, M F; Mounedji, N; Bousquet, J

    2001-03-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids are increasingly used to treat allergic rhinitis and their long-term use is generally safe. However, the long-term safety of each molecule should be assessed. The main aim of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study was to evaluate the effect of triamcinolone acetonide aqueous intranasal spray on nasal mucosal thickness, macroscopic appearance, and mucociliary function. Patients with perennial allergic rhinitis were treated with triamcinolone acetonide 220 micrograms/day for six months. Nasal biopsies taken before and after treatment were compared with biopsies from patients who had been randomized to oral cetirizine 10 mg day or intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate 400 micrograms/day. In the evaluable population (n = 70), there were no significant differences between groups in terms of histologically evaluated thickness and endoscopically evaluated macroscopic appearance of the nasal mucosa, or indigocarmine saccharine test mucociliary function. In the intent-to-treat population (n = 92), there was no difference between treatment groups in the incidence of overall adverse events. This study indicates that sustained treatment with intranasal triamcinolone acetonide does not lead to atrophy of the nasal mucosa or impairment of mucociliary function. PMID:11340690

  17. Myopathy, muscle atrophy and tongue lipid composition in MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Ana V; Ba?i?, Goran G; Dakovi?, Marko Ž; Lavrni?, Slobodan ?; Rako?evi? Stojanovi?, Vidosava M; Basta, Ivana Z; Lavrni?, Dragana V

    2015-09-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) associated with anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies differs in many aspects from typical presentation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-positive MG. Myopathy and muscle atrophy are observed in MuSK-positive MG patients, unlike AChR-positive patients with MG. That is why the aim of this study was to assess the presence of myopathy and muscle atrophy as well as the tongue lipid composition in our cohort of MuSK-positive MG patients. Clinical examination, electromyography (EMG) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed in 31 MuSK-positive and 28 AChR-positive MG patients. Myopathic EMG was more frequent in MuSK compared to AChR MG patients. In AChR MG patients, myopathic EMG in facial muscles was more frequent after long-term corticosteroid treatment, which was not the case with MuSK-positive MG patients. Facial and/or tongue muscle atrophy was registered in 23 % of MuSK MG patients. Longer disease duration was observed in patients with clinical signs of tongue and/or facial muscle atrophy compared to those with normal tongue muscle. Intramyocellular lipid deposition in the tongue was present in 85.2 % of MuSK and 20 % of AChR MG patients. Female MuSK MG patients had more frequently electrophysiological signs of myopathy on the facial muscles and signs of intramyocellular lipid deposition in the tongue, compared to male patients with MuSK-positive MG. Myopathy, muscle atrophy and intramyocellular lipid deposition in the tongue are more frequent in MuSK-positive compared to AChR-positive MG patients. PMID:25253293

  18. Alteration of the Tongue Manifestation Reflects Clinical Outcomes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hwang-Huei; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Wu, Ping-Ping; Luo, Shu-Fang; Lin, Hung-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study investigated whether the tongue inspection technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) can be used as a noninvasive auxiliary diagnostic tool to differentiate the subtypes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy. Subjects and methods A total of 198 outpatients from the China Medical University Hospital were recruited. The control group comprised 50 healthy adults. The remaining 148 patients were diagnosed with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection using upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, biopsy, and Campylobacter-like organism test. Tongue appearance was evaluated by a physician experienced in clinical Chinese medicine. Images of the tongue were immediately recorded using a high-resolution digital camera system. Results The affected group of 148 patients received an 8-week course of ulcer therapy. Of these, 108 patients infected with Hp were subjected to triple therapy in the first week. Forty-nine of these 108 cases infected with Hp completed secondary examination of upper GI endoscopy and tongue inspection. Forty-one of 49 cases (83.7%) were fully cured of Hp infection. These results showed that the color of the tongue body did not change in the cured patients; however, tongue fur was markedly thinner with a color change to white (p<0.05), while sublingual veins with engorgement (p<0.05) and blood stasis (p<0.01) improved after the ulcer healed and Hp was eradicated. Conclusions TCM tongue inspection can be potentially used as a noninvasive auxiliary diagnostic method and as an indicator for clinical outcomes for patients with PUD. PMID:23153037

  19. Tongue forces and handgrip strength in normal individuals: association with swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Amanda Elias; Nascimento, Liz; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Filho, Wilson Jacob

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate tongue force and grip strength measures and to verify the association of these measures with water swallowing in different age groups. METHOD: Tongue force was evaluated using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and grip strength using the Hand Grip in 90 normal individuals, who were divided into three groups: young (18-39 years old), adult (40-59 years old) and elderly (above 60 years old) individuals. The time and number of swallows required for the continuous ingestion of 200 ml of water were also measured. RESULTS: A reduction in tongue force and grip strength, as well as an increase in the time required to drink 200 ml of water, were observed with increasing participant age. There was no difference in the number of swallows among the three groups. A correlation was observed between reductions in tongue force and grip strength in the groups of young and elderly individuals. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the measures of tongue force in young, adult and elderly individuals. Greater variations within these differences were observed when repeated movements were performed; in addition, a decrease in strength was associated with an increase in age. The decrease in tongue force among the elderly was offset by the increase in time needed to swallow the liquid. There was an association between the measures of tongue force and grip strength in the different age groups. The results of this study can be applied clinically and may act as a basis for guidelines in healthy or vulnerable elderly populations. PMID:25672428

  20. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia–dysplasia–adenocarcinoma sequence. We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus. PMID:26496283

  1. Spectral Markers in Preneoplastic Intestinal Mucosa: An Accurate Predictor of Tumor Risk in the MIN Mouse

    E-print Network

    Kim, Young L.

    Spectral Markers in Preneoplastic Intestinal Mucosa: An Accurate Predictor of Tumor Risk in the MIN intestinal tumorigenesis, thus replicating the human syn- drome, familial adenomatous polyposis. Spectral tumorigenesis. Additionally, these markers spatially correlated with future adenoma development (small intestine

  2. HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

  3. The tip-of-the-tongue heuristic: How tip-of-the-tongue states confer perceptibility on inaccessible words.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Claxton, Alexander B

    2015-09-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to have previously appeared darker and clearer (Experiment 1a), and larger (Experiment 1b). They also judged an unretrieved word as more likely to be a high frequency word (Experiment 2). This was not because greater fluency or word perceptibility at encoding led to later TOT states: Increased fluency or perceptibility of a word at encoding did not increase the likelihood of a TOT state for it when its retrieval later failed; moreover, the TOT state was not diagnostic of an unretrieved word's fluency or perceptibility when it was last seen. Results instead suggest that TOT states themselves are used as a heuristic for inferring the likely characteristics of unretrieved words. During the uncertainty of retrieval failure, TOT states are a source of information on which people rely in reasoning about the likely characteristics of the unretrieved information, choosing characteristics that are consistent with greater fluency of processing. PMID:25621870

  4. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  5. Impairment of aminopyrine clearance in aspirin-damaged canine gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.A.; Henagan, J.M.; Loy, T.M.

    1983-09-01

    Using an in vivo canine chambered stomach preparation, the clearance of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine across mucosa when intravenously infused and the back-diffusion of this substance from gastric lumen to mucosa when topically applied to gastric epithelium were evaluated in aspirin-damaged gastric epithelium. In mucosa damaged by either 20 mM or 40 mM aspirin, the recovery of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine, when topically mixed with acid (pH . 1.1) perfusate solution, was not significantly different from nondamaged control mucosa. In addition, the degree of ''trapping'' of this substance from back-diffusion was not different in damaged mucosa from that observed in nondamaged epithelium. In contrast, when (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine was intravenously infused, its clearance was significantly impaired in aspirin-damaged mucosa when compared with control studies, as evidenced by the increased ''trapping'' of this substance in injured epithelium. These findings indicate that movement of aminopyrine from plasma to gastric lumen is impaired in damaged epithelium, making the aminopyrine clearance technique an unreliable method to accurately measure absolute gastric blood flow in this experimental setting.

  6. In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 ?m and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa. PMID:21833368

  7. Histological and morphometrical studies on the mucosa of the equine guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum).

    PubMed

    Manglai, D; Wada, R; Kurohmaru, M; Yoshihara, T; Kuwano, A; Oikawa, M; Hayashi, Y

    2000-08-01

    The present study attempted to clarify the characteristics of the guttural pouch mucosa in equines and to evaluate its foreign substance clearance ability. The specimens were collected from nine regions (eight in the guttural pouch mucosa, and one in the nasopharynx mucosa). We first examined the pouch mucosa by light and electron microscopy. We then measured the frequency of goblet cells per 200 epithelial cells, the length of the cilia, the thickness of the epithelial cell layer and lamina propria and statistically analyzed the data. The guttural pouch mucosa consisted of stratified columnar epithelia with brush-like cilia, and there were almost no histological differences between adults and foals. The morphometrical study revealed significant differences in goblet cell frequency (p < 0.001) and the thickness of lamina propria (p < 0.05). By contrast, no statistically significant difference was detected in the length of the cilia or the thickness of the epithelial cell layer. These findings suggest that the guttural pouch mucosa provides foreign substance clearance ability, but that its ability varies among different regions of the epithelium. PMID:10998939

  8. Tongue-palate contact during selected vowels in children with speech sound disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; Kearney, Elaine; Murphy, Doris

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence that complete tongue-palate contact across the palate during production of vowels can be observed in some children with speech disorders associated with cleft palate in the English-speaking and Japanese-speaking populations. Although it has been shown that this is not a feature of typical vowel articulation in English-speaking adults, tongue-palate contact during vowel production in typical children and English-speaking children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have not been reported in detail. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether complete tongue-palate contact occurs during production of five selected vowels in 10 children with SSD and eight typically-developing children. The results showed that none of the typical children had complete contact across the palate during any of the vowels. However, of the 119 vowels produced by the children with SSD, 24% showed complete contact across the palate during at least a portion of the vowel segment. The results from the typically-developing children suggest that complete tongue-palate contact is an atypical articulatory feature. However, the evidence suggests that this pattern occurs relatively frequently in children with SSD. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence, cause, and perceptual consequence of complete tongue-palate contact. PMID:24345004

  9. Pre and post 1997/1998 Westerly Wind Events and equatorial Pacific cold tongue warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, D. E.; Chiodi, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    Westerly Wind Events (WWEs) in the western equatorial Pacific have previously been shown to cause significant warming of sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Observational statistics compiled during and prior to the large El Nino event of 1997/1998 link WWEs to substantial (up to 3C) warming in the eastern Pacific cold-tongue region. Since 1998, however, relatively little WWE-related cold tongue warming has been observed and warm equatorial Pacific SST anomalies (SSTAs) have tended to be trapped near the dateline rather than extending to the American coast as in a classical El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) composite. Here, we revisit the relationship between WWEs and cold-tongue warming using in situ and operational forecast winds and in situ and satellite-based SST. We find significant differences in the basin scale zonal wind anomalies associated with WWEs that occurred before and after 1997/1998. Although the post 1997/1998 composite WWE westerly anomalies are very similar to their predecessors within the WWE regions, conditions east of the WWE regions are different; there are enhanced equatorial easterlies in the post 1997/1998 cases. General ocean circulation model experiments are conducted to explore the extent to which the observed changes in the character of post 1997/1998 WWEs can explain the recent behavior of cold tongue SSTAs. We find that the wind differences can account for the changes in the average cold tongue warming associated with pre and post 1997/1998 WWEs.

  10. Independent comparison study of six different electronic tongues applied for pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pein, Miriam; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Ciosek, Patrycja; del Valle, Manel; Yaroshenko, Irina; Weso?y, Ma?gorzata; Zabadaj, Marcin; Gonzalez-Calabuig, Andreu; Wróblewski, Wojciech; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-10

    Electronic tongue technology based on arrays of cross-sensitive chemical sensors and chemometric data processing has attracted a lot of researchers' attention through the last years. Several so far reported applications dealing with pharmaceutical related tasks employed different e-tongue systems to address different objectives. In this situation, it is hard to judge on the benefits and drawbacks of particular e-tongue implementations for R&D in pharmaceutics. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of six different e-tongues applied to the same set of pharmaceutical samples. For this purpose, two commercially available systems (from Insent and AlphaMOS) and four laboratory prototype systems (two potentiometric systems from Warsaw operating in flow and static modes, one potentiometric system from St. Petersburg, one voltammetric system from Barcelona) were employed. The sample set addressed in the study comprised nine different formulations based on caffeine citrate, lactose monohydrate, maltodextrine, saccharin sodium and citric acid in various combinations. To provide for the fair and unbiased comparison, samples were evaluated under blind conditions and data processing from all the systems was performed in a uniform way. Different mathematical methods were applied to judge on similarity of the e-tongues response from the samples. These were principal component analysis (PCA), RV' matrix correlation coefficients and Tucke?s congruency coefficients. PMID:26099261

  11. Persistent Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers Associated with Abnormal Infant Tongue Movement

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Holly L.; Kent, Jacqueline C.; Hepworth, Anna R.; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infants of breastfeeding mothers with persistent nipple pain have been shown to apply stronger vacuums to the breast and transfer less milk during one monitored feed. This may be associated with differences in the movement of the tongue. The aim was to analyse the intra-oral nipple shape and movement of the tongue of infants of mothers with and without nipple pain. Methods: Breastfeeding infants of mothers with or without nipple pain were monitored using ultrasound and intra-oral vacuum during one breastfeed. From cine clips of the ultrasound scans measurements were made of the depth of the intra-oral space between the hard-soft palate junction (HSPJ) and the mid-tongue; the distance of the tip of the nipple to the HSPJ; and nipple diameters from the tip to the base. Results: During nutritive sucking, tongue movements of infants of mothers with nipple pain resulted in a smaller intra-oral space (p = 0.040) and restricted nipple expansion compared to controls (p < 0.012). Stronger baseline and peak vacuums compared to controls were confirmed (p = 0.002). Conclusion: In these mothers, nipple pain was associated with restricted infant tongue movement. Ultrasound may complement measurement of intra-oral vacuum in monitoring treatment strategies in breastfeeding women experiencing nipple pain. PMID:26404342

  12. The Tongue Enables Computer and Wheelchair Control for People with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Sutton, Erica; Rowles, Diane; Pucci, Deborah; Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis; Laumann, Anne; Roth, Eliot; Jones, Mike; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology, designed to allow individuals with severe motor impairments such as tetraplegia to access their environment using voluntary tongue motion. Previous TDS trials used a magnetic tracer temporarily attached to the top surface of the tongue with tissue adhesive. We investigated TDS efficacy for controlling a computer and driving a powered wheelchair in two groups of able-bodied subjects and a group of volunteers with spinal cord injury (SCI) at C6 or above. All participants received a magnetic tongue barbell and used the TDS for five to six consecutive sessions. The performance of the group was compared for TDS versus keypad and TDS versus a sip-and-puff device (SnP) using accepted measures of speed and accuracy. All performance measures improved over the course of the trial. The gap between keypad and TDS performance narrowed for able-bodied subjects. Despite participants with SCI already having familiarity with the SnP, their performance measures were up to three times better with the TDS than with the SnP and continued to improve. TDS flexibility and the inherent characteristics of the human tongue enabled individuals with high-level motor impairments to access computers and drive wheelchairs at speeds that were faster than traditional assistive technologies but with comparable accuracy. PMID:24285485

  13. The tongue enables computer and wheelchair control for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Sutton, Erica; Rowles, Diane; Pucci, Deborah; Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis; Laumann, Anne; Roth, Eliot; Jones, Mike; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-11-27

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology, designed to allow individuals with severe motor impairments such as tetraplegia to access their environment using voluntary tongue motion. Previous TDS trials used a magnetic tracer temporarily attached to the top surface of the tongue with tissue adhesive. We investigated TDS efficacy for controlling a computer and driving a powered wheelchair in two groups of able-bodied subjects and a group of volunteers with spinal cord injury (SCI) at C6 or above. All participants received a magnetic tongue barbell and used the TDS for five to six consecutive sessions. The performance of the group was compared for TDS versus keypad and TDS versus a sip-and-puff device (SnP) using accepted measures of speed and accuracy. All performance measures improved over the course of the trial. The gap between keypad and TDS performance narrowed for able-bodied subjects. Despite participants with SCI already having familiarity with the SnP, their performance measures were up to three times better with the TDS than with the SnP and continued to improve. TDS flexibility and the inherent characteristics of the human tongue enabled individuals with high-level motor impairments to access computers and drive wheelchairs at speeds that were faster than traditional assistive technologies but with comparable accuracy. PMID:24285485

  14. Tasting Soil Fungal Diversity with Earth Tongues: Phylogenetic Test of SATé Alignments for Environmental ITS Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc; Zhuang, Wen-ying; Dai, Yu-cheng; Johnston, Peter R.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of novel fungal lineages have been indicated by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region from environmental samples such as soil and wood. Although phylogenetic analysis of these novel lineages is a key component of unveiling the structure and diversity of complex communities, such analyses are rare for environmental ITS data due to the difficulties of aligning this locus across significantly divergent taxa. One potential approach to this issue is simultaneous alignment and tree estimation. We targeted divergent ITS sequences of the earth tongue fungi (Geoglossomycetes), a basal class in the Ascomycota, to assess the performance of SATé, recent software that combines progressive alignment and tree building. We found that SATé performed well in generating high-quality alignments and in accurately estimating the phylogeny of earth tongue fungi. Drawing from a data set of 300 sequences of earth tongues and progressively more distant fungal lineages, 30 insufficiently identified ITS sequences from the public sequence databases were assigned to the Geoglossomycetes. The association between earth tongues and plants has been hypothesized for a long time, but hard evidence is yet to be collected. The ITS phylogeny showed that four ectomycorrhizal isolates shared a clade with Geoglossum but not with Trichoglossum earth tongues, pointing to the significant potential inherent to ecological data mining of environmental samples. Environmental sampling holds the key to many focal questions in mycology, and simultaneous alignment and tree estimation, as performed by SATé, can be a highly efficient companion in that pursuit. PMID:21533038

  15. Tongue River in Wyoming: a baseline fisheries assessment, Monarch to the state line

    SciTech Connect

    Wesche, T.A.; Johnson, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    A baseline study of fish populations was conducted in northeastern Wyoming's Tongue River and Goose Creek as part of a research project on the ecological effects of a large surface coal mine near Sheridan, Wyoming. The study area is a transition zone between the cold-water, torrential habitat in the Bighorn Mountains and the warm-water, quiet-zone habitat of the lower Tongue River. Fauna of the study area form one of the most diverse fisheries in Wyoming and include brown and rainbow trout, sauger, smallmouth bass, and black bullhead. Diversity generally increases in a downstream direction. Sauger and northern pike are extending their ranges from Montana into Wyoming to spawn; sauger in the study area are very fast-growing, probably due to the abundance of forage species. Studies should continue on the effect of the new Tongue River channel at the Big Horn Mine site in order to determine if recolonization is occurring. Spawning movements of sauger and northern pike in the Tongue River should be followed so that the effects of future mining along the Tongue River may be evaluated.

  16. Relationship between Hyperuricemia and Haar-Like Features on Tongue Images

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Liao, Shizhong; Liu, Hongyu; Wang, Wenhua; Yin, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate differences in tongue images of subjects with and without hyperuricemia. Materials and Methods. This population-based case-control study was performed in 2012-2013. We collected data from 46 case subjects with hyperuricemia and 46 control subjects, including results of biochemical examinations and tongue images. Symmetrical Haar-like features based on integral images were extracted from tongue images. T-tests were performed to determine the ability of extracted features to distinguish between the case and control groups. We first selected features using the common criterion P < 0.05, then conducted further examination of feature characteristics and feature selection using means and standard deviations of distributions in the case and control groups. Results. A total of 115,683 features were selected using the criterion P < 0.05. The maximum area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of these features was 0.877. The sensitivity of the feature with the maximum AUC value was 0.800 and specificity was 0.826 when the Youden index was maximized. Features that performed well were concentrated in the tongue root region. Conclusions. Symmetrical Haar-like features enabled discrimination of subjects with and without hyperuricemia in our sample. The locations of these discriminative features were in agreement with the interpretation of tongue appearance in traditional Chinese and Western medicine. PMID:25961013

  17. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomena: an introductory phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, S R

    2000-12-01

    The issue of meaningful yet unexpressed background-to language and to our experiences of the body-is one whose exploration is still in its infancy. There are various aspects of "invisible," implicit, or background experiences which have been investigated from the viewpoints of phenomenology, cognitive psychology, and linguistics. I will argue that James's concept of the phenomenon of fringes, as explicated by Gurwitsch, provides a structural framework from which to investigate and better understand ideas and concepts that are indeterminate, particularly those experienced in the sense of being sought-after. Johnson's conception of the image-schematic gestalt (ISG) provides an approach to bridging the descriptive gap between phenomenology and cognitive psychology. Starting from an analysis of the fringes, I will turn to a consideration of the tip-of-tongue (TOT) state, as a kind of feeling-of-knowing (FOK) state, from a variety of approaches, focusing mainly on cognitive psychology and phenomenology. I will then integrate a phenomenological analysis of these experiences, from the James/Gurwitsch structural viewpoint, with a cognitive/phenomenological analysis in terms of ISGs, and further integrate that with a cognitive/functional analysis of the relation between consciousness and retrieval, employing Anderson et al's theory of inhibitory mechanisms in cognition. This synthesis of these viewpoints will be employed to explore the thesis that the TOT state and similar experiences may relate to the gestalt nature of schemas, and that figure/ground and other contrast-enhancing structures may be both explanatory and descriptive characterizations of the field of consciousness. PMID:11150221

  18. Effect of the effortful swallow and the Mendelsohn maneuver on tongue pressure production against the hard palate.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tatsuyuki; Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tamine, Ken-ichi; Nozaki, Sonoko; Shimada, Kenji; Yamamoto, Noriyasu; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Although effortful swallow and the Mendelsohn maneuver are commonly used in dysphagia rehabilitation, little is known about their effects on tongue-palate pressure production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of effortful swallow and the Mendelsohn maneuver on tongue pressure production. Fourteen healthy volunteers (10 men, 4 women; age range = 21-41 years) participated. Tongue pressures during dry swallow, water swallow, effortful swallow, and the Mendelsohn maneuver were measured using a sensor sheet system with five measurement points on the hard palate. Sequential order, duration, maximal magnitude, and the integrated value of tongue pressure at each measurement point were compared among the four tasks. Onset of tongue pressure at the posterior-circumferential parts occurred first in the Mendelsohn maneuver; that at the anterior-median part was earlier than at other parts in the effortful swallow. At all measurement points, tongue pressure duration was significantly longer in the Mendelsohn maneuver than in other tasks. Effortful swallow was most effective in increasing tongue pressure. The integrated value of tongue pressure at the posterior-circumferential parts in the Mendelsohn maneuver and at the median parts in the effortful swallow showed a tendency to increase. These results suggest that tongue pressure increases along a wide part of the hard palate in effortful swallow because the anchor of tongue movement is emphasized at the anterior part of the hard palate. The Mendelsohn maneuver provides prolonged and accentuated tongue-palate contact at the posterior-circumferential parts, which might be important for hyoid-laryngeal elevation during swallowing. PMID:23576155

  19. Effects of probiotic on intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hai-Hong; Chen, Cun-Long; Wang, Ji-De; Yang, Yu-Jie; Cun, Yong; Wu, Jin-Bao; Liu, Yu-Hu; Dan, Han-Lei; Jian, Yan-Ting; Chen, Xue-Qing

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of probiotic on intestinal mucosae of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and to evaluate the role of probiotic in preventing the relapse of UC. METHODS: Thirty patients received treatment with sulphasalazine (SASP) and glucocorticoid and then were randomly administered bifid triple viable capsule (BIFICO) (1.26 g/d), or an identical placebo (starch) for 8 wk. Fecal samples were collected for stool culture 2 wk before and after the randomized treatments. The patients were evaluated clinically, endoscopically and histologically after 2 mo of treatment or in case of relapse of UC. p65 and I?B expressions were determined by Western blot analysis. DNA-binding activity of NF-?B in colonic nuclear extracts was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). mRNA expressions of cytokines were identified by semi-quantitative assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Three patients (20%) in the BIFICO group had relapses during 2-mo follow-up period, compared with 14 (93.3%) in placebo group (P < 0.01). The concentration of fecal lactobacilli, bifidobacteria was significantly increased in BIFICO-treated group only (P < 0.01).The expressions of NF-?B p65 and DNA binding activity of NF-?B were significantly attenuated in the treatment group than that in control (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines was elevated in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION: The probiotic could impede the activation of NF-?B, decrease the expressions of TNF-? and IL-1? and elevate the expression of IL-10. These results suggest that oral administration of this new probiotic preparation is effective in preventing flare-ups of chronic UC. It may become a prophylactic drug to decrease the relapse of UC. PMID:15133865

  20. Increased susceptibility of gastric mucosa to ulcerogenic stimulation in diabetic rats–role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tashima, Kimihito; Korolkiewicz, Roman; Kubomi, Masafumi; Takeuchi, Koji

    1998-01-01

    We examined the gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and ulcerogenic responses following barrier disruption induced by sodium taurocholate (TC) in diabetic rats and investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in these responses.Animals were injected streptozotocin (STZ: 70?mg?kg?1, i.p.) and used after 5, 10 and 15 weeks of diabetes with blood glucose levels of >350?mg?dl?1. The stomach was mounted on an ex-vivo chamber under urethane anaesthesia and exposed to 20?mM TC plus 50?mM HCl for 30?min in the presence of omeprazole. Gastric transmucosal potential difference (PD), GMBF, and luminal acid loss (H+ back-diffusion) were measured before and after exposure to 20?mM TC, and the mucosa was examined for lesions 90?min after TC treatment.Mucosal application of TC caused PD reduction in all groups; the degree of PD reduction was similar between normal and diabetic rats, although basal PD values were lower in diabetic rats. In normal rats, TC treatment caused luminal acid loss, followed by an increase of GMBF, resulting in minimal damage in the mucosa.The increased GMBF responses associated with H+ back-diffusion were mitigated in STZ-treated rats, depending on the duration of diabetes, and severe haemorrhagic lesions occurred in the stomach after 10 weeks of diabetes.Intragastric application of capsaicin increased GMBF in normal rats, but such responses were mitigated in STZ diabetic rats. The amount of CGRP released in the isolated stomach in response to capsaicin was significantly lower in diabetic rats when compared to controls.The deleterious influences on GMBF and mucosal ulcerogenic responses in STZ-diabetic rats were partially but significantly antagonized by daily insulin (4 units rat?1) treatment.These results suggest that the gastric mucosa of diabetic rats is more vulnerable to acid injury following barrier disruption, and this change is insulin-sensitive and may be partly accounted for by the impairment of GMBF response associated with acid back-diffusion and mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons. PMID:9723950

  1. Using speech recognition to enhance the Tongue Drive System functionality in computer access.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue operated assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe physical disabilities to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs using their volitional tongue movements. TDS offers six discrete commands, simultaneously available to the users, for pointing and typing as a substitute for mouse and keyboard in computer access, respectively. To enhance the TDS performance in typing, we have added a microphone, an audio codec, and a wireless audio link to its readily available 3-axial magnetic sensor array, and combined it with a commercially available speech recognition software, the Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways for text entry. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the combined TDS and speech recognition technologies can provide end users with significantly higher performance than using each technology alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry, such as web surfing. PMID:22255801

  2. Using Speech Recognition to Enhance the Tongue Drive System Functionality in Computer Access

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue operated assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe physical disabilities to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs using their volitional tongue movements. TDS offers six discrete commands, simultaneously available to the users, for pointing and typing as a substitute for mouse and keyboard in computer access, respectively. To enhance the TDS performance in typing, we have added a microphone, an audio codec, and a wireless audio link to its readily available 3-axial magnetic sensor array, and combined it with a commercially available speech recognition software, the Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways for text entry. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the combined TDS and speech recognition technologies can provide end users with significantly higher performance than using each technology alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry, such as web surfing. PMID:22255801

  3. The Metabonomic Studies of Tongue Coating in H. pylori Positive Chronic Gastritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Sun, Zhu-Mei; Liu, Yan-Na; Ji, Qing; Sui, Hua; Zhou, Li-Hong; Li, Fu-Feng; Li, Qi

    2015-01-01

    In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis (TD) has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue coating can be used as a very sensitive marker to determine the progress of chronic gastritis. Therefore, the scientific, qualitative, and quantitative study for the pathophysiologic basis of tongue coating (TC) emerged as a major direction for the objective research of TD. In our current report, we used GC/MS technology to determine the potential changes of metabolites and identify special metabolic biomarkers in the TC of H. pylori infected chronic gastritis patients. Four discriminative metabolites were identified by GC/MS between the TC of H. pylori infection (G + H) and without H. pylori infection (G ? H) patients: ethylene, cephaloridine, ?-aminobutyric acid, and 5-pyroglutamic acid, indicating that changes in amino acid metabolism are possibly involved in the formation of TC, and the amino acid metabolites are part of the material components of TC in G + H patients. PMID:26557866

  4. Hydropressure tongues within regionally geopressured lower Tuscaloosa sandstone, Tuscaloosa trend, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, R.P.; Purcell, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    A regional study of the Tuscaloosa Formation in Louisiana, undertaken to assess geopressured-geothermal potential, revealed lobate, downdip extensions of the hydropressured zone in lower Tuscaloosa massive sandstone facies below the regional top of geopressure. Normal pressure zones within geopressured section were identified by drilling mud weights less than 13 pounds per gallon on electric logs of massive lower Tuscaloosa sandstone, and cross sections demonstrated updip continuity of these zones with the regional hydropressured zone. These hydropressure tongues are permitted by the anomalously high permeabilities reportd from the deep Tuscaloosa trend which have been attributed to both primary and secondary porosity. The hydropressure tongues correspond with lobes of thick net sandstone, principally in Pointe Coupee, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, and Livingston Parishes in the central Tuscaloosa trend. Limited control suggests at least one hydropressure tongue in the Chandeleur Sound area to the east.

  5. [Successful Tracheal Intubation Using Videolaryngoscope in an Infant with Massive Tongue Swelling].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Majima, Nozomi; Kusaka, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    We report use of videolaryngoscope for difficult airway management in an infant with severe tongue swelling after laceration repair. A 3-month-old male infant was transferred to our hospital for respiratory difficulty. He could not open his mouth sufficiently, and the examination revealed massive swelling of the left side of the tongue. Emergent surgical repair of the tongue was scheduled, anticipating a difficult airway. The venous line was kept patent preoperatively, and 8% sevoflurane was administered maintaining spontaneous ventilation. We then inserted the Pentax Airway Scope with an infant-sized Intlock (AWS-I) from the right side of the mouth and obtained a good view at laryngoscopy. A 3.5-mm tracheal tube was passed uneventfully under the view of AWS-I. The AWS-I is useful for difficult airway management in infants, preserving spontaneous ventilation. PMID:26121815

  6. Tongue piercing and insertion of metal studs: three cases of dental and oral consequences.

    PubMed

    Ram, D; Peretz, B

    2000-01-01

    "Body art" is a fashion that appears to be gaining popularity worldwide. There are many risks and potentially adverse results associated with tongue piercing. Pain (the procedure is performed without anesthetics), post-placement edema and the risk of prolonged bleeding, if the blood vessels are punctured during the piercing, and fracture of tooth structures, are but a few of the risks. The purpose of the present article is to describe the consequences of three cases of tongue piercing in which metallic barbell-shaped studs were inserted: the consequences include the fracture of tooth structure, caused by the device knocking against the teeth; and inflammation and edema occurred as a result of the piercing of the tongue. PMID:11068664

  7. Is there a link between the Atlantic Cold Tongue and the African Monsoon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, G.; Giordani, H.; Guichard, F.; Wade, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Atlantic Cold Tongue is the most important seasonal signal which affects the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic Basin. During its emplacement, sea surface temperatures decrease significantly, specially South of the Equator. Cooling generally starts close to 10°W and spreads quickly throughout the southern Golf of Guinea between May and August. At the time of its maximum extent, the cooling occupies an oceanic surface equivalent to roughly a quarter that of the Sahara. Correlations between the set up of the Atlantic Cold Tongue and the African Monsoon jump computed over the last 20 years, suggest that this oceanic event plays a key role on the African Monsoon flow. The physical processes at play are discussed and concern both the set up of the Atlantic Cold Tongue, the disturbances induced by this cold anomaly on the marine atmospheric boundary layer and its potential role on the onset of the African Monsoon.

  8. Effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the hamster tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, K.; Shingaki, S.; Nakajima, T. )

    1990-07-01

    The effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the hamster tongue are reported. Metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes was confirmed histologically in 48.0% of the animals. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly increased (65.9%) after repeated incisions of tongue carcinomas. Three gray whole-body irradiation also increased the rate of metastasis from 31.0% to 46.3%. Higher incidences of lymphatic vessel invasion after incision and concomitant lymph node metastasis in the lymphatic invasion-positive group indicated a stepwise relationship leading to an increase in lymph node metastasis after incision. Because of the high incidence of metastases and close resemblance to human carcinomas in the tumor cell deposition and establishment of metastatic foci, DMBA-induced tongue carcinoma with invasion may serve as an experimental model of human oral carcinomas.

  9. An Arch-Shaped Intraoral Tongue Drive System with Built-in Tongue-Computer Interfacing SoC

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user's mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw magnetic sensor data and sends it wirelessly to an external TDS universal interface (TDS-UI) via an inductive coil or a planar inverted-F antenna. A built-in transmitter (Tx) employs a dual-band radio that operates at either 27 MHz or 432 MHz band, according to the wireless link quality. A built-in super-regenerative receiver (SR-Rx) monitors the wireless link quality and switches the band if the link quality is below a predetermined threshold. An accompanying ultra-low power FPGA generates data packets for the Tx and handles digital control functions. The custom-designed TDS-UI receives raw magnetic sensor data from the iTDS-2, recognizes the intended user commands by the sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm running in a smartphone, and delivers the classified commands to the target devices, such as a personal computer or a powered wheelchair. We evaluated the iTDS-2 prototype using center-out and maze navigation tasks on two human subjects, which proved its functionality. The subjects' performance with the iTDS-2 was improved by 22% over its predecessor, reported in our earlier publication. PMID:25405513

  10. An arch-shaped intraoral tongue drive system with built-in tongue-computer interfacing SoC.

    PubMed

    Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user's mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw magnetic sensor data and sends it wirelessly to an external TDS universal interface (TDS-UI) via an inductive coil or a planar inverted-F antenna. A built-in transmitter (Tx) employs a dual-band radio that operates at either 27 MHz or 432 MHz band, according to the wireless link quality. A built-in super-regenerative receiver (SR-Rx) monitors the wireless link quality and switches the band if the link quality is below a predetermined threshold. An accompanying ultra-low power FPGA generates data packets for the Tx and handles digital control functions. The custom-designed TDS-UI receives raw magnetic sensor data from the iTDS-2, recognizes the intended user commands by the sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm running in a smartphone, and delivers the classified commands to the target devices, such as a personal computer or a powered wheelchair. We evaluated the iTDS-2 prototype using center-out and maze navigation tasks on two human subjects, which proved its functionality. The subjects' performance with the iTDS-2 was improved by 22% over its predecessor, reported in our earlier publication. PMID:25405513

  11. Black tongue secondary to bismuth subsalicylate: case report and review of exogenous causes of macular lingual pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2009-12-01

    Macular pigmentation of the tongue can be acquired following exposure to exogenous agents. Black lingual hyperpigmentation was observed during the full body skin examination of a man with a history of recurrent metastatic malignant melanoma. His tongue spontaneously returned to its normal pink color later that day. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) was suspected as the pigment-inducing agent; subsequently, re-challange with the antacid confirmed it to be the cause of his acquired, albeit transient, black tongue. The ingestion of medications, including other antacids, analgesics, antidepressants, antihypertensives and several antimicrobials has been associated with the development of acquired macular lingual pigmentation. In addition, hyperpigmentation of the tongue has been observed following the deposition of amalgam and the injection of local anesthesia or doxorubicin or interferon alpha and ribavirin. Also, inhalation of heroin and methaqualone vapors or tobacco has resulted in lingual hyperpigmentation. All of the patients with acquired macular lingual hyperpigmentation had tongues with a smooth surface without enlargement of the filiform papillae. Many of the individuals with hyperpigmented tongue had either black or dark skin color. The onset of tongue pigmentation varied from less than one day to several years after initial exposure to the associated exogenous agent. The color of the tongue usually returned to normal after the pigment-inducing agent was discontinued. PMID:20027942

  12. 77 FR 64592 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation.... Because the construction and operation of this project has the potential to result in significant.... \\1\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Construction and Operation--In Custer, Powder River and Rosebud...

  13. Tonguing Behaviours in Persons with Down Syndrome: Moderator of the Effects of Negative Mood on Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Karen Caplovitz; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is concern that tongue protrusion may be maladaptive in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). However, tonguing and other self-manipulatory behaviours have been shown to contribute to emotion regulation in children without disabilities. Method: Sixty individuals with intellectual disability (40 with DS, 20 of mixed aetiology) and…

  14. Abstract --The performance of an artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback device for improving ankle joint position

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    ankle joint position sense was assessed in 12 young healthy adults using an active matching task the position of the matching ankle relative to the reference ankle position through a tongue-placed tactile the surface of the tongue dorsum. Precisely, (1) no electrodes were activated when both ankles were

  15. Towards a three-dimensional software model of the oral cavity for tongue surgery Muriel Brix1

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    Towards a three-dimensional software model of the oral cavity for tongue surgery planning Muriel model of the oral cavity in the planning of tongue resection surgeries. Methods and Materials: We, either extrinsic or extrinsic, are represented implemented. This model is inserted in the oral cavity

  16. Historicizing Teaching in Awgni as a Mother Tongue Language at Primary Schools of Awi Nationality Administrative Zone: Challenges and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engida, Alemayehu Erkihun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the challenges facing the teaching as well as the implementation of Awgni as a mother tongue language in primary schools of Awi administrative zone. The need to teach through mother tongue in Ethiopia was widely discussed following the change of the politics in 1991. To this end, the government issued new education and training…

  17. Variations in tongue-palate swallowing pressures when swallowing xanthan gum-thickened liquids.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Molfenter, Sonja M; Péladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Polacco, Rebecca C; Yee, Clemence

    2014-12-01

    Thickened liquids are frequently recommended to reduce the risk of aspiration in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Although it has previously been reported that tongue-palate pressures increase when swallowing spoon-thick and semi-solid consistencies compared to thin liquids, relatively little is known about how swallowing behaviors differ when swallowing liquids of nectar- or honey-thick consistency. Furthermore, previous studies have primarily used starch-based thickeners, and little is known about swallowing behaviors with xanthan gum-thickened liquids, which have recently been introduced for dysphagia management. In this study, we measured variations in tongue-palate pressures during the swallowing of liquids thickened to apparent viscosities of 190, 250, and 380 mPa s at 50/s using increasing concentrations of xanthan gum (0.5, 0.63 and 0.87 w/w%). The viscosity differences between these nectar- and honey-thick stimuli were confirmed to exceed sensory perceptual discrimination thresholds. Data were collected from 78 healthy adults in two sex-balanced age-groups (young; mature) and compared to reference values obtained during water swallowing. The results confirm that increased amplitudes of tongue-palate pressure were used when swallowing the thickened liquid stimuli, compared to swallows of water, and for the honey-thick liquid compared to the two nectar-thick liquids. Age-related reductions were seen in tongue strength but not in swallowing pressures, which fell below 40 % of maximum isometric pressure values. Thus, the use of xanthan gum-thickened liquids is unlikely to tax the swallowing system in terms of tongue pressure generation requirements, even in seniors with reduced maximum isometric tongue pressure measures. PMID:25087111

  18. Model-based identification of motion sensor placement for tracking retraction and elongation of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yikun K; Nash, Martyn P; Pullan, Andrew J; Kieser, Jules A; Röhrle, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Electromagnetic articulography (EMA) is designed to track facial and tongue movements. In practice, the EMA sensors for tracking the movement of the tongue's surface are placed heuristically. No recommendation exists. Within this paper, a model-based approach providing a mathematical analysis and a computational-based recommendation for the placement of sensors, which is based on the tongue's envelope of movement, is proposed. For this purpose, an anatomically detailed Finite Element (FE) model of the tongue has been employed to determine the envelope of motion for retraction and elongation using a forward simulation. Two optimality criteria have been proposed to identify a set of optimal sensor locations based on the pre-computed envelope of motion. The first one is based on the assumption that locations exhibiting large displacements contain the most information regarding the tongue's movement and are less susceptible to measurement errors. The second one selects sensors exhibiting each the largest displacements in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, medial-lateral and overall direction. The quality of the two optimality criteria is analysed based on their ability to deduce from the respective sensor locations the corresponding muscle activation parameters of the relevant muscle fibre groups during retraction and elongation by solving the corresponding inverse problem. For this purpose, a statistical analysis has been carried out, in which sensor locations for two different modes of deformation have been subjected to typical measurement errors. Then, for tongue retraction and elongation, the expectation value, the standard deviation, the averaged bias and the averaged coefficient of variation have been computed based on 41 different error-afflicted sensor locations. The results show that the first optimality criteria is superior to the second one and that the averaged bias and averaged coefficient of variation decrease when the number of sensors is increased from 2, 4 to 6 deployable sensors. PMID:22692726

  19. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: The mechanisms and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-“aging gastropathy”-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-?-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older patients have much greater risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastrointestinal complications (e.g., NSAIDs-induced gastric injury) than younger patients; and (3) increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury can be potentially reduced or reversed pharmacologically. PMID:24782600

  20. A data efficient method for characterization of chameleon tongue motion using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor; Butler, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    A new technique is described for study of the study of high velocity animal movements using a continuous wave Doppler radar operating at 24 GHz. The movement studied was tongue projection kinematics during prey capture by the lizard Chamaeleo Jacksonii. The measurements were verified with a high speed video reference, recorded at 1000 frames per second. The limitations and advantages of both the methodologies are compared and tongue speeds of 3:65 m/s were observed. These results show a useful application of radar to augment visual sensing of biological motion and enable the use of monitoring in a wider range of situations. PMID:23365957

  1. Soft tissue perineurioma with peripheral lymphoid cuff of the tongue: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hai-Yan; Wei, Zhi-Min; Lin, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Han; Hao, Feng-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Perineurioma are rare tumors, derived from nerve sheath perineurial cells. Soft tissue perineurioma are extraordinarily rare in the tongue, with only one previous report in a child to our knowledge. Herein, we describe the first case of an adult patient who had a soft tissue perineurioma localized to the tongue, with emphasis on the clinic pathologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor, and review the previously reported soft tissue cases. Besides, we first describe the histologic feature of peripheral lymphoid cuff in perineurioma. PMID:24482726

  2. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. PMID:24003900

  3. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  4. A Longitudinal Acoustic Study of the Effects of the Radial Forearm Free Flap Reconstruction on Sibilants Produced by Tongue Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Rieger, Jana; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic properties of 980 tokens of sibilants /s, z, [approximately]/ produced by 17 Canadian English-speaking female and male tongue cancer patients were studied. The patients had undergone tongue resection and tongue reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap (RFFF). The spectral moments (mean, skewness) and frication duration were analysed…

  5. Halocarbon emissions and sources in the equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Raimund, S.; Fischer, T.; Atlas, E. L.; Bracher, A.

    2015-11-01

    Halocarbons from oceanic sources contribute to halogens in the troposphere, and can be transported into the stratosphere where they take part in ozone depletion. This paper presents distribution and sources in the equatorial Atlantic from June and July 2011 of the four compounds bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), methyl iodide (CH3I) and diiodomethane (CH2I2). Enhanced biological production during the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) season, indicated by phytoplankton pigment concentrations, led to elevated concentrations of CHBr3 of up to 44.7 and up to 9.2 pmol L-1 for CH2Br2 in surface water, which is comparable to other tropical upwelling systems. While both compounds correlated very well with each other in the surface water, CH2Br2 was often more elevated in greater depth than CHBr3, which showed maxima in the vicinity of the deep chlorophyll maximum. The deeper maximum of CH2Br2 indicates an additional source in comparison to CHBr3 or a slower degradation of CH2Br2. Concentrations of CH3I of up to 12.8 pmol L-1 in the surface water were measured. In contrary to expectations of a predominantly photochemical source in the tropical ocean, its distribution was mostly in agreement with biological parameters, indicating a biological source. CH2I2 was very low in the near surface water with maximum concentrations of only 3.7 pmol L-1. CH2I2 showed distinct maxima in deeper waters similar to CH2Br2. For the first time, diapycnal fluxes of the four halocarbons from the upper thermocline into and out of the mixed layer were determined. These fluxes were low in comparison to the halocarbon sea-to-air fluxes. This indicates that despite the observed maximum concentrations at depth, production in the surface mixed layer is the main oceanic source for all four compounds and one of the main driving factors of their emissions into the atmosphere in the ACT-region. The calculated production rates of the compounds in the mixed layer are 34 ± 65 pmol m-3 h-1 for CHBr3, 10 ± 12 pmol m-3 h-1 for CH2Br2, 21 ± 24 pmol m-3 h-1 for CH3I and 384 ± 318 pmol m-3 h-1 for CH2I2 determined from 13 depth profiles.

  6. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  7. Sleep deprivation increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in rat gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xi-Zhong; Koo, Marcel W.L.; Cho, Chi-Hin

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if sleep deprivation is able to increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa and its possible role in mucosal defense. METHODS: Rats for sleep disruption were placed inside a computerized rotating drum, gastric mucosa was taken from rats with 1, 3 and 7 d sleep deprivation. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of heat shock protein 70. Ethanol (500 mL·L-1, i.g.) was used to induce gastric mucosa damage. RESULTS: RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining confirmed that the sleep deprivation as a stress resulted in significantly greater expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats. After the 500 mL·L-1 ethanol challenge, the ulcer area found in the rats with 7 d sleep deprivation (19.15 ± 4.2) mm2 was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than the corresponding control (53.7 ± 8.1) mm2. CONCLUSION: Sleep deprivation as a stress, in addition to lowering the gastric mucosal barrier, is able to stimulate the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats, the heat shock protein 70 may play an important role in gastric mucosal protection. PMID:11819816

  8. Relationship between mucin expression of gastric intramucosal signet ring cell carcinoma and its background mucosa.

    PubMed

    Seki, Takayuki; Ito, Tateki; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Sekine, Masaki; Funata, Nobuaki; Takizawa, Touichiro

    2009-03-01

    The intramucosal lesion of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SIG) is known to form a layered structure (LS) that simulates mucin expression in ordinary gastric mucosa. In this study, we suspected the influence of background mucosa on the formation of LS and performed histopathological analysis. We examined 35 cases of intramucosal SIG with a maximum diameter of 30 mm or less. The LS patterns were classified into those with a layer of MUC6-positive cells (complete pattern, CP) and those lacking this layer (incomplete pattern, ICP). The relationship between LS patterns and the characteristics of the background mucosa, the expression of MUC2 (intestinal-type mucin antigen), MUC5AC (foveolar-type mucin antigen), and Ki-67 (the marker of cell proliferation activity) was examined by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Intestinal metaplasia in the background mucosa and MUC2 expression were frequently observed in cases with ICP. Ki-67-positive cells were much more and they were distributed more widely in the lesion of cases with ICP alone than in the other cases. Mucin expression and LS formation of gastric SIG are strongly influenced by its background mucosa. The cases completely lacking MUC6 expression may have higher malignant potential. PMID:19697516

  9. Genome-wide methylation profiling of the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics: relationship to atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common respiratory disease that is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction due to chronic airway inflammation. Atopic asthma is a typical IgE-mediated disease in which the enhanced production of IgE is driven by the activation of Th2 cells, which release a distinct pattern of cytokines, including interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL3, in response to specific antigen presentation. To evaluate the methylation status of the whole genomes of bronchial mucosa tissues from subjects who lacked or had sensitization to Dermatophagoides farina (Df) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). Methods The genome-wide DNA methylation levels in the bronchial mucosa tissues of atopic asthmatics (N?=?10), non-atopic asthmatics (N?=?7), and normal controls (N?=?7) were examined using microarrays. Results In the bronchial mucosa of atopic asthmatics, hypermethylation was detected at 6 loci in 6 genes, while hypomethylation was detected at 49 loci in 48 genes compared to those of non-atopic asthmatics. Genes that were assigned the ontologies of multicellular organismal process, response to organic substance, hormone metabolic process, and growth factor receptor binding were hypomethylated. The methylation levels in the mucosa of asthmatics and normal controls were similar. Conclusions The bronchial mucosa of asthmatics who are atopic to Df or Dp have characteristic methylation patterns for 52 genes. The genes and pathways identified in the present study may be associated with the presence of atopy in asthmatics and therefore represent attractive targets for future research. PMID:23521807

  10. Immunohistochemical aspects of apoptosis in gingival mucosa with papilloma and condyloma acuminata.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; Mercu?, Veronica; Mercu?, R?zvan; Am?r?scu, Marina Olimpia; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Predescu, Anca Mihaela; Bani??, Ileana Monica

    2015-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a component of the oral ecosystem, which can be aggressed by corrosion products released from the dental alloys used in prosthetic dentistry therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo effect of nickel and copper compounds on the oral mucosa cells, including their ability to induce cell death, by analyzing the cytochrome c (cyt. c) immunohistochemical expression. Gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with dentures manufactured by nickel or copper casting alloys were processed through the histological technique of paraffin inclusion. The sections obtained were stained by usually histological methods in order to highlight the histopathological lesions and also analyzed using the immunohistochemical technique in order to study the cyt. c expression. The papillomatosis lesions were observed in the gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with nickel-based alloy dentures and the condyloma acuminata lesions were observed in those obtained from the subjects with copper-based alloy dentures. The cyt. c immunohistochemical expression was different in the epithelial layer of two types of mucosal fragments but it was the same in their lamina propria connective tissue. We can conclude that the two types of metal alloys have different effects on the adjacent gingival mucosa. PMID:26193209

  11. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  12. Discoloration of the Peri-implant Mucosa Caused by Zirconia and Titanium Implants.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Ioannidis, Alexis; Cathomen, Elena; Hämmerle, Christoph Hf; Hüsler, Jürg; Jung, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the discoloration of the peri-implant mucosa caused by zirconia (Zr) and titanium (Ti) dental implants with and without soft tissue grafting (STG). Zr and Ti implants were inserted in edentulous areas in pig maxillae. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed prior to and after the insertion of the implants, and following the placement of a STG on the buccal side. A significant discoloration of the mucosa was observed with a mean ?E of 8.05 (± 2.51) (Ti) and 4.93 (± 3.18) (Zr). In conjunction with a STG, ?E values amounted to 5.31 ± 3.50 (Ti) and 5.95 (± 3.68) (Zr). The placement of Zr implants led to less discoloration of the mucosa than Ti implants without STG. PMID:26697552

  13. Penetration of antibiotics into the normal and diseased maxillary sinus mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ekedahl, C; Holm, S E; Bergholm, A M

    1978-01-01

    A micro-method was developed for determination of the concentrations of antibiotics in the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinus in man. At different times after the administration of antibiotics (potassium phenoxymethylpenicillin, lymecycline and bacampicillin) the concentration was determined in serum and in pieces of maxillary sinus mucosa obtained at operation. It was found that the concentrations in the mucosa varied within wide ranges during the first 60 minutes after the operation but in samples taken at 90 minutes the fluctuations between the individuals were within the standard error of the method. Concentrations well above the MIC values for the majority of bacterias found in sinusitis were registered in the peaks. Six hours after the administration considerable amounts of active antibiotics were still detected in the maxillary sinus mucosa. PMID:100874

  14. [The antifungal and immunomodulating lymphotropic therapy of candidiasis of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Shumski?, A V; Pozharitskaia, M M; Iurchenko, E V

    1996-01-01

    Lymphotropic and endolymphatic therapy was carried out in 52 patients with candidiasis of the buccal mucosa. After preliminary injection of lidase, levorin was injected subcutaneously in the middle third of the shin to patients in a standing posture, after which a cuff with 45-50 mm Hg pressure was placed on the femur for 2-2.5 hours. Immunocorrector thymogen was injected in the submaxillary and chin lymph nodes. A course consisted of 5-6 sessions. The status of the buccal mucosa normalized after treatment. Contamination of the mucosa with yeast cells appreciably decreased, the content of substances with medium-molecular mass in the saliva reduced, and cellular and humoral immunity parameters normalized. PMID:8992656

  15. Assessing Grade 4 Mathematics in the Learner's Mother Tongue: A South African Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2010-01-01

    Official policy in post-apartheid education is aimed at redressing linguistic inequity in schooling by promoting the 11 official languages of South Africa through mother tongue instruction. However, since the life chances of children are inextricably linked to the language of power, many parents believe that their children would benefit from…

  16. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  17. Spatiotemporal Visualization of the Tongue Surface using Ultrasound and Kriging (SURFACES)

    E-print Network

    Prince, Jerry L.

    the shapes of the tongue and the vocal tract. These techniques include both fleshpoint measurements (X-ray, 1996), X-ray (Stone, 1991), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Stone, 1991)). Compared Dental School, MA, USA (Received 26 April 2004; accepted 11 January 2005) Abstract Analyzing the motion

  18. Interactive segmentation of tongue contours in ultrasound video sequences using quality maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrenassia, Sarah; Ménard, Lucie; Laporte, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is an effective and non invasive way of studying the tongue motions involved in normal and pathological speech, and the results of US studies are of interest for the development of new strategies in speech therapy. State-of-the-art tongue shape analysis techniques based on US images depend on semi-automated tongue segmentation and tracking techniques. Recent work has mostly focused on improving the accuracy of the tracking techniques themselves. However, occasional errors remain inevitable, regardless of the technique used, and the tongue tracking process must thus be supervised by a speech scientist who will correct these errors manually or semi-automatically. This paper proposes an interactive framework to facilitate this process. In this framework, the user is guided towards potentially problematic portions of the US image sequence by a segmentation quality map that is based on the normalized energy of an active contour model and automatically produced during tracking. When a problematic segmentation is identified, corrections to the segmented contour can be made on one image and propagated both forward and backward in the problematic subsequence, thereby improving the user experience. The interactive tools were tested in combination with two different tracking algorithms. Preliminary results illustrate the potential of the proposed framework, suggesting that the proposed framework generally improves user interaction time, with little change in segmentation repeatability.

  19. A Comparison of Methods for Tongue Shape Analysis Katherine M. Dawson1

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    A Comparison of Methods for Tongue Shape Analysis Katherine M. Dawson1 , Douglas H. Whalen1, 2. Canadian Acoustics, 41(1), 11-15. Van Otterloo, P.J. (1988). A contour-oriented approach to digital shape., Walker, J. E., & Bowie, J. E. (1974). An analysis technique for biological shape. I. Information

  20. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham”...

  1. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,”...

  2. Artificial gynogenesis and sex determination in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Song-Lin; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Jing-Feng; Shao, Chang-Wei; Ji, Xiang-Shan; Zhai, Jie-Ming; Liao, Xiao-Lin; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Su, Peng-Zhi; Xu, Jian-Yong; Sha, Zhen-Xia; Wu, Peng-Fei; Wang, Na

    2009-01-01

    Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is an important cultured marine fish as well as a promising model fish for the study of sex determination mechanisms. In the present study, a protocol for artificial gynogenesis of half-smooth tongue sole was developed in order to identify the sex determination mechanism and to generate all-female stock. The optimal UV-irradiation dose for genetically inactivating sea perch spermatozoa was determined to be > or =30 mJ/cm(2). The optimal initiation time for cold shock of gynogenetic embryos was determined to be 5 min after fertilization, while the optimal temperature and treatment duration were determined to be 20-25 min at 5 degrees C. Chromosomes from common diploids, gynogenetic haploids, and diploids were analyzed. WW chromosomes were discovered in some of the gynogenetic diploids. The microsatellite marker was applied to analyze gynogenetic diploid fry. Among the 30 gynogenetic diploid fry, 11 fry contained only one allele, while 19 contained two alleles, which had the same genotype as their mother. The female-specific DNA marker was observed in four individuals out of ten gynogenetic diploid fry. Ploidy analysis of 20 putative gynogenetic fry showed them all to be diploid. Thus, a protocol for the induction of artificial gynogenesis has been developed for the first time in half smooth tongue sole, and the sex determination mechanism in the tongue sole was determined to be female heterogametic with the ZW chromosome. PMID:18779997

  3. Tip-of-the-Tongue States Reveal Age Differences in the Syllable Frequency Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Meagan T.; Abrams, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Syllable frequency has been shown to facilitate production in some languages but has yielded inconsistent results in English and has never been examined in older adults. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states represent a unique type of production failure where the phonology of a word is unable to be retrieved, suggesting that the frequency of phonological…

  4. Word Concreteness as a Moderator of the Tip-of the-Tongue Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianico-Relyea, Jennifer L.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    The tip-of-the-tongue experience (TOT) is a universal phenomenon in which a speaker cannot fully produce a word that he or she believes will eventually be recalled and could easily be recognized. The purpose of the current experiment is to determine how variables such as word concreteness and word frequency influence TOT rates. Participants were…

  5. Information Retrieval in Tip of the Tongue States: New Data and Methodological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedermann, Britta; Ruh, Nicolas; Nickels, Lyndsey; Coltheart, Max

    2008-01-01

    Research on Tip of the Tongue (ToT) states has been used to determine whether access to syntactic information precedes access to phonological information. This paper argues that previous studies have used insufficient analyses when investigating the nature of seriality of access. In the first part of this paper, these complex issues are discussed…

  6. Tip-of-the-Tongue and Word Retrieval Deficits in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanly, Sarah; Vandenberg, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) responses on a picture-naming task were used to test the hypothesis that dyslexia involves phonological, but not semantic, processing deficits. Participants included 16 children with dyslexia and 31 control children between 8 and 10 years of age who did not differ in receptive vocabulary. As hypothesized, children with…

  7. Tip-of-the-Tongue States in Hebrew-English Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Silverberg, Nina B.

    2001-01-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) in proficient Hebrew-English bilinguals were compared to those of age-matched monolinguals. Monolinguals retrieved words in English, and bilinguals retrieved words from both languages. Results showed an increased TOT rate in bilinguals. (Author/VWL)

  8. Naming Difficulties in Children with Dyslexia: Application of the Tip-of-the-Tongue Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Dimitrovsky, Lilly; Shacht, Tamar

    2003-01-01

    A study used the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experimental paradigm in a picture naming task to explore the source of the naming deficits of 15 children (ages 8-10) with dyslexia. Compared with 15 controls, subjects showed fewer correct responses and spontaneous recalls, more TOT responses, and less accurate feeling of knowing judgments. (Contains…

  9. Pharmacokinetics of sulfamonomethoxine in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) after intravenous and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Xin; Li, Jing-Bao; Wang, Ying-Zi; Li, Jian

    2014-08-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) were investigated in flatfish tongue soles in the present study. After a single injection of SMM (40 mg/kg BW) to caudal vein of tongue sole at 20 °C, plasma drug concentration versus time data were best fitted to a three-compartment model, characterized with 0.2, 5.7, and 80.4 h for the half-life (t 1/2) of fast distribution, slow distribution, and elimination, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.1 L/kg, and the body clearance was 0.03 L/h/kg. After oral administration of SMM (200 mg/kg BW) to tongue soles at 20 °C, plasma drug concentrations were best fitted to a two-compartment model, of which the mean half-life of absorption (t 1/2ka) and elimination (t 1/2? ) were 1.7 and 95.7 h, respectively. The maximal absorption concentration (C max) was estimated as 58 mg/L at 2.5 h, and the mean systemic bioavailability (F) was 39.5 % in tongue soles after oral administration. PMID:24577641

  10. Sustaining Mother Tongue Medium Education: An Inter-Community Self-Help Framework in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiatoh, Blasius A.

    2011-01-01

    Advocating mother tongue education implies recognising the centrality of linguistic and cultural diversity in quality and accessible education planning and delivery. In minority linguistic settings, this need becomes particularly urgent. Decades of exclusive promotion of foreign languages have rendered the educational system incapable of…

  11. They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

    2013-01-01

    This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

  12. "Think Positively, in English and Colorfully!"--Vieraalla Kielella Ajattelusta (Mother Tongue, Foreign Language, and Thinking).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufva, Hannele; Paakkonen, Merja

    This paper discusses the relationship between mother tongue, foreign language, and thinking. It is based on a pilot study carried out with 30 Finnish university students majoring in English philology. All students filled in a questionnaire and four were selected for an interview. In the questionnaires and interviews, the students were asked to…

  13. Bimodal Bilinguals Reveal the Source of Tip-of-the-Tongue States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyers, Jennie E.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals report more tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) failures than monolinguals. Three accounts of this disadvantage are that bilinguals experience between-language interference at (a) semantic and/or (b) phonological levels, or (c) that bilinguals use each language less frequently than monolinguals. Bilinguals who speak one language and sign another…

  14. TLR7 is required for optimal immune defense against bacterial infection in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Peng; Sun, Li

    2015-11-01

    In mammals as well as in teleost, toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is known to be involved in antiviral immunity by recognizing viral RNA. However, the antibacterial potential of fish TLR7 is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the TLR7 of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), CsTLR7, and examined its potential involvement in antibacterial immunity. CsTLR7 is composed of 1052 amino acid residues and shares 64.0%-75.9% overall sequence identities with known teleost TLR7. CsTLR7 possesses a toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain and six leucine-rich repeats. Constitutive expression of CsTLR7 occurred in relatively high levels in kidney, spleen and liver. Bacterial infection upregulated CsTLR7 expression, whereas viral infection downregulated CsTLR7 expression. Knockdown of CsTLR7 significantly enhanced bacterial dissemination in the tissues of tongue sole. Treatment of tongue sole with the imidazoquinoline compound R848 (TLR7 activator) and the endosomal acidification inhibitor chloroquine (TLR7 inhibitor) caused enhanced and reduced resistance against bacterial infection respectively. These results indicate that CsTLR7 plays an essential role in the antibacterial immunity of tongue sole. PMID:26327112

  15. Mode-locking and Arnold tongues in integrate-and-fire neural oscillators

    E-print Network

    currents. In this paper we focus on the integrate-and-fire (IF) oscillator as a model neuron that submitsMode-locking and Arnold tongues in integrate-and-fire neural oscillators S. Coombes and P. C in periodically forced integrate-and-fire (IF) neural oscillators is introduced based upon a firing map

  16. Application of Combined Electronic Nose and Tongue Technology in Petfood Flavor Development and Quality Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladipupo, Bola; Stough, Jean; Guthrie, Nicky

    2011-09-01

    This work demonstrates the use of combined Electronic Nose and Tongue (ENT) technology in pet food flavor development and quality control. ENT with multivariate data analysis was used to effectively screen multiple flavor formulations during development, discriminate Off the Shelf (OTS) kibbles from different plants, and assess the quality of finished flavors; with good correlation to animal sensory results.

  17. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the Oriental scops owl (Otus scops).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2009-05-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of an adult owl (Otus scops) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the adult owl was about 1 cm long. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area. The conical papillae of the lingual body were inclined toward the posterior of the tongue. At low magnification of scanning electron microscopy, the desquamated cells were observed in the entire dorsal surface of the lingual apex. The connective tissue cores of the epithelium of the lingual apex showed the rod-shaped protrusions. The border between the lingual apex and body was clear and the small conical papillae were observed in the lingual body. The small and large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root. PMID:19522300

  18. How Bilingual Is Bilingual? Mother-Tongue Proficiency and Learning through a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Zeliha; Ilter, Binnur Genc; Glover, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In a bilingual context, the mother tongue plays a key role in a child's social and personal development, in education and in second-language learning. There is a complex relationship between these three areas. Support for children receiving education through a second language is often in the form of additional learning opportunities in the second…

  19. Human taste receptor-functionalized field effect transistor as a human-like nanobioelectronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Seok; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Seon Joo; Kim, Un-Kyung; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a human taste receptor protein, hTAS2R38-functionalized carboxylated polypyrrole nanotube (CPNT)-field effect transistor (FET) as a nanobioelectronic tongue (nbe-tongue) that displayed human-like performance with high sensitivity and selectivity. Taster type (PAV) and nontaster type (AVI) hTAS2R38s were expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) at a high level and immobilized on a CPNT-FET sensor platform. Among the various tastants examined, PAV-CPNT-FET exclusively responded to target bitterness compounds, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and propylthiouracil (PROP), with high sensitivity at concentrations as low as 1 fM. However, no significant changes were observed in the AVI-CPNT-FET in response to the target bitter tastants. This nbe-tongue exhibited different bitter-taste perception of compounds containing thiourea (N-C?S) moieties such as PTC, PROP, and antithyroid toxin in vegetables, which corresponded to the haplotype of hTAS2R38 immobilized on CPNTs. This correlation with the type of receptor is very similar to the human taste system. Thus, the artificial taste sensor developed in this study allowed for the efficient detection of target tastants in mixture and real food sample with a human-like performance and high sensitivity. Furthermore, our nbe-tongue could be utilized as a substitute for cell-based assays and to better understand the mechanisms of human taste. PMID:23176205

  20. Literacy Instruction in the Mother Tongue: The Case of Pupils Using Mixed Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Alma Sonia Q.

    2013-01-01

    In the institutionalization of the mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) in the country, several trainings were conducted introducing its unique features such as the use of the two-track method in teaching reading based on the frequency of the sounds of the first language (L1). This study attempted to find out how the accuracy track…

  1. Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Ana, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

  2. Inequalities of Multilingualism: Challenges to Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupas, Ruanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses structural and ideological challenges to mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) which has in recent years been gaining ground in many educational contexts around the world. The paper argues, however, that MTB-MLE is set against these challenges - referred to here as inequalities of multilingualism - which prevent…

  3. Is Tongue Strength an Important Influence on Rate of Articulation in Diadochokinetic and Reading Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, Amy T.; Palmer, Phyllis M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tongue strength and rate of articulation in 2 speech tasks, diadochokinetic rates and reading aloud, in healthy men and women between 20 and 78 years of age. Method: Diadochokinetic rates were measured for the syllables /p[wedge]/, /t[wedge]/, /k[wedge]/, and…

  4. Tongue-Tied But Trying? A NIACE Survey on the Languages Adults Speak in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan; Cara, Sue

    The language competence of adults in Great Britain was examined in a national study involving interviews between April 28 and May 9, 1999, with a representative sample of 3,967 adults over the age of 16 years. Of those surveyed, 58% spoke only their mother tongue, 29% spoke one additional language, and 10% spoke two additional languages. Fifteen…

  5. Kids' Slips: What Young Children's Slips of the Tongue Reveal about Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Jeri J.

    2005-01-01

    The study of speech errors, or "slips of the tongue," is a time-honored methodology which serves as a window to the representation and processing of language and has proven to be the most reliable source of data for building theories of speech production planning. However, until "Kids' Slips," there has never been a corpus of such errors from…

  6. The Effect of Language Attitudes on Kenyan Stakeholder Involvement in Mother Tongue Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between language attitudes and the involvement of Sabaot stakeholders in the implementation of the Kenyan language-in-education policy (mother tongue [MT] as subject). Attitudes were vitally important for how the policy was interpreted, the extent to which stakeholders invested their time and the way in which…

  7. A novel bioelectronic tongue in vivo for highly sensitive bitterness detection with brain-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Liang; Zhuang, Liujing; Hu, Ning; Wang, Ping

    2016-04-15

    Animals' gustatory system has been widely acknowledged as one of the most sensitive chemosensing systems, especially for its ability to detect bitterness. Since bitterness usually symbolizes inedibility, the potential to use rodent's gustatory system is investigated to detect bitter compounds. In this work, the extracellular potentials of a group of neurons are recorded by chronically coupling microelectrode array to rat's gustatory cortex with brain-machine interface (BMI) technology. Local field potentials (LFPs), which represent the electrophysiological activity of neural networks, are chosen as target signals due to stable response patterns across trials and are further divided into different oscillations. As a result, different taste qualities yield quality-specific LFPs in time domain which suggests the selectivity of this in vivo bioelectronic tongue. Meanwhile, more quantitative study in frequency domain indicates that the post-stimulation power of beta and low gamma oscillations shows dependence with concentrations of denatonium benzoate, a prototypical bitter compound, and the limit of detection is deduced to be 0.076?M, which is two orders lower than previous in vitro bioelectronic tongues and conventional electronic tongues. According to the results, this in vivo bioelectronic tongue in combination with BMI presents a promising method in highly sensitive bitterness detection and is supposed to provide new platform in measuring bitterness degree. PMID:26655176

  8. The Fast and Non-capillary Fluid Filling Mechanism in the Hummingbird's Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Hummingbirds gather nectar by inserting their beaks inside flowers and cycling their tongues at a frequency of up to 20 Hz. It is unclear how they achieve efficiency at this high licking rate. Ever since proposed in 1833, it has been believed that hummingbird tongues are a pair of tiny straws filled with nectar by capillary rise. Our discoveries are very different from this general consensus. The tongue does not draw up floral nectar via capillary action under experimental conditions that resemble natural ones. Theoretical models based on capillary rise were mistaken and unsuitable for estimating the fluid intake rate and to support foraging theories. We filmed (up to 1265 frames/s) the fluid uptake in 20 species of hummingbirds that belong to 7 out of the 9 main hummingbird clades. We found that the fluid filling within the portions of the tongue that remain outside the nectar is about five times faster than capillary filling. We present strong evidence to rule out the capillarity model. We introduce a new fluid-structure interaction and hydrodynamic model and compare the results with field experimental data to explain how hummingbirds actually extract fluid from flowers at the lick level.

  9. Publishing for Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Ghana: Politics and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba

    2015-01-01

    One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…

  10. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method: Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow…

  11. From Muscle Models to Tongue Models. Presentation at Haskins Laboratories, Nov 2, 2006

    E-print Network

    From Muscle Models to Tongue Models. (and back) Presentation at Haskins Laboratories, Nov 2, 2006 · Viscoelasticity · Active muscle models · Integration and thermodynamics 3 #12;See http) and vertical intrinsic muscles. (Also visible: genioglos- sus, inf. longitudinal, hyo- glossus and others) 4

  12. A Plantar-pressure Based Tongue-placed Tactile Biofeedback System for Balance Improvement

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    with supplementary sensory information related to foot sole pressure distribution through a tongue-placed output foot sole and to calculate the positions of the resultant centre of foot pressure (CoP). CoP data were a flat cable passing out of the mouth. The underlying principle of our biofeedback system was to supply

  13. Velar coarticulation and tongue twisters in people who stutter 2: Disfluent utterances

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Velar coarticulation and tongue twisters in people who stutter 2: Disfluent utterances Stefan A will present data from across the lifespan for people who stutter. The task involved repeating velar tab, following Pouplier & Goldstein 2005). Disfluent productions by people who stutter were analyzed

  14. Velar coarticulation and tongue twisters in people who stutter 1: Fluent utterances

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Velar coarticulation and tongue twisters in people who stutter 1: Fluent utterances Stefan A will present data from across the lifespan for typical control participants and people who stutter. The task with stuttering even during fluent and otherwise normal sounding utterances. Analysis Data for velar

  15. Tongue Pressure and Submental Surface Electromyography Measures during Noneffortful and Effortful Saliva Swallows in Healthy Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Erin M.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The effortful swallow, a compensatory technique frequently employed by speech-language pathologists for their patients with dysphagia, is still not fully understood in terms of how it modifies the swallow. In particular, although age-related changes are known to reduce maximum isometric tongue pressure, it is not known whether age affects…

  16. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  17. Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant. PMID:17600317

  18. Is there a 'mucosa-sparing' benefit of IMRT for head-and-neck cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Endres, Eugene; Gunn, Brandon G.; Parker, Brent

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows more mucosal sparing than standard three-field technique (3FT) radiotherapy for early oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Whole-field IMRT plans were generated for 5 patients with early-stage oropharyngeal cancer according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0022 (66 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks) guidelines with and without a dose objective on the portion of mucosa not overlapping any PTV. 3FT plans were also generated for the same 5 patients with two fractionation schedules: conventional fractionation (CF) to 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks and concomitant boost (CB) to 72 Gy/40 fractions/6 weeks. Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the overall mucosal volume (as per in-house definition) from all trials were compared after transformation into the linear quadratic equivalent dose at 2 Gy per fraction with a time factor correction. Results: Compared with IMRT without dose objective on the mucosa, a 30-Gy maximum dose objective on the mucosa allows {approx}20% and {approx}12% mean absolute reduction in the percentage of mucosa volume exposed to a dose equivalent to 30 Gy (p < 0.01) and 70 Gy (p < 0.01) at 2 Gy in 3 and 7 weeks, respectively, without detrimental effect on the coverage of other regions of interest. Without mucosal dose objective, IMRT is associated with a larger amount of mucosa exposed to clinically relevant doses compared with both concomitant boost and conventional fractionation; however, if a dose objective is placed, the reverse is true, with up to {approx}30% reduction in the volume of the mucosa in the high-dose region compared with both concomitant boost and conventional fractionation (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be potentially provide more mucosal sparing than traditional approaches.

  19. Bluetongue: a disease that does not speak 'one tongue' only.

    PubMed

    Savini, Giovanni

    2015-12-31

    It is now 1 year since the IV International Conference on Bluetongue and Related Orbiviruses closed its doors. This is the first of 2 issues of Veterinaria Italiana dedicated to this international event, collecting selected papers presented at the conference. A second issue will be published at the beginning of next year. Thinking of the Rome conference, I am sure I am not wrong when I say that it was really a great meeting, whose success is well represented in Ford's words: "coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success" (Henry Ford). The conference was an unmissable occasion to start new collaborations and new research activities, it provided the opportunity for the over 300 delegates among researchers and regulators at the highest international level to speak the same 'blue' tongue. All 7 sessions of the meeting, however, highlighted that, when dealing with Bluetongue (BT) virus, we have to be prepared to be surprised and to continuously adapt our beliefs. As soon as we inch ahead gaining more understanding on this virus, it evolves in response. In the last few years, new serotypes and new potential vectors have been identified, an additional nonstructural protein revealed as well as the capability of some field strains/serotypes to transmit vertically or horizontally, to reassort their RNA, to alter their pathogenicity, host specificity and spread capacity disclosed. In other words, the virus is capable to change its characteristic and behaviour and to adapt to new environments and episystems. Same serotypes/strains could cause severe clinical cases involving different species and determining significant losses in some areas or circumstances, while being completely asymptomatic with low or insignificant economic impact in other areas or circumstances. These peculiarities were clearly emphasised in the meeting and a constant monitoring of the genetic evolution of the BT virus was recommended. Reassortments between field strains, vaccine strains, and between field and vaccine strains have generated and still generate novel genotypes. The potential for these progeny strains to be transmitted more effectively poses significant additional risks for ruminant health. Although, it is an aspect still poorly understood and which requires further investigation, it is clear that the threat of exotic topotypes should not be underestimated and that an evaluation of their ability to cause severe clinical disease in endemic episystems is increasingly more necessary. Evolutionary dynamics and selection pressure are also behind the emergence of new serotypes. Five new serotypes (BTV 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29) have been identified since 2008, 3 of them in the last year only. They have shown novel properties posing, as underlined during the conference, a pressing need to characterise their biology and significance. Thus, bluetongue strains and, consequently, the disease that they might cause are multifarious, unpredictable, and extremely difficult to handle and tackle. When dealing with bluetongue, we cannot ignore its severe impact on the livestock economy, which is determined more by the consequences of indirect costs mostly associated with trade barrier, surveillance programs, and prevention than by the results of direct costs caused by the disease itself, such as mortality and morbidity of sick animals - including weight loss, reduced milk yield, abortion, and associated veterinary costs. After the last BTV-8 re-emergence in France, controversial discussions on bluetongue control and prevention strategy arose among policy-makers, international organisations, and stakeholders. The prospect of bluetongue declassification or the application of preventative rather than pure reactive strategies are focal points of the debate. I am convinced that bluetongue prevention and control strategies cannot close their eyes to the extreme plasticity of the virus and the resulting consequences. In this erratic and uncertain scenario, it is thus crucial to engage in a continuous dialogue among researc

  20. Scanning electron microscopy study of the tongue and lingual papillae of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Shindoh, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan

    2002-06-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures on the external surface and the connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus), after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, and vallate papillae), using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy. Macroscopically, the tongue was V-shaped and its apex was rounded. At the posterior area of the tongue, five vallate papillae were arranged in a V shape. In the epithelium, numerous taste buds were distributed on the top of the vallate papillae. On the dorsal surface from the apex to the boundary between the anterior and posterior tongue, filiform papillae were densely distributed. The CTCs of the filiform papillae consisted of a main protrusion (primary core) and many small cores (secondary cores). From the apex to the anterior one-third of the tongue, dome-like fungiform papillae were densely distributed, whereas fewer were located at the posterior two-thirds of the tongue. Several taste buds were found in the epithelium on the fungiform papillae. The size of the filiform papillae gradually increased from the apex to the boundary between the anterior and posterior tongue. At the lingual radix, the conical papillae, which were bigger than any filiform papillae, were densely distributed. The morphological characteristics of the tongue of the California sea lion appear to have been transformed to adapt to an aquatic environment; however, they possess some structures similar to those of land mammals. PMID:11997883

  1. The association and prognostic relevance of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A and inflammation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Miia; Tervo, Sanni; Pohjola, Konsta; Laranne, Jussi; Huhtala, Heini; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Paavonen, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) prevents proteolytic degradation of a universal transcription factor, c-Myc. Strong CIP2A expression associates with poor prognosis in early-stage tongue cancer and in other cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate CIP2A and mucosal inflammation in tongue hyperplasia, in tongue cancer, and in its metastasis. Retrospective tongue and lymph node specimens (n = 105) were stained immunohistochemically with polyclonal antibody anti-CIP2A. CIP2A staining intensity and inflammation were assessed semi-quantitatively with light microscopy. CIP2A was similarly detected in tongue cancer and tongue hyperplasia, whereas local inflammation was stronger in cancer (p = 0.000). CIP2A expression was increased in metastasized cancer compared to non-metastasized (p = 0.019). Markers for poorer survival were tumor size of ?20 mm, presence of metastasis and nodal CIP2A (p = 0.031, p = 0.000, p = 0.042). Cancer patients aged ?60 with increased inflammation predicted poor survival (p = 0.037). CIP2A and inflammation might play a role in progression of tongue cancer. PMID:26522733

  2. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26113454

  3. Polypoid leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Nishisaki, Hogara; Koma, Yu-ichiro; Sawai, Hiroaki; Sakai, Aya; Mimura, Takuya; Kushida, Saeko; Tsumura, Hidetaka; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Tobimatsu, Kazutoshi; Miki, Ikuya; Sakuma, Toshiko; Tsuda, Masahiro; Mano, Masayuki; Hirose, Takanori; Inokuchi, Hideto

    2015-09-01

    We report a rare case of polypoid leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus that was treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). A 63-year-old man with complaints of progressive dysphagia was referred to Hyogo Cancer Center for treatment of esophageal tumor. Esophagoscopy revealed a polypoid tumor 25 mm in diameter on the left side of the upper esophagus. Despite several biopsy specimens, the diagnosis could not be confirmed. Computed tomography showed a protruded, homogeneously enhancing mass in the upper esophagus, but no lymph node enlargement or metastasis. After 1.5 months, the esophagogram showed a filling defect 47 mm in diameter in the upper esophagus. Given this rapid tumor growth, en bloc resection was done by ESD for therapeutic diagnosis. After this treatment, the tumor seemed to grow larger, showing a short stalk and occupying the esophageal lumen. Histopathologically, the tumor comprised pleomorphic spindle cells with mitosis. Tumor invasion involved the lumina propria mucosae and contact with the muscularis mucosae, but not involving the submucosa. Immunohistochemical examination showed positive staining for smooth muscle actin and HHF35, but negative for desmin, caldesmon, CD34, c-kit, DOG1, ALK, S-100 protein and cytokeratin. These histopathological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyosarcoma derived from the muscularis mucosae. PMID:25597630

  4. Assessment of Taste Attributes of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  5. E-Nose and e-Tongue combination for improved recognition of fruit juice samples.

    PubMed

    Haddi, Z; Mabrouk, S; Bougrini, M; Tahri, K; Sghaier, K; Barhoumi, H; El Bari, N; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bouchikhi, B

    2014-05-01

    There are many important challenges related to food security analysis by application of chemical and electrochemical sensors. One critical parameter is the development of reliable tools, capable of performing an overall sensory analysis. In these systems, as much information as possible is required in relation to smell, taste and colour. Here, we investigated the possibility of using a multisensor data fusion approach, which combines an e-Nose and an e-Tongue, adept in generating combined aroma and taste profiles. In order to shed light on this concept, classification of various Tunisian fruit juices using a low-level of abstraction data fusion technique was attempted. Five tin oxide-based Taguchi Gas Sensors were applied in the e-Nose instrument and the e-Tongue was designed using six potentiometric sensors. Four different commercial brands along with eleven fruit juice varieties were characterised using the e-Nose and the e-Tongue as individual techniques, followed by a combination of the two together. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-Nose and e-Tongue data, only few distinct groups were discriminated. However, by employing the low-level of abstraction data fusion technique, very impressive findings were achieved. The Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network reached a 100% success rate in the recognition of the eleven-fruit juices. Therefore, data fusion approach can successfully merge individual data from multiple origins to draw the right conclusions that are more fruitful when compared to the original single data. Hence, this work has demonstrated that data fusion strategy used to combine e-Nose and e-Tongue signals led to a system of complementary and comprehensive information of the fruit juices which outperformed the performance of each instrument when applied separately. PMID:24360446

  6. Tongue Stiffness is Lower in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Wakefulness Compared with Matched Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether tongue stiffness (shear modulus) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is different for controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on stiffness. Design: Controlled experimental study. Setting: Medical research institute. Participants: Patients with OSA and age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Measurements: Magnetic resonance elastography was performed in nine patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15 events/h) and seven controls (AHI < 10 events/h) matched for age, sex, and BMI. Six of these OSA subjects were also scanned while 10 cmH2O CPAP was applied. Mean isotropic shear modulus and anisotropic shear moduli parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fascicles in the tongue were calculated. Results: Tongue shear modulus in patients with OSA was lower than that in matched controls (2.68 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard deviation) kPa versus 2.98 ± 0.44 kPa, P < 0.001). Shear modulus decreased with increasing AHI (R = ?0.496, P = 0.043), but not age, BMI, or percentage tongue fat. Anisotropic analysis revealed that reduction in stiffness was greatest parallel to the muscle fibers. CPAP had no significant effect on tongue shear modulus. Conclusions: In awake subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, the tongue is less stiff than in similar healthy subjects and this difference occurs in the muscle fiber direction. CPAP did not significantly reduce tongue stiffness. Thus, any change in neural drive to genioglossus during wakefulness is insufficient to restore normal tongue stiffness. Citation: Brown EC, Cheng S, McKenzie DK, Butler JE, Gandevia SC, Bilston LE. Tongue stiffness is lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness compared with matched control subjects. SLEEP 2015;38(4):537–544. PMID:25409103

  7. Radiotherapeutic management and results of T1N0, T2N0 carcinoma of the oral tongue: Evaluation of boost techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C. )

    1989-08-01

    This paper presents the total experience of radiation therapy of early carcinoma of the oral tongue at the Massachusetts General Hospital over a span of 25 years. External beam radiotherapy with various boost techniques were used including interstitial implant, and intra-oral cone (IOC) using kilovoltage (250 kV HVL 1.53 mm Cu) radiations or low megavoltage electron beam. We evaluated our results of boost techniques for treatment of patients with T1N0 and T2N0 lesions and determined the 5-year actuarial local control rates of these treatment methods. From 1960-1978, 49 patients were treated by implant and 20 by intra-oral cone kilovoltage radiation. From 1979-1985, 73 patients were treated by intra-oral cone electron beam with minimal follow-up of 2 years. The 5-year actuarial local control rates for T1N0 and T2N0 lesions showed 54% after implant, 50% after intra-oral cone kilovoltage, and 86% after intra-oral cone electron beam boost with a p value of 0.0001. For the T1N0 lesions, the corresponding rates were 77%, 62%, and 90%, and for T2N0 lesions the rates were 54%, 43%, and 85%, respectively. In the absence of a prospective randomized trial, direct comparison of various boost techniques is not possible due to selection factor for therapy, increased clinical and technical expertise, and improvement in equipment. Therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made regarding optimum boost therapy. The data presented herein suggest that intra-oral cone electron beam boost technique is superior to interstitial implant for boosting early carcinoma of the tongue.

  8. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Jayant Sastri; Le, Lisa W.; Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Simpson, Rand; Tsang, Richard W.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses of RT but results in significant late morbidity. The majority of late effects were successfully managed. Lens shielding reduced the risk of cataracts and other late sequelae.

  9. Innate Immunity Components and Cytokines in Gastric Mucosa in Children with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczyslawa; Szaflarska-Poplawska, Anna; Mierzwa, Grazyna; Marszalek, Andrzej; Nowak, Magdalena; Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the expression of innate immunity components and cytokines in the gastric mucosa among H. pylori infected and uninfected children. Materials and Methods. Biopsies of the antral gastric mucosa from children with dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated. Gene expressions of innate immunity receptors and cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression of selected molecules was tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. H. pylori infection did not lead to a significant upregulation of MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, CD14, TREM1, and TREM2 mRNA expression but instead resulted in high mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, TNF-?, and CD163. H. pylori cagA(+) infection was associated with higher IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression, as compared to cagA(?) strains. H. pylori infected children showed increased IFN-? and TNF-? protein levels. IFN-? mRNA expression correlated with both H. pylori density of colonization and lymphocytic infiltration in the gastric mucosa, whereas TNF-? protein expression correlated with bacterial density. Conclusion. H. pylori infection in children was characterized by (a) Th1 expression profile, (b) lack of mRNA overexpression of natural immunity receptors, and (c) strong anti-inflammatory activities in the gastric mucosa, possibly resulting from increased activity of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. This may explain the mildly inflammatory gastric inflammation often observed among H. pylori infected children. PMID:25948881

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Mannitol-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573

    PubMed Central

    Bleckwedel, Juliana; Terán, Lucrecia C.; Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573, isolated from child fecal samples, efficiently converts fructose and/or sucrose into the low-calorie sugar mannitol when cultured in modified MRS medium at pH 5.0. Also, the strain is capable of producing bacteriocin. The draft genome sequence of this strain with potential industrial applications is presented here. PMID:25502678

  11. Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  12. [Inhibition of histamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase system of human gastric mucosa by cimetidine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simon, B; Kather, H

    1977-12-01

    Human gastric mucosa contains a histamin-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. The activation of this enzyme system by histamine is competititively inhibited by the H2-receptor blocking agent cimetidine. Our results underscore the rational basis for the use 0f H2-receptor antagonists in the therapy of peptic ulcer. PMID:593028

  13. Selective culturing of swine gastrointestinal bacteria on substrates simulating the intestinal mucosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many gastrointestinal (GI) microbes are in intimate contact with the host tissues, and characterizing these tissue-associated communities is important for elucidating their role in animal and human health. The GI mucosa is an environment distinct from the intestinal lumen and is covered by a mucus l...

  14. [Ultrastructure of gastric antrum mucosa in patients receiving long-term treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Makher; Skliarova, O Ie; Skliarov, Ie Ia

    2014-01-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of gastric antrum mucosa on the background long-term use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We demonstrated that long-term use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs leads to decrease of mucous granule secretion by epitheliocytes of gastric antrum mucous membrane. PMID:25796830

  15. Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer

    E-print Network

    Kim, Young L.

    Optical Markers in Duodenal Mucosa Predict the Presence of Pancreatic Cancer Yang Liu,1 Randall E Shah,2 Curtis Hall,2 and Vadim Backman1 Abstract Purpose: Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most to develop a highly accurate and minimally invasive (e.g., without instrumentation of the pancreatic duct

  16. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival. PMID:25269707

  17. Buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in a case of urethral amyloidosis presenting with long anterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kurbatov, Dmitry; Stojanovic, Borko; Dubskiy, Sergey; Lepetukhin, Alex; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.

    2015-01-01

    Urethral amyloidosis is a rare condition, but clinically relevant because it can mimic urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of localized urethral amyloidosis presenting with a long anterior urethral stricture. We used extensive grafts of buccal mucosa for standard augmentation urethroplasty, with a successful outcome at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600896

  18. Deformable image registration for cone-beam CT guided transoral robotic base-of-tongue surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Liu, W. P.; Wang, A. S.; Otake, Y.; Nithiananthan, S.; Uneri, A.; Schafer, S.; Tryggestad, E.; Richmon, J.; Sorger, J. M.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Taylor, R. H.

    2013-07-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers a minimally invasive approach to resection of base-of-tongue tumors. However, precise localization of the surgical target and adjacent critical structures can be challenged by the highly deformed intraoperative setup. We propose a deformable registration method using intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to accurately align preoperative CT or MR images with the intraoperative scene. The registration method combines a Gaussian mixture (GM) model followed by a variation of the Demons algorithm. First, following segmentation of the volume of interest (i.e. volume of the tongue extending to the hyoid), a GM model is applied to surface point clouds for rigid initialization (GM rigid) followed by nonrigid deformation (GM nonrigid). Second, the registration is refined using the Demons algorithm applied to distance map transforms of the (GM-registered) preoperative image and intraoperative CBCT. Performance was evaluated in repeat cadaver studies (25 image pairs) in terms of target registration error (TRE), entropy correlation coefficient (ECC) and normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI). Retraction of the tongue in the TORS operative setup induced gross deformation >30 mm. The mean TRE following the GM rigid, GM nonrigid and Demons steps was 4.6, 2.1 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The respective ECC was 0.57, 0.70 and 0.73, and NPMI was 0.46, 0.57 and 0.60. Registration accuracy was best across the superior aspect of the tongue and in proximity to the hyoid (by virtue of GM registration of surface points on these structures). The Demons step refined registration primarily in deeper portions of the tongue further from the surface and hyoid bone. Since the method does not use image intensities directly, it is suitable to multi-modality registration of preoperative CT or MR with intraoperative CBCT. Extending the 3D image registration to the fusion of image and planning data in stereo-endoscopic video is anticipated to support safer, high-precision base-of-tongue robotic surgery.

  19. Deformable Image Registration for Cone-Beam CT Guided Transoral Robotic Base of Tongue Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Liu, W. P.; Wang, A. S.; Otake, Y.; Nithiananthan, S.; Uneri, A.; Schafer, S.; Tryggestad, E.; Richmon, J.; Sorger, J. M.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Taylor, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers a minimally invasive approach to resection of base of tongue tumors. However, precise localization of the surgical target and adjacent critical structures can be challenged by the highly deformed intraoperative setup. We propose a deformable registration method using intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) to accurately align preoperative CT or MR images with the intraoperative scene. The registration method combines a Gaussian mixture (GM) model followed by a variation of the Demons algorithm. First, following segmentation of the volume of interest (i.e., volume of the tongue extending to the hyoid), a GM model is applied to surface point clouds for rigid initialization (GM rigid) followed by nonrigid deformation (GM nonrigid). Second, the registration is refined using the Demons algorithm applied to distance map transforms of the (GM-registered) preoperative image and intraoperative CBCT. Performance was evaluated in repeat cadaver studies (25 image pairs) in terms of target registration error (TRE), entropy correlation coefficient (ECC), and normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI). Retraction of the tongue in the TORS operative setup induced gross deformation >30 mm. The mean TRE following the GM rigid, GM nonrigid, and Demons steps was 4.6, 2.1, and 1.7 mm, respectively. The respective ECC was 0.57, 0.70, and 0.73 and NPMI was 0.46, 0.57, and 0.60. Registration accuracy was best across the superior aspect of the tongue and in proximity to the hyoid (by virtue of GM registration of surface points on these structures). The Demons step refined registration primarily in deeper portions of the tongue further from the surface and hyoid bone. Since the method does not use image intensities directly, it is suitable to multi-modality registration of preoperative CT or MR with intraoperative CBCT. Extending the 3D image registration to the fusion of image and planning data in stereo-endoscopic video is anticipated to support safer, high-precision base of tongue robotic surgery. PMID:23807549

  20. Histamine-stimulated hydrogen ion secretion by in vitro piglet gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Forte, J G; Forte, T M; Machen, T E

    1975-01-01

    1. A new preparation of gastric mucosa isolated from new-born piglets is described. The piglet gastric mucosa was easily separated from the serosal muscle layers by a "blistering" technique which appeared to cause minimal trauma to the tissue and which allowed extended study in vitro in a suitable chamber. Normal resting p.d. was approximately minus 30 mV (mucosal side negative with respect to serosal side), resistance about 100 omega. cm-2 and H+ secretion was absent or occurred at very low rates (0-1mu-equiv/cm-2. hr). 2. Maximally stimulating doses of histamine (1-6 times 10-5 M) caused H+ secretion to increase (up to 15 muequiv/cm-2. hr), p.d. to increase and resistance to decrease. A close correlation was observed between the increase in H+ secretion and decrease in transmucosal resistance. The threshold dose of histamine appeared to be 10-8 M; concentrations 10-4 M and higher reduced H+ secretion somewhat. 3. Pentagastrin ( 10-9-10-7 M) and acetylcholine (10-7-10-5 M) did not significantly stimulate the piglet gastric mucosa. Pentagastrin concentrations above 4 times 10-6 M reversibly inhibited H+ secretion of histamine-stimulated mucosa. High concentrations of acetylcholine (above 4 times 10-4 M) did not affect histamine-stimulated H+ secretion, but a significant reduction in p.d. was observed. 4. This investigation demonstrates the utility of the piglet gastric mucosa for in vitro studies of the mechanism H+ secretion and the action of secretagogues. From a consideration of such factors as the thinness of tissue and ease of preparation it is suggested that neonatal animals may represent a good source of in vitro mammalian gastric tissue. Images Plate 1 PMID:1123738

  1. [An unusual case of a self-inflicted injury to the tongue to simulate a criminal offence].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Albalooshi, Younis; Madea, Burkard

    2013-01-01

    Self-inflicted injuries can have various motivations. The most common causes are mental or neurological diseases or disorders. Sometimes, however, they are also used to simulate a crime and attract attention. Such a case is reported here. A young male student of Asian origin pretended to have been assaulted to force him to convert to Islam. He claimed that he had been beaten and his tongue had been cut with a knife. The clinical and medicolegal examination did not show any signs of blunt force, but only sharp force injuries in the form of superficial scratches and cuts on the forehead and tongue. Self-inflicted injuries to the tongue are very rare and mainly occur in neurological diseases and accidents where the tongue is bitten off. PMID:24547620

  2. Our 'messy' mother tongue: Language attitudes among urban Uyghurs and desires for 'purity' in the public sphere

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Ashley Claire

    2013-05-31

    ' refers to the intentional avoidance of Mandarin Chinese loanwords, otherwise heard often in everyday conversations, but expunged in television news. The participants in my research, urban Uyghurs who received mother-tongue education, viewed `pure...

  3. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    D'Ausilio, A.; Maffongelli, L.; Bartoli, E.; Campanella, M.; Ferrari, E.; Berry, J.; Fadiga, L.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners’ tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan. PMID:24778384

  4. A study comparing ultrasound images of tongue movements between open bite children and normal children in the early mixed dentition period.

    PubMed

    Kikyo, T; Saito, M; Ishikawa, M

    1999-09-01

    The tongue surface movement of young patients with or without open bite was evaluated by ultrasound images taken on the posterior part of the tongue on the frontal plane to determine whether there is any relationship between the tongue movement and open bite malocclusion in the early mixed dentition period. The standardized reproducible ultrasound images were obtained using ultrasound diagnostic equipment that was fabricated in a cephalostat unit having a probe stabilizer. At the central portion of the tongue, no significant differences were detected in the duration or the momentum of tongue surface movement on a frontal plane was detected between the patients with and without open bite during swallowing. The farther the region was from the central portion, however, the longer the duration and the bigger the momentum of the tongue surface movement was found in the open bite group. Based on this evidence, it is suggested that an open-bite child swallows by using a tongue thrust motion that forms using a large depressed area in the tongue, whereas a normal child without tongue thrust forms a rather narrow groove in the central portion of the tongue when swallowing. PMID:12160259

  5. Two-photon autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Shilagard, Tuya; Qiu, Suimin; Vargas, Gracie

    2011-03-01

    The survival rate for individuals diagnosed with oral cancer is correlated with the stage of detection. Thus the development of novel techniques for the earliest possible detection of malignancies is of critical importance. Single photon (1P) autofluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful diagnostic tool in this regard, but 2P (two photon) spectroscopy remains essentially unexplored. In this investigation, a spectroscopic system was incorporated into a custom-built 2P laser scanning microscope. Oral cancer was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian Golden hamsters by tri-weekly topical application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA).Three separated sites where investigated in each hamster at four excitation wavelengths from 780 nm to 890 nm. A Total of 8 hamsters were investigated (4 normal and 4 DMBA treated). All investigated sites were imaged via 2p imaging, marked for biopsy, processed for histology and H&E staining, and graded by a pathologist. The in vivo emission spectrum for normal, mild/high grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma is presented. It is shown that the hamsters with various stages of dysplasia are characterized by spectral differences as a function of depth and excitation wavelength, compared to normal hamsters.

  6. Combined Submental-tongue Flap for Reconstruction of Subtotal Traumatic Avulsion of Lower Lip: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Delayed reconstruction of large lower lip defects after traumatic avulsion is a challenge in medically compromised patients with concomitant cheek skin burn. Combination of orthograde submental transposition flap and anteriorly based ventral rectangular myomucosal tongue flap is useful. The former reconstructs the body of the defect, and the latter masks the red lip, resembling vermilion. In this article, the detailed surgical technique is explained. Literature review of tongue flap and submental flap in the lower lip reconstruction is presented. PMID:25750841

  7. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82). Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43). As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003). Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings. PMID:21806825

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 regulates transforming growth factor-?1 levels in mouse tongue wounds and fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aström, Pirjo; Pirilä, Emma; Lithovius, Riitta; Heikkola, Heidi; Korpi, Jarkko T; Hernández, Marcela; Sorsa, Timo; Salo, Tuula

    2014-10-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8)-deficient mice (Mmp8-/-) exhibit delayed dermal wound healing, but also partly contradicting results have been reported. Using the Mmp8-/- mice we investigated the role of MMP-8 in acute wound healing of the mobile tongue, and analyzed the function of tongue fibroblasts in vitro. Interestingly, in the early phase the tongue wounds of Mmp8-/- mice healed faster than those of wild type (wt) mice resulting in significant difference in wound widths (P=0.001, 6-24h). The Mmp8-/- wounds showed no change in myeloperoxidase positive myeloid cell count, but the level of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 was significantly increased (P=0.007) compared to the wt tongues. Fibroblasts cultured from wt tongues expressed MMP-8 and TGF-?1. However, higher TGF-?1 levels were detected in Mmp8-/- fibroblasts, and MMP-8 treatment decreased phosphorylated Smad-2 levels and ?-smooth muscle actin expression in these fibroblasts suggesting reduced TGF-?1 signaling. Consistently, a degradation of recombinant TGF-?1 by MMP-8 decreased its ability to activate the signaling cascade in fibroblasts. Moreover, collagen gels with Mmp8-/- fibroblasts reduced more in size. We conclude that MMP-8 regulates tongue wound contraction rate and TGF-?1 levels. In vitro analyses suggest that MMP-8 may also play a role in regulating TGF-?1 signaling of stromal fibroblasts. PMID:25036555

  9. Quantitative and comparative assessment of learning in a tongue-operated computer input device--part II: navigation tasks.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Kim, Jeonghee; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-07-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a novel tongue-operated assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired, to empower them to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) using their free voluntary tongue motion. We have evaluated the TDS performance in five sessions over 5-8 weeks to study the learning process in different tasks of computer access and PWC navigation on nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing and used our magnetic tongue studs throughout the trial. Computer access tasks included on-screen maze navigation and issuing random commands to measure the TDS information transfer rate. PWC navigation included driving through a ~50-m obstacle course using three control strategies. Some of the qualitative aspects of using the TDS were also evaluated based on the two Likert scale questionnaires, one of which was short (eight questions) and asked at the end of each session and the other one (46 questions) at the end of the trial. Included in this study was also a task to measure the tongue fatigue as a result of using the TDS continuously for a few hours. All performance measures showed significant improvement from the first to the second session as well as further gradual improvements throughout the rest of the sessions, suggesting a rapid learning process. PMID:22692932

  10. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  11. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal 2009 Keywords: Intestine Mucosa-associated bacteria Single-stranded artifacts T-RFLP Statistical for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation

  12. Atypical Kaposi Sarcoma of the Tongue in HIV Positive Tanzanian Female

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Elichilia; Ruhangisa, Flora; Minja, Neema; Nnko, Kanankira; Katundu, Denis; Semango, George; Mbwilo, Eva; Mwasamwaja, Amos; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Lyaruu, Isaack

    2015-01-01

    We report atypical case of Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) in a 32-year-old human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) infected female, involving only the tongue. Viral loads and CD4 T cells were measured and were 65,000?cps/mL and 10?cells/mL, respectively. This patient was newly diagnosed and had no history of antiretroviral therapy (ART), radiotherapy, or immunosuppressive drugs prior to this admission. Clinically, there were no dermatological features of KS lesions which are purple, red, or brown and which may be flat, raised (plaques), or bumpy (nodules) except for fungating and protruding enlarged tongue which was necrotic. Histologically, it was proven to be the most common type of KS “epidemic” or AIDS-related KS.

  13. Electronic Noses and Tongues: Applications for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or “Z” nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22163873

  14. Discrimination of Umami Tastants Using Floating Electrode-Based Bioelectronic Tongue Mimicking Insect Taste Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minju; Jung, Je Won; Kim, Daesan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Hong, Seunghun; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-12-22

    We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems for the detection and discrimination of umami substances. Here, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with floating electrodes were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee umami taste receptor, gustatory receptor 10 of Apis mellifera (AmGr10). This strategy enables us to discriminate between l-monosodium glutamate (MSG), best-known umami tastant, and non-umami substances with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of MSG in liquid food such as chicken stock. Moreover, we demonstrated the synergism between MSG and disodium 5'-inosinate (IMP) for the umami taste using this platform. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a powerful platform for various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems. PMID:26563753

  15. Sediments and fossiliferous rocks from the eastern side of the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, T.G.; Schlee, J.

    1967-01-01

    In August 1966, two dives were made with the deep-diving submersible Alvin along the eastern side of the Tongue of the Ocean to sample the rock and sediment. Physiographically, the area is marked by steep slopes of silty carbonate sediment and precipitous rock cliffs dusted by carbonate debris. Three rocks, obtained from the lower and middle side of the canyon (914-1676 m depth), are late Miocene-early Pliocene to late Pleistocene-Recent in age; all are deep-water pelagic limestones. They show (i) that the Tongue of the Ocean has been a deep-water area at least back into the Miocene, and (ii) that much shallow-water detritus has been swept off neighbouring banks to be incorporated with the deep-water fauna in the sediment. ?? 1967 Pergamon Press Ltd.

  16. What is the role of metabolic hormones in taste buds of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Gustation is one of the important chemical senses that guides the organism to identify nutrition while avoiding toxic chemicals. An increasing number of metabolic hormones and/or hormone receptors have been identified in the taste buds of the tongue and are involved in modulating taste perception. The gustatory system constitutes an additional endocrine regulatory locus that affects food intake, and in turn whole-body energy homeostasis. Here we provide an overview of the main metabolic hormones known to be present in the taste buds of the tongue; discuss their potential functional roles in taste perception and energy homeostasis and how their functional integrity is altered in the metabolic imbalance status (obesity and diabetes) and aging process. Better understanding of the functional roles of metabolic hormones in flavor perception as well as the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolism may be vital for developing strategies to promote healthier eating and prevent obesity or lifestyle-related disorders. PMID:24732931

  17. Anesthetic management of tongue reduction in a case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Meenu; Valecha, Umesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia for partial glossectomy in a premature child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome presents as a unique challenge to the Anesthesiologist. Airway management in patients presenting with macroglossia is especially significant and requires meticulous preparation and pre-operative assessment. This report delineates the anesthetic concerns such as an anticipated difficult airway due to a large tongue, prematurity, hypoglycemia and an oral cavity surgery and their management. PMID:25425786

  18. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of the tongue: Late metastasis to the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Gavin A.; El-Hayek, Kevin; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Winans, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the salivary glands. We present a 64-year-old gentleman with ACC of the tongue who following resection and radiotherapy, presented 10 years later with a lung metastasis and underwent operative intervention and further radiotherapy. Five years later he presented with obstructive jaundice found to be metastatic ACC. We believe this to be the first report of an ACC metastasizing to the pancreas. PMID:22096672

  19. The Tip-Of-The-Tongue Phenomenon: A Decoding Failure Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P.

    It sometimes happens that one is unable to recall a word or name that he feels he knows very well. This state of frustrated recall is referred to as a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experience. Two experiments were devised to compare the ability of a weak trace and a decoding-failure model to predict the conditions under which TOT reports would be most…

  20. Atlas-Based Automatic Generation of Subject-Specific Finite Element Tongue Meshes.

    PubMed

    Bijar, Ahmad; Rohan, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Generation of subject-specific 3D finite element (FE) models requires the processing of numerous medical images in order to precisely extract geometrical information about subject-specific anatomy. This processing remains extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, we present an automatic atlas-based method that generates subject-specific FE meshes via a 3D registration guided by Magnetic Resonance images. The method extracts a 3D transformation by registering the atlas' volume image to the subject's one, and establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the two volumes. The 3D transformation field deforms the atlas' mesh to generate the subject-specific FE mesh. To preserve the quality of the subject-specific mesh, a diffeomorphic non-rigid registration based on B-spline free-form deformations is used, which guarantees a non-folding and one-to-one transformation. Two evaluations of the method are provided. First, a publicly available CT-database is used to assess the capability to accurately capture the complexity of each subject-specific Lung's geometry. Second, FE tongue meshes are generated for two healthy volunteers and two patients suffering from tongue cancer using MR images. It is shown that the method generates an appropriate representation of the subject-specific geometry while preserving the quality of the FE meshes for subsequent FE analysis. To demonstrate the importance of our method in a clinical context, a subject-specific mesh is used to simulate tongue's biomechanical response to the activation of an important tongue muscle, before and after cancer surgery. PMID:26577253