These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to perform a morphological evaluation by immunofluorescence of biomarkers of keratinocyte intercellular adhesion, and of differentiation in the tongue mucosa of burning mouth syndrome patients (BMS), compared with a control group.

Andrea Sardella; Alice Gualerzi; Giovanni Lodi; Chiarella Sforza; Antonio Carrassi; Elena Donetti


The effects of boron neutron capture irradiation on oral mucosa: evaluation using a rat tongue model.  


The ventral surface of the tongue of male Fisher 344 rats was used to evaluate the response of oral mucosa to boron neutron capture irradiation. Three hours after i.p. injection of 700 mg/kg of the boron delivery agent p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), the boron concentrations in blood and tongue mucosal epithelium were approximately 21 and 23 microgram (10)B/g, respectively. The doses required to produce a 50% incidence of ulceration with X rays, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor thermal neutron beam alone, or the thermal neutron beam in the presence of BPA were 13.4 +/- 0.2, 4. 2 +/- 0.1, and 3.0 +/- 0.1 Gy, respectively. Ulceration of the tongue was evident by 6 to 7 days after irradiation, irrespective of the irradiation modality; healing was related to dose and was relatively rapid (mucosa is highly sensitive to BPA-mediated BNC irradiation and could be a dose-limiting normal tissue in BNCT of brain tumors, or if BPA-based BNCT is applied to the treatment of head and neck tumors. PMID:10409319

Coderre, J A; Morris, G M; Kalef-Ezra, J; Micca, P L; Ma, R; Youngs, K; Gordon, C R



Biomonitoring of oral epithelial cells in petrol station attendants: comparison between buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue.  


Owing to the influence of geno- and cytotoxicity on chemical carcinogenesis, studies have demonstrated that petroleum derivatives are able to induce genetic damage and cellular death with conflicting results so far. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants using two different anatomic buccal sites: cheek mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. A total of 23 gas petrol attendants and 23 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek and lateral border of the tongue mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p<0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants for both oral sites evaluated. In the same way, petroleum derivate exposure was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis, being the most pronunciated effects as those found in the lateral border of the tongue. No interaction was observed between smoking and petroleum exposure. In summary, these data indicate that gas petrol attendants comprise a high risk group for DNA damage and cellular death. It seems that the lateral border of the tongue is a more sensitive site to geno- and cytotoxic insult induced by petroleum derivates. PMID:19559482

Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A da Silva; Aguiar, Odair; Ribeiro, Daniel A



Membrane potentials recorded from the mucosa of the toad's tongue during chemical stimulation  

PubMed Central

An isolated stretch of tongue mucosa was obtained from the Chilean toad (Callyptocephalella gayi). The preparation was observed under transmitted illumination through a binocular microscope. The surface cells were impaled with micro-electrodes and different chemical agents were applied to the area. The following results were obtained. 1. The surface cells had resting potentials of -6 to -40 mV (mean of -17·6 mV) with the preparation bathed in Ringer solution. 2. The cells underwent depolarization by application of different salts (NaCl, NaF, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2) in concentrations of 0·25-1·0 M. The potentials evoked by the salt solutions often overshot the zero membrane potential level by several millivolts. The positive-going potential change produced by application of salts was increased during hyperpolarization of the membrane by inward current and was decreased by current of the opposite sign. Application of salts during depolarization of the membrane to a certain positive level produced a negative-going potential change. The potentials evoked by different salts were about the same, qualitatively, when recordings were made from different areas of the tongue, i.e. top of the fungiform and filiform papillae, doughnut-shaped folds at the base of the fungiform papillae, areas between papillae and from the side of the tongue totally devoid of papillary structures. 3. Quinine applied in concentrations of 2 × 10-2 M did not change the resting polarization of the surface epithelial cells. However, quinine applied to cells already depolarized by outward currents induced further depolarization. When it was delivered to cells hyperpolarized by inward current the substance induced further hyperpolarization. 4. Sucrose (0·5-1·0 M) did not change the membrane potential of lingual cells regardless of the level of cell polarization induced by injected currents. 5. Hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric and acetic acids produced minimal biphasic effects: a brief hyperpolarization followed by a slower secondary depolarization. 6. Water increased the membrane potential of the surface cells. Salts applied at the peak of the water-evoked hyperpolarization induced cell depolarization which was much larger than that evoked during application of salts to cells bathed in Ringer solution. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5016359

Eyzaguirre, C.; Fidone, S.; Zapata, P.



Tuberculosis of the tongue in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate and adalimumab.  


In recent years Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF alfa) inhibitors have been highly effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, patients receiving these inhibitors have an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). We describe a rare case of tuberculosis of the tongue in an RA patient treated with methotrexate (MTX) and the TNF alfa inhibitor adalimumab (ADA) for the previous six years. Pretreatment tuberculin skin test (TST) was negative. The patient was admitted to our division complaining of a sore throat for months. Clinical examination revealed a swollen non-healing ulcer at the base of the tongue, which was suspected to be a squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological assessment unexpectedly revealed a chronic granulomatous inflammation compatible with tuberculosis. TST was strongly positive and the T Spot TB test was also reactive. MTX and ADA were discontinued and the patient received antituberculous treatment with complete healing of the lesion. After three months our patient had a worsening RA that was treated with MTX and rituximab with no TB related adverse events. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity, especially in immunocompromised patients treated with TNF alfa inhibitors. Rituximab can be a valid alternative therapy in such patients. PMID:24955803

Assante, Luca Rosario; Barra, Enrica; Bocchino, Marialuisa; Zuccarini, Giacomo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Sanduzzi, Alessandro



Biomonitoring of oral epithelial cells in petrol station attendants: Comparison between buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the influence of geno- and cytotoxicity on chemical carcinogenesis, studies have demonstrated that petroleum derivatives are able to induce genetic damage and cellular death with conflicting results so far. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants

Renato A. Martins; Guilherme A. da Silva Gomes; Odair Aguiar Jr.; Daniel A. Ribeiro



Fine structure of bacterial adhesion to the epithelial cell membranes of the filiform papillae of tongue and palatine mucosa of rodents: a morphometric, TEM, and HRSEM study.  


The palatine mucosa and filiform papillae of the dorsal tongue mucosae of rodents were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). In the HRSEM method, the samples were fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in alcohol, critical point-dried, and coated with gold-palladium. In addition, the HRSEM technique was used for morphometric analysis (length, width, and length/width ratio of cocci and bacilli). For the TEM method, the tissues were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution (2.5% glutaraldehyde, 2% formalin in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) and embedded in Spurr resin. The results demonstrated that there are thick polygonal keratinized epithelial cells where groups of bacteria are revealed in three-dimensional images on the surface of filiform papillae in these animals. The bacterial membranes are randomly attached to the microplicae surface of epithelial cells. Morphometrics showed higher values of length and width of cocci in newborn (0 day) as compared to newborn (7 days) and adults animals, the bacilli showed no differences in these measurements. At high magnification, the TEM images revealed the presence of glycocalyx microfilaments that constitute a fine adhesion area between bacterial membranes and the membranes of epithelial microplicae cells. In conclusion, the present data revealed the fine fibrillar structures of bacteria that facilitate adhesion to the epithelial cell membranes of the oral cavity and morphometric changes in newborn (0 day) rats as compared with other periods. PMID:24123452

Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Ogawa, Koichi; Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki



Downregulation of Notch1 and its potential correlation with epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in tongue squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the expression of Notch1 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and explored its potential correlation with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling in oral SCC. Paraffin sections of primary SCC of the tongue and normal mucosa were screened immunohistochemically for Notch1 and EGFR proteins. Human SCC of the tongue Tca8113 cells were treated with AG1478 to block

Hong-jie Huang; Fei-yun Ping; Ji-an Hu; Shi-fang Zhao



Bulky Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated with Yttrium-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan  

PubMed Central

An 84-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with nonproductive cough and dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed extensive consolidation in the right lung. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma using CT-guided lung biopsy. Her pulmonary images and respiratory symptoms did not improve two months after receiving 4 cycles of rituximab weekly; therefore, yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan was chosen as salvage therapy. The abnormal shadow on her pulmonary images was significantly reduced two months later, and she had no symptoms without nonhematological toxicities. She has had no progression for 18 months. Furthermore, radiation pneumonitis has not also been observed. We herein reported bulky pulmonary MALT lymphoma treated with yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:24371530

Tamura, Shinobu; Ikeda, Tokuji; Kurihara, Toshio; Kakuno, Yoshiteru; Nasu, Hideki; Nakano, Yoshio; Oshima, Koichi; Fujimoto, Tokuzo



Massive Tongue Swelling in Refractory Status Epilepticus Treated with High-Dose Pentobarbital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The potential causes of acquired macroglossia are extensive. The authors report two cases of subacute marked tongue swelling\\u000a resulting in airway compromise in patients with refractory status epilepticus requiring prolonged pentobarbital coma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  The hospitalization histories of the reported patients were retrospectively reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Result  The tongue swelling completely resolved in one case and significantly improved in the other after discontinuation of pentobarbital

Teng Ji; Alexander Y. Zubkov; Eelco F. M. Wijdicks; Edward M. Manno; Alejandro A. Rabinstein; Suresh Kotagal



Scrotal Tongue  


... is no treatment for scrotal tongue. If your tongue burns when you eat, you should avoid the foods that bother you. This should include cleaning your tongue daily with your toothbrush or a tongue scraper. ...


Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam



Primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the base of tongue: a rare entity.  


Primary lymphomas of the oral cavity are uncommon and of the tongue even rarer. It is more common in the masticatory mucosa than the lingual and buccal mucosa. We describe a 63 year old male who presented with dysphagia & change in voice. Computed tomography revealed a 4.8 × 3.7 cm mass localized to the base of tongue. He underwent biopsy and IHC studies & was diagnosed as having diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was successfully treated with wide excision of the lesion and is undergoing chemotherapy now. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation and histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen are required to establish the diagnosis and for further management. This is one of the few cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the base of tongue being reported from India. PMID:24636915

Singh, Aminder; Sood, Neena; Kaur, Harpreet; Garg, Bhavna; Munjal, Manish



Fissured Tongue  


... to remove any food debris from the fissures. Cleansing of the tongue helps prevent irritation and possible ... patients by making recommendations concerning devices for tongue cleansing. Q: Who can get fissured tongue? A: Anyone ...


A Novel Intraarterial Chemotherapy Using Paclitaxel in Albumin Nanoparticles to Treat Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraarterial in- fusion of paclitaxel incorporated into human albumin nanoparticles for use as induction che- motherapy before definitive treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty-three previously untreated patients (age range, 27-75 years) who had carcinoma of the tongue (stage T3-T4, any N)

Bruno Damascelli; Gian Luigi Patelli; Rodolfo Lanocita; Giuseppe Di Tolla; Laura Francesca Frigerio; Alfonso Marchianò; Francesco Garbagnati; Carlo Spreafico; Vladimira Tichà; Caroline Regna Gladin; Mauro Palazzi; Flavio Crippa; Cesare Oldini; Stefano Calò; Alberto Bonaccorsi; Franco Mattavelli; Luigi Costa; Luigi Mariani; Giulio Cantù


Simultaneous detection of deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine adducts in the tongue and other oral tissues of mice treated with Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene.  


We were the first to demonstrate that direct application of the environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) into the oral cavity of mice induced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in oral tissues but not in the tongue; however, the mechanisms that can account for the varied carcinogenicity remain to be determined. Furthermore, we also showed that not only dA adducts, but also dG adducts can account for the mutagenic activity of DB[a,l]P in the oral tissues in vivo. In this study, we initially focused on DB[a,l]P-induced genotoxic effects in both oral and tongue tissues. Therefore, to fully assess the contribution of these DNA adducts in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis induced by DB[a,l]P, an LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously detect and quantify DB[a,l]PDE-dG and -dA adducts was developed. Mice were orally administered with DB[a,l]P (24 nmole, 3 times per week for 5 weeks) or its fjord region diol epoxide, (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]PDE, 12 nmole, single application); animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after the last dose of carcinogen administration. Oral and tongue tissues were obtained and DNA were isolated followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Following the development of an isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method, we successfully detected (-)-anti-cis- and (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(2)-dG, as well as (-)-anti-cis- and (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA in oral and tongue tissues of mice treated with DB[a,l]P. Levels of (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA were ?2 folds higher than (-)-anti-cis-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA adduct and those of dG adducts in the oral tissues and tongue at all time points selected after the cessation of DB[a,l]P treatment. Levels of dG adducts were comparable in both tissues. Collectively, our results support that DB[a,l]P is predominantly metabolized to (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE, and the levels and persistence of (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA may, in part, explain the carcinogenicity of DB[a,l]P in the oral tissues but not in the tongue. PMID:24911113

Zhang, Shang-Min; Chen, Kun-Ming; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Aliaga, Cesar; Lin, Jyh-Ming; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; El-Bayoumy, Karam



Prognostic factors of local outcome for T1, T2 carcinomas of oral tongue treated by iridium 192 implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of Iridium 192 implantation for 121 node negative T1 or T2 squamous carcinomas of mobile tongue were reviewed to look for predictors of local control and necrosis. Age, sex, total dose, dose rate, linear activity, and intersource spacing were examined. Minimum follow-up was 2 years but no patient with local recurrence or necrosis was excluded. There were 57

J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; G. Marinello; W. Walop; B. Pierquin



Tongue problems  


... hairy tongue: AIDS Antibiotic therapy Drinking coffee Dyes in drugs and food Chronic medical conditions Overuse of mouthwashes containing oxidizing or astringent ingredients Radiation of the head and neck Tobacco use


Bifid tongue - a complication of tongue piercing.  


Tongue piercing is associated with significant morbidity. We report on a patient with a bifid tongue defect following insertion of a tongue ornament. This abnormality resulted in severe emotional disturbance. PMID:15870744

Fleming, P S; Flood, T R



Macroscopic and histopathological examination of the gastric mucosa in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with mesalazine.  


The objective of this study was to carry out a macroscopic and histopathological examination of the gastric mucosa in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease and to evaluate the effect of mesalazine therapy on histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa. The treatment was performed on 18 dogs with histopathologically confirmed inflammation of the duodenum and the jejunum. The animals were administered mesalazine at 12.5 mg/kg b.w. bid over a six-week period. The dogs investigated were diagnosed with chronic catarrhal gastritis with intense lymphocytic/plasmocytic infiltration. In 83% of the dogs, intestinal metaplasia had been noted in bioptates before examination. The results of macroscopic and microscopic examinations revealed that the applied treatment had a positive effect on gastric mucosal morphology. Cellular infiltration of the gastric mucosa was significantly inhibited, most probably, due to the anti-inflammatory effect of mesalazine. PMID:19645352

Rychlik, A; Nieradka, R; Kander, M; Depta, A



Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation. PMID:25050571

Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Mori, Takayuki; Watanabe, Naoki; Naiki, Takafumi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi



Tongue diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When you eat food, the food dissolves in saliva. The individual food molecules come into contact with taste buds and a nerve fiber on the taste bud. The nerve fiber converts the molecule into a signal. Taste buds work together to come up with an accurate message for the brain to interpret into a taste. Certain areas of the tongue can detect specific properties of a food better than others.

Werner Lang (None;)



Downregulation of Notch1 and its potential correlation with epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.  


We investigated the expression of Notch1 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and explored its potential correlation with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling in oral SCC. Paraffin sections of primary SCC of the tongue and normal mucosa were screened immunohistochemically for Notch1 and EGFR proteins. Human SCC of the tongue Tca8113 cells were treated with AG1478 to block EGFR signalling, and were transfected with the vector that encodes the specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets EGFR. In SCC of the tongue expression of Notch1 was cancelled except in sites of squamous metaplasia where it was raised, while expression of EGFR was found in the peripheral cells of carcinomas, but not in sites of squamous metaplasia. In normal tongue mucosa, Notch1 was expressed mainly in the stratum corneum, but not in the stratum basale, while EGFR was expressed mainly in the stratum basale, but not in the stratum granulosum or stratum corneum. The blocking of EGFR signalling or the silencing of the EGFR gene resulted in upregulation of Notch1 at mRNA and protein levels in Tca8113 cells. These observations suggest that downregulation of Notch1 in oral SCC may be associated with upregulation of EGFR signalling. PMID:19398252

Huang, Hong-jie; Ping, Fei-yun; Hu, Ji-an; Zhao, Shi-fang



The buccopharyngeal mucosa of the turtles (testudines).  


Gross and histological examination of all extant families of turtles revealed that the buccopharyngeal mucosa is morphologically highly varied. The tongues of aquatic species have small lingual papillae or lack them entirely, while terrestrial species have tongues with numerous glandular papillae. The pharynx and the esophagus also have papillae in some species. These either facilitate swallowing in which case they are long, pointed, keratinized, and occur commonly in marine turtles, or they are vascular and nonkeratinized, facilitate respiratory gas exchange and are found in the Trionychidae, Dermatemyidae, and Carettochelyidae. The morphology of the buccopharyngeal mucosa of turtles reflects their diet, feeding behavior, habitat, and relationships. Convergence in the morphology of the buccopharyngeal mucosa occurs among families, especially among the Emydidae and other familes of turtles. Intergeneric parallelism is also seen within the Emydidae. PMID:3373540

Winokur, R M



Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; Garcia-Garcia, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arevalo-Arevalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja



Tongue Disorders  


... in foods, drugs, and cosmetics), chicle (in some chewing gums), and cinnamon, may play some role. Deficiencies of ... treat. Frequent drinks of water or use of chewing gum may help keep the mouth moist. Antidepressants, such ...


Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)



Ultrastructure of the adhesion of bacteria to the epithelial cell membrane of three-day postnatal rat tongue mucosa: a transmission and high-resolution scanning electron microscopic study.  


Togue mucosa surface of 3-day postnatal rats was examined under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). For HRSEM analysis, the specimens were fixed in the same solution for 24 h, postfixed in 2% osmiun tetroxide, critical-point dried and coated with platinum-palladium. For TEM analysis, the specimens were fixed using modified Karnovsky solution and embedded in Spurr resin. The results revealed the presence of numerous microplicae in the membrane surface of keratinized epithelial cells to which groups of bacteria were attached. These bacteria were staphylococcus and coccus organized either in rows or at random, which were visualized in three-dimensional HRSEM images. At high magnification, the TEM images revealed the adhesion of bacteria to the cell membrane through numerous filamentous structures comprising the glycocalyx. The fine fibrillar structures rising from each bacterium and from cell membrane were clearly seen. These characteristics on bacteria structure may be used for future control or prevention of bacterial diseases and for installation of the oral native flora. PMID:18278303

Watanabe, Ii-sei; Ogawa, Koichi; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Motoyama, Aracy Akiko; Kado, Eduardo Shigueaki; Lopes, Ruberval Armando



Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue in an 80-year-old Iranian woman after a psychologically stressful event.  


Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is a benign self-limiting, chronic lesion more frequently seen in the oral cavity or tongue that can mimic squamous cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis of this problem is unknown. In this paper, we present a case of an 80-year-old woman with eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue after a psychologically stressful event. PMID:23417388

Akhavan, Ali; Mosavi, Ali; Jarrahi, Mohammadreza; Navabii, Hossein



Streptococcus viridans endocarditis from tongue piercing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body piercing and tattooing have undergone a revival in popularity. We present the case of a 27-year-old man with a recent tongue piercing and infective endocarditis of the aortic valve. He was treated with a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics, but eventually required a Ross procedure for progressive aortic insufficiency.

Scott D. Lick; Secil N. Edozie; Kenneth J. Woodside; Vincent R. Conti



Tongue lesions in the pediatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the spectrum of pediatric tongue lesions treated surgically at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center from January 1990 to December 1999. Study design and setting: Retrospective case-series at the pediatric hospital of a tertiary care, academic medical center. Results: Seventeen patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 1 to 132 months (median, 7 months). Eight lesions were located anteriorly: mucous

Corinne Horn; Harshwardhan M. Thaker; Dimitra A. Tampakopoulou; Lianne M. de Serres; Jeffrey L. Keller; Joseph Haddad



Giant neurofibrolipoma of the tip of the tongue: case report and review of the literature.  


Neurofibrolipoma is a very rare benign oral tumor with other synonyms such as neural fibrolipoma, perineural lipoma and intraneural lipoma. A 50 years old female presented with a massive swelling of the tongue of 6 years duration. The tumor was attached to the mucosa of the tip of the tongue, disturbing mastication and speech. On excision, histopathology revealed neurofibrolipoma. This case report shows the atypical presentation of neurofibrolipoma and the challenges of its management. PMID:24521580

Fomete, Benjamin; Adebayo, Ezekiel T; Ononiwu, Charles N; Idehen, Kelvin O



The multiple forms and kinetic properties of the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidases from colonic tumours and mucosa of rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.  

PubMed Central

The separation and purification of the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase activities from tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat colon and from colonic mucosa of tumour-bearing animals are reported. Mucosa contained N-acetylhexosaminidases A and B, as well as a third form whose properties with regard to electrophoretic mobility and thermostability lay between those of A and B. Tumours contained only N-acetylhexosaminidase A and B activities. Each form possessed both N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC and N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC activities, which could not be separated by a variety of techniques. The alteration of the ratio of the two specific activities in each form during purification, together with differences in the kinetic inhibition constants and behaviour during inactivation by various reagents or a temperature of 50 degrees C, supported the belief that each form contains the two enzyme activities, glucosaminidase and galactosaminidase, at separate active sites. This model is in contrast with that reported for these activities from a number of other sources. A variety of treatments reported to cause the conversion of form A into a form resembling B failed to produce such an effect on the rat colonic hexosaminidases. PMID:34391

Mian, N; Herries, D G; Cowen, D M; Batte, E A



Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient's age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue. PMID:24808705

Kamala, K. A.; Ashok, L.; Sujatha, G. P.



Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report.  


Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient's age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue. PMID:24808705

Kamala, K A; Ashok, L; Sujatha, G P



Simulation of tongue muscle deformation  

E-print Network

The tongue is an intricately configured muscular organ that undergoes a stereotypical set of deformations during the course of normal human swallowing. The tongue's myoarchitecture consists of a large array of variably ...

Liang, Alvin Y



Huge lipoma of tongue  

PubMed Central

Lipoma is the commonest benign tumor occurring at any anatomical site, where fat is present. In oral cavity and oropharynx, it is a relatively uncommon neoplasm. Tongue, which is totally devoid of fat cell is also a site for lipoma but very rarely. We report one such rare case of the universal tumor, of 20 years of duration and 9 cm in size, presenting at the lateral margin, dorsal and ventral surface of the tongue, for which complete tumor excision was done. PMID:23633822

Chandak, Sanjog; Pandilwar, P. K.; Chandak, Tushar; Mundhada, Rupali



Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: an analysis of prognostic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To identify the prognostic significance of different factors in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Patients and methods: Seventy-seven patients with carcinoma of the tongue were treated radically at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1980 and 1989. Twenty patients (26%) were treated by resection alone, 11 (14%) with radiotherapy alone, and 46 (60%)

G. El-Husseiny; A. Kandil; A. Jamshed; Y. Khafaga; M. Saleem; A. Allam; N. Al-Rajhi; A. Al-Amro; A. Y. Rostom; M. Abuzeid; A. Otieschan; A. D. Flores



Black hairy tongue syndrome.  


Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy



The Effects of Glossectomy on Anterior and Posterior Motion of the Tongue during Speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech debilitation in patients with glossectomy due to squamous cell carcinoma eradication has been described qualitatively by previous researchers. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the changes in tongue motion in glossectomy patients by comparing them to normal controls to help clarify the effects of the tongue resection/reconstruction on normal motion of the tongue during speech. Eight glossectomy patients, including one with a flap reconstruction, and nine normal controls had MRI recorded in the mid-sagittal plane while uttering "a souk" to evaluate the effects of tumor/resection size, closure procedure used, the level of motor control, and s-type on the velocity and displacement of the tongue tip and body at one or more points in time. No statistically significant differences in tongue motion or motor control were found between normal controls and glossectomy patients, suggesting retention of tongue mobility post-glossectomy. Patients with larger resections were found to have more difficulty with tongue tip motion during speech and one patient treated with flap reconstruction also showed highly altered tongue motion. S-type was not found to have a statistically significant effect on tongue motion. This study suggests that post-glossectomy debility in speech revealed previously most likely cannot be attributed to quantitative changes in tongue motion, but rather qualitative changes in tongue motion.

Reichard, Rachel E.


Solitary nodular lesion of tongue- a rare entity.  


The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

Sarada, P; Reddy, C H Sampath; A K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha



Solitary Nodular Lesion of Tongue- A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

Sarada, P.; Reddy, C.H. Sampath; A.K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha



Heterotopic gastrointestinal mucosa in the oral cavity of adults.  


Heterotopic gastrointestinal mucosa (HGM) is a rare entity observed in the head and neck region and occurs more frequently in male infants and children. The floor of the mouth and anterior aspects of the tongue are the most commonly affected sites. Histologically, HGM resembles gastric, intestinal or colonic mucosa with areas of squamous epithelium, which can be cystic or solid. In the current report, 2 cases of HGM affecting the oral mucosa in patients over 35 years of age are presented, and one of these cases presented 2 nodules in different locations. Both cases represented solid lesions instead of the more common cystic presentation showing gastric glandular-type tissue that was lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing crypts and fundic glands. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive expression of cytokeratins 7, 8 and 18 and smooth muscle actin (SMA). In both cases, the final diagnosis was HGM, and conservative surgical excision was performed. PMID:23453613

Martins, Fabiana; Hiraki, Karen Renata; Mimura, Maria Ângela; de Almeida Milani, Basílio; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; de Sousa, Suzana Orsini Machado



Impact of tongue biofilm removal on mechanically ventilated patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943 PMID:23887759

Santos, Paulo Sergio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes



Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors. PMID:22629049

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R.; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Baliga, M. S.; Gaikwad, Rahul N.



Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa.  


The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors. PMID:22629049

Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R; Bahadure, Rakesh N; Baliga, M S; Gaikwad, Rahul N




E-print Network

mobility and speech production after surgery. MATERIAL The project is based on the use of a 3DMODELING THE CONSEQUENCES OF TONGUE SURGERY ON TONGUE MOBILITY S. Buchaillard1, 3 , M. Brix2 , P Hospital, Grenoble - France 3 TIMC-IMAG, UMR CNRS 5525, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble ­ F38700 La

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Mother Tongue Maintenance: The Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This debate presents two viewpoints on mother tongue maintenance: (1) that all individuals have a fundamental right to education in their native tongue, and that multilingual societies should actively promote multilingualism for all individuals; and (2) that the multitude of languages and rapid economic development in many countries calls for…

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Sridhar, Kamal



Our Mother Tongues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Frequently when one hears about the Native American experience in the United States, the focus is on the loss of traditions, folkways, and language. In contrast, this website was created to highlight a recent documentary by Anne Makepeace that focuses on the ways in which Native American languages have recovered and thrived in recent times. On the site, visitors should start by clicking on the interactive "Language Map." Here visitors can learn about twelve different languages, including Crow, Cherokee, Dakota, Euchee, and Lakota. Clicking on the "Voices" area gives visitors the opportunity to listen to Native Americans from different tribal communities speaking in their mother tongues. Additionally, visitors can send an electronic postcard from the site, read the site blog, and learn more about the project and the documentary.



Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo.  


Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521

Zhao, Xin; Deng, Xiaoxiao; Park, Kun-Young; Qiu, Lihua; Pang, Liang



Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521




A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam



Lymphangioma of the Tongue - A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Lymphangiomas are benign tumours resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. They are relatively uncommon and usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Commonly located at head and neck, they rarely occur in the oral cavity. Intraoral lymphangiomas occur more frequently on the dorsum of tongue, followed by palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and lips. Lymphangioma of the tongue is a common cause of macroglossia in children associated with difficulty in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, mandibular prognathism, openbite and other possible deformities of maxillofacial structures. We present the case of a 13-year-old female with lymphangioma of tongue. The clinical, radiological, and treatment modalities of this case are discussed. PMID:25386537

V, Usha; Sivasankari, T.; Jeelani, S.; Parthiban, J.



Pthlh, a promising cancer modifier gene in rat tongue carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Susceptibly to the induction of rat tongue cancer (TC) by oral 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) exposure is a polygenic trait. Among several quantitative trait loci identified by crosses between TC-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and TC-resistant Wistar-Furth (WF) rats, we focused on tongue cancer susceptibility locus (Tcas3) of chromosome 4. We examined tongue carcinogenesis in the reciprocal congenic strains DA.WF-Tcas3 and WF.DA-Tcas3 and in their parental strains. The Tcas3DA allele, and not the Tcas3WF allele, significantly favored tumor latency, incidence and TC number/size. In genomic DNA of TCs induced in (DA × WF) F1 rats, the resistant Tcas3WF allele was frequently and selectively lost, particularly in larger tumors. Thus, we searched the possible candidate genes in the Tcas3 region using microarray analysis of TCs in F1 rats and revealed significant upregulation of 2 cancer-related genes, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) and Kras2. The relevance of the WF allele of Pthlh as a cancer modifier was indicated by 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to this strain. In contrast, no consistent strain-specific variations were found in Kras2. Moreover, the plasma Ca2+ level was consistently higher in DA rats when compared to the level in WF rats bearing TCs; moreover, the Pthlh-mRNA expression level was >30-fold higher in TCs when compared to this level in the normal tongue mucosa. Immunostaining experiments showed strong PTHrP protein expression in TCs of DA rats, and the signal was intensified in larger TCs. Kras2 was also upregulated in TCs, but to a lesser degree than PTHrP. Thus, Pthlh is a promising candidate modifier gene in the development and progression of rat TCs. PMID:24253735




Undulating tongue in Wilson's disease  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual occurrence of involuntary movement involving the tongue in a patient with confirmed Wilson's disease (WD). She manifested with slow, hypophonic speech and dysphagia of 4 months duration, associated with pseudobulbar affect, apathy, drooling and dystonia of upper extremities of 1 month duration. Our patient had an uncommon tongue movement which was arrhythmic. There was no feature to suggest tremor, chorea or dystonia. It might be described as athetoid as there was a writhing quality, but of lesser amplitude. Thus, the phenomenology was uncommon in clinical practice and the surface of the tongue was seen to “ripple” like a liquid surface agitated by an object or breeze. Isolated lingual dyskinesias are rare in WD. It is important to evaluate them for WD, a potentially treatable disorder. PMID:25024581

Nagappa, M; Sinha, S; Saini, JS; Bindu, PS; Taly, AB



Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa: report of a case with multiple synchronous lesions.  


Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is considered to be a benign, reactive, and self-limiting lesion, with unclear pathogenesis, manifesting as a rapidly developing solitary ulcer. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with 4 synchronous ulcerations of the tongue. Histopathological examination showed polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate, rich in eosinophils, involving the superficial mucosa and the deeper muscle layer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed single CD30 cells scattered within an inflammatory infiltrate. All the lesions began to regress spontaneously within 1 week after biopsy. A 4-year follow-up showed no recurrence. PMID:24950420

Damevska, Katerina; Gocev, Gorgi; Nikolovska, Suzana



Tongue entrapment in an aluminum juice can.  


Tongue entrapment in bottles and cans is rare, but occurs. The following is a case report of a 10-year-old female who got her tongue entrapped in an aluminum juice can. The anatomy of the tongue, complications from injury, and a proposed removal procedure are described. PMID:15057180

Bank, David E; Diaz, Leslie; Behrman, David A; Delaney, John; Bizzocco, Sabina



Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.  


Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh



Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of pre- and post-treated oral submucous fibrosis: an in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a high risk precancerous condition characterized by changes in the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts leading to stiffness of the mucosa and restricted mouth opening, fibrosis of the lining mucosa of the upper digestive tract involving the oral cavity, oro- and hypo-pharynx and the upper two-thirds of the oesophagus. Optical reflectance measurements have been used to extract diagnostic information from a variety of tissue types, in vivo. We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantitatively monitor tumour response to chemotherapy. Twenty patients with submucous fibrosis were diagnosed with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and treated with the chemotherapy drug, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Hyaluronidase injection for seven weeks and after the treatment they were again subjected to the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The major observed spectral alterations on pre and post treated submucous fibrosis is an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 600 nm. Normal mucosa has showed higher reflectance when compared to the pre and post-treated cases. The spectral changes were quantified and correlated to conventional diagnostic results viz., maximum mouth opening, tongue protrusion and burning sensation. The results of this study suggest that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may also be considered as complementary optical techniques to monitor oral tissue transformation.

Sivabalan, S.; Ponranjini Vedeswari, C.; Jayachandran, S.; Koteeswaran, D.; Pravda, C.; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.



Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing  

PubMed Central

Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk. PMID:21358880

Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L



Painful Papillae of the Tongue  


... found. Your dentist or physician will examine your mouth and review your medical history. You also will be asked about trauma or other factors that might explain the pain. Sometimes chronic skin disease is the cause of tongue pain. If so, ...


Histomorphological and Histochemical Observations of the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) Tongue  

PubMed Central

Common myna tongue was studied histomorphologically and histochemically. Four tongues of adult birds were carried out macroscopically and microscopically. The tongue was triangular; the dorsum of the body had median groove. Two to three backward directed papillae were located on each side of the body-base junction. A single transverse row of pharyngeal papillae was located behind the laryngeal cleft. The parakeratinized mucosa covered the entire surface of the tongue except clearly keratinized band on the ventrolateral surface and the conical papillae. Compared with the lateral group (LG), the secretory cells of the medial group (MG) of the anterior lingual glands (ALG) and the posterior lingual glands (PLG) contained large amount of mucin. It was neutral mucin. However, the LG had weak acid mucin with carboxylated group. Meanwhile, the MG of the ALG and the PLG had strong acid mucin with both carboxylated and sulphated groups. In conclusion, the morphological observation of the common myna tongue showed some variation from the other birds. Histochemical results indicated the differences between the LG and MG of the anterior lingual glands. However, no difference was observed between the latter and the PLG. PMID:23738140

Kadhim, Khalid Kamil; Hameed, AL-Timmemi; Abass, Thamir A.



Deep lingual arterial chemoembolization of tongue carcinoma with microcapsuled anticancer drug  

PubMed Central

Objective: Microcapsule chemoembolism is a promising treatment of tumors. We describe a deep lingual arterial embolization of tongue carcinoma with microcapsuled carboplatinum. Methods: Lingual artery cast specimens from cadavers were microscopically examined, and 78 patients with tongue cancer were recruited and treated with the deep lingual arterial embolization therapy. Results: Microcapsule embolism occurred approximately at the fifth or sixth level of the deep lingual artery branches. The five-year survival rate was 88.5% (69 out of 78), and the ten-year survival rate 52.6% (41 out of 78). Conclusion: The deep lingual arterial embolization of tongue carcinoma with microcapsuled carboplatinum is an effective therapy to treat carcinoma in mid-margin or mid-body of the tongue. PMID:17910111

He, Hong; Huang, Jian-qi; Ping, Fei-yun; Chen, Guan-fu; Zhang, Su-zhan



Anatomical and histological structure of the tongue and histochemical characteristics of the lingual salivary glands in the Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar, Gray 1830).  


1. The aim of the study was to examine the morphology of the tongue and the histochemical features of the lingual salivary glands in this species. 2. The tongue was elongated, terminating in a rather sharp, dagger-like apex. On the surface of the tongue and situated between the body and root of the tongue, two rows of conical papillae, the sharp apices of which pointed towards the posterior part of the tongue, were observed. The keratinised epithelium lining the dorsal surface lacked typical gustatory papillae. However, it was observed that taste buds were present in the epithelium of the lingual body and root. The tongue was supported by a structure composed of hyaline cartilage, the paraglossum, which extended from the lingual root to the apex. Simple branched tubular glands, which were encapsulated by connective tissue, were embedded within the submucosa in the body (anterior salivary glands) and root (posterior salivary glands) of the tongue. It was observed that the secretion of the lingual glands contained neutral mucins, proteoglycans containing carboxylic acid, weak and strong sulphated groups, N-acetylated sialomucins, but lacked glycogen. 3. It was demonstrated that, the general morphological features, papillary distribution of the tongue and the histological structure of the mucosa epithelium and the supportive elements displayed similarity to those of other domestic avian species. It was also determined that, in view of the particular feeding types, in the partridge, the presence of the papillary crest was not correlated with diet. PMID:22978586

Erdo?an, S; Sa?söz, H; Akbalik, M E



Atypical histiocytic granuloma of tongue.  


A 40-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of a painless ulcer on the dorsum of the tongue. He was a chronic smoker since the age of 15 years. The ulcer was well-defined, non-tender and indurated. An incisional biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of atypical histiocytic granuloma was made after histopathological examination. The lesion resolved spontaneously after the incisional biopsy and the patient was on follow-up for 6 months and no recurrences were observed. Here we report a rare case of atypical histiocytic granuloma. Hence, it must be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of ulcers on the tongue. PMID:23737581

Dominic, Augustine; Sundaresh, K J; Manish, N; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa



Cavernous Hemangioma of the Tongue  

PubMed Central

Hemangioma is a benign tumor of dilated blood vessels. It is most commonly seen in the head and neck region and rarely in the oral cavity. Hemangiomas in the oral cavity are always of clinical importance and require appropriate treatment. We report here a case of a 34-year-old female patient with a swelling on the lateral surface of tongue which did not respond to the sclerosing agent and was finally confirmed as cavernous hemangioma on histological evaluation. PMID:24073342

Kripal, Krishna; Rajan, Senthil; Ropak, Beena; Jayanti, Ipsita



Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application  

PubMed Central

An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group), a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color. PMID:23737824

Wang, Xingzheng; You, Jane



Amperometric electronic tongue for food analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  This review covers electronic tongues based on amperometric sensors and applied in food analysis. A brief overview of the\\u000a development of sensors is included and this is illustrated by descriptions of different types of amperometric sensors used\\u000a in electronic tongues. Analysis of multivariate data is also an essential part of any electronic tongue. Pattern recognition\\u000a techniques are described, with a

Matteo Scampicchio; Davide Ballabio; Alessandra Arecchi; Stella M. Cosio; Saverio Mannino



Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.  


In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission. PMID:23473290

Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A



Hypoalgesic effect of EMLA and lidocaine gel applied on human oral mucosa: quantitative evaluation by sensory and pain thresholds to argon laser stimulation.  

PubMed Central

Sensory and pain thresholds to argon laser stimulation were used to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and duration of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) and a 2% lidocaine gel applied topically on the oral mucosa. Application of EMLA for 2 min on the tongue and gingiva increased the pain thresholds by 92.8% and 63.4% respectively. Corresponding values for lidocaine gel were 53.6% and 21.9%. Standardized variation of the EMLA application period (2, 5, and 15 min) produced significantly different analgesic profiles on the tongue but not on the gingiva. Application of EMLA for 5 and 15 min on the tongue and for 2, 5, and 15 min on the gingiva increased the pain thresholds to a predefined analgesic level (2.15 W) for 2 to 25 min. The present experimental model for assessment of oral mucosa pain is suggested to be well-suited for investigations of intraoral analgesia. PMID:8507024

Svensson, P.; Bjerring, P.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Kaaber, S.



Myxolipoma in the tongue - A clinical case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

In this article, we present our experience with a case of myxolipoma of the tongue. Lipoma is a mesenchymal benign tumor occurring with relatively high frequency. However, myxolipoma, one of the histological variant of lipoma characterized by mature adipose tissue and abundant mucoid substances, in the oral cavity is quite rare. The patient was a 52-year-old man who noticed a painless mass on the left border of tongue about 2 years ago. The lesion was noted at a complete medical checkup, and the patient was admitted to our institution for detailed examination. The mass was a palpable, soft and elastic nodule, 15 mm in diameter, covered with normal mucosa in the left inferior aspect of the tongue. The border of the tumor was well-defined, and computed tomography (CT) revealed a fat density within the mass. On the basis of these finding, the tumor was clinically diagnosed as lipoma and was excised under general anesthesia. Histopathologically, the tumor was a well-defined lobulated mass surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule within the muscle of the tongue. The tumor was diagnosed as myxolipoma because it was consisted of solid proliferation of mature adipocytes replaced by abundant mucoid substances. The post operative course was uneventful, and there was no evidence of recurrence 4 years after surgery. PMID:22185472



Solitary Angiokeratoma of Oral Mucosa: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa is rare entity. The term Angiokeratoma is used to refer to several lesions, whose common denominator is the presence of dilated blood vessels in association with epidermal hyperplasia. Mucosal involvement, including oral cavity is occasionally found either as a component of the systemic variety, cutaneous involvement or isolated oral involvement. Clinically, the lesion is irregular, whitish to dark brown in color, with female predominance. The etiological factors include injury, trauma, or chronic irritation to the wall of a papillary dermis. Histologically, it is characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and dilated vascular spaces with or without organizing thrombi in papillary dermis. The vascular spaces are partly or completely enclosed by elongated ret-ridges. Along with this reporting a case of solitary angiokeratoma affecting tongue in a 38-year-old male patient, along with the literature review is presented. PMID:23936686

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa; Tupsakhare, Suyog; Patil, Ashok; Gabhane, Mahesh; Sonune, Shrikant



Supporting the mother tongue: pedagogical approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a project to support the learning of the mother tongue by children aged 4–8 years. The aim of the project was to: actively involve and engage children with learning their mother tongue for functional use; involve parents in the learning process and support them in doing so; and increase children’s regular

Theodora Papatheodorou



Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

Regmi, Kapil Dev



Tuberculoma of the Tongue Presenting as Hemimacroglossia  

PubMed Central

The underdiagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis lesions, along with an emerging global resistance to antitubercular drugs, warrants an increased awareness of the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in atypical lesions of oral cavity. Tongue is the most common site of oral tuberculosis. We report a rare presentation of lingual tuberculosis in a 65-year-old male, a chronic tobacco chewer, who came to us with swelling of the tongue which apparently looked like hemimacroglossia, leading to the clinical diagnosis of submucosal carcinoma of tongue. Enlargement of tongue is a slow process resulting from gradual invasion and lodging of bacilli in the tongue. Biopsy and histopathological examination revealed tuberculous etiology of the lesion and the patient responded well to antitubercular therapy. PMID:23319955

Yadav, S. P. S.; Agrawal, Arpit; Gulia, J. S.; Singh, Sunita; Gupta, Arsh; Panchal, Vineet



Congenital trilobe tongue associated with cleft palate: a rare anomaly.  


Cleft of the palate and congenital anomaly of the tongue is a rare occurrence. A child with the tongue in three segments is being presented for the first time in the literature. This child also had partial cleft palate. The cleft palate was repaired at 7 months of age, and the tongue was reconstructed at 15 months. The tongue reconstruction was done utilizing the three segments of the tongue by an innovative method. This child has been followed up for 6 months with satisfactory results. Congenital abnormalities of the tongue associated with cleft palate may be considered as evidence of close interrelation of embryogenesis of the tongue and palate. PMID:24066710

Agrawal, Karoon; Mulla, Rani Umul Khair; Srivastava, Rakesh; Sharma, Sunil



Standard Values of Maximum Tongue Pressure Taken Using Newly Developed Disposable Tongue Pressure Measurement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clinically important to evaluate tongue function in terms of rehabilitation of swallowing and eating ability. We have\\u000a developed a disposable tongue pressure measurement device designed for clinical use. In this study we used this device to\\u000a determine standard values of maximum tongue pressure in adult Japanese. Eight hundred fifty-three subjects (408 male, 445\\u000a female; 20–79 years) were selected for

Yuri Utanohara; Ryo Hayashi; Mineka Yoshikawa; Mitsuyoshi Yoshida; Kazuhiro Tsuga; Yasumasa Akagawa



The Human Tongue Slows Down to Speak: Muscle Fibers of the Human Tongue  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of 4 neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2 year old human, a newborn human, an adult with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), and a macaque monkey. The average percentage of slow MFs in adult and the 2 year old muscle specimens was 54%, the IPD was 45%, while the neonatal human (32%) and macaque monkey (28%) had markedly fewer slow MFs. In contrast the tongue muscles of the rat and cat have been reported to have no slow MFs. There was a marked spatial gradient in the distribution of slow MFs with the highest percentages found medially and posterially. Normal adult tongue muscles were found to have a variety of uniquely specialized features including MF type grouping (usually found in neuromuscular disorders), large amounts of loose connective tissue, and short branching MFs. In summary, normal adult human tongue muscles have by far the highest proportion of slow MFs of any mammalian tongue studied to date. Moreover, adult human tongue muscles have multiple unique anatomic features. As the tongue shape changes that are seen during speech articulation are unique to humans we hypothesize that the large proportion of slow MFs and the anatomical specializations observed in the adult human tongue have evolved to perform these movements. PMID:23929762




Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to determine tongue coating microbiome  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is a unique method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first investigation on the association between traditional tongue diagnosis and the tongue coating microbiome using next-generation sequencing. The study included 19 gastritis patients with a typical white-greasy or yellow-dense tongue coating corresponding to TCM Cold or Hot Syndrome respectively, as well as eight healthy volunteers. An Illumina paired-end, double-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing protocol was designed to profile the tongue-coating microbiome, from which approximately 3.7 million V6 tags for each sample were obtained. We identified 123 and 258 species-level OTUs that were enriched in patients with Cold/Hot Syndromes, respectively, representing "Cold Microbiota" and "Hot Microbiota". We further constructed the tongue microbiota-imbalanced networks associated with Cold/Hot Syndromes. The results reveal an important connection between the tongue-coating microbiome and traditional tongue diagnosis, and illustrate the potential of the tongue-coating microbiome as a novel holistic biomarker for characterizing patient subtypes. PMID:23226834

Jiang, Bai; Liang, Xujun; Chen, Yang; Ma, Tao; Liu, Liyang; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Shao



Tongue Adiposity and Strength in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis To identify treatable risk factors for aspiration in older adults—particularly those associated with sarcopenia – we examined tongue composition. We hypothesized that 1) isometric and swallowing posterior tongue strength would positively correlate with posterior tongue adiposity, and 2) healthy older adults who aspirate would have greater tongue adiposity than healthy older adults who did not aspirate. Study Design Prospective Methods Participants were 40 healthy adults, comprised of 20 aspirators (Mean age = 78 years) and 20 non-aspirators (Mean age = 81 years), as identified via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Measures of maximal isometric posterior tongue strength and posterior swallowing tongue strength were acquired via tongue manometry. An index of posterior tongue adiposity was acquired via computed tomography for a 1 cm region of interest. Result(s) Posterior tongue adiposity was correlated with posterior tongue isometric (r = .32, p = 0.05) but not swallowing pressures (p > 0.05) as examined with separate partial correlation analyses. Tongue adiposity did not significantly differ as a function of age, gender, or aspiration status (p > 0.05). Conclusion(s) Lower posterior isometric tongue strength was associated with greater posterior tongue adiposity. However, aspiration in healthy older adults was not affected by posterior tongue adiposity. This finding offers insight into the roles of tongue composition and strength in healthy older adults. PMID:22522371

Butler, Susan G.; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Leng, Xiaoyan; Stuart, Andrew; Feng, Xin; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.



How Tongue Size and Roughness Affect Lapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomechanics of domestic cat lapping (Felis catus) and domestic dog lapping (Canis familiaris) is currently under debate. Lapping mechanics in vertebrates with incomplete cheeks, such as cats and dogs, is a balance of inertia and the force of gravity likely optimized for ingestion and physical necessities. Physiology dictates vertebrate mass, which dictates vertebrate tongue size, which dictates lapping mechanics to achieve optimum liquid ingestion; with either touch lapping, scooping, or a hybrid lapping method. The physics of this optimized system then determines how high a column of liquid can be raised before it collapses due to gravity, and therefore, lapping frequency. Through tongue roughness model variation experiments it was found that pore-scale geometrical roughness does not appear to affect lapping or liquid uptake. Through tongue size model variation experiments it was found that there is a critical tongue radius in the range of 25 mm to 35 mm above which touch lapping is no longer an efficient way to uptake liquid. Vertebrates with incomplete cheeks may use a touch lapping method to ingest water if their tongue radius is less than this critical radius and use an alternative ingestion method if their tongue radius is larger.

Hubbard, M. J.; Hay, K. M.



Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.



Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for tongue base tumours.  


In recent years, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used for the removal of pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers with the objective to improve functional and aesthetic outcomes without worsening the survival. This prospective single-centre cohort study described TORS in selected tumours of the tongue base in order to assess safety, efficacy and functional outcome of the procedure. From October 2010 to February 2012, TORS was performed in 13 consecutive patients affected by T1-T2 tumours of the base of the tongue. This procedure was applicable in all cases. The clinical stage demonstrated 8 T1 tumours and 5 T2 tumours. Neck node metastases were clinically evident in 6 cases (7 N0, 1 N1, 4 N2b and 1 N2c). The final pathology report confirmed malignancy in all cases (11 squamous cell carcinoma and 2 mucoepidermoid carcinoma). Negative-margin resections were obtained in all cases but one with close margins. Synchronous lymph node neck dissections were performed in 7 cases (6 monolateral, 1 bilateral). Patients underwent temporary tracheostomies for a mean time of 6 days. A naso-gastric feeding tube was positioned in 10/13 (76.9%) patients for a mean time of 7.5 days. The average time to carry out the TORS procedure was 95 min (set-up time 25 min; TORS 70 min). No deaths occurred. Surgical complications were observed in 4 cases (postoperative bleedings in 3 cases and intraoperative anaphylactic shock in 1 case). Median hospital stay was 9 days. All patients had good functional outcomes. Adjuvant treatment was indicated in 5/13 cases (35.4%). TORS represents a good tool for staging and treating neoplasm of the base of the tongue. The transoral removal is safe and can radically remove limited oropharyngeal tumours of the tongue base with good functional outcomes. The operating costs can be relatively high but they are related to the number of procedures per year, although the advantages to patients seem to justify the procedure. TORS can represent the definitive treatment in selected T1-T2 cases of base of the tongue tumours without adverse features and allow the possibility for the deintensification of adjuvant treatments. PMID:24043909

Mercante, G; Ruscito, P; Pellini, R; Cristalli, G; Spriano, G



Molecular and Cellular Regulatory Mechanisms of Tongue Myogenesis  

PubMed Central

The tongue exerts crucial functions in our daily life. However, we know very little about the regulatory mechanisms of mammalian tongue development. In this review, we summarize recent findings of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis. Specifically, cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) lead the initiation of tongue bud formation and contribute to the interstitial connective tissue, which ultimately compartmentalizes tongue muscles and serves as their attachments. Occipital somite-derived cells migrate into the tongue primordium and give rise to muscle cells in the tongue. The intimate relationship between CNCC- and mesoderm-derived cells, as well as growth and transcription factors that have been shown to be crucial for tongue myogenesis, clearly indicate that tissue-tissue interactions play an important role in regulating tongue morphogenesis. PMID:22219210

Parada, C.; Han, D.; Chai, Y.



Standard values of maximum tongue pressure taken using newly developed disposable tongue pressure measurement device.  


It is clinically important to evaluate tongue function in terms of rehabilitation of swallowing and eating ability. We have developed a disposable tongue pressure measurement device designed for clinical use. In this study we used this device to determine standard values of maximum tongue pressure in adult Japanese. Eight hundred fifty-three subjects (408 male, 445 female; 20-79 years) were selected for this study. All participants had no history of dysphagia and maintained occlusal contact in the premolar and molar regions with their own teeth. A balloon-type disposable oral probe was used to measure tongue pressure by asking subjects to compress it onto the palate for 7 s with maximum voluntary effort. Values were recorded three times for each subject, and the mean values were defined as maximum tongue pressure. Although maximum tongue pressure was higher for males than for females in the 20-49-year age groups, there was no significant difference between males and females in the 50-79-year age groups. The maximum tongue pressure of the seventies age group was significantly lower than that of the twenties to fifties age groups. It may be concluded that maximum tongue pressures were reduced with primary aging. Males may become weaker with age at a faster rate than females; however, further decreases in strength were in parallel for male and female subjects. PMID:18574632

Utanohara, Yuri; Hayashi, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Akagawa, Yasumasa



The Versatility of the Tongue Flap in the Closure of Palatal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery. PMID:23997859

Vasishta, Sathish M.S.; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y.S.; Desai, Anil



Ultrasonographic images of tongue movement during mastication.  


We observed vertical motion of the tongue during mastication in ultrasonographic images of 6 males with an average age of 28.7 years. All subjects had complete dentition and no evidence of neurological disorders. We used a 7 MHz mechanical convex scanning transducer to obtain a continuous, real-time ultrasonic image of the tongue, and carried out real-time B-mode ultrasonic observation at the median sagittal plane of the mandible. We recorded vertical motion of the tongue in the M-mode on a line connecting the mandibular first molars. The transducer produced good quality images of the dorsal surface during mastication of peanuts, rice, crackers, boiled fish paste, pickled radishes, pudding and bananas. The transducer, which was small and light, permitted capture of the images on videotape without manual placement of the scanner. Continuous images showed that the tongue turned the food, mixed it with saliva, sorted out unsuitable particles and aided in bolus formation. Vertical motion of the tongue had two phases, sorting and bolus formation. PMID:8941756

Imai, A; Tanaka, M; Tatsuta, M; Kawazoe, T



Statistical analysis of tongue images for feature extraction and diagnostics.  


In this paper, an in-depth analysis on the statistical distribution characteristics of human tongue color that aims to propose a mathematically described tongue color space for diagnostic feature extraction is presented. Three characteristics of tongue color space, i.e., tongue color gamut that defines the range of colors, color centers of 12 tongue color categories, and color distribution of typical image features in the tongue color gamut, are elaborately investigated in this paper. Based on a large database, which contains over 9000 tongue images collected by a specially designed noncontact colorimetric imaging system using a digital camera, the tongue color gamut is established in the CIE chromaticity diagram by an innovatively proposed color gamut boundary descriptor using one-class SVM algorithm. Thereafter, centers of 12 tongue color categories are defined accordingly. Furthermore, color distributions of several typical tongue features, such as red points and petechial points, are obtained to build a relationship between the tongue color space and color distributions of various tongue features. With the obtained tongue color space, a new color feature extraction method is proposed for diagnostic classification purposes, with experimental results validating its effectiveness. PMID:24108717

Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Bob; Yang, Zhimin; Wang, Haoqian; Zhang, David



Effect of inflammatory mediators on nasal mucosa.  


A technique used for study of permeability and vasodilation in the middle ear has been adapted to study the response of nasal mucosa to common inflammatory mediators involved in the natural production of allergic or infectious rhinitis. All of the mediators tested (histamine, prostaglandin E1, bradykinin, the C3a fraction of complement, Escherichia coli endotoxin, and lysozyme) were found to increase nasal permeability to the isotopic tracer 99mTc as the pertechnetate ion. Histamine increased the permeability of nasal mucosa to technetium-labeled plasma protein. Results indicate that the nasal mucosa is approximately ten times as permeable to the pertechnetate ion as middle ear mucosa. Nasal mucosa was also noted to be permeable to protein, even in the absence of inflammatory mediator, in contrast to prior studies of middle ear mucosa that showed little or no permeability in the absence of inflammatory mediator. In almost all cases, a corresponding change in vasodilation accompanied permeability changes. PMID:327989

Jackson, R T; Burson, J H



The Tongue as an Excitable Medium  

E-print Network

Geographic tongue (GT) is a benign condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics and chemically-driven reaction-diffusion systems. Here we explore the dynamics associated with GT from a dynamical systems perspective, utilizing cellular automata simulations. We emphasize similarities with other excitable systems as well as unique features observed in GT. Our results shed light on the evolution of the inflammation and contribute to the classification of the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

Seiden, Gabriel



Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues.  


This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary. PMID:24697399

Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki



Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki



Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun



Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and  

E-print Network

Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory (Cynoglossum officinale) invades rangelands in British Columbia (BC) and creates economic welfare losses


Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (25.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.



Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (24.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.



9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals...Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution...



9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals...Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution...



9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals...Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution...



Teaching the Mother Tongue in a Multilingual Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on mother tongue (native language) teaching in Europe contains three parts. The first explores definitions and teaching implications of mother tongues, including issues of language identity, language standards, mother tongue roles, and language policies in the European Union. The second part consists of nine case studies: "Teaching the…

Tulasiewicz, Witold, Ed.; Adams, Anthony, Ed.


A three-dimensional atlas of human tongue muscles.  


The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue's anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai



Prevalence of tongue lesions in the Indian population  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tongue lesions are a health concern for the dental practitioners and the patients as they constitute a significant proportion of oral mucosal lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of various tongue lesions in the Indian population. Material and methods: 4926 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were examined for the presence of various tongue lesions during the period from October, 2010 to September, 2012. The age of the patients ranged from 12-80 years with a mean age of 36.51 years. Results: The prevalence of tongue lesions was 12.07%. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated tongue affecting 28.0% of the subjects, followed by geographic tongue (16.4%), fissured tongue (14.9%) and depapillated tongue (11.5%). Males were more frequently affected than females. The most common systemic condition observed in the patients with tongue lesions was anaemia (189), followed by hypertension (47) and diabetes mellitus (38). Conclusion: The high prevalence necessitates adequate awareness of the various tongue lesions in the general population. The dental clinicians should also be knowledgeable about the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions. Key words:Tongue lesions, prevalence, Indian population, coated tongue. PMID:24455067

Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan; Doni, Bharati



Linguatula serrata Tongue Worm in Human Eye, Austria  

PubMed Central

Linguatula serrata, the so-called tongue worm, is a worm-like, bloodsucking parasite belonging to the Pentastomida group. Infections with L. serrata tongue worms are rare in Europe. We describe a case of ocular linguatulosis in central Europe and provide molecular data on L. serrata tongue worms. PMID:21529398

Koehsler, Martina; Georgopoulos, Michael; Pruente, Christian; Boeckeler, Wolfgang; Auer, Herbert; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin



Intermingled fractal Arnold tongues V. Paar and N. Pavin  

E-print Network

Intermingled fractal Arnold tongues V. Paar and N. Pavin Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at low dissipation and weak forcing: Strips of 2 2 Arnold tongues form a truncated fractal structure and the tonguelike regions in between are filled by finely intermingled fractal-like 1 1 and 3 3 Arnold tongues

Pavin, Nenad


Wireless control of smartphones with tongue motion using tongue drive assistive technology.  


Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a noninvasive, wireless and wearable assistive technology that helps people with severe disabilities control their environments using their tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures to commands by detecting a small permanent magnetic tracer on the users' tongue. We have linked the TDS to a smartphone (iPhone/iPod Touch) with a customized wireless module, added to the iPhone. We also migrated and ran the TDS sensor signal processing algorithm and graphical user interface on the iPhone in real time. The TDS-iPhone interface was evaluated by four able- bodied subjects for dialing 10-digit phone numbers using the standard telephone keypad and three methods of prompting the numbers: visual, auditory, and cognitive. Preliminary results showed that the interface worked quite reliably at a rate of 15.4 digits per minute, on average, with negligible errors. PMID:21096049

Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam



Intramuscular hemangioma with phleboliths of the tongue  

PubMed Central

Intramuscular hemangioma (IMH) is relatively rare benign tumor of vascular origin. Phleboliths are calcified thrombi found in the presence of hemangioma. The main treatment of the hemangioma is a surgical extirpation based on location, accessibility, and cosmetic considerations. We herein report a rare case of IMH with phleboliths of the tongue with clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings.

Kamatani, Takaaki; Saito, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Kondo, Seiji; Shirota, Tatsuo; Shintani, Satoru



Slow Passage through Multiple Parametric Resonance Tongues  

E-print Network

be reduced to the Mathieu equation, and is said to involve a single resonance. However, if the variation has is said to involve multiple resonances. The simplest example of such a system is the Mathieu equation;1582 J. BRIDGE ET AL. Figure 1. Form of the two large resonant tongues in a Mathieu equation with two

Rand, Richard H.


An unusual affliction of the tongue.  


A dramatic presentation of a large ulcer on the dorsal tongue of a recently hospitalized patient is presented. The lesion was found to be nosocomial in origin, and consistent with traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE). A review of the current pathogenic mechanisms, differential diagnosis and management of TUGSE is included. PMID:24933772

Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Hatton, Michael; Aguirre, Alfredo



Neuroregulation of Human Nasal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons. Modulation of these families of proteins, excitatory and inhibitory autoreceptors, and combinations of neurotransmitters introduces a new level of complexity and subtlety to nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air-temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19686200

Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.



Transitional mucosa in human colorectal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosa adjacent to colorectal disease was studied mucinhistochemically. Selected specimens were also studied immunohistochemically for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Transitional mucosa, which showed elongation of crypts and marked sialomucin secretion, accompanied by a marked reduction in the normal sulfomucin content, was evident in 96 of 100 carcinomas (96 percent), 18 of 36 adenomas (50 percent), and 10 of 30 metaplastic polyps

Masaki Mori; Reishi Shimono; Yosuke Adachi; Hiroyuki Matsuda; Hiroyuki Kuwano; Keizo Sugimachi; Masahito Ikeda; Motonori Saku



Oral mucosa stem cells alleviates spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) deteriorates various physical functions, in particular, bladder problems occur as a result of damage to the spinal cord. Stem cell therapy for SCI has been focused as the new strategy to treat the injuries and to restore the lost functions. The oral mucosa cells are considered as the stem cells-like progenitor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oral mucosa stem cells on the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death and cell proliferation. Results The contraction pressure and the contraction time in the urinary bladder were increased after induction of SCI, in contrast, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells decreased the contraction pressure and the contraction time in the SCI-induced rats. Induction of SCI initiated apoptosis in the spinal cord tissues, whereas treatment with the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed the SCI-induced apoptosis. Disrupted spinal cord by SCI was improved by transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells, and new tissues were increased around the damaged tissues. In addition, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed SCI-induced neuronal activation in the voiding centers. Conclusions Transplantation of oral mucosa stem cells ameliorates the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms by inhibiting apoptosis and by enhancing cell proliferation. As the results, SCI-induced neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers was suppressed, showing the normalization of voiding function. PMID:24884998



Availability of Tongue Diagnosis System for Assessing Tongue Coating Thickness in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is an important procedure in traditional Korean medicine (TKM). In particular, tongue coating thickness (TCT) is deemed to show the progression of the disease. However, conventional tongue diagnosis has limitations because of various external factors. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the availability of tongue diagnosis system (TDS) in the assessment of TCT. This study has been designed as a prospective clinical trial involving 60?patients with functional dyspepsia. Tongue images will be obtained by TDS twice with a 30?min interval. The system will measure the percentage of TCT and classify it as either no coating, thin coating, or thick coating according to the existing diagnostic criteria. After finishing the collection of 60?patients' tongue images, TCT on the images will be simultaneously evaluated by the conventional method to establish the gold standard for assessing TCT by 5 well-trained clinicians. The evaluation will be repeated by the same clinicians after 2?weeks, but the order of the images will be changed. This trial is expected to provide clinical evidence for the availability of TDS as a diagnostic tool and to contribute to the standardization of the diagnosis system used in TKM. This trial is registered with NCT01864837. PMID:24159343

Son, Jiyoung; Jang, Seungwon; Nam, Dong-Hyun; Han, Gajin; Yeo, Inkwon; Ko, Seok-Jae; Park, Jae-Woo; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung



Failure to demonstrate specificity of the morphological and histochemical changes in mucosa adjacent to colonic carcinoma (transitional mucosa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristic morphological and histochemical changes in mucosa adjacent to colorectal adenocarcinomas have been described. It has been suggested that this type of mucosa, labelled transitional mucosa (TM) because of its specific association with colorectal adenocarcinoma, is indicative of a premalignant change. In an investigation of mucosa adjacent to anal tumours extending into the rectum and mucosa from solitary ulcer syndrome

P Isaacson; P R Attwood



Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.



Evaluation of the maximum isometric tongue force of healthy volunteers.  


The forces of specific muscle groups have been well described for nearly all parts of the human body. Interestingly, data for the tongue and its forces are rare. In light of ongoing development of systems for managing the tongue (retaining, advancing, suspending or stabilizing), especially in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, knowledge of the maximum tongue force is important for the conceptual design of those systems. The maximum tongue force in a sagittal direction was documented using a custom-built device that included a tongue clamp and a piezoelectric sensor to capture force measurements. Once positioned securely in the device, participants were asked to move the tongue in a posterior sagittal direction, with maximum force, in each of three test positions. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (29 male) were included in the study. Tongue force measurements were collected three times in three different tongue positions. Thirty-three participants had repeated measurements to investigate any potential learning effect. The maximum force of the human tongue in a posterior sagittal direction showed high inter-individual variation and ranged from 3.2 to 52.4 Newton (N; mean 14.1 ± 7.5 N), when measured from a "neutral protrusion or resting" tongue position. The "retracted" and "maximal protrusion" testing positions yielded lower maximum tongue forces. Men (m) showed statistically significantly higher tongue forces than women (w) (m: 16.0 ± 8.4 N, w: 11.0 ± 4.3 N), and there was a positive correlation with BMI and a negative correlation with age. Comparing the first measurement session with the second session (per patient) showed higher mean maximum forces in the second session, but with no statistical significance. The maximum tongue force data showed substantial inter- and intra-individual variability and gender dependency. Some male individuals produced very high forces. These forces should be considered for the future conception and development of tongue management systems and the mechanical stress to which these systems may be exposed. PMID:24970288

Ulrich Sommer, J; Birk, Richard; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A



Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumor is a generally benign spindle-cell neoplasm that has been predominantly described in the visceral pleura and other serosal sites and is extremely rare in the head and neck area. We report the first known case of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the tongue in a 57-year-old female patient who experienced rapid growth of a longstanding right anterior

Yelizaveta Shnayder; Barak J Greenfield; Thaira Oweity; Mark D DeLacure



Surgical management of tongue cancer during pregnancy.  


There are ethical dilemmas in managing head and neck cancers during pregnancy. Diagnostic and treatment modalities need to be carefully determined. We herein describe 3 cases of tongue cancer during pregnancy. The details of the management would contribute to the daily practices for head and neck cancers. All three patients were Japanese female patients, two of them were 29 years old and one was 26 years old. All patients were admitted to the Nippon Medical School Hospital during pregnancy, complaining of oral pain and/or discomfort. Case 1 was diagnosed as tongue cancer stage T3N0M0, however, the tumor was superficial and controllable by partial glossectomy. Case 2 was stage T2N0M0 with deep invasion with ulcer, and the hemi-glossectomy with neck dissection and the reconstruction was thought to be the standard modality. However, she underwent partial glossectomy in order to reduce the stress of the fetus. Case 3 could not be diagnosed on admission by biopsy and she underwent partial glossectomy after delivery. In case 3, the pathological diagnosis was pT1 tongue cancer. In case 1 and case 3, the patient and baby were healthy. In case 2, however, the patient died of recurrence at the primary site. In decision making of the strategy, the most important factors are not only oncological evaluation but also ethical and emotional factors. PMID:21889278

Yokoshima, Kazuhiko; Nakamizo, Munenaga; Sakanushi, Atsuko; Ozu, Ryu-ichiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tone, Yuko; Inai, Shunta; Murakami, Ryousuke; Okubo, Kimihiro



Carprofen-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of the colonic mucosa of the dog.  


The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 ?g/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure. PMID:24982549

Snow, Lynne A; McConnico, Rebecca S; Morgan, Timothy W; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Hosgood, Giselle



Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

Bressmann, Tim



Differential effects of targeted tongue exercise and treadmill running on aging tongue muscle structure and contractile properties  

PubMed Central

Age-associated changes in tongue muscle structure and strength may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. Tongue exercise is a current treatment option. We hypothesized that targeted tongue exercise and nontargeted exercise that activates tongue muscles as a consequence of increased respiratory drive, such as treadmill running, are associated with different patterns of tongue muscle contraction and genioglossus (GG) muscle biochemistry. Thirty-one young adult, 34 middle-aged, and 37 old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats received either targeted tongue exercise, treadmill running, or no exercise (5 days/wk for 8 wk). Protrusive tongue muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition in the GG were examined at the end of 8 wk across groups. Significant age effects were found for maximal twitch and tetanic tension (greatest in young adult rats), MHCIIb (highest proportion in young adult rats), MHCIIx (highest proportion in middle-aged and old rats), and MHCI (highest proportion in old rats). The targeted tongue exercise group had the greatest maximal twitch tension and the highest proportion of MHCI. The treadmill running group had the shortest half-decay time, the lowest proportion of MHCIIa, and the highest proportion of MHCIIb. Fatigue was significantly less in the young adult treadmill running group and the old targeted tongue exercise group than in other groups. Thus, tongue muscle structure and contractile properties were affected by both targeted tongue exercise and treadmill running, but in different ways. Studies geared toward optimizing dose and manner of providing targeted and generalized tongue exercise may lead to alternative tongue exercise delivery strategies. PMID:23264540

Kletzien, Heidi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen E.



Scrape cytology in rare case of hairy tongue  

PubMed Central

Hairy tongue (HT) is a benign condition that causes concern over its abnormal appearance. HT is most commonly seen in adults and is seen as an abnormal coating of the tongue due to hyperkeratosis of filiform lingual papillae. Cytological scraping of the lesion on the tongue was done which showed squamous cells, extraneous material, bacterial colonies, fungal bodies, and hair-like projections, which are the hall mark of the disease. We present a case along with its scrape cytology findings. PMID:21938163

Patil, Rekha; Nayak, Suprita; Munshi, Maitryee; Bobhate, Sudhakar



Adenoid cystic carcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue.  


Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the salivary glands accounting for about 5-10% of all salivary gland neoplasms. Approximately, 31% of salivary gland neoplasms affect minor salivary glands particularly the palate. It involves tongue in only 19.8% of cases and even rarely the dorsum of the tongue. We report such a rare case that affected dorsum of the tongue in a 45-year-old-female patient. PMID:23798839

Sengupta, Subhalakshmi; Roychowdhury, Anadi; Bhattacharya, Palash; Bandyopadhyay, Anjali



Production of tongue twisters by speakers with partial glossectomy.  


Abstract A partial glossectomy can affect speech production. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of a tumour as well as the glossectomy surgery on the patients' production of tongue twisters with the sounds [t] and [k]. Fifteen patients with tongue cancer and 10 healthy controls took part in the study. The outcome measures were the patients' speech acceptability, rate of errors, the time needed to produce the tongue twisters, pause duration between item repetitions and the tongue shape during the production of the consonants [t] and [k] before and after surgery. The patients' speech acceptability deteriorated after the surgery. Compared to controls, the patients' productions of the tongue twisters were slower but not more errorful. Following the surgery, their speed of production did not change, but the rate of errors was higher. Pause duration between items was longer in the patients than in the controls but did not increase from before to after surgery. Analysis of the patients' tongue shapes for the productions of [t] and [k] indicated a higher elevation following the surgery for the patients with flap reconstructions. The results demonstrated that the surgical resection of the tongue changed the error rate but not the speed of production for the patient. The differences in pause duration also indicate that the tumour and the surgical resection of the tongue may impact the phonological planning of the tongue twister. PMID:25046430

Bressmann, Tim; Foltz, Anouschka; Zimmermann, Jana; Irish, Jonathan C



Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012). The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene. PMID:23414605



Human vaginal mucosa as a model of buccal mucosa for in vitro permeability studies: an overview.  


The buccal cavity is attractive for noninvasive, controlled transmucosal delivery of both local and systemic therapeutically active compounds. Administering drugs via this route is advantageous due to the rich vasculature of the oral mucosa, and the absence of gastrointestinal and "first-pass" hepatic degradation. Moreover, the barrier properties of the oral mucosa against noxious substances and its role in disease require further investigation. However, the scarcity of sizeable specimens of human oral mucosa for in vitro experimental studies has hampered research on this tissue. For this reason we developed a model in which human vaginal mucosa is used as a substitute for buccal mucosa. In this article the quality and predictive value of the human vaginal/buccal in vitro model with respect to a number of drugs and other chemical compounds differing widely in molecular size and lipophilicity, including water, arecoline, arecaidine, benzo[a]pyrene, 17beta-estradiol, sumatriptan, vasopressin and dextrans, are reviewed. In addition some applications of the model for investigating the effect of areca nut extract on epithelial barrier properties, temperature effects on water and 17beta-estradiol flux rates, and cyclosporin diffusion through mucosal membranes are described. The permeability characteristics of vaginal mucosa, as a model of buccal mucosa, are compared with those of other human tissue, including mucosae from the small intestine and colon. PMID:16305378

van der Bijl, Pieter; van Eyk, Armorel D



Brain imaging of tongue-twister sentence comprehension: Twisting the tongue  

E-print Network

the neural basis of the tongue-twister effect in a sen- tence comprehension task. Participants silently read, but differing in the proportion of words that shared similar initial phonemes. The manipulation affected not only the reading times and comprehension performance, but also the amount of activation seen


Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy



Tongue posture in cleft palate patients with a pharyngeal flap.  


Position of the tongue was studied in lateral cineradiographic pictures of 15 patients with cleft palate and velopharyngeal incompetence, and from ten unaffected reference subjects. The patients were examined before and after pharyngoplasty. Before operation there was no difference in the degree of tongue/velum contact between the patients and the reference subjects, but after the operation, contact was lost in 13 of the 15 patients because the tongue was lowered and the velum raised by the pharyngeal flap. This contradicts the previous theory that the position of the tongue should be expected to be higher to maintain the posterior oral seal. The tongue was in a more posterior position in the patients than in the reference subjects both before and after operation. After operation the tip of the tongue retracted into the anterior oral cavity. The posterior and downward change in position of the tongue may account for part of the posterior and downward growth pattern of the lower third of the face which occurs in children after pharyngoplasty. A loss of tongue-lip balance around the premaxilla may be one of the factors that causes the maxillary retrusion that has been reported after pharyngoplasty in patients with cleft palates. PMID:1470879

Ren, Y F; Isberg, A; Henningsson, G; Larson, O



Severe hypertrophy of the base of the tongue in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymphoid follicles at the base of the tongue can be detected when examining the pharynx of adults, but the presence of large follicles, denoted “severe” hypertrophy of the base of the tongue (HBT) is rare. The objective of the present study was to identify severe HBT cases and their symptoms and to correlate them with the presence of pharyngolaryngeal

Rui Celso Martins Mamede; Francisco Veríssimo De Mello-Filho; Roberto Oliveira Dantas



Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the expanded version of the advocacy brief "Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls" [ED495413]. It highlights in more detail the correlations between girls, language and marginality, and shows that there are indeed positive links between the use of mother tongue in education and female participation and achievement in…

Benson, Carol



A potentiometric electronic tongue to monitor meat freshness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an electronic tongue system for monitoring the freshness of meat. The analysis was made along 14 days on a whole piece of pork loin stored under refrigeration. The electronic tongue system is made by an array of potentiometric electrodes. Through the use of various multivariate analysis techniques, such as PCA and two types of

Luis Gil; José M. Barat; Diana Baigts; Ramón Martínez-Máñez; Juan Soto; Eduardo Garcia-Breijo; Eduard Llobet



A Tongue-Print Image Database for Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tongue is a unique organ in that it can be stuck out of mouth for inspection, in this act offering a proof of life, and yet it is otherwise well protected in the mouth and is difficult to forge. The tongue also presents both geometric shape information and physiological texture information which are potentially useful in identity verification applications.

Zhi Liu; D. Zhang; Qun-Lin Tang



Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee



Drift correction of electronic tongue responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, drift correction algorithms were used in order to remove linear drift in multivariate spaces of two data sets obtained by an electronic tongue based on voltammetry. The electronic tongue consisted of various metal electrodes (Au, Ir, Pt, Rh) combined with pattern recognition tools, such as principal component analysis. The first data set contained different types of liquid, from well defined to more complex solutions. The second data set contained different black and green teas. Component correction (CC) was compared to a simple additive correction. In CC, the drift direction of measured reference solutions in a multivariate space was subtracted from other types of solution. In additive correction, responses from reference samples were subtracted from other samples. CC showed similar or better performance in reducing drift compared to additive correction for the two data sets. The additive correction method was dependent on the fact that the differences in between samples of a reference solution were similar to the changes in between samples of other liquids, which was not the case with CC.

Holmin, Susanne; Krantz-Rülcker, Christina; Lundström, Ingemar; Winquist, Fredrik



Interlaboratory testing of Insent e-tongues.  


The first interlaboratory testing of electronic taste sensing systems was performed within five participating centers, each working with the Insent (Insent Inc., Atsugi-Shi, Japan) e-tongue. Preparation of the samples for the comprised four experiments, shipping of the samples and evaluation of the results was performed at the University of Duesseldorf. The sensitivity (in this case the difference between lowest and highest sensor response) and slope of the regression line values, obtained within Experiment 1 and 2, have been found to serve as applicable evaluation criterions for interlaboratory comparability. Modified sensor responses could be attributed to aged sensors, but did not influence the results of either Experiment 3, dealing with the evaluation of film formulations, or Experiment 4, dealing with the evaluation of minitablet formulations, in a great amount. Presented PCA Score and Loading Scatter Plots as well as Euclidean distance patterns based on the raw sensor responses confirmed the comparable performance of Insent e-tongues of the participating centers. PMID:24560640

Pein, Miriam; Gondongwe, Xolani Dereck; Habara, Masaaki; Winzenburg, Gesine



Hemorrhages of the tongue in the postmortem diagnostics of strangulation.  


Hemorrhages of the tongue can be useful for the diagnosis in cases of lethal neck compression. The reported frequencies of tongue bleedings in the literature in cases of suicidal hanging range from 0 to 14% and in homicidal strangulation (str.) from 5 to 37%. This study gives a summary of the incidence and intensity of tongue bleedings in cases of homicidal str. by ligature, manual str., suicidal str. by ligature and suicidal hanging. In 25% of all homicides significant or massive hemorrhages of the tongue were detected. In contrast to this, in suicidal hanging the tongue was unaffected in 95%. The causes of massive hemorrhages here (2%) could be explained by an "abnormal" position of the loop. PMID:12062944

Bockholdt, Britta; Maxeiner, H



Implications of the Wnt5a/CaMKII Pathway in Retinoic Acid-Induced Myogenic Tongue Abnormalities of Developing Mice  

PubMed Central

Although proper tongue development is relevant to other structures in the craniofacial region, the molecular details of muscle development in tongue remain poorly understood. Here, we report that pregnant mice treated with retinoic acid (+RA) produce embryos with tongue malformation and a cleft palate. Histological analyses revealed that at E14.5, the tongues of +RA fetuses failed to descend and flatten. Ultrastructural analysis showed that at perinatal stage E18.5, the myofilaments failed to form normal structures of sarcomeres, and arranged disorderly in the genioglossus. The proliferation and levels of myogenic determination markers (Myf5 and MyoD) and myosin in the genioglossus were profoundly reduced. Wnt5a and Camk2d expressions were down-regulated, while levels of Tbx1, Ror2, and PKC? were up-regulated in the tongues of +RA fetuses. In mock- and Wnt5a-transfected C2C12 (Wnt5a-C2C12) cells, Wnt5a overexpression impaired proliferation, and maintained Myf5 at a relative high level after RA treatment. Furthermore, Wnt5a overexpression positively correlated with levels of Camk2d and Ror2 in C2C12 cells after RA exposure. These data support the hypothesis that the Wnt5a/CaMKII pathway is directly involved in RA-induced hypoplasia and disorder of tongue muscles. PMID:25124193

Cong, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Shuqing; Sun, Mingzhong; Liu, Han; Yang, Yue; Wang, Ru; Xiao, Jing



Lipomatous tumors of the oral mucosa: histomorphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical features.  


We conducted a comprehensive study of all lipomatous tumors of the oral mucosa (1996-2008) accessioned at the Department of Oral Pathology, Tel Aviv University, collected demographic data and analyzed multiple histomorphological features. Furthermore, we examined the immunostaining of aP2 (adipocyte lipid binding protein) and the polarization colors of picrosirius red (PSR)-stained collagen fibers in order to test their potential in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. All cases were immunohistochemically stained with aP2 antibody; only tumors with considerable collagenous stroma were selected for the PSR staining. A total of 77 tumors were included in the study, 91% benign and 9% malignant. Fibrolipoma (37.7%) and lipoma (36.4%) were the most frequent tumors. Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT) was the only type of malignancy. The most common location for the benign tumors was the buccal mucosa and for ALT, the tongue. Histomorphological features characteristic of malignant tumors were occasionally present also in the benign entities. Expression of aP2 was similar in all tumors, while the polarization colors of the PSR-stained collagen fibers differed significantly between ALT and benign tumors (p<0.05). Benign and malignant tumors occasionally show overlapping histomorphological features that require a meticulous examination. PSR staining with polarization microscopy could aid in differentiating malignant from benign tumors in equivocal cases. PMID:21376375

Allon, Irit; Aballo, Sara; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena



[Tongue mobility in ankyloglossia with regard to articulation].  


A sound is created as a result of several breathing, phonetic and articulation positions and movements which take place in the articulation system consisting of both mobile and immobile elements. The tongue is one of the mobile elements of the articulation system. Full range of tongue mobility is required to form sounds correctly. If mobility of the tongue is reduced, sounds may slightly, moderately or highly deviate from proper ones. Serious deviations in articulate structure of sounds (such as non-vibrating front part of the tongue in the /r/ phoneme) are easy to notice since they change phoneme structure of the sound. Slight deviations (e.g. non-vibrational or non-mediumistic action of the tongue) may be unnoticed because speech is still comprehensible although it is formed with compensatory positions and movements of breathing, phonetic and articulation apparatus. There are some phonemes that require a wide range of tongue mobility to be formed correctly, while others require less tongue mobility. In the Polish language, phonemes that require the most mobile tongue are: trembling /r/, lateral /l/, humming /sz, z, cz, dz/, and soft /i, j, ?, ?, ?, d?/. In order to diagnose abnormalities, organs of speech need to be observed directly (photographs, films) or indirectly (videoradiography). One of the factors that restrict (to a slight, average or high degree) tongue mobility is the short frenulum. According to the general opinion "the tongue frenulum has no influence on tongue mobility". However, persons with ankyloglossia form at least one of the above-mentioned phonemes incorrectly to a slight, medium or high degree and frenotomy is required to make improvement of speech by a speech therapist effective. In opinion of many physicians and speech therapists " frenotomy is usually pointless because a new scar is formed that makes the frenulum even shorter than before". I have found in my research that tongue mobility improves after each frenotomy and no adhesions are formed after simple horizontal cutting of the frenulum with scissors (local anesthesia) if the wound is not sutured. It is often necessary to carry out several frenotomies to achieve full articulating mobility of the tongue. PMID:17939200

Ostapiuk, Barbara



Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao



Glycophenotypic Alterations Induced by Pteridium aquilinum in Mice Gastric Mucosa: Synergistic Effect with Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewisx. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process. PMID:22719879

Gomes, Joana; Magalhaes, Ana; Carvalho, Ana S.; Hernandez, Gilberto E.; Papp, Suzanne L.; Head, Steven R.; Michel, Valerie; David, Leonor; Gartner, Fatima; Touati, Eliette; Reis, Celso A.



Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.  


The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x). These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process. PMID:22719879

Gomes, Joana; Magalhães, Ana; Carvalho, Ana S; Hernandez, Gilberto E; Papp, Suzanne L; Head, Steven R; Michel, Valérie; David, Leonor; Gärtner, Fátima; Touati, Eliette; Reis, Celso A



Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron



Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients’ own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD. PMID:23066307

Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo



Color Distribution Differences in the Tongue in Sleep Disorder  

PubMed Central

Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L?, a?, b?) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory. PMID:24868237

Nam, Ji Ho; Jeon, Young Ju



Oral Mucosa Harvest: An Overview of Anatomic and Biologic Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe authors review the biologic characteristics of the oral mucosa. In addition, the authors report a contemporary harvesting technique of the oral mucosa for urethral transplantation, using biologically sound principles, modified by current literature.

Michael R. Markiewicz; Joseph E. Margarone; Guido Barbagli; Frank A. Scannapieco



Tissue-point motion tracking in the tongue from cine MRI and tagged MRI.  


PURPOSE Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract-related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with harmonic phase (HARP)-based tracking applied to tagged MRI. METHOD Ten subjects repeated the phrase "a geese" multiple times while sagittal images of the head were collected at 26 Hz, first in a tagged MRI data set and then in a cine MRI data set. HARP tracked the motion of 8 specified tissue points in the tagged data set. Four DR methods including diffeomorphic demons and free-form deformations based on cubic B-spline with 3 different similarity measures were used to track the same 8 points in the cine MRI data set. Individual points were tracked and length changes of several muscles were calculated using the DR- and HARP-based tracking methods. RESULTS The results showed that the DR tracking errors were nonsystematic and varied in direction, amount, and timing across speakers and within speakers. Comparison of HARP and DR tracking with manual tracking showed better tracking results for HARP except at the tongue surface, where mistracking caused greater errors in HARP than DR. CONCLUSIONS Tissue point tracking using DR tracking methods contains nonsystematic tracking errors within and across subjects, making it less successful than tagged MRI tracking within the tongue. However, HARP sometimes mistracks points at the tongue surface of tagged MRI because of its limited bandpass filter and tag pattern fading, so that DR has better success measuring surface tissue points on cine MRI than HARP does. Therefore, a hybrid method is being explored. PMID:24686470

Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z; Prince, Jerry L



Temporary tongue thrust: failure during orthodontic treatment.  


This report presents the case of a 25-year-old male patient who sought orthodontic treatment. Oral examination revealed an Angle Class I relation, with a bimaxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, evidence of anterior crowding, and a large overbite and overjet. Radiographic examination revealed a skeletal Class I occlusion. During the distal movement of the canines, occlusal interferences between the canines occurred and the commencement of a tongue thrust was observed. After correction of the applied forces, the canine movement was completed and the habit was no longer detectable. The incident indicates that an unusual oral habit suspiciously occurring during treatment should lead to an immediate reconsideration of the orthodontic treatment strategy. PMID:12502128

Piyapattamin, Thosapol; Soma, Kunimichi; Hisano, Masataka



Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue: A rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms that most commonly occur in the kidneys of young children. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue is an extremely rare entity and very few have been reported in the literature. The course of extra-renal MRT is short and its prognosis is very poor. A 19-year-old female presented with a progressive swelling and restricted mobility of the tongue for over 3 months duration. We present here a locally advanced case of MRT of the tongue, its diagnosis, management and review of the literature related to it. PMID:25328320

Hazarika, Munlima; Rahman, Tashnin; Sarma, Anupam; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva



Chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy in oral potentially malignant lesions: distinctive features for tongue  

PubMed Central

Background The mucosae of the oral cavity are different at the histological level but appear all equally exposed to common genotoxic agents. As a result of this exposure, changes in the mucosal epithelia may develop giving rise to Oral Potentially Malignant Lesions (OPMLs), which with time may in turn progress to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCCs). Therefore, much effort should be devoted to identify features able to predict the likeliness of progression associated with an OPML. Such features may be helpful in assisting the clinician to establish both appropriate therapies and follow-up schedules. Here, we report a pilot study that compared the occurrence of DNA aneuploidy and chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) in the OPMLs from different oral anatomical subsites. Methods Samples from histologically diagnosed OPMLs were processed for high resolution DNA flow cytometry (hr DNA-FCM) in order to determine the relative DNA content expressed by the DNA index (DI). Additionally, array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) analysis was performed on DNA obtained from diploid nuclei suspensions directly. When aneuploid nuclei were detected, these were physically separated from diploid nuclei on the base of their DI values by means of a DNA-FCM-Sorter in order to improve the a-CGH analysis. Results Tongue OPMLs were more frequently associated with DNA aneuploidy and CNAs than OPMLs arising from all the other mucosal subsites. Conclusions We suggest that the follow-up and the management of the patients with tongue OPMLs should receive a distinctive special attention. Clearly, this hypothesis should be validated in a prospective clinical study. PMID:21995418



Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor.  


Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months. PMID:24963257

Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal



Iridium 192 implantation of T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both

J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; V. Benck; G. Marinello; M. Martin; M. Raynal; E. Haddad; R. Peynegre; J. P. Le Bourgeois; W. Walop



Could a 'Fat Tongue' Be a Factor in Sleep Apnea?  


... Could a 'Fat Tongue' Be a Factor in Sleep Apnea? In study, obese people with the disorder ... Preidt Tuesday, September 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Sleep Apnea TUESDAY, Sept. 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep ...


E-tongue 2 REDOX response to heavy metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

E-Tongue 2 an array of electrochemical sensors including REDOX electrodes for Cylic Voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry measurements, Galvanic cells for corrosion measurements, and Ion Selective Electrodes.

Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Kounaves, S. P.



The hummingbird's tongue: a self-assembling capillary syphon  

PubMed Central

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of drinking in ruby-throated hummingbirds. In vivo observations reveal elastocapillary deformation of the hummingbird's tongue and capillary suction along its length. By developing a theoretical model for the hummingbird's drinking process, we investigate how the elastocapillarity affects the energy intake rate of the bird and how its open tongue geometry reduces resistance to nectar uptake. We note that the tongue flexibility is beneficial for accessing, transporting and unloading the nectar. We demonstrate that the hummingbird can attain the fastest nectar uptake when its tongue is roughly semicircular. Finally, we assess the relative importance of capillary suction and a recently proposed fluid trapping mechanism, and conclude that the former is important in many natural settings. PMID:23075839

Kim, Wonjung; Peaudecerf, François; Baldwin, Maude W.; Bush, John W. M.



Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue.  


To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s(-2). At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to power tongue projection directly during the actual fast projection of the tongue. However, high-speed recordings of Chamaeleo melleri and C. pardalis reveal that peak powers of 3000 W kg(-1) are necessary to generate the observed accelerations, which exceed the accelerator muscle's capacity by at least five- to 10-fold. Extrinsic structures might power projection via the tongue skeleton. High-speed fluoroscopy suggests that they contribute less than 10% of the required peak instantaneous power. Thus, the projection power must be generated predominantly within the tongue, and an energy-storage-and-release mechanism must be at work. The key structure in the projection mechanism is probably a cylindrical connective-tissue layer, which surrounds the entoglossal process and was previously suggested to act as lubricating tissue. This tissue layer comprises at least 10 sheaths that envelop the entoglossal process. The outer portion connects anteriorly to the accelerator muscle and the inner portion to the retractor structures. The sheaths contain helical arrays of collagen fibres. Prior to projection, the sheaths are longitudinally loaded by the combined radial contraction and hydrostatic lengthening of the accelerator muscle, at an estimated mean power of 144 W kg(-1) in C. melleri. Tongue projection is triggered as the accelerator muscle and the loaded portions of the sheaths start to slide over the tip of the entoglossal process. The springs relax radially while pushing off the rounded tip of the entoglossal process, making the elastic energy stored in the helical fibres available for a simultaneous forward acceleration of the tongue pad, accelerator muscle and retractor structures. The energy release continues as the multilayered spring slides over the tip of the smooth and lubricated entoglossal process. This sliding-spring theory predicts that the sheaths deliver most of the instantaneous power required for tongue projection. The release power of the sliding tubular springs exceeds the work rate of the accelerator muscle by at least a factor of 10 because the elastic-energy release occurs much faster than the loading process. Thus, we have identified a unique catapult mechanism that is very different from standard engineering designs. Our morphological and kinematic observations, as well as the available literature data, are consistent with the proposed mechanism of tongue projection, although experimental tests of the sheath strain and the lubrication of the entoglossal process are currently beyond our technical scope. PMID:15209111

de Groot, Jurriaan H; van Leeuwen, Johan L



Mecamylamine blocks the burning sensation of nicotine on the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated the probability of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the sensory nerves of the tongue . Subjects, tested on two occasions, evaluated the intensity of the burning sensation of 0 .1290 (7.4 mM) nicotine or a water control . Pretreatment of the tongue with 0 .075% (4.5 mM) mecamylamine, a nicotinic cholinergic receptor blocker, resulted in significantly lower magnitude

Murray E. Jarvik; Kamyar M. Assil



Tongue and Lateral Upper Airway Movement with Mandibular Advancement  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To characterize tongue and lateral upper airway movement and to image tongue deformation during mandibular advancement. Design: Dynamic imaging study of a wide range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI) subjects. Setting: Not-for-profit research institute. Participants: 30 subjects (aged 31-69 y, AHI 0-75 events/h, BMI 17-39 kg/m2). Interventions: Subjects were imaged using dynamic tagged magnetic resonance imaging during mandibular advancement. Tissue displacements were quantified with the harmonic phase technique. Measurements and Results: Mean mandibular advancement was 5.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This produced movement through a connection from the ramus of the mandible to the pharyngeal lateral walls in all subjects. In the sagittal plane, 3 patterns of posterior tongue deformation were seen with mandibular advancement—(A) en bloc anterior movement, (B) anterior movement of the oropharyngeal region, and (C) minimal anterior movement. Subjects with lower AHI were more likely to have en bloc movement (P = 0.04) than minimal movement. Antero-posterior elongation of the tongue increased with AHI (R = 0.461, P = 0.01). Mean anterior displacements of the posterior nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal regions of the tongue were 20% ± 13% and 31% ± 17% of mandibular advancement. The posterior tongue compressed 1.1 ± 2.2 mm supero-inferiorly. Conclusions: Mandibular advancement has two mechanisms of action which increase airway size. In subjects with low AHI, the entire tongue moves forward. Mandibular advancement also produces lateral airway expansion via a direct connection between the lateral walls and the ramus of the mandible. Citation: Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement. SLEEP 2013;36(3):397-404. PMID:23450677

Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.



Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.



Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.



Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure…

Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.



Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission. PMID:24143321

Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan



Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue  

PubMed Central

Abstract Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species. PMID:12171472

Iwasaki, Shin-ichi



Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)



Ghrelin inhibits sodium metabisulfite induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat gastric mucosa.  


This study aimed to investigate the effect of ghrelin administration on sulfite induced oxidative and apoptotic changes in rat gastric mucosa. Forty male albino Wistar rats were randomized into control (C), sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) treated (S), ghrelin treated (G) and, Na2S2O5+ghrelin treated (SG) groups. Sodium metabisulfite (100 mg/kg/day) was given by gastric gavage and, ghrelin (20 ?g/kg/day) was given intraperitoneally for 5 weeks. Plasma-S-sulfonate level was increased in S and SG groups. Na2S2O5 administration significantly elevated total oxidant status (TOS) levels while depleting total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in gastric mucosa. Ghrelin significantly decreased gastric TOS levels in the SG group compared with the S group. Additionally, TAS levels were found to be higher in SG group in reference to S group. Na2S2O5 administration also markedly increased the number of apoptotic cells, cleaved caspase-3 and PAR expression (PARP activity indicator) and, decreased Ki67 expression (cell proliferation index) in gastric mucosal cells. Ghrelin treatment decreased the number apoptotic cells, cytochrome C release, PAR and, caspase-3 expressions while increasing Ki67 expression in gastric mucosa exposed to Na2S2O5. In conclusion, we suggest that ghrelin treatment might ameliorate ingested-Na2S2O5 induced gastric mucosal injury stemming from apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats. PMID:23439480

Ercan, Sevim; Basaranlar, Goksun; Gungor, Nazl? Ece; Kencebay, Ceren; Sahin, P?nar; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Derin, Narin



Penetration of the oral mucosa by parasite-like sperm bags of squid: a case report in a Korean woman.  


We report a case of oral stings by spermatophores of the squid Todarodes pacificus . A 63-yr-old Korean woman experienced severe pain in her oral cavity immediately after eating a portion of parboiled squid along with its internal organs. She did not swallow the portion, but spat it out immediately. She complained of a pricking and foreign-body sensation in the oral cavity. Twelve small, white spindle-shaped, bug-like organisms stuck in the mucous membrane of the tongue, cheek, and gingiva were completely removed, along with the affected mucosa. On the basis of their morphology and the presence of the sperm bag, the foreign bodies were identified as squid spermatophores. PMID:21834723

Park, Gab-Man; Kim, Jong-Yun; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Huh, Jong-Ki



Plumbagin induces the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Plumbagin, a quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of Plumbago zeylanica L., has been proven to possess anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Cell proliferation ability was detected by EdU incorporation assay and colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cellular apoptosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blotting was applied to assay the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Results Plumbagin inhibited the growth and proliferation of Tca8113 cells in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycles of plumbagin-treated Tca8113 cells were arrested at the G2/M phase. Cells treated with plumbagin presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was raised by plumbagin in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions These results indicate that plumbagin induces the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells through mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:23982457

Qiu, Jia-xuan; He, Yuan-qiao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ru-liang; Qin, You; Shen, Xiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Mao, Zong-fu



[Local complications of lip and tongue piercing -- report of the cases].  


Piercing, which is the form of puncturing parts of the human body and creating openings where jewelry can be worn, is together with tattoos, body drawings or make-up, one of the oldest way of decorating of the human body. Piercing can be performed in each part of the body. In the recent years face piercing (nose, eyebrows, lip region) and in the oral cavity (tongue, lips, cheek, mentolabial sulcus, labial frenulum) is becoming particularly popular. The procedure of piercing itself may potentially lead to serious systemic and local complications. The aim of the study was to present three clinical cases of the patients who referred to the Dental University Clinic in Krakow for the treatment of lesions on the oral mucosa after piercing. Clinicians who examine patients with such body decorations should pay particular attention to the sites which can be injured by the jewelry. Medical staff should also make patients realize the risk of general complications after piercing. This will allow on the early removal of the jewelry and prevention of possible complications. PMID:24455839

?azarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Ma?gorzata



Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.  


Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa



Policy and experiment in mother tongue literacy in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advocacy for initial mother tongue literacy in elementary schools and in adult education has been intensified within the past three decades, reflecting new attitudes to cultural diversity, especially to multilingual and multicultural education. This paper assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education. Although, like the Ife project, many experimental projects on mother tongue literacy in other countries are shown to have succeeded in realizing their objectives, the findings highlight the mediating effects of several non-linguistic variables. The findings indicate that its use as the medium of instruction in schools cannot compensate for the deficiencies in the educational system, particularly poor quality instructional facilities, or the social barriers in the wider society which prevent certain groups of minority children from learning well in school. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Akinnaso, F. Niyi



Modeling tongue surface contours from Cine-MRI images.  


This study demonstrated that a simple mechanical model of global tongue movement in parallel sagittal planes could be used to quantify tongue motion during speech. The goal was to represent simply the differences in 2D tongue surface shapes and positions during speech movements and in subphonemic speech events such as coarticulation and left-to-right asymmetries. The study used tagged Magnetic Resonance Images to capture motion of the tongue during speech. Measurements were made in three sagittal planes (left, midline, right) during movement from consonants (/k/, /s/) to vowels (/i/, /a/, /u/). MR image-sequences were collected during the C-to-V movement. The image-sequence had seven time-phases (frames), each 56 ms in duration. A global model was used to represent the surface motion. The motions were decomposed into translation, rotation, homogeneous stretch, and in-plane shear. The largest C-to-V shape deformation was from /k/ to /a/. It was composed primarily of vertical compression, horizontal expansion, and downward translation. Coarticulatory effects included a trade-off in which tongue shape accommodation was used to reduce the distance traveled between the C and V. Left-to-right motion asymmetries may have increased rate of motion by reducing the amount of mass to be moved. PMID:11708524

Stone, M; Davis, E P; Douglas, A S; Aiver, M N; Gullapalli, R; Levine, W S; Lundberg, A J



Successful treatment of radiation cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Resolution of bleeding event and changes of histopathological findings of the bladder mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on radiation cystitis, clinical and histopathological characteristics\\u000a were examined. Three women with radiation cystitis were treated with HBO therapy. Macrohaematuria was arrested in all patients.\\u000a Cystoscopy demonstrated abnormal telangiectasia and inflammatory mucosa before treatment. After HBO therapy, the inflammatory\\u000a mucosae were healed. However, abnormal vessels did not completely disappear. Histopathologically, the

K. Suzuki; K. Kurokawa; T. Suzuki; H. Okazaki; N. Otake; K. Imai; H. Yamanaka



High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer: preliminary results of a dose reduction trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the outcome of our facility with another about the shortened schedule (60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions) of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer. Material and methods Eighteen patients were treated with HDR ISBT as a monotherapy in dose reduction schedule with some unique technique to determine the border of tumor accuracy (lugol's staining and metal marker), and to minimize adverse effect (lead-lined silicon block) at our facility. Results The 2-year local and regional control rates and cause-specific survival rate were 82%, 80%, and 83% and moderate to severe late complications occurred in five patients (28%), which were almost the same treatment results achieved by another facility. Conclusions We recommend 54 Gy in 9 fractions over 7 days as a feasible treatment to reduce patient discomfort in mobile tongue cancer patients. PMID:24790616

Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Masui, Koji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Arika, Takumi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eiichi



Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and UC-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids.

Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.



Comparative permeability of human vaginal and buccal mucosa to water.  


There is currently a resurgence of interest in the oral mucosa as a route for drug delivery. The relative scarcity of human oral mucosa for in vitro permeability studies, and the fact that vaginal mucosa is histologically similar and more abundant than the former, caused us to compare these 2 tissues with respect to their barrier properties to water. Specimens of fresh, clinically-healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa from non-smokers were taken from excised tissue obtained during vaginal hysterectomies and various oral surgical procedures. Biopsies from each specimen were mounted in flow-through diffusion cells and their permeability to tritiated water determined using a continuous flow-through perfusion system. Specimens were examined histologically before and after permeability experiments and similarities between vaginal and buccal tissues verified. No statistically significant differences between mean steady state flux values (10-16 h) for vaginal and buccal mucosa, respectively, were found. Human vaginal mucosa is therefore as permeable as buccal mucosa to water, and these results warrant further investigation with other compounds to establish whether vaginal mucosa may be a useful model for buccal mucosa for drug permeability studies. PMID:9469607

van der Bijl, P; Thompson, I O; Squier, C A



Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a Patient with Tongue Cancer: A Report of a Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Background. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but life-threatening complication of neuroleptic drugs, which are used widely in head and neck cancer (HANC) patients who develop delirium. Methods and Results. Postoperative delirium in a 39-year-old man with tongue cancer was treated with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Three days after the first administration of antipsychotics, the patient exhibited elevated body temperature, autonomic and extrapyramidal symptoms, and impaired consciousness. A definitive diagnosis was made using the research diagnostic criteria for NMS in the DSM-IV, and the antipsychotics were immediately discontinued. The patient was given dantrolene and bromocriptine to treat the NMS. The patient's hyperthermia, elevated creatinin kinase (CK), and muscle rigidity improved gradually, with all symptoms of NMS resolving completely by 13 days after the diagnosis. Conclusions. HANC surgeons must be alert for early signs of NMS and use antipsychotics conservatively to avoid NMS and its potentially fatal outcome. PMID:23853728

Yamagata, Kenji; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Tamaoka, Akira; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Yanagawa, Toru; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki



Adenocarcinoma Involving the Tongue and the Epiglottis in a Horse  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis. PMID:24284972

LAUS, Fulvio; ROSSI, Giacomo; PAGGI, Emanuele; BORDICCHIA, Matteo; FRATINI, Margherita; TESEI, Beniamino



Adenocarcinoma involving the tongue and the epiglottis in a horse.  


Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis. PMID:24284972

Laus, Fulvio; Rossi, Giacomo; Paggi, Emanuele; Bordicchia, Matteo; Fratini, Margherita; Tesei, Beniamino



Dopaminergic influence on rat tongue function and limb movement initiation  

PubMed Central

Altering dopamine synaptic transmission can affect both cranial and limb sensorimotor function, but often to a different degree of severity. We hypothesized that haloperidol has dose-dependent but differential effects on lingual forces, lingual movement rates, and limb movement initiation. We measured average and maximal lingual force, tongue press rate and cataleptic descent time in 9 Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats in varied doses of haloperidol. Decreases in lingual force and temporal parameters and increases in cataleptic descent time were related to haloperidol dose. However, they were related to a different degree as the relationships were strong between average force and tongue press rate, moderate between maximal force and tongue press rate, moderate between average force and cataleptic descent time, and weak between maximal force and cataleptic descent time. Elucidating the relationships between the cranial and limb sensorimotor systems in the context of altered dopamine synaptic transmission may assist in developing therapies for conditions such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:19247644

Connor, Nadine P



Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature  

E-print Network

Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature Christopher, accompanied by a similar decline in muscle power. Wepropose that ballistic movements that an elastically powered movement, ballistic tongue projection in chameleons, maintains high performance over a 20

Anderson, Christopher V.


Neural substrates for tongue-flicking behavior in snakes.  


Snakes deliver odorants to the vomeronasal organ by means of tongue-flicks. The rate and pattern of tongue-flick behavior are altered depending on the chemical context. Accordingly, olfactory and vomeronasal information should reach motor centers that control the tongue musculature, namely, the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIN); however, virtually nothing is known about the circuits involved. In the present work, dextran amines were injected into the tongue of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) to identify the motoneurons of the XIIN. Tracers were then delivered into the XIIN to identify possible afferents of chemical information. Large injections into the XIIN yielded retrograde labeling in two chemosensory areas: the medial amygdala (MA) and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus (LHN). Smaller injections only yielded labeled neurons in the LHN. In fact, the MA, which receives afferents from the accessory olfactory bulb, the rostroventral lateral cortex, and the nucleus sphericus, projects to the LHN. Injections into the MA did not show terminal labeling in the XIIN but in an area lateral to it. However, injections into the LHN gave rise not only to labeled fibers in the XIIN but also to retrograde labeling in the MA, thus confirming the chemosensory input to LHN. Injecting different fluorescent tracers into the tongue and into the LHN corroborated the projection from the LHN to the XIIN. The present report investigates further connections of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems and describes the afferent connections to XIIN in a nonmammalian vertebrate. The circuit for tongue-flicking behavior described herein should be evaluated using functional studies. PMID:11241378

Martínez-Marcos, A; Ubeda-Bañón, I; Halpern, M



Vibrations of an ice-tongue using GPS records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2007, during the IPEV R0 Astrolabe voyage, we deployed a network of year-round GPS beacons along a flow line of the Mertz glacier in East Antarctica (CRAC-ICE project, Legrésy et al.). Two months of GPS data were collected at the end of the field season from 2 stations (GPS4 & GPS5) around the main rift on the Mertz floating ice tongue. We investigate sub daily time scales of motion of the two sites using the GPS records. The observed vertical signal includes tides, but also more rapid signals at sub-hourly time scales. With GPS processing using Gins-PC software and Precise Point Positioning processing (PPP); we are able to confirm getting the sub hourly scale oscillations of the ice tongue with few centimeters amplitude from two different part of the floating ice tongue. One mechanism in calving events is ocean wave energy, which leads to the movement of the ice tongue. The glacier then acts like a filter, with filtering characteristics depending mainly of the ice thickness (Holsworth and Gynn 1981). If a dominant frequency of the ocean wave spectrum coincides with one of the fundamental vibration modes of the ice-tongue, cyclic bending stresses may lead to fatigue of the ice and hence to crack propagation. This kind of event is a good candidate to explain a part of a calving process of an ice-tongue. Therefore, we focused of these oscillations using Harmonic analysis, short term FFT and wavelets. We identified a main energetic mode of vibrations around 10-40 minutes (23% of the total energy of the signal) that we compared with simple modeling of the fundamental vibrations of a beam. The model has been run in different cases of ice thickness, ice-tongue length and directions of the observed vibrations. The most visible oscillations correspond to a main mode of vibration propagating in the across flow direction of the ice tongue, driven mostly by ocean forcing. Both GPS sites are recording these vibrations. Given that each beacon is situated on from each side of the rift, we investigated the possible effects of the movement on the opening of the rift by a comparison of their own signal. Finally, we focused the possible resonance with ocean forcing and their impact on calving processes.

Lescarmontier, Lydie; Legrésy, Benoit; Coleman, Richard; Young, Neal; Testut, Laurent



Leishmaniasis in the Tongue of an Immunocompetent Man  

PubMed Central

A 49-year-old immunocompetent white man had a painful ulcer (1.5 cm in diameter) on the left ventrolateral surface of a grossly enlarged tongue. The ulcer was present for two months. Impaired swallowing resulted in substantial weight loss and fatigue. Histopathologic analysis of a punch biopsy specimen indicated numerous Leishman Donovan bodies within macrophages. A polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of L. donovani. Therapy with two cycles of liposomal amphotericin B over a three-month period was administered. Four months after discharge, the ulcer had healed completely and the tongue returned to its normal size and function. PMID:20348506

Leitner, Verena; Weingast, Jessika; Harmankaya, Kaan; Walochnik, Julia; Pehamberger, Hubert; Petzelbauer, Peter; Auer, Herbert; Binder, Michael



Differences in Tongue Strength Across Age and Gender: Is There a Diminished Strength Reserve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum tongue strength was investigated and compared to mean swallowing pressure elicited by the anterior tongue to calculate\\u000a the percentage of maximum tongue strength used during swallowing in 96 participants with normal swallowing, divided into three\\u000a 20-year age groups. The purposes of this investigation were to investigate normal swallowing physiology and to determine whether\\u000a tongue strength reserves diminished according to

Scott R. Youmans; Gina L. Youmans; Julie A. G. Stierwalt



Code-Switching in a Bilingual History Lesson: The Mother Tongue as a Conversational Lubricant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses use of the mother tongue in bilingual content teaching as well as in conventional foreign-language classes. The controversy over mother tongue is examined by analyzing a history lesson taught in English as a foreign language. Suggests brief use of the mother tongue can function as a learning aid to enhance communicative competence in the…

Butzkamm, Wolfgang



Lower lip cleft, bifid tongue and fibrolipoma: a case report of rare congenital anomaly.  


A non-syndromic bifid tongue with fibrolipoma, ankyloglossia, and clefts of the lower lip and alveolus is rare. We describe a case in which a bifid anterior tongue was separated by a fibrolipomatous mass. We excised the mass and repaired the lip and the tongue with satisfactory results. PMID:24834810

Shi, Jin; Zhang, Junrui; Ding, Mingchao; Cao, Qiang



Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith



Influences of tongue biomechanics on speech movements during the production of velar stop consonants  

E-print Network

1 Influences of tongue biomechanics on speech movements during the production of velar stop and tongue biomechanics Abbreviated Title: On loops and tongue biomechanics Contact : Pascal Perrier ICP with the palate during consonantal closure. The study uses an anatomically based two-dimensional biomechanical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


[The gastric mucosa barrier and gastropathy].  


In addition to a layer of mucus, the gastric mucosa barrier is mainly formed of a tight junction consisting of the surface membranes of epithelial cells. It is this that mainly impedes the flowback of H+ ions. Buffers conveyed by the blood neutralise the small numbers of ions that do flow back, even under physiological conditions. Damage to the barrier results in a considerable backflow of ions that enhance acid secretion and release of histamine and other vasoactive substances, so that further mucosal lesions occur. Such damage may be of exogenous or endogenous origin. Alcohol and acetylsalicylic acid are two examples. The latter is undissociated and hence liposoluble in the highly milieu of the stomach and can easily enter the cells and damage them. Severe hypovolaemia, stress and sepsis are instances of endogenous sources of damage. In the final analysis, the damage caused by sepsis is linked to cell anoxia. PMID:78472

Speranza, V; Lezoche, E



Products used on female genital mucosa.  


A wide variety of products are used by women in the genital area and, therefore, come into contact with the genital mucosa. The largest category of such products would be those used for cleanliness and odor control, such as soaps and body washes, douches, premoistened wipes and towelettes, dusting powder and deodorant sprays. A second large category of products are those intended to absorb fluids, such as products used for menstrual protection (tampons, pads and panty liners) and incontinence protection. Lubricants and moisturizers, and aesthetic products (hair removal products and dyes) are also fairly common. In addition, over the counter medications are now available for the treatment of fungal infections. This chapter briefly discusses the products women use on or around the genital area, the perceived or real benefits, and the potential health effects of these products. PMID:21325843

Farage, Miranda A; Lennon, Lisa; Ajayi, Funmi



Carbon Dioxide Exchange via the Mucosa in Healthy Middle Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies have shown that gas ex- change via the middle ear mucosa, which is performed be- tween the middle ear cleft and capillaries in the submu- cosal connective tissue, has an essential role in ventilation and pressure regulation in the middle ear cleft. We specu- lated that gas exchange via the mucosa is induced by the gas diffusion

Fumio Ikarashi; Sugata Takahashi; Yutaka Yamamoto



Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa  

E-print Network

and cloned.5 PSTI is thought to protect the pancreas from prematurely activated proteases but the recentEdinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa, L, Young, J & Calam, J 1990, 'Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa

MacDonald, Andrew


Human dirofilariasis of the buccal mucosa: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human dirofilariasis is a helminthic zoonosis that is common in some parts of the world. A sporadic case of dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa has been reported in a non-endemic area of southern China. Clinical findings, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management are discussed. This is the fourth case of human dirofilariasis involving the oral mucosa reported in world literature.

E. W. H To; W. M Tsang; K. F Chan



Tissue-Engineered Buccal Mucosa Urethroplasty—Clinical Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWhilst buccal mucosa is the most versatile tissue for urethral replacement, the quest continues for an ideal tissue replacement for the urethra when substantial tissue transfer is needed. Previously we described the development of autologous tissue-engineered buccal mucosa (TEBM). Here we report clinical outcomes of the first human series of its use in substitution urethroplasty.

Saurabh Bhargava; Jacob M. Patterson; Richard D. Inman; Sheila MacNeil; Christopher R. Chapple



Corticosteroids in diseases of the oral mucosa.  


The introduction of corticosteroids into oral medicine heralded a therapeutic advance, and substantial benefits have occurred from their use. Three topical steroids are being used currently in oral diseases, i.e. hydrocortisone hemisuccinate, triamcinolone in Orabase 0-1 per cent and betamethasone valerate 0-1 mg. The efficacy of these agents can be increased markedly if they are administered during the prodromal phase of ulceration, i.e. when lymphocyte activity is at its maximum. Therapeutic doses of all of them can be exceeded three times without impairing adrenal function. Nevertheless some of these preparations, as exemplified by topical medication, induced an unfortunate acute pseudomembranous candidiasis without any alteration in the plasma cortisol level. The routine examination and treatment of ulcers in the mouth should be a careful exercise helped by a good light source and a tongue spatula. Oral lesions affecting the soft tissues may be often difficult to diagnose, because of the rapid occurrence of secondary changes, such as maceration from moisture, abrasion by food and teeth, perhaps, and the existence of erosions and ulcerations from ruptured vesicles or bullae. Thus, diagnosis will depend not only on the grouping and distribution of lesion, but also on its subsequent behaviour. In some cases too there will be associated changes in the facial skin or elsewhere in the body. PMID:1068978

Kay, L W



The Acquisition of Clicks by Non-Mother-Tongue Speakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the difficulty experienced by many non-mother-tongue speakers in acquiring the click sounds of the Xhosa language. Eighteen English- and Afrikaans-speaking students, aged 10 through 13, with no previous knowledge of Xhosa were instructed and tested in making the 15 different click sounds that occur in the Xhosa language. The…

Lewis, Philip


Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

Iskarous, Khalil



Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

Ng, Chin Leong Patrick



Helping out Mr Tongue, or, Who's the boss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective in working with articulation delayed\\/disordered children is to find constructive, positive and fun ways of intervening which support the child's self esteem. This paper describes an approach developed from systems theory (family therapy) which invites children to be in charge or 'be boss' of their tongue, by externalizing their difficulty and allowing them to deal with it

Kathleen Stacey



Vanilloid Receptor Expression in the Rat Tongue and Palate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsaicin, the pungent substance in hot peppers, evokes a sensation of burning pain by stimulating the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) on primary afferent neurons. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the taste papillae in the tongue and palate are richly innervated by VR1-immunoreactive nerve fibers. Furthermore, VR1 protein expression was seen in the epithelium facing the oral cavity, although taste cells seemed to

M. A. Kido; H. Muroya; T. Yamaza; Y. Terada; T. Tanaka



Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona



Tongue swelling and necrosis after brain tumor surgery  

PubMed Central

We present a case of tongue necrosis due to intraoperative pressure injury. A laryngeal mask airway with adhesive electrodes was inserted into the oropharynx, over an endotracheal tube, to facilitate glossopharyngeal nerve monitoring during craniotomy for a cerebellopontine angle tumor. The case, mechanisms of injury, and modifications to our current practice are discussed. PMID:23559991

Nimjee, Shahid M.; Wright, David R.; Agrawal, Abhishek; McDonagh, David L.; Husain, Aatif M.; Britz, Gavin W.



Operant Control of Pathological Tongue Thrust in Spastic Cerebral Palsy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behavior modification procedure, carried out at mealtime with a ten-year-old retarded boy who had spastic cerebral palsy, consisted of differential reinforcement and punishment, and resulted in substantial decreases in tongue thrust (reverse swallowing) and food expulsion, and a large increase in observed chewing. (Author/DLS)

Thompson, George A., Jr.



The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

Alshammari, Marzook M.



Vision of tongue movements bias auditory speech perception.  


Audiovisual speech perception is likely based on the association between auditory and visual information into stable audiovisual maps. Conflicting audiovisual inputs generate perceptual illusions such as the McGurk effect. Audiovisual mismatch effects could be either driven by the detection of violations in the standard audiovisual statistics or via the sensorimotor reconstruction of the distal articulatory event that generated the audiovisual ambiguity. In order to disambiguate between the two hypotheses we exploit the fact that the tongue is hidden to vision. For this reason, tongue movement encoding can solely be learned via speech production but not via others? speech perception alone. Here we asked participants to identify speech sounds while matching or mismatching visual representations of tongue movements which were shown. Vision of congruent tongue movements facilitated auditory speech identification with respect to incongruent trials. This result suggests that direct visual experience of an articulator movement is not necessary for the generation of audiovisual mismatch effects. Furthermore, we suggest that audiovisual integration in speech may benefit from speech production learning. PMID:25172391

D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Berry, Jeffrey James; Fadiga, Luciano



Westward shift of the Yellow Sea warm salty tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow

Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su



Tongue shape complexity for liquids in Parkinsonian speech.  


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Speech impairments in PD are characterized by slowed muscle activation, muscle rigidity, variable rate, and imprecise consonant articulation. Complex muscular synergies are necessary to coordinate tongue motion for linguistic purposes. Our previous work showed that people with PD had an altered rate of change in tongue shape during vowel to consonant transitions, but differences were small, perhaps due to the simplicity of the speech task. In order to test sentences, four PD participants and three older controls were imaged using ultrasound. They repeated sentences from the Rainbow Passage. Tongue shape complexity in liquids and adjacent vowels was assessed by their bending energy [Young et al., Info. Control 25(4), 357-370 (1974)]. Preliminary results show that bending energy was higher in liquids than in vowels, and higher in controls than PD speakers. Production of liquids typical requires a flexible tongue shape; these PD speakers show reduced flexibility that is nonetheless compensated sufficiently for the production of intelligible speech. Implications for speech motor control and for PD evaluation will be discussed. PMID:25235958

Whalen, Doug H; Dawson, Katherine M; Carl, Micalle; Iskarous, Khalil



[Study on illuminant spectrum qualifications for collecting tongue condition].  


The traditional light sources in the diagnostic method of tongue collection such as daylight or even candles are easily affected by weather and environment. It isn't favorable for doctors to obtain the accurate information of the tongue condition. The authors' introduce the electric light sources to compensate or replace daylight to obtain stable and real tongue image and scientific results. Lighted by lamps with different radiation spectrum power distribution property, various color rendition and color temperature, the same object will indicate different colors. In this study, spectrum analysis is carried out on four fluorescent lamps and the research is based on iamge identification techniques of tongue color. Applying the methods of spectrum analysis, choose the best one in four illuminants with their specific spectrum by testing instruments and comparing with the results using several spectrum parameters and chromatic coordinates tolerance ellipses. Result showed PHILIPS YPZ220/18-3U. RR. D (with the correlative color temperature 6 500 K) lamp which has the most similar spectrum property with daylight can be used as standard lamp. The research provides the theoretic and experimental basis for choosing electric light sources to replace daylight. PMID:18720782

Song, Xian-Jie; Xu, Chen-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Gu; Zhang, Zhi-Feng



Characterization of piezoelectric film sensors for tongue-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the pressure detection quality and signal clarity for two types of piezoelectric film sen- sors. One sensor was coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) while the other remained uncoated. Our goal was to determine how coating the sensor with PDMS would affect sensor per- formance. Our long-term goal is to develop a tongue-computer interface using piezoelectric film

Lukash Monczak; Daniel Shapiro; Alexey Borisenko; Ovidiu Draghici; Miodrag Bolic



Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

Dovel, Jason



Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy in 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results obtained with {sup 192}Ir low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Between December 1979 and January 1998, 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma were treated by exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy, with or without neck dissection. {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy was performed according to the 'Paris system' with a median total dose of 60 Gy (median dose rate, 0.5 Gy/h). Results: Overall survival was 74.3% and 46.6% at 2 and 5 years. Local control was 79.1% at 2 years and regional control, respectively, 75.9% and 69.5% at 2 and 5 years (Kaplan-Meier method). Systematic dissection revealed 44.6% occult node metastases, and histologic lymph node involvement was identified as the main significant factor for survival. Complication rate was 16.5% (Grade 3, 2.9%). Half of the patients presented previous and/or successive malignant tumor (ear-nose-throat, esophagus, or bronchus). Conclusion: Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for T2 tongue carcinoma. Regional control and survival are excellent in patients undergoing systematic neck dissection, which is mandatory in our experience because of a high rate of occult lymph node metastases.

Bourgier, Celine [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Coche-Dequeant, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Fournier, Charles [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Castelain, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Prevost, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Lefebvre, Jean-Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Lartigau, Eric [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France)]. E-mail:



Intraoral Wound Closure with Tissue-Engineered Mucosa: New Perspectives for Urethra Reconstruction with Buccal Mucosa Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urethra reconstruction, the creation of a new ure- thra from a free oral mucosa graft is an established surgical technique. The oral mucosa is removed at the same time that the urethra reconstruction procedure is performed. Depending on the size of graft required, the intraoral wound is closed primarily or left to heal secondarily. The latter method limits this

Ronald Schimming; Alexander Frankenschmidt



The permeation of nalmefene hydrochloride across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa.  


The permeability of nalmefene hydrochloride (NH) across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa was investigated in vitro. Five different regions of ovine nasal mucosa (superior turbinate mucosa, middle turbinate mucosa, inferior turbinate mucosa, posterior septum mucosa, and anterior septum mucosa) were studied. The results showed that the permeability coefficients of NH through different regions of nasal mucosa were different, and the suitable regions for the absorption of NH were the middle turbinate mucosa, the posterior septum mucosa and the superior turbinate. At the same time, the middle turbinate mucosa was the largest region among the five regions, thus it was the main absorption region for NH. The high uniformity of the middle turbinate mucosa also made it the most suitable model for the permeation of NH in vitro. PMID:17139110

Du, Gani; Gao, Yongliang; Nie, Shufang; Pan, Weisan



Temperature Gradient Reconstructions from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Western and Eastern Equatorial Pacific (WEP and EEP) indicate the Equatorial Pacific was in a permanent El Niño-like state during the early Pliocene. Specifically, SST in the WEP was nearly the same as today, while SST in the EEP cold tongue region was 2-3 °C warmer than today. Climatic transitions recorded in the EEP are of particular interest due to the region’s sensitivity to changes in upwelling and thermocline depth, and due to its role in the global ocean heat balance. However, not much is known about the evolution of the EEP cold tongue. This study aims to reconstruct the east-west and north-south gradients within the EEP using new SST and sub-surface temperature records from ODP Sites 848, 849, and 853 and published paleoceanographic records from the EEP to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the EEP cold tongue from the Pliocene to Recent. Mg/Ca analyses on Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globorotalia tumida and alkenone analyses have been made to reconstruct east-west and north-south SST and thermocline depth, respectively. Currently, G. tumida Mg/Ca records have been generated for Sites 848 (most southern) and 853 (most northern) and G. sacculifer Mg/Ca and alkenone records have been generated for Site 848. This study compares new data to published data to achieve exceptional spatial coverage of the EEP cold tongue. Comparison of SST data to reconstructions of thermocline temperatures, paleoproductivity, and wind field strength will provide insight into the underlying causes of changes in the intensity and spatial extent of the cold tongue. Understanding these causes will aid in explaining the transition from the permanent El Niño-like state to modern conditions as climate cooled through the Pliocene.

Ford, H. L.; Ravelo, C.; Hovan, S. A.



Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.



Sexual dimorphism in the histologic organization of the muscle fibers in human tongue.  


Tongue movements are critical for speech, swallowing, and respiration; and tongue dysfunction could lead to dysarthria, dysphagia, and obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Our current understanding of the contributions of specific tongue muscles (TOs) to precise movement patterns is limited. Likewise, there is still little information regarding the orientation of histologic muscle fibers of the tongue in humans, especially between men and women. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the histologic organization in the tongue of men and women. Ten tongues were studied in human specimens obtained from necropsies (five men and five women). The muscles were analyzed using histology, and the morphometric parameters were measured using Image Pro-Plus Software (Image Pro-Plus 6.0; Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). Slices were obtained from the anterior, median, and posterior parts of the tongue. We classified and estimated the percentages of transverse (T), oblique (O), and longitudinal (L) fibers in the tongue. To quantify the percentage of fibers in each category in the tongue, the shape coefficient (Shape Z) was estimated. Statistical differences were found between the orientation of the muscle fibers of men and women only for the middle region of the tongue. The middle region of the tongue in women compared with men has a smaller difference in the variation of the percentage of fibers T (P=0.0004), O (P=0.0006), and L (P=0.0013). These morphologic findings are probably related to physiological differences. PMID:24629642

de Campos, Deivis; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Heck, Layana; Xavier, Léder Leal



Tongue Pressure Modulation for Initial Gel Consistency in a Different Oral Strategy  

PubMed Central

Background In the recent hyper-aged societies of developed countries, the market for soft diets for patients with dysphagia has been growing and numerous jelly-type foods have become available. However, interrelationships between the biomechanics of oral strategies and jelly texture remain unclear. The present study investigated the influence of the initial consistency of jelly on tongue motor kinetics in different oral strategies by measuring tongue pressure against the hard palate. Methods Jellies created as a mixture of deacylated gellan gum and psyllium seed gum with different initial consistencies (hard, medium or soft) were prepared as test foods. Tongue pressure production while ingesting 5 ml of jelly using different oral strategies (Squeezing or Mastication) was recorded in eight healthy volunteers using an ultra-thin sensor sheet system. Maximal magnitude, duration and total integrated values (tongue work) of tongue pressure for size reduction and swallowing in each strategy were compared among initial consistencies of jelly, and between Squeezing and Mastication. Results In Squeezing, the tongue performed more work for size reduction with increasing initial consistency of jelly by modulating both the magnitude and duration of tongue pressure over a wide area of hard palate, but tongue work for swallowing increased at the posterior-median and circumferential parts by modulating only the magnitude of tongue pressure. Conversely, in Mastication, the tongue performed more work for size reduction with increasing initial consistency of jelly by modulating both magnitude and duration of tongue pressure mainly at the posterior part of the hard palate, but tongue work as well as other tongue pressure parameters for swallowing showed no differences by type of jelly. Conclusions These results reveal fine modulations in tongue-palate contact according to the initial consistency of jelly and oral strategies. PMID:24643054

Yokoyama, Sumiko; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tamine, Ken-ichi; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Funami, Takahiro; Ishihara, Sayaka; Ono, Takahiro



Internal kinematics of the tongue in relation to muscle activity and jaw movement in the pig.  


To explore the coordinative characteristics of tongue deformation, muscle activity and jaw movement during feeding, six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue body of ten 12-week-old Yucatan minipigs 1 week before the recording. These crystals formed a wedge-shaped configuration to allow recording dimensional changes in lengths, anterior and posterior widths and posterior thicknesses of the tongue body during feeding. Wire electromyographic activities (EMG) of superior and inferior longitudinalis, verticalis/transversus, genioglossus, styloglossus, masseter and digastricus and jaw movements were recorded simultaneously. Signals from these three sources were synchronized for real-time analyses. The results indicate: (i) dimensional changes were stereotypical in relation to each cycle of all three feeding behaviours; (ii) during chewing, expansion of tongue widths mainly occurred in the occlusal phase of jaw movement and was less coupled with the activity of tongue muscles, but the expansions of length and thickness were seen in the opening and closing phases and were better coupled with the activity of tongue muscles (P < 0.05); (iii) ingestion was characterized by the two-phased jaw opening, early expansion of anterior width prior to the occlusal phase and strong associations between tongue deformation and muscle activity; (iv) during drinking, the duration of the opening and closing phases was significantly prolonged (P < 0.01), the durations of tongue widening and lengthening were significantly shortened (P < 0.05) and anterior widening was predominant in the opening rather than in the closing or occlusal phases as compared with chewing and ingestion; and (v) the intrinsic tongue muscles did not show more or stronger correlations with the tongue deformation than did the extrinsic tongue muscles. These results suggest that (i) regional widening, lengthening and thickening of the tongue body occurs sequentially in relation to jaw movement phases, but the initiation of tongue dimensional expansions does not correspond with the activation of tongue muscles simultaneously; (ii) there is a better coupling between tongue deformations and tongue muscle activations in the sagittal (lengthening and thickening) than the transverse (widening) planes; and (iii) the patterns and ranges of tongue deformation and their relations to muscle activity and jaw movement are task-specific and the expansion magnitudes of tongue deformation does not have closer correlations with the amount of EMG activity in the intrinsic than the extrinsic tongue or jaw muscles. PMID:19650859

Liu, Z-J; Shcherbatyy, V; Kayalioglu, M; Seifi, A



Malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant of the tongue.  


The majority of the oncogenic osteomalacia-associated mesenchymal tumors are considered to belong to the category of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors, mixed connective tissue (PMTMCT) variant, of which malignant cases are very rare. Here we report a case of a recurrent malignant PMTMCT variant which arose in the tongue. The patient was treated with surgery at an initial treatment and the first recurrence. In accordance with the tumor recurrence and resection, the hypophosphatemia progressed and improved. However, hypophosphatemia did not progress after receiving radiation therapy at the second recurrence even though the recurrent tumor gradually increased its size. These results suggest clinical feature of malignant PMTMCT could be changed by radiation therapy. Thus, this report could add an insight to the nature of PMTMCT. PMID:18329207

Uramoto, Naoki; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu



Radiation treatment decreases transforming growth factor alpha expression in squamous carcinoma of the tongue.  


Ionizing radiation (XRT) is often used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCCT) but little is known of its genetic effects on surviving cancer cells. The effect of XRT on p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) tumor marker expression was evaluated using immunohistochemical analysis in 79 patients with SCCT. Sixty-six patients received no radiation, while 13 received XRT before surgery. Radiation did not influence EGFR or p53 expression. TGF alpha expression, however, was significantly decreased in radiated tumors (15% versus 43%, P = 0.04). These data suggest that XRT either decreases the expression of TGF alpha in SCCT (suggesting a genetic alteration in surviving cancer cells), or does not kill cancer cells with decreased TGF alpha expression. In the latter case, diminished TGF alpha expression may serve as a marker of radioresistance. PMID:8180957

Sauter, E R; Coia, L R; Eisenberg, B L; Ridge, J A



Mangement of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth after excisional biopsy.  


A review of the records of 23 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth treated with irradiation after excisional biopsy has shown that: (a) Radiotherapy, primarily using interstitial radium implants, results in excellent local control of the primary area (100%) with preservation of function. (b) The frequency and severity of soft-tissue and bone necrosis may be reduced by not exceeding 5,500-6,000 rads from radium implants when only subclinical aggregates of cancer cells are probably present. (c) Theincidence of subsequent neck disease is low-8.7% (2 of 23 patients), and does not warrant routine elective irradiation of the cervical lymphatics. PMID:1138260

Ange, D W; Lindberg, R D; Guillamondegui, O M



Tongue squamous cell carcinoma in young nonsmoking and nondrinking patients: 3 clinical cases of orthodontic interest.  


Oral squamous cell carcinoma traditionally affects older men who smoke and drink. A change in this profile has been reported because of an increased incidence in young nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. The purpose of this article was to describe a series of young nonsmoking and nondrinking patients diagnosed with tongue squamous cell carcinoma who had recently received orthodontic treatment or evaluation. Details regarding diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and disease evolution are presented, with a review of the pertinent literature. Orthodontists often treat young adults, who have frequent dental appointments and long-term follow-ups. Thus, practitioners should pay special attention to young patients during dental consultations, since the incidence of malignant oral lesions in this segment of the population seems to be increasing. PMID:24373660

Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Carvalho Andrade, Marco Aurelio; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte



Deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression and lymph node metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node metastasis is a critical event in the progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The identification of biomarkers associated with the metastatic process would provide critical prognostic information to facilitate clinical decision making. Previous studies showed that deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression is a frequent event in TSCC and may be associated with enhanced cell invasion. The purpose of this study is to further evaluate whether the expression level of SOD2 is correlated with the metastatic status in TSCC patients. Methods We first examined the SOD2 expression at mRNA level on 53 TSCC and 22 normal control samples based on pooled-analysis of existing microarray datasets. To confirm our observations, we examined the expression of SOD2 at protein level on an additional TSCC patient cohort (n = 100), as well as 31 premalignant dysplasias, 15 normal tongue mucosa, and 32 lymph node metastatic diseases by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results The SOD2 mRNA level in primary TSCC tissue is reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the first TSCC patient cohort. The SOD2 protein level in primary TSCC tissue is also reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the second TSCC patient cohort. Deregulation of SOD2 expression is a common event in TSCC and appears to be associated with disease progression. Statistical analysis revealed that the reduced SOD2 expression in primary tumor tissue is associated with lymph node metastasis in both TSCC patient cohorts examined. Conclusions Our study suggested that the deregulation of SOD2 in TSCC has potential predictive values for lymph node metastasis, and may serve as a therapeutic target for patients at risk of metastasis. PMID:20618948



Antimutagenic activity and preventive effect of black tea on buccal mucosa cancer  

PubMed Central

A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice. PMID:24137377




An engineered 3D human airway mucosa model based on an SIS scaffold.  


To investigate interrelations of human obligate airway pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, and their hosts test systems with high in vitro/in vivo correlation are of urgent need. Using a tissue engineering approach, we generated a 3D test system of the airway mucosa with human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (hTEC) and fibroblasts seeded on a clinically implemented biological scaffold. To investigate if hTEC display tumour-specific characteristics we analysed Raman spectra of hTEC and the adenocarcinoma cell line Calu-3. To establish optimal conditions for infection studies, we treated human native airway mucosa segments with B. pertussis. Samples were processed for morphologic analysis. Whereas our test system consisting of differentiated epithelial cells and migrating fibroblasts shows high in vitro/in vivo correlation, hTEC seeded on the scaffold as monocultures did not resemble the in vivo situation. Differences in Raman spectra of hTEC and Calu-3 were identified in distinct wave number ranges between 720 and 1662 cm(-1) indicating that hTEC do not display tumour-specific characteristics. Infection of native tissue with B. pertussis led to cytoplasmic vacuoles, damaged mitochondria and destroyed epithelial cells. Our test system is suitable for infection studies with human obligate airway pathogens by mimicking the physiological microenvironment of the human airway mucosa. PMID:24912816

Steinke, Maria; Gross, Roy; Walles, Heike; Gangnus, Rainer; Schütze, Karin; Walles, Thorsten



Cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptors enhance wound healing in the rat gastric mucosa  

PubMed Central

Although physiological functions of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor are well explored, little is known about its role during healing. Here, we evaluated the role of this receptor in the rat oxyntic mucosa following the introduction of a cryoulcer. In this model, we located and quantified CCK-B/gastrin receptors by reverse transcriptase PCR and receptor autoradiography. Rats with cryoulcers were treated with placebo, omeprazole, the CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist YF-476, omeprazole plus YF-476, gastrin-17, and gastrin 17 plus YF-476. During wound healing, CCK-B/gastrin receptors were specifically expressed and localized to the regenerative mucosal ulcer margin. This high expression was limited in time, and the pattern of expression of CCK-B/gastrin receptors correlated closely with the proliferative activity of the regenerative mucosa. Functionally, omeprazole and gastrin-17 caused profound hypergastrinemia, increased cell proliferation in the mucosal ulcer margin and accelerated the late ulcer healing phase. These effects were completely reversed by cotherapy with YF-476. These in vivo and vitro data suggest that CCK-B/gastrin receptors in regenerative rat gastric oxyntic mucosa enhance trophic effects during wound healing. PMID:11032862

Schmassmann, Adrian; Reubi, Jean Claude



Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.  


Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan



Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth  

PubMed Central

The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and ramus height, the anterior dental arch and midface width. These results suggest that reducing tongue body volume in young animals slows craniofacial skeletal growth and anterior dental arch expansion during rapid growth. The mandible, in particular its symphysis portion, and the anterior dental arch width are most affected. These effects may in part contribute to the decrease of functional loads in the anterior mouth by a volume-reduced tongue. PMID:18579119

Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A.



Acid-induced release of platelet-activating factor by human esophageal mucosa induces inflammatory mediators in circular smooth muscle.  


In a human in vitro model of esophagitis, we investigated the genesis of esophagitis-associated dysmotility by examining HCl-induced production of inflammatory mediators in the mucosa and investigating their effect on esophageal circular muscle. Muscularis propria was removed from organ donors' esophagi, leaving the mucosal tube intact. The tube was tied at both ends, forming a sac, and filled with HCl at pH 4. After 3 h of incubation, the supernatant surrounding the sac was analyzed or applied to circular muscle strips. HCl alone did not affect circular muscle contraction in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), but supernatant of HCl-treated mucosa abolished contraction. The inhibition was reversed by the platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist CV3988 [(+/-)-3-(N-octadecylcarbamoyl)-2-methoxy) propyl-(2-thiazolioethyl) phosphate], whereas the PAF analog 2-O-methyl platelet-activating factor C-16 (PAF-16) inhibited EFS-induced contraction and acetylcholine (ACh) release in circular muscle strips. The hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase reversed the inhibition in contraction, to the same extent as CV3988. We therefore measured PAF and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in mucosa, mucosa supernatant, and circular muscle. HCl increased PAF and interleukin (IL)-1beta (but not IL-6, prostaglandin E(2), or H(2)O(2)) in mucosa, and only PAF was released into the supernatant, presumably to affect circular muscle. In circular muscle, exogenous PAF induced sequential formation of IL-6, H(2)O(2), IL-1beta, and PAF. Release of PAF by the mucosa inhibits ACh release from circular muscle layer neurons and initiates sequential formation of inflammatory mediators in muscle, resulting in production of PAF by the muscle itself, possibly initiating in a self-sustaining cycle. PMID:16807360

Cheng, Ling; Cao, Weibiao; Behar, Jose; Fiocchi, Claudio; Biancani, Piero; Harnett, Karen M



Severe Pulmonary Suppuration with Infection-Induced Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome following Tongue Cancer Surgery in a Patient Undergoing Tocilizumab Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis treated by tocilizumab (TCZ) presented with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. While surgery was performed without any complications the aspiration pneumonia rapidly worsened by postoperative day 2 and severe pulmonary suppuration in the right lung field with infection-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was diagnosed. Antibiotic and respirator treatment improved her condition. The anti-inflammatory effect of TCZ may mask the symptoms and signs of severe infection with SIRS. PMID:24872899

Yamagata, Kenji; Shimojo, Nobutake; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ijima, Junya; Hasegawa, Shogo; Yanagawa, Toru; Mizutani, Taro; Bukawa, Hiroki



Short-course hypofractionated radiochemotherapy for unresectable locally advanced cancer of the base of tongue: palliation only? A case report and short review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We present a case of unresectable cancer of the base of tongue treated with hypofractionated 3D conformal radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy. Based on the excellent tumour response in this radiotherapy regimen and international experience in short course treatments we shortly reviewed, we propose that this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting for patients unsuitable for the a standard long course radiochemotherapy schedule. PMID:25061579

Kalogeridi, Maria-Aggeliki; Kouloulias, Vassilios; Zygogianni, Anna



Molecular Detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the Etiological Agent of a Chronic Tongue Ulcer in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient  

PubMed Central

Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect “American histoplasmosis.” A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin. PMID:16081997

Heym, Beate; Gehanno, Pierre; Friocourt, Veronique; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Le Moal, Michele; Husson, Corinne; Leibowitch, Jacques; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Helene



Molecular detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the etiological agent of a chronic tongue ulcer in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient.  


Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect "American histoplasmosis". A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin. PMID:16081997

Heym, Beate; Gehanno, Pierre; Friocourt, Véronique; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Le Moal, Michèle; Husson, Corinne; Leibowitch, Jacques; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène



Evaluating the Tongue-Hold Maneuver Using High-Resolution Manometry and Electromyography  

PubMed Central

The tongue-hold maneuver is a widely used clinical technique designed to increase posterior pharyngeal wall movement in individuals with dysphagia. It is hypothesized that the tongue-hold maneuver results in increased contraction of the superior pharyngeal constrictor. However, an electromyographic study of the pharynx and tongue during the tongue-hold is still needed to understand whether and how swallow muscle activity and pressure may change with this maneuver. We tested eight healthy young participants using simultaneous intramuscular electromyography with high-resolution manometry during three task conditions including (a) saliva swallow without maneuver, (b) saliva swallow with the tongue tip at the lip, and (c) saliva swallow during the tongue-hold maneuver. We tested the hypothesis that tongue and pharyngeal muscle activity would increase during the experimental tasks, but that pharyngeal pressure would remain relatively unchanged. We found that the pre-swallow magnitude of tongue, pharyngeal constrictor, and cricopharyngeus muscle activity increased. During the swallow, the magnitude and duration of tongue and pharyngeal constrictor muscle activity each increased. However, manometric pressures and durations remained unchanged. These results suggest that increased superior pharyngeal constrictor activity may serve to maintain relatively stable pharyngeal pressures in the absence of posterior tongue movement. Thus, the tongue-hold maneuver may be a relatively simple but robust example of how the medullary swallow center is equipped to dynamically coordinate actions between tongue and pharynx. Our findings emphasize the need for combined modality swallow assessment to include high-resolution manometry and intramuscular electromyography to evaluate the potential benefit of the tongue-hold maneuver for clinical populations. PMID:24969727

Hammer, Michael J.; Jones, Corinne A.; Mielens, Jason D.; Kim, Chloe H.; McCulloch, Timothy M.



Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mobile tongue: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) occurs more commonly in the minor salivary glands of the palate on than the tongue. ACC is a malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1-2% of all head and neck malignancies and 10-15% of all salivary gland malignancies. ACC affects the exocrine glands at any site, but the parotid gland is the most common site in the head and neck region. Many factors should be taken into account in the prognosis of ACC, including the histological and clinical stages of the disease. The most striking feature of ACC is that it is locally aggressive, with a high recurrence level, perineural invasion and distant metastases, especially to the lungs and bones. The most common presentation histologically is the presence of cribriform appearance (Swiss cheese pattern). The present case is a rare one present on the tongue. PMID:23814551

Baskaran, Pavitra; Mithra, R; Sathyakumar, M; Misra, Satyaranjan



Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mobile tongue: A rare case.  


Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) occurs more commonly in the minor salivary glands of the palate on than the tongue. ACC is a malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1-2% of all head and neck malignancies and 10-15% of all salivary gland malignancies. ACC affects the exocrine glands at any site, but the parotid gland is the most common site in the head and neck region. Many factors should be taken into account in the prognosis of ACC, including the histological and clinical stages of the disease. The most striking feature of ACC is that it is locally aggressive, with a high recurrence level, perineural invasion and distant metastases, especially to the lungs and bones. The most common presentation histologically is the presence of cribriform appearance (Swiss cheese pattern). The present case is a rare one present on the tongue. PMID:23814551

Baskaran, Pavitra; Mithra, R; Sathyakumar, M; Misra, Satyaranjan



Minor salivary gland mucinous adenocarcinoma of buccal mucosa - case report and review of the literature.  


Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract but head and neck localisations are very rare. This article presents the case of a 67-year-old patient suffering from a minor salivary gland MAC of the left buccal mucosa, who was treated in the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery in Krakow due to multiple recurrences of the tumour. The results of immunohistochemical staining, the course of surgical treatment and follow-up, as well as a review of literature are also discussed. PMID:24375048

Wyszy?ska-Pawelec, G; Koryczan, P; Zapa?a, J; Gontarz, M; Opach, M; Ku?nierz, P; Kosowski, B; Adamek, D



Hound's-tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) poisoning in a calf.  


Cynoglossum officinale was believed to be responsible for the death of one calf and possibly 5 other calves in a group of 9 calves being fed chopped hay contaminated by this plant. The plant, commonly known as hound's tongue, contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids and has been determined to be toxic to horses fed contaminated hay, but was fed to cattle at the same time with no effect. PMID:2703425

Baker, D C; Smart, R A; Ralphs, M; Molyneux, R J



Kinematic analysis of tongue movement control in spastic dysarthria  

E-print Network

This study provided a quantitative analysis of the kinematic deviances in dysarthria associated with spastic cerebral palsy. Of particular interest were tongue tip movements during alveolar consonant release. Our analysis based on EMA measures indicated that speakers with spastic dysarthria had a restricted range of articulation and disturbances in articulatory-voicing coordination. The degree of kinematic deviances was greater for lower intelligibility speakers, supporting an association between articulatory dysfunctions and intelligibility in spastic dysarthria. Index Terms: dysarthria, kinematic analysis, EMA 1.

Heejin Kim; Panying Rong; Torrey M. Loucks; Mark Hasegawa-johnson



Observation and Simulation of Large-scale Deformation of Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a physiological articulatory model for speech production, mastication and swallowing, we proposed an analysis-by-synthesis (AbS) based estimation method for investigating contributions of the tongue muscles in both exterior movement and interior deformation using observations and model simulations. The validity of the method was confirmed by comparing the estimated muscle activation to known muscle activation via model simulation using

Jianwu DANG; Satoru FUJITA; Emi MURANO; Maureen STONE


Sam Shepard's Anti-Western Silent Tongue as Cultural Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, hard on the heels of Dances with Wolves, Sam Shepard’s small budget Western, Silent Tongue, made a fleeting appearance in art-house movie theatres. The film received appreciative coverage in those publications for which paying attention to offbeat, slightly avant-gardist cultural manifestations is part of their liberal selfimage, but not unexpectedly, mainstream media took no heed. Instead, Dances with

Sandra Wynands



Clocking convergence to Arnold tongues - The H-rank approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational techniques based on ranks of Hankel matrices (H-ranks) is used to study the convergence to Arnold tongues in the circle map. It appears that the process of convergence to the phase-locked mode of the discrete stationary attractor is far from being trivial. Figures of pseudoranks of Hankel matrices constructed from transient solutions of the circle map carry important physical information about complex nonlinear processes and are also beautiful from the aesthetical point of view.

Landauskas, Mantas; Ragulskis, Minvydas



Ultrastructural changes in malignant transformation of oral mucosa.  


Transmission electron microscopy (EM) has been used to identify the ultrastructural details of normal and cancerous human oral mucosa. However, inconsistent reports of structural descriptions have rendered transmission EM valueless in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or as a prognostic indicator. To identify features of dysplasia for diagnostic purposes, normal mucosa, severe dysplasia, oral SCC and normal margin adjacent to oral SCC were used to compare the ultrastructural features of normal and premalignant oral mucosa and oral SCC. The preparatory stages of dehydration, embedding, cutting and positive staining for transmission EM were modified and tested to improve ultrastructural definition. Thin and discontinuous basal laminas were found in mucosa with severe dysplasia and normal margin adjacent to oral SCC. No basal lamina was identified in oral SCC. This study has shown that there are some ultrastructural changes during malignant transformation of oral mucosa. Together with other laboratory investigative techniques, transmission EM may be helpful in detecting malignant changes in oral mucosa. PMID:12054710

Cheng, L H-H; Hudson, J



Rapid honey characterization and botanical classification by an electronic tongue.  


In this paper a commercial electronic tongue (?Astree, Alpha M.O.S.) was applied for botanical classification and physicochemical characterization of honey samples. The electronic tongue was comprised of seven potentiometric sensors coupled with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Botanical classification was performed by PCA, CCA and ANN modeling on 12 samples of acacia, chestnut and honeydew honey. The physicochemical characterization of honey was obtained by ANN modeling and the parameters included were electrical conductivity, acidity, water content, invert sugar and total sugar. The initial reference values for the physicochemical parameters observed were determined by traditional methods. Botanical classification of honey samples obtained by ANN was 100% accurate while the highest correlation between observed and predicted values was obtained for electrical conductivity (0.999), followed by acidity (0.997), water content (0.994), invert sugar content (0.988) and total sugar content (0.979). All developed ANN models for rapid honey characterization and botanical classification performed excellently showing the potential of the electronic tongue as a tool in rapid honey analysis and characterization. The advantage of using such a technique is a simple sample preparation procedure, there are no chemicals involved and there are no additional costs except the initial measurements required for ANN model development. PMID:21645743

Major, Nikola; Markovi?, Ksenija; Krpan, Marina; Sari?, Goran; Hruškar, Mirjana; Vah?i?, Nada



Predicting midsagittal pharynx shape from tongue position during vowel production.  


The shape of the pharynx has a large effect on the acoustics of vowels, but direct measurement of this part of the vocal tract is difficult. The present study examines the efficacy of inferring midsagittal pharynx shape from the position of the tongue, which is much more amenable to measurement. Midsagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained for multiple repetitions of 11 static English vowels spoken by two subjects (one male and one female). From these, midsagittal widths were measured at approximately 3-mm intervals along the entire vocal tract. A regression analysis was then used to assess whether the pharyngeal widths could be predicted from the locations and width measurements for four positions on the tongue, namely, those likely to be the locations of a receiver coil for an electromagnetometer system. Predictability was quite high throughout the vocal tract (multiple r> 0.9), except for the extreme ends (i.e., larynx and lips) and small decreases for the male subject in the uvula region. The residuals from this analysis showed that the accuracy of predictions was generally quite high, with 89.2% of errors being less than 2 mm. The extremes of the vocal tract, where the resolution of the MRI was poorer, accounted for much of the error. For languages like English, which do not use advanced tongue root (ATR) distinctively, the midsagittal pharynx shape of static vowels can be predicted with high accuracy. PMID:10391625

Whalen, D H; Kang, A M; Magen, H S; Fulbright, R K; Gore, J C



Two cross-linguistic factors underlying tongue shapes for vowels.  


Desirable characteristics of a vocal-tract parametrization include accuracy, low dimensionality, and generalizability across speakers and languages. A low-dimensional, speaker-independent linear parametrization of vowel tongue shapes can be obtained using the PARAFAC three-mode factor analysis procedure [Harshman et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 693-707 (1977)]. Harshman et al. applied PARAFAC to midsagittal x-ray vowel data from five English speakers, reporting that two speaker-independent factors are required to accurately represent the tongue shape measured along anatomically normalized vocal-tract diameter grid lines. Subsequently, the cross-linguistic generality of this parametrization was brought into question by the application of PARAFAC to Icelandic vowel data, where three nonorthogonal factors were reported [Jackson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 124-143 (1988)]. This solution is shown to be degenerate; a reanalysis of Jackson's Icelandic data produces two factors that match Harshman et al.'s factors for English vowels, contradicting Jackson's distinction between English and Icelandic language-specific "articulatory primes". To obtain vowel factors not constrained by artificial measurement grid lines, x-ray tongue shape traces of six English speakers were marked with 13 equally spaced points. PARAFAC analysis of this unconstrained (x,y) coordinate data results in two factors that are clearly interpretable in terms of the traditional vowel quality dimensions front/back, high/low. PMID:8655802

Nix, D A; Papcun, G; Hogden, J; Zlokarnik, I



Tongue cancer in young patients: case report of a 26-year-old patient  

PubMed Central

Introduction This article presents the case of a 26-year-old woman with tongue cancer. The median age at the diagnosis of the tongue’s cancer is 61?years. Only approximately 2% of patients are diagnosed before the age of 35. Case presentation Our patient survived acute myeloid leukemia (AML) before her second year. She had been having recurrent, poorly healing aphtae on the right side of the tongue for a period of months before the symptoms of the tongue cancer appeared. As a treatment a partial glossectomy was conducted on the right side and a neck dissection of levels I-III. Than a reconstruction of the tongue with a radialis free vascularised flap from left side was performed. Discussion It should be always looked for the causal factor in young patients with a neoplasm. There is strong evidence for second malignant neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:22583815



Selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition causes damage to portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: roles of nitric oxide and NF-kappaB.  


Portal hypertension (PHT) is associated with increased susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to injury by a variety of factors, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that nonselectively inhibit both isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2). PHT gastric mucosa also has excessive nitric oxide (NO) production that contributes to the general increased susceptibility to injury. Using a rat model of PHT, we studied whether selective COX inhibition, which does not damage normal (normotensive) gastric mucosa, is sufficient to cause PHT gastric damage and, if so, whether and how excessive NO is involved. Indomethacin, a nonselective NSAID, caused 2.4-fold more gastric injury to PHT vs. normotensive sham-operated (SO) control rats. Neither NS-398 nor celecoxib, selective COX-2 inhibitors, caused gastric damage in either SO or PHT rats. SC-560, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, did not cause gastric damage in SO rats but dose-dependently caused gastric damage in PHT rats. There was a compensatory increase in COX-2 expression and activity in SC-560-treated SO rats but not SC-560-treated PHT rats. Partial inhibition of NO production restored gastric COX-2 expression and activity levels in SC-560-treated PHT rats to those of SC-560-treated SO rats, by a mechanism consistent with induction of NF-kappaB, and significantly reduced gastric damage. These studies indicate that, in contrast to normotensive gastric mucosa, inhibition of COX-1 alone is sufficient to cause PHT gastric damage as a result of excessive NO that prevents the induction of NF-kappaB and the compensatory increase in COX-2. PMID:15845610

Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Sarfeh, I James; Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hashizume, Makoto; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Jones, Michael K



Adenocarcinomas arising in tongues or short segments of Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus is established when the esophageal mucosa is lined by 2–3 cm of columnar epithelium or when specialized (intestinal type) columnar epithelium of any length is present. Emphasis is frequently placed on long segments of Barrett's because these patients reportedly are at higher risk of developing adenocarcinoma than patients with shorter segments. We present four

Thomas G. Schnell; Stephen J. Sontag; Gregorio Chejfec



Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the owl (Strix uralensis).  


The dorsal lingual surfaces of adult owl (Strix uralensis) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The length of the tongue was about 2 cm. The tip of the tongue of the owl was bifid. Three parts were distinguished in the tongue of the owl: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was a very wide area. There were thread-shaped processes/cells of epithelium in the lingual apex. The small or large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root. PMID:19032633

Emura, S; Chen, H



The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present study compared and evaluated the effects of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on existing plaque levels in children. The investigation was a single blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who performed either tongue scraping or tongue brushing along with tooth brushing or only tooth brushing twice daily under professional supervision for a 21 day period. Dental plaque was recorded using the plaque index described by Silness and Loe at baseline, on day 10 and on day 21. All data was subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Sum Test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The results of the present study show that the tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in plaque levels after 10 days and also after 21 days. It was also noted that both tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing the plaque load in children. How to cite this article: Winnier JJ, Rupesh S, Nayak UA, Reddy V, Rao AP. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):188-192.

Winnier, J Jasmin; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Prasad Rao, Arun



Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. [Department of ENT, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, E.Y.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A.-J. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.T.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail:



Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild-moderate tongue-tie  

PubMed Central

Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2?weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a ‘standard care’ comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5?days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8?weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcome—Latch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5?days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8?weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8?weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5?days. PMID:24249695

Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair



Chronic nicotine intake causes vascular dysregulation in the rat gastric mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Chronic cigarette smoking has adverse effects on peptic ulcer disease because the healing of ulcers is delayed and the incidence of relapses is enhanced. Short term intake of nicotine induces vascular damage in the rat gastric mucosa, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of nicotine's action in the stomach are largely unknown. In this study rats were treated with nicotine, added to their drinking water, for 50 days. They were then anaesthetised and their stomachs perfused with acidified acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Chronic nicotine treatment failed to change the effects of acidified ASA to induce gastric mucosal acid back diffusion, haemorrhagic damage and bleeding. Basal blood flow in the gastric mucosa was also unchanged by chronic nicotine intake, whereas the mucosal hyperaemia evoked by ASA induced acid back diffusion was averted. The concentrations of sulfidoleukotrienes were significantly augmented in the gastric wall of nicotine treated rats. These data show that chronic nicotine intake causes dysregulation of the gastric microcirculation, an effect that is associated with biochemical changes in the stomach. This study thus substantiates the adverse effects of smoking on gastric mucosal pathophysiology. These data suggest that inappropriate regulation of gastric mucosal blood flow inhibits recovery from gastric mucosal injury in smokers. PMID:8282257

Battistel, M; Plebani, M; Di Mario, F; Jocic, M; Lippe, I T; Holzer, P



Morphology and fibre-type distribution in the tongue of the Pogona vitticeps lizard (Iguania, Agamidae).  


Agamid lizards use tongue prehension for capturing all types of prey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional relationship between tongue structure, both surface and musculature, and function during prey capture in Pogona vitticeps. The lack of a detailed description of the distribution of fibre-types in the tongue muscles in some iguanian lizards has hindered the understanding of the functional morphology of the lizard tongue. Three methodological approaches were used to fill this gap. First, morphological analyses were performed (i) on the tongue surface through scanning electron microscopy, and (ii) on the lingual muscle by histological coloration and histochemistry to identify fibre-typing. Secondly, kinematics of prey capture was quantified by using high-speed video recordings to determine the movement capabilities of the tongue. Finally, electromyography (EMG) was used to identify the motor pattern tongue muscles during prey capture. Morphological and functional data were combined to discuss the functional morphology of the tongue in agamid lizards, in relation to their diet. During tongue protraction, M. genioglossus contracts 420 ± 96 ms before tongue-prey contact. Subsequently, Mm. verticalis and hyoglossus contract throughout tongue protraction and retraction. Significant differences are found between the timing of activity of the protractor muscles between omnivorous agamids (Pogona sp., this study) and insectivorous species (Agama sp.), despite similar tongue and jaw kinematics. The data confirm that specialisation toward a diet which includes more vegetal materials is associated with significant changes in tongue morphology and function. Histoenzymology demonstrates that protractor and retractor muscles differ in fibre composition. The proportion of fast glycolytic fibres is significantly higher in the M. hyoglossus (retractor muscle) than in the M. genioglossus (protractor muscle), and this difference is proposed to be associated with differences in the velocity of tongue protrusion and retraction (5 ± 5 and 40 ± 13 cm s(-1) , respectively), similar to Chamaeleonidae. This study provides a way to compare fibre-types and composition in all iguanian and scleroglossan lizards that use tongue prehension to catch prey. PMID:25109482

Zghikh, Leïla-Nastasia; Vangysel, Emilie; Nonclercq, Denis; Legrand, Alexandre; Blairon, Bernard; Berri, Cécile; Bordeau, Thierry; Rémy, Christophe; Burtéa, Carmen; Montuelle, Stéphane J; Bels, Vincent



Dual-task motor performance with a tongue-operated assistive technology compared with hand operations  

PubMed Central

Background To provide an alternative motor modality for control, navigation, and communication in individuals suffering from impairment or disability in hand functions, a Tongue Drive System (TDS) has been developed that allows for real time tracking of tongue motion in an unobtrusive, wireless, and wearable device that utilizes the magnetic field generated by a miniature disk shaped magnetic tracer attached to the tip of the tongue. The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of a concurrent motor or cognitive task on various aspects of simple movement control between hand and tongue using the TDS technology. Methods Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed rapid and slow goal-directed movements of hand and tongue (with TDS) with and without a concurrent motor (hand or tongue) or cognitive (arithmetic and memory) task. Changes in reaction time, completion time, speed, correctness, accuracy, variability of displacement, and variability of time due to the addition of a concurrent task were compared between hand and tongue. Results The influence of an additional concurrent task on motor performance was similar between the hand and tongue for slow movement in controlling their displacement. In rapid movement with a concurrent motor task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in hand, while tongue speed during rapid continuous task was maintained. With a concurrent cognitive task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in tongue, while hand accuracy during the rapid discrete task and hand speed during the rapid continuous task were maintained. Conclusion Rapid goal-directed hand and tongue movements were more consistently susceptible to interference from concurrent motor and cognitive tasks, respectively, compared with the other movement. PMID:22244362



Might silicon surface be used for electronic tongue application?  


An electronic tongue concept based on 2D mapping of photogenerated charge carrier lifetimes in silicon put in contact with different liquids is reported. Such method based on intrinsic sensitivity of the silicon surface states to the surrounding studied liquids allows creation of their characteristic electronic fingerprints. To increase recognition reliability, a set of characteristic fingerprints for a given liquid/silicon interface is proposed to be recorded at different bias voltages. The applicative potential of our sensing concept was demonstrated for different spirits and water samples. PMID:25333469

Litvinenko, S V; Bielobrov, D; Lysenko, V; Nychyporuk, T; Skryshevsky, V A



Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.



Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan



78 FR 17752 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-In Custer, Powder River and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 30186] Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--In Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, Mont. AGENCY...SUMMARY: On October 16, 2012, Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc. (TRRC)...



77 FR 64592 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 30186] Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT AGENCY: Surface...SUMMARY: On October 16, 2012, Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc. (TRRC)...



78 FR 1936 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-In Custer, Powder River and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 30186] Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--In Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT AGENCY: Surface...SUMMARY: Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc. (TRRC)...



The tongue and oesophagus in iron-deficiency anaemia and the effect of iron therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsies of the tongue and oesophagus were performed on 14 patients with uncomplicated iron-deficiency anaemia before and after treatment with iron. Haemoglobin and serum iron estimations were performed at the same time.Nine patients had clinical evidence of atrophic changes in the tongue before therapy was started. Evidence of regeneration appeared within one or two weeks of starting iron therapy. Two

I. McLean Baird; O. G. Dodge; F. J. Palmer; R. J. Wawman



Efficient 3D Finite Element Modeling of a Muscle-Activated Tongue  

E-print Network

speeds which are within a factor 10 of real-time rates at the expense of a small loss in accuracy. MuscleEfficient 3D Finite Element Modeling of a Muscle-Activated Tongue Florian Vogt1 , John E. Lloyd1 of a muscle-activated human tongue. Our method uses a linear stiffness-warping scheme to achieve simulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the…

Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.



Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls: Advocacy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A linguistic mismatch between school and community creates problems in both access to school services and the quality of those services. Consideration of mother tongue is the key for making schools more inclusive for girls. Purpose: To argue that education in mother tongue results in making schools more inclusive for disadvantaged…

Online Submission, 2005



Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Zinc Sulfate in Patients with Geographic Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of the problem: Geographic tongue is characterized by loss of filliform papillae in an erythematous area with keratotic borders. It vanishes after a while and reappears in another area. It is relatively common and is most seen among females. Considering such problems as pain, burning sensation and sharp pain in tongue, decreasing of taste sensation, cancer phobia and esthetic

M. Vahedi; H. R. Abdolsamadi; H. Mortazavi; S. H. Abdollahzadeh



Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in the victims of house fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue is frequently observed in autopsy cases of house fire victims. The meaning of this finding has not yet been fully discussed. We examined 69 autopsy cases of house fire victims and investigated several factors contributing to intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Victims comprised 45 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 1 to 95

Yoshiaki Hashimoto; Fumio Moriya; Akinori Nakanishi



Subgemmal neurogenous plaque associated with burning tongue: report of two cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subgemmal neurogenous plaques, biphasic structures with a neurofibroma and neuroma patterns, are observed in tongue biopsies involving subepithelial areas, being characterized as aggregates of nerve plexus and ganglion cells. Oral burning symptoms, having many possible causes, are commonly observed during oral medicine practice, but the association of subgemmal neurogenous plaque with tongue burning symptoms is very unusual. Reported here are

L. A. Gueiros; J. E. Leon; M. A. Lopes; O. P. de Almeida; J. Jorge



Measuring tongue motion from tagged cine-MRI using harmonic phase (HARP) processinga)  

E-print Network

articulograph EMA, x-ray microbeam , but sparsely represent the tongue surface. Electromyography EMG during continuous speech. Imaging techniques measure the entire tongue surface con- tour noninvasively 1976 . EMG signals, however, are difficult to obtain and interpret, and the relation between action

Prince, Jerry L.


Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

McLeod, Sharynne



Assessment of Cell Proliferation and Muscular Structure Following Surgical Tongue Volume Reduction in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Tongue volume reduction is an adjunct treatment with several orofacial orthopedic procedures for various craniofacial deformities; it may affect structural reconstitution and functional recovery as a result of the repair process. The aim of this study was to investigate the myogenic regeneration and structural alteration of the tongue following surgical tongue volume reduction. Materials and Methods Five 12-week-old sibling pairs of Yucatan minipigs (3 males and 2 females) were used. Midline uniform glossectomy was performed on one of each pairs (reduction); the other had the same incisions without tissue removal (sham). All pigs were raised for 4 weeks, and received 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injection intravenously one day before euthanasia. Tissue sections of tongues were stained with anti-BrdU antibody to evaluate the number of replicating cells. H&E and Trichrome stains were applied to assess muscular structure. Results Reduction tongues contained significantly more BrdU+ cells as compared to sham tongues (p < 0.01). However, these BrdU+ cells were mostly identified in the reparative connective tissues (fibroblasts) rather than the regenerated muscle tissues (myoblasts). Trichrome stained sections showed disorganized collagen fibers linking with a few intermittent muscle fibers in the reduction tongues. These myofibers presented the signs of atrophy with reduced perimysium and endomysium. The matrix between these reduced perimysium and endomysium was fully filled with fibrous tissue. Conclusions Fibrosis without predominant myogenic regeneration is the major histologic consequence after surgical tongue volume reduction. PMID:21039994

Ye, W.; Abu, A. F.; Liu, Z.J.



Lip and Tongue Function Differently Affected in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Clinical dysarthria test scores on lip function and tongue function were compared for 77 dysarthric as well as non-dysarthric subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 15 control subjects. Results showed that tongue function was consistently more severely affected than lip function. When comparing non-dysarthric MS individuals with control subjects, the MS

Lena Hartelius And; Lena Hartelius; Malin Lillvik; Department Of


Beyond Fear and Loathing in SG: The Real Mother Tongues and Language Policies in Multilingual Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the real mother tongues of Singapore, namely the Chinese "dialects" and Singlish, the linguistic varieties which, respectively, arrived with the original immigrants to the rapidly developing British colony, and evolved in the dynamic multilingual ecology over the decades. Curiously these mother tongues have been regarded with…

Lim, Lisa



Electropalatographic Assessment of Tongue-to-Palate Contact Patterns and Variability in Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the developmental time course of tongue-to-palate contact patterns during speech from childhood to adulthood using electropalatography (EPG) and a comprehensive profile of data analysis. Method: Tongue-to-palate contacts were recorded during productions of /t/, /l/, /s/, and /k/ in 48 children, adolescents and adults (aged…

Cheng, Hei Yan; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Goozee, Justine V.; Scott, Dion



The Effect of Anatomic Factors on Tongue Position Variability during Consonants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the…

Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana



The polycomb group protein EZH2 is a novel therapeutic target in tongue cancer  

PubMed Central

EZH2, a core member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), mediates transcriptional silencing by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27), which plays key roles in cancer initiation and progression. Here, we investigated the expression pattern and biological roles of EZH2 in tongue tumorigenesis by loss-of-function assays using small interference RNA and EZH2 inhibitor DZNep. Also we determined the therapeutic efficiency of DZNep against tongue cancer in vivo. We found that aberrantly overexpressed EZH2 was associated with pathological grade, cervical nodes metastasis and Ki-67 expression in tongue cancers. Elevated EZH2 correlated with shorter overall survival and showed significant and independent prognostic importance in patients with tongue cancer. Both genetic and pharmacological depletion of EZH2 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation and decreased CD44+ subpopulation probably in part through modulating p16, p21 and E-caherin. Moreover, DZNep enhanced the anticancer effects of 5-Fluorouracil. Furthermore, intratumoral EZH2 inhibition induced by DZNep intraperitoneal administration significantly attenuated tumor growth in a tongue cancer xenograft model. Taken together, our results indicate that EZH2 serves as a key driver with multiple oncogenic functions during tongue tumorigenesis and a new biomarker for tongue cancer diagnosis and prognostic prediction. These findings open up possibilities for therapeutic intervention against EZH2 in tongue cancer. PMID:24345883

Qiu, Jing; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Chunping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Dongmiao; Ye, Jinhai; Jiang, Hongbin; Yang, Jianrong; Cheng, Jie



On Mother and Other Tongues: Sociolinguistics, Schools, and Language Ideology in Northern India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an expanded version of a paper given at a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa from December 11-13, 2008 entitled "The Native Speaker and the Mother Tongue." In keeping with the conference's themes of exploring and interrogating the notions of "mother tongue" and "native speaker," I consider constructions of languages emergent from…

LaDousa, Chaise



ENOC 2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia, June, 30July, 4 2008 TONGUES IN PARAMETRIC RESONANCE  

E-print Network

ENOC 2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia, June, 30­July, 4 2008 TONGUES IN PARAMETRIC RESONANCE Henk. Resonance tongues in the Arnold family [Broer, Sim´o and Tatjer, 1998]. Abstract Resonance- ample with discontinuities. 1 Introduction Resonance in a dynamical system is an interaction be- tween

Broer, H.W.


Page 1 of 4New York -Fork in the Road -Robot Tongue Tastes Better Than People 8/19/2009  

E-print Network

Blogs Page 1 of 4New York - Fork in the Road - Robot Tongue Tastes Better Than People 8/19/2009http in Bedford- Magnolia Regrets Its Trash Robot Tongue Tastes Better Than People Frank Bruni will be replaced in the Road - Robot Tongue Tastes Better Than People 8/19/2009http

Suslick, Kenneth S.


Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery. PMID:23304595

Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi



Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors  

PubMed Central

An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah



Symptomatic macroglossia and tongue myositis in polymyositis: treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin.  


Symptomatic macroglossia occurs in some rare congenital muscle diseases, such as Becker's and Duchenne's dystrophies or Pompe's disease. Herein we describe a case of symptomatic macroglossia with myositis of the tongue occurring in a patient with polymyositis. Tongue myositis was evidenced by dysarthria, frequent biting during mastication, swallowing difficulties without aspiration, and noisy breathing. Magnetic resonance imaging showed homogeneous hypertrophy of the tongue, especially the mouth's floor muscles. The diagnosis of tongue myositis was established by electromyography and biopsy. No other cause for the macroglossia was found. Symptoms resolved quickly with corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of symptomatic tongue myositis occurring in the course of polymyositis. PMID:12384936

Chauvet, E; Sailler, L; Carreiro, M; Paoli, J R; Arrue, P; Astudillo, L; Oksmann, F; Delisle, M B; Arlet, Ph



Role of the tongue and senses in feeding of naive and experienced garter snakes.  


Prey attack behavior was studied in two species of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and T. radix). Newborn, ingestively naive, and experienced snakes had their tongues severed surgically, while control groups retained their tongues. Attack latency, tongue flick frequency and an orientation-interest measure were recorded for each subject on responses to extracts prepared from species-characteristic prey. Feeding, as well as responses to prey extracts, were found to be suppressed almost totally in the tongueless naive snakes. A detongued adult, however, readily ate although its behavior was abnormal. Temporary blind and anosmic conditions did not have a significant effect on response rates of the tongueless or control groups. While importance of the tongue-Jacobson's organ system is demonstrated, the length of tongue removed and presurgery experience are important factors. PMID:1161823

Burghardt, G M; Pruitt, C H



PRESLA: An Original Device to Measure the Mechanical Interaction between Tongue and Teeth or Palate during Speech Production  

E-print Network

PRESLA: An Original Device to Measure the Mechanical Interaction between Tongue and Teeth or Palate experimental procedure is presented to measure the mechanical interaction between tongue and teeth and palate such as the palate or the teeth to induce specific strains in the tongue and to increase speech movement accuracy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.



Gastric mucosa lesions in drowning: its usefulness in forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study of 52 autopsy cases of drowning fatalities, death circumstances, macroscopical and histological findings of the stomach mucosa were carefully studied. Results were compared with a control group, composed by 80 cases of different kinds of asphyxia (hanging, chocking and suffocation), skull injuries, sudden cardiac death and poisonings. The spectrum of gastric lesions observed during autopsy in

J. Blanco Pampín; S. A. García Rivero; Noemí M. Tamayo; R. Hinojal Fonseca



Larva migrans in the oral mucosa: report of two cases.  


Cutaneous Larva migrans is a very common disease in tropical regions. In the oral mucosa, the infection occurs in the same way as in the skin, but it is rarer. This report describes two cases of Larva migrans in the oral mucosa. The first case was in a 27-year-old woman who presented an erythematous plaque located on the buccal mucosa, extending to a posterior direction, following a linear pattern, to other areas of the mouth. After incisional biopsy of the anterior-most portion of the lesion, morphological details obtained in multiple examined sections suggested Necator or Ancylostoma braziliense larvae as the cause of infection. The second case was in a 35-year-old male who presented a fusiform erythematous plaque in the palatal mucosa. This area was removed and submitted to microscopic examination under a presumptive diagnosis of "parasite migratory stomatitis". The histological characteristics were suggestive of a larva pathway. In both cases the lesion disappeared after biopsy and the patients were symptom-free. PMID:21537593

Damante, José Humberto; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Oliveira, Fernando Toledo de; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Fleury, Raul Negrão



Iodine and gliadin challenge on oral mucosa in dermatitis herpetiformis.  


Oral lesions and mucosal inflammatory changes may appear in dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). We examined whether potassium iodine, known to initiate blisters in the DH skin, or wheat gliadin, responsible for T-cell-dependent intestinal damage, can induce visible or microscopic changes in oral mucosa. Six patients with active DH were challenged with crude gliadin and 50% potassium iodine applied in patch test chambers on buccal mucosa for 12 h. After reading, biopsies were taken from the challenged and non-challenged mucosa. No macroscopic or microscopic vesicles were seen. However, gliadin- but not iodine-challenged epithelium showed increased numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes in all 5 patients with representative specimens (p = 0.06). No marked changes were found in the numbers of CD8+ or TcR alpha/beta+ lymphocytes, and the numbers of TcR gamma/delta+ cells remained at a low level. The results show that oral mucosa is resistant to production of macroscopic or microscopic DH lesions. It is, however, capable of reacting to locally applied gliadin by a T-cell response consisting of CD4+ lymphocytes. PMID:12125958

Patinen, P; Hietane, J; Malmström, M; Reunala, T; Savilahti, E



Early or pre-coeliac mucosa: development of gluten enteropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duodenal mucosa showed normal morphology, interepithelial lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase, and sucrase in a girl with growth retardation and iron deficiency, but normal absorption of lactose and xylose after two years of abnormal stools. Mucosal lactase was low. Fourteen months later mucosal damage consistent with coeliac disease was evident, and gluten intolerance was subsequently confirmed by gluten challenge. It is probable

B Egan-Mitchell; P F Fottrell; B McNicholl



Neuropathologic analysis of Lewy-related ?-synucleinopathy in olfactory mucosa.  


We analyzed the incidence and extent of Lewy-related ?-synucleinopathy (LBAS) in the olfactory mucosa, as well as the central and peripheral nervous systems of consecutive autopsy cases from a general geriatric hospital. The brain and olfactory mucosa were immunohistochemically examined using antibodies raised against phosphorylated ?-synuclein. Thirty-nine out of 105 patients (37.1%) showed LBAS in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Seven patients presented LBAS (Lewy neurites) in the olfactory lamina propria mucosa. One out of the seven cases also showed a Lewy neurite in a bundle of axons in the cribriform plate, but ?-synuclein deposits were not detected in the olfactory receptor neurons. In particular, high incidence of ?-synuclein immunopositive LBAS in the olfactory mucosa was present in the individuals with clinically as well as neuropathologically confirmed Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (6/8 cases, 75%). However, this pathologic alteration was rare in the cases with incidental or subclinical Lewy body diseases (LBD) (one out of 31 cases, 3.2%). In the olfactory bulb, the LBAS was usually present in the glomeruli and granular cells of most symptomatic and asymptomatic cases with LBD. Our studies further confirmed importance of the olfactory entry zone in propagation of LBAS in the human aging nervous system. PMID:22672612

Funabe, Sayaka; Takao, Masaki; Saito, Yuko; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Mikiko; Ito, Shinji; Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Sawabe, Motoji; Arai, Tomio; Mochizuki, Hideki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Murayama, Shigeo




Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cells identical to those described in the skin were found in the gingival mucosa and in the vermilion border of the lip. They were often clustered in rete ridges but also found individually in the basal layer. Unmyelinated axons (neurites) of presumably a sensory afferent nerve surrounded the basal half of these cells within the epithelium. Occasional desmosomes connected

Ken Hashimoto



Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

Gerbino, Andrea, E-mail: gerbino@biologia.uniba.i [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curci, Silvana [VA Boston Healthcare System and the Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury MA 02132 (United States); Colella, Matilde [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy)



[Cancers of the oral and genital mucosa].  


Squamous cell carcinomas account for over 90 % of cancers of the oral cavity in France. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Delay in diagnosis is unfortunately frequent. The management of the cancer is based on surgery, possibly associated to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate at 5 years does not exceed 30-40%. We hope to see a decrease in the number of oral cancer thanks to the development of preventive medicine (alcohol and tobacco cessation and early detection of potentially malignant lesions). Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease which traditionally affect elderly woman but continues to rise in incidence especially in younger women. There are at least 2 forms of genital squamous cell carcinoma. The most common form is found on older women arising in a background of lichen sclerosus and the second is associated with "high risk" human papillomavirus infection affecting younger women. A biopsy is usually required for diagnosis. Attempts to reduce genital cancer must focus on treating precursor lesions, namely lichen sclerosus and HPV-related intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and PIN). Most genital cancer occur on undiagnosed or untreated lichens sclerosus, vulvar inspection when women attend for their cervical smears or seeking about significance of any chronic genital symptom by a clinical examination. PMID:24167879

Dehen, Laure; Schwob, Emilie; Pascal, Francis



Effect of Cholera Enterotoxin on Ion Transport across Isolated Ileal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The effects of cholera enterotoxin on intestinal ion transport were examined in vitro. Addition of dialyzed filtrate of Vibrio cholerae (crude toxin) to the luminal side of isolated rabbit ileal mucosa caused a delayed and gradually progressive increase in transmural electric potential difference (PD) and shortcircuit current (SCC). A similar pattern was observed upon addition of a highly purified preparation of cholera toxin, although the changes in PD and SCC were smaller. Na and Cl fluxes across the short-circuited mucosa were determined with radioisotopes 3-4 hr after addition of crude toxin or at a comparable time in control tissues. The toxin caused a net secretory flux of Cl and reduced to zero the net absorptive flux of Na. Similar flux changes were observed when either crude or purified toxin was added in vivo and tissues were mounted in vitro 3-4 hr later. Additon of D-glucose to the luminal side of toxin-treated mucosa produced a large net absorptive flux of Na without altering the net Cl and residual ion fluxes. Adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic phosphate (cyclic AMP) and theophylline had previously been shown to cause a rapid increase in SCC and ion flux changes similar to those induced by cholera toxin. Pretreatment of ileal mucosa with either crude or purified cholera toxin greatly reduced the SCC response to theophylline and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, which, together with the flux data, suggest that both cyclic AMP and cholera toxin stimulate active secretion by a common pathway. Inhibition of the SCC response to theophylline was observed after luminal but not after serosal addition of toxin. In vitro effects of cholera toxin correlated closely with in vivo effects: heating toxin destroyed both; two V. cholerae filtrates which were inactive in vivo proved also to be inactive in vitro; PD and volume flow measurements in isolated, in vivo ileal loops of rabbit revealed that the PD pattern after addition of toxin is similar to that seen in vitro and also correlates closely with changes in fluid movement. The results suggest that stimulation by cholera toxin of a cyclic AMP-dependent active secretory process of the intestinal epithelial cells is a major cause of fluid loss in cholera. PMID:4335444

Field, Michael; Fromm, David; Al-Awqati, Qais; Greenough, William B.



Structure of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue and meridional flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized method is developed to determine the position of the northern cold tongue front in the equatorial Atlantic from satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data. The methodology is based on a median frontal SST and frontal characteristics are generally consistent with tropical instability waves (TIWs). Application to drifter observations shows how the new methodology can be used to better understand circulation features near the northern cold tongue front: A drifter pair deployed on the eastern side of a passing TIW crest north of the front revealed that the trajectories of the drifters were clearly influenced by the shape of the front and - in agreement with model studies in both the Atlantic and Pacific - they did not cross the front, but rather stayed close together approximately 2° north of the front. At the western edge of the cold tongue, the longer-transmitting drifter entered the northern branch of the South Equatorial Current (nSEC) and rapidly moved westward. Analyses in an along- and cross-frontal frame of reference complement isopycnal coordinate mapping; for example, tropical Atlantic drifter velocities averaged in frontal coordinates indicate a broadened shear zone between the nSEC and North Equatorial Countercurrent as well as meridional convergence near the front. This new methodology will be used to examine aspects of the near-frontal circulation such as the flow associated with the shallow overturning cells known as tropical cells (TCs) from two-dimensional observations. Shipboard and lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements collected in the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic during the past sixteen years are for the first time utilized to describe the mean cross-equatorial structure of the meridional currents associated with the TCs. These meridional currents are an order of magnitude smaller than velocity fluctuations associated with transient phenomena in the region like TIWs, and to date individual in situ current measurements have been too sparse in their temporal and spatial coverage to estimate their mean without large uncertainties. Due to surface reflections, the currents between 30 m and the ocean surface are typically not resolved by the ADCP measurements and 15-m currents from the drifter annual climatology are used to derive those currents.

Hormann, V.; Perez, R. C.; Lumpkin, R.; Brandt, P.; Johns, W. E.; Hernandez, F.; Schmid, C.; Bourlès, B.



Overexpression of ZFX and its involvement in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.  


Zinc finger protein, X-linked (ZFX) has been identified as a transcriptional factor and is implicated in the development of variant types of cancer. Furthermore, it has been reported that ZFX is essential for the survival and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. To investigate the involvement of ZFX in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, in the present study, we explored the expression of ZFX in clinical specimens from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and the correlation between ZFX expression and multiple clinical pathological parameters. We further evaluated the impact of ZFX knockdown on the proliferation, colony formation ability, cell cycle distribution and survival of two human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to explore its critical role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Our results showed that ZFX expression was aberrantly higher in samples from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and revealed that ZFX expression is positively correlated with tumor grade and stage. Consistent with these findings, we further found that ZFX knockdown impaired cell proliferation and colony formation ability and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in two human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Our results indicate that ZFX is essential for the development and progression of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and represents a potential target for the development of effective therapy. PMID:25355536

Yin, Jirong; Jiang, Yi; Wu, Hao; Wang, Juncheng; Zhang, Shanchuang; Liu, Hongchen



Quantitative and Comparative Assessment of Learning in a Tongue-Operated Computer Input Device  

PubMed Central

Tongue drive system (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments to access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device in four tasks, commonly known as horizontal, vertical, center-out, and multidirectional rapid tapping, based on Fitts' law and ISO9241-9 Standard. Nine able-bodied subjects, who already had tongue piercing, participated in this trial over five sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects wore tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare-earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Participants performed the same tasks with a mouse (only in the first session) as a reference as well as a standard keypad for benchmarking. Six performance measures were considered, including throughput, error rate, and reaction time, all of these improved significantly from the first to the last session, and some of these plateaued over the course of the experiment. The comparison between tongue–TDS versus index-finger–keypad provides valuable insights into tongue human factors, which can lead the way in improving the usability of the TDS and similar tongue-operated assistive technologies. PMID:21652288

Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam



Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E-cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25333745




Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113.  


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E?cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA?treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E?cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA?treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migra-tion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E?cadherin. PMID:25333745

Shao, Yuan; Sha, Xiao-Ying; Bai, Yan-Xia; Quan, Fang; Wu, Sheng-Li



A biomimetic tongue by photoluminescent metal-organic frameworks.  


The taste sensing capabilities of a "biomimetic tongue" based on the photoluminescence (PL) responses of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [In(OH)(bdc)]n (bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), [Tb(btc)]n (MOF-76, btc=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate), and [Ca3(btc)2(DMF)2(H2O)2]·3H2O are proven on aqueous solutions of five basic tastants: sucrose (sweet), caffeine (bitter), citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty) and monosodium glutamate (umami). For [In(OH)(bdc)]n, the tastant interacts stereochemically with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and alters its conformations. The frequency and magnitude of chelation between COO(-) pendant groups of PAA and In(3+) nodes of [In(OH)(bdc)]n framework influence the corresponding PL reponses. For MOF-76, the tastant interacts with incorporated water in MOF-76 through hydrogen bonding. The limitation of O-H bond stretching of water results in the enhancement of the PL intensity. For [Ca3(BTC)2(DMF)2(H2O)2]·3H2O, it is added as a third MOF component to increase the precision on taste discrimination. The significance of MOF-based "biomimetic tongue" includes: (1) PAA on [In(OH)(bdc)]n mimics the taste receptor cells (TRCs) for their structural flexibility, (2) the Weber-Fechner law of human sensing that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity is observed between the PL emission response of MOF-76 and the concentration of tastant, (3) the strength of taste is quantified by the ? scale and the PL emission intensity of MOF-76, which are dependent on the logarithmic tastant concentration, (4) the tastant is identified by the shape of the 3D principal component analysis contour map (i.e., pattern recognition method), and (5) the fabrication of [In(OH)(bdc)]n/PAA film by brushing is illustrated. PMID:23277340

Lee, Tu; Lin Lee, Hung; Hsun Tsai, Meng; Cheng, Shao-Liang; Lee, Sheng-Wei; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai



Tongue twisters: feeding enrichment to reduce oral stereotypy in giraffe.  


Stereotypic behavior has been well-studied and documented in a variety of animals including primates, carnivores, and domesticated ungulates. However, very little information is known about stereotypic behavior of captive exotic ungulates. Giraffe have been found to perform a wide range of stereotypic behaviors. According to a survey of zoological institutions, oral stereotypies, specifically the licking of nonfood objects are the most prevalent stereotypic behaviors observed in giraffe. Their performance appears to be related to feeding and rumination and may be a result of the inability of a highly motivated feeding behavior pattern, tongue manipulation, to be successfully completed. To test this hypothesis, the indoor and outdoor feeders for three giraffe housed at Zoo Atlanta were modified to require the giraffe to perform more naturalistic and complex foraging behaviors. Data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling in both exhibit and holding areas. Our results showed that, for the giraffe that engaged in the highest rates of oral stereotypic behavior in the baseline, more complex feeders that required tongue use to access grain or alfalfa had the greatest effect on behavior. For the giraffe that performed low baseline rates of oral stereotypic behavior, adding slatted tops to the alfalfa feeders indoors virtually eliminated the behavior. Although some changes in ruminating and feeding behavior were observed, the decreases in stereotypic behavior were not associated with the changes in ruminating or feeding behavior. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that oral stereotypy in herbivores can be reduced by encouraging giraffe to engage in more naturalistic foraging behavior. PMID:19360618

Fernandez, Loraine Tarou; Bashaw, Meredith J; Sartor, Richard L; Bouwens, Nichole R; Maki, Todd S



Metallic ion content and damage to the DNA in oral mucosa cells patients treated dental implants.  


The aim of this study was to assess the potential genotoxicity of dental implants, evaluating biomarkers of DNA damage (micronuclei and/or nuclear buds), cytokinetic defects (binucleated cells) and the presence of trace metals in gingival cells of patients with implants, comparing these with a control group. A total of 60 healthy adults (30 patients with dental implants and 30 control patients without) were included in the study. Medical and dental histories were made for each including life-style factors. Genotoxicity effects were assessed by micronucleus assays in the gingival epithelial cells of each patient; 1,000 epithelial cells were analyzed, evaluating the frequency of micronucleated cells and other nuclear anomalies. The concentration of metals (Al(27), Ag(107), Co (59), Cr (52), Cu(63), Fe(56), Sn(118), Mn(55), Mo(92), Ni(60), Pb(208), Ti(47)) were assayed by means of coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The frequency of micronuclei in the patient group with implants was higher than in the control group but without statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Similar results were found for binucleated cells and nuclear buds (P > 0.05). For metals assayed by ICP-MS, significant differences were found for Ti(47) (P ? 0.045). Univariate analysis identified a significant association between the presence of micronuclei and age. Dental implants do not induce DNA damage in gingival cells, the slight effects observed cannot be indicated as biologically relevant. PMID:24682897

López-Jornet, Pía; Perrez, Francisco Parra; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Ros-Llor, Irene; LLor-Ros, Irene; Ramírez-Fernández, Piedad



[How to diagnose and how to treat diseases of the genital mucosa?].  


The genital area in women is covered by a keratinized squamous stratified epithelium outside the body (vulva), and a non keratinized epithelium inside the body (vagina). These characteristics can have an effect on the clinical aspects of the diseases and/or on the choice of the treatment. Symptoms (itching, pain, vaginal discharge), preferential localisation of skin diseases (psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis, irritative dermatitis) and the aspect of primary lesions are to be investigated. The implication of this region in sexual activity places it at risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and dyspareunia. These have numerous causes that have to be sought and taken care of, often by multidisciplinary teams. After a careful history and clinical examination, additional tests allow to exclude infections or confirm a skin condition or neoplasia by a skin biopsy. If contact dermatitis is suspected, specific allergy testing is done. Treatment starts with correction of harmful habits (excessive use of soaps, inappropriate cosmetic products,...) that add to the local irritation. Patients are then reassured of common misconception regarding cancer, STD's and fertility. In the vast majority of cases, the treatment will target an infection (fungal, bacterial, STD's), will relieve irritation by the use of local immunosuppressant drugs (local corticosteroids) and/or relief itching symptoms with anti-histamine drugs. PMID:19899385

Parent, D



Virtual Instrument for an Automated Potentiometric e-Tongue Employing the SIA Technique  

PubMed Central

In this work we report the design, construction, and applications of an electronic tongue (abbreviated e-tongue) based on an array of potentiometric sensors employing the Sequential Injection Analysis technique (SIA) operated as a Virtual Instrument implemented in LabVIEW6.1™. The system can use transient and stationary responses as the measured input information for e-tongues. The new concepts applied, lead to different advantages to be obtained, such as complete automation, easy handling, saving time, reliability and modularity.

Duran, Alejandro; Cortina, Montserrat; Velasco, Lya; Rodriguez, Jose Antonio; Alegret, Salvador; del Valle, Manuel



Benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the tongue masquerading as carcinoma: case report and literature review.  


Lymphoid hyperplasia of the tongue is a very rare benign lymphoproliferative lesion that closely resembles carcinoma or lymphoma, clinically or histopathologically. A case of benign lymphoid hyperplasia (BLH) of the tongue is reported. Clinically this lesion presented as a painless ulcer, which mimicked carcinoma of the tongue. Microscopy showed typical histologic features of multiple germinal centers with a rim of small mature lymphocytes together with a mixed, mainly mononuclear infiltrate which clinched the diagnosis of benign lymphoid hyperplasia. This diagnosis averted extensive investigations and major surgery. The etiology of these lesions is unknown. Their distinction from carcinoma and lymphoma is discussed. PMID:16127479

Carnelio, Sunitha; Rodrigues, Gabriel



Histological study of the effects of three anti-inflammatory preparations on the gastric mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Patients with osteoarthritis were entered into a single-blind trial comparing the effects on the gastric mucosa of a four week course of indomethacin, sulindac and a compound of paracetamol and dextropropoxyphene (Distalgesic). The presence and severity of both acute and chronic gastritis were assessed by histological examination of endoscopic biopsy specimens taken from five standard sites in th stomach of each patient before and at the end of the four week period. The presence and severity of chronic gastritis was not affected by the treatment in any of the groups. The pattern of acute gastritis was complex, many of the patients having acute inflammatory changes in their initial biopsy specimens. At least one patient in each treatment group developed marked acute gastritis during the treatment period, but a significant overall increase in the severity of these changes was only found in the group treated with sulindac. Images PMID:7276205

McIntyre, R L; Irani, M S; Piris, J



Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in an adolescent girl.  


Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is very rare in children. We report the first case of pediatric thymic MALT lymphoma in an adolescent Asian girl. She presented with chest pain, dyspnea, and low-grade fever. A large anterior mediastinal mass was biopsied that confirmed the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma with trisomy 18. The patient had secondary immunodeficiency with low NK cell count and high IgA and IgG levels. Because of the advanced stage and the presence of trisomy 18, she was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab, followed by involved-field radiotherapy. She is currently undergoing maintenance therapy with rituximab and remains in complete remission at 13 months from diagnosis. Thymic MALT lymphoma should be suspected in any Asian child with a cystic thymic mass and autoimmune disease or hyperglobinemia. Because of the slow proliferation rate of this type of lymphoma, a long-term follow-up is needed. PMID:22469942

Naithani, Rahul; Ngan, Bo Y; Roifman, Chaim; Crump, Michael; Baruchel, Sylvain; Abla, Oussama



Extreme Microstomia in an 8-Month-Old Infant: Bilateral Commissuroplasty Using Rhomboid Buccal Mucosa Flaps  

PubMed Central

Objective: A case of extreme microstomia in an 8-month-old infant is presented. As a result of caustic acid ingestion at the age of a few weeks, the male infant developed progressive stricture of the perioral region preventing him from normal food intake. Methods: The patient was treated by bilateral commissurotomies and a total of 4 rhomboid flaps based in the buccal mucosa. Results: We were able to enlarge the mouth aperture and subsequently cover the created soft tissue defects, with good esthetic result. The patient learned to suck the feeding bottle and was able to demonstrate oral dynamics, including laughing and crying. Conclusion: We present our surgical technique, the postoperative functional and esthetic outcome, and a brief literature review. Only few publications deal with the same matter and none with a similar life-threatening case. PMID:20076787

Jaminet, Patrick; Werdin, Frank; Kraus, Armin; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan; Sinis, Nektarios



Changes in gastric mucosa after vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy for duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed Central

Gastric mucosa was studied histologically in 141 patients. Eighty two had undergone vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy between 15 and 25 years previously for duodenal ulcer, and 59 control patients had a long history (minimum 15 years) of duodenal ulcer treated medically. No carcinoma was found in either group. Two patients with severe dysplasia and 13 patients with moderate dysplasia were found in the study group, compared with none in the control group (p less than 0.01). Intestinal metaplasia was seen in 44 (53%) of the study group and 16 (27%) of the control group (p less than 0.01). Atrophy and gastritis were more severe (p less than 0.01 for atrophy; p = 0.05 for gastritis) in the study group. Gastric mucosal changes were more severe after surgical treatment for duodenal ulcer than after medical treatment, and possibly a high incidence of gastric carcinoma may occur 25 years after vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. PMID:6416435

Watt, P C; Sloan, J M; Kennedy, T L



Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans  

SciTech Connect

During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa.

Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F. (Meyerstein Institute of Radiotherapy, Middlesex Hospital, London (England))



Laryngeal lymphoma derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.  


Extranodal lymphomas account for as many as 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and most arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but other mucosal organs may be involved, especially the upper aerodigestive tract. Low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosae have been found to recapitulate the structure and cytologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histologically low-grade MALT lymphomas are characterized by centrocyte-like B-cells with a phenotype similar to that of so-called marginal zone B-cells. Tumors evolving from MALT are generally rare among lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, but a few cases of laryngeal lymphomas derived from MALT have been reported. Primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx should always be considered in tumors with histopathologic features of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, or so-called pseudolymphoma. PMID:8678438

Horny, H P; Ferlito, A; Carbone, A



Endotoxin protects the gastric mucosa against ulcerogenic stimuli.  


It is well-documented that large amounts of endotoxin produce hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in the stomach. To determine whether endotoxin, when injected at small doses, similarly exerts ulcerogenic actions, endotoxin (0.4-40 micrograms/kg) was injected into 24 hr-fasted rats. These small doses of endotoxin did not affect the integrity of the gastric mucosa. Unexpectedly, however, pretreatment with these minute amounts of endotoxin protected the gastric mucosa against various ulcerogenic stimuli such as stress, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ethanol. The anti-ulcer actions of endotoxin were not observed in endotoxin-insensitive animals (C3H/HeJ mice), thereby suggesting that endogenous cytokines such as interleukin-1 may mediate these protective actions. These findings stand in contrast to the toxic effect of endotoxin as an ulcerogen and indicate that endotoxin, albeit its term "toxin," may have a beneficial effect for the host. PMID:8280150

Tsuji, K; Uehara, A; Santos, S B; Namiki, M



Pharmacokinetics of EMLA cream 5% application to oral mucosa.  

PubMed Central

Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine were measured following the application of a 5% eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream to the oral mucosa of twelve subjects. For each subject, a total of 8 g of EMLA was occluded to 18 cm2 of buccal mucosa for 30 min. Analysis was carried out by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and results showed peak concentrations at 40 min for lidocaine and prilocaine. The maximum concentration measured in any subject was 418 ng/ml for lidocaine and 223 ng/ml for prilocaine, well below known toxic levels. No adverse local effects were observed from a 30-min application of EMLA. A follow-up pilot study assessing the clinical efficacy of EMLA for achieving sufficient analgesia for restorative procedures showed that the cream was successful in 75% of subjects tested. PMID:9481979

Vickers, E. R.; Marzbani, N.; Gerzina, T. M.; McLean, C.; Punnia-Moorthy, A.; Mather, L.



LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).  


The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. PMID:25137178

Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena



Urethral fistula following circumcision: salvaged by buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fistula following circumcision and at times accompanied by disfigurement of the glans penis is a common problem in our country,\\u000a where a large number of circumcision is performed by untrained professionals. These complications may have profound negative\\u000a psychological impact on the growing child. Herein, we report the successful closure of such fistula using buccal mucosa, which\\u000a occurred following circumcision (for

Rahul Janak Sinha; Divakar Dalela; S. N. Sankhwar; Vishwajeet Singh



Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

Röhrkasten, A.



Enhanced Transferrin Receptor Expression by Proinflammatory Cytokines in Enterocytes as a Means for Local Delivery of Drugs to Inflamed Gut Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is often associated with adverse effects related to drug distribution into non-diseased tissues, a situation which attracts a rational design of a targeted treatment confined to the inflamed mucosa. Upon activation of immune cells, transferrin receptor (TfR) expression increases at their surface. Because TfR is expressed in all cell types we hypothesized that its cell surface levels are regulated also in enterocytes. We, therefore, compared TfR expression in healthy and inflamed human colonic mucosa, as well as healthy and inflamed colonic mucosa of the DNBS-induced rat model. TfR expression was elevated in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients in both the basolateral and apical membranes of the enterocytes. Increased TfR expression was also observed in colonocytes of the induced colitis rats. To explore the underlying mechanism CaCo-2 cells were treated with various proinflammatory cytokines, which increased both TfR expression and transferrin cellular uptake in a mechanism that did not involve hyper proliferation. These findings were then exploited for the design of targetable carrier towards inflamed regions of the colon. Anti-TfR antibodies were conjugated to nano-liposomes. As expected, iron-starved Caco-2 cells internalized anti-TfR immunoliposomes better than controls. Ex vivo binding studies to inflamed mucosa showed that the anti-TfR immunoliposomes accumulated significantly better in the mucosa of DNBS-induced rats than the accumulation of non-specific immunoliposomes. It is concluded that targeting mucosal inflammation can be accomplished by nano-liposomes decorated with anti-TfR due to inflammation-dependent, apical, elevated expression of the receptor. PMID:21915296

Harel, Efrat; Rubinstein, Abraham; Nissan, Aviram; Khazanov, Elena; Nadler Milbauer, Mirela; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Tirosh, Boaz



Modulation of wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative toxicity in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat by melatonin.  


It is well known that oxidative stress induces larynx cancer, although antioxidants induce modulator role on etiology of the cancer. It is well known that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induces oxidative stress in different cell systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of melatonin on oxidative stress induced by Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) EMR in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat. For this purpose, 32 male rats were equally categorized into four groups, namely controls, sham controls, EMR-exposed rats, EMR-exposed rats treated with melatonin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Except for the controls and sham controls, the animals were exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation during 60 min/day for 28 days. The lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the radiation-exposed groups than in the control and sham control groups. The lipid peroxidation level in the irradiated animals treated with melatonin was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in those that were only exposed to Wi-Fi radiation. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was lower in the irradiated-only group relative to control and sham control groups but its activity was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the groups treated with melatonin. The reduced glutathione levels in the mucosa of rat did not change in the four groups. There is an apparent protective effect of melatonin on the Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the laryngotracheal mucosa of rats by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the glutathione peroxidase antioxidant system. PMID:23479077

Aynali, Giray; Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Do?an, Mustafa; Yar?kta?, Murat; Yasan, Hasan



Keratocyst of the buccal mucosa: is it odontogenic?  


Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of the buccal mucosa, the diagnosis of which is based on subjective histologic evaluation, is a controversial entity of questionable existence. This report describes 2 rare cases of parakeratinized cyst arising from the buccal mucosa. Case 1 was a 60-year-old man with a 3-cm cyst and case 2 was a 16-year-old boy with a microcyst incidentally discovered on histology. Both lesions were essentially identical in histologic appearance and immunophenotype to intraosseous and gingival OKC, but they were clearly different from orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts and buccal mucosal epidermoid cysts. Step sections failed to reveal any kind of odontogenic tissue or skin adnexa in the cyst wall. These microscopic characteristics reflexively lead to the diagnosis of OKC, if the extragingival occurrence in the buccal mucosa cannot be considered. An alternative nonodontogenic origin includes a keratocyst of the skin, ie, an unusual mucosal presentation of cutaneous keratocyst. Because its true nature, either odontogenic or epidermal, cannot be conclusively proven at this time, we propose a more descriptive and noncommittal term, "mucosal keratocyst," for a particular cyst in a buccal location that is morphologically indistinguishable from OKC. PMID:20955942

Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru



Effect of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine on nasal mucosa in rats.  


N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) is one of the most potent organ-specific carcinogens routinely used in rat esophageal tumorigenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate NMBA effect on nasal mucosa, one of the non-target organs. NMBA was administered subcutaneously to 20 male albino rats of Wistar strain for 5 weeks (0.5mg/kg/dose; three doses/week). The experiment was terminated on week 22. In each case, seven standard frontal sections of the nose were taken after fixation for assessment of all the parts of the nasal mucosa. Microscopic examination revealed one small squamous cell papilloma located on the ventro-lateral surface of the left superior nasal concha, one focus on simple hyperplasia and two foci of squamous epithelium dysplasia within the mucosa covering nasal vestibule near the respiratory part of the nasal cavity. Furthermore, statistically significant increase of proliferation activity in both lesional and non-lesional nasal squamous epithelium in NMBA-exposed animals was also found. These phenomena could be potentially induced by carcinogen exposure. PMID:17145176

Szumilo, Justyna




E-print Network

book of poetry, A Tongue in the Mouth of Dying, winner of the 2012 Andrés Montoya Poetry Prize from and spiritual violence borne of internalized racism, classism, and struggles with gender identity. In vibrant

Dodla, Ramana



E-print Network

motion tracking and was also applied to the tracking of tongue motion during speech and swallowing [2 research groups have extended HARP to 3D [3, 4, 5]. The basic difficulty faced in making this extension

Prince, Jerry L.


Replacement of Missing Anterior Teeth in a Patient with Chronic Mouth Breathing and Tongue Thrusting  

PubMed Central

The loss of anterior teeth has serious functional, esthetic disabilities, in addition to compromising the patients' quality of life. Various etiologies can be attributed to the anterior tooth loss, including trauma, caries, and periodontal diseases. The chronic mouth breathing due to nasal adenoids is known to enhance the gingival and periodontal diseases. The dental literature proves the association of nasal breathing, tongue thrusting, and anterior open bite. Arch shape and tooth position are primarily determined by the equilibrium of the forces from tongue and perioral musculature. Increased force from tongue musculature in the tongue thrusting patient leads to flaring of anterior teeth, making them susceptible for periodontal and traumatic tooth loss. Replacement of the anterior teeth in this patient will also help in restoration of anterior guidance, which is critical for the health of temporomandibular joint, posterior teeth, and musculature. PMID:24490091

Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad



western north american naturalist 633 200302003 ppap 314 319 recurrence OF MEXICAN LONG TONGUED BATS  

E-print Network

BATS choeronycterischoeromcteris MEXICANA AT historical SITES IN ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO paul A cryanicryan1cryans and michael A bogani ABSTRACT the mexican long tongued bat choeronycteris including young of year choeronycteris mexicanamexicansmexicana roosted in lighted areas close to entrances


Structure of southeastern Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves and ice tongues from synthetic aperture radar imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examination of synthetic aperture radar data collected over the southeastern Antarctic Peninsula shows that features sometimes mapped as ice shelves are more likely composed of numerous ice tongues interspersed within a matrix of fast ice and icebergs. The tongues are formed by the seaward extension of numerous small mountain glaciers that drain from the Antarctic Peninsula. Once afloat, the tongues intermingle with a matrix of fast ice and brash. Examination of 1997 RADARSAT-1 image mosaics shows that southeastern Antarctic Peninsula composite-ice shelves covered an area of about 3500 km2. Like ice tongues around the rest of Antarctica, these features are highly fragmented and likely to be susceptible to mechanical failure. One such composite shelf, located between New Bedford and Wright Inlets, was observed to decrease in area by 1200 km2 between 1997 and 2000.

Jezek, K. C.; Liu, H. X.


Degrees of freedom of tongue movements in speech may be constrained by biomechanics  

E-print Network

A number of studies carried out on different languages have found that tongue movements in speech are made along two primary degrees of freedom (d.f.s): the high-front to low-back axis and the high-back to low-front axis. We explore the hypothesis that these two main d.f.s could find their origins in the physical properties of the vocal tract. A large set of tongue shapes was generated with a biomechanical tongue model using a Monte-Carlo method to thoroughly sample the muscle control space. The resulting shapes were analyzed with PCA. The first two factors explain 84% of the variance, and they are similar to the two experimentally observed d.f.s. This finding suggests that the d.f.s. are not speech-specific, and that speech takes advantage of biomechanically based tongue properties to form different sounds.

Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan; Zandipour, Majid; Guenther, Franck; Khalighi, Ali



Preliminary Assessment of Tongue Drive System in Medium Term Usage for Computer Access and Wheelchair Control  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device using ISO9241-9 standard tasks for pointing and selecting, based on the well known Fitts' Law, and as a powered wheelchair controller through an obstacle course navigation task. Nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing participated in this trial over 5 sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects worn tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Comparing the results between 1st and 5th sessions showed that subjects' performance improved in all the measures through 5 sessions, demonstrating the effects of learning. PMID:22255650

Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam



Name that tune: eliciting the tip-of-the-tongue experience using auditory stimuli.  


An experiment was conducted to assess whether auditory stimuli could elicit the tip-of-the-tongue state. Subjects were presented segments of 50 television theme songs and asked to indicate the title of the corresponding show. Twenty-one percent of all retrieval attempts resulted in an experience of the tip-of-the-tongue state, with women reporting more such experiences than men. The majority of these experiences contained partial information about the target such as the show's characters, actors, or outline. Subjects in the tip-of-the-tongue state were also able to identify the genre and era of the target show with high accuracy and pick it out amongst distractors in a recognition test. Competing responses were relatively infrequent and were usually semantically related to the target show. The similarities and differences between auditory-induced tip-of-the-tongue states and those for other stimuli are discussed. PMID:8643807

Riefer, D M; Kevari, M K; Kramer, D L



Severe tongue injury in an adolescent with epilepsy: a case report.  


Epilepsy and other neurological disorders can have profound social, physical and psychological consequences, especially when they begin in childhood. Moreover, seizure episodes may cause fractures, burns, head injuries and oral injuries. This report presents a case history of an adolescent with a severe tongue injury related to epileptic seizures and outlines the proposed treatment, which included use of a maxillary silicone bite guard that allowed healing of the tongue injury within a few months. PMID:17972447

Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Vieira, Aurea Simone Barrôso; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Sweet, Eric



Human Newborns Match Tongue Protrusion of Disembodied Human and Robotic Mouths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No evidence had been provided so far of newborns' capacity to give a matching response to 2D stimuli. We report evidence from 18 newborns who were presented with three types of stimuli on a 2D screen. The stimuli were video-recorded displays of tongue protrusion shown by: (a) a human face, (b) a human tongue from a disembodied mouth, and (c) an…

Soussignan, Robert; Courtial, Alexis; Canet, Pierre; Danon-Apter, Gisele; Nadel, Jacqueline



Do meaning-related blockers induce tip-of-the-tongue states? / by Stephen Paul Balfour  

E-print Network

DO MEANING-RELATED BLOCKERS INDUCE TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE STATES? A Thesis by STEPHEN PAUL BALFOUR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ak. M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Psychology DO MEANING-RELATED BLOCKERS INDUCE TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE STATES? A Thesis by STEPHEN PAUL BALFOUR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment...

Balfour, Stephen Paul



A TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development  

PubMed Central

The tongue is a muscular organ and plays a crucial role in speech, deglutition and taste. Despite the important physiological functions of the tongue, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of tongue muscle development. TGF? family members play important roles in regulating myogenesis, but the functional significance of Smad-dependent TGF? signaling in regulating tongue skeletal muscle development remains unclear. In this study, we have investigated Smad4-mediated TGF? signaling in the development of occipital somite-derived myogenic progenitors during tongue morphogenesis through tissue-specific inactivation of Smad4 (using Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/flox mice). During the initiation of tongue development, cranial neural crest (CNC) cells occupy the tongue buds before myogenic progenitors migrate into the tongue primordium, suggesting that CNC cells play an instructive role in guiding tongue muscle development. Moreover, ablation of Smad4 results in defects in myogenic terminal differentiation and myoblast fusion. Despite compromised muscle differentiation, tendon formation appears unaffected in the tongue of Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/flox mice, suggesting that the differentiation and maintenance of CNC-derived tendon cells are independent of Smad4-mediated signaling in myogenic cells in the tongue. Furthermore, loss of Smad4 results in a significant reduction in expression of several members of the FGF family, including Fgf6 and Fgfr4. Exogenous Fgf6 partially rescues the tongue myoblast fusion defect of Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/flox mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis. PMID:22438570

Han, Dong; Zhao, Hu; Parada, Carolina; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bringas, Pablo; Chai, Yang



A TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development.  


The tongue is a muscular organ and plays a crucial role in speech, deglutition and taste. Despite the important physiological functions of the tongue, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of tongue muscle development. TGF? family members play important roles in regulating myogenesis, but the functional significance of Smad-dependent TGF? signaling in regulating tongue skeletal muscle development remains unclear. In this study, we have investigated Smad4-mediated TGF? signaling in the development of occipital somite-derived myogenic progenitors during tongue morphogenesis through tissue-specific inactivation of Smad4 (using Myf5-Cre;Smad4(flox/flox) mice). During the initiation of tongue development, cranial neural crest (CNC) cells occupy the tongue buds before myogenic progenitors migrate into the tongue primordium, suggesting that CNC cells play an instructive role in guiding tongue muscle development. Moreover, ablation of Smad4 results in defects in myogenic terminal differentiation and myoblast fusion. Despite compromised muscle differentiation, tendon formation appears unaffected in the tongue of Myf5-Cre;Smad4(flox/flox) mice, suggesting that the differentiation and maintenance of CNC-derived tendon cells are independent of Smad4-mediated signaling in myogenic cells in the tongue. Furthermore, loss of Smad4 results in a significant reduction in expression of several members of the FGF family, including Fgf6 and Fgfr4. Exogenous Fgf6 partially rescues the tongue myoblast fusion defect of Myf5-Cre;Smad4(flox/flox) mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis. PMID:22438570

Han, Dong; Zhao, Hu; Parada, Carolina; Hacia, Joseph G; Bringas, Pablo; Chai, Yang



The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube  

PubMed Central

Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, we show that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. We also show that the tongue–fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap. Our results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Our findings have ramifications for the study of feeding mechanics in other nectarivorous birds, and for the understanding of the evolution of nectarivory in general. We propose a conceptual mechanical explanation for this unique fluid-trapping capacity, with far-reaching practical applications (e.g., biomimetics). PMID:21536916

Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A.



Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the peregrine falcon and common kestrel.  


The dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The length of the tongue in the peregrine falcon was about 2.5 cm. The length of the tongue in the common kestrel was about 1.5 cm. The tips of the tongues of the peregrine falcon and common kestrel were bifid. Three parts were distinguished in the tongues of the peregrine falcon and common kestrel: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The region of the openings of the lingual glands between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area in each bird. There were carpet-shaped epithelium in the lingual apex in each bird. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root in each bird. The morphological characteristics of the tongues in the peregrine falcon and common kestrel were similar to each other. PMID:18833907

Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue



Treatment of c-kit positive adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tongue: A case report  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) or ‘cylindroma’ is a malignant tumor that often occurs in the areas of the head and neck, affecting the secretory glands and the major and minor salivary glands. The present study describes a case of a patient who presented with a posterior tongue lesion. The case is of a 71-year-old female with an asymptomatic volume growth of the posterior left tongue perceived 8 months prior, and neoplastic cells positive for c-kit. A computed tomography of the head and neck showed asymmetry of the base of the tongue, which was enlarged in the left portion. A physical examination revealed a nodule on the posterior left tongue of ~3 cm in diameter, while the cervical lymph node chain had a normal size and consistency. Surgical exeresis of the tongue lesion and cervical lymph node dissection were performed. Subsequent to surgical removal of the cancer cells and adjuvant radiotherapy, the patient showed excellent health, although the follow-up remains in progress. ACC, one of the most biologically destructive tumors of the head and neck, is locally aggressive and gives rise to distant metastases. The tongue is the place of origin in 3.4–17.1% of cases. The treatment for ACC consists of primary surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. To prevent the risk for distant metastasis, it is necessary to remove the first echelon nodes and monitor the patient with a long-term follow-up. PMID:24959267




Change in tongue morphology in response to expiratory resistance loading investigated by magnetic resonance imaging.  


[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of expiratory resistance load on the tongue area encompassing the suprahyoid and genioglossus muscles. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy individuals (15 males, 15 females, mean age: 28.9?years). [Methods] Magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate morphological changes in response to resistive expiratory pressure loading in the area encompassing the suprahyoid and genioglossus muscles. Images were taken when water pressure was sustained at 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% of maximum resistive expiratory pressure. We then measured tongue area using image analysis software, and the morphological changes were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance followed by post hoc comparisons. [Results] A significant change in the tongue area was detected in both sexes upon loading. Multiple comparison analysis revealed further significant differences in tongue area as well as changes in tongue area in response to the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that higher expiratory pressure facilitates greater reduction in tongue area. PMID:24259824

Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Mitamura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Noriaki



Change in Tongue Morphology in Response to Expiratory Resistance Loading Investigated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of expiratory resistance load on the tongue area encompassing the suprahyoid and genioglossus muscles. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy individuals (15 males, 15 females, mean age: 28.9?years). [Methods] Magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate morphological changes in response to resistive expiratory pressure loading in the area encompassing the suprahyoid and genioglossus muscles. Images were taken when water pressure was sustained at 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% of maximum resistive expiratory pressure. We then measured tongue area using image analysis software, and the morphological changes were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance followed by post hoc comparisons. [Results] A significant change in the tongue area was detected in both sexes upon loading. Multiple comparison analysis revealed further significant differences in tongue area as well as changes in tongue area in response to the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that higher expiratory pressure facilitates greater reduction in tongue area. PMID:24259824

Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Mitamura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Noriaki



Microbial Amyloids Induce Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 Responses via Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation in the Intestinal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/TLR1 receptor complex responds to amyloid fibrils, a common component of biofilm material produced by members of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. To determine whether this TLR2/TLR1 ligand stimulates inflammatory responses when bacteria enter intestinal tissue, we investigated whether expression of curli amyloid fibrils by the invasive enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium contributes to T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses by measuring cytokine production in the mouse colitis model. A csgBA mutant, deficient in curli production, elicited decreased expression of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 in the cecal mucosa compared to the S. Typhimurium wild type. In TLR2-deficient mice, IL-17A and IL-22 expression was blunted during S. Typhimurium infection, suggesting that activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway contributes to the expression of these cytokines. T cells incubated with supernatants from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with curli fibrils released IL-17A in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. Lower levels of IL-6 and IL-23 production were detected in the supernatants of the TLR2-deficient BMDCs treated with curli fibrils. Consistent with this, three distinct T-cell populations—CD4+ T helper cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and ?? T cells—produced IL-17A in response to curli fibrils in the intestinal mucosa during S. Typhimurium infection. Notably, decreased IL-6 expression by the dendritic cells and decreased IL-23 expression by the dendritic cells and macrophages were observed in the cecal mucosa of mice infected with the curli mutant. We conclude that TLR2 recognition of bacterial amyloid fibrils in the intestinal mucosa represents a novel mechanism of immunoregulation, which contributes to the generation of inflammatory responses, including production of IL-17A and IL-22, in response to bacterial entry into the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23027540

Nishimori, Jessalyn H.; Newman, Tiffanny N.; Oppong, Gertrude O.; Rapsinski, Glenn J.; Yen, Jui-Hung; Biesecker, Steven G.; Wilson, R. Paul; Butler, Brian P.; Winter, Maria G.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Ganea, Doina



Comparative studies on cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two organic mercury compounds in lymphocytes and gastric mucosa cells of Sprague-Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human lymphocytes (HL) as well as lymphocytes (RL), hepatocytes (RH), and gastric mucosa cells (GM) of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated in vitro for 1 h with methylmercury chloride (MMC, 0.5 -4 [mu]g\\/ml) and dimethylmercury (DMM, 5-40 [mu]g\\/ml). The cytotoxicity of the two organic mercury compounds was assessed by dye exclusion, and the extent of induced DNA fragmentation was measured with

C. Betti; R. Barale; B. L. Pool-Zobel



Mucin gene expression in reflux laryngeal mucosa: histological and in situ hybridization observations.  


Objectives/Hypothesis. To determine if laryngopharyngeal reflux alters mucin gene expression in laryngeal mucosa. Methods. In situ hybridization was employed to study the expression of the 8 well-characterised mucin genes MUC1-4, 5AC, 5B, 6, and 7 in reflux laryngeal mucosa from laryngeal ventricles, posterior commissures, and vocal folds compared to control/normal laryngeal mucosa. Results. MUC1-5 genes are expressed in normal and reflux laryngeal mucosa. MUC1, 3 and 4 are expressed in respiratory and squamous mucosa whereas MUC2 and 5AC are expressed in respiratory mucosa only. MUC3, 4 and 5AC are downregulated in reflux mucosa. MUC5AC expression is significantly reduced in the 3 mucosal sites and when mucosal type was taken into account, this remains significant in combined laryngeal and ventricular mucosa only. Conclusions. MUC3, 4 and 5AC expression is downregulated in laryngopharyngeal reflux. This may be due to laryngeal mucosal metaplasia and/or alteration of mucin gene expression in the preexisting mucosa. Altered mucin gene expression might predispose laryngeal mucosa to the damaging effect of reflux. PMID:24790604

Ali, Mahmoud El-Sayed; Bulmer, David M; Dettmar, Peter W; Pearson, Jeffrey P



Effects of practice on tip-of-the-tongue states.  


Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states were examined in relation to acquisition manipulations, using named imaginary animals (TOTimals) as targets. High levels of TOT states were found in three experiments. In the first experiment an increase in the duration of initial exposure to target material improved recall and recognition, and reduced the number of unrecalled items not in TOT states (NTOTs), but did not affect TOT levels. In Experiment 2 practice at writing target names, as compared with only reading them, improved recall performance and decreased TOT levels, but did not reduce NTOTs. Experiment 3 replicated the finding that writing during practice reduced TOT states, but did not reduce NTOTs, and also found that more frequent practice trials increased recall without affecting TOT levels. The results suggest that practice writing target names prevents TOT states by strengthening otherwise deficient phonological connections in memory, a deficiency that can cause TOT states when visual-to-lexical connections give only partial access to a target in memory. The results also demonstrate the usefulness of the TOTimal technique for testing effects of acquisition variables on TOT experiences. PMID:7584284

Smith, S M; Balfour, S P; Brown, J M



Sustained cortical and subcortical neuromodulation induced by electrical tongue stimulation  

PubMed Central

This pilot study aimed to show that information-free stimulation of the tongue can improve behavioral measures and induce sustained neuromodulation of the balance-processing network in individuals with balance dysfunction. Twelve balance-impaired subjects received one week of cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM). Before and after the week of stimulation, postural sway and fMRI activation were measured to monitor susceptibility to optic flow. Nine normal controls also underwent the postural sway and fMRI tests but did not receive CN-NINM. Results showed that before CN-NINM balance-impaired subjects swayed more than normal controls as expected (p?0.05), and that overall sway and susceptibility to optic flow decreased after CN-NINM (p?0.005 & p?0.05). fMRI showed upregulation of visual sensitivity to optic flow in balance-impaired subjects that decreased after CN-NINM. A region of interest analysis indicated that CN-NINM may induce neuromodulation by increasing activity within the dorsal pons (p?0.01). PMID:20614202

Tyler, Mitchell E.; Danilov, Yuri P.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Meyerand, Mary E.



Outcomes after tongue-lip adhesion or mandibular distraction osteogenesis in infants with Pierre Robin sequence and severe airway obstruction.  


The objective was to review and compare outcomes after tongue-lip adhesion (TLA) and mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) in infants with severe breathing difficulties related to Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). A single-centre retrospective (2002-2012) study was carried out; 18 infants with severe breathing difficulties related to PRS resistant to conservative treatment, who underwent TLA or MDO to correct airway obstruction, were enrolled. The primary outcome measures were successful weaning from respiratory support and resumption of full oral feeding. Nine underwent TLA and nine MDO. Eight of the nine infants who underwent MDO and all those treated with TLA were successfully weaned from respiratory support. After discharge, residual respiratory distress was diagnosed more commonly after TLA than after MDO (6/9 vs 1/9, P=0.050). Infants resumed oral feeding sooner after MDO than after TLA (mean days after surgery to full oral feeds 44±24 vs 217±134, P<0.003). The length of hospital stay was longer for infants treated with MDO than for those treated with TLA. The rate of complications was similar. Infants with severe airway obstruction related to PRS can benefit safely from either TLA or MDO. Although MDO lengthens the time to discharge, this option stabilizes airway patency of infants with PRS more efficiently and achieves full oral feeding more rapidly than TLA. PMID:23978696

Papoff, P; Guelfi, G; Cicchetti, R; Caresta, E; Cozzi, D A; Moretti, C; Midulla, F; Miano, S; Cerasaro, C; Cascone, P



Reactivity of gliadin and lectins with celiac intestinal mucosa.  


The binding patterns of gliadin and selected lectins to jejunal biopsy specimens obtained from children with total villous atrophy during active celiac disease (CD; 19 patients) and in remission (16 patients) were examined by light microscopy. Three categories of carbohydrate-specific lectins were chosen for the study: those recognizing mannose/glucose residues, those recognizing N-acetyl-glucosamine/glucose (glcNAc/glc) residues, and those recognizing N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose (galNAc/gal) residues. The galNAc/gal lectins, with the exception of phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants, presented a typical staining of the luminal surface of the jejunal mucosa obtained from CD patients. However, these lectins displayed no reactivity to jejunal sections of CD patients in remission or control biopsies that included healthy children (25 children) and patients suffering from cow milk protein allergy (10 children). The glcNAc/glc lectin showed a strong preferential recognition of CD jejunal tissue but also bound with less intensity to specimens from patients with cow milk allergies and healthy children. Unlike other galNAc/gal lectins, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants were indistinguishable in their binding patterns to the mucosa of control groups and CD patients in remission and failed to react to CD biopsies. The mannose/glc lectins were not distinctive in their binding patterns. In all cases, lectin binding was specifically inhibited by the lectins' competitive saccharides. Atypical of lectin binding patterns, gliadin reactivity was restricted to intracellular areas of enterocytes and was unique to active CD mucosa. The distinctive binding patterns of lectins and gliadin provide a diagnostic tool to distinguish patients with active CD from those in remission or patients with other intestinal disorders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7877884

Pittschieler, K; Ladinser, B; Petell, J K



Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa.  


Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:22147048

Galletta, Vivian C; Artico, Gabriela; Dal Vechio, Aluana M C; Lemos Jr, Celso A; Migliari, Dante A



Treating Meningitis  


... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with placebo. The doctors gave medication (or ... al. compared antibiotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...


Oncogenic roles of Bmi1 and its therapeutic inhibition by histone deacetylase inhibitor in tongue cancer.  


The polycomb complex protein Bmi1 (B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog) mediates epigenetic transcriptional silencing by modifying chromatin structure and is critical for stem cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Bmi1 is frequently overexpressed in human malignancies and therefore has key diagnostic and prognostic significance, and holds potential as a therapeutic target. Here we sought to characterize the expression patterns and oncogenic roles of Bmi1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and to determine the anticancer effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) via Bmi1 inhibition against tongue cancer. Our data revealed that Bmi1 was aberrantly overexpressed in a significant portion of tongue cancers. Elevated Bmi1 is associated with cervical node metastasis, Ki-67 abundance and reduced overall survival, and also serves as an independent prognostic factor for patient outcomes. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated Bmi1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and migration, induced cell apoptosis and senescence, reduced colony formation and CD44(+)CD133(+) sub-population as well as enhanced cisplatin chemosensitivity, presumably by modulation of p16, p14 and E-cadherin. Moreover, HDACi chemicals Trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) potently inhibited Bmi1 and triggered similar phenotypic changes reminiscent of Bmi1 silencing, although TSA treatment seemed paradoxically to induce some epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes in tongue cancer cells. Importantly, NaB-induced antitumor effects were partially attenuated by enforced Bmi1 overexpression in vitro. Genetic Bmi1 silencing and pharmacological inhibition of Bmi1 by NaB treatment significantly impaired tumor growth in a tongue cancer xenograft model. Taken together, our results indicate that Bmi1 serves as a key driver and biomarker with multiple oncogenic functions underlying tongue tumorigenesis. Selected appropriate HDACi compounds like NaB may represent novel therapeutic agents against tongue cancer. PMID:25286028

Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Yanling; Yuan, Chunping; Zhu, Yumin; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Bing; Wu, Heming; Ye, Jinhai; Jiang, Hongbing; Yang, Jianrong; Cheng, Jie



Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in the victims of house fire.  


Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue is frequently observed in autopsy cases of house fire victims. The meaning of this finding has not yet been fully discussed. We examined 69 autopsy cases of house fire victims and investigated several factors contributing to intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Victims comprised 45 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 1 to 95 years old. Sixty-four cases (93%) involved severely charred bodies, while the remaining five bodies displayed slight burns. Factors studied were age, sex, posture of the body at the scene of the fire, degree of burn injury and carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels in blood. CO-Hb level proved to be the only factor relevant to intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Of 69 autopsy cases, 23 (33%) demonstrated intramuscular bleeding of the tongue (13 cases of slight bleeding, ten cases of severe bleeding). Low concentrations of CO-Hb (tongue in fire victims. The burned regions of the body in the early stage of the fire process were unclear due to severe charring in most victims. However, asphyxiation due to neck compression is known to often induce intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Lack of skin elasticity following burns, particularly in the neck, might act in a similar manner to asphyxial neck compression. In conclusion, intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in fire victims may occur as a vital reaction to burns. PMID:12935624

Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Moriya, Fumio; Nakanishi, Akinori



Comparison of soft-tissue, dental, and skeletal characteristics in children with and without tongue thrusting habit  

PubMed Central

Background: Tongue thrusting habit is a condition in which the tongue makes contact with any teeth anterior to the molars during swallowing. Abnormal positioning of tongue may result in dental and skeletal abnormalities. Objective: The aim of the present study was to study and compare soft-tissue, dental, and skeletal morphologic characteristics in children with and without tongue thrusting habit. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 children with tongue thrusting habit and 21 children without any habit between age 10 and 14 years were selected for the study. Various soft-issue, dental and cephalometric parameters were measured and compared statistically. Results: Significantly, higher number of children with tongue thrusting showed lip incompetency (86% vs. 14%), mouth-breathing habit (38% vs. none), hyperactive mentalis muscle activity (24% vs. none), Open-bite (52% vs. none) and lisping (86% vs. none) when compared to children without tongue thrust. Children with tongue thrust showed increased upper lip thickness and proclination of maxillary incisors No differences were found in angulation of mandibular incisors, inter-premolar or inter-molar widths and all the skeletal parameters studied. Conclusions: Tongue thrust seemed to affect some of the soft-tissue and dental characteristics causing lip incompetency, mouth-breathing habit, and hyperactive mentalis muscle activity, lisping, open-bite, and proclination of maxillary incisors; however, no significant skeletal changes were observed. PMID:23853444

Dixit, Uma B.; Shetty, Raghavendra M.



Bilateral gustatory sweating in the submandibular region after bilateral neck dissection successfully treated with botulinum toxin.  


Gustatory sweating (or chorda tympani syndrome) in the submandibular region is a rare complication of cervical surgery. We report a 66-year-old patient who had been referred for the management of a squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue. She was treated by bilateral neck dissection and bilateral resection of the submandibular glands. Bilateral gustatory sweating in the submandibular region developed 10 years later and was successfully treated with bilateral injections of botulinum toxin type A. PMID:24996697

Philouze, Pierre; Vertu, Delphine; Ceruse, Philippe



Isolation of lymphocytes from mouse genital tract mucosa.  


Mucosal surfaces, including in the gastrointestinal, urogenital, and respiratory tracts, provide portals of entry for pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. Mucosae are also inductive sites in the host to generate immunity against pathogens, such as the Peyers patches in the intestinal tract and the nasal-associated lymphoreticular tissue in the respiratory tract. This unique feature brings mucosal immunity as a crucial player of the host defense system. Many studies have been focused on gastrointestinal and respiratory mucosal sites. However, there has been little investigation of reproductive mucosal sites. The genital tract mucosa is the primary infection site for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including bacterial and viral infections. STDs are one of the most critical health challenges facing the world today. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are 19 million new infectious every year in the United States. STDs cost the U.S. health care system $17 billion every year, and cost individuals even more in immediate and life-long health consequences. In order to confront this challenge, a greater understanding of reproductive mucosal immunity is needed and isolating lymphocytes is an essential component of these studies. Here, we present a method to reproducibly isolate lymphocytes from murine female genital tracts for immunological studies that can be modified for adaption to other species. The method described below is based on one mouse. PMID:22972306

Jiang, Janina; Kelly, Kathleen A



Dynamic ventrorostral displacement of the dorsal laryngeal mucosa in horses.  


The objectives of this report were to describe the occurrence and features of dynamic ventrorostral displacement of the dorsal laryngeal mucosa (VRDDLM) in a group of Thoroughbred horses presented for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Records from 600, dynamic, endoscopic examinations of the upper respiratory tract of horses were reviewed. Horses with VRDDLM were identified as those in which the dorsal laryngeal mucosa progressively obscured the interarytenoid notch and dorsoaxial portion of the corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages during high-speed exercise. The condition was recognised in 12 horses. Concurrent abnormalities of the respiratory tract of eight horses were also identified and included, axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds, vocal cord prolapse, unilateral and bilateral ventromedial luxation of the apex of the corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilage, and intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate. VRDDLM is a rare abnormality of the upper portion of the respiratory tract of horses that may be associated with abnormal respiratory noise and potentially poor performance. The significance of the condition is not known, but the presence of this condition in combination with other, obstructive diseases of the equine airway warrants further investigation. PMID:23559426

Pollock, P J; Kelly, P G; Reardon, R J M; Kelly, G M



[Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral mucosa].  


Consumption of tobacco can result not only in a multitude of different general health problems like carcinoma of the lung, ischaemic cardiac diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, stroke, chronic-obstructive pulmonary diseases or peptic ulcers, but also in pathologic lesions of the oral mucosa. Benign oral lesions from smoking or consumption of smokeless tobacco are the so-called smoker's palate and smoker's melanosis. On the other hand, tobacco-associated lesions like oral leukoplakia or oral squamous cell carcinoma are already potentially life-threatening diseases that in general require active treatment. The following review article will present and discuss the typical lesions of the oral mucosa that result from chronic tobacco consumption. The aim of this article is to demonstrate dental health care providers the needs and benefits of tobacco use cessation in a dental setting, especially regarding stomatologic sequelae and consequences. The present article is the first in a series of articles from the Swiss task force "Smoking - Intervention in the private dental office" on the topic "tobacco use and dental medicine". PMID:17233324

Bornstein, Michael M; Klingler, Karl; Saxer, Ulrich P; Walter, Clemens; Ramseier, Christoph A



Preparation and characterization of a biologic scaffold from esophageal mucosa.  


Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in-vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

Keane, Timothy J; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M; Carruthers, Christopher A; Reing, Janet E; Dearth, Christopher L; D'Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F



Electrical impedance, ultrastructure and ion transport in foetal gastric mucosa.  


1. The voltage transient developed across rabbit foetal gastric mucosa in response to rectangular current pulses was measured under in vitro conditions. The short-circuit current was also measured.2. The voltage transients were used to calculate equivalent circuit parameters. The mucosa could be represented as two large capacitances in series, each shunted by a high conductance.3. Electron microscopy was carried out on some preparations after the electrical measurements had been made. An extensive smooth membrane tubular system was observed on the apical sides of the cells, with openings into the gastric lumen.4. Anoxia resulted in a reversible reduction in value of the large capacitance and short-circuit current: the relative changes in these two quantities were very closely linked. Electron microscopy showed a large and reversible decline in the extent of the apical tubular system during anoxia.5. It was concluded that the apical tubular system plays an important role in ion transport in this preparation. Considerations of the magnitude of the capacitances and of membrane area suggest that the smaller capacitor represents the plasma membrane. The dieletric constant of the smooth membrane of the tubular system is an order of magnitude lower than that of the plasma membrane. PMID:4449051

Wright, G H



Isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from the porcine gastric mucosa.  


Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes is an inhabitant of the mucous membranes of the respiratory and genital tracts of a number of domestic animal species. However, following a precipitating physical or microbial insult, A. pyogenes can become an opportunistic pathogen, associated with suppurative infections. The isolation of A. pyogenes from the bovine ruminal wall indicated that this organism may also inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of, at least, cattle. To determine whether A. pyogenes was also present on the gastric mucosa of a monogastric animal, porcine stomachs were cultured for the presence of this organism. Of 13 stomachs sampled, A. pyogenes was isolated from 5 (39%). The identity of the organism was confirmed by PCR with primers specific to the plo gene, which encodes the A. pyogenes haemolytic exotoxin pyolysin. In addition, an isolate from each positive stomach was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the identification as A. pyogenes was confirmed. These data indicate that A. pyogenes may be resident on the gastric mucosa of pigs. PMID:12241094

Jost, B H; Post, K W; Songer, J G; Billington, S J



Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.



Ventral tongue myomucosal flap: a suitable choice for shaved lower vermilion border reconstruction.  


Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or verrocous carcinoma (VC) occurs frequently on the border of the lower lip and surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment. The vermilion border area is difficult to reconstruct and is very complex both morphologically and anatomically. Various reconstructive approaches for defects of the vermilion border have been described. However, for esthetics, reconstruction of the vermilion border defect by tissue of normal texture and color is paramount.We used a ventral myomucosal tongue flap for reconstruction of the vermilion border after radical excision of squamous cell carcinomas of the lip in 15 patients with labial carcinoma. The tumor was resected with a safe margin (1 cm in SCC and 0.5 cm in VC) in an approximately rectangular shape. Free-border confirmation was done using frozen section. A longitudinal strip of the free border of the tongue nonkeratinized mucosal layer with submucosal muscular layers of the tongue including the terminal branch of the lingual artery was raised. This strip extended to the angles of the mouth to cover the defect. The mucosal or myomucosal flap of the ventral tongue is designed according to the shape and size of a vermilion defect. The vermilion and subcutaneous tissue are incised, and the specimen is sent for histopathological free-border confirmation by frozen section. The flap is sutured in 2 layers, joining the mucosal border of the tongue and the upper border of the skin. The tongue flap pedicle was cut off after 3 weeks, and the oral side of the vermilion was sutured. The donor site of the tongue was closed primarily. Application of moisturizing cream for at least 2 months after surgery would be continued. In all 15 cases, the reconstructed vermilion with a tongue flap was ideal and with almost no disturbance in the patients' speaking, swallowing or taste with satisfactory cosmetic results. The ventral tongue flap is a suitable choice for vermilion border reconstruction. This flap is useful because the procedure does not require complicated surgery, and preservation of the orbicularis oris muscle and mental artery and nerve is possible. PMID:23524802

Kheradmand, Ali A; Garajei, Ata



Prognostic significance of Flotillin1 expression in clinically N0 tongue squamous cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of Flotillin1 (FLOT1) in clinically N0 tongue squamous cell cancer (cN0 TSCC). Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses were carried out to examine FLOT1 expression in four tongue squamous cell cancer cell lines, primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells, and eight matched pairs of oral tongue cancer samples and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine FLOT1 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 181 cN0 TSCC patients. Statistical analyses evaluated the diagnostic value and the associations of FLOT1 expression with clinical parameters. Results: FLOT1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in tongue squamous cell cancer cell lines and cancerous tissues compared with that in TEC and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. The level of FLOT1 protein was positively correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.001), T classification (P = 0.009), N classification (P = 0.001) and recurrence (P = 0.018). Patients with higher FLOT1 expression had shorter overall survival times. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overexpression of FLOT1 can be found in patients with higher pathological stage, T classification, N classification or recurrence. FLOT1 expression is associated with cN0 TSCC progression and may be valuable for the prognostic evaluation of cN0 TSCC. PMID:24695539

Li, Huan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Shu-Wei; Li, Feng-Jiao; Zhuang, Shi-Min; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Ji; Song, Ming



Tasting Soil Fungal Diversity with Earth Tongues: Phylogenetic Test of SAT? Alignments for Environmental ITS Data  

PubMed Central

An abundance of novel fungal lineages have been indicated by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region from environmental samples such as soil and wood. Although phylogenetic analysis of these novel lineages is a key component of unveiling the structure and diversity of complex communities, such analyses are rare for environmental ITS data due to the difficulties of aligning this locus across significantly divergent taxa. One potential approach to this issue is simultaneous alignment and tree estimation. We targeted divergent ITS sequences of the earth tongue fungi (Geoglossomycetes), a basal class in the Ascomycota, to assess the performance of SATé, recent software that combines progressive alignment and tree building. We found that SATé performed well in generating high-quality alignments and in accurately estimating the phylogeny of earth tongue fungi. Drawing from a data set of 300 sequences of earth tongues and progressively more distant fungal lineages, 30 insufficiently identified ITS sequences from the public sequence databases were assigned to the Geoglossomycetes. The association between earth tongues and plants has been hypothesized for a long time, but hard evidence is yet to be collected. The ITS phylogeny showed that four ectomycorrhizal isolates shared a clade with Geoglossum but not with Trichoglossum earth tongues, pointing to the significant potential inherent to ecological data mining of environmental samples. Environmental sampling holds the key to many focal questions in mycology, and simultaneous alignment and tree estimation, as performed by SATé, can be a highly efficient companion in that pursuit. PMID:21533038

Wang, Zheng; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc; Zhuang, Wen-ying; Dai, Yu-cheng; Johnston, Peter R.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.



Tongue-palate contact during selected vowels in children with speech sound disorders.  


Abstract There is evidence that complete tongue-palate contact across the palate during production of vowels can be observed in some children with speech disorders associated with cleft palate in the English-speaking and Japanese-speaking populations. Although it has been shown that this is not a feature of typical vowel articulation in English-speaking adults, tongue-palate contact during vowel production in typical children and English-speaking children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have not been reported in detail. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether complete tongue-palate contact occurs during production of five selected vowels in 10 children with SSD and eight typically-developing children. The results showed that none of the typical children had complete contact across the palate during any of the vowels. However, of the 119 vowels produced by the children with SSD, 24% showed complete contact across the palate during at least a portion of the vowel segment. The results from the typically-developing children suggest that complete tongue-palate contact is an atypical articulatory feature. However, the evidence suggests that this pattern occurs relatively frequently in children with SSD. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence, cause, and perceptual consequence of complete tongue-palate contact. PMID:24345004

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; Kearney, Elaine; Murphy, Doris



[Development of spectrometer for tongue diagnosis based on plane holography concave grating].  


The traditional tongue inspection method should be urgently improved due to the relative large diagnosis error probability caused by the excessive dependence on the Chinese physician's experience and judgment. But the application of tongue diagnosis based on image processing is limited by some factors including the performance of light source, image acquisition device and the low recognition rate of similar color for different diseases. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the spectroscopy method was employed to analyze the tongue by using the unique fingerprint effect of tongue spectrum. A spectrometer for tongue diagnosis (STD) was developed to achieve this goal in this paper. Meanwhile, to overcome the shortcomings of traditional light-splitting devices, a plane holographic concave grating was used as the diffractive grating, which not only can improve the luminous flux efficiency and miniaturize system, but also improve the spectral imaging quality and resolution. Experimental results demonstrated that the spectral range of STD reached 340-850 nm, and its spectral resolution is better than 2 nm. And the result of simulation experiment validated the feasibility of spectrometer's system. PMID:24369678

Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guo-dong; Huang, Zhen



Noncanonical Transforming Growth Factor ? (TGF?) Signaling in Cranial Neural Crest Cells Causes Tongue Muscle Developmental Defects*?  

PubMed Central

Microglossia is a congenital birth defect in humans and adversely impacts quality of life. In vertebrates, tongue muscle derives from the cranial mesoderm, whereas tendons and connective tissues in the craniofacial region originate from cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. Loss of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) type II receptor in CNC cells in mice (Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre) causes microglossia due to a failure of cell-cell communication between cranial mesoderm and CNC cells during tongue development. However, it is still unclear how TGF? signaling in CNC cells regulates the fate of mesoderm-derived myoblasts during tongue development. Here we show that activation of the cytoplasmic and nuclear tyrosine kinase 1 (ABL1) cascade in Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice results in a failure of CNC-derived cell differentiation followed by a disruption of TGF?-mediated induction of growth factors and reduction of myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation activities. Among the affected growth factors, the addition of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) and neutralizing antibody for follistatin (FST; an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)) could most efficiently restore cell proliferation, differentiation, and organization of muscle cells in the tongue of Tgfbr2fl/fl;Wnt1-Cre mice. Thus, our data indicate that CNC-derived fibroblasts regulate the fate of mesoderm-derived myoblasts through TGF?-mediated regulation of FGF and BMP signaling during tongue development. PMID:23950180

Iwata, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C.; Ho, Thach-Vu; Chai, Yang



Antacid talcid activates in gastric mucosa genes encoding for EGF and its receptor. The molecular basis for its ulcer healing action.  


In previous studies [Gut 35 (1994) 896-904], we demonstrated that antacid talcid (TAL) accelerates gastric ulcer healing and provides better quality of mucosal restoration within the scar than the omeprazole (OME). However, the mechanisms of TAL-induced ulcer healing are not clear. Since growth factors promote cell proliferation, re-epithelization, angiogenesis and ulcer healing, we studied whether TAL and/or OME affect expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors (EGF-R) in both normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae. Rats with or without acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers (n = 64) received i.g. twice daily 1 mL of either: A) placebo (PLA); B) TAL 100 mg; or C) OME 50 mg x kg(-1) for 14 d. Studies of gastric specimens: 1) ulcer size; 2) quantitative histology; 3) expression of EGF mRNAs was determined by RT/PCR; 4) gastric sections were immunostained with antibodies against EGF and its receptors. In non-ulcerated gastric mucosa of placebo or omeprazole treated group, EGF expression was minimal, while EGF-R was localized to few cells in the mucosal proliferative zone. Gastric ulceration triggered overexpression of EGF and its receptor in epithelial cells of the ulcer margin and scar. In ulcerated gastric mucosa TAL treatment significantly enhanced (versus PLA and omeprazole) expression of EGF and EGF-R. OME treatment reduced expression of EGF in ulcerated mucosa by 55 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). It is concluded that: 1) treatment with TAL activates genes for EGF and its receptor in normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae; 2) since EGF promotes growth of epithelial cells and their proliferation and migration, the above actions of TAL provide the mechanism for its ulcer healing action and improved (versus OME) quality of mucosal restoration. PMID:10791688

Tarnawski, A S; Tomikawa, M; Ohta, M; Sarfeh, I J



An Arch-Shaped Intraoral Tongue Drive System with Built-in Tongue-Computer Interfacing SoC.  


We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user's mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw magnetic sensor data and sends it wirelessly to an external TDS universal interface (TDS-UI) via an inductive coil or a planar inverted-F antenna. A built-in transmitter (Tx) employs a dual-band radio that operates at either 27 MHz or 432 MHz band, according to the wireless link quality. A built-in super-regenerative receiver (SR-Rx) monitors the wireless link quality and switches the band if the link quality is below a predetermined threshold. An accompanying ultra-low power FPGA generates data packets for the Tx and handles digital control functions. The custom-designed TDS-UI receives raw magnetic sensor data from the iTDS-2, recognizes the intended user commands by the sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm running in a smartphone, and delivers the classified commands to the target devices, such as a personal computer or a powered wheelchair. We evaluated the iTDS-2 prototype using center-out and maze navigation tasks on two human subjects, which proved its functionality. The subjects' performance with the iTDS-2 was improved by 22% over its predecessor, reported in our earlier publication. PMID:25405513

Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam



Treating Sludges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

Josephson, Julian



Changes monitoring of the Drygalski Ice Tongue front during 1973 to 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drygalski Ice Tongue is the largest outlet glacier in the Victoria Land part of the East Antarctic ice sheet with an area of 224,000 km2, and it is the seaward extension of David Glacier, located on the Scott Coast, in the northern part of McMurdo Sound of Antarctica's Ross Dependency. The supply of the David Glacier-Drygalski Ice Tongue comes from two main flows, a northern one from the Talos Dome and a southern one from Dome C. The importance of this glacier is due to the fact that it is the most massive drainage glacier in the Victoria Land part of East Antarctica sector. In addition, the ice tongue forms the southern coastline of Terra Nova Bay and the maximum eastward extent of the Terra Nova Bay polynya is limited by the length of the ice tongue. In this study, we extracted the boundaries of the Drygalski Ice Tongue front from 1973-2012 using a time series of ENVISAT ASAR and Landsat TM/ETM+ data. To quantify the ice tongue front changes, we measured the length of the ice tongue along two ice flowlines in the southern and northern side from the latest grounding line data. In January 2005, the Drygalski Ice Tongue was about 147 km and 114 km long in the southern and northern side. In March 2005, the giant 120 km long iceberg known as B15A collided with the end of the ice tongue breaking off two large pieces (the western one is 70.38 km2 and the eastern one is 91.76 km2). A year later in March 2006 another giant iceberg known as C16 broke another piece off of ~105.3 km2 in size. Since then the ice tongue started another steady propagation and amounted to be around 134 km and 111 km along the southern and northern flow. By calculating the distance of coastlines in different years, we found that the average propagation rate of the ice tongue front along the south flowline is 600 m a-1, while that along the north flowline is 596 m a-1. It indicates that the velocity of the southern flow is almost same as that of the northern one, which is different from the velocity near the grounding line where the southern velocity (580 ± 30 m a-1) is larger than the northern one (259 ± 30 m a-1). Besides, the results suggest that velocities of both the southern and northern flow in the front remained relatively constant from about 1973 to 2012, and show a similar change trend. The average velocity of the ice front between 1960 and 1993 was approximately 800 m a-1, faster than 600 m a-1 during 1973 to 2012, which also proved that the propagation rate of the ice tongue was slowing down.

Zhao, Chen; Cheng, Xiao; Hui, Fengming



Use of Tongue Blade to Reposition Palatally Luxated Tooth due to Trauma: A Novel Technique  

PubMed Central

Abstract Luxational injuries to the permanent anterior teeth in children are a cause of concern. Palatal luxation of maxillary left central incisor with bleeding of gingival sulcus and fracture of maxillary right central incisor involving enamel and dentine in a 9-year- old girl is presented. The dental occlusion was deranged due to the luxation. Management consisted of repositioning of the luxated tooth using tongue blade under local anesthesia and composite build up of the fractured incisor. Tooth was stable in position with intact occlusion and no loss of vitality of pulp with a follow-up of 2 years. Tongue blade can be used as an alternative to forceful manual repositioning of teeth in selected cases. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Hegde AM. Use of Tongue Blade to Reposition Palatally Luxated Tooth due to Trauma: A Novel Technique. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):207-208.

Hegde, Amitha M



Squamous cell carcinoma and piercing of the tongue - a case report.  


Tongue piercings can be associated with local and systemic complications. Local complications occur frequently immediately after the surgery but also long-term local effects can cause problems such as speech and swallowing difficulties. Aspiration, transmission of infectious diseases, hypersensitivity reaction belong to the systemic complications. In the presented paper an unusual case of cancer development in a 26-year-old man who had a metal piercing inserted for 5 years in the right anterior third of the tongue. Despite of intense concommitant chemoradiotherapy the patient died 18 months from the first symptoms. In prevention of various complications it would be the best solution spread information about the risks of the tongue piercing especially within teenage population. PMID:21700470

Stanko, Peter; Poruban, Dusan; Mracna, Jozef; Holly, Dusan; Janicek, Branislav; Pinakova, Zuzana; Porubska, Miriam; Galbavy, Stefan



Using Speech Recognition to Enhance the Tongue Drive System Functionality in Computer Access  

PubMed Central

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue operated assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe physical disabilities to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs using their volitional tongue movements. TDS offers six discrete commands, simultaneously available to the users, for pointing and typing as a substitute for mouse and keyboard in computer access, respectively. To enhance the TDS performance in typing, we have added a microphone, an audio codec, and a wireless audio link to its readily available 3-axial magnetic sensor array, and combined it with a commercially available speech recognition software, the Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways for text entry. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the combined TDS and speech recognition technologies can provide end users with significantly higher performance than using each technology alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry, such as web surfing. PMID:22255801

Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam



Variations in tongue-palate swallowing pressures when swallowing xanthan gum-thickened liquids.  


Thickened liquids are frequently recommended to reduce the risk of aspiration in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Although it has previously been reported that tongue-palate pressures increase when swallowing spoon-thick and semi-solid consistencies compared to thin liquids, relatively little is known about how swallowing behaviors differ when swallowing liquids of nectar- or honey-thick consistency. Furthermore, previous studies have primarily used starch-based thickeners, and little is known about swallowing behaviors with xanthan gum-thickened liquids, which have recently been introduced for dysphagia management. In this study, we measured variations in tongue-palate pressures during the swallowing of liquids thickened to apparent viscosities of 190, 250, and 380 mPa s at 50/s using increasing concentrations of xanthan gum (0.5, 0.63 and 0.87 w/w%). The viscosity differences between these nectar- and honey-thick stimuli were confirmed to exceed sensory perceptual discrimination thresholds. Data were collected from 78 healthy adults in two sex-balanced age-groups (young; mature) and compared to reference values obtained during water swallowing. The results confirm that increased amplitudes of tongue-palate pressure were used when swallowing the thickened liquid stimuli, compared to swallows of water, and for the honey-thick liquid compared to the two nectar-thick liquids. Age-related reductions were seen in tongue strength but not in swallowing pressures, which fell below 40 % of maximum isometric pressure values. Thus, the use of xanthan gum-thickened liquids is unlikely to tax the swallowing system in terms of tongue pressure generation requirements, even in seniors with reduced maximum isometric tongue pressure measures. PMID:25087111

Steele, Catriona M; Molfenter, Sonja M; Péladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Polacco, Rebecca C; Yee, Clemence



Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin  

SciTech Connect

The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

Goddard, P.J.



Mother Tongue Education and Transitional Literacy in Sierra Leone: Prospects and Challenges in the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the historical perspective relating to current problems facing mother tongue instruction in Sierra Leone and examines post-independence policies to highlight the institutional bases of mother tongue education and to consider causes of inertia and negative attitudes towards it since independence. (Author/VWL)

Kamanda, Mohamed Combo



Sublingual lymph node metastasis of early tongue cancer: report of two cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublingual lymph node metastasis of early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCCT) is seldom reported. Lymphatic tissue in the floor of mouth, which intervenes between the tongue and neck, will be left behind by a primary tumour resection with discontinuous neck dissection. The authors present two cases of early stage SCCT with sublingual lymph node metastasis, review the

T. Zhang; R. A. Ord; W. I. Wei; J. Zhao



The Nyae Nyae Village Schools 1994-2010: An Indigenous Mother-Tongue Education Project after 15 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of a mother-tongue education project for the Ju|'hoansi of Nyae Nyae in Namibia--the village schools. These schools are the only places in southern Africa where an Indigenous San community has access to mother-tongue education for 3 years; and are, thus, an important example in the region. However, there are some…

Cwi, Cwisa; Hays, Jennifer



Pressure sensor-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback for balance improvement -Biomedical application to prevent pressure  

E-print Network

) balance control improvement to prevent fall in older and/or disabled adults. The tongue to prevent fall in older and/or disabled adults. This paper describes the architecture and the functioningPressure sensor-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback for balance improvement - Biomedical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Speckle Tracking for the Recovery of Displacement and Velocity Information from Sequences of Ultrasound Images of the Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of deformable registration (speckle tracking) as a method for obtaining point correspondences on sequences of tongue images acquired via ultrasound in order to estimate tongue velocity and displacement. We model the velocity field as smooth Bspline functions and estimate it from adjacent frames. This model enables us to accumulate the motion and hence calculate the

Mathews Jacob; Heike Lehnert-LeHouillier; Sourabh Bora; Stephen McAleavey; Diane Dalecki; Joyce McDonough



Black tongue secondary to bismuth subsalicylate: case report and review of exogenous causes of macular lingual pigmentation.  


Macular pigmentation of the tongue can be acquired following exposure to exogenous agents. Black lingual hyperpigmentation was observed during the full body skin examination of a man with a history of recurrent metastatic malignant melanoma. His tongue spontaneously returned to its normal pink color later that day. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) was suspected as the pigment-inducing agent; subsequently, re-challange with the antacid confirmed it to be the cause of his acquired, albeit transient, black tongue. The ingestion of medications, including other antacids, analgesics, antidepressants, antihypertensives and several antimicrobials has been associated with the development of acquired macular lingual pigmentation. In addition, hyperpigmentation of the tongue has been observed following the deposition of amalgam and the injection of local anesthesia or doxorubicin or interferon alpha and ribavirin. Also, inhalation of heroin and methaqualone vapors or tobacco has resulted in lingual hyperpigmentation. All of the patients with acquired macular lingual hyperpigmentation had tongues with a smooth surface without enlargement of the filiform papillae. Many of the individuals with hyperpigmented tongue had either black or dark skin color. The onset of tongue pigmentation varied from less than one day to several years after initial exposure to the associated exogenous agent. The color of the tongue usually returned to normal after the pigment-inducing agent was discontinued. PMID:20027942

Cohen, Philip R



Cynoglossum officinale (hound's-tongue)--a cause of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in horses.  


The death of 10 horses was attributed to feeding dried grass hay containing hound's-tongue, Cynoglossum officinale. Affected horses developed weight loss, icterus, photosensitization, and hepatic encephalopathy. Histologic examination of the liver of 3 of the horses revealed megalocytosis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis characteristic of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning. Hound's-tongue was found to contain large quantities (0.6% to 2.1%, dry matter basis) of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which, when fed to a pony for 20 days, caused liver fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia. PMID:6490488

Knight, A P; Kimberling, C V; Stermitz, F R; Roby, M R




PubMed Central

SUMMARY Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.



Gastric mucosa analysis using speckle patterns: a medical diagnosis alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speckle techniques have been extensively employed in biomedical applications. It has been shown, that these non invasive optical techniques are useful to discriminate healthy tissues from those presenting some type of pathology. In this work we analyze speckle patterns from histological samples of gastric mucosa obtained by means of digestive endoscopies with three different histopathological confirmed diagnoses: atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia. We studied biopsies from 27 patients and formed groups following the corresponding speckle contrast features. Three different groups according to the speckle contrast were established: higher for intestinal metaplasia, intermediate for gastric dysplasia and low for gastric atrophy. The comparison with histopathology shows a high value of concordance between both tests, making this methodology emerges as a possible new classification system for qualitative and quantitative gastric biopsy using optical techniques.

Andrade Eraso, Carlos Augusto; Patiño Velasco, Mario Milver; Vásquez Lopez, Jairo Alfonso; Tellez, Jaury Leon; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo



Chromatographic Separation of Odorants by the Nose: Retention Times Measured across in vivo Olfactory Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The column of a standard gas chromatograph was replaced with in vivo frog olfactory sac. The wide range of relative retention times as measured across the olfactory mucosa for 15 different odorants supports the concept of a chromatographic separation along the mucosa as a mechanism for distinguishing different odorants.

Maxwell M. Mozell; Morris Jagodowicz



Oral Diseases / Review Oral mucosa lesions in hypereosinophilic syndrome: an update  

E-print Network

: Hypereosinophilic syndrome and oral ulcers Keywords: hypereosinophilic syndrome, oral ulcers, myeloproliferative. Oral mucosa ulcerations can be early clinical signs in severe forms. They are discrete, round or oval, sometimes confluent ulcers or erosions, located on non-keratinized, unattached oral mucosa. In the last

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Impaired Adaptive Cytoprotection to Ethanol-Induced Damage in Gastric Mucosa of Portal Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portal hypertension predisposes gastric mucosato increased damage by noxious agents. Adaptivecytoprotection has not been studied in portalhypertensive gastric mucosa. We evaluated adaptivecytoprotection in the gastric mucosa of portal hypertensiverats by exposure to ethanol. The injury index (percentgross lesions) was significantly higher in portalhypertensive rats than in sham-operated rats. The ratio of adaptive cytoprotection, calculated as thedegree of decrease in the

Koichi Ninomiya; Seigo Kitano; Takanori Yoshida; Toshio Bandoh; Dolgor Baatar; Sadaki Tsuboi



Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract: A histopathologic study of 158 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author retrieved and retrospectively investigated biopsy specimens of heterotopic gastric mucosa registered in our computer database. There were 1008 cases affecting the esophagus, 684 cases affecting the duodenum, and 1636 cases affecting the colorectum. A total of 158 cases of heterotopic gastric mucosa were identified (84 cases affecting the esophagus, 74 cases affecting the duodenum, and no case affecting

Tadashi Terada



Permeation of 17beta-estradiol through human vaginal and buccal mucosa.  


Because of the relative scarcity of fresh human oral mucosa specimens for permeability studies, we investigated the use of human vaginal mucosa as a model of the former. In a previous study we demonstrated the comparable diffusion rate of water across human vaginal and buccal mucosa and proposed the use of the former as a suitable model of the latter for in vitro drug permeability studies. To further evaluate the human vaginal/buccal mucosa model, we decided to compare these two tissues with respect to their permeability to 17beta-estradiol. Clinically healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa specimens were obtained during vaginal hysterectomies and different oral surgical procedures. The permeability of each tissue specimen to 17beta-estradiol was determined through the use of a continuous flow-through diffusion system. Specimens were examined histologically before and after experiments. Mean flux values for 17beta-estradiol across human buccal mucosa tended to be slightly higher than those observed for vaginal tissue, but no statistically significant differences could be demonstrated. The results from this study further support our hypothesis that human vaginal mucosa may be a suitable model of human buccal mucosa for in vitro drug permeability studies. PMID:9574947

van der Bijl, P; van Eyk, A D; Thompson, I O



Phospholipase A2 gene expression and activity in histologically normal ileal mucosa and in Crohn's ileitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in the ileal mucosa may contribute to the inflammation in Crohn's disease. The results of this study showed that (a) three months after ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease the neoterminal ileal mucosa showed endoscopically new inflammation and had higher PLA2 activity than at the time of the operation (n = 8); no such findings

I Lilja; K Smedh; G Olaison; R Sjödahl; C Tagesson; C Gustafson-Svärd



Regeneration of Olfactory Mucosa in Mice after Inhalation Exposure to Perchloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental group of 20 male pure-bred mice was exposed to perchloroethylene gas at 300 ppm for 6 h daily for 5 days. Histopathological study of the nasal mucosa, particularly the olfactory mucosa, was performed sequentially 2 weeks to 3 months after exposure, to clarify the process of regeneration. The tissue damage due to perchloroethylene gas was more persistent in

Harumi Suzaki; Akihiko Aoki; Yasuya Nomura



Comparative functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in the domestic dog and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and

Boniface Kavoi; Andrew Makanya; Jameela Hassanali; Hans-Erik Carlsson; Stephen Kiama



Influence of bovine colostrum on restoration of intestinal mucosa in weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate post-weaning period characterized by reduced feed intake induces gut structural alterations. A rapid mucosa restoration is essential for an optimal growth recovery in piglets. Bovine colostrum has been shown to prevent villous atrophy in mice and to stimulate mucosal healing in patients suffering from inflammatory gut disease. Therefore we evaluated the influence of bovine colostrum on mucosa restoration

A. Huguet; L. Le Normand; J. Fauquant; B. Kaeffer; I. Le Huërou-Luron



Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.



Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.



Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion.  


The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. PMID:24003900

Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru



Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib



Alkanolamine treating  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the chemistry, engineering and operational aspects of the primary and secondary amines utilized in syngas purification are explored. The gas treating chemistry is followed by the analysis of reactivity of chemicals involved with H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ which constitute main impurities in gas streams. Other topics discussed include - capacity versus corrosivity; heat of reaction; reboiler duty, metallurgy; chemical degradation of amines; solvent purification; hydrocarbon solubility; mercaptane removed; freezing point of amine solutions. 27 refs.

Butwell, K.F.; Kubek, D.J.; Sigmund, P.W.



Ulceration of the oral mucosa following direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients: a case report and a review of the French National Pharmacovigilance Database  

PubMed Central

Objective To report a series of cases of ulceration of the oral mucosa linked to direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients. Case summary The first case report concerns the occurrence of widespread oral ulceration in an 87-year-old woman with Alzheimer’s disease. The ulceration extended from the side of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. No clear explanation was found and various local treatments were ineffective. Once it was realized that the ferrous sulfate tablets (given as an iron supplement) were crushed prior to administration (due to the patient’s deglutition disorder), withdrawal of this treatment led to rapid resolution of the ulceration. Nine other cases of oral ulcerations associated with ferrous sulfate were identified in the French National Pharmacovigilance Database. All but one of the patients were over 80 years of age and the youngest patient (a 54-year-old) had dysphagia associated with facial paralysis. Discussion Only two other reports of oral ulceration due to ferrous sulfate have been published to date. Mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate (which is probably related to oxidative stress) has previously been reported for the hypopharynx, the esophageal lumen, and (after inhalation of a tablet) the tracheobronchial tree. Conclusion The mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate must be taken into account when deglutition disorders are present (as in elderly patients) and appropriate pharmaceutical formulations (such as syrups) should be administered to at-risk patients. The use of iron salts other than ferrous sulfate could be considered. PMID:24812499

Liabeuf, Sophie; Gras, Valerie; Moragny, Julien; Laroche, Marie-Laure; Andrejak, Michel



Probiotic Preparation VSL#3 Alters the Distribution and Phenotypes of Dendritic Cells within the Intestinal Mucosa in C57BL/10J Mice1–3  

PubMed Central

Probiotic nutrients have shown promise in therapy for the treatment of gastrointestinal inflammation, infection, and atopic disease. Intestinal dendritic cells (DC) play a critical role in shaping the intestinal immune response. In this study, we tested the effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on DC distribution and phenotypes within the intestinal mucosa using a lineage depletion-based flow cytometric analysis. In naïve C57BL/10J mice, intestinal mucosal DC were composed of plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and myeloid DC (mDC). The pDC were the dominant form in lamina propria and Peyer's patches, whereas mDC were the prevailing type in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additional characterization of pDC and mDC with flow cytometry revealed that they expressed heterogeneous phenotypes in the intestinal mucosa. In mice gavaged with the probiotic VSL#3 for 7 d, the proportion of pDC within the lamina propria was >60% lower, whereas the pDC subset in the mesenteric lymph nodes was more than 200% greater than in sham-treated controls (P < 0.01). Within pDC, the proportion of functionally unique CX3CR1+ DC was greater than in controls in both the lamina propria and the Peyer's patches (P < 0.01). In contrast to pDC, the mDC number was greater than in controls in all intestinal lymphoid tissue compartments in VSL#3-treated mice (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this study suggests that phenotypically and functionally distinct DC subsets are localized to specific lymphoid tissues within the intestinal mucosa and that the VSL#3 probiotic nutritional supplement alters the distribution of the DC subsets within the intestinal mucosa. These changes may be important in the alteration of mucosal immunity following probiotic VSL#3 therapy. PMID:19549755

Wang, Xiao; O'Gorman, Maurice R. G.; Bu, Heng-Fu; Koti, Viola; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Tan, Xiao-Di



18?-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Delivered Orally Induces Isolated Lymphoid Follicle Maturation at the Intestinal Mucosa and Attenuates Rotavirus Shedding  

PubMed Central

Glycyrrhizin, an abundant bioactive component of the medicinal licorice root is rapidly metabolized by gut commensal bacteria into 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA). Either or both of these compounds have been shown to have antiviral, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, anti-tumor, anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro or in vivo. In this study, the ability of GRA to modulate immune responses at the small intestinal mucosa when delivered orally was investigated. Analysis of cytokine transcription in duodenal and ileal tissue in response to GRA treatment revealed a pattern of chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression predictive of B cell recruitment to the gut. Consistent with this finding, GRA induced increases in CD19+ B cells in the lamina propria and B220+ B cell aggregates framed by CD11c+ dendritic cells in structures resembling isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Using a mouse model of rotavirus infection, GRA reduced the duration of viral antigen shedding, and endpoint serum antibody titers were higher in GRA-treated animals. Together the data suggest GRA delivered orally augments lymphocyte recruitment to the intestinal mucosa and induces maturation of B cell-rich ILF independently of ectopic antigenic stimulus. These results provide further support a role for dietary ligands in modulation of dynamic intestinal lymphoid tissue. PMID:23152913

Hendricks, Jay M.; Hoffman, Carol; Pascual, David W.; Hardy, Michele E.



Photodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer and elastic scattering spectroscopy of the duodenal mucosa for the detection of pancreaticobiliary malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnosis and treatment of pancreaticobiliary malignancy is of major interest to our group. Building on prior work, we undertook a phase I study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, pancreatic cancer. We also initiated an optical diagnostic study using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) of the normal-appearing periampullary duodenal mucosa in vivo to investigate the hypothesis of a field effect in pancreaticobiliary malignancy. In a phase I dose escalation study, patients were treated with interstitial verteporfin PDT via a single fibre, to determine its general safety profile and the optimum treatment parameters needed to achieve effective and safe necrosis of tumour, With increasing light doses, there was a linear increase in the extent of tumour necrosis around the fibre, without serious adverse events. Follow-on studies using multiple fibres are planned. In 30 patients with benign or malignant pancreaticobiliary disease undergoing clinically-indicated endoscopy, ESS spectra were collected from the normal-appearing duodenum and antrum and a diagnostic algorithm generated by principle component and linear discriminant analysis. Pooled data from duodenal sites distal to the ampulla gave a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 72% (82% AUC) for the detection of malignancy, whereas those from the periampullary region had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 61% (72% AUC); antral measurements were not able to discriminate with such accuracy. These early results suggest that ESS of the duodenal mucosa could represent a novel minimally invasive diagnostic test for pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

Huggett, M. T.; Baddeley, R. N. B.; Sandanayake, N. S.; Webster, G. J. M.; Bown, S. G.; Lovat, L. B.; Gillams, A.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.



Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction in the Making of the Walker Circulation and Equatorial Cold Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate over the equatorial Pacific displays a pronounced asymmetry in the zonal direction that is characterized by the Walker circulation in the atmosphere and the cold tongue in the ocean. An intermediate coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the driving force and the ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism for the generation of the zonal asymmetry. In the far eastern Pacific,

Shang-Ping Xie



Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee



Automated Tongue Feature Extraction for ZHENG Classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

ZHENG, Traditional Chinese Medicine syndrome, is an integral and essential part of Traditional Chinese Medicine theory. It defines the theoretical abstraction of the symptom profiles of individual patients and thus, used as a guideline in disease classification in Chinese medicine. For example, patients suffering from gastritis may be classified as Cold or Hot ZHENG, whereas patients with different diseases may be classified under the same ZHENG. Tongue appearance is a valuable diagnostic tool for determining ZHENG in patients. In this paper, we explore new modalities for the clinical characterization of ZHENG using various supervised machine learning algorithms. We propose a novel-color-space-based feature set, which can be extracted from tongue images of clinical patients to build an automated ZHENG classification system. Given that Chinese medical practitioners usually observe the tongue color and coating to determine a ZHENG type and to diagnose different stomach disorders including gastritis, we propose using machine-learning techniques to establish the relationship between the tongue image features and ZHENG by learning through examples. The experimental results obtained over a set of 263 gastritis patients, most of whom suffering Cold Zheng or Hot ZHENG, and a control group of 48 healthy volunteers demonstrate an excellent performance of our proposed system. PMID:22693533

Kanawong, Ratchadaporn; Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Ma, Tao; Xu, Dong; Li, Shao; Duan, Ye



Two prey capture strategies are generally recognised in lizards: tongue and jaw prehension (Schwenk and  

E-print Network

prey prehension mechanism. Using high-speed video recordings, cineradiography, electromyography, nerve of epithelial glands and possesses numerous papillae that can lock into surface irregularities on the prey by the surface area of the tongue contacting the prey (Emerson and Diehl, 1980), this system places severe

Nishikawa, Kiisa


Artificial gynogenesis and sex determination in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).  


Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is an important cultured marine fish as well as a promising model fish for the study of sex determination mechanisms. In the present study, a protocol for artificial gynogenesis of half-smooth tongue sole was developed in order to identify the sex determination mechanism and to generate all-female stock. The optimal UV-irradiation dose for genetically inactivating sea perch spermatozoa was determined to be > or =30 mJ/cm(2). The optimal initiation time for cold shock of gynogenetic embryos was determined to be 5 min after fertilization, while the optimal temperature and treatment duration were determined to be 20-25 min at 5 degrees C. Chromosomes from common diploids, gynogenetic haploids, and diploids were analyzed. WW chromosomes were discovered in some of the gynogenetic diploids. The microsatellite marker was applied to analyze gynogenetic diploid fry. Among the 30 gynogenetic diploid fry, 11 fry contained only one allele, while 19 contained two alleles, which had the same genotype as their mother. The female-specific DNA marker was observed in four individuals out of ten gynogenetic diploid fry. Ploidy analysis of 20 putative gynogenetic fry showed them all to be diploid. Thus, a protocol for the induction of artificial gynogenesis has been developed for the first time in half smooth tongue sole, and the sex determination mechanism in the tongue sole was determined to be female heterogametic with the ZW chromosome. PMID:18779997

Chen, Song-Lin; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Jing-Feng; Shao, Chang-Wei; Ji, Xiang-Shan; Zhai, Jie-Ming; Liao, Xiao-Lin; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Su, Peng-Zhi; Xu, Jian-Yong; Sha, Zhen-Xia; Wu, Peng-Fei; Wang, Na



Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all

Glenn R. Phillips; Thomas E. Lenhart; Richard W. Gregory




E-print Network

THE CONFUSION OF TONGUES - Os::ar Riddle AN EVOLUTIONARY TIME SCALE - A. M. Woodbury MAMMOTHS AND MASTODONS for space. But if ,ve yielded to this commerciill pressure to change the name, th-e pressure \\\\'ould become the human mind by helping to spread the light of science. We have full sympathy with the lone biology


They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce



Tongue kinematics in palate relative coordinate spaces for electro-magnetic articulography.  


This paper describes a method for constructing a three-dimensional model of the hard palate using electro-magnetic articulography, and defines two algorithms to derive constriction degree and constriction location values from the trajectories of tongue coils using this model. The kinematics of tongue motion that have been transformed into constriction degree and constriction location values are investigated in detail to determine whether this type of representation obeys the constraints theorized to operate over higher level motor control. Results show that palate-relative coordinate spaces decouple mechanical dependencies present in the tongue, while maintaining low-level kinematic properties. They additionally preserve the 1/3 power law for speed and curvature observed across many motor systems. Finally, it is shown that tongue movements in a palate relative coordinate space more closely correspond to their optimal, jerk-minimized trajectories. These results suggest that this type of coordinate space provides a closer match to higher level motor-planning, in line with production models that specify control units in terms of vocal tract constriction parameters. PMID:24437775

Neufeld, Chris; van Lieshout, Pascal



Tongue-Palate Contact during Selected Vowels in Children with Cleft Palate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports tongue-palate contact recorded using electropalatography (EPG) during five vowels \\/i\\/, \\/?\\/, \\/I\\/, \\/o\\/ and \\/ \\/ spoken by school-aged children with cleft palate and a group of normal speakers. All the children had articulation disorders affecting consonants but none had obvious vowel errors. Two measures were taken from the EPG data at the temporal midpoint of the

Fiona Gibbon; Philippa Smeaton-Ewins; Lisa Crampin



Correlation between intraoral pressures and tongue movements in the suckling pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to clarify the relationship between tongue movements during suckling and the pressures in different parts of the oral cavity. A modified teat allowed a miniature pressure transducer to be passed through into the mouth. Intraoral pressures were recorded in piglets suckling on the teat attached (1) to a non-vented bottle or (2) to an automated milk delivery

A. J. Thexton; A. W. Crompton; T. Owerkowicz; R. Z. German



Hemorrhages in the root of the tongue in fire fatalities: the incidence and diagnostic value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemorrhages in the root of the tongue have been considered to be a finding associated with asphyxiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence and diagnostic value of the lingual hemorrhages in fire fatalities with reference to the related pathological and toxicological findings, in comparison with asphyxiation and drowning cases. In fire fatalities (n=90), small to

Li Quan; Bao-Li Zhu; Kaori Ishida; Shigeki Oritani; Mari Taniguchi; Yasunobu Kamikodai; Kohei Tsuda; Masaki Q. Fujita; Hitoshi Maeda



Translation Elicitation Techniques and Mother-Tongue Interference: Any Significant Connection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the validity of Dulay, Burt, and Krashen's hypothesis that the use of translation as an elicitation technique in foreign or second language (L2) research artificially increases L2 learners' reliance on the mother tongue, and accordingly, the proportion of interference errors. Examined interference errors on two elicitation tasks: an…

Mattar, Hameed



Relationships between Tumor Volume and Lymphatic Metastasis and Prognosis in Early Oral Tongue Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although T stage is an important prognostic tool for oral tongue cancer, it fails to define the depth of invasion and true three-dimensional volume of primary tumors. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relations between tumor volume and lymph node metastasis and survival in early oral tongue cancer. Methods Forty-seven patients with T1-2 tongue cancer were included. Tumor volumes were measured by the computerized segmentation of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Results The overall average tumor volume was 27.7 cm3 (range, 1.4 to 60.1 cm3). A significant positive correlation was found between tumor volume and pathological T stage, depth of invasion, and cervical lymph node metastasis (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.002, respectively). When the tumor volume exceeded 20 cm3, the cervical metastasis rate increased to 69.2%. The overall 5-year disease specific survival rate was 80%. There was a statistically significant association between large tumor volume (?20 cm3) and the 5-year disease-specific survival (P=0.046). Conclusion Tumor volume larger than 20 cm3 was associated with greater risk cervical lymph node metastasis and poor 5-year disease-specific survival rate in early oral tongue cancer patients. PMID:24353865

Joo, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Sun, Dong-Il; Cho, Kwang-Jae; Park, Jun-Ook



Inter-annual variability and dynamics of cold-tongue in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South China Sea (SCS) surface circulation is mainly forced by seasonally varying monsoon winds and flow through the Luzon Strait. In winter, positive wind curl (due to the northeasterly winds) in the southern half of SCS drives a cyclonic gyre. The strong western boundary current south off Vietnam on the continental slope separates the Sunda Shelf to the west and deep SCS basin to the east. The advection of cold water due to the slope current results in a unique cold tongue in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from November to February. The inter-annual variability of cold-tongue the in the SCS is investigated on the basis of daily NCEP OISST version-2 dataset from 1982 to 2012. The evolution, growth and decay of the cold tongue during the period are addressed using the OISST and ERA-interim surface wind datasets. The formation and termination of this cold tongue has significant correlation with the El Nino phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean.

Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola



Three Tongues of the Muse: A Poetic Banquet of French, Greek, and Persian Poetry  

E-print Network

Three Tongues of the Muse: A Poetic Banquet of French, Greek, and Persian Poetry And Ethnic Cuisine ancient music) Plato: Phaedrus ­ on the cicadas, messengers to the Muses [Calliope] Rumi: Masnavi of the grail [Negin] I.2 Greek poetry and Orthodox chant Hesiod: The birth of eros [Calliope] Homer: Odyssey


Speech Production in Parkinson's Disease: I. An Electropalatographic Investigation of Tongue-Palate Contact Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have indicated that consonant imprecision in Parkinson's disease (PD) may result from a reduction in amplitude of lingual movements or articulatory undershoot. While this has been postulated, direct measurement of the tongue's contact with the hard palate during speech production has not been undertaken. Therefore, the present…

McAuliffe, Megan J.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Murdoch, Bruce E.



The role of oral soft tissues in swallowing function: what can tongue pressure tell us?  


Tongue pressure data taken from healthy subjects during normal oral activities such as mastication, speech and swallowing are providing us with new ways of understanding the role of the tongue in craniofacial growth and function. It has long been recognized that the sequential contact between the tongue and the palate plays a crucial role in the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing. However, because the focus of most research on intraoral pressure has been on the generation of positive pressure by the tongue on the hard palate and teeth, generation and coordination of absolute intraoral pressures and regional pressure gradients has remained unexplored. Ongoing research in our laboratory has uncovered highly variable individual pressure patterns during swallowing, which can nonetheless be divided into four stages: preparatory, primary propulsive, intermediate and terminal. These stages may further be sub-classified according to pressure patterns generated at the individual level as tipper or dipper patterns in the preparatory stage, roller or slapper in the primary propulsive and monophasic or biphasic during the intermediate stage. Interestingly, while an increase in bolus viscosity can result in significant changes to pressure patterns in some individuals, it has little effect in others. Highly individual responses to increased viscosity are also observed with swallowing duration. The above, together with other findings, have important implications for our understanding of the aetiology of widely differing conditions such as protrusive and retrusive malocclusions, dysphagia and sleep apnoea, as well as the development of novel food products. PMID:24152133

Kieser, J A; Farland, M G; Jack, H; Farella, M; Wang, Y; Rohrle, O




EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this report is to evaluate the existing water quality monitoring network in the Tongue and Powder River Basins and to recommend needed modifications to the present sampling program. As a basis for these recommendations, known developments, both present an...


Functional morphology of the tongue in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica).  


Using LM and SEM methods, the study describes microstructures in particular areas of the tongue of the goose. A thick multilayered keratinized epithelium forms the "lingual nail" and covers small and giant conical papillae, whereby the first functions as an exoskeleton of the tongue apex, and the latter are arranged along the lingual and well-developed connective tissue cores, and together with the bill lamellae are involved in cutting. The row of conical papillae on the lingual prominence prevents regurgitation of transported food. In the area of the "lingual nail" and in the anterior part of the lingual prominence, Herbst corpuscles are accumulated, which allow to recognize food position. Filiform papillae, as widely distributed between the conical papillae of the body, are responsible for filtering. They can be explained as long keratinized processes of the epithelium and are devoid of connective tissue cores. During food transport, the flattened areas of the lingual body and the lingual prominence are protected by a parakeratinized epithelium, but the root is covered by a nonkeratinized epithelium. The presence of adipose tissue in the tongue probably reduces pressure during food passage, but also promotes mucus evacuation from the lingual glands, thus facilitating food transport. An entoglossal bone with a continuation as cartilage is the stable structural basis of the tongue system. PMID:21830308

Jackowiak, Hanna; Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Godynicki, Szymon; Iwasaki, Shin-ichi; Meyer, Wilfried



Tongue-Tied But Trying? A NIACE Survey on the Languages Adults Speak in Great Britain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language competence of adults in Great Britain was examined in a national study involving interviews between April 28 and May 9, 1999, with a representative sample of 3,967 adults over the age of 16 years. Of those surveyed, 58% spoke only their mother tongue, 29% spoke one additional language, and 10% spoke two additional languages. Fifteen…

Tuckett, Alan; Cara, Sue


An Ultrasound Analysis of Tongue Shape in Parkinson 's Disease D. H. Whalen1,2  

E-print Network

An Ultrasound Analysis of Tongue Shape in Parkinson 's Disease D. H. Whalen1,2 , Khalil Iskarous2 Laboratories, 3 University of Southern California, 4 Université du Québec à Montréal Parkinson's disease (PD

Edinburgh, University of


Tongue muscle activity after orthodontic treatment of anterior open bite: a case report.  


A case report of a Class I malocclusion with an anterior open bite and bimaxillary dental protrusion was presented. The patient had a tongue thrust swallow and slight lisping. After the treatment, significant adaptation in electromyographic pattern of genioglossus muscle activity during swallowing was determined. However, remarkable change in the electromyographic pattern of the genioglossus muscle did not occur during chewing. PMID:10358249

Yashiro, K; Takada, K



Design of a microfluidic cell using microstereolithography for electronic tongue applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present design, fabrication and integration of a micro fluidic cell for use with the electronic tongue. The cell was machined using microstereo lithography on a Hexanediol Diacrylate (HDDA) liquid monomer. The wet cell was designed to confine the liquid under test to the sensing area and insure complete isolation of the interdigital transducers (IDTs). The electronic

Stefany L. Jacesko; Taeksoo Ji; Jose K. Abraham; Vijay K. Varadan; Julian W. Gardner



Disposable E-Tongue for the Assessment of Water Quality in Fish Tanks  

PubMed Central

A disposable screen-printed e-tongue based on sensor array and pattern recognition that is suitable for the assessment of water quality in fish tanks is described. The characteristics of sensors fabricated using two kinds of sensing materials, namely (i) lipids (referred to as Type 1), and (ii) alternative electroactive materials comprising liquid ion-exchangers and macrocyclic compounds (Type 2) were evaluated for their performance stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Type 2 e-tongue was found to have better sensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility and was thus used for application studies. By using a pattern recognition tool i.e. principal component analysis (PCA), the e-tongue was able to discriminate the changes in the water quality in tilapia and catfish tanks monitored over eight days. E-tongues coupled with partial least squares (PLS) was used for the quantitative analysis of nitrate and ammonium ions in catfish tank water and good agreement were found with the ion-chromatography method (relative error, ±1.04- 4.10 %).

Chang, Chew-Cheen; Saad, Bahruddin; Surif, Misni; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md



Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

Santa Ana, Otto



Topographical organization of TRPV1-immunoreactive epithelium and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve terminals in rodent tongue  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, acid, and heat and mediates pain through peripheral nerves. In the tongue, TRPV1 expression has been reported also in the epithelium. This indicates a possibility that sensation is first received by the epithelium. However, how nerves receive sensations from the epithelium remains unclear. To clarify the anatomical basis of this interaction, we performed immunohistochemical studies in the rodent tongue to detect TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neural marker. Strong expression of TRPV1 in the epithelium was observed and was restricted to the apex of the tongue. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that CGRP-expressing nerve terminals were in close apposition to the strongly TRPV1-expressing epithelium of fungiform papilla in the apex of rodent tongues. These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing epithelium monitors the oral environment and acquired information may then be conducted to the adjacent CGRP-expressing terminals. PMID:22688302

Kawashima, M.; Imura, K.; Sato, I.



Can you "read tongue movements"? Pierre Badin, Yuliya Tarabalka, Frdric Elisei, Grard Bailly  

E-print Network

that these tongue reading capabilities could be used for applications in the domain of speech therapy for speech retarded children, perception and production rehabilitation of hearing impaired children, and pronunciation. The literature in this domain is rather scarce. Massaro et al. [4] used their computer-animated talking head

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Pharmacokinetics of sulfamonomethoxine in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) after intravenous and oral administration.  


The pharmacokinetic profiles of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) were investigated in flatfish tongue soles in the present study. After a single injection of SMM (40 mg/kg BW) to caudal vein of tongue sole at 20 °C, plasma drug concentration versus time data were best fitted to a three-compartment model, characterized with 0.2, 5.7, and 80.4 h for the half-life (t 1/2) of fast distribution, slow distribution, and elimination, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.1 L/kg, and the body clearance was 0.03 L/h/kg. After oral administration of SMM (200 mg/kg BW) to tongue soles at 20 °C, plasma drug concentrations were best fitted to a two-compartment model, of which the mean half-life of absorption (t 1/2ka) and elimination (t 1/2? ) were 1.7 and 95.7 h, respectively. The maximal absorption concentration (C max) was estimated as 58 mg/L at 2.5 h, and the mean systemic bioavailability (F) was 39.5 % in tongue soles after oral administration. PMID:24577641

Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Xin; Li, Jing-Bao; Wang, Ying-Zi; Li, Jian