Lining of total cheek mucosa defects can be accomplished by opening the tongue along its lateral border and preparing two myomucosa flaps that can be swung upward and downward like a double door to be sutured into the defect. The tongue is released 3 weeks later in a second-stage operation. The operation is quick and easy compared with other methods to achieve lining for such defects. Tongue function is not impaired after healing of the second-stage operation. PMID:3399567
von Domarus, H
The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells. PMID:21198427
Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares
4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of DNA damage induced by 4NQO in oral mucosa cells by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm
Daniel Araki Ribeiro; Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori; Renata Nunes da Silva; Bruno Ribeiro Darros; Mariangela Esther Alencar Marques
The use of buccal mucosa and a tongue flap in reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the lower lip is described. The patient's face received a heavy blow in a traffic accident. Necrosis caused by hematogenous disturbance occurred in more than half of the entire lower lip vermilion. The patient underwent a two-stage operation for reconstruction of the lower lip. First, vestibuloplasty was performed using a buccal mucosal flap. Subsequently, the vermilion was surgically reconstructed using a flap from the tip of the tongue. This operative method is less risky because of its favorable prognosis. An effective way to recover motor function of the lower lip is to practice a rehabilitation program against scar contraction. An extension movement with the fingers that requires two or three repetitions every day was selected. Rehabilitation was started 7 days after the tongue flap was divided. The patient had a favorable recovery after the operation and is now able to wear a denture and to eat without slobbering. PMID:15213540
Hitoshi, Osano; Koichi, Matsumoto; Yoshiyuki, Tsuchiya; Hiroto, Ito; Hideaki, Suzuki; Mikio, Kusama
Frequently, the studies on the lingual epithelium ultrastructure in anurans do not show differences between filiform papilae and glandular epithelia in the non-sensory dorsal epithelium. To accomplish the study of glandular epithelium, samples of dorso-distalis mucosae of Bufo marinus tongue were processed for transmission electron microscopy and also semithin sections of the same material were used for light microscopy study. The results showed that the glandular epithelium is constituted by three different types of cells: (1) serous granular secretory cells; (2) mitochondria rich cells (CRM); and (3) ciliated cells. Detailed structures of each type of cell under light and electron microscopy were given. Notably, in the lingual portion studied, secretory cells showed no signs of exocytosis of their granules, thus suggesting that they do not have a basal or continuous rate of secretory activity. Additionally, the distribution, localization and structure of CRM in the gland epithelium suggest their participation in secretory cell maturation and/or function. PMID:12216500
This study investigated the quality of life in patients younger than 40 years with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. We used the University of Washington Head and Neck Quality of Life scale to compare the quality of life outcomes between young and old patients. Cases were patients younger than 40 years who were treated for anterior tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Controls were patients older than 40 years who were matched to the cases regarding diagnosis, sex, and TNM classification. Two controls were matched for each case; thus, 21 cases and 42 controls were selected. Twenty-one of 33 questionnaires (63.6%) were returned. The median follow-up duration was 3.7 years (range, 1-12 y). In the group of young patients, the best-scoring domains were pain, chewing, and swallowing, whereas the lowest scores were for appearance, mood, and anxiety. Young patients (40 years or younger) reported better function, notably regarding activity, recreation, shoulder, taste, and saliva compared with the old patients with anterior tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The patients younger than 40 years tend to have a good quality of life. Most of them were not significantly affected by pain. Quality of life should be used as part of our treatment of anterior tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24220465
Zhang, Xu; Fang, Qi-Gen; Li, Zhen-Ning; Li, Wen-Lu; Liu, Fa-Yu; Sun, Chang-Fu
In recent years Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF alfa) inhibitors have been highly effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, patients receiving these inhibitors have an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). We describe a rare case of tuberculosis of the tongue in an RA patient treated with methotrexate (MTX) and the TNF alfa inhibitor adalimumab (ADA) for the previous six years. Pretreatment tuberculin skin test (TST) was negative. The patient was admitted to our division complaining of a sore throat for months. Clinical examination revealed a swollen non-healing ulcer at the base of the tongue, which was suspected to be a squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological assessment unexpectedly revealed a chronic granulomatous inflammation compatible with tuberculosis. TST was strongly positive and the T Spot TB test was also reactive. MTX and ADA were discontinued and the patient received antituberculous treatment with complete healing of the lesion. After three months our patient had a worsening RA that was treated with MTX and rituximab with no TB related adverse events. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity, especially in immunocompromised patients treated with TNF alfa inhibitors. Rituximab can be a valid alternative therapy in such patients. PMID:24955803
Assante, Luca Rosario; Barra, Enrica; Bocchino, Marialuisa; Zuccarini, Giacomo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Sanduzzi, Alessandro
We examined the distribution of immunofluorescence due to immunostaining of type III collagen, differential interference contrast\\u000a (DIC) images and images obtained in the transmission mode after toluidine blue staining by laser-scanning microscopy of semi-ultrathin\\u000a sections of epoxy resin-embedded samples, during morphogenesis of the filiform papillae, keratinization of the lingual epithelium,\\u000a and myogenesis of the rat tongue. Immunoreactivity specific for type
Shin-ichi Iwasaki; Tomoichiro Asami; Chaitip Wanichanon; Hideki Yoshizawa; Hidekazu Aoyagi
On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa. PMID:2133298
Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G
A 1-year-old Chinese boy presented with a mass at the base of his tongue with dysphagia. The distal end of the lesion could be put out of his mouth, making a "double tongue" appearance. Before surgery, serum test showed euthyroidism. Thyroid scintigraphy showed good function of the orthotopic thyroid, yet no uptake by the lesion, excluding ectopic thyroid. En bloc resection was performed. Histopathology demonstrated aberrant salivary tissues. Our case indicates that differential diagnosis between ectopic salivary tissues and ectopic thyroid should be borne in mind when treating patients with double tongues. PMID:24566418
Meng, Zhaowei; Tan, Jian; Mu, Jie; Zheng, Rongxiu; Liu, Geli
This study investigated the presence of mRNA coding for interferon gamma (IFN gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and interleukins 2 (IL2) and 6 (IL6), in the mucosa of four coeliac patients in remission who had been challenged with either gliadin or synthetic gliadin oligopeptides. Jejunal biopsy specimens from these patients, taken before and at two, four, and six hours after challenge, were hybridised with specific 35S-labelled DNA oligonucleotide probes. The lamina propria of all the patients contained significantly increased numbers of cytokine mRNA expressing cells four hours after challenge with gliadin or an oligopeptide corresponding to amino acids 31-49 of A-gliadin (peptide A). No significant changes were seen with the peptides corresponding to aminoacids 202-220 (peptide B) or 3-21 (peptide C) of A-gliadin, with the exception of one patient who showed a significant increase in the number of TNF alpha mRNA expressing cells four hours after challenge with peptide B. In vivo studies in coeliac disease have shown that significant histological changes occur in the mucosa of treated coeliac patients four hours after challenge with either gliadin or peptide A. These findings suggest that the histological changes seen previously in the mucosa of coeliac patients after wheat peptide challenge may be caused by increased expression of cytokines within the mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4
Kontakou, M; Przemioslo, R T; Sturgess, R P; Limb, G A; Ellis, H J; Day, P; Ciclitira, P J
Tongue strength is reduced in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for oral/oropharyngeal cancer. Tongue strengthening protocols have resulted in improved lingual strength and swallowing in healthy individuals, as well as in patients following a neurological event. However, no studies have examined the efficacy of tongue strengthening exercises on tongue strength, swallowing, and quality of life (QOL; Head and Neck Cancer Inventory) in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. A randomized clinical trial examined the effects of a tongue strengthening programme paired with traditional exercises vs. traditional exercises alone. Dependent variables included tongue strength, swallowing, and QOL in a group of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated with primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Differences with regard to tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallow efficiency (OPSE) were not observed within or between groups. QOL in the eating and speech domains improved following treatment in both groups. However, the experimental group demonstrated greater impairment in QOL in the social disruption domain following treatment, whereas the control group demonstrated a slight improvement in functioning. Tongue strengthening did not yield a statistically significant improvement in either tongue strength or swallowing measures in this patient cohort. Patient compliance and treatment timing may be factors underlying these outcomes. PMID:24332586
Lazarus, C L; Husaini, H; Falciglia, D; DeLacure, M; Branski, R C; Kraus, D; Lee, N; Ho, M; Ganz, C; Smith, B; Sanfilippo, N
Background Chronic inflammation is well known to be a risk factor for colon cancer. Previously we established a novel mouse model of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, which is useful to examine the involvement of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis. To shed light on the alterations in global gene expression in the background of inflammation-related colon cancer and gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, we conducted a comprehensive DNA microarray analysis using our model. Methods Male ICR mice were given a single ip injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight), followed by the addition of 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to their drinking water for 7 days, starting 1 week after the AOM injection. We performed DNA microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip) on non-tumorous mucosa obtained from mice that received AOM/DSS, AOM alone, and DSS alone, and untreated mice at wks 5 and 10. Results Markedly up-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa given AOM/DSS at wk 5 or 10 included Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5 and 5.7-fold increase at wk 10) and plasminogen activator, tissue (Plat, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5), myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc, 3.0-fold increase at wk 5), and phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid) (Plscr2, 8.0-fold increase at wk 10). The notable down-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa of mice treated with AOM/DSS were the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding protein (Pparbp, 0.06-fold decrease at wk 10) and the transforming growth factor, beta 3 (Tgfb3, 0.14-fold decrease at wk 10). The inflammation-related gene, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (Ppar? 0.38-fold decrease at wk 5), was also down-regulated in the colonic mucosa of mice that received AOM/DSS. Conclusion This is the first report describing global gene expression analysis of an AOM/DSS-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis model, and our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies against carcinogenesis.
Suzuki, Rikako; Miyamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Yumiko; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Takuji
An 84-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with nonproductive cough and dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed extensive consolidation in the right lung. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma using CT-guided lung biopsy. Her pulmonary images and respiratory symptoms did not improve two months after receiving 4 cycles of rituximab weekly; therefore, yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan was chosen as salvage therapy. The abnormal shadow on her pulmonary images was significantly reduced two months later, and she had no symptoms without nonhematological toxicities. She has had no progression for 18 months. Furthermore, radiation pneumonitis has not also been observed. We herein reported bulky pulmonary MALT lymphoma treated with yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan.
Tamura, Shinobu; Ikeda, Tokuji; Kurihara, Toshio; Kakuno, Yoshiteru; Nasu, Hideki; Nakano, Yoshio; Oshima, Koichi; Fujimoto, Tokuzo
Primary lymphomas of the oral cavity are uncommon and of the tongue even rarer. It is more common in the masticatory mucosa than the lingual and buccal mucosa. We describe a 63 year old male who presented with dysphagia & change in voice. Computed tomography revealed a 4.8×3.7 cm mass localized to the base of tongue. He underwent biopsy and IHC studies & was diagnosed as having diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was successfully treated with wide excision of the lesion and is undergoing chemotherapy now. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation and histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen are required to establish the diagnosis and for further management. This is one of the few cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the base of tongue being reported from India. PMID:24636915
Singh, Aminder; Sood, Neena; Kaur, Harpreet; Garg, Bhavna; Munjal, Manish
Infected wounds determined by cats' bites represent high costs to public health, and their adequate treatment relies on the knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial agents found in the oral microbiota. Members of the genus Staphylococcus sp. belong to the microbiota of the oral mucosa of cats and are frequently involved in secondary infections of these wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from oral mucosa of cats. Samples were collected from 200 clinically healthy cats and processed by standard bacteriological methods and tested for susceptibility to a panel of 16 antimicrobials. A total of 212 staphylococci isolates were obtained from 141 of the 200 cats (70.5%), and more than one colony was recognized in 53 cases. Coagulase-negative species were most frequently found (89.6%) distributed among Staphylococcus xylosus (50.9%), Staphylococcus felis (27.4%), Staphylococcus simulans (6.1%) and Staphylococcus sciuri (5.2%). Coagulase-positive species (10.4%) were distributed among Staphylococcus aureus (4.7%) and Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) (5.7%). Regarding to antimicrobial resistance, 178 isolates (83.9%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and rifampicin showed the best results with 100% of sensitive strains. Conversely, high rates of resistance were observed for penicillin and tetracycline (56.1%). The 212 staphylococci isolates and 30 (14.1%) strains were resistant to methicillin (on the disc susceptibility test) and may be preliminarily considered as methicilin-resistant staphylococci. In conclusion, this study reports important rates of antimicrobial resistance among the species of Staphylococcus isolated from clinical specimens of cats, which must be considered for the treating of cats' bites in humans. PMID:23280142
Muniz, I M; Penna, B; Lilenbaum, W
Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477
Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam
Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously.
Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam
Canine leishmaniosis is a severe systemic disease caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Leishmania infantum, an obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages, transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies. The infection in dogs might occur without any clinical signs or might be characterised by chronic viscerocutaneous signs, such as lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, splenomegaly, onychogryphosis, and renal as well as ocular damage due to immunocomplex deposition. In atypical cases the parasites can be found in the striated musculature, the central nervous system, the endocrine glands or gonads, with or without functional damage. Leishmania infection might seldom induce oral lesions, particularly on the tongue. The authors describe the clinical case of a four-year old mongrel dog with tongue lesions caused by L. infantum. The dog was presented due to diarrhoea, lack of appetite and hypersalivation. Examination of the oral cavity revealed the presence of multiple red, nodular lesions on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue. Definite diagnosis of an infection with L. infantum was obtained by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by the cytological identification of the parasite in nodular, lingual lesions and bone marrow aspirates. The dog was treated with a combination of miltefosine (Milteforan(R), Virbac), 2 mg/kg orally once a day for four weeks and allopurinol (Ziloric(R), GlaxoSmithKline), 10 mg/kg orally twice a day for six months. At the end of the treatment, the animal showed full remission of clinical signs. The authors outline the atypical manifestations in the oral cavity in combination with a L. infantum infection and discuss the therapeutic potential of the combination treatment of miltefosine and allopurinol in canine leishmaniosis. PMID:19426445
Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Paparcone, Rosa; Cappiello, Silvia; De Santo, Roberta; Bianciardi, Paolo; Oliva, Gaetano
Canine leishmaniosis is a severe systemic disease caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Leishmania infantum, an obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages, transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies. The infection in dogs might occur without any clinical signs or might be characterised by chronic viscerocutaneous signs, such as lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, splenomegaly, onychogryphosis, and renal as well as ocular damage due to immunocomplex deposition. In atypical cases the parasites can be found in the striated musculature, the central nervous system, the endocrine glands or gonads, with or without functional damage. Leishmania infection might seldom induce oral lesions, particularly on the tongue. The authors describe the clinical case of a four-year old mongrel dog with tongue lesions caused by L. infantum. The dog was presented due to diarrhoea, lack of appetite and hypersalivation. Examination of the oral cavity revealed the presence of multiple red, nodular lesions on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue. Definite diagnosis of an infection with L. infantum was obtained by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by the cytological identification of the parasite in nodular, lingual lesions and bone marrow aspirates. The dog was treated with a combination of miltefosine (Milteforan®, Virbac), 2 mg/kg orally once a day for four weeks and allopurinol (Ziloric®, GlaxoSmithKline), 10 mg/kg orally twice a day for six months. At the end of the treatment, the animal showed full remission of clinical signs. The authors outline the atypical manifestations in the oral cavity in combination with a L. infantum infection and discuss the therapeutic potential of the combination treatment of miltefosine and allopurinol in canine leishmaniosis.
Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Paparcone, Rosa; Cappiello, Silvia; De Santo, Roberta; Bianciardi, Paolo; Oliva, Gaetano
N?-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is one of the most important strong carcinogens in tobacco products, and is believed to play a significant role in the induction of esophageal cancer in smokers and oral cavity cancer in snuff dippers. NNN is metabolically activated through cytochrome P450-catalyzed ?-hydroxylation. 2?-Hydroxylation produces a reactive intermediate 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutanediazohydroxide (7), which alkylates DNA to form pyridyloxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts. DNA pyridyloxobutylation from NNN treatment, as measured by released 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB, 8), has been observed in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we have used liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to analyze specific POB-DNA adducts in the nasal olfactory, nasal respiratory, and oral mucosa of F344 rats treated chronically with (R)-NNN or (S)-NNN in the drinking water (10 ppm, 1–20 weeks). Adduct levels in the nasal respiratory mucosa exceeded those in the nasal olfactory and oral mucosa. (R)-NNN treatment generated 2–4 times more adducts in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa than did (S)-NNN at most time points. O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-POB-dThd, 11) predominated in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa, followed by 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine (7-POB-Gua, 14). Levels of O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]cytosine (O2-POB-Cyt, 13) and O6-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2?-deoxyguanosine (O6-POB-dGuo, 12) were significantly lower. In the oral mucosa, the opposite stereoselectivity was observed, with (S)-NNN treatment producing 3–5 times more POB-DNA adducts than did (R)-NNN. O2-POB-dThd and 7-POB-dGuo were the two major adducts, and their levels were similar. Overall, POB-DNA adduct formation in the nasal olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosa was similar to that previously observed in the lung, whereas in the oral mucosa, the trend resembled that in the esophagus. These results indicate that different mechanisms are involved in NNN metabolism and tumorigenesis in rat nasal and oral tissues. NNN enters the nasal mucosa through the circulation, and tissue-specific metabolism is important; while in the oral mucosa, direct exposure and local activation both play significant roles. Our results also support the potential importance of NNN as an oral carcinogen in people who use smokeless tobacco products.
Zhang, Siyi; Wang, Mingyao; Villalta, Peter W.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Lao, Yanbin; Hecht, Stephen S.
Lymphangiomas are developmental malformations and have a marked predilection for the head and neck region. They are benign proliferation of lymphatic vessels and represents hamartomas of malformed lymphatics. The most common location in the mouth is the dorsum of tongue, followed by lips, buccal mucosa, soft palate, and floor of the mouth. In the tongue, they may present as a localized or a diffused growth which may enlarge to cause macroglossia, impaired speech and difficulty in mastication. These tumors are typically present at birth, but may go unnoticed until after dentition erupts or even after puberty. Presenting here is a case of localized lymphangioma of the tongue in a five year old child and its surgical management.
Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Sanjay; Gokkulakrishnan, S; Singh, Amit
Lymphangiomas are developmental malformations and have a marked predilection for the head and neck region. They are benign proliferation of lymphatic vessels and represents hamartomas of malformed lymphatics. The most common location in the mouth is the dorsum of tongue, followed by lips, buccal mucosa, soft palate, and floor of the mouth. In the tongue, they may present as a localized or a diffused growth which may enlarge to cause macroglossia, impaired speech and difficulty in mastication. These tumors are typically present at birth, but may go unnoticed until after dentition erupts or even after puberty. Presenting here is a case of localized lymphangioma of the tongue in a five year old child and its surgical management. PMID:22442618
Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Sanjay; Gokkulakrishnan, S; Singh, Amit
A 52-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our Institute because of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori)-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT)lymphoma. Since she had a penicillin allergy, we could not eradicate H. pylori using the standard triple therapy including amoxicillin. Additionally, H. pylori was resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. So she was treated with minomycin (MINO), levofloxacin (LVFX), and rabeprazole (RPZ) based on a drug sensitivity test. MINO+LVFX+RPZ appear to be a promising, appropriate, and well-tolerated eradication regimen for H. pylori demonstrating resistance to both clarithromycin and metronidazole, and for patients who are allergic to penicillin. PMID:20948264
Konno, Tomoko; Motoori, Shigeatsu; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Tomoe; Saito, Shigeyo; Kitagawa, Naoko; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Furuse, Junji; Itabashi, Masayuki
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraarterial in- fusion of paclitaxel incorporated into human albumin nanoparticles for use as induction che- motherapy before definitive treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty-three previously untreated patients (age range, 27-75 years) who had carcinoma of the tongue (stage T3-T4, any N)
Bruno Damascelli; Gian Luigi Patelli; Rodolfo Lanocita; Giuseppe Di Tolla; Laura Francesca Frigerio; Alfonso Marchianò; Francesco Garbagnati; Carlo Spreafico; Vladimira Tichà; Caroline Regna Gladin; Mauro Palazzi; Flavio Crippa; Cesare Oldini; Stefano Calò; Alberto Bonaccorsi; Franco Mattavelli; Luigi Costa; Luigi Mariani; Giulio Cantù
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach is the most common extranodal lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually accompanied by Helicobacter pylori infection, and eradication of H. pylori remains the mainstay of treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma. However, there is no consensus on the second-line treatment for patients with gastric MALT lymphoma who do not improve after successful H. pylori eradication. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with a polypoid type of gastric MALT lymphoma on the greater curvature side of the upper body. Despite successful H. pylori eradication, the tumor did not regress after 6 months. Because the tumor had a semipedunculated polypoid morphology, gastric polypectomy was implemented as a second-line treatment. No recurrence occurred during the 3-year follow-up period. We suggest that gastric polypectomy be considered an alternative treatment modality for polypoid gastric MALT lymphoma that is unresponsive to H. pylori eradication.
Min, Shin Young; Rhee, Poong-Lyul
A 70-year-old woman with a history of sinobronchial syndrome was admitted to the hospital because of a cough, sputum, and abnormal chest shadow. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (p-MALToma) based on results of a pathologic examination and the gene rearrangements in the Ig heavy chain on Southern blot hybridization. Although p-MALToma did not regress with conventional therapy, it was reduced after long-term treatment with clarithromycin (CAM) (200 mg/d). A 57-year-old woman with a history of Sjögren syndrome and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia had a mass lesion in the left lower lung field. CT image-guided biopsy established a diagnosis of p-MALToma. The p-MALToma regressed with long-term treatment with CAM (200 mg/d), whereas Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy was not effective in concurrent atrophic gastritis with HP. It is suggested that CAM, a macrolide antibiotic, may be effective in some patients with p-MALToma. PMID:20822996
Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Atsuko; Hara, Shintaro; Amenomori, Misato; Fujita, Hanako; Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru
We were the first to demonstrate that direct application of the environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) into the oral cavity of mice induced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in oral tissues but not in the tongue; however, the mechanisms that can account for the varied carcinogenicity remain to be determined. Furthermore, we also showed that not only dA adducts, but also dG adducts can account for the mutagenic activity of DB[a,l]P in the oral tissues in vivo. In this study, we initially focused on DB[a,l]P-induced genotoxic effects in both oral and tongue tissues. Therefore, to fully assess the contribution of these DNA adducts in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis induced by DB[a,l]P, an LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously detect and quantify DB[a,l]PDE-dG and -dA adducts was developed. Mice were orally administered with DB[a,l]P (24 nmole, 3 times per week for 5 weeks) or its fjord region diol epoxide, (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]PDE, 12 nmole, single application); animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after the last dose of carcinogen administration. Oral and tongue tissues were obtained and DNA were isolated followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Following the development of an isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method, we successfully detected (-)-anti-cis- and (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(2)-dG, as well as (-)-anti-cis- and (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA in oral and tongue tissues of mice treated with DB[a,l]P. Levels of (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA were ?2 folds higher than (-)-anti-cis-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA adduct and those of dG adducts in the oral tissues and tongue at all time points selected after the cessation of DB[a,l]P treatment. Levels of dG adducts were comparable in both tissues. Collectively, our results support that DB[a,l]P is predominantly metabolized to (-)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE, and the levels and persistence of (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N(6)-dA may, in part, explain the carcinogenicity of DB[a,l]P in the oral tissues but not in the tongue. PMID:24911113
Zhang, Shang-Min; Chen, Kun-Ming; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Aliaga, Cesar; Lin, Jyh-Ming; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; El-Bayoumy, Karam
Aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) are putative preneoplastic lesions in the colonic mucosa identified by examining methylene blue-stained whole mounts of colon. ACFs have been previously described in rats treated with genotoxic colon carcinogens. This study determined whether or not a nongenotoxic colon carcinogen could induce ACFs and compared the morphology of these ACFs with those induced by a genotoxic colon carcinogen. Six-wk-old Fischer-344 rats were administered dextran sulfate (DSS, nongenotoxin) in the drinking water or azoxymethane (AOM, genotoxin) by single subcutaneous injection. Rats were sacrificed at 9 and 14 wk after study initiation. Colons were fixed and stained with methylene blue, and the mucosal surface of transilluminated whole mounts was examined with a microscope. The number of ACFs and number of crypts per focus (multiplicity) were recorded. Representative ACFs were processed into glycol methacrylate for hexosaminidase enzyme histochemistry and sections of the remaining colon containing ACFs were embedded in paraffin for morphologic evaluation. In whole mounts, ACFs from AOM- and DSS-treated rats had elongated slit-to-oval-shaped lumens surrounded by a thickened and intensely stained epithelium. DSS-induced aberrant crypts differed from those induced by AOM in that they were frequently larger, tended not to form discrete foci circumscribed by normal crypts, and were located adjacent to ulcers. Total ACFs and large foci (4 or more crypts/focus) were significantly more numerous in AOM-treated rats at both time points. Histologically, DSS-induced ACFs had segmental to diffuse loss of hexosaminidase activity, mucin depletion to increased prominence of goblet cells, and marked distortion of crypt architecture. AOM-induced ACFs had diffuse loss of hexosaminidase activity, variable depletion of mucin, and less distortion of crypt architecture. Variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia were seen in ACFs with both carcinogens, but dysplasia was more severe in DSS-induced ACFs. Colonic mucosal neoplasms were induced by both carcinogens. In subchronic studies, the ACF assay may be a useful method to improve the identification and characterization of xenobiotic-induced changes in colonic mucosal crypts. PMID:8994294
Whiteley, L O; Hudson, L; Pretlow, T P
Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/ inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation. PMID:25050571
Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Mori, Takayuki; Watanabe, Naoki; Naiki, Takafumi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi
Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology. PMID:20187599
Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W
Tongue diagnosis is an important inspection method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In this paper, we investigate machine learning techniques for tongue diagnosis. To do this, we first identify tongue properties and classes. In tongue property identification, we identify 21 properties from tongue substance and coating, whereas in tongue classification, we derive 24 tongue classes. Machine learning techniques are then
Siu Cheung Hui; Yulan He; Doan Thi Cam Thach
The use of a tongue flap for treatment of palatal fistulae is a well-established procedure, but it is not without complication. We report on a patient who underwent palatal fistula closure with tongue flap as a child, who then developed a nasal papilloma from the mucosa of the tongue flap 40 years later. This case is the first of its kind to be reported and emphasizes the need for long-term follow-up because the tongue mucosa is vulnerable to many diseases. PMID:22107070
Ragavan, Munisamy; Haripriya, Uppalu; Rajeshkumar, Sankala; Sarvavinothini, Janarthanam
Autoamputation is an uncommon phenomenon that has been reported for the fingers, toes, appendix, ovary, spleen, etc. Autoamputation of the tongue has never been reported. An elderly man with carcinoma of lateral pharyngeal wall and tonsil presented with an autoamputated tongue that was attached to the oral cavity with a thin band. The patient required detachment of the tongue and tracheostomy followed by radiotherapy for the primary tumour.???Keywords: autoamputation; tongue
Patel, A; Chaturvedi, P; Panday, R; Sanyal, B
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the propensity to metastasize to any organ in the body. Tongue metastases from RCC is very rare with most of them being metachronous in nature. We present a rare case where patient presented with a tongue lesion leading to a diagnosis of RCC. Surgery is the preferred modality of treatment for tongue metastases.
Khobragade, Krunal Harishchandra; Bakshi, Ganesh K.; Prakash, Gagan; Menon, Santosh
Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.
Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: email@example.com [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)
The objective of this article was to evaluate the impact potential of nandrolone decanoate on DNA damage, cellular regulatory proteins and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in oral mucosa cells of Wistar rats. A total of 40 rats were distributed into four groups. Two experimental groups were treated with nandrolone decanoate, at 5?mg/kg doses, subcutaneously, three times a week in two periods: 15 and 30 days. The remaining groups received only 0.9% saline subcutaneously, three times a week. To evaluate genetic damage, nandrolone decanoate at 15?mg/kg dose was exposed to 24?h. In the histopathological analysis, no remarkable morphological changes were observed in tongue tissue in all groups. Significant increase in immunoexpression of Ki-67, p53, COX-2 proteins was detected in the groups treated with nandrolone decanoate during 15 and 30 days, when compared to their respective controls. A positive correlation between immunoexpression of p53 and COX-2 protein was detected following nandrolone decanoate exposure. DNA damage was induced by nandrolone decanoate in oral mucosa cells at 15?mg/kg dose. Our results suggest that nandrolone decanoate was able to alter the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, as well as to induce genetic damage and COX-2 immunoexpression in tongue cells of Wistar rats. PMID:23210612
Pozzi, Renan; Fernandes, Kelly Rosseti; Foot Gomes de Moura, Carolina; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Chaves, Marcelo Donizeti; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki
Fissured tongue (FT) is a condition frequently seen in the general population. Clinically, FT is characterized by grooves that vary in depth and are noted along the dorsal and/or dorsolateral aspects of the tongue. Furthermore, FT presents many enlarged, smooth filiform papillae and subepithelial inflammatory infiltration. Despite of many studies, the etiology of FT remains obscure. FT is believed to be a congenital anomaly associated with several disorders and with geographic tongue (GT). We hypothesize that FT is not a congenital anomaly, and FT with swollen filiform papillae may represent edema in the subepithelial tissue of the tongue. According to the literature, the difference in prevalence among different age groups indicates that FT is not a congenital disorder. FT appears to occur more commonly in adults, and it is very rare or not at all in children younger than 10 years old. An association between FT and GT is well established in the literature, supporting the results of previous authors suggesting that FT might be a consequence of GT. The most remarkable finding in the region of swollen papillae of FT samples has been the subepithelial infiltrates of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes causing the subepithelial edema. The clinically visible grooves and large edematic papillae clustered on the region of the fissures might be caused by the inflammation and edema underneath the epithelium. In the future, FT and GT must be researched together as two different entities of the same disease so that GT is a prestage of FT. The diagnosis of FT must be taken to consideration whether the tongue surface have smooth and swollen papillae or normal-appearing filiform papillae. PMID:24698850
Järvinen, Jaana; Mikkonen, Jopi J W; Kullaa, Arja M
Lymphangioma is a benign, hamartomatous tumor of the lymphatic channels. It is usually found in the head and neck region. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth and are usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood. When lymphangioma occurs in the mouth, the anterior two thirds of the tongue is the most commonly affected region. A risk of secondary growth is classically described after surgical reduction. In this paper, we present 9 cases of tongue lymphangioma. We provide a literature review of tongue lymphangioma. PMID:23172444
Catalfamo, Luciano; Nava, Carla; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Iudicello, Valeria; Siniscalchi, Enrico Nastro; Saverio, De Ponte Francesco
Lipoma is the commonest benign tumor occurring at any anatomical site, where fat is present. In oral cavity and oropharynx, it is a relatively uncommon neoplasm. Tongue, which is totally devoid of fat cell is also a site for lipoma but very rarely. We report one such rare case of the universal tumor, of 20 years of duration and 9 cm in size, presenting at the lateral margin, dorsal and ventral surface of the tongue, for which complete tumor excision was done.
Chandak, Sanjog; Pandilwar, P. K.; Chandak, Tushar; Mundhada, Rupali
Synopsis As one moves from the skin across the vermilion region of the lip and into the oral cavity the oral mucosa is encountered. The oral mucosa consists of connective tissue known as the lamina propria covered by a stratified squamous epithelium. In the regions of the hard palate and gingiva the epithelium is keratinized like the epidermis. In the buccal region, the floor of the mouth and the underside of the tongue the epithelium is nonkeratinized. The epithelium on the dorsum of the tongue is a specialized epithelium but can be approximated as a mosaic of keratinized and nonkeratinized epithelia. The nonkeratinized epithelial regions do not produce a stratum corneum. Nuclei with intact DNA are retained in the superficial cells. In all regions the outer portions of the epithelium provides a protective permeability barrier, which varies regionally. Antimicrobial lipids at the surfaces of the oral mucosa are an integral part of innate immunity.
Dawson, Deborah V.; Drake, David R.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Brogden, Kim A.; Fischer, Carol L.; Wertz, Philip W.
Background Our objective was to study tongue lesions and their significance in psoriatic patients. Methods The oral mucosa was examined in 200 psoriatic patients presenting to Razi Hospital in Tehran, Iran, and 200 matched controls. Results Fissured tongue (FT) and benign migratory glossitis (BMG) were the two most frequent findings. FT was seen more frequently in psoriatic patients (n = 66, 33%) than the control group (n = 19, 9.5%) [odds ratio (OR): 4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.61–8.52] (p-value < 0.0001). BMG, too, was significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients (28 cases, 14%) than the control group (12 cases, 6%) (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.20–5.50) (p-value < 0.012). In 11 patients (5.5%), FT and BMG coexisted. FT was more frequent in pustular psoriasis (7 cases, 53.8%) than erythemato-squamous types (56 cases, 30.4%). On the other hand, the frequency of BMG increased with the severity of psoriasis in plaque-type psoriasis assessed by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score. Conclusions Nonspecific tongue lesions are frequently observed in psoriasis. Further studies are recommended to substantiate the clinical significance of these seemingly nonspecific findings in suspected psoriatic cases.
Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Moslehi, Homayoon; Akhyani, Maryam; Etesami, Marjan
This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which has described monozygotic twins with geographic tongue in the literature.
Neurofibrolipoma is a very rare benign oral tumor with other synonyms such as neural fibrolipoma, perineural lipoma and intraneural lipoma. A 50 years old female presented with a massive swelling of the tongue of 6 years duration. The tumor was attached to the mucosa of the tip of the tongue, disturbing mastication and speech. On excision, histopathology revealed neurofibrolipoma. This case report shows the atypical presentation of neurofibrolipoma and the challenges of its management. PMID:24521580
Fomete, Benjamin; Adebayo, Ezekiel T; Ononiwu, Charles N; Idehen, Kelvin O
BACKGROUND: The present study is aimed at identifying potential candidate genes as prognostic markers in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by large scale gene expression profiling. METHODS: The gene expression profile of patients (n=37) with oral tongue SCC were analyzed using Affymetrix HG_U95Av2 high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Patients (n=20) from which there were available tumor and matched normal mucosa
Cherry L Estilo; Pornchai O-charoenrat; Simon Talbot; Nicholas D Socci; Diane L Carlson; Ronald Ghossein; Tijaana Williams; Yoshihiro Yonekawa; Yegnanarayana Ramanathan; Jay O Boyle; Dennis H Kraus; Snehal Patel; Ashok R Shaha; Richard J Wong; Joseph M Huryn; Jatin P Shah; Bhuvanesh Singh
Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient's age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue.
Kamala, K. A.; Ashok, L.; Sujatha, G. P.
Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient's age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue. PMID:24808705
Kamala, K A; Ashok, L; Sujatha, G P
For the past four years, Maysam Ghovanloo has been working with a team at Georgia Institute of Technology to improve life for quadriplegics. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), they have devised a headset that responds to a magnet. Using a laptop, a wireless connection and navigation software, the headset is programmed to allow someone to steer a wheelchair by moving his tongue. Since the tongue driver could help control any number of devices like the TV or a computer, it could one day mean even more of the most precious commodity of all: independence.
Liposarcoma is a rare tumor in the head and neck. No previous report of its occurrence in the tongue is found at the time of this writing and this prompts its presentation. Significant in its management is wide surgical excision. Irradiation may be effective in some metastases. Prognosis is best in well differentiated forms. PMID:994279
Larson, D L; Cohn, A M; Estrada, R G
From January of 1985 to January of 1990, 31 patients with repaired cleft lip and secondary vermilion defects underwent 45 revisional procedures. A free tongue graft was utilized seven times in six patients (19 percent). Indications for its use were a V-shaped vermilion deficit or a "whistling" deformity associated with a sagittal vermilion deficiency and normal or insufficient lateral vermilion bulk. Of the seven free tongue grafts, none was lost. Three patients have required revisions, including repeat free tongue graft in one. Proper positioning of the graft along the free vermilion border has made color and texture match satisfactory. The free tongue graft is a simple and reliable means of transferring both vermilion bulk and surface mucosa. Introduction of the free tongue graft has eliminated the need for more cumbersome procedures, such as the Abbé flap or the tongue flap, in properly selected patients. PMID:1822964
Cohen, S R; Kawamoto, H K
The purpose of this study was to clarify which physiological and anatomical factors were involved in the formation of tongue indentations, which are believed to be a clinical sign of clenching. Twenty-four dentulous subjects were investigated. They were divided into two groups, depending on the presence or absence of tongue indentations: (i) a tongue indentation group and (ii) a no tongue indentation group. Intraoral appliances containing a small pressure sensor were placed at the lingual surfaces of the upper and lower right first molars. Lingual pressure on the lingual surfaces of the upper and lower right first molars was then recorded under different conditions. The tasks selected as physiological factors to be recorded were: (i) silent reading at rest for 10 min, (ii) maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) for 5 s, (iii) 10% of MVC for 1 min and (iv) swallowing. The results for all tasks were compared between groups. Tongue width and dental arch width were also measured as anatomical factors. No significant differences were found between groups during silent reading at rest, clenching, swallowing, or in tongue pressure integration during silent reading at rest. However, a significant difference was found in terms of tongue width (P < 0.05). These results indicate that neither volume of lingual pressure exerted on the lingual surface of the teeth during rest, clenching, nor swallowing are related to the formation of tongue indentations. The results do suggest; however, that tongue width at rest plays an important role in the formation of tongue indentations. PMID:17919249
Yanagisawa, K; Takagi, I; Sakurai, K
Pedicled tongue flaps have proved to be an effective method of repairing defects due to tissue loss in the oral cavity. Their central position, mobility, and excellent blood supply make their use feasible in a variety of sites. This paper describes the use and applications of central island tongue flaps to reconstruct defects of anterior floor of the mouth. This procedure was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University Hanover, introducing an improved surgical method and presenting the actual operation performed in our department. This method is considered superior for resurfacing the anterior floor of mouth defects because it is easy to perform and results in recovery of function and cosmetics. PMID:9927907
Shibahara, T; Noma, H; Fujikawa, M; Miyao, T; Ishikawa, M; Takasaki, Y
Cysticercosis is a major health concern in developing countries, as it is a major cause of seizures in these countries. The tissues commonly affected are the neural tissues, muscle, heart, lungs, liver, subcutaeneous layers and peritoneum, but oral manifestations are rare. Present case is of an asymptomatic tongue nodule which was diagnosed as cysticercosis on histologic examination. Thus, emphasizing the importance of routine microscopic examination and diagnosis of apparently innocuous lesions of the oral cavity.
Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal; Pattanayak, Sweta; Vibha
Cysticercosis is a major health concern in developing countries, as it is a major cause of seizures in these countries. The tissues commonly affected are the neural tissues, muscle, heart, lungs, liver, subcutaeneous layers and peritoneum, but oral manifestations are rare. Present case is of an asymptomatic tongue nodule which was diagnosed as cysticercosis on histologic examination. Thus, emphasizing the importance of routine microscopic examination and diagnosis of apparently innocuous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23633810
Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal; Pattanayak, Sweta; Vibha
A 90-year old woman attended a department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a tongue that had been painful for at least 3 months. Clinical examination revealed extensive bullous and ulcerative lesions located on the tongue, the oral vestibule and the buccal mucosa on both sides. A variety of diseases may be causative of ulcerative stomatitis: autoimmune diseases (like Pemphigus vulgaris, Erosive Lichen Planus, SLE or M. Crohn), or a viral, bacterial or mycotical infection, vitamin deficiency, a toxic reaction to medication or an immune deficiency. After an extensive, clinical examination, a definitive diagnosis still had not been achieved. The patient suffered from osteoporosis, for which she used alendronate (Fosamax). A study of the literature described a possible relationship between the occurrence of oral ulcers and the use of oral biphosphonates. Since a toxic reaction to alendronate was suspected, the use of Fosamax tablets was suspended. Three months later a complete recovery of the oral mucosa was observed. PMID:20726498
Dik, E A; van Es, R J J; Bergsma, J E
Speech debilitation in patients with glossectomy due to squamous cell carcinoma eradication has been described qualitatively by previous researchers. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the changes in tongue motion in glossectomy patients by comparing them to normal controls to help clarify the effects of the tongue resection/reconstruction on normal motion of the tongue during speech. Eight glossectomy patients, including one with a flap reconstruction, and nine normal controls had MRI recorded in the mid-sagittal plane while uttering "a souk" to evaluate the effects of tumor/resection size, closure procedure used, the level of motor control, and s-type on the velocity and displacement of the tongue tip and body at one or more points in time. No statistically significant differences in tongue motion or motor control were found between normal controls and glossectomy patients, suggesting retention of tongue mobility post-glossectomy. Patients with larger resections were found to have more difficulty with tongue tip motion during speech and one patient treated with flap reconstruction also showed highly altered tongue motion. S-type was not found to have a statistically significant effect on tongue motion. This study suggests that post-glossectomy debility in speech revealed previously most likely cannot be attributed to quantitative changes in tongue motion, but rather qualitative changes in tongue motion.
Reichard, Rachel E.
The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550
Sarada, P; Reddy, C H Sampath; A K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha
This study centred on the effects of hetero-reinnervation within the rat tongue. Lingual, greater auricular and vagus nerves were used. Proximal segments of each of these nerves were joined to the distal hypoglossal stump using 10/0 nylon suture. Histological sections of the tongue were examined. In lingual hypoglossal cross-union, histological evidence indicated that neuromuscular junction (nmj) reinnervation was present to some degree in all intrinsic tongue muscles and within geniohyoid. Lingual nerve fibres were also found within the dorsal keratinised lingual epithelium, reinnervating taste buds and intralingual ganglia. Greater auricular nerve fibres were unable to make contact with nmjs, nor were they found to any appreciable degree within the lingual mucosa. Vagal nerve fibres were found close to, but not innervating, nmjs, but did reinnervate taste buds, lingual vasculature and intralingual ganglia. It was concluded that nodose cells are unable to reinnervate vacated nmjs, but like lingual fibres can reinnervate lingual mucosa, intralingual ganglia and vasculature. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7
O'Reilly, P M; O'Reilly, M A
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943
Santos, Paulo Sergio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics, treatment results, and analyze the prognostic factors among patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). We retrospectively reviewed 98 patients with MALT lymphoma consecutively diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital. Eighty-one patients (82%) had localized disease and 17 patients (17%) had advanced disease. The primary site was gastric in 52, and extra-gastric in 46. With a median follow-up of 40 months, the estimated 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) of the entire group were 100% and 89%, respectively. Three-year PFS was significantly better in patients with gastric lymphoma than in those with non-gastric lymphoma (95% vs. 82%, p = 0.043). Patients with localized disease had significantly better 3-year PFS than those with advanced disease (94% vs. 73%, p = 0.026). Upon multivariate analysis, non-gastric lymphoma retained prognostic significance for PFS. PMID:23216271
Ueda, Kyoko; Terui, Yasuhito; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Sakajiri, Sakura; Nishimura, Noriko; Tsuyama, Naoko; Takeuchi, Kengo; Hatake, Kiyohiko
This debate presents two viewpoints on mother tongue maintenance: (1) that all individuals have a fundamental right to education in their native tongue, and that multilingual societies should actively promote multilingualism for all individuals; and (2) that the multitude of languages and rapid economic development in many countries calls for…
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Sridhar, Kamal
Frequently when one hears about the Native American experience in the United States, the focus is on the loss of traditions, folkways, and language. In contrast, this website was created to highlight a recent documentary by Anne Makepeace that focuses on the ways in which Native American languages have recovered and thrived in recent times. On the site, visitors should start by clicking on the interactive "Language Map." Here visitors can learn about twelve different languages, including Crow, Cherokee, Dakota, Euchee, and Lakota. Clicking on the "Voices" area gives visitors the opportunity to listen to Native Americans from different tribal communities speaking in their mother tongues. Additionally, visitors can send an electronic postcard from the site, read the site blog, and learn more about the project and the documentary.
Both the thermosphere and the ionosphere react to forcing from the magnetospherically imposed ion convection pattern. A twin-celled, neutral convection pattern is set up that normally follows the ion convection pattern; however, unlike the ionosphere, the thermosphere takes a considerable time to react to geomagnetic forcing. In solar maximum conditions this reaction time can take 1-3 h. The close relationship between the ion and neutral winds suggests that other features may exist in the high-latitude thermosphere that have counterparts in the high-latitude ionosphere. Two possible examples of these counterparts are tongues and patches. In this study, we use a thermosphere-ionosphere nested grid (TING) model simulation of the Bastille Day storm to determine whether such features can occur and whether they can, in turn, affect the ionosphere. We draw the following conclusions: (1) there is a "tongue" of neutral composition, which is formed in much the same way that the tongue of ionization is; (2) the neutral "tongue" is formed when parcels of air, which are rich in O/N2, are drawn from the dayside by the antisunward winds associated with the neutral convection pattern and transported across the polar cap towards the night side auroral oval; (3) this O/N2-rich air can only be transported from a small region on the dayside due to the geometry of the transport, so the neutral "tongue" is narrow like the ion tongue; (4) this neutral "tongue" tends to be weaker than the ion tongue, it extends a shorter distance across the polar cap and it takes longer to form; (5) the formation of the tongue of ionization is affected by the "leakage" of air that contains high concentrations of molecular species into the daytime middle latitudes, which, through recombination, results in a region of low electron densities in the dayside middle latitudes; (6) this region of the ionosphere, which is ion-poor, cannot produce flux tubes that can advect across the polar cap with the high ion densities that are needed to produce a strong tongue of ionization; (7) when enough time has elapsed to allow a neutral "tongue" to form in conjunction with the tongue of ionization, the latter becomes both stronger and longer, but causality in this relationship has not been established.
Burns, A. G.; Wang, W.; Killeen, T. L.; Solomon, S. C.
The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors.
Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R.; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Baliga, M. S.; Gaikwad, Rahul N.
The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors. PMID:22629049
Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R; Bahadure, Rakesh N; Baliga, M S; Gaikwad, Rahul N
Recently, plasma sterilization has attracted increasing attention in dental community for the atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet (APNPs), which is driven by a kilohertz pulsed DC power, may be applied to the dental and oral diseases. However, it is still in doubt whether APNPs can effectively kill pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and produce no harmful effects on normal oral tissues, especially on normal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial-killing effect of APNPs in the biofilms containing a single breed of bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g.), and the pathological changes of the oral mucosa after treatment by APNPs. P.g. was incubated to form the biofilms in vitro, and the samples were divided into three groups randomly: group A (blank control); group B in which the biofilms were treated by APNPs (the setting of the equipment: 10 kHz, 1600 ns and 8 kV); group C in which the biofilms were exposed only to a gas jet without ignition of the plasma. Each group had three samples and each sample was processed for up to 5 min. The biofilms were then fluorescently stained, observed and photographed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. In the animal experiment, six male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly (n=3 in each group) in terms of the different post-treatment time (1-day group and 5-day group). The buccal mucosa of the left side and the mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue were treated by APNPs for 10 min in the same way as the bacterial biofilm experiment in each rabbit, and the corresponding mucosa of the other sides served as normal control. The clinical manifestations of the oral mucosa were observed and recorded every day. The rabbits were sacrificed one or five day(s) after APNPs treatment. The oral mucosa were harvested and prepared to haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Clinical observation and histopathological scores were used to assess mucosal changes. The results showed the obvious P.g. biofilms were formed at 10 days, and most of the bacteria in groups A and C were alive under a laser scanning confocal microscope, but the bacteria in the group B were almost all dead. In animal experiment, no ulcers, anabrosis and oral mucositis were found in both the 1-day and 5-day groups. The average mucous membrane irritation index was -0.83 and -0.67 in the 1-day and 5-day groups, respectively, suggesting that no intense mucosal membrane irritation responses occurred. It was concluded that APNPs could effectively kill P.g. in the biofilms and did not cause any pathological changes in the normal mucosa, suggesting that the plasma jet (APNPs) may be applied to oral diseases as a novel sterilization device in the future. PMID:22173512
Liu, Dexi; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Zhou, Xincai; Cao, Yingguang; Lu, Xinpei
Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice.
ZHAO, XIN; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; QIU, LIHUA; PANG, LIANG
The base of the tongue after tumor resection can be reconstructed in several ways. In addition to direct suturing of small defects, a variety of local or microvascularly anastomosed flaps have been described. The present paper is aimed at introducing a local tongue flap for the reconstruction of medium-sized defects. Six patients were treated at the hospital between 1999 and 2002 with the above technique to cover defects affecting one-half to three-fourths of the base of the tongue. One patient had secondary bleeding and the other one experienced no complications. Nutrition could be started after 7.5 days (4-12) postoperatively on average. The tracheostomy was closed at 16.2 days (12-22) on average after the initial operation. The hospitalization of the patients was 20.3 days (15-27) on average. The modified set back tongue flap is an alternative in the reconstruction of subtotal defects of the base of the tongue. Easy handling, good functional outcome in swallowing, and the low complication rate were advantageous in the present series. PMID:12856085
Seidl, R O; Todt, I; Zamani, F; Ernst, A
Objective: Oral mucosal epithelia of smokers and waterpipe users are more susceptible to malignant alterations. The aim of this study was morphometric evaluation of the effects of using waterpipe on normal oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, cytologic smear samples from the following three different areas: buccal mucosa, lateral surface of the tongue, and floor of the mouth (right) were taken from 40 smokers, 40 waterpipe users, and 40 normal individuals. They were then stained using Papanicolaou staining technique. Quantitative cytologic alterations such as nuclear and cytoplasmic size, nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, Feret ratio (FR), percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, two or multilobed nuclei, inflammation, and candida were evaluated. Quantitative evaluation was performed using MoticPlus 2 software, and 50 cells in each slide were studied. Practitioners were matched with age and sex in three groups. Results: An increase in nuclear size, the N/C ratio, and F.R, while a decrease in cytoplasm size were observed in lateral surface of the tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth of smokers, waterpipe users and normal individuals, respectively (p?0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, and two or multilobed nuclei in oral mucosa of smokers, waterpipe users (p=0.8), and normal individuals (p=0.9) in buccal mucosa, tongue, and mouth floor areas. However, the percentage of inflammation and candida in smokers (p<0.001) and waterpipe users (p=0.002) were higher than normal individuals. Conclusion: Smoking and using waterpipe are effective in creating some quantitative cytometric alterations in oral mucosa; however, smoking shows greater effect in the cytometric alterations than using waterpipe. Role of cytology in screening and detection of oral mucosa malignancies in smokers and waterpipe users needs further studies.
Seifi, Safoura; Feizi, Farideh; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Khafri, Soraya; Ahmadi, Behrang
We report an unusual occurrence of involuntary movement involving the tongue in a patient with confirmed Wilson's disease (WD). She manifested with slow, hypophonic speech and dysphagia of 4 months duration, associated with pseudobulbar affect, apathy, drooling and dystonia of upper extremities of 1 month duration. Our patient had an uncommon tongue movement which was arrhythmic. There was no feature to suggest tremor, chorea or dystonia. It might be described as athetoid as there was a writhing quality, but of lesser amplitude. Thus, the phenomenology was uncommon in clinical practice and the surface of the tongue was seen to “ripple” like a liquid surface agitated by an object or breeze. Isolated lingual dyskinesias are rare in WD. It is important to evaluate them for WD, a potentially treatable disorder.
Nagappa, M; Sinha, S; Saini, JS; Bindu, PS; Taly, AB
The last years showed a significant trend toward the exploitation of rapid and economic analytical devices able to provide multiple information about samples. Among these, the so-called artificial tongues represent effective tools which allow a global sample characterization comparable to a fingerprint. Born as taste sensors for food evaluation, such devices proved to be useful for a wider number of purposes. In this review, a critical overview of artificial tongue applications over the last decade is outlined. In particular, the focus is centered on the chemometric techniques, which allow the extraction of valuable information from nonspecific data. The basic steps of signal processing and pattern recognition are discussed and the principal chemometric techniques are described in detail, highlighting benefits and drawbacks of each one. Furthermore, some novel methods recently introduced and particularly suitable for artificial tongue data are presented. PMID:21092902
Oliveri, Paolo; Casolino, M Chiara; Forina, Michele
Susceptibly to the induction of rat tongue cancer (TC) by oral 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) exposure is a polygenic trait. Among several quantitative trait loci identified by crosses between TC-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and TC-resistant Wistar-Furth (WF) rats, we focused on tongue cancer susceptibility locus (Tcas3) of chromosome 4. We examined tongue carcinogenesis in the reciprocal congenic strains DA.WF-Tcas3 and WF.DA-Tcas3 and in their parental strains. The Tcas3DA allele, and not the Tcas3WF allele, significantly favored tumor latency, incidence and TC number/size. In genomic DNA of TCs induced in (DA x WF) F1 rats, the resistant Tcas3WF allele was frequently and selectively lost, particularly in larger tumors. Thus, we searched the possible candidate genes in the Tcas3 region using microarray analysis of TCs in F1 rats and revealed significant upregulation of 2 cancer-related genes, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) and Kras2. The relevance of the WF allele of Pthlh as a cancer modifier was indicated by 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to this strain. In contrast, no consistent strain-specific variations were found in Kras2. Moreover, the plasma Ca2+ level was consistently higher in DA rats when compared to the level in WF rats bearing TCs; moreover, the Pthlh-mRNA expression level was >30-fold higher in TCs when compared to this level in the normal tongue mucosa. Immunostaining experiments showed strong PTHrP protein expression in TCs of DA rats, and the signal was intensified in larger TCs. Kras2 was also upregulated in TCs, but to a lesser degree than PTHrP. Thus, Pthlh is a promising candidate modifier gene in the development and progression of rat TCs. PMID:24253735
Suwa, Hirohiko; Hirano, Masato; Kawarada, Kouji; Nagayama, Motohiko; Ehara, Michiko; Muraki, Tomonari; Shisa, Hayase; Sugiyama, Aiko; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kitano, Motoo; Tanuma, Jun-Ichi
Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a noninvasive, wireless and wearable assistive technology that helps people with severe disabilities control their environments using their tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures to commands by detecting a small permanent magnetic tracer on the users' tongue. We have linked the TDS to a smartphone (iPhone\\/iPod Touch) with a customized wireless module, added to
Jeonghee Kim; Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo
Pathological enlargement of tongue is caused by several conditions and diseases. In several instances, surgery remains the only viable option for complete cure. Persistent bleeding, compromised neuro-motor-sensory functions during the postoperative period are the most common complaints encountered after macroglossia correction. The tongue is a muscular organ, whose complex neuroanatomy is being unraveled slowly. Various types of macroglossia resections in unique clinical situations have been proposed by several clinicians till date. There has never been unanimously accepted resection for the treatment of macroglossia. This review article attempts to preview the cosmetic and functional components for resection designs.
Balaji, S. M.
Summary Eosinophilic Ulcer (EU) is a rare self-limiting chronic benign lesion of the oral mucosa with pathogenesis still unclear, however it may resemble malignancies, traumatic ulcerations and some infections such as deep fungal infections, tuberculosis and primary syphilis. This is a case report of a patient with EU in the lateral border of the tongue with no history of associated trauma and refractory to treatment with drugs. The ulcer rapidly healed after an incisional biopsy and the definite diagnosis was achieved only combining histologic findings and the clinical follow-up.
Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Capella, Diogo L.; Manfro, Gabriel; Nodari, Rudy Jose; Presta, Andreia Antoniuk
Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.
Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin
Tongue-hold swallow (THS) has the potential to be a resistance exercise not only for the pharyngeal constrictor but for the tongue muscles. To elucidate the physiological mechanisms of THS, this study investigated intraoral pressure generation during THS in relation to different extents of tongue protrusion. Tongue pressure was measured by a 5-point pressure sensor sheet placed onto the hard palate of 18 healthy young subjects who performed three swallow tasks: normal dry swallow, THS with slight tongue protrusion, and THS with greater tongue protrusion. Subjects randomly repeated each task five times. Maximum range of tongue protrusion was also measured in each subject to estimate lingual flexibility. With an increase in the extent of tongue protrusion, pressure generation patterns became irregular and variable. Duration of pressure generation increased with statistical significance in the posterior circumferential parts of the hard palate (p < 0.05). Maximal magnitude and integrated value of the pressure recorded at these locations increased in eight subjects as the extent of tongue protrusion increased, but it decreased in nine. The former group showed greater lingual flexibility, while the latter group exhibited less flexibility. THS may place different amounts of load on the tongue muscles by adjusting the degree of tongue protrusion. PMID:23728858
Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Ken-ichi; Kondo, Jyugo; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Ono, Takahiro
Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk.
Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L
We study the shape of a tongue of extremely viscous fluid (i.e. magma) evolving from a point flow source under the effect of gravity. Previous work by Huppert, Baloga and Pieri valid for a flat bottom and\\/or a constant viscosity coefficient is generalized. The general equations of motion are derived and some physically interesting analytic solutions are presented.
Gianni Dalu; Ettore Salusti; Francesco Zirilli
A case of eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue is presented. Although the entity is rarely described, the distinctive histopathologic pattern featuring the remarkable presence of eosinophils in the superficial corium and in between muscle bundles, together with the benign clinical course, make a diagnosis possible. PMID:6491010
Borroni, G; Pericoli, R; Gabba, P; Rosso, R; Rabbiosi, G
Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment.
Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam
A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors.
Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli
Common myna tongue was studied histomorphologically and histochemically. Four tongues of adult birds were carried out macroscopically and microscopically. The tongue was triangular; the dorsum of the body had median groove. Two to three backward directed papillae were located on each side of the body-base junction. A single transverse row of pharyngeal papillae was located behind the laryngeal cleft. The parakeratinized mucosa covered the entire surface of the tongue except clearly keratinized band on the ventrolateral surface and the conical papillae. Compared with the lateral group (LG), the secretory cells of the medial group (MG) of the anterior lingual glands (ALG) and the posterior lingual glands (PLG) contained large amount of mucin. It was neutral mucin. However, the LG had weak acid mucin with carboxylated group. Meanwhile, the MG of the ALG and the PLG had strong acid mucin with both carboxylated and sulphated groups. In conclusion, the morphological observation of the common myna tongue showed some variation from the other birds. Histochemical results indicated the differences between the LG and MG of the anterior lingual glands. However, no difference was observed between the latter and the PLG.
Kadhim, Khalid Kamil; Hameed, AL-Timmemi; Abass, Thamir A.
Helicobacter pylori Induced Damage to the Gastric Mucosa is Not Modulated by Previous Vagotomy or Medical Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease: A Comparative Study of Vagotomized Patients, Medically Treated Peptic Ulcer Patients and Community Control Subjects
Background An increase in the prevalence of precancerous lesions and atrophic changes in the gastric mucosa has been reported as long-term\\u000a consequences of vagotomy-induced acid suppression. This study was designed to describe the long-term changes in the gastric\\u000a mucosa caused by vagotomy and Helicobacter pylori infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Seventy-nine patients with vagotomized peptic ulcers, 70 nonoperated patients with peptic ulcers, and 85 matched
Rolv-Ole Lindsetmo; Tor Jac Eide; Roar Johnsen; Arthur Revhaug
Reconstruction of the oral commissure following electrical burn injury is a challenging problem. The commissure is a thin, delicate structure that is highly mobile and essential to normal facial appearance and expression. When there is full-thickness destruction of vermilion, mucosa, skin, and orbicularis muscle, the resulting contracture alters adjacent structures, displaces the commissure, and distorts facial animation. Utilizing a composite ventral tongue flap of mucosa and muscle in the reconstruction of the commissure permits effective release of scar contracture and replaces destroyed mucosa and muscle bulk. Remaining structures can be returned to their normal location, and the three-dimensional contours of the oral commissure can be better restored. The use of this flap in 21 patients has resulted in improved mobility, more normal facial expression, and more consistent results in the reconstruction of a wide range of commissure deformities. PMID:7761501
Donelan, M B
: Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is considered to be a benign, reactive, and self-limiting lesion, with unclear pathogenesis, manifesting as a rapidly developing solitary ulcer. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with 4 synchronous ulcerations of the tongue. Histopathological examination showed polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate, rich in eosinophils, involving the superficial mucosa and the deeper muscle layer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed single CD30 cells scattered within an inflammatory infiltrate. All the lesions began to regress spontaneously within 1 week after biopsy. A 4-year follow-up showed no recurrence. PMID:24950420
Damevska, Katerina; Gocev, Gorgi; Nikolovska, Suzana
Hemangioma is a benign tumor of dilated blood vessels. It is most commonly seen in the head and neck region and rarely in the oral cavity. Hemangiomas in the oral cavity are always of clinical importance and require appropriate treatment. We report here a case of a 34-year-old female patient with a swelling on the lateral surface of tongue which did not respond to the sclerosing agent and was finally confirmed as cavernous hemangioma on histological evaluation.
Kripal, Krishna; Rajan, Senthil; Ropak, Beena; Jayanti, Ipsita
The Dakota Sandstone of northwestern New Mexico is composed of basal continental strata and three marine sandstone tongues, which intertongue was the Mancos Shale. The late Cenomanian Twowells tongue was the last tongue deposited in the Dakota transgressive systems tract. This tongue is most commonly gradationallly underlain by the Whitewater Arroyo shale tongue and abruptly overlain by the Rio Salado
N. R. Wolter; D. Nummedal
Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662
Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh
Canalicular adenoma is a benign tumor which comprises 1% of salivary gland neoplasms and 4% of minor salivary gland tumors. It occurs in the upper lip mucosa in about 90% of cases. The next most common location is the buccal mucosa (9.5% of tumors). We present herein a new case of canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa involving a 74-year-old man. He was suffering of a slowly growing and painless nodule of the right buccal mucosa. The treatment was surgery and histological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of canalicular adenoma. No recurrence was noted one year later. PMID:17987725
Maamouri, F; Bellil, K; Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Kchir, N; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M
An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group), a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color.
Wang, Xingzheng; You, Jane
We review research on somatosensory (tactile) processing of the tongue based on data obtained using non-invasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Technical difficulties in stimulating the tongue, due to the noise elicited by the stimulator, the fixation of the stimulator, and the vomiting reflex, have necessitated the development of specialized devices. In this article, we show the brain activity relating to somatosensory processing of the tongue evoked by such devices. More recently, the postero-lateral part of the tongue has been stimulated, and the brain response compared with that on stimulation of the antero-lateral part of the tongue. It is likely that a difference existed in somatosensory processing of the tongue, particularly around primary somatosensory cortex, Brodmann area 40, and the anterior cingulate cortex.
Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Kakigi, Ryusuke
Many studies have proved that tongue thrusting plays a significant role in the etiology of some orofacial deformities. To learn more about the relationship between tongue function and the form of orofacial structures, it is important to recognize patients with abnormal swallowing patterns. A cushion scanning technique in combination with M-mode ultrasound was applied to measure and compare tongue movements
Chien-Lun Peng; Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann; Noriaki Yoshida; Hsin-Hua Chou; Che-Tong Lin
Tongue fissures, an important feature on the tongue surface, may be pathologically related to some diseases. Most existing tongue fissure extraction methods use tongue images captured by traditional charge coupled device cameras. However, these conventional methods cannot be used for an accurate analysis of the tongue surface due to limited information from the images. To solve this, a hyperspectral tongue imager is used to capture tongue images instead of a digital camera. New algorithms for automatic tongue fissure extraction and classification, based on hyperspectral images, are presented. Both spectral and spatial information of the tongue surface is used to segment the tongue body and extract tongue fissures. Then a classification algorithm based on a hidden Markov model is used to classify tongue fissures into 12 typical categories. Results of the experiment show that the new method has good performance in terms of the classification rates of correctness. PMID:20389998
Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Sun, Zhen; Liu, Zhi
In this article, we present our experience with a case of myxolipoma of the tongue. Lipoma is a mesenchymal benign tumor occurring with relatively high frequency. However, myxolipoma, one of the histological variant of lipoma characterized by mature adipose tissue and abundant mucoid substances, in the oral cavity is quite rare. The patient was a 52-year-old man who noticed a painless mass on the left border of tongue about 2 years ago. The lesion was noted at a complete medical checkup, and the patient was admitted to our institution for detailed examination. The mass was a palpable, soft and elastic nodule, 15 mm in diameter, covered with normal mucosa in the left inferior aspect of the tongue. The border of the tumor was well-defined, and computed tomography (CT) revealed a fat density within the mass. On the basis of these finding, the tumor was clinically diagnosed as lipoma and was excised under general anesthesia. Histopathologically, the tumor was a well-defined lobulated mass surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule within the muscle of the tongue. The tumor was diagnosed as myxolipoma because it was consisted of solid proliferation of mature adipocytes replaced by abundant mucoid substances. The post operative course was uneventful, and there was no evidence of recurrence 4 years after surgery.
The concept of electronic tongues or taste sensors has developed rapidly during recent years due to their large potential. They are based on electrochemical sensors combined with multivariate data analysis. Voltammetric electronic tongues have proven valuable in many applications. Due to their ruggedness and simplicity, they have been found especially suitable for on-line monitoring of industrial processes. A voltammetric electronic
F. Winquist; R. Bjorklund; C. Krantz-Rülcker; I. Lundström; K. Östergren; T. Skoglund
The motivation of this study is to observe the compressibility of the tongue during speech. The tongue has a complicated muscular structure. Real-time MRI (16 frames/s) with tagging has been used for imaging during the utterance of four short syllables, '...
D. Unay C. Ozturk M. Stone
This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a project to support the learning of the mother tongue by children aged 4-8 years. The aim of the project was to: actively involve and engage children with learning their mother tongue for functional use; involve parents in the learning process and support them in doing so; and increase…
Gongylonema pulchrum was found in tongues of pigs slaughtered in 18 federally inspected abattoirs located in different geographic regions of the United States. Histologic examination revealed 90 of 1,518 tongues (5.9%) were infected with G. pulchrum. (Aut...
D. E. Zinter G. Migaki
The underdiagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis lesions, along with an emerging global resistance to antitubercular drugs, warrants an increased awareness of the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in atypical lesions of oral cavity. Tongue is the most common site of oral tuberculosis. We report a rare presentation of lingual tuberculosis in a 65-year-old male, a chronic tobacco chewer, who came to us with swelling of the tongue which apparently looked like hemimacroglossia, leading to the clinical diagnosis of submucosal carcinoma of tongue. Enlargement of tongue is a slow process resulting from gradual invasion and lodging of bacilli in the tongue. Biopsy and histopathological examination revealed tuberculous etiology of the lesion and the patient responded well to antitubercular therapy.
Yadav, S. P. S.; Agrawal, Arpit; Gulia, J. S.; Singh, Sunita; Gupta, Arsh; Panchal, Vineet
The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.
Solitary angiokeratoma of oral mucosa is rare entity. The term Angiokeratoma is used to refer to several lesions, whose common denominator is the presence of dilated blood vessels in association with epidermal hyperplasia. Mucosal involvement, including oral cavity is occasionally found either as a component of the systemic variety, cutaneous involvement or isolated oral involvement. Clinically, the lesion is irregular, whitish to dark brown in color, with female predominance. The etiological factors include injury, trauma, or chronic irritation to the wall of a papillary dermis. Histologically, it is characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and dilated vascular spaces with or without organizing thrombi in papillary dermis. The vascular spaces are partly or completely enclosed by elongated ret-ridges. Along with this reporting a case of solitary angiokeratoma affecting tongue in a 38-year-old male patient, along with the literature review is presented.
Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa; Tupsakhare, Suyog; Patil, Ashok; Gabhane, Mahesh; Sonune, Shrikant
Palatal fistulas are the common complications seen after cleft palate repair. Small fistula may be asymptomatic, the large ones produce various symptoms including regurgitation of fluids into nasal cavity and interference with normal speech. Although small fistulas can be successfully treated with local flaps such as palatal or buccal mucosal flaps, large fistulas pose difficulty. Because of rich blood supply, tongue is a suitable and convenient source of large flap. The anterior based dorsal tongue flap is a safe and effective method for closure of relatively large recurrent palatal fistula with out any functional impairment of donor site. This article describes one such case treated by single layer closure using anteriorly based tongue flap with excellent outcome. PMID:23139507
Charan Babu, H S; Bhagvandas Rai, A; Nair, Manju Ananthakrishnan; Meenakshi
Tongue diagnosis is a unique method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first investigation on the association between traditional tongue diagnosis and the tongue coating microbiome using next-generation sequencing. The study included 19 gastritis patients with a typical white-greasy or yellow-dense tongue coating corresponding to TCM Cold or Hot Syndrome respectively, as well as eight healthy volunteers. An Illumina paired-end, double-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing protocol was designed to profile the tongue-coating microbiome, from which approximately 3.7 million V6 tags for each sample were obtained. We identified 123 and 258 species-level OTUs that were enriched in patients with Cold/Hot Syndromes, respectively, representing "Cold Microbiota" and "Hot Microbiota". We further constructed the tongue microbiota-imbalanced networks associated with Cold/Hot Syndromes. The results reveal an important connection between the tongue-coating microbiome and traditional tongue diagnosis, and illustrate the potential of the tongue-coating microbiome as a novel holistic biomarker for characterizing patient subtypes.
Jiang, Bai; Liang, Xujun; Chen, Yang; Ma, Tao; Liu, Liyang; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Shao
Trauma and hemorrhage often require ligation of arteries supplying the tongue. The right common carotid artery was ligated in twenty-five rabbits. These animals were sacrificed at intervals and their vasculature perfused with a silicone latex material. An...
J. G. Webb J. F. Nelson B. M. Koudelka
The damage caused by cactus spines predisposes the tongue to bacterial infection, leading to focal suppurative granulomas. The microscopic findings in these granulomas, which contain rosettes, are not unlike those associated with infection by Actinobacill...
G. Migaki L. E. Hinson G. D. Imes F. M. Garner
Bolus propulsion during the normal oral phase of swallowing is thought to be characterised by the sequential elevation of\\u000a the front, middle, and posterior regions of the dorsum of the tongue. However, the coordinated orchestration of lingual movement\\u000a is still poorly understood. This study examined how pressures generated by the tongue against the hard palate differed between\\u000a three points along
Daniel Kennedy; Jules Kieser; Chris Bolter; Michael Swain; Bhavia Singh; J. Neil Waddell
We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656
Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken
Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a benign fibrohistiocytic neoplasm. It is documented to occur in all anatomic sites with a strong predilection for sun exposed skin surfaces. Intra oral occurrence of BFH comprises a lesser percentage of cases with tongue being the least reported site. We report a case of BFH of the tongue with an emphasis on its histogenesis and a review of the literature. PMID:24355969
Priya, N S; Rao, Kavita; Umadevi, H S; Smitha, T
Although sialorrhea and drooling are uncommon symptoms in cancer patients, they can cause considerable discomfort, inconvenience and social embarrassment. In this article we describe a patient with tongue cancer who was successfully treated with oral glycopyrrolate 0.4 mg 3 times daily. Glycopyrrolate is a quaternary ammonium compound. In contrast to the recommended treatment with scopolamine, glycopyrrolate is virtually without side effects to the central nervous system because it penetrates the blood-brain barrier poorly. Glycopyrrolate has a slow and erratic absorption from the gastrointestinal system, but even low plasma levels are associated with a distinct and long-lasting antisialogic effect. PMID:10534970
Olsen, A K; Sjøgren, P
Cavernous hemangiomas are rare congenital venous malformations having propensity for the head and neck. These venous malformations, especially the large and intraoral ones, may cause severe symptoms requiring aggressive treatment. Today, the main treatment is based on sclerotherapy, associated or no with surgery. We report on a patient presenting an enormous venous malformation of the face and tongue, which was treated successfully in our department by embolization, sclerotherapy and maxillo-facial surgery, with a special focus on Surgiflo in our technique. PMID:20399053
Slaba, S; Braidy, C; Sader, R B; Hokayem, N; Nassar, J
Carcinomas of the tongue and floor of mouth are relatively rare tumours, which may be treated using several modalities. We reviewed the results of iridium wire implants performed at the Royal Berkshire Hospital between 1994 and 2000. 24 patients had iridium wire implants as primary treatment for tongue and floor of mouth cancers. Four patients were treated after excision biopsy
J C Wadsley; M PATEL; C D C TOMLINS; J Q GILDERSLEVE
In recent years, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used for the removal of pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers with the objective to improve functional and aesthetic outcomes without worsening the survival. This prospective single-centre cohort study described TORS in selected tumours of the tongue base in order to assess safety, efficacy and functional outcome of the procedure. From October 2010 to February 2012, TORS was performed in 13 consecutive patients affected by T1-T2 tumours of the base of the tongue. This procedure was applicable in all cases. The clinical stage demonstrated 8 T1 tumours and 5 T2 tumours. Neck node metastases were clinically evident in 6 cases (7 N0, 1 N1, 4 N2b and 1 N2c). The final pathology report confirmed malignancy in all cases (11 squamous cell carcinoma and 2 mucoepidermoid carcinoma). Negative-margin resections were obtained in all cases but one with close margins. Synchronous lymph node neck dissections were performed in 7 cases (6 monolateral, 1 bilateral). Patients underwent temporary tracheostomies for a mean time of 6 days. A naso-gastric feeding tube was positioned in 10/13 (76.9%) patients for a mean time of 7.5 days. The average time to carry out the TORS procedure was 95 min (set-up time 25 min; TORS 70 min). No deaths occurred. Surgical complications were observed in 4 cases (postoperative bleedings in 3 cases and intraoperative anaphylactic shock in 1 case). Median hospital stay was 9 days. All patients had good functional outcomes. Adjuvant treatment was indicated in 5/13 cases (35.4%). TORS represents a good tool for staging and treating neoplasm of the base of the tongue. The transoral removal is safe and can radically remove limited oropharyngeal tumours of the tongue base with good functional outcomes. The operating costs can be relatively high but they are related to the number of procedures per year, although the advantages to patients seem to justify the procedure. TORS can represent the definitive treatment in selected T1-T2 cases of base of the tongue tumours without adverse features and allow the possibility for the deintensification of adjuvant treatments. PMID:24043909
Mercante, G; Ruscito, P; Pellini, R; Cristalli, G; Spriano, G
Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as cancer, Candida, and bacterial invasion have been developed as alternatives to animal models for investigation of disease phenomena, their progression, and treatment, including evaluation of drug delivery systems. The introduction of 3D oral mucosal reconstructs has had a significant impact on the approaches to biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials and oral healthcare products as well as the study of implant-soft tissue interfaces. This review article discusses the recent advances in tissue engineering and applications of tissue-engineered human oral mucosa. PMID:22266525
Moharamzadeh, K; Colley, H; Murdoch, C; Hearnden, V; Chai, W L; Brook, I M; Thornhill, M H; Macneil, S
Introduction Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Results Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Conclusion Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa.
Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito
Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.
Rao, Roopa S.; Sharath, Sanketh
Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.
Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P. K.
Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery. PMID:23997859
Vasishta, Sathish M S; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y S; Desai, Anil
Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery.
Vasishta, Sathish M.S.; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y.S.; Desai, Anil
The most used animal models in oral cancer research are the hamster treated by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), and the rat treated by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The purpose of this study was to compare the DMBA-induced hamster tongue carcinogenesis and 4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by means of morphological analysis. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of ten animals each and
D. Kitakawa; L. A. G. Cabral; M. E. A. Marques; D. M. F. Salvadori; D. A. Ribeiro
Glossokinetic potentials (GKPs) are electric potential responses generated by tongue movement. In this study, we use these GKPs to automatically detect and estimate tongue positions, and develop a tongue-machine interface. We show that a specific configuration of electrode placement yields discriminative GKPs that vary depending on the direction of the tongue. We develop a linear model to determine the direction of tongue from GKPs, where we seek linear features that are robust to a baseline drift problem by maximizing the ratio of intertask covariance to intersession covariance. We apply our method to the task of wheelchair control, developing a tongue-machine interface for wheelchair control, referred to as tongue-rudder. A teeth clenching detection system, using electromyography, was also implemented in the system in order to assign teeth clenching as the stop command. Experiments on off-line cursor control and online wheelchair control confirm the unique advantages of our method, such as: 1) noninvasiveness, 2) fine controllability, and 3) ability to integrate with other EEG-based interface systems. PMID:22049361
Nam, Yunjun; Zhao, Qibin; Cichocki, Andrzej; Choi, Seungjin
Four cases of CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (CD30+ LPD) of the oral mucosa are described. This article aims to draw attention to this entity and to emphasize its usual benign clinical behavior despite its resemblance to T-cell lymphoma. All the patients were adults. Three of the lesions were on the dorsal surface of the tongue and 1 affected the buccal mucosa. All biopsies showed a dense lymphoid infiltrate composed of CD30+ atypical T cells with a polymorphous infiltrate in the background, which included eosinophils. In 1 case, monoclonal T-cell expansion was detected by molecular techniques. Three cases tested for Epstein-Barr virus were all negative. It is concluded that primary CD30+ T-cell LPD of the oral mucosa can be regarded as the oral counterpart of cutaneous CD30+ LPD such as lymphomatoid papulosis or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Recognition of the condition is important to avoid overtreatment. PMID:18387994
Agarwal, Monica; Shenjere, Patrick; Blewitt, Robert W; Hall, Gillian; Sloan, Philip; Pigadas, N; Banerjee, S Sankar
Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (25.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.
Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (24.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.
Congenital granular cell tumors (CGCTs), which are rare benign lesions in newborns, locate predominantly on the anterior maxillary alveolar ridge of female neonates. However, this lesion rarely occurs on the tongue, and only 9 cases have been reported in the English literature. Of the 9 cases, which have been tested for S-100 protein, 4 were immunonegative to S-100 protein. In this present case, we reported a rare case of a 4-day-old Chinese girl with a CGCT on the anterior dorsum of the tongue. The lesion was excised under general anesthesia when the newborn was 3 months old. Histologically, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the overlying mucosa was noted in this lesion. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the granular cells were diffusely strongly positive to S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and vimentin. Depending on these findings, it was diagnosed as CGCT. PMID:23241807
He, Jian-feng; Lin, Yi; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Zhi-yong
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was detected by in situ hybridization at 3 sites of 30 samples taken from clinically normal lateral border of tongue mucosa from 15 AIDS autopsies and in none of 20 samples from 10 controls. The first positive case showed a thin layer of parakeratosis correlated with positive signals for EBV in one area and an adjacent area without obvious parakeratosis was also positive for EBV. These findings were present on both sides of the tongue. The second case was unilaterally positive for EBV and parakeratosis was absent. The hybridization signals were localised to koilocyte-like cells in the stratum spinosum, as in oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL). These observations suggest that the in situ hybridization technique can detect very early or subclinical OHL, and supports the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of this lesion. PMID:7776261
Mabruk, M J; Flint, S R; Toner, M; Leonard, N; Sheils, O; Coleman, D C; Atkins, G J
We describe 3 children who developed teeth and tongue discoloration while receiving intravenous linezolid for 2 to 3 weeks. Linezolid was coadministered with piperacillin-tazobactam or meropenem. Teeth and tongue discoloration was reversible with dental cleaning after discontinuation of linezolid. We review the published pediatric and adult cases regarding teeth and tongue discoloration after linezolid administration. PMID:23934205
Petropoulou, Theoni; Lagona, Evagelia; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki; Michos, Athanasios
This book on mother tongue (native language) teaching in Europe contains three parts. The first explores definitions and teaching implications of mother tongues, including issues of language identity, language standards, mother tongue roles, and language policies in the European Union. The second part consists of nine case studies: "Teaching the…
Tulasiewicz, Witold, Ed.; Adams, Anthony, Ed.
The effects of low dose CW laser were studied by in vivo and in vitro systems. The experimental tissues that were used included bladders, tracheas and tongues as experimental tissues. Buddings (round surface projections) from the transitional epithelium of bladder were frequently observed 3 days after laser treatment in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The trachea and tongue were less affected. In both the in vivo and in vitro systems, some epithelial cells of the trachea showed decreased microvilli and cilia 3 days after treatment whereas the epithelial cells of the tongue revealed no response to laser treatment in both systems. Low dose laser, however, appeared to promote the rate of healing of experimental tongue ulcer: healing was about 1 day earlier in the laser treated than non-treated animals and vessel infiltration and epithelialization were detected earlier in the treated.
Mok, Y.C.; Pang, K.M.; Au, C.Y.; Yew, D.T.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential. Aside from their regenerative role, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that MSCs are capable of potent immunomodulatory effects on a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. In this article, we will review recent experimental studies on the characterization of a unique population of MSCs derived from human oral mucosa and gingiva, especially their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions and their application in the treatment of several in vivo models of inflammatory diseases. The ease of isolation, accessible tissue source, and rapid ex vivo expansion, with maintenance of stable stem-cell-like phenotypes, render oral mucosa- and gingiva-derived MSCs a promising alternative cell source for MSC-based therapies.
Zhang, Q.Z.; Nguyen, A.L.; Yu, W.H.; Le, A.D.
ABSTRACT We have suggested that intestinal microflora reduces the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mouse cecal mucosa. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were used to examine the species of intestinal microflora influencing SOD activity in the cecal mucosa. The total SOD activity in the cecal mucosa of each germ-free (GF), gnotobiotic mouse with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was significantly higher than that in the cecal mucosa of gnotobiotic mice with chloroform-treated feces (CHF), conventionalized (CVz) mice and conventional (CV) mice (P<0.05). In addition, CuZnSOD mRNA expression showed similar tendencies. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in the cecal mucosa is influenced by CHF inoculation.
DOBASHI, Yuu; ITOH, Kikuji; TOHEI, Atsushi; AMAO, Hiromi
Stress (heat shock) proteins are ubiquitous intracellular proteins that can be inducedin vitro by physiological stress events that occur during inflammation. We have used an indirect immunoperoxidase method to locate 60-kDa stress proteins in biopsies taken from normal and inflamed colorectal mucosa. An anti-60-kDa monoclonal antibody (ML30) produced specific staining of surface epithelial cells localized to the site of the
V. R. Winrow; G. M. Mojdehi; S. D. Ryder; J. M. Rhodes; D. R. Blake; D. S. Rampton
We used microneurography to investigate the functional properties of low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the oral mucosa of the inside of the lower lip. Impulse responses were recorded from the inferior alveolar nerve of four human subjects. The threshold force and receptive field boundaries were identified for 19 single mechanoreceptive afferents using thin filaments (von Frey hairs) that applied known forces to the mucosa. Most of the receptive fields were located close to the corners of the mouth. Twelve of the afferents were slowly adapting (SA) and the remaining seven units were fast adapting (FA). Two types of slowly adapting responses were observed, SA I and SA II. Four of the six SA II units were spontaneously active. The geometric mean value of the receptive field sizes was 4.20 mm(2) for the SA I units, 5.65 mm(2) for the SA II units, and 5.60 mm(2) for the FA I units. None of the FA afferents showed response properties characteristic of Pacinian-corpuscle type afferents (FA II units). All afferents showed low force threshold between 0.06 and 1 mN. The properties of the mechanoreceptors supplying the human labial mucosa appear more similar to those of the vermilion and facial skin of the lower lip than those supplying the mucosa of the dorsal tongue. PMID:19771421
Bukowska, M; Essick, G K; Trulsson, Mats
This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…
An electronic tongue based on the sensor array of non-specific solution sensors together with pattern recognition tools has been applied to qualitative analysis of different beverages. It has been found that it is capable both to discriminate reliably between various sorts of the same type of beverages (tea, coffee, beer, soft drinks, juice, etc.) and to monitor the process of
Andrey Legin; Alisa Rudnitskaya; Yuri Vlasov; Corrado Di Natale; Fabrizio Davide; Arnaldo D'Amico
The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…
Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.
This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a discussion of the concept of heritage mother
Teresa L. McCarty
The tongue is important for orofacial movements, including swallowing. Although numerous studies have focused on tongue pressure against the palate, its physiological role has not been fully evaluated. The tongue pressure generation may have the temporal coordination with the swallowing relational organs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological mechanisms of tongue pressure and to investigate the temporal relationship among tongue pressure, supra-hyoid muscle activity, and videofluorographic (VF) images during swallowing. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated. Tongue pressure measured using a sensor sheet with five channels, electromyographic EMG, and VF was recorded synchronously during 4-ml barium swallowing. Swallowing behavior in VF images with and without the sensor sheet was compared. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between events measured from tongue pressure, EMG, and VF was evaluated. Swallowing behavior on VF images was not affected by placement of the sensor sheet. Tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral point of the hard palate tended to have biphasic peaks. Tongue pressure production with a monophasic pattern appeared during the same period as the second peak in the biphasic pattern. The onset of tongue pressure was later than the start of hyoid movement and onset of EMG, and offset was observed between the hyoid at the up-forward position and reposition. Onset of tongue pressure at the anterior area was correlated with the start of slight hyoid elevation. Offset of tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral points was strongly time locked with the hyoid at the up-forward position. The present results suggested the temporal coordination of tongue pressure generation with the swallowing-related organs. That is, the tongue pressure was produced for bolus propulsion, and was closely related to hyoid movement temporally during swallowing. These results may contribute to clarify the clinical state with the disorder of tongue kinetics. PMID:24400166
Hori, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Magara, Jin; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Li, Qiang; Ono, Takahiro; Inoue, Makoto
The tongue is important for orofacial movements, including swallowing. Although numerous studies have focused on tongue pressure against the palate, its physiological role has not been fully evaluated. The tongue pressure generation may have the temporal coordination with the swallowing relational organs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological mechanisms of tongue pressure and to investigate the temporal relationship among tongue pressure, supra-hyoid muscle activity, and videofluorographic (VF) images during swallowing. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated. Tongue pressure measured using a sensor sheet with five channels, electromyographic EMG, and VF was recorded synchronously during 4-ml barium swallowing. Swallowing behavior in VF images with and without the sensor sheet was compared. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between events measured from tongue pressure, EMG, and VF was evaluated. Swallowing behavior on VF images was not affected by placement of the sensor sheet. Tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral point of the hard palate tended to have biphasic peaks. Tongue pressure production with a monophasic pattern appeared during the same period as the second peak in the biphasic pattern. The onset of tongue pressure was later than the start of hyoid movement and onset of EMG, and offset was observed between the hyoid at the up-forward position and reposition. Onset of tongue pressure at the anterior area was correlated with the start of slight hyoid elevation. Offset of tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral points was strongly time locked with the hyoid at the up-forward position. The present results suggested the temporal coordination of tongue pressure generation with the swallowing-related organs. That is, the tongue pressure was produced for bolus propulsion, and was closely related to hyoid movement temporally during swallowing. These results may contribute to clarify the clinical state with the disorder of tongue kinetics.
Hori, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Magara, Jin; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Li, Qiang; Ono, Takahiro; Inoue, Makoto
Evaluating tongue function is clinically important as the generation of adequate pressure by the anterior tongue against the hard palate is crucial for efficient oropharyngeal swallowing. Research in the evaluation of tongue function in pediatric populations is limited due to questions about the reliability of children's performance on objective measures of tongue strength and the lack of comparative data from typically developing children. The present study examined tongue strength in 150 children and adolescents, 3-16 years of age, with no history of speech or swallowing disorders using the Iowa Oral Pressure Instrument (IOPI). Children as young as 3 years of age were able to tolerate the IOPI standard tongue bulb and were reliable performers on measures of tongue strength with an unconstrained mandible. Tongue strength measurements were elicited in blocks of three trials with a 30-s rest between the trials and a 20-min rest between blocks. Tongue strength increased with age with no consistent best trial across ages and participants. Males showed a slight increase in tongue strength over females at ages 14 and 16. This study suggests maximum pediatric tongue strength may be reliably evaluated using commercially available equipment and provides a limited sample comparative database. PMID:19390891
Potter, Nancy L; Short, Robert
The tongue has been frequently characterized as being composed of several functionally independent articulators. The question of functional regionality within the tongue was examined by quantifying the strength of coupling among four different tongue locations across a large number of consonantal contexts and participants. Tongue behavior during swallowing was also described. Vertical displacements of pellets affixed to the tongue were extracted from the x-ray microbeam database. Forty-six participants recited 20 vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) combinations and swallowed 10 ccs of water. Tongue-surface movement patterns were quantitatively described by computing the covariance between the vertical time-histories of all possible pellet pairs. Phonemic differentiation in vertical tongue motions was observed as coupling varied predictably across pellet pairs with place of articulation. Moreover, tongue displacements for speech and swallowing clustered into distinct groups based on their coupling profiles. Functional independence of anterior tongue regions was evidenced by a wide range of movement coupling relations between anterior tongue pellets. The strengths and weaknesses of the covariance-based analysis for characterizing tongue movement are considered.
Green, Jordan R.; Wang, Yu-Tsai
The tongue has been frequently characterized as being composed of several functionally independent articulators. The question of functional regionality within the tongue was examined by quantifying the strength of coupling among four different tongue locations across a large number of consonantal contexts and participants. Tongue behavior during swallowing was also described. Vertical displacements of pellets affixed to the tongue were extracted from the x-ray microbeam database. Forty-six participants recited 20 vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) combinations and swallowed 10 ccs of water. Tongue-surface movement patterns were quantitatively described by computing the covariance between the vertical time-histories of all possible pellet pairs. Phonemic differentiation in vertical tongue motions was observed as coupling varied predictably across pellet pairs with place of articulation. Moreover, tongue displacements for speech and swallowing clustered into distinct groups based on their coupling profiles. Functional independence of anterior tongue regions was evidenced by a wide range of movement coupling relations between anterior tongue pellets. The strengths and weaknesses of the covariance-based analysis for characterizing tongue movement are considered.
Green, Jordan R.; Wang, Yu-Tsai
Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels. PMID:24921415
Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N
Summary Successful airway management of an infant or child with macroglossia prerequisites recognition of a potential airway problem. We describe our experience with a debilitated 13-year-old girl who presented with severe macroglossia, secondary to lymphangioma of the tongue. Along with the social discomfort she had inability to speak, eat or drink properly and exposure-induced dryness. Such patients are a challenge for the anaesthesiologists due to the anticipated difficult intubation associated with the oral mucosa occupying lesion. It also becomes pertinent to rule out any of the associated congenital anomalies. The importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation and attention to difficult intubation and maintenance of airway is emphasized. We endeavor to review the available literature regarding patient's perioperative management of such patients.
Tewari, Anurag; Munjal, Munish; Kamakshi; Garg, Shuchita; Sood, Dinesh; Katyal, Sunil
Piercing invades subcutaneous areas and has a high potential for infectious complications. The number of case reports of endocarditis associated with piercing is increasing. We studied a 25-year-old man with a pierced tongue, who arrived at Memorial Health University Medical Center with fever, chills, rigors, and shortness of breath of 6 days duration and had an aortic valvuloplasty for correction of congenital aortic stenosis.
ParselTongue is a Python interface to classic AIPS, Obit and possibly other task-based data reduction packages. It serves as the software infrastructure for some of the ALBUS implementation. It allows you to run AIPS tasks, and access AIPS headers and extension tables from Python. There is also support for running Obit tasks and accessing data in FITS files. Full access to the visibilities in AIPS UV data is also available.
Kettenis, Mark; Sipior, Mike
Artificial tongue systems are multisensory devices which are highly desirable for the analysis and recognition of complicated composition samples. Herein, a low-cost and simple colorimetric sensor array for identification and quantification of proteins were reported. Using prophyrin, porphyrin derivatives (mainly metalloporphyrins) and chemically responsive dyes as the sensing elements, the developed sensor array of artificial tongue showed a unique pattern of colorific change upon its exposure to proteins. The composite pattern for each sample was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), thus providing a clustering map for more practical visualization. All the pure and mixed proteins, as well as denatured proteins, gave distinct patterns, thus resulting in their unambiguous identification. The PCA analysis also suggested that the unique pattern of colorific change may be due to the change of protein conformation and local environmental pH. These results demonstrate that the developed colorimetric artificial tongue system is an excellent sensing platform for identification and quantitative analysis of protein samples. PMID:21546237
Hou, Changjun; Dong, Jiale; Zhang, Guoping; Lei, Yu; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Yuchan; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Suyi; Huo, Danqun
Background This paper reports the case of a pleomorphic manifestation of syphilis, a reemerging sexually transmitted disease. Findings A 51-year-old male presented with bilateral nongranulomatous anterior uveitis associated with an isolated syphilitic chancre of the tongue that was successfully treated with parenteral benzathine penicillin. Conclusion Syphilis has the potential to lead to any type of intraocular inflammation. A careful review of the symptoms is useful for the detection of extraocular signs of syphilitic infection.
For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30) had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05). When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group). The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning. PMID:19089259
Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; de Carvalho, Tatiane Cruz; Panzeri, Heitor; Lavrador, Marco Aurélio Sichirolli; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri
In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…
The aim of this work was to study the role of the venous drainage of the tongue in tongue inspection in traditional Chinese medicine and tongue-flap surgery. Thirty-two adult cadavers were observed, including 7 venous corrosivecast specimens. The decreasing order of venous drainage of the tongue, based on the diameter of the vein and size of its drainage area, was the accompanying v. of the hypoglossal n., the epiglottic valleculate v., the accompanying v. of the lingual n., the lingual root v. and the accompanying v. of the lingual a. The veins constituting the picture of the tongue seen in sublingual collateral inspection were the companion vv. of the hypoglossal and lingual nn. The pedicle of a tongue flap must maintain efficient venous drainage canal. PMID:9658525
Shangkuan, H; Xinghai, W; Shizhen, Z; Zengxing, W; Shiying, J; Jiasong, G
Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) deteriorates various physical functions, in particular, bladder problems occur as a result of damage to the spinal cord. Stem cell therapy for SCI has been focused as the new strategy to treat the injuries and to restore the lost functions. The oral mucosa cells are considered as the stem cells-like progenitor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oral mucosa stem cells on the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death and cell proliferation. Results The contraction pressure and the contraction time in the urinary bladder were increased after induction of SCI, in contrast, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells decreased the contraction pressure and the contraction time in the SCI-induced rats. Induction of SCI initiated apoptosis in the spinal cord tissues, whereas treatment with the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed the SCI-induced apoptosis. Disrupted spinal cord by SCI was improved by transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells, and new tissues were increased around the damaged tissues. In addition, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed SCI-induced neuronal activation in the voiding centers. Conclusions Transplantation of oral mucosa stem cells ameliorates the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms by inhibiting apoptosis and by enhancing cell proliferation. As the results, SCI-induced neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers was suppressed, showing the normalization of voiding function.
Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo- and mechanicosensitivity of many trigeminal neurons. Modulation of these families of proteins, excitatory and inhibitory autoreceptors, and combinations of neurotransmitters introduces a new level of complexity and subtlety to nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air-temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants ("aromatherapy"), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19686200
Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J
The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower. PMID:8591770
Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A
The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182
Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes
The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.
Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes
This letter presents a method for imaging the palate and extracting the palate contour from ultrasound images. Ultrasound does not usually capture the palate because the air at the tongue surface reflects the ultrasound beam back to the transducer. However, when the tongue touches the palate during a swallow, the ultrasound beam is transmitted through the soft tissue until it reaches and is reflected by the palate. In combination with tongue contours, the palate contour has the potential for disambiguation of the tongue surface, registration of images within and across subjects, and calculation of phonetically important measures.
Epstein, Melissa A.; Stone, Maureen
Seventy-two cases of palatal fistulae are presented. The location on anterior part of secondary palate is due to lack of double layer closure. Vascular pattern of tongue is detailed. Operative details of using tongue flap as oral layer in closure of fistula are described. Undue mobility of tongue and prevention of breakdown of tongue flap repair incidence of which is low in present series are mentioned. It is suggested as excellent method of closure of palatal fistulae in difficult cases. PMID:1279921
Thind, M S; Singh, A; Thind, R S
We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the drinking technique of the hummingbird. Its long, thin tongue is dipped into nectar approximately 20 times per second. With each insertion, fluid rises along the length of the tongue through capillary action. While the tongue is open in cross-section, resembling a sliced straw, experiments demonstrate that surface tension serves to close it, with the tongue's zipping front corresponding to the rising meniscus. Supporting theoretical and analogue experimental models of this novel, natural example of capillary origami are developed and explored.
Bush, John; Peaudecerf, Francois; Quere, David
Background Geographic Tongue is a benign disorder involving the dorsal surface of the tongue characterized by depapillated areas with leading and folded edges in yellowish or grayish white color and sometimes with unclear borders. Many studies have reported a relationship between such condition and different risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate and the risk factors of geographic tongue in the patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine of Zahedan Dental School, in 2012. Methods: Using Poisson regression model, 2000 patients referred to the Department were selected for this cross-sectional study. Data collection method included an investigation into the medical history as well as doing intraoral examinations. Using SPSS 17 software and Chi-square statistical test, the collected data were analyzed. Result: Among the 2000 patients selected, 7.8% (156 persons) suffered from geographic tongue. The results of our study show that there is a significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and a history of allergy and fissured tongue (P<0.001). There was no significant statistical relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and gender, smoking and medication. Conclusion: The geographic tongue is more frequently in the patients suffering from atopy or allergy as well as the patients with fissured tongue.
HONARMAND, Marieh; FARHAD MOLLASHAHI, Leila; SHIRZAIY, Masomeh; SEHHATPOUR, Marziye
We have previously shown that amylin has a protective effect upon the damaged rat gastric mucosa via a cytokine-mediated mechanism. Here, the effects of amylin on the proapoptotic cytokine TNF-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand (TRAIL) were tested in the rat gastric mucosa damaged by reserpine administration in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of reserpine in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in increased TRAIL expression in the gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry showed that the TRAIL death-receptor 5 (DR5) was constitutively expressed by the mucosa cells. Western blot showed that pretreatment of reserpine-treated rats with amylin was associated with attenuated expression of TRAIL. In the same samples, we also investigated about TRAIL-related signaling and observed that activation of caspases-8 and -3 occurs in parallel to increased TRAIL expression in rats treated with reserpine. Similarly to the latter, activation of caspases was attenuated in rats pretreated with amylin. Treatment with reserpine was associated with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax, whereas that of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly decreased. Amylin prevented the effects of reserpine on these genes. Reserpine sets into motion mechanisms of apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa, which appear mediated, at least in part, by TRAIL. In addition, TRAIL downstream signaling is activated along with subversion of gene expression related to apoptosis. Amylin was able to prevent detrimental effects of reserpine. Finally, amylin and related molecules may be envisioned as protective agent in gastric mucosa damage. PMID:19463876
Cantarella, Giuseppina; Di Benedetto, Giulia; Martinez, Giuseppa; Loreto, Carla; Clementi, Giuseppe; Cantarella, Antonio; Prato, Agatina; Bernardini, Renato
The paper examines electrophysiological changes associated with regeneration of a tongue sensory nerve to a different part of the tongue. Normally, the chorda tympani nerve innervates the anterior two thirds of the rat tongue and the IXth (glossopharyngea...
Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms…
Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A.; Bull, Rebecca
Tongue diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) assesses the health by investigation of tongue coating. The science and technology of tongue coating analysis have become a significant issue for modernization of TCM. The relationship between microecology of tongue coating and TCM was relevant to the syndrome differentiation in TCM, such as the cold/hot syndrome may exhibit different specific microbiota patterns in the tongue coating. This article provides a review on the microbiota research of tongue coating.
Patients with tongue cancer who started their treatment with a course of chemotherapy fared significantly worse than patients who received surgery first, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. This is contrary to protocols for larynx cancer, in which a single dose of chemotherapy helps determine which patients fare better with chemotherapy and radiation and which patients should elect for surgery. In larynx cancer, this approach, which was pioneered and extensively researched at U-M, has led to better patient survival and functional outcomes. But this new study, which appears in JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, describes a clear failure.
BACKGROUND/AIMS—Raising a displaced lower eyelid frequently involves recession of the lower eyelid retractors with interposition of a "spacer," and several materials for this purpose have been described. This study reviewed the results of autogenous palatal mucosa in the treatment of lower eyelid displacement, including assessment of any donor site morbidity.?METHODS—A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients treated at Moorfields Eye Hospital between 1993 and 1998. All patients underwent insertion of hard palate mucosa between the inferior border of the tarsus and the recessed conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors. Parameters studied included the underlying diagnosis, measurements of lower lid displacement or retraction, related previous surgery, the experience of the operating surgeon, intraoperative and postoperative complications, surgical outcome, and length of follow up. The main outcome measure was the position of the lower eyelid relative to the globe in primary position of gaze.?RESULTS—102 lower eyelids of 68 patients were included and a satisfactory lid position was achieved in 87/102 (85%), with inadequate lengthening or significant recurrence of displacement occurring in 15 cases. Donor site haemorrhage requiring treatment in the early postoperative period occurred in seven patients (10%).?CONCLUSION—Autogenous hard palate mucosa is an effective eyelid spacer and provides good long term support for the lower eyelid. Donor site complications are the main disadvantage, but may be minimised by attention to meticulous surgical technique and appropriate postoperative management.??
Wearne, M.; Sandy, C.; Rose, G.; Pitts, J; Collin, J
Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap. PMID:24647304
Nawfal, Fejjal; Hicham, Brahmi; Achraf, Bekkali; Rachid, Belkacem
Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…
Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy
The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based
Alisa Rudnitskaya; Evgeny Polshin; Dmitry Kirsanov; Jeroen Lammertyn; Bart Nicolai; Daan Saison; Freddy R. Delvaux; Filip Delvaux; Andrey Legin
This paper presents 3D tongue surfaces reconstructed from sixty cross-sectional slices of the tongue. Surfaces were reconstructed for sustained vocalizations of 18 American English sounds. Electropalatography (EPG) data also were collected for the sounds to compare tongue surface shape with tongue-palate contact patterns. The ultrasound data were grouped into four tongue shape categories. These classes were front raising, complete channel, back raising, two-point displacement. The first three categories contained both vowels and consonants, the last only consonants. The EPG data indicated three categories of tongue-palate contact: bilateral, cross-sectional, combination of the two. Vowels used only the first pattern, consonants used all three. The EPG data provided an observably distinction in contact pattern between consonants and vowels. The ultrasound tongue surface data did not. The conclusion was that the tongue actually has a limited repertoire of shapes, and positions them against the palate in different ways for consonants vs. vowels to create narrow channels, divert airflow and produce sound.
Stone, Maureen; Lundberg, Andrew
In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)
Hirose, Hajime; And Others
Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…
Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee
A one year physicochemical survey was conducted on the Tongue River Reservoir, a run of the river impoundment in southeastern Montana. The Tongue River was the only significant inflow and supplied 93, 96 and 97% of the nutrient, major ion and water inputs to the impoundment. Heat advected from inflowing water accounted for 17% of the energy gained during the
S. C. Whalen; S. A. Leathe; R. W. Gregory; J. C. Wright
Background: Although poststroke dysphagia is an important issue for determining prognosis, the pathophysiology of oral-phase dysphagia has yet to be clarified due to a lack of adequate devices and protocols. The present study investigated the relationships between swallowing pressure production by the tongue and dysphagia in stroke patients using a newly developed method of tongue pressure measurement with a sensor
Kuni Konaka; Jugo Kondo; Nobuko Hirota; Kenichi Tamine; Kazuhiro Hori; Takahiro Ono; Yoshinobu Maeda; Saburo Sakoda; Hiroaki Naritomi
Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…
Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.
Mother tongue education in separate schools has been in the norm for several of China's large minorities since 1949. In recent years, however, the shift in minority parental demand, media focus on low educational outcomes of mother tongue education combined with government concerns about separatism have led to the development of mixed schools for…
Tsung, Linda T. H.; Cruickshank, Ken
In this article, drift correction algorithms were used in order to remove linear drift in multivariate spaces of two data sets obtained by an electronic tongue based on voltammetry. The electronic tongue consisted of various metal electrodes (Au, Ir, Pt, Rh) combined with pattern recognition tools, such as principal component analysis. The first data set contained different types of liquid, from well defined to more complex solutions. The second data set contained different black and green teas. Component correction (CC) was compared to a simple additive correction. In CC, the drift direction of measured reference solutions in a multivariate space was subtracted from other types of solution. In additive correction, responses from reference samples were subtracted from other samples. CC showed similar or better performance in reducing drift compared to additive correction for the two data sets. The additive correction method was dependent on the fact that the differences in between samples of a reference solution were similar to the changes in between samples of other liquids, which was not the case with CC.
Holmin, Susanne; Krantz-Rülcker, Christina; Lundström, Ingemar; Winquist, Fredrik
We present one of the largest lingual hamartomas of the tongue base to have been reported, along with a review of the current literature and a description of the management of this case, as well as insights into the histopathology of the lesion. A 21-year-old woman presented with a mass on the base of her tongue, extending to the vallecula. The mass was found to be over 4 cm and enhancing on computed tomography. The size, vascularity, and site of the lesion merited its excision using the suprahyoid pharyngotomy approach. Histopathology confirmed the mass to be a vascular hamartoma. In reviewing the literature, we encountered 61 reported cases of lingual hamartomas, which are described with a number of pathological variants and sites of occurrence and with different methods of surgical excision. The size, vascularity, and site of the lesion we found merited a different approach from the conventional transoral approach that was used in all of the previous reports. Also, our study agrees with current world literature that histopathological examination plays an important role in the final diagnosis.
VASHISHTH, Ashish; MATHUR, Neeraj Narayan; CHOUDHARY, Santosha Ram; KHANNA, Geetika
The first interlaboratory testing of electronic taste sensing systems was performed within five participating centers, each working with the Insent (Insent Inc., Atsugi-Shi, Japan) e-tongue. Preparation of the samples for the comprised four experiments, shipping of the samples and evaluation of the results was performed at the University of Duesseldorf. The sensitivity (in this case the difference between lowest and highest sensor response) and slope of the regression line values, obtained within Experiment 1 and 2, have been found to serve as applicable evaluation criterions for interlaboratory comparability. Modified sensor responses could be attributed to aged sensors, but did not influence the results of either Experiment 3, dealing with the evaluation of film formulations, or Experiment 4, dealing with the evaluation of minitablet formulations, in a great amount. Presented PCA Score and Loading Scatter Plots as well as Euclidean distance patterns based on the raw sensor responses confirmed the comparable performance of Insent e-tongues of the participating centers. PMID:24560640
Pein, Miriam; Gondongwe, Xolani Dereck; Habara, Masaaki; Winzenburg, Gesine
Visual inspection of the tongue has been an important diagnostic method of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Clinic data have shown significant connections between various viscera cancers and abnormalities in the tongue and the tongue coating. Visual inspection of the tongue is simple and inexpensive, but the current practice in TCM is mainly experience-based and the quality of the visual inspection varies between individuals. The computerized inspection method provides quantitative models to evaluate color, texture and surface features on the tongue. In this paper, we investigate visualization techniques and processes to allow interactive data analysis with the aim to merge computerized measurements with human expert's diagnostic variables based on five-scale diagnostic conditions: Healthy (H), History Cancers (HC), History of Polyps (HP), Polyps (P) and Colon Cancer (C).
Pham, Binh L.; Cai, Yang
Geographic tongue is an inflammatory disorder of the tongue characterized by asymptomatic erythematous patches with serpiginous borders. Candidiasis of the tongue may be confused with geographic tongue. A 63-year-old male patient with painful white annular lesions localized to the left side of his tongue is presented. He applied topical corticosteroid and antiinflammatory agents, but his lesions did not respond to those therapies. Using direct mycologic examination and culture, the patient was diagnosed with candidiasis. After systemic and topical antifungal therapy, clinical improvement was observed. With this case, the clinical forms of oral candidiasis were discussed, and it was suggested that the clinical presentation of mucosal candidiasis may vary according to the stage of infection and individual immunity.
Kayhan, Tuba Celebl; Bllac, Cemal; Bllac, Dilek Bayraktar; Ecemls, Talat
The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 ?g/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure. PMID:24982549
Snow, Lynne A; McConnico, Rebecca S; Morgan, Timothy W; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Hosgood, Giselle
In 1974, spawning polychaetes, Anaitides mucosa (Oersted, 1843), appeared in great numbers (up to 148 individuals\\/m2) at the surface of an intertidal flat in the German Waddensea from mid-February until 10th April. A. mucosa forms mucous bags which usually contain more than 10,000 green eggs. The eggs measure 113.4±5.4 µm in diameter, including the fructification membrane (18 measurements). Production if
The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:2053-2061, 2014. PMID:24824736
Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette
This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders were analyzed. The stimuli included a range of consonants in consonant-vowel sequences, with the vowels /a/ and /i/. The measures reliably distinguished between articulations with and without tongue dorsum excursion, and produced robust results on lingual coarticulation of the consonants. The reported data can be used as a starting point for collecting more typical data and for analyzing disordered speech. The measurements do not require head-to-transducer stabilization. Possible applications of the measures include studying tongue dorsum overuse in people with cleft palate, and typical and disordered development of coarticulation. PMID:23651147
A double-blind intervention trial was conducted in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia using a mixed tea product developed by the authors. Fifty-nine oral mucosa leukoplakia patients, diagnosed by established clinical and pathological criteria, were randomly divided into a treated group (3 g mixed tea oral administration and topical treatment) and a control group (placebo and glycerin treatment). After the 6-month trial, the size of oral lesion was decreased in 37.9% of the 29 treated patients and increased in 3.4%; whereas the oral lesion was decreased in 10.0% of the 30 control patients and increased in 6.7%. At the same time, the incidence of micronucleated exfoliated oral mucosa cells in the treated group (5. 4 per 1000 cells) was lower than that in the control group (11.3 per 1000 cells)(P < 0.01); whereas it was 1.4 per 1000 cells in 20 healthy subjects. The micronuclei and chromosome aberration rate in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showed the same results. In pathological examination, there were significant differences (P < 0. 05) in the number and total volume of the silver-stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) and the proliferating index of Proliferation Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) in oral mucosa cell nuclei between the treated group and the control group which indicates that cell proliferation was decreased in the treated patients. The overall results provide some direct evidence on the protective effects of tea on oral cancer. PMID:10202392
Li, N; Sun, Z; Han, C; Chen, J
Abstract Peptides derived from alcalase digestion of soybean ?-conglycinin, containing 8.52% carbohydrate, exhibits an inhibition effect on pathogen adhesion or translocation to intestinal cells in vitro. In this study, the protective and reparative effects of ?-conglycinin peptides on intestinal mucosa injury in vivo were studied using mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal mucosa injury. The results showed that ?-conglycinin peptides contained approximately 21.77% glutamic acid (Glu), and significantly reduced the histological injury in mice both in the protective and reparative experiments. The myeloperoxidase activity of mice treated with ?-conglycinin peptides decreased compared with those treated DSS in the positive control group. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that ?-conglycinin peptides inhibited the expression of inflammatory factor NF-?B/p65. These results suggested that peptides derived from soybean ?-conglycinin exhibited protective and reparative effects on mice intestinal mucosa injury. PMID:24224901
Ren, Jianhua; Yang, Baichong; Lv, Ying; Guo, Shuntang
In traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine), tongue color is important in discerning a patient's constitution and medical conditions. However, tongue color diagnosis is susceptible to the subjective factors of the observer. To investigate factors involved in tongue color diagnosis, both color discrimination and tongue color diagnosis were researched in 68 Kampo medical practitioners. Color discrimination was studied by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, and tongue color diagnosis was studied by 84 tongue images. We found that overall color discrimination worsened with aging. However, the color discrimination related to tongue color regions was maintained in subjects with 10 or more years of Kampo experience. On the other hand, tongue color diagnosis significantly differed between subjects with <10 years of experience and ?10 years of experience. Practitioners with ?10 years of experience could maintain a consistent diagnosis of tongue color regardless of their age.
Oji, Takeshi; Namiki, Takao; Ueda, Keigo; Takeda, Kanako; Nakamura, Michimi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro
Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L?, a?, b?) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory.
Nam, Ji Ho; Jeon, Young Ju
Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L?, a?, b?) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory. PMID:24868237
Jung, Chang Jin; Nam, Ji Ho; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Keun Ho
An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.
Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory
A new dynamical biomechanical tongue model is being developed to study speech motor control. In spite of its computational complexity, a 3D representation was chosen in order to account for various contacts between tongue and external structures such as teeth, palate, and vocal tract walls. A fair representation of tongue muscle anatomy is provided, by designing the finite element mesh from the visible human data set (female subject). Model geometry was then matched to a human speaker, so that simulations can be quantitatively compared to experimental MRI data. A set of 11 muscles is modeled, whose role in speech gestures is well established. Each muscle is defined by a set of elements whose elastic properties change with muscle activation. Muscles forces are applied to the tongue model via macrofibers defined within the mesh by muscle specific sets of nodes. These forces are currently specified as step functions. Boundary conditions are set using zero-displacement nodes simulating attachments of tongue on bony structures. The nonlinear mechanical properties of tongue soft tissues are modeled using a hyperelastic material. Three-dimensional tongue deformations generated by each muscle, using FEM software ANSYS for computation, will be presented. Implications for speech motor control will be proposed.
Gerard, Jean-Michel; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan; Wilhelms-Tricarico, Reiner
PURPOSE Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract-related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with harmonic phase (HARP)-based tracking applied to tagged MRI. METHOD Ten subjects repeated the phrase "a geese" multiple times while sagittal images of the head were collected at 26 Hz, first in a tagged MRI data set and then in a cine MRI data set. HARP tracked the motion of 8 specified tissue points in the tagged data set. Four DR methods including diffeomorphic demons and free-form deformations based on cubic B-spline with 3 different similarity measures were used to track the same 8 points in the cine MRI data set. Individual points were tracked and length changes of several muscles were calculated using the DR- and HARP-based tracking methods. RESULTS The results showed that the DR tracking errors were nonsystematic and varied in direction, amount, and timing across speakers and within speakers. Comparison of HARP and DR tracking with manual tracking showed better tracking results for HARP except at the tongue surface, where mistracking caused greater errors in HARP than DR. CONCLUSIONS Tissue point tracking using DR tracking methods contains nonsystematic tracking errors within and across subjects, making it less successful than tagged MRI tracking within the tongue. However, HARP sometimes mistracks points at the tongue surface of tagged MRI because of its limited bandpass filter and tag pattern fading, so that DR has better success measuring surface tissue points on cine MRI than HARP does. Therefore, a hybrid method is being explored. PMID:24686470
Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z; Prince, Jerry L
Introduction Granular cell tumor is an uncommon neoplasm that can occur in any part of the body, including the orofacial region. The tumor is usually benign, but there are reports of cases in which the tumor shows a locally aggressive behavior, malignancy, and distant metastases. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that granular cell tumor arises from the altered metabolism of Schwann cells. The tumor is typically asymptomatic and appears as a nodule that does not exceed 3 cm. Case presentation In case 1, a 26-year-old Caucasian man was seen at the Oral Medicine out-patient clinic of the São José dos Campos Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, with a 'small blister on the tongue', which he had noted approximately three years ago. The nodule was located on the dorsum of the tongue, measured about 1.5 cm in diameter, and was not tender to palpation. Treatment consisted of an excisional biopsy performed on the basis of the diagnostic hypothesis of granular cell tumor, which was confirmed by microscopic analysis. In case 2, a 31-year-old Caucasian woman attended the out-patient clinic of the São José dos Campos Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, with a five-year history of a 'painful lump on the tongue'. Intra-oral examination revealed the presence of a nodular lesion measuring approximately 0.8 cm in diameter, which was located deep in the submucosa of the right lateral margin of the tongue. Treatment consisted of an excisional biopsy performed on the basis of the differential diagnosis of neurofibroma and granular cell tumor. Microscopic analysis defined the final diagnosis of granular cell tumor. Conclusions Granular cell tumor is an uncommon tumor that must be carefully diagnosed and treated correctly.
Assessment of tongue strength and endurance is common in research and clinical contexts. It is unclear whether the results reveal discrete function by the tongue or combined abilities of the tongue and jaw. One way to isolate the movement of the tongue is to constrain the jaw kinematically by using a bite block. In this study, 10 neurologically…
Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Munson, Benjamin
The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a new minimally invasive, unobtrusive, wireless, and wearable tongue-operated assistive technology (AT) that enables individuals with severe physical disabilities to control environments with their free tongue motion. An array of magnetic sensors wirelessly tracks the position of a magnetic tracer attached to the tongue via adhesives or piercing, and a sensor signal-processing (SSP) algorithm
Benoit Gosselin; Mehdi Kiani; Hyung-Min Lee; Jeonghee Kim; Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo
The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with
Joana Gomes; Ana Magalhães; Ana S. Carvalho; Gilberto E. Hernandez; Suzanne L. Papp; Steven R. Head; Valérie Michel; Leonor David; Fátima Gärtner; Eliette Touati; Celso A. Reis
We have observed 3 cases of vulvodynia after CO2 laser (pulse or scan) treatment of condylomata acuminata (n = 1) or bowenoid papulosis (n = 2) of the female genital mucosa. Laser treatment was associated with a considerable delay in healing (3–4 months) and chronic pain. The histology of the treated areas showed a scar tissue and severe mucosal atrophy.
C. Tschanz; D. Salomon; A. Skaria; I. Masouyé; G. L. Vecchietti; M. Harms
The morphology of the rat gastric mucosa superficially damaged by a 30-45 sec exposure to 100% ethanol caused over 99% of the luminal surface to be necrotic without extensive hemorrhage or hyperemia. However, this damaged area restituted or rapidly healed and the process was described. These findings were compared with in vitro gastric mucosae of bullfrogs and guinea pigs which were damaged with 1 or 1.25 M NaCl and allowed to restitute. The rat gastric mucosa showed evidence of cell migration within 5 min after ethanol damage and after 15 min as much as 50% of the denuded basement membrane was restituted. After 30 min about 75% of the mucosa was covered with cells and by 1 h there were only minor epithelial discontinuities. The in vitro frog mucosal restitution after hypertonic injury was slower and required 1-2 h to show appreciable cell migration and 4-6 h for completion of the repair process. Using chambered guinea pig gastric mucosa damaged with hypertonic NaCl restituted the necrotic surface almost as rapidly as the intact rat stomach necrotized with absolute ethanol. Since prostaglandin treatment did not prevent ethanol or hypertonic salt injury or affect the restitution process it was proposed that the term cytoprotection as it is generally used is not appropriate. PMID:6336239
Ito, S; Lacy, E R; Rutten, M J; Critchlow, J; Silen, W
Objective. To research the protective effects and mechanisms of Radix Astragali injection on the intestinal mucosa of rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ). Methods. The rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, model control and Radix Astragali treated group. We observed the pathological changes of intestinal mucosa, expression levels of Bax and NF-?B proteins, and apoptosis indexes in intestinal mucosa as well as serum NO, MDA and SOD contents, respectively, on 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d after operation. Results. The pathological severity score (on 7d and 14d), apoptotic indexes (on 14d) of the intestinal mucosa and serum MDA content (on 14d) of treated group were significantly lower than those in the model control group (P < .05). The serum SOD contents (on all time points) of treated group were significantly higher than those in the model control group (P < .05). The sham-operated group (on 21d) of the product of staining intensity and positive rate of Bax protein was significantly lower than model control group (P < .05). Conclusion. Radix Astragali injection could protect the intestinal mucosa of OJ rats by increasing the content of SOD, reducing the content of MDA, inhibiting the apoptosis and relieving the pathological changes of intestinal mucosa.
Xiping, Zhang; Ke, Weng; Yaping, Yu; Hongchan, Zhao; Qihui, Cheng
11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR SIDING IN LIVING QUARTERS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID
This paper describes the application of the electronic tongue (E-tongue) in the Discrimination of different white chrysanthemum. Three grade samples, two brands of samples and the samples adulterated were measured by the E-tongue. It was found the samples with different grades or brands could be clearly discriminated and the samples adulterated were separated from the authentic samples using PCA. The results of DFA and BPNN showed the total predicted accuracy of three grades samples were 86.7% and 93.3%. A strong positive correlation was observed between the sensory score and the predicted score (correlation coefficient is 0.9768) using PLS, and the samples were correctly classified. These results suggest the E-tongue may be useful for quality control of white chrysanthemum. PMID:24426007
Wang, Jun; Xiao, Hong
We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of drinking in ruby-throated hummingbirds. In vivo observations reveal elastocapillary deformation of the hummingbird's tongue and capillary suction along its length. By developing a theoretical model for the hummingbird's drinking process, we investigate how the elastocapillarity affects the energy intake rate of the bird and how its open tongue geometry reduces resistance to nectar uptake. We note that the tongue flexibility is beneficial for accessing, transporting and unloading the nectar. We demonstrate that the hummingbird can attain the fastest nectar uptake when its tongue is roughly semicircular. Finally, we assess the relative importance of capillary suction and a recently proposed fluid trapping mechanism, and conclude that the former is important in many natural settings.
Kim, Wonjung; Peaudecerf, Francois; Baldwin, Maude W.; Bush, John W. M.
Brachytherapy using (198)Au grains is minimally invasive and the only curative treatment for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status available in our institution. From March 1993 to February 2008, (198)Au grains were used to treat a group of 96 Stage I-II tongue cancer patients who could not undergo surgery or brachytherapy using (192)Ir pins because of an advanced age (?75 years) or poor performance status (?2). The patients were followed for 3.9 ± 3.3 years, and the cause-specific survival and local control rates were determined. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The results were compared with those for a group of 193 early tongue-cancer patients who underwent treatment using iridium pins. The 5-year cause-specific survival and local control rates of the (198)Au grains group were 71% and 68%, respectively, both of which were 16% lower than the corresponding rates for the (192)Ir pins group. Our study demonstrated that as the last curative treatment available, (198)Au grain implantation could be used to achieve moderate treatment results for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status. PMID:23685669
Ryu, Yoshiharu; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji
The functional impact of pulmonary C-fiber activation on upper airway biomechanics has not been evaluated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pulmonary C-fiber activation alters the respiratory-related control of tongue movements. The force produced by tongue movements was quantified in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized adult rats before and after stimulation of pulmonary C fibers via intrajugular delivery of capsaicin (0.625 and 1.25 ?g/kg). Brief occlusion of the trachea was used to increase the respiratory drive to the tongue muscles, and hypoglossal (XII) nerve branches were selectively sectioned to denervate the protrusive and retrusive tongue musculature. Tracheal occlusion triggered inspiratory-related tongue retrusion in rats with XII nerves intact or following section of the medial XII nerve branch, which innervates the genioglossus muscle. Inspiratory-related tongue protrusion was only observed after section of the lateral XII branch, which innervates the primary tongue retrusor muscles. The tension produced by inspiratory-related tongue movement was significantly attenuated by capsaicin, but tongue movements remained retrusive, unless the medial XII branch was sectioned. Capsaicin also significantly delayed the onset of tongue movements such that tongue forces could not be detected until after onset of the inspiratory diaphragm activity. We conclude that altered neural drive to the tongue muscles following pulmonary C-fiber activation has a functionally significant effect on tongue movements. The diminished tongue force and delay in the onset of tongue movements following pulmonary C-fiber activation are potentially unfavorable for upper airway patency.
Fuller, David D.; Hwang, Ji-Chuu
The case of a minor salivary gland tumour, arising from the tongue, with nodal metastasis is presented. Biopsy of the tumour and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the neck swelling showed the presence of a clear cell carcinoma with evidence of nodal metastases. A commando operation was performed and the defect was reconstructed using a local tongue flap. The literature review indicated that the neoplasm was rare and its site of occurrence rather unusual. PMID:7930932
Rajab, E; Akmal, S N; Nasir, A M
Study Objectives: To characterize tongue and lateral upper airway movement and to image tongue deformation during mandibular advancement. Design: Dynamic imaging study of a wide range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI) subjects. Setting: Not-for-profit research institute. Participants: 30 subjects (aged 31-69 y, AHI 0-75 events/h, BMI 17-39 kg/m2). Interventions: Subjects were imaged using dynamic tagged magnetic resonance imaging during mandibular advancement. Tissue displacements were quantified with the harmonic phase technique. Measurements and Results: Mean mandibular advancement was 5.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This produced movement through a connection from the ramus of the mandible to the pharyngeal lateral walls in all subjects. In the sagittal plane, 3 patterns of posterior tongue deformation were seen with mandibular advancement—(A) en bloc anterior movement, (B) anterior movement of the oropharyngeal region, and (C) minimal anterior movement. Subjects with lower AHI were more likely to have en bloc movement (P = 0.04) than minimal movement. Antero-posterior elongation of the tongue increased with AHI (R = 0.461, P = 0.01). Mean anterior displacements of the posterior nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal regions of the tongue were 20% ± 13% and 31% ± 17% of mandibular advancement. The posterior tongue compressed 1.1 ± 2.2 mm supero-inferiorly. Conclusions: Mandibular advancement has two mechanisms of action which increase airway size. In subjects with low AHI, the entire tongue moves forward. Mandibular advancement also produces lateral airway expansion via a direct connection between the lateral walls and the ramus of the mandible. Citation: Brown EC; Cheng S; McKenzie DK; Butler JE; Gandevia SC; Bilston LE. Tongue and lateral upper airway movement with mandibular advancement. SLEEP 2013;36(3):397-404.
Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.
This report details a case of generalized tetanus with the added complication of tongue bite following the repeated convulsions of a six-year-old unimmunized girl. It highlights the fact that tongue bite is an unusual portal of the entry of tetanus and emphasizes the need for proper oral care of an unconscious patient and the importance of the immunization of children. PMID:22678074
Alhaji, Mohammed Arab; Mustapha, Modu Gofama; Ashir, Garba Mohammed; Bashir, Mohammed Farouk; Pius, Simon
We conducted a comprehensive study of all lipomatous tumors of the oral mucosa (1996-2008) accessioned at the Department of Oral Pathology, Tel Aviv University, collected demographic data and analyzed multiple histomorphological features. Furthermore, we examined the immunostaining of aP2 (adipocyte lipid binding protein) and the polarization colors of picrosirius red (PSR)-stained collagen fibers in order to test their potential in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. All cases were immunohistochemically stained with aP2 antibody; only tumors with considerable collagenous stroma were selected for the PSR staining. A total of 77 tumors were included in the study, 91% benign and 9% malignant. Fibrolipoma (37.7%) and lipoma (36.4%) were the most frequent tumors. Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT) was the only type of malignancy. The most common location for the benign tumors was the buccal mucosa and for ALT, the tongue. Histomorphological features characteristic of malignant tumors were occasionally present also in the benign entities. Expression of aP2 was similar in all tumors, while the polarization colors of the PSR-stained collagen fibers differed significantly between ALT and benign tumors (p<0.05). Benign and malignant tumors occasionally show overlapping histomorphological features that require a meticulous examination. PSR staining with polarization microscopy could aid in differentiating malignant from benign tumors in equivocal cases. PMID:21376375
Allon, Irit; Aballo, Sara; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena
Mucoceles are benign lesions of the oral cavity that develop as a result of retention or extravasation of mucous material from minor salivary glands. Congenital mucoceles are very rare. These lesions in newborns may interfere with breastfeeding and may even compromise respiratory function. A patient with a congenital mucocele diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound screening showing a cystic lesion of the tongue is presented herein. The physical examination, lesion evolution and imaging are described, together with the surgical management, histopathology and two-year follow-up. Early clinical assessment, differential diagnosis and magnetic resonance imaging allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this rare congenital condition with surgery in early infancy. PMID:24911859
Rodríguez, Hugo; Perra, Ricardo De Hoyos; Cuestas, Giselle; Campi, Jacopo; Pasalli, Desiderio
The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative DNA damage during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis.\\u000a For this purpose, male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution\\u000a through their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. The alkaline Comet assay\\u000a modified
Sandra Regina Miranda; Juliana Noguti; Juliana Gonçalves Carvalho; Celina Tijuko Fujiyama Oshima; Daniel Araki Ribeiro
Tongue-flicking is an important sensory behavior unique to squamate reptiles in which chemical stimuli gathered by the tongue are delivered the vomeronasal organ situated in the roof of the mouth. Because tongue-flick numbers can easily be quantified, this behavior has been widely used as a measure of vomeronasal sampling in snakes using related variables such as tongue-flick rate or tongue-flick/attack score. Surprisingly, the behavior itself and especially the function of the oscillatory tongue-flicks remains poorly understood. To describe the overall kinematics of tongue-flicking in the colubrid snake Nerodia fasciata and to test predictions on the function of oscillatory tongue-flicks, we filmed the tongue-flicks of 8 adult Nerodia fasciata using 4 synchronized high-speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematic and performance variables were extracted from the videos in order to quantify tongue movements. Based on the kinematic analysis, we demonstrate the existence of 2 functional and behavioral tongue-flick categories. Tongue-flicks with oscillations meet all the criteria for being adapted to the collection of odorants; simple downward extensions appear better suited for the rapid pick up of nonvolatile chemical stimuli from the substrate or a food item. External stimuli such as tactile and/or vomeronasal stimulation can induce a shift between these categories. PMID:22942105
Daghfous, Gheylen; Smargiassi, Maïté; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Wattiez, Ruddy; Bels, Vincent
This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa.
Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao
The tongue drive system (TDS) is an unobtrusive, minimally invasive, wearable and wireless tongue-computer interface (TCI), which can infer its users' intentions, represented in their volitional tongue movements, by detecting the position of a small permanent magnetic tracer attached to the users' tongues. Any specific tongue movements can be translated into user-defined commands and used to access and control various
Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo
Purpose: Our aim was to study the treatment parameters that influence local control and soft tissue complications (STC) in a series of 207 Stage I and II squamous cell carcinomas of the oral tongue treated by interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) alone (127 patients), or by a combination using external beam irradiation (EBI) (80 patients) between 1980 and 1993.Methods and Materials: The
Minoru Fujita; Yutaka Hirokawa; Kouzo Kashiwado; Yukio Akagi; Kazuki Kashimoto; Hiroshi Kiriu; Kanji Matsuura; Katsuhide Ito
By light and electron microscopy investigation of the human gastric mucosa five types of ultrastructurally different endocrine cells have been detected: 5-hydroxytryptamine storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells, gastrin storing G cells, and functionally undefined ECL, D and D1 cells. By direct application of Masson's argentaffin reaction as well as of Sevier-Munger's and Grimelius' argyrophil method to electron microscopy specimens, selective deposition
Gabriele Vassallo; Carlo Capella; Enrico Solcia
A new spiral bacterium, distinct from Campylobacter pylori, was found in the gastric mucosa of six patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients had chronic active type B gastritis and four had oesophagitis. Culture and microscopy for C pylori infection was negative. These unculturable spiral organisms were probably an incidental finding in patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but it is
C A McNulty; J C Dent; A Curry; J S Uff; G A Ford; M W Gear; S P Wilkinson
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in salivary glands of head and neck region. Here we present a case report of a 50 year old male who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:22190804
Singh, Sanjay; Gokkulakrishnan; Jain, Jinendra; Pathak, Sachin; Singh, Kumar Tathagat
4 cases of lupus vulgaris of the oral mucosa were found to be associated with asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The patients presented with single or multiple ulcerations of the mouth with an irregular periphery and a granular vegetative fundus. The diagnosis was established histologically and by the favorable and rapid response of the oral lesions to the antituberculosis therapy.Copyright © 1981
George C. Laskaris; George D. Nicolis
Objective Describe the effect of anterior tongue reduction surgery on tongue size, morphology and histology. Design Prospective experiment. Materials Twenty-two 12 week old Yucatan minipigs. Methods Six sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group B) or sham surgery (Group A), and underwent euthanasia the day of surgery. Five sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group D) or sham surgery (Group C), and were raised for 4 weeks. Data collected included: changes in tongue morphology, histology and animal response to surgery. Results All animals tolerated surgery and maintained their weight. Tongue size was uniformly reduced in all animals as compared to sham surgery. Tongue reduction was stable long-term in Group D. All animals had normal wound healing and neurovascular structure preservation. Fibrosis occurred at the repair site. Conclusion Midline tongue reduction resulted in uniform tongue reduction in all dimensions and volume, without damaging neurovascular structures. Localized fibrosis is a sequelae of healing.
Perkins, Jonathan A.; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Zi-Jun.
Background To review the demographic data of a series of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the tongue, as well as to analyze c-kit expression, histopathologic patterns, prognostic factors, evolution, recurrences and/or persistence and survival. Methods Retrospective study from 1986 to 2006, which reviews a database of 68 patients with diagnosis of head and neck ACC. Results We found eight cases of ACC of the tongue (11.7% of all head and neck ACCs). There were 7 female (87.5%) and 1 male (12.5%) patients, with an average age of 51 years (range 33 to 67 years). Seven patients were surgically treated, three of which required adjuvant treatment. Only one female patient did not accept treatment. Average follow-up time was 5.3 years. Metastases developed in 37% of cases during the follow-up period. Histopathologically, the cribriform pattern predominated (6/8 cases). All cases presented perineural invasion, and one patient also presented vascular invasion. c-kit positivity was observed in all cases. Global survival in the seven treated cases was 51% and 34% at 5 and 10 years, respectively, while the disease-free period was of 64% at 3 years and 42% at 10 years. Conclusion ACC of the tongue is a rare neoplasm, in which early diagnosis is important because these are slowly-growing tumors that produce diffuse invasion. As the role of c-kit could not be assesed in this series, surgery continues to be the cornerstone of treatment and radiotherapy is indicated when surgical margins are compromised. Metastatic disease is still hard to handle because of the lack of adequate therapies for these tumors. Hence, survival has not changed in the last years.
Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Carmona-Luna, Tania; Cano-Valdez, Ana Maria; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Herrera-Gomez, Angel; Villavicencio-Valencia, Veronica
The saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis) is a Passeriforme of the Brazilian wildlife. There are scarcely any morphological studies on it, although it is frequently trafficked for its birdsong abilities. Its peculiarities, such as territorialism and developed syrinx that provides outstanding song, draw attention towards its domestication. Thus, this study aimed to morphologically describe the tongue and digestive tube organs of this species to furnish subsidies for nutritional, clinical and conservation studies. Forty-one birds from the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS)/Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA)/city of Cabedelo, state of Paraíba (PB) were used. Samples were collected, identified and sent to standard light microscopy; samples of proventriculus and gizzard were sent to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The samples showed stratification similar to that of other domestic and wild birds, confirmed in the scanning electron microscopy; however, they differed in the absence of dermal papillae in the tongue, lack of ingluvial glands and lack of muscular mucosa and sub-mucosa in the large intestine. PMID:23464601
Silva Siqueira, R A; Luna, A C L; Cavalcanti, T A; Rici, R E G; Miglino, M A; Guerra, R R
The medium-term tongue carcinogenesis assay is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinomas phase by phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry and examine the DNA sequence of exons 5, 6, 7, and 8 of Tp53 for mutations during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). A total of 30 male Wistar rats were treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide in their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks at a dose of 50 ppm. Ten animals were used as negative controls. No histopathological changes in the tongue epithelia were observed in the control group or in the treatment group after 4 weeks of 4NQO. Following 12 weeks of treatment, hyperplasia as well as epithelial dysplasia was found in both mild and moderate forms. At 20 weeks, moderate and/or severe oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were found, and the majority of animals had squamous cell carcinoma. The levels of p53 protein were increased (p < 0.05) in pre-neoplastic lesions and in squamous cell carcinomas in some of the tumor cells in squamous cell carcinomas. No mutations were found in any of the exons that were evaluated after the 4-, 12-, or 20-week treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that p53 expression may be an important event in the malignant conversion, whereas Tp53 mutations are not involved in the multi-step tongue carcinogenesis of Wistar rats induced by 4NQO. PMID:20385474
Minicucci, E M; Ribeiro, D A; da Silva, G N; Pardini, M I M C; Montovani, J C; Salvadori, D M F
Abstract Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species.
Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.
de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.
Neisseria mucosa, a Gram-negative diplococcus, is part of normal nasopharyngeal flora. We report a case of bacteremia caused by N. mucosa in a 50-year-old neutropenic patient suffering from non-secretory multiple myeloma stage IIIA. This case underscores that mostly nonpathogenic N. mucosa can cause bacteremia in neutropenic patients who developed mucositis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23905778
Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Baaboura, Rekaya; Ouertani, Hela; Lakhal, Amal; Torjemane, Lamia; Othman, Tarek Ben; Hassen, Assia Ben
The herbicides dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile), chlorthiamid (2,6-dichlorothiobenzamide) and their environmental degradation product 2,6-dichlorobenzamide are irreversibly bound and toxic to the olfactory mucosa following single injections in mice (Brandt et al., Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1990, 103, 491-501; Brittebo et al., Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1991, 17, 92-102). In the present study, autoradiography showed an irreversible binding of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa (preferentially in the Bowman's glands) in C57Bl/6 mice treated with the 14C-labelled analogues [14C]2,6-difluorobenzonitrile ([14C]DFBN) and [14C]2,6-difluorobenzamide ([14C]DFBA). Therefore the toxicity of DFBN, DFBA and of some structurally related compounds including benzonitrile (BN) and the herbicides bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) and ioxynil (3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) in the mouse olfactory mucosa was examined. No histopathological changes in the olfactory mucosa or in the liver were observed following a single ip dose of any of these compounds [0.145 mmol/kg (all compounds); 0.58 mmol/kg (DFBN, DFBA and BN)]. Also in mice treated with the glutathione-depleting agent phorone, none of these compounds induced any histopathological changes in the olfactory mucosa. The covalent binding of [14C]DFBN in the olfactory mucosa was 16 times lower than an equimolar toxic dose of [14C]dichlobenil, suggesting a low rate of metabolic activation of DFBN in the olfactory mucosa or a low reactivity of the DFBN metabolites formed. The results of this study thus show that single doses of DFBN, DFBA, BN, IX and BX, compounds structurally related to the potent olfactory toxicant dichlobenil, do not elicit acute toxicity in the olfactory mucosa of mice. PMID:1427510
Eriksson, C; Brandt, I; Brittebo, E
Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example, neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), rather than terminating among the adjacent cells that secrete neurotrophin 3. The p75NTR on special specialized clusters of epithelial cells may promote axonal arborization in vivo since its over-expression by fibroblasts enhances neurite outgrowth from overlying somatosensory neurons in vitro. Two classical observations have implicated gustatory neurons in the development and maintenance of mammalian taste buds--the early arrival times of embryonic innervation and the loss of taste buds after their denervation in adults. In the modern era more than a dozen experimental studies have used early denervation or neurotrophin gene mutations to evaluate mammalian gustatory organ development. Necessary for taste organ development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor sustains developing gustatory neurons. The cardinal conclusion is readily summarized: taste buds in the palate and tongue are induced by innervation. Taste buds are unstable: the death and birth of taste receptor cells relentlessly remodels synaptic connections. As receptor cells turn over, the sensory code for taste quality is probably stabilized by selective synapse formation between each type of gustatory axon and its matching taste receptor cell. We anticipate important new discoveries of molecular interactions among the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and gustatory innervation that build the gustatory papillae, their specialized epithelial cells, and the resulting taste buds. PMID:16217619
Oakley, Bruce; Witt, Martin
Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC) is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1), and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5). The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.
Ye, Hui; Yu, Tianwei; Temam, Stephane; Ziober, Barry L; Wang, Jianguang; Schwartz, Joel L; Mao, Li; Wong, David T; Zhou, Xiaofeng
Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, often occurs secondary to conditions such as stroke, head injury or progressive disease, many of which increase in frequency with advancing age. Sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle bulk and strength, can place older individuals at greater risk for dysphagia. Data are reported for three older participants in a pilot trial of a tongue-pressure training therapy. During the experimental therapy protocol, participants performed isometric strength exercises for the tongue as well as tongue pressure accuracy tasks. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), an instrument that measures tongue pressure. Treatment outcome measures show increased isometric tongue strength, improved tongue pressure generation accuracy, improved bolus control on videofluoroscopy, and improved functional dietary intake by mouth. These preliminary results indicate that, for these three adults with dysphagia, tongue-pressure training was beneficial for improving both instrumental and functional aspects of swallowing. The experimental treatment protocol holds promise as a rehabilitative tool for various dysphagia populations.
Yeates, Erin M; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M
Background Plumbagin, a quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of Plumbago zeylanica L., has been proven to possess anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Cell proliferation ability was detected by EdU incorporation assay and colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cellular apoptosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blotting was applied to assay the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Results Plumbagin inhibited the growth and proliferation of Tca8113 cells in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycles of plumbagin-treated Tca8113 cells were arrested at the G2/M phase. Cells treated with plumbagin presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was raised by plumbagin in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions These results indicate that plumbagin induces the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells through mitochondria-mediated pathway.
Qiu, Jia-xuan; He, Yuan-qiao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ru-liang; Qin, You; Shen, Xiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Mao, Zong-fu
Many lesions in the oral cavity may present with a papillary or pebbly clinical appearance. Although the great majority of these papillary lesions are histologically diagnosed as squamous or viral papillomas, there are occasional cases of other more unusual possibilities. Angiokeratomas are uncommon vascular lesions that often present clinically as papillomas. They may also present with other varying clinical appearances that range from pigmented lesions to hemangiomas. However, all forms demonstrate a characteristic microscopic appearance consisting of hyperkeratotic, hyperplastic epithelium covering connective tissue with abundant blood vessels that are sharply confined to the connective tissue papillae. Angiokeratomas generally involve the skin and are often associated with an underlying systemic metabolic disease such as Fabry's disease or fucosidosis. Patients with these systemic diseases may have multiple lesions, with possible involvement of the oral mucosa. However, solitary lesions involving only the oral cavity are rare; only eight previous cases have been documented. In this paper, we describe a case of solitary angiokeratoma presenting as a papillary lesion on the ventral tongue of an 18-year-old male. The lesion was surgically excised and no recurrence has been reported to date. Although this patient had no other lesions or systemic issues, we stress the importance of evaluating a patient with a diagnosis of angiokeratoma of the oral cavity for underlying systemic metabolic disease. PMID:23767401
Shah, Sonal S; Kurago, Zoya B
The reconstruction of intraoral defects can be challenging due to the different characteristics of the region, importance of preserving the anatomy and function, and shortage of available donor areas. The location and size of the defect guides the reconstructive surgeon through the treatment plan. Among the options available, tongue flaps have been found useful in intraoral defect reconstruction.In this study, we presented the use of tongue flaps in different kinds of intraoral defects, and compared the advantages and disadvantages with other methods. Between 2004 and 2011, tongue flaps were used in intraoral reconstruction of 11 patients (6 male and 5 female) with a mean age of 30.1. Six patients had palatal fistula, 3 had alveolar region and mouth floor defects, and 2 had lower lip defects. All of the tongue flaps planned were anterior based, 6 dorsal and 5 ventral. Second operations were carried out on the 15th or 20th postoperative days.Despite the disadvantages of being an interpolation flap which requires a second session and good patient cooperation, tongue flap is a choice for reconstruction of intraoral defects with its highly vascular structure, good mobility, localization, texture match, and low donor area morbidity. PMID:23714924
Ceran, Candemir; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol; Sarici, Murat; Durgun, Mustafa; Tekin, Fatih
Analyzing the motion of the tongue surface provides valuable information about speech and swallowing. To analyze this motion, two-dimensional ultrasound images are acquired at video frame rates, and the tongue surface is automatically extracted and tracked. Further processing and statistical analysis of the extracted contours is made difficult by: 1) arbitrary spatial shifts and data loss resulting from ultrasound transducer positioning; 2) difference in tongue lengths over time for same utterance and across subjects; and 3) differences in the sampling locations. To address the above shortcombings, we used kriging to extrapolate and resample the tongue surface contours. Kriging was used becasue it does not lead to wild oscillations associated wiht traditional polynomial fitting. For our kriging implementation, we used the generalized covariance function and linear drift functions that are used in thin plate splines. Further, we designed a dedicated user interface called 'SURFACES' that exploits this extrapolation to visualize the contours as spatiotemporal surfaces. These spatiotemporal surfaces can be readily used for statistical comparison and visualization of tongue shapes for different utterances and swallows.
Parthasarathy, Vijay; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.
Detrimental effects of tongue fatigue on speech have been assumed to exist based on neuromotor speech disorders. However, to address whether fatigue is a contributing cause to impaired speech requires an experimental protocol with an uncomplicated population. This study induced tongue fatigue in eight neurologically normal persons and examined changes in speech perceptually and acoustically. The fatigue task consisted of repeated cycles of 6 s of sustained maximum voluntary contraction and 4 s of rest until 50% of maximum strength could not be achieved for three consecutive cycles. Participants then produced speech that was weighted heavily with lingual-palatal consonants. Perceptual analyses of the speech revealed a statistically significant deleterious effect of induced tongue fatigue on speech precision and an incomplete reversal of this effect after a recovery period. Acoustically, the first and third spectral moments (mean and skewness) of the spectral energy for /see text/, /see text/, and /see text/ differed significantly after fatigue but in directions opposite to a priori predictions. Tendencies were found for decreased stop-closure duration and increased voice onset time for /see text/ after fatigue. Supplemental analyses revealed decreased second formant (F2) frequency for /see text/ and /see text/ and flattened F2 transition for the diphthong /see text/ after fatigue. These results indicate disruption of tongue positioning and transitioning for lingual-palatal consonants during speech after prolonged strenuous tongue exercises. PMID:11193962
Solomon, N P
The influence of the palatal vault dimensions on tongue position is here studied through evaluation of the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) volume when the mandible is in maximal intercuspal position. A sample of 35 women (mean age 21.2 +/- 1.0) and 15 men (mean age 22.1 +/- 0.9) was selected. The sagittal cross-section area of the IMAC, which is modulated by the tongue position, was measured on lateral cephalograms. Dental casts were used to measure the palatal vault volume, which was defined by the occlusal plane, the hard palate and the posterior face of the second molars. Palatal vault volume allowed deduction of the IMAC volume through a rule of three procedure relating volume to area ratios. No IMAC could be calculated from cephalograms of 10 subjects who had the tongue stuck to the palate. For the 40 other subjects, the IMAC volume was 8.9 +/- 4.8 mL. It was 2 mL larger in men (n = 14) than in women (n = 26) and was the largest in skeletal Class III and the smallest in skeletal Class II (P > 0.05). IMAC volume was strongly correlated with palatal vault height but neither with palatal width nor length. It was thus assumed that the height of the palatal vault could influence the most observed position of the tongue but this does not exclude a possible growth influence of the tongue on its surrounding skeletal structures. PMID:19925581
Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Abou-El-Karam, S; Nicolas, E; Woda, A
The masticatory apparatus is a highly adaptive musculoskeletal complex comprising several relatively independent structural components, which assist in functions including feeding and breathing. We hypothesized that the tongue is elemental in the maintenance of normal ontogeny of the mandible and in its post-natal growth and development, and tested this using a morphometric approach. We assessed tongue and mandibular measurements in 174 (97 male) human cadavers. Landmark lingual and mandibular data were gathered individuals aged between 20 gestational weeks and 3 yr postnatal. In this analysis, geometric morphometrics assisted in visualizing the morphometrical growth changes in the mandible and tongue. A linear correlation in conjunction with principal component analysis further visualized the growth relationship between these structures. We found that the growth of the tongue and mandible were intrinsically linked in size and shape between 20 gestational weeks and 24 months postnatal. However, the mandible continued to change in shape and size into the 3rd yr of life, whereas the tongue only increased in size over this same period of time. These findings provide valuable insights into the allometric growth relationship between these structures, potentially assisting the clinician in predicting the behaviour of these structures in the assessment of malocclusions. PMID:24712417
Hutchinson, Erin F; Kieser, Jules A; Kramer, Beverley
Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.
Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal
Purpose To compare the outcome of our facility with another about the shortened schedule (60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions) of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer. Material and methods Eighteen patients were treated with HDR ISBT as a monotherapy in dose reduction schedule with some unique technique to determine the border of tumor accuracy (lugol's staining and metal marker), and to minimize adverse effect (lead-lined silicon block) at our facility. Results The 2-year local and regional control rates and cause-specific survival rate were 82%, 80%, and 83% and moderate to severe late complications occurred in five patients (28%), which were almost the same treatment results achieved by another facility. Conclusions We recommend 54 Gy in 9 fractions over 7 days as a feasible treatment to reduce patient discomfort in mobile tongue cancer patients.
Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Masui, Koji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Arika, Takumi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eiichi
The aim of this study is to report the effectiveness of a tongue flap for covering a large hard and soft tissue defect following cleft of the palate. A young patient diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent a surgical reconstruction of the cleft palate by Le Fort I osteotomy and palatal closure utilizing a tongue flap. The flap provided sound and lasting closure after the surgery, and the patient successfully healed. Our goal is to present this unique case and highlight how postoperative results were good, safe, and predictable. We also hope to show that tongue transplantation as flap for hard and soft tissue reconstruction represents a valuable option in reconstruction, given the proper circumstances. PMID:23714900
Herford, Alan S; Tandon, Rahul; Pivetti, Luca; Cicciù, Marco
Compression of a chew toy during regular play activity can create a vacuum effect eventually causing entrapment of oral tissues. Two cases of tongue entrapment are described, which resulted in severe tissue swelling, oedema and vascular obstruction. In the first dog, the toy was removed by the veterinary surgeon under general anaesthesia. Damage to the tongue proved to be reversible and the dog recovered uneventfully. In the second patient, the toy was forcefully removed by the owner. The resulting tongue necrosis required partial amputation. Treatment of this emergency condition consists of elimination of the negative pressure inside the toy by piercing it or even by insufflation of positive pressure inside the toy, and of an atraumatic manipulation to prevent further damage to the compromised tissues. PMID:21029100
Rubio, A; Van Goethem, B; Verhaert, L
Altering dopamine synaptic transmission can affect both cranial and limb sensorimotor function, but often to a different degree of severity. We hypothesized that haloperidol has dose-dependent but differential effects on lingual forces, lingual movement rates, and limb movement initiation. We measured average and maximal lingual force, tongue press rate and cataleptic descent time in 9 Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats in varied doses of haloperidol. Decreases in lingual force and temporal parameters and increases in cataleptic descent time were related to haloperidol dose. However, they were related to a different degree as the relationships were strong between average force and tongue press rate, moderate between maximal force and tongue press rate, moderate between average force and cataleptic descent time, and weak between maximal force and cataleptic descent time. Elucidating the relationships between the cranial and limb sensorimotor systems in the context of altered dopamine synaptic transmission may assist in developing therapies for conditions such as Parkinson's disease.
Connor, Nadine P
Introduction Age-related decreases in tongue muscle mass and strength have been reported. It may be possible to prevent age-related tongue muscle changes using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Our hypothesis was that alterations in muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain composition would be found following NMES. Methods Fifty-four young, middle-aged and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats were included. Twenty-four rats underwent bilateral electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves for 8 weeks and were compared with control or sham rats. Muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) in the genioglossus (GG), styloglossus (SG) and hyoglossus (HG) muscles were examined. Results In comparison with unstimulated control rats, we found reduced muscle fatigue, increased contraction and half decay times and increased twitch and tetanic tension. Increased Type I MHC was found, except for GG in old and middle-aged rats. Discussion Transitions in tongue muscle contractile properties and phenotype were found following NMES.
Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Kletzien, Heidi; Wang, Hao; Schaser, Allison J.; Leverson, Glen E.; Zealear, David L.
ABSTRACT Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis.
LAUS, Fulvio; ROSSI, Giacomo; PAGGI, Emanuele; BORDICCHIA, Matteo; FRATINI, Margherita; TESEI, Beniamino
Summary A protocol for in vitro propagation of Rollinia mucosa, an important medicinal plant, was developed. The presence of 500 mg l?1 polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) during explant excision was important to avoid browning. Axillary buds, adventitious buds, and\\u000a shoot cluster proliferation were achieved from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants from nursery-grown seedlings. The highest direct\\u000a organogenesis percentage from hypocotyl explants was obtained upon
Solange Faria Lua Figueiredo; Norma Albarello; Vera Regina Campos Viana
Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.
Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.
Bronchial mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained during fibreoptic bronchoscopy in 30 patients receiving a new oral cephalosporin antibiotic, cefaclor (10 had 250 mg, 10 had 500 mg, and 10 had 1000 mg every eight hours). In 10 patients (from all dosage groups) cefaclor was undetectable in the bronchial mucosa but in every case the serum concentration was low, suggesting incomplete absorption. The mean (SD) bronchial mucosal concentration after 250 mg was 3.78 (1.77) micrograms/g (range 2.1-5.8 micrograms/g, n = 4), after 500 mg 4.43 (2.04) micrograms/g (range 2.0-7.1 micrograms/g, n = 8), and after 1000 mg 7.73 (2.76) micrograms/g (range 5.0-12.7 micrograms/g, n = 6). A significantly higher concentration in the bronchial mucosa was achieved with 1000 mg than with 250 mg (p less than 0.05) or 500 mg (p less than 0.025). These concentrations should be effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae, most strains being inhibited below 1.0 microgram/ml. The concentrations were within one dilution of the minimal inhibitory concentration for Haemophilus influenzae, most strains being inhibited below 4.0 micrograms/ml. Some strains of H influenzae will not be inhibited by the concentrations of cefaclor found in the bronchial mucosa, particularly those that are ampicillin resistant.
Marlin, G E; Nicholls, A J; Funnell, G R; Bradbury, R
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which is present with acetylcholine in parasympathetic nerve fibers, may have important regulatory functions in mucous membranes. The potential roles for VIP in human nasal mucosa were studied using an integrated approach. The VIP content of human nasal mucosa was determined to be 2.84 +/- 0.47 pmol/g wet weight (n = 8) by RIA. VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found to be most concentrated in submucosal glands adjacent to serous and mucous cells. 125I-VIP binding sites were located on submucosal glands, epithelial cells, and arterioles. In short-term explant culture, VIP stimulated lactoferrin release from serous cells but did not stimulate [3H]glucosamine-labeled respiratory glycoconjugate secretion. Methacholine was more potent than VIP, and methacholine stimulated both lactoferrin and respiratory glycoconjugate release. The addition of VIP plus methacholine to explants resulted in additive increases in lactoferrin release. Based upon the autoradiographic distribution of 125I-VIP binding sites and the effects on explants, VIP derived from parasympathetic nerve fibers may function in the regulation of serous cell secretion in human nasal mucosa. VIP may also participate in the regulation of vasomotor tone. Images
Baraniuk, J N; Lundgren, J D; Okayama, M; Mullol, J; Merida, M; Shelhamer, J H; Kaliner, M A
Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of combined bipolar radiofrequency surgery of the tongue base (RFBT) and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in a single session for obstructive sleep apnea and whether this combination is safe and well tolerated. Material and methods Seventy-nine patients with obstructive sleep apnea and both palatal and retroglossal obstruction underwent UPPP with bipolar RFBT. The control group consisted of 35 patients treated by UPPP alone. Results The apnea-hypopnea index significantly decreased from 28.7 to 14.1. The oxygen desaturation index decreased from 15.1 to 10.3. Mean oxygen saturation was unchanged. Subjectively, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was significantly improved from 10.6 to 7.3, and the snoring level decreased from 8.4 to 6.0. The overall treatment success rate increased from 41.9% for UPPP alone to 51.7% for UPPP + RFBT. No serious adverse events occurred. Two patients had postoperative bleeding from the tonsillar bed after UPPP. Four patients had ulceration of the base of the tongue after RFBT with spontaneous cure. One patient had a taste change in half of the tongue that resolved within two months. Conclusions Combined bipolar RFBT and UPPP in a single session is well tolerated and safe surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. It is effective in reducing respiratory parameters and subjective symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Further advantages are a single session, simple feasibility, bipolar technique and short time of the procedure.
Zabrodsky, Michal; Kastner, Jan; Betka, Jaroslav; Klozar, Jan
Background. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but life-threatening complication of neuroleptic drugs, which are used widely in head and neck cancer (HANC) patients who develop delirium. Methods and Results. Postoperative delirium in a 39-year-old man with tongue cancer was treated with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Three days after the first administration of antipsychotics, the patient exhibited elevated body temperature, autonomic and extrapyramidal symptoms, and impaired consciousness. A definitive diagnosis was made using the research diagnostic criteria for NMS in the DSM-IV, and the antipsychotics were immediately discontinued. The patient was given dantrolene and bromocriptine to treat the NMS. The patient's hyperthermia, elevated creatinin kinase (CK), and muscle rigidity improved gradually, with all symptoms of NMS resolving completely by 13 days after the diagnosis. Conclusions. HANC surgeons must be alert for early signs of NMS and use antipsychotics conservatively to avoid NMS and its potentially fatal outcome. PMID:23853728
Baba, Osamu; Yamagata, Kenji; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Tamaoka, Akira; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Yanagawa, Toru; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki
Background. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but life-threatening complication of neuroleptic drugs, which are used widely in head and neck cancer (HANC) patients who develop delirium. Methods and Results. Postoperative delirium in a 39-year-old man with tongue cancer was treated with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Three days after the first administration of antipsychotics, the patient exhibited elevated body temperature, autonomic and extrapyramidal symptoms, and impaired consciousness. A definitive diagnosis was made using the research diagnostic criteria for NMS in the DSM-IV, and the antipsychotics were immediately discontinued. The patient was given dantrolene and bromocriptine to treat the NMS. The patient's hyperthermia, elevated creatinin kinase (CK), and muscle rigidity improved gradually, with all symptoms of NMS resolving completely by 13 days after the diagnosis. Conclusions. HANC surgeons must be alert for early signs of NMS and use antipsychotics conservatively to avoid NMS and its potentially fatal outcome.
Yamagata, Kenji; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Tamaoka, Akira; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Yanagawa, Toru; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki
A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue with advanced N3 cervical lymph node metastases in an 80-year-old female is reported. The patient was treated with a combination of radiotherapy (2 Gy/day, total 60 Gy), superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy via a superficial temporal artery and a femoral artery (docetaxel, total 124 mg; cisplatin, total 135 mg), and four sessions of hyperthermia for cervical lymph node metastases. The tumor responded well to therapy, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in both primary and neck lesions disappeared on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. The patient has shown no clinical or radiological evidence of local recurrence or distant metastases 6 years after the end of treatment. Advanced oral cancer patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases are particularly difficult to treat and have a poor prognosis. This method of thermochemoradiotherapy seems a promising modality for patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral cancer. PMID:24518725
Hiroaki, Nishiguchi; Kenji, Mitsudo; Noriyuki, Yamamoto; Iwai, Tohnai
We report the case of a child with benign partial epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECT) in whom protrusion of the tongue stopped the interictal abnormalities, and describe the polygraphic EEG recording of a seizure which terminated upon voluntary protrusion of the tongue. We mention the close link between the post-central (somatosensory) cortex and pre-central (motor) cortex, and how the primary sensory area has direct access to the motor cortex. We also examine how a tactile stimulus may provoke the inhibition of an epileptic discharge. PMID:10937156
Veggiotti, P; Beccaria, F; Gatti, A; Papalia, G; Resi, C; Lanzi, G
\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction and Aim:\\u000a The logopedic examination according to\\u000a Kittel (1998) is a method frequently used to diagnose tongue\\u000a dysfunction. There has been a lack of reliable parameters to confirm\\u000a this analysis. MR images visualize resting position and\\u000a tongue movement as well as surrounding structures relevant to\\u000a oral function. The aim of this study was to compare logopedic\\u000a and MRI
Juliane Mehnert; Helga Landau; Axel Mußler; Juliane Reinicke; Ralf Müller-Hartwich; Helmut Orawa; Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann
Lymphangioma of the tongue causes massive tongue enlargement, leading to difficulties in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, and skeletal deformities such as open-bite malocclusion. Early reduction of tongue volume improved the excessive open bite in a young girl, but it was not sufficient to redirect the original hyperdivergent growth pattern. Orthodontic camouflage treatment was therefore rendered. Long-term evaluation after tongue-reduction surgery and orthodontic treatment is presented. PMID:22554757
Chung, Chooryung J; Hwang, Soonshin; Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Ho
Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a tongue-operated, wireless assistive technology that infers its users' intentions by detecting their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them into user-defined commands. In this paper, we present the design of a low-power analog front-end (AFE) with configurable characteristics that tracks the tongue motion by reading four intraoral 3-D magnetic sensors to indicate the position of
Benoit Gosselin; Maysam Ghovanloo
Discusses use of the mother tongue in bilingual content teaching as well as in conventional foreign-language classes. The controversy over mother tongue is examined by analyzing a history lesson taught in English as a foreign language. Suggests brief use of the mother tongue can function as a learning aid to enhance communicative competence in the…
Foreign bodies in a mobile tongue are rarely presented to the laryngologist, because such bodies are commonly lodged superficially and are easily removed by the patients themselves or by general practitioners. Thus, it is rare that a foreign body totally embedded in the mobile part of the tongue presents as an enlarged tongue mass. We have described a 64-year-old female
Chao-Jung Lin; Wan-Fu Su; Chih-Hung Wang
In this research, an imaging system was built to work with a newly developed electronic device to help people produce sounds correctly. The system consists of two parts, the internal tongue contact pattern data collection and the external lip shape information analysis. The tongue position information was gathered using the palatometer, an innovative tongue contact pattern-tracking device invented by Dr.
D. J. Lee; Daniel Bates; Christopher Dromey; Xiaoqian Xu; Sameer Antani
Coordination between movements of individual tongue points, and between soft palate elevation and tongue movements, were examined in 12 prematurely born infants referred from hospital NICUs for videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) due to poor oral feeding and suspicion of aspiration. Detailed post-evaluation kinematic analysis was conducted by digitizing images of a lateral view of digitally superimposed points on the tongue
Eugene C. Goldfield; Carlo Buonomo; Kara Fletcher; Jennifer Perez; Stacey Margetts; Anne Hansen; Vincent Smith; Steven Ringer; Michael J. Richardson; Peter H. Wolff
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission.
Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan
We report a case of oral stings by spermatophores of the squid Todarodes pacificus . A 63-yr-old Korean woman experienced severe pain in her oral cavity immediately after eating a portion of parboiled squid along with its internal organs. She did not swallow the portion, but spat it out immediately. She complained of a pricking and foreign-body sensation in the oral cavity. Twelve small, white spindle-shaped, bug-like organisms stuck in the mucous membrane of the tongue, cheek, and gingiva were completely removed, along with the affected mucosa. On the basis of their morphology and the presence of the sperm bag, the foreign bodies were identified as squid spermatophores. PMID:21834723
Park, Gab-Man; Kim, Jong-Yun; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Huh, Jong-Ki
A retrospective comparative study was done between CT and MR in 23 patients with a tumor of the tongue, tongue base, or floor of the mouth. Tumor detection, delineation of tumor extent and the visualisation of enlarged lymph nodes was examined. Sixty per cent of the tumors were better visualised with MR, and in 21% supplementary information was acquired using MR. There were no significant differences between CT and MR regarding the visualisation of adenopathies. Despite the differences in tumor visualisation, the radiological staging according to the TNM-classification was not altered by MR. PMID:8045873
Hermans, R; Verwaerde, L; De Schrijver, T; Baert, A L
Topical oral sprays are frequently used to prevent and manage oropharyngeal inflammation and lesions. This study investigated\\u000a the histopathologic changes noted in the oral mucosa of mice after topical application of 3 widely prescribed antibacterial\\u000a products. The 25 animals were divided into 5 groups and treated for 10 days with 2 sprays daily, as follows: group 1—chlorhexidine\\u000a gluconate 0.12% +
Köksal Yuca; Hakan Çankaya; Írfan Bayram; Hanefí Özbek; Muzaffer Kiris
1.?The aim of this study was to determine the effects of added dietary vitamin C on the intestinal mucosa morphology in pulmonary hypertensive broiler chickens.2.?One-day-old chickens were reared at high altitude and treated with 400, 800 or 1200 mg vitamin C\\/l of drinking water for 48 d. Segments from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for morphometric analysis.3.?The duodenum
A. K. Zamani Moghaddam; H. Hassanpour; A. Mokhtari
The insertion of metal objects into intraoral and perioral sites is growing in popularity. However, there are numerous oral and dental complications associated with tongue piercing. Fifteen patients with tongue piercings (pierced in the body of the tongue, anterior to the lingual frenum) attending the dental office of the authors, with and without complaints, were clinically and radiographically examined. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of teeth. Furthermore, two cracked teeth and four teeth with cusp fractures were also seen. One case of selective dental abrasion was registered. Trauma to the lingual anterior gingiva was the most common gingival problem. A salivary flow stimulating effect was only reported by 2 of the 15 individuals. None of the patients complained of interference with speech, mastication and swallowing. One case of galvanic currents produced by the appliance was registered. On the basis of the registered data, we concluded that patients need to be better informed of the potential complications associated with tongue and oral piercings, and that the dental profession can serve this role. PMID:11202888
De Moor, R J; De Witte, A M; De Bruyne, M A
The European sea bass, a member of the Moronidae family, is a food fish, considered one of the first models for the intensive breeding in salt water. It has nowadays an important and increasing presence in the international fishing markets. Sea basses are carnivorous, feeding on little fishes and invertebrates. Considering the important role of the tongue during the intraoral transport and the swallowing of food, scarce data are present in literature about its morphology. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology of the tongue by means of scanning electron and light microscopy. Adult sea basses were obtained from the aquarium of the Sicilian Center of Experimental Ichthyiopathology of the University of Messina. The fishes were anaesthetized with MS 222 and the heads were then quickly removed and processed for the paraffin embedding and SEM processing. Three different tongue regions could be distinguished: an apex, a body, and a root. Scanning electron and light microscopy showed the presence of numerous canine-like teeth, surrounded by taste buds and numerous fungiform and conical papillae. The teeth were curved and their tips were posteriorly oriented. The results confirm, in teleosts too, the fundamental role of the tongue in the mechanics of food ingestion. Moreover, the presence of taste buds demonstrates the interaction of food processing and taste. These data could be a potential source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in the breeding of this fish. PMID:22505185
Abbate, Francesco; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Montalbano, Giuseppe; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Ciriaco, Emilia; Germanà, Antonino
7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE FOR STOCK, BUILT ON-SITE AND USED TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT
A geometric and kinematic model for describing the global shape and the predominant motions of the human tongue, to be applied in computer animation, is discussed. The model consists of a spatial configuration of moving points that form the vertices of a mesh of 9 3-D triangles. These triangles are interpreted as charge centres (the so-called skeleton) for a potential
Catherine Pelachaud; Chin Seah
The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…
We report a 60-year-old man who presented with a 2-year history of painless red raised lesions involving the tongue and scrotum. Histopathology was suggestive of angiokeratoma. Oral angiokeratomas are most commonly found as a component of the generalized systemic disorder in Fabry's disease or fucosidosis. Our patient had isolated mucosal angiokeratomas which is very rare. PMID:22707780
Pahwa, Pooja; Meena, Dilip; Tanveer, Nadeem; Sharma, Vinod K; Sethuraman, Gomathy
Tongue protrusion force and fatiguability in male and female subjects. I.L. Mortimore, P. Fiddes, S. Stephens, N.J. Douglas. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Limb and respiratory muscle (diaphragm) strength and fatiguability have been extensively studied in man and are known to vary with age and sex. However, in contrast to limb muscles and the diaphragm, force and fatiguability characteristics have
I. L. Mortimore; P. Fiddes; S. Stephens; N. J. Douglas
The chapter reports the results of a controlled experiment which suggest that foreign-language grammar instruction that forges explicit connections with the grammar of the students' mother tongue aids learning, at least as far as students' application of discrete-point grammar rules is concerned. (Contains 2 figures and 3 notes.) [This document…
Paradowski, Michal B.
The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…
Alshammari, Marzook M.
Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…
Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona
MASTER BEDROOM. NOTE THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS. VIEW FACING SOUTH - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, THREE-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
"Gift of Tongues: Passing the Ohio Mathematics Graduation Test" examines the Ohio Graduation Mathematics Tests of 2004, 2005, and 2006 in the context of bilingual test takers at one of Cleveland's high schools and reports findings from a promising, bilingual pilot project in 2007 that may point to a new strategy for passing the high-stakes test.…
Goll, Paulette S.
In 1996, the Ministry of Education in Malawi directed that in future Standards 1 to 4 would be taught through mother tongues. It took eight years before the pilot phase of the language policy could begin. The paper critically analyses this situation using Bamgbose's framework which says that, in Africa, language policies tend to follow one or more…
Kamwendo, Gregory Hankoni
The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow
Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su
The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis.
Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A.; Jiang, Rulang
Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.
Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of ghrelin administration on sulfite induced oxidative and apoptotic changes in rat gastric mucosa. Forty male albino Wistar rats were randomized into control (C), sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) treated (S), ghrelin treated (G) and, Na2S2O5+ghrelin treated (SG) groups. Sodium metabisulfite (100 mg/kg/day) was given by gastric gavage and, ghrelin (20 ?g/kg/day) was given intraperitoneally for 5 weeks. Plasma-S-sulfonate level was increased in S and SG groups. Na2S2O5 administration significantly elevated total oxidant status (TOS) levels while depleting total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in gastric mucosa. Ghrelin significantly decreased gastric TOS levels in the SG group compared with the S group. Additionally, TAS levels were found to be higher in SG group in reference to S group. Na2S2O5 administration also markedly increased the number of apoptotic cells, cleaved caspase-3 and PAR expression (PARP activity indicator) and, decreased Ki67 expression (cell proliferation index) in gastric mucosal cells. Ghrelin treatment decreased the number apoptotic cells, cytochrome C release, PAR and, caspase-3 expressions while increasing Ki67 expression in gastric mucosa exposed to Na2S2O5. In conclusion, we suggest that ghrelin treatment might ameliorate ingested-Na2S2O5 induced gastric mucosal injury stemming from apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats. PMID:23439480
Ercan, Sevim; Basaranlar, Goksun; Gungor, Nazl? Ece; Kencebay, Ceren; Sahin, P?nar; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Derin, Narin
During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies. PMID:24260566
Coquerelle, Michael; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Rojo, Rosa; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bastir, Markus
The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa.
To assess the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on radiation cystitis, clinical and histopathological characteristics\\u000a were examined. Three women with radiation cystitis were treated with HBO therapy. Macrohaematuria was arrested in all patients.\\u000a Cystoscopy demonstrated abnormal telangiectasia and inflammatory mucosa before treatment. After HBO therapy, the inflammatory\\u000a mucosae were healed. However, abnormal vessels did not completely disappear. Histopathologically, the
K. Suzuki; K. Kurokawa; T. Suzuki; H. Okazaki; N. Otake; K. Imai; H. Yamanaka
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the buccal mucosa ridging (BMR), which has been mentioned to be a clinical sign of clenching, and the viscoelastic behaviour of oral mucosa. Twenty-three people with BMR and 21 people without BMR participated as volunteers in this study. Measurements of viscoelastic behaviour were performed using a suction viscoelastic meter on central part of lower labial mucosa. A suction pressure of 300 hPa was applied for 2 s and then released for 2 s, and the time-dependent changes in the deformation of the mucosa over this 4 s were recorded as a deformation curve. Distensibility, remaining deformation and elastic recovery, which describe viscoelastic behaviour, were calculated by the deformation curve. These parameters were compared between groups with and without BMR. No significant difference was found in distensibility between the two groups (P=0·349). There were significant differences for the remaining deformation (P=0·012) and the elastic recovery (P=0·032), and the group with BMR showed higher remaining deformation and lower elastic recovery than the group without BMR. Based on these results, it clarified that the BMR is related to the mucosal viscoelastic behaviour, in particular remaining deformation and elastic recovery. PMID:21054483
Kumakura, S; Sakurai, K; Tahara, Y; Nakagawa, K
The prevalence of tongue lesions, and relationships with different systemic diseases, according to the international literature of epidemiologic studies were reviewed. The data were compared with a Hungarian investigation of 5034 individuals, between 1992 and 1995 in Budapest. Tongue lesions were found in 22.76% of the examined individuals. The ratio was similar in women (51%) and men (49%). Fissured tongue was found in 21.49%, geographic tongue in 2.21%, atrophic tongue in 0.12% and central papillar atrophy in 0.70%. These data agree in general with the epidemiological data found in the international literature. Some rare tongue alterations were also investigated. Lingua indentata was found in 1.49% and hypertrophy of papillae foliatae was found in 0.20%. The relationship with different systemic diseases was the following: In diabetes mellitus tongue lesions were found in 29.03%, in hypertension in 28.63%, connected to heart- and vascular diseases in 25.15%, to haematologic diseases in 17.54%. Tongue lesions were found in 23.86% in the case of liver disease, in 22.38% in gastrointestinal diseases and in 20.69% associated to tumors. In the case of Candida's infection tongue alterations were found in 41.6%, in smokers in 23.72%. Tongue lesions caused complaints rarely, only in 2.27%. The recognition of tongue lesions may be helpful in the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. PMID:10375851
Vörös-Balog, T; Dombi, C; Vincze, N; Bánóczy, J
Tongue movements are critical for speech, swallowing, and respiration; and tongue dysfunction could lead to dysarthria, dysphagia, and obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Our current understanding of the contributions of specific tongue muscles (TOs) to precise movement patterns is limited. Likewise, there is still little information regarding the orientation of histologic muscle fibers of the tongue in humans, especially between men and women. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the histologic organization in the tongue of men and women. Ten tongues were studied in human specimens obtained from necropsies (five men and five women). The muscles were analyzed using histology, and the morphometric parameters were measured using Image Pro-Plus Software (Image Pro-Plus 6.0; Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). Slices were obtained from the anterior, median, and posterior parts of the tongue. We classified and estimated the percentages of transverse (T), oblique (O), and longitudinal (L) fibers in the tongue. To quantify the percentage of fibers in each category in the tongue, the shape coefficient (Shape Z) was estimated. Statistical differences were found between the orientation of the muscle fibers of men and women only for the middle region of the tongue. The middle region of the tongue in women compared with men has a smaller difference in the variation of the percentage of fibers T (P = 0.0004), O (P = 0.0006), and L (P = 0.0013). These morphologic findings are probably related to physiological differences. PMID:24629642
de Campos, Deivis; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Heck, Layana; Xavier, Léder Leal
Background It is estimated that approximately 50% of stroke survivors will experience swallowing difficulty, or dysphagia. The associated sequelae of dysphagia include dehydration, malnutrition, and aspiration pneumonia, all of which have can have serious medical consequences. To improve swallowing safety and efficiency, alternative nutritional intake methods (for example, a feeding tube) or a modified diet texture (such as pureed foods or thickened liquids) may be recommended but these modifications may negatively affect quality of life. An alternative approach to treating dysphagia has emerged over the past few years, targeting stronger lingual muscles through maximal isometric pressure tasks. Although these studies have shown promising results, thin-liquid bolus control continues to be challenging for patients with dysphagia. Previous work investigating lingual pressures when healthy participants swallow has suggested that greater task specificity in lingual exercises may yield improved results with thin liquids. Methods/design This is a small, exploratory randomized clinical trial being conducted with post-stroke patients 4 to 20 weeks after onset of dysphagia secondary to impaired lingual control. At enrollment, participants are randomly assigned to one of two treatment protocols, either tongue pressure profile training (TPPT) or the control treatment, tongue pressure strength-and-accuracy training (TPSAT). Each treatment protocol consists of 24 sessions of treatment over 8 to 12 weeks with monitoring of tongue pressure as well as a baseline and outcome videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Tongue pressure measures, videofluoroscopic measures, and functional outcome measures will be obtained following training of 60 participants (30 in each condition), to determine whether TPPT yields better outcomes. Discussion This study will continue to explore options beyond tube feeding and modified diets for people with neurogenic dysphagia following stroke. Should the novel protocol, TPPT, prove to be more effective than the TPSAT protocol, this may influence standards of care and best practices for patients with dysphagia involving impaired thin-liquid control as a result of stroke. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov http://NCT01370083NCT01370083
Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms (e.g., hit the nail on the head) and participants were asked to report any information they could regarding the content of the phrase. Participants were able to correctly report individual words for idioms that they could not produce. In addition, participants produced both figurative (e.g., pretty for easy on the eye) and literal errors (e.g., hammer for hit the nail on the head) when in a TOT state, suggesting that both figurative and literal meanings are active during production. There was no effect of semantic decomposability on overall TOT incidence; however, participants recalled a greater proportion of words for decomposable rather than non-decomposable idioms. This finding suggests there may be differences in how decomposable and non-decomposable idioms are retrieved during production. PMID:23855517
Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca
It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and UC-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids.
Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.
Pannexins are a second family of gap-junction proteins in vertebrates, classified as pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3. Pannexin-1 is one of the candidates for channel-mediated ATP release into the extracellular space. In airway epithelia, ATP signaling modulates multiple cellular functions such as mucus/ion secretion and mucociliary clearance systems. However, the expression of pannexins in the upper airway has not been investigated. Nasal septal mucosae were collected from adult male Wistar rats aged 20–24 weeks. The expression of pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by whole-mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Transcripts for pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 were detected in nasal septal mucosae of adult rats by RT-PCR. Distinct immunohistochemical fluorescence for pannexin-1 was observed in the epithelial layer, whereas there was no immunoreactivity for pannexin-2 or pannexin-3. This is the first article establishing the existence of pannexins (predominantly pannexin-1) in the upper airway, suggesting their possible participation in the physiological functions of ATP release and signaling in this tissue.
Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Ohkubo, Jun-ichi; Hashida, Koichi; Koizumi, Hiroki; Wakasugi, Tetsuro; Takenaga, Fumiko
Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918
Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) seems to be the target self-antigen for endomysial antibodies in coeliac disease (CD) and to catalyse the critical deamidation of gliadin which strengthens its recognition by HLA-restricted gut-derived T cells. To date, it has not been demonstrated whether gliadin is cross-linked to tTG within the gut wall, a phenomenon known to occur in vitro. We therefore investigated the putative presence of tTG and gliadin complexes directly in duodenal mucosa. The immunoprecipitation and Western blotting experiments were performed on mucosal biopsies obtained from untreated, treated CD patients and biopsied controls, by using either anti-tTG or anti-gliadin antibodies, in both denaturating/reducing or nondenaturating/nonreducing conditions. A subset of experiments was performed by using anti-tTG antibodies purified by affinity chromatography from sera of untreated coeliac patients. The localization of tTG and gliadin was studied by immunofluorescence at confocal laser microscopy on seriate sections of diseased and normal duodenal mucosa by using the same antibodies of the coimmunoprecipitation section. The amounts of tTG and gliadin coimmunoprecipitated with anti-tTG monoclonal antibody in untreated CD mucosa were significantly increased compared to those of the other two groups. When performing the experiments in nondenaturating/nonreducing conditions, a high molecular weight band formed by both molecules, was evidenciated. Also the anti-tTG antibodies purified from patients' sera turned out to be able to coimmunoprecipitate the two molecules. The analysis by confocal microscopy showed that tTG colocalizes with gliadin at the epithelial and subepithelial levels in active CD, and only in the lamina propria of the villi in normal mucosa. Our findings firstly demonstrated that gliadin was directly bound to tTG in duodenal mucosa of coeliacs and controls, and the ability of circulating tTG-autoantibodies to recognize and immunoprecipitate the tTG-gliadin complexes.
CICCOCIOPPO, R; DI SABATINO, A; ARA, C; BIAGI, F; PERILLI, M; AMICOSANTE, G; CIFONE, M G; CORAZZA, G R
Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated.
Mravak-Stipetic, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranjcic, Josip; Knezevic, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena
Fifty healthy volunteers were studied to assess the potential applications of oral brush sampling using liquid-based cytology. Three specimens from the buccal mucosa and lateral border of tongue were collected from each subject by using cervical brushes and brooms. The brush was immersed in a preservative fluid. The sample in the preservative fluid was processed according to the manufacturer's directions (SurePath, UK). Slides were stained by the Papanicolaou method and assessed for squamous cell adequacy by the same criteria used for cervical cytology screening. Immunocytochemical staining for FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad) was applied in liquid-based preparations following the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene) and the PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR HPV Test. LBC preparation slides showed good sample preservation, specimen adequacy and visualization of cell morphology. Interestingly, nine cases showed borderline cytological abnormalities from apparently normal oral mucosa. All cases showed good quality positive FHIT immunoreactivity staining. All studied cases were high-risk HPV negative using HC2 assay method. However, the AMPLICOR Roche Test detected four samples with positive results for high-risk HPVs. Liquid-based cytology has potential as a screening tool for oral cancer and precancer. The method may also have applications for research and practice in the field of oral cancer and precancer. However a special custom-designed oral cytobrush is required. PMID:16458571
Kujan, Omar; Desai, Mina; Sargent, Alexandra; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Sloan, Philip
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are widely used to treat benign hypertension. These drugs are generally well tolerated. Serious side effects such as angio-oedema are very rare. The authors report a 64-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of liver transplant on Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, who attended Emergency department with angio-oedema only on the left side of her tongue. Her airway was patent and she was haemodynamically stable. Trauma was denied. Her physician had 2 days earlier commenced her on Lisinopril for newly diagnosed benign hypertension. Intravenous steroids and anti-histamine were immediately administered. A good response of oedema subsidence was noted. In general, angio-oedema can present in a spectrum of severity. Precipitating factors are often difficult to pre-determine and avoid. Early recognition of risk factors for and diagnosis of angio-oedema can often be life-saving. PMID:23320432
Leung, Edmund; Hanna, Marcelino Yazbek; Tehami, Nadeem; Francombe, James
Experimental evidence exists of a dose-rate effect relationship in low dose continuous irradiation of cell population. In 1952, Paterson drew from his clinical experience on radium 226 implant, a dose-time iso-effect curve. Several authors, reviewing series of squamous cell carcinomas of the mobile tongue, implanted by radium 226 or iridium 192, did not confirm Paterson's hypothesis. Recently, a retrospective analysis of T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinomas, all treated exclusively by iridium 192 at the Henri-Mondor Hospital (Créteil, France), suggested a possible dose-rate effect relationship below 1 Gy/h. However, the role of dose-rate remains unclear. Further experience is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:8703538
Mazeron, J J; Mornex, F
Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both T1N0 and T2N0, and 69% for T1-2 N1-3. Seven of 23 failures were salvaged by surgery, increasing local control to 96% for T1 and 90% for T2. Thirty-six patients developed a minor or moderate necrosis (16% T1, 28% T2). Half of these involved bone but only five required surgical intervention. Both local control (LC) and necrosis (nec) increased with increasing dose but improvement beyond 65 Gy is minimal (less than or equal to 60 Gy: LC = 78% nec = 13%; 65 Gy: LC = 90% nec = 29%; greater than or equal to 70 Gy: LC = 94% nec = 23%). For N0 patients, neck management consisted of surveillance (n = 78), elective neck dissection followed with external irradiation for pathologically positive nodes (n = 72), or irradiation (n = 3). Clinically positive nodes (13 patients) were managed by either neck dissection followed by external irradiation if pathologically positive (n = 10) or irradiation alone (n = 3). Regional control was 79% for N0 patients, improving to 88% after surgical salvage, and was 9/13 for N1-3 patients. We recommend that T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue be treated by iridium 192 implantation to deliver 65 Gy. Mandibular necrosis should be reduced by using an intra-oral lead-lined dental mold.
Mazeron, J.J.; Crook, J.M.; Benck, V.; Marinello, G.; Martin, M.; Raynal, M.; Haddad, E.; Peynegre, R.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Walop, W. (Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France))
A 15-year-old female beagle dog was presented for a lingual liposarcoma. Full staging of the disease did not show any evidence of metastasis. A tongue rotation for reconstruction after rostral hemiglossectomy was performed after removal of the mass. This surgical technique may be useful in tongue reconstruction after trauma or tumor excision.
Montinaro, Vincenzo; Boston, Sarah E.
A 78-year-old Hispanic woman with a medical history of osteoporosis, hyperlipidaemia and dyspepsia presented to a gastrointestinal clinic complaining of a small amount of rectal bleeding following bowel movements for 6 months. Colonoscopy demonstrated a 3×3 cm submucosal rectal mass. Pathological analysis revealed ulcerated colonic mucosa with diffuse proliferation suggestive of a lymphoproliferative process. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry of the specimen supported a diagnosis of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The patient was treated with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. A C-14 urea breath test confirmed eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Repeat colonoscopy showed no regression of the tumour. The patient received external beam radiation treatment. Subsequent positron emission tomography/CT scans demonstrated no evidence of viable tumour tissue and no regional or distant metastasis. Follow-up sigmoidoscopy with biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphoma. PMID:22715275
Chahil, Neetu; Bloom, Peter; Tyson, Jeremiah; Jazwari, Saad; Robilotti, James; Gaultieri, Nicholas
Glycoprotein biosynthesis by jejunal mucosa was examined during culture in vitro in 26 patients with coeliac disease and 19 controls. The incorporation rates of tritiated glucosamine into tissue and secreted glycoproteins were determined using established techniques. The total glucosamine incorporation in untreated coeliac patients was significantly greater than that of histologically normal mucosa (p less than 0.001) and jejunal tissue from patients with treated coeliac disease (p less than 0.01). Enhanced secretion of in vitro labelled glycoproteins was observed in untreated coeliac patients. The total incorporation of tritiated glucosamine in intestinal tissues was correlated with goblet cell numbers. These results indicate that quantitative changes in glycoprotein synthesis and secretion occur in coeliac disease.
Crabtree, J E; Heatley, R V; Losowsky, M S
Purpose Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. Our purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross sectional areas. Method Forty-eight young adult, middle-aged and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats received 8 weeks of tongue exercise. Protrusive tongue forces were measured before and after exercise. GG muscle fiber cross sectional area was measured in exercised rats and compared with cross sectional areas in a no-exercise control group. Results A significant increase in maximum tongue force was found following exercise in all age groups. In addition, a trend for increased GG muscle fiber cross sectional area, and a significant increase in variability of GG muscle fiber cross sectional area were identified post-exercise. Conclusion The findings of this study have implications for treatment of elderly persons with dysphagia using tongue exercise programs. Specifically, increases in tongue force that occur following 8 weeks of progressive resistance tongue exercise may be accompanied by alterations in tongue muscle fiber morphology. These changes may provide greater strength and endurance for goal-oriented actions associated with the oropharyngeal swallow and should be investigated in future research.
Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith R.
Ultrasonic imaging is used in order to detect disturbed tongue movements during swallowing and articulation. On these real-time B-mode sonographic images, which represent a median sagittal plane through the tongue and the floor of the mouth, the physician normally marks the tongue surface (dorsum) manually to stress the shape information. Our work presents a solution to extract the tongue dorsum automatically. We use a modified scale space filter for basic segmentation. This edge detector is based on coarse-to-fine tracking by varying the smoothing parameter of the Laplacian-of-Gaussian filter (LoG). In this way contour segments of the tongue dorsum and other objects are extracted. A model of the tongue supports identification of the tongue segments and interpolation of the surface in the spatiotemporal space. Some segments include two or more objects -- like liquid and tongue. This is the reason why we form the tongue as a chain of elliptical structure elements. This model stresses a direction to detect the orientation of the tongue and is flexible enough to form any shape. These structure elements are matched to the scale space segments by correlation. A trainable cost path classifier selects the topological connections of the structure elements, which are linked by a spline interpolation. Finally virtual three-dimensional views of the contour surface in the spatiotemporal space are generated with different azimuthal angles for visualization.
Kelch, Juergen; Wein, Berthold B.
The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter-bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.
Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey
We describe our experience in tongue reconstruction using the transverse gracilis myocutaneous (TMG) free flap after major demolitive surgery for advanced cancer. This technique was used in 10 patients: seven underwent total glossectomy and three partial glossectomy. In eight patients we performed motor reinnervation attempting to maintain muscular trophism and gain long-term volumetric stability. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 28 months. The overall flap survival was 100%. Nine out of 10 patients resumed oral intake. Our preliminary experience shows that this flap is a good reconstructive option for total glossectomy patients, whereas it is less suited for reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects. Functional and objective evaluation of the tongue reconstructed with TMG free flap requires further and standardized evaluation. PMID:21503974
Calabrese, Luca; Saito, Akira; Navach, Valeria; Bruschini, Roberto; Saito, Noriko; Zurlo, Valeria; Ostuni, Angelo; Garusi, Cristina
The anatomy of the tongue and floor of the mouth is readily discernible by computed tomography (CT) because of low-density fascial planes that outline the extrinsic musculature, lingual arteries, and hypoglossal nerves. Although the tongue is accessible to the examining finger, few patients can tolerate a detailed palpation. In planning for a partial glossectomy, CT scanning aids the surgeon who must be sure that the tumor is unilateral or that at least one lingual artery and one hypoglossal nerve can be preserved. The CT scans of 30 patients were reviewed for background anatomy. Pathologic changes are summarized for 16 extrinsic lesions and 11 intrinsic tumors. The status of the midline could be confirmed in 28 of the 30 patients. The fascial plane distortions by malignant intrinsic and extrinsic lesions are discussed.
Larsson, S.G.; Mancuso, A.; Hanafee, W.
Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of /t/, 13 /d/ and 11 /n/) to those produced by eight typical children (32 /t/, 24 /d/ and 16 /n/). The results showed that children with SSD had significantly higher percent contact than the typical children for target /t/; the difference for /d/ and /n/ was not significant. Children with SSD generally showed more contact in the posterior central area of the palate than the typical children. The results suggested that broader tongue-palate contact is a general articulatory feature for children with SSD and its differential effect on error perception might be related to the different articulatory requirements. PMID:23489342
Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'Donovan, Cliona
Arnold tongue structures generated due to the mutual entrainment of two periodic oscillators are studied experimentally and numerically. This mutual entrainment is provoked due to the mutual (bidirectional) coupling between the two oscillators. In experiments, this bidirectional coupling is achieved by immersing a pair of anodes (oscillators) in a common electrolytic solution. A voltage mismatch between these anodes renders the time period of the uncoupled oscillators non-identical. Moreover, the coupling strength between the two oscillators is uniquely determined by the Euclidean distance separating them. Systematically varying the distance between these two anodes as a function of their voltage mismatch, phase locked domains were located. Subsequently, Arnold tongue structures were constructed in the experiments. Numerical simulations, using a model for electrochemical corrosion, corroborate our experimental findings.
Montoya, Fernando; Rivera, M.; Escalona, J.; Parmananda, P.
Breast cancer (BC) ranks second in the cancer fatality rate among females worldwide. Mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood testing, and fine needle aspiration biopsy are usually applied to discriminate BC patients from normal persons. False-negative results, undetectable calcifications, movement-incurred blurry image, infection, and sampling error are commonly associated with these traditional means of diagnosis. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) covers a broad range of medical practices sharing common theoretical concepts. Tongue diagnosis plays an important role in TCM. Organ conditions, properties, and variation of pathogens can be revealed through observation of tongue. In light of this observation, this paper investigates discriminating tongue features to distinguish between BC patients and normal people, and establishes differentiating index to facilitate the non-invasive detection of BC. The tongue features for 60 BC patients and 70 normal persons were extracted by the Automatic Tongue Diagnosis System (ATDS). The Mann-Whitney test showed that the amount of tongue fur (P = 0.007), tongue fur in the spleen-stomach area, maximum covering area of tongue fur, thin tongue fur, the number of tooth marks, the number of red dots, red dot in the spleen-stomach area, red dot in the liver-gall-left area, red dot in the liver-gall-right area, and red dot in the heart-lung area demonstrated significant differences (P < 0.05). The tongue features of the testing group were employed to test the power of significant tongue features identified in predicting BC. An accuracy of 80% was reached by applying the seven significant tongue features obtained through Mann–Whitney test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in applying TCM tongue diagnosis to the discrimination of BC patients and normal persons.
Lo, Lun-Chien; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chiang, John Y.; Damdinsuren, Natsagdorj
Breast cancer (BC) ranks second in the cancer fatality rate among females worldwide. Mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood testing, and fine needle aspiration biopsy are usually applied to discriminate BC patients from normal persons. False-negative results, undetectable calcifications, movement-incurred blurry image, infection, and sampling error are commonly associated with these traditional means of diagnosis. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) covers a broad range of medical practices sharing common theoretical concepts. Tongue diagnosis plays an important role in TCM. Organ conditions, properties, and variation of pathogens can be revealed through observation of tongue. In light of this observation, this paper investigates discriminating tongue features to distinguish between BC patients and normal people, and establishes differentiating index to facilitate the non-invasive detection of BC. The tongue features for 60 BC patients and 70 normal persons were extracted by the Automatic Tongue Diagnosis System (ATDS). The Mann-Whitney test showed that the amount of tongue fur (P = 0.007), tongue fur in the spleen-stomach area, maximum covering area of tongue fur, thin tongue fur, the number of tooth marks, the number of red dots, red dot in the spleen-stomach area, red dot in the liver-gall-left area, red dot in the liver-gall-right area, and red dot in the heart-lung area demonstrated significant differences (P < 0.05). The tongue features of the testing group were employed to test the power of significant tongue features identified in predicting BC. An accuracy of 80% was reached by applying the seven significant tongue features obtained through Mann-Whitney test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in applying TCM tongue diagnosis to the discrimination of BC patients and normal persons. PMID:24716178
Lo, Lun-Chien; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chiang, John Y; Damdinsuren, Natsagdorj
We investigated the impact of tongue-thrusting on lingual pressure during fluid intake with a straw. In this study, 12 healthy young dentate individuals (two women and 10 men; 19-33 years) were instructed to drink 15 mL of water with a regular drinking straw at 37 °C, when indicated by the investigator. Participants drank after adjusting tongue position to one of the following patterns: (i) Holding the tip of the straw between the lips (Normal Position: NP), (ii) Sticking out the tongue to the vermilion zone of the lower lip and inserting the straw 1 cm past the front teeth (Tongue-thrusting Position: TP). Five recordings were conducted for each participant in a randomised order. To measure tongue pressure during swallowing, a specially designed 0.1-mm thick sensor sheet (Nitta, Osaka, Japan) with a tactile system for measurement of pressure distribution (I-SCAN; Nitta) was used. Duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure were analysed based on the wave of tongue pressure recorded while water was swallowed. Magnitude, duration and integrated value of tongue pressure were significantly lower in TP than in NP at the median line (Ch1-3). Magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure at the lateral part of the tongue (Ch5) were significantly lower in TP than in NP. When duration, maximal magnitude and integrated values were compared by channel, no significant differences were observed in NP, but a significant difference was found between Ch3 and the lateral areas Ch4/Ch 5 in TP. When the tongue was thrust forward, movement dynamics of the entire tongue changed and influenced contact between the tongue and palate during liquid intake with a straw. The impact was noticeably weaker on the median line than in lateral areas. PMID:24579999
Hara, M; Ishida, R; Ohkubo, M; Sugiyama, T; Abe, S
The results of endoscopic resection of intestinal mucosa for colorectal neoplasia were analyzed. There were excised 148 colorectal lesions in 116 patients.The operation was performed, using submucosal injection of adrenaline solution with indigocarmine and the loop resection technique. Endoscopic resection of intestinal mucosa together with pathologic lesion constitute a safe and effective method of treatment of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:24502004
Iakovenko, V O; Kuryk, O H
Documented cases of oral mucosa and skin affections related to amalgam restorations are rare, although the exact incidence is unknown. Lesions of the oral mucosa may be due to specific immunologic or non-specific toxic reactions toward products generated from restorations. The immunologic reaction most probably involved in mucosal affections related to amalgam is the delayed or cell-mediated (type IV) reaction.
Soybean is a product of great importance in the global economy and recognized by its great nourishing value with high protein content. In this work, a conducting polymer-based electronic tongue (ET) is employed to identify and discriminate five different soybeans cultivars with genetically distinct characteristics. Combination of electrical measurements and data analysis (PCA and PLS), permitted the ET system to discriminate the five different types of soybeans in accordance with a previous analysis performed by a human sensory panel.
Gregorut, Camila; Silva, Josemeyre B.; Wiziack, Nadja K. L.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Panizzi, Mercedes C. C.; Fonseca, Fernando J.
Objective Mast cells (MC) reside in the mucosa of the digestive tract as the first line against bacteria and toxins. Clinical evidence has implied that the infiltration of mast cells in colorectal cancers is related to malignant phenotypes and a poor prognosis. This study compared the role of mast cells in adjacent normal colon mucosa and in the invasive margin during the progression of colon cancer. Methods Specimens were obtained from 39 patients with colon adenomas and 155 patients with colon cancers treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 1999 and July 2004. The density of mast cells was scored by an immunohistochemical assay. The pattern of mast cell distribution and its relationship with clinicopathologic parameters and 5-year survival were analyzed. Results The majority of mast cells were located in the adjacent normal colon mucosa, followed by the invasive margin and least in the cancer stroma. Mast cell count in adjacent normal colon mucosa (MCCadjacent) was associated with pathologic classification, distant metastases and hepatic metastases, although it was not a prognostic factor. In contrast, mast cell count in the invasive margin (MCCinvasive) was associated with neither the clinicopathlogic parameters nor overall survival. Conclusion Mast cells in the adjacent normal colon mucosa were related to the progression of colon cancer, suggesting that mast cells might modulate tumor progression via a long-distance mechanism.
Xia, Qing; Ding, Ya; Wu, Xiao-jun; Peng, Rui-qing; Zhou, Qiang; Zeng, Jing; Hou, Jing-hui; Zhang, Xing; Zeng, Yi-xin; Zhang, Xiao-shi
An adequate reproducibility in the description of tissue architecture is still a challenge to diagnostic pathology, sometimes with unfortunate prognostic implications. To assess a possible diagnostic and prognostic value of quantitiative tissue architecture analysis, structural features based on the Voronoi Diagram (VD) and its subgraphs were developed and tested. A series of 27 structural features were developed and tested in a pilot study of 30 cases of prostate cancer, 10 cases of cervical carcinomas, 8 cases of tongue cancer and 8 cases of normal oral mucosa. Grey level images were acquired from hematoxyline-eosine (HE) stained sections by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera mounted on a microscope connected to a personal computer (PC) with an image array processor. From the grey level images obtained, cell nuclei were automatically segmented and the geometrical centres of cell nuclei were computed. The resulting 2-dimensional (2D) swarm of pointlike seeds distributed in a flat plane was the basis for construction of the VD and its subgraphs. From the polygons, triangulations and arborizations thus obtained, 27 structural features were computed as numerical values. Comparison of groups (normal vs. cancerous oral mucosa, cervical and prostate carcinomas with good and poor prognosis) with regard to distribution in the values of the structural features was performed with Student's t-test. We demonstrate that some of the structural features developed are able to distinguish structurally between normal and cancerous oral mucosa (P = 0.001), and between good and poor outcome groups in prostatic (P = 0.001) and cervical carcinomas (P = 0.001). We present results confirming previous findings that graph theory based algorithms are useful tools for describing tissue architecture (e.g., normal versus malignant). The present study also indicates that these methods have a potential for prognostication in malignant epithelial lesions. PMID:11310643
Sudbø, J; Marcelpoil, R; Reith, A
Desirable characteristics of a vocal-tract parametrization include accuracy, low dimensionality, and generalizability across speakers and languages. A low-dimensional, speaker-independent linear parametrization of vowel tongue shapes can be obtained using the PARAFAC three-mode factor analysis procedure. Harshman et al. applied PARAFAC to midsagittal x-ray vowel data from five English speakers, reporting that two speaker-independent factors are required to accurately represent the tongue shape measured along anatomically normalized vocal-tract diameter grid lines. Subsequently, the cross-linguistic generality of this parametrization was brought into question by the application of PARAFAC to Icelandic vowel data, where three nonorthogonal factors were reported. This solution is shown to be degenerate; a reanalysis of Jackson`s Icelandic data produces two factors that match Harshman et al.`s factors for English vowels, contradicting Jackson`s distinction between English and Icelandic language-specific `articulatory primes.` To obtain vowel factors not constrained by artificial measurement grid lines, x-ray tongue shape traces of six English speakers were marked with 13 equally spaced points. PARAFAC analysis of this unconstranied (x,y) coordinate data results in two factors that are clearly interpretable in terms of the traditional vowel quality dimensions front/back, high/low. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Nix, D.A.; Papcun, G.; Hogden, J.; Zlokarnik, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
Among the parts of the human tongue surface, the sublingual vein is one of the most important ones which may have pathological relationship with some diseases. To analyze this information quantitatively, one primitive work is to extract sublingual veins accurately from tongue body. In this paper, a hyperspectral tongue imaging system instead of a digital camera is used to capture sublingual images. A hidden Markov model approach is presented to extract the sublingual veins from the hyperspectral sublingual images. This approach characterizes the spectral correlation and the band-to-band variability using a hidden Markov process, where the model parameters are estimated by the spectra of the pixel vectors forming the observation sequences. The proposed algorithm, the pixel-based sublingual vein segmentation algorithm, and the spectral angle mapper algorithm are tested on a total of 150 scenes of hyperspectral sublingual veins images to evaluate the performance of the new method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can extract the sublingual veins more accurately than the traditional algorithms and can perform well even in a noisy environment. PMID:21030208
Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Guan, Yana; Xu, Liang
The ganglioside and neutral glycosphingolipid composition of fetal and adult sheep colonic mucosa were characterized and compared. Mono- and tetrahexosylceramide were the major neutral glycolipids of both fetal and adult colons. Adult, but not fetal, mucosa also possessed di- and trihexosylceramide. Similarly, GD1a, GM3 and GM2 were found to be the principal gangliosides in fetal and adult tissue. Adult colonic mucosa possessed significant amounts of GT1a not present in fetal tissue. Analysis of the hydroxy and nonhydroxy fatty acids as well as of the long chain bases of the major glycosphingolipids revealed differences between these lipophilic components of glycolipids in fetal and adult colonic mucosa. The present results, therefore, indicate that both quantitative and qualitative differences in glycosphingolipid composition exist between fetal and adult sheep colonic mucosa. PMID:4021741
Dahiya, R; Brasitus, T A
A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis treated by tocilizumab (TCZ) presented with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. While surgery was performed without any complications the aspiration pneumonia rapidly worsened by postoperative day 2 and severe pulmonary suppuration in the right lung field with infection-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was diagnosed. Antibiotic and respirator treatment improved her condition. The anti-inflammatory effect of TCZ may mask the symptoms and signs of severe infection with SIRS.
Yamagata, Kenji; Shimojo, Nobutake; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ijima, Junya; Hasegawa, Shogo; Yanagawa, Toru; Mizutani, Taro; Bukawa, Hiroki
We present a case of unresectable cancer of the base of tongue treated with hypofractionated 3D conformal radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy. Based on the excellent tumour response in this radiotherapy regimen and international experience in short course treatments we shortly reviewed, we propose that this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting for patients unsuitable for the a standard long course radiochemotherapy schedule.
Kalogeridi, Maria-Aggeliki; Kouloulias, Vassilios; Zygogianni, Anna
Twenty-seven patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and floor of the mouth were treated with external beam and interstitial radiation. Good prognostic factors were T1N0, T2N0, superficial tumors, tumor shrinkage by 75% with external beam, and no apparent tumor clinically 2 months after treatment. On the other hand, T3N0, T1-3N1, and deeply necrotic tumors had a poor
Brace L. Hintz; A. Robert Kagan; Paul Chan; Aroor R. Rao; Herman Nussbaum; Monica C. Ryoo; Myron Wollin
In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.
Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.
The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however, it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologues of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans. PMID:23360412
Xie, Fang; D'Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin
The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologs of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa, and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal-mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal-mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal-mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN, and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans.
Xie, Fang; D'Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin
A tongue flap is frequently used for closure of fistulae following cleft palate repair. Early tongue flap dehiscence is a troublesome complication. While the tongue flap is a very effective means of functionally obliterating the transpalatal oronasal opening, the final appearance of the repair leaves much to be desired. More often than not, the tongue tissue appears bulky and unnatural in the roof of the mouth. A method is described that overcomes the problem of flap detachment during the early postoperative period by suspending and supporting the tongue pedicle with a palatal sling. On peroral view, the repaired area has a better appearance when the tongue flap lines the nasal side rather than the oral side as in conventional procedures. PMID:2253388
Argamaso, R V
Introduction This article presents the case of a 26-year-old woman with tongue cancer. The median age at the diagnosis of the tongue’s cancer is 61?years. Only approximately 2% of patients are diagnosed before the age of 35. Case presentation Our patient survived acute myeloid leukemia (AML) before her second year. She had been having recurrent, poorly healing aphtae on the right side of the tongue for a period of months before the symptoms of the tongue cancer appeared. As a treatment a partial glossectomy was conducted on the right side and a neck dissection of levels I-III. Than a reconstruction of the tongue with a radialis free vascularised flap from left side was performed. Discussion It should be always looked for the causal factor in young patients with a neoplasm. There is strong evidence for second malignant neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer.
The authors describe a previously unreported clinical sign that may indicate the onset of significant compression of the medulla oblongata in cases of craniovertebral junction abnormalities. This 17-year-old boy presented with mild bilateral leg weakness. Imaging studies revealed severe basilar invagination and a marked Chiari malformation. While awaiting surgery, his tongue developed an involuntary constant protrusion-intrusion repetitive motion. The onset of this so-named "trombone tongue" sign was followed shortly afterward by rapidly progressive spastic tetraparesis. After the authors performed a transmaxillary clivectomy, foramen magnum decompression, and occipitocervical fusion, they noted that the abnormal tongue motion promptly resolved and the tetraparesis gradually improved. The authors discuss their current understanding of the central control of tongue movements and present a hypothesis on the pathogenesis of trombone tongue based on the neuroanatomical basis of another abnormal tongue movement sign, lingual myoclonus. PMID:17176022
Lee, Cheong H; Casey, Adrian T H; Allibone, James B; Chelvarajah, Ramesh
Measuring the internal muscular motion and deformation of the tongue during natural human speech is of high interest to head and neck surgeons and speech language pathologists. A pipeline for calculating 3D tongue motion from dynamic cine and tagged Magnetic Resonance (MR) images during speech has been developed. This paper presents the result of a complete analysis of eleven subjects’ (seven normal controls and four glossectomy patients) global tongue motion during speech obtained through MR imaging and processed through the tongue motion analysis pipeline. The data is regularized into the same framework for comparison. A generalized two-step principal component analysis is used to show the major difference between patients’ and controls’ tongue motions. A test is performed to demonstrate the ability of this process to distinguish patient data from control data and to show the potential power of quantitative analysis that the tongue motion pipeline can achieve.
Xing, Fangxu; Murano, Emi Z.; Lee, Junghoon; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.
Objective tongue color analysis is an important research point for tongue diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this paper a research based on the clinical process of diagnosing tongue color is reported. The color data in RGB color space were first transformed into the data in CIELAB color space, and the color gamut of the displayed tongue was obtained. Then a numerical method of tongue color classification based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (for example: light white tongue, light red tongue, red tongue) was developed. The conclusion is that this research can give the description and classification of the tongue color close to those given by human vision and may be carried out in clinical diagnosis.
Li, Bocong; Huang, Qingmei; Lu, Yan; Chen, Songhe; Liang, Rong; Wang, Zhaoping
Anteriorly based dorsal tongue flaps are the most commonly used flaps for closure of difficult palatal fistulae. The author presents a patient in whom the palatal defect was thought to be too big to be closed by the standard tongue flap. The tongue tip was divided into equal dorsal and ventral flaps, and both flaps were used to reconstruct the palatal defect. Technical considerations, and advantages and disadvantages of the procedure are discussed. PMID:11601587
Al-Qattan, M M
The posteriorly based tongue flap can be very useful to close difficult palatal fistulas, especially because the palatal sling prevents dehiscence of the tongue flap. However, special techniques may need to be employed with very large palatal fistulas or severely scarred palates. This technique has been used successfully in 5 patients. A detailed case report is presented, for which refinements of the tongue flap technique was required. PMID:8324083
Barone, C M; Argamaso, R V
Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers userspsila intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the
Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo
Half-smooth tongue sole females grow larger and faster than males. An all-female population would be of significant benefit for tongue sole aquaculture. In the present study, a female-specific AFLP marker (CseF305) was isolated from female genomic DNA of the tongue sole and sequenced. One pair of SCAR primers was designed based on the sequences of the female-specific marker. A PCR
Song-Lin Chen; Si-Ping Deng; Hong-Yu Ma; Yong-Sheng Tian; Jian-Yong Xu; Jing-Feng Yang; Qing-Yin Wang; Xiang-Shan Ji; Chang-Wei Shao; Xian-Li Wang; Peng-Fei Wu; Han Deng; Jie-ming Zhai
Tongue body segmentation is a prerequisite to tongue image analysis and has recently received considerable attention. The existing tongue body segmentation methods usually involve two key steps: edge detection and active contour model (ACM)-based segmentation. However, conventional edge detectors cannot faithfully detect the contour of the tongue body, and the initialization of ACM suffers from the edge discontinuity problem. To address these issues, we proposed a novel tongue body segmentation method, GaborFM, which initializes ACM by performing fast marching over the two-dimensional (2D) Gabor magnitude domain of the tongue images. For the enhancement of the contour of the tongue body, we used the 2D Gabor magnitude-based detector. To cope with the edge discontinuity problem, the fast marching method was utilized to connect the discontinuous contour segments, resulting in a closed and continuous tongue body contour for subsequent ACM-based segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative results showed that GaborFM is superior to the other methods for tongue body segmentation.
Cui, Zhenchao; Zhang, Hongzhi; Zhang, David; Li, Naimin; Zuo, Wangmeng
Due to its location and functions, the tongue is one of the most important anatomic structures in the oral cavity. However, knowledge in regards to its role and implications in oral health and disease is scarce. Moreover, although the dorsum of the tongue seems to harbour one of the most complex microbiological niches in human ecology, the knowledge of the role of tongue flora in health and disease is also very limited. Similarly, the nature of the tongue coating and the factors that influence its development and composition are almost unknown. The interest in the study of the tongue niche has increased in recent years due to its association with oral halitosis and to its role as a suitable reservoir for periodontal pathogens. The structure of the tongue favours a unique and complex bacterial biofilm, in which periodontal pathogens are frequently found. However, little is known about how to control this bacterial niche, and factors affecting tongue coating composition and aspect are not fully understood. Studies available on the influence of mechanical or antimicrobial approaches against tongue biofilm are very limited. Mechanical treatments showed a transient reduction in halitosis-related variables but were limited in time. Different antimicrobials agents have been evaluated: chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, metal ions, triclosan, formulations containing essential oils, and hydrogen peroxide. However, most studies were designed as short-term models. Some of these studies demonstrated that the reduction in halitosis-related variables was associated with significant changes in the tongue microflora. PMID:14513303
Roldán, S; Herrera, D; Sanz, M
Tongue structure and position as well as oral cavity volume were analyzed by means of multispiral CT in 82 cleft lip and palate patients and 27 healthy children. The study revealed microglossia and anomalous position and form of the tongue causing tongue tip to be pressed to the incisal part of the lower alveolar bone not exerting physiological impact on the upper alveolar bone. These results confirm the tongue position to be one of the factors for occlusion abnormalities in cleft lip and palate patients. PMID:23011337
Nadtochi?, A G; Starikova, N V; Fomina, G I
Although dysphagia is a life-threatening problem in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the pathophysiology of oral stage dysphagia is yet to be understood. The present study investigated the tongue motor deficit during swallowing in patients with DMD and its relationship with disease-specific palatal morphology. Tongue pressure during swallowing water was recorded in 11 male patients with DMD and 11 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects using an intra-oral sensor with five measuring points, and the state of tongue pressure production was compared between the groups. Palatal morphology was assessed by a non-contact three-dimensional scanner on maxillary plaster models. In patients with DMD, the normal sequential order of tongue-palate contact was lost and the maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure on the mid-anterior part of palate were smaller than those in healthy subjects. The width of the palate in patients was greater than that in healthy subjects and the depth of the palate in patients had a negative correlation with tongue pressure magnitude on the median palate. Our results suggested that the deteriorated tongue motor kinetics prevented tongue movement during swallowing that was appropriate for the depth of the palate and affects the state of tongue pressure production during swallowing. PMID:24684858
Hamanaka-Kondoh, Sato; Kondoh, Jugo; Tamine, Ken-Ichi; Hori, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Yasui, Kumiko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo; Ono, Takahiro
The dorsal lingual surfaces of adult owl (Strix uralensis) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The length of the tongue was about 2 cm. The tip of the tongue of the owl was bifid. Three parts were distinguished in the tongue of the owl: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was a very wide area. There were thread-shaped processes/cells of epithelium in the lingual apex. The small or large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root. PMID:19032633
Emura, S; Chen, H
The objective of the study was to evaluate a surgical method to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) caused by suspected glossoptosis. Seventy-eight patients with OSAHS caused by suspected glossoptosis were non-randomly divided into two groups. The 45 patients in the first group received uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and tongue-base suspension (Repose). The 33 patients in the second group received UPPP alone. Follow-up was conducted over 6 months, and polysomnography was used to determine the effects of treatment. Follow-up results revealed that the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and ESS scores of the patients from both groups were substantially decreased compared to the corresponding values before surgery. The lowest oxygen saturation (LaSo2) of both groups was improved, compared to the level before surgery. The degree of improvement in patients treated with UPPP + Repose was significantly greater than that seen in patients treated with UPPP alone. In the UPPP + Repose group, 17 patients were cured, 23 showed marked improvement, and 5 did not improve. In the UPPP alone group, 1 patient was cured, 16 showed marked improvement, and 16 did not improve. The marked improvement rates of the two groups were 88.9 and 51.5 %, respectively, a significant difference. Patients who show glossopharyngeal obstruction during sleep, and have normal glossopharyngeal airway morphology when awake, should be suspected to have glossoptosis. Repose surgery is an effective operation for the patients with OSAHS suspected glossoptosis. PMID:23649508
Li, Shuhua; Wu, Dahai; Shi, Hongjin
Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2?weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a ‘standard care’ comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5?days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8?weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcome—Latch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5?days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8?weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8?weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5?days.
Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.
Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. [Department of ENT, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, E.Y.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A.-J. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.T.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Collagen fibre organisation and fibril size were studied in the buccal gingival and hard palate mucosa of Macacus rhesus monkey. Light and electron microscopy analysis showed connective papillae exhibiting a similar inner structure in the different areas examined, but varying in distribution, shape and size. Moving from the deep to surface layers of the buccal gingival mucosa (free and attached portions), large collagen fibril bundles became smaller and progressively more wavy with decreasing collagen fibril diameter. This gradual diameter decrease did not occur in the hard palate mucosa (free portion, rugae and interrugal regions) where the fibril diameter remained constant. A link between collagen fibril diameter and mechanical function is discussed.
OTTANI, V.; FRANCHI, M.; DE PASQUALE, V.; LEONARDI, L.; MOROCUTTI, M.; RUGGERI, A.
Single field, fixed irradiation of bilateral tympanic cavities using 200-kV x-rays was administered to five guinea pigs. The irradiation dose was 30 Gy. They were killed immediately after irradiation, and bilateral middle ear mucosa was examined for ciliary activity and epithelial structure. Significant deterioration of the ciliary activity in the middle ear mucosa was observed, proximal as well as distal to the eustachian tube. Electron microscopy showed various changes in the irradiated middle ear mucosa. The most conspicuous findings were hyperreactivity in secretion, vacuolation of ciliated cells, and stomal edema.
Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Esaki, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Onoyama, Y.
A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice.
QIAN, YU; ZHU, KAI; WANG, QIANG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHAO, XIN
Leptospirosis caused by drinking water has not been as frequently reported as percutaneous infection. Resistance to oral infection by pathogenic Leptospira was examined in an experimental hamster infection model. The results suggested some natural defenses against oral infection by Leptospira. First, we found that characteristic linear agglutination of Leptospira rapidly occurs when mixed with human saliva. That human saliva attenuated the infectivity of the treated leptospires by its agglutination activity suggested saliva to be the first line of defense against oral infection by leptospires. Second, only 10(1) Leptospira organisms caused death after submucosal injection into oral mucosa in hamsters, but oral infection with drinking water containing 10(5) organisms/mL did not cause death. This result showed that the mucosa plays the role of a physical barrier. Third, hamsters intragastrically infected by leptospires, with doses lethal to hamsters in oral infection, showed no signs of illness, which suggested that gastric acid plays an important role in preventing oral infection. Based on these results, saliva, mucosa, and gastric acid make up a natural defense, which confers high resistance to hosts against oral infection by leptospires. PMID:24861456
Asoh, Tatsuma; Saito, Mitsumasa; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi
Dexamethasone cipecilate (DX-CP, 9-fluoro-11?,17,21-trihydroxy-16?-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-cyclohexanecarboxylate 17-cyclopropanecarboxylate) is a novel synthetic corticosteroid used to treat allergic rhinitis. The pharmacological effect of DX-CP is considered to be mainly due to its active de-esterified metabolite (DX-17-CPC). To investigate the in vitro metabolism of DX-CP in human liver, DX-CP was incubated with human liver microsomes and S9. In addition, a metabolism study of DX-CP with human nasal mucosa was carried out in order to elucidate whether DX-17-CPC is formed in nasal mucosa, the site of action of DX-CP. DX-17-CPC was the major metabolite in both liver microsomes and S9. Two new epoxide metabolites, UK1 and UK2, were detected in liver S9, while only UK1 was detected in liver microsomes. This suggests that cytosol enzymes are responsible for the formation of UK2. In human nasal mucosa, DX-CP was mainly transformed into DX-17-CPC. By using recombinant human carboxylesterases (CESs), the reaction was shown to be catalyzed by CES2. These results provide the evidence that the active metabolite DX-17-CPC is the main contributor to the pharmacological action after the intranasal administration of DX-CP to humans. PMID:21657966
Sasagawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tsujioka, Tomoo; Takahashi, Yousuke; Kawakita, Naoko; Nonaka, Kiyoko; Nakamura, Akio
Objective: The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test. Results: The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336). Conclusion: Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.
Heravi, Farzin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Merati, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Ahrari, Farzaneh
To investigate interrelations of human obligate airway pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, and their hosts test systems with high in vitro/in vivo correlation are of urgent need. Using a tissue engineering approach, we generated a 3D test system of the airway mucosa with human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (hTEC) and fibroblasts seeded on a clinically implemented biological scaffold. To investigate if hTEC display tumour-specific characteristics we analysed Raman spectra of hTEC and the adenocarcinoma cell line Calu-3. To establish optimal conditions for infection studies, we treated human native airway mucosa segments with B. pertussis. Samples were processed for morphologic analysis. Whereas our test system consisting of differentiated epithelial cells and migrating fibroblasts shows high in vitro/in vivo correlation, hTEC seeded on the scaffold as monocultures did not resemble the in vivo situation. Differences in Raman spectra of hTEC and Calu-3 were identified in distinct wave number ranges between 720 and 1662 cm(-1) indicating that hTEC do not display tumour-specific characteristics. Infection of native tissue with B. pertussis led to cytoplasmic vacuoles, damaged mitochondria and destroyed epithelial cells. Our test system is suitable for infection studies with human obligate airway pathogens by mimicking the physiological microenvironment of the human airway mucosa. PMID:24912816
Steinke, Maria; Gross, Roy; Walles, Heike; Gangnus, Rainer; Schütze, Karin; Walles, Thorsten
Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa. PMID:23422613
Krishnan, P Anitha
In this study a minimally invasive microsurgical approach was used for laser patterned microcoagulation (LPM) to initiate gingival and oral mucosal tissue regeneration. We performed a feasibility assessment and histological examination of laser damage and regeneration in the gingiva and oral mucosa using an animal model. The study animals comprised 18 healthy rabbits which were treated in vivo with single pulses from a diode laser at a wavelength of 980 nm and a power of up to 20 W applied to the gingival and oral mucosa at multiple time points. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, nitroblue tetrazolium chloride and picrosirius red, and evaluated by two pathologists blinded to the parameters and date of laser exposure. Histological analysis revealed that the continuity of the epithelial basal cell layer had been reestablished by 1-2 days after LPM, and complete epithelial regeneration had occurred by 7-12 days. A pronounced reactive inflammation developed in the column area 1 day after treatment. High activity of fibroblasts producing new collagen participated in the formation of a network of new thin-wall blood vessel. By the 28th day the tissue structure was almost completely restored with a similar increase of vascularity, and there were no signs of scarring. By the 90th day, tissue structure was completely restored, indicating complete healing. A single LPM treatment induces a wound healing response in the oral mucosa, showing the potential of LPM for the initiation of oral mucosa and gingival regeneration. Complete healing observed in 3 months after treatment with no keratinization change or scar tissue formation. PMID:22322393
Romanos, Georgios E; Gladkova, Natalia D; Feldchtein, Felix I; Karabut, Maria M; Kiseleva, Elena B; Snopova, Lyudmila B; Fomina, Yulia V
Background To provide an alternative motor modality for control, navigation, and communication in individuals suffering from impairment or disability in hand functions, a Tongue Drive System (TDS) has been developed that allows for real time tracking of tongue motion in an unobtrusive, wireless, and wearable device that utilizes the magnetic field generated by a miniature disk shaped magnetic tracer attached to the tip of the tongue. The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of a concurrent motor or cognitive task on various aspects of simple movement control between hand and tongue using the TDS technology. Methods Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed rapid and slow goal-directed movements of hand and tongue (with TDS) with and without a concurrent motor (hand or tongue) or cognitive (arithmetic and memory) task. Changes in reaction time, completion time, speed, correctness, accuracy, variability of displacement, and variability of time due to the addition of a concurrent task were compared between hand and tongue. Results The influence of an additional concurrent task on motor performance was similar between the hand and tongue for slow movement in controlling their displacement. In rapid movement with a concurrent motor task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in hand, while tongue speed during rapid continuous task was maintained. With a concurrent cognitive task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in tongue, while hand accuracy during the rapid discrete task and hand speed during the rapid continuous task were maintained. Conclusion Rapid goal-directed hand and tongue movements were more consistently susceptible to interference from concurrent motor and cognitive tasks, respectively, compared with the other movement.
We report on a new-born with a congenital mucocele on the anterior dorsal side of the tongue. The presentation as well as the differential diagnosis of congenital oral swellings is discussed. Because of breastfeeding problems the mucinous swelling was incised and drained two days after birth. Immediately after drainage the swelling disappeared. Congenital oral swellings are rare. Most of them are mucoceles. Post-partum treatment is surgically, but spontaneous remission has been described. High incidence of recurrence should be taken into account when (micro-)marsupialization or incision as sole treatment is performed. PMID:24814234
Wong Chung, J E R E; Ensink, R J H; Thijs, H F H; van den Hoogen, F J A
Granular cell tumor, an uncommon neoplasm, can occur at any site in the body, but they are more commonly observed in the head and neck region, especially the oral cavity. A lesion of controversial origin, this entity has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of swellings of the tongue. Immunohistochemical findings obtained in the present case also render support for the neural histogenetic origin for this tumor. Though commonly observed in the fourth to sixth decades of life, we present this case in a 9-year-old female patient.
Suchitra, G; Tambekar, Kaustubh N; Gopal, Kango Prasad
Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.
Bhatia, Sarabjot Kaur; Goyal, Ashima; Kapur, Aditi
Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the…
Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana
Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…
Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.
Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids: water,…
Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…
Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne
Biomechanical properties of the human tongue are needed for finite element models of the upper airway and may be important to elucidate the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apneoa. Tongue viscoelastic properties have not been characterized previously. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging imaging technique that can measure the viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in-vivo. In this study, MRE was
S. Cheng; S. C. Gandevia; M. Green; R. Sinkus; L. E. Bilston
The prevalence of abnormal (retracted) position of the tongue at rest was examined in subjects with varying number of natural lower teeth. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between tongue retraction and state of dentition and to identify potentially related parameters. The resting tongue positions were recorded in subjects partially edentulous in the lower jaw (n = 164) and compared with those met in dentate (n = 57) and completely edentulous participants (n = 84). Potentially related parameters, such as age, sex, duration of edentulism, palate vault and signs of temporomandibular disorders were also recorded. Tongue retraction was observed in a small percentage (12.3%) of the dentate, almost half (45.7%) of the partially edentulous and in the majority (67.8%) of the completely edentulous participants. The number of natural lower teeth correlated with the resting tongue position in the partially edentulous group. The tongue position at rest was also found weakly related to signs of temporomandibular disorders in the dentate group and to the sex and duration of edentulism in the partially edentulous group. It was concluded that the abnormal positioning of the resting tongue is increasingly observed with decreasing number of natural teeth, possibly in accordance with the morphological and functional alterations that result from teeth loss. The presence of a retracted tongue affects the complete denture construction; however, its effect on denture function remains questionable. PMID:15899017
Kotsiomiti, E; Farmakis, N; Kapari, D
Methods for measuring tongue volume and the capacity of the oral cavity proper were devised. Analysis of the data on 25 females with normal occlusion revealed that the tongue volume significantly correlated with the capacity of the oral cavity proper and the depth of the floor of the mouth.
K. Takada; M. Sakuda; K. Yoshida; Y. Kawamura
Coordination between movements of individual tongue points, and between soft palate elevation and tongue movements, were examined in 12 prematurely born infants referred from hospital NICUs for videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) due to poor oral feeding and suspicion of aspiration. Detailed post-evaluation kinematic analysis was conducted by digitizing images of a lateral view of digitally superimposed points on the tongue and soft palate. The primary measure of coordination was continuous relative phase of the time series created by movements of points on the tongue and soft palate over successive frames. Three points on the tongue (anterior, medial, and posterior) were organized around a stable in-phase pattern, with a phase lag that implied an anterior to posterior direction of motion. Coordination between a tongue point and a point on the soft palate during lowering and elevation was close to anti-phase at initiation of the pharyngeal swallow. These findings suggest that anti-phase coordination between tongue and soft palate may reflect the process by which the tongue is timed to pump liquid by moving it into an enclosed space, compressing it, and allowing it to leave by a specific route through the pharynx.
Goldfield, Eugene C.; Buonomo, Carlo; Fletcher, Kara; Perez, Jennifer; Margetts, Stacey; Hansen, Anne; Smith, Vincent; Ringer, Steven; Richardson, Michael J.; Wolff, Peter H.
There has been presented a possibility of application of ultrasound examination of the tongue in the diagnosis and phoniatric rehabilitation exemplified by exposing shapes of the lateral surface of the tongue during correct articulation of the Polish vowels and articulatory exercises in the system of visual feedback in a normally hearing child and in a deaf one. PMID:2067857
Wein, B; Böckler, R; Klajman, S; Obrebowski, A
A study was conducted to further evaluate an electronic tongue, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical (EC) and UV detection as a reference method. The electronic tongue consisted of four working electrodes made of different metals and arranged in a standard three-electrode configuration. Pulses of voltage were applied to the metals, and the current responses were sampled and collected
C. Söderström; H. Borén; C. Krantz-Rülcker
Flow field inside multi-blade centrifugal fan is calculated by Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation, and the results showed that the backflow area close to front disc below the worm tongue is an important factor for influencing fan noise. Aiming at this area, changing radian and longitudinal offset of worm tongue is used to reduce the range of backflow area. And then many
Guodan Liu; Rui Zhou
Due to its location and functions, the tongue is one of the most important anatomic structures in the oral cavity. However, knowledge in regards to its role and implications in oral health and disease is scarce. Moreover, although the dorsum of the tongue seems to harbour one of the most complex microbiological niches in human ecology, the knowledge of the
S. Roldán; D. Herrera; M. Sanz
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…
Purpose: This investigation aimed to examine the development of tongue-jaw coordination during speech from childhood to adolescence. Method: Electromagnetic articulography was used to track tongue and jaw motion in 48 children and adults (aged 6-38 years) during productions of /t/ and /k/ embedded in sentences. Results: The coordinative…
Cheng, Hei Yan; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Goozee, Justine V.; Scott, Dion
This paper considers the real mother tongues of Singapore, namely the Chinese "dialects" and Singlish, the linguistic varieties which, respectively, arrived with the original immigrants to the rapidly developing British colony, and evolved in the dynamic multilingual ecology over the decades. Curiously these mother tongues have been regarded with…
Background: A linguistic mismatch between school and community creates problems in both access to school services and the quality of those services. Consideration of mother tongue is the key for making schools more inclusive for girls. Purpose: To argue that education in mother tongue results in making schools more inclusive for disadvantaged…
Online Submission, 2005
The article addresses the long-standing issue over the role of the mother tongue in the foreign language classroom. In the first part it is argued that the mother tongue lays the cognitive foundations for all subsequent language learning. Double comprehension as the basic requirement for learning to take place is explained. The second part is…
This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…
Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…
Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal
Purpose: To investigate the developmental time course of tongue-to-palate contact patterns during speech from childhood to adulthood using electropalatography (EPG) and a comprehensive profile of data analysis. Method: Tongue-to-palate contacts were recorded during productions of /t/, /l/, /s/, and /k/ in 48 children, adolescents and adults (aged…
Cheng, Hei Yan; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Goozee, Justine V.; Scott, Dion
Objectives To examine the importance of midline involvement and other clinicopathological factors in predicting the rate of contralateral lymph node metastasis and survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We used SEER data to identify a cohort of 5430 patients with laterally rising tumors. Clinicopathological factors examined as potentially predictive of contralateral lymph node metastasis included extension to midline, T classification, anatomical site, grade, histological sub-type, race, age, and gender. Survival analysis included the above factors plus lymph node status. Results T1 tumors and lateral T2 and T3 tumors had rates of contralateral lymph node metastasis ranging from 0.7-0.9% on presentation. T4 lesions and midline crossing T2 and T3 lesions had corresponding rates of 8.3 to 13.0%. Primary extension across the midline was associated with a mean survival about half that of strictly lateral tumors and its significance was maintained in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Patients with T1 disease or T2-3 disease that doesn’t cross midline are in a different prognostic class from patients with T2-3 disease that crosses midline or T4 tumors. These results give the strongest evidence to date that involvement of the midline is a powerful predictor for decreased survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Lloyd, Shane; Yu, James B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Judson, Benjamin L.; Decker, Roy H.
\\u000a Objective tongue color analysis is an important research point for tongue diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this\\u000a paper a research based on the clinical process of diagnosing tongue color is reported. The color data in RGB color space were\\u000a first transformed into the data in CIELAB color space, and the color gamut of the displayed tongue was obtained. Then
Bocong Li; Qingmei Huang; Yan Lu; Songhe Chen; Rong Liang; Zhaoping Wang
An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together.
Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah
Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery.
Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi
Tongue inspection is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experience-based nature, traditional tongue inspection has found very limited application in modem clinical medicine. In this paper, a novel system for tongue inspection based on hyperspectral imaging system is developed. The system includes image acquisition, feature extraction and classification functions. In this system, two kinds of quantitative features, spatial and spectral, are extracted from hyperspectral tongue images by using popular digital image processing techniques. Then, Bayesian networks are employed to model the relationship between these quantitative features and diseases. The preliminary results show that the system is sensitive to the abnormal tongues. PMID:18610624
Li, Qingli; Xue, Yongqi; Liu, Zhi
The dorsal lingual surfaces of adult Jungle Nightjar (Caprimulgus indicus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the tongue of the Jungle Nightjar had a spearhead-like shape. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, body, and root of the tongue. The tip of the tongue was round shape and a median groove is not observed. The dorsal surface of the lingual apex presented a smooth aspect and desquamation of the epithelial cells was observed on the surface of the lingual apex. Small and large conical papillae were observed on the lateral side of the lingual body. There were the giant conical papillae on the lateral side of the lingual body. The conical papillae of the lingual body were inclined toward the posterior of the tongue on the posterior end. Some openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual root. PMID:20560447
Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue
Lymphoma of gastric-mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) type has been linked to infection with Helicobacter pylori. We investigated the effect on MALT lymphoma of eradicating H pylori infection. 33 patients with primary gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma associated with H pylori gastritis were treated with omeprazole (120 mg daily) and amoxycillin (2·25 g daily) for 14 days to eradicate H pylori. In
E. Bayerdörffer; B. Rudolph; A. Neubauer; C. Thiede; N. Lehn; S. Eidt; M. Stolte
Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…
Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether tongue pressure on the lingual surface of the mandibular incisors shows respiratory-related changes, with particular attention paid to its relationship to genioglossus electromyographic activity, and to determine the effect of changes in the mode of breathing and body position on tongue pressure. Tongue pressure was recorded with a miniature pressure sensor
Shigeki Takahashi; Takashi Ono; Yasuo Ishiwata; Takayuki Kuroda
This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…
Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of thymosin ?4 (T?4) on the wound healing of rat palatal (RP) mucosa and related cellular properties. Cell viability, adhesion and migration of primary cultured RP cells were observed in the presence of T?4 at various concentrations ranging from 1 to 1,000 ng/ml. The mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in T?4-treated RP cells was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. For the in vivo assay, T?4 was applied to excisional wounds (3 mm in diameter) that were made in the center of the palate (n=6). Images of the wound areas were captured and assessed histologically one week after surgery. T?4 did not affect cell viability and adhesion, but RP cell migration was stimulated by T?4 at concentrations of 100 and 1,000 ng/ml. T?4 also increased the mRNA and protein expression of MMP2 and VEGF in RP cells. In the animal model, palatal wound closure was significantly enhanced in rats treated with T?4. The results of the present study indicated that T?4 promotes the wound healing of RP mucosa. Enhancement of RP cell migration and angiogenesis is likely to be involved in the promotion of wound healing. PMID:24993983
Zhu, Tingting; Park, Hee Chul; Son, Kyung Mi; Kwon, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol
The aim of this report is to establish a tongue inspection method based on OCT imaging for quantifying the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The measurement was performed in the model of rats suffering with Spleen-Stomach Dampness-Heat Syndrome using OCT equipment, OCT image and histology estimates of the glossal layer of microstructure were obtained, and the accurate thickness and moisture degree of the tongue coating were analyzed. These OCT image showed that tongue every layer matched the histology estimates of the glossal microstructure, and compared with normal control group the thickness of tongue coating increased in rats suffering with Spleen-Stomach Dampness-Heat Syndrome than normal control rats (P<0.01), yet the moisture degree of tongue body of model group decreased (P<0.01). Therefore, OCT image technique may be benefit and helpful as a tool to provide an objective diagnostic standard for study on tongue inspection in the clinical practice and research of TCM.
Dong, Haixin; Guo, Zhouyi; Zeng, Changchun; Zhong, Huiqing; Gong, Xin; He, Yonghong; Wang, Ruikang K.; Liu, Songhao
Photogrammetric reanalysis of 1985 aerial photos has revealed substantial submarine melting of the floating ice tongue of Jakobshavn Isbræ, west Greenland. The thickness of the floating tongue determined from hydrostatic equilibrium tapers from ˜940 m near the grounding zone to ˜600 m near the terminus. Feature tracking on orthophotos shows speeds on the July 1985 ice tongue to be nearly constant (˜18.5 m d-1), indicating negligible dynamic thinning. The thinning of the ice tongue is mostly due to submarine melting with average rates of 228 ± 49 m yr-1 (0.62 ± 0.13 m d-1) between the summers of 1984 and 1985. The cause of the high melt rate is the circulation of warm seawater (thermal forcing of up to 4.2°C) beneath the tongue with convection driven by the substantial discharge of subglacial freshwater from the grounding zone. We believe that this buoyancy-driven convection is responsible for a deep channel incised into the sole of the floating tongue. A dramatic thinning, retreat, and speedup began in 1998 and continues today. The timing of the change is coincident with a 1.1°C warming of deep ocean waters entering the fjord after 1997. Assuming a linear relationship between thermal forcing and submarine melt rate, average melt rates should have increased by ˜25% (˜57 m yr-1), sufficient to destabilize the ice tongue and initiate the ice thinning and the retreat that followed.
Motyka, Roman J.; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Mortensen, John; Rysgaard, SøRen; Howat, Ian
One method for restoring the anterior floor of mouth defects resulting from T(1) and especially T(2) cancer excision involves the creation of a myomucosal island flap from the dorsal median portion of the tongue and transferring it as a transit flap to the floor of the mouth. We are not the first to advocate this method. In this paper we present a previously unreported, slightly modified technique utilizing this tongue flap. The modification consists of a 90 degrees twisting of the flap to achieve a more appropriate adaptation to the defect. In the case of spreading carcinoma from the floor of the mouth to the central portion of the tongue, a similar paramedian one-sided tongue flap was created instead of a central island tongue flap. Our present experience consists of a small series of 12 patients. The procedures were successful in all patients. No remarkable disturbances of speech or deglutition were observed in any of the patients. There were two complications: one haematoma and one partial necrosis of the tip of the tongue. In our opinion, the reconstruction of the anterior floor of mouth defects using a central island tongue flap has not gained the popularity it deserves. PMID:12803790
Fischinger, Janez; Zargi, Miha
The TNM classification for oral malignancies has been criticized for its upstaging to T4a when tumour involves styloglossus, hyoglossus, palatoglossus and genioglossus. The aims of this study were to (1) create an anatomical computer atlas of extrinsic tongue musculature, and (2) reassess the original staging of pre-treatment archived magnetic resonance images (MRI) of tongue carcinomas using the strict extrinsic muscle criteria. The anatomy of the extrinsic tongue muscles was mapped using images from the Visible Human Project (VHP) to create a computer model of the extrinsic tongue muscles. This was co-registered with 87 archived pre-staging MRI scans of tongue carcinomas to assess tumour ingress of the extrinsic tongue muscles. Of the 87 image sets reviewed, 16 were of superficial tumours not visible on MRI. In the remaining 71 cases that showed positive extrinsic muscle tumour ingress, 52% were upstaged from T1/2/3 tumours to cT4a based upon this finding. Extrinsic lateral and genioglossus muscle invasion did not predict occult cervical lymph node invasion or disease-related survival. In conclusion, tumour invasion of styloglossus or hyoglossus would result in the majority of lateral tongue tumours being staged T4a. Such stratification is of little clinical relevance, and an alternative more reliable method is required. PMID:23849786
Boland, P W; Pataridis, K; Eley, K A; Golding, S J; Watt-Smith, S R
The tongue coating diagnosis is an important part in tongue diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).The change of the thickness and color of the tongue coating can reflect the pathological state for the patient. By observing the tongue coating, a Chinese doctor can determine the nature or severity of disease. Because some limitations existed in the tongue diagnosis method of TCM and the method based on the digital image processing, a novel tongue coating analyzer(TCA) based on the concave grating monochrometer and virtual instrument is developed in this paper. This analyzer consists of the light source system, check cavity, optical fiber probe, concave grating monochrometer, spectrum detector system based on CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card, signal processing circuit system, computer and data analysis software based on LabVIEW, etc. Experimental results show that the novel TCA's spectral range can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this TCA uses the back-split-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with the TCA based on the image processing technology, this TCA has many advantages, such as, compact volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and real-time handle data and display the result, etc. Therefore, it has the greatly potential values in the fields of the tongue coating diagnosis for TCM.
Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Wenping
The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a minimally invasive, wireless, and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their environments using tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures into commands by sensing the magnetic field created by a small magnetic tracer applied to the user's tongue. We have previously quantitatively evaluated the TDS for accessing computers and powered wheelchairs, demonstrating its usability. In this study, we focused on its qualitative evaluation by people with high-level spinal cord injury who each received a magnetic tongue piercing and used the TDS for 6 wk. We used two questionnaires, an after-scenario and a poststudy, designed to evaluate the tongue-piercing experience and the TDS usability compared with that of the sip-and-puff and the users' current ATs. After study completion, 73% of the participants were positive about keeping the magnetic tongue-barbell in order to use the TDS. All were satisfied with the TDS performance and most said that they were able to do more things using TDS than their current ATs (4.22/5). PMID:25019667
Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Rowles, Diane; Holbrook, Jaimee; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P; Laumann, Anne E; Roth, Elliot; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam
Tongue drive system (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments to access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device in four tasks, commonly known as horizontal, vertical, center-out, and multidirectional rapid tapping, based on Fitts' law and ISO9241-9 Standard. Nine able-bodied subjects, who already had tongue piercing, participated in this trial over five sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects wore tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare-earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Participants performed the same tasks with a mouse (only in the first session) as a reference as well as a standard keypad for benchmarking. Six performance measures were considered, including throughput, error rate, and reaction time, all of these improved significantly from the first to the last session, and some of these plateaued over the course of the experiment. The comparison between tongue-TDS versus index-finger-keypad provides valuable insights into tongue human factors, which can lead the way in improving the usability of the TDS and similar tongue-operated assistive technologies. PMID:21652288
Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam
The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk. PMID:22424964
Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis
When chewing solid food, part of the bolus is propelled into the oropharynx before swallowing; this is named stage II transport (St2Tr). However, the tongue movement patterns that comprise St2Tr remain unclear. We investigated coronal jaw and tongue movements using videofluorography. Fourteen healthy young adults ate 6 g each of banana, cookie, and meat (four trials per foodstuff). Small lead markers were glued to the teeth and tongue surface to track movements by videofluorography in the anteroposterior projection. Recordings were divided into jaw motion cycles of four types: stage I transport (St1Tr), chewing, St2Tr, and swallowing. The range of horizontal tongue motion was significantly larger during St1Tr and chewing than during St2Tr and swallowing, whereas vertical tongue movements were significantly larger during chewing and St2Tr than during swallowing. Tongue movements varied significantly with food consistency. We conclude that the small horizontal tongue marker movements during St2Tr and swallowing were consistent with a "squeeze-back" mechanism of bolus propulsion. The vertical dimension was large in chewing and St2Tr, perhaps because of food particle reduction and transport in chewing and St2Tr. PMID:23446812
Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Matsuo, Koichiro; Okazaki, Hideto; Yoda, Mitsumasa; Inokuchi, Haruhi; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Inoue, Makoto; Palmer, Jeffrey B
Velocity models of subducting slabs with a kinetically-depressed olivine to beta- and gamma-spinel transition are constructed, and the effect that such structures would have on teleseismic P waveforms are examined using a full-wave finite-difference method. These 2D calculations yielded waveforms at a range of distances in the downdip direction. The slab models included a wedge-shaped, low-velocity metastable olivine tongue (MOTO) to a depth of 670 km, as well as a plausible thermal anomaly; one model further included a 10-km-thick fast layer on the surface of the slab. The principal effect of MOTO is to produce grazing reflections at wide angles off the phase boundary, generating a secondary arrival 0 to 4 seconds after the initial arrival depending on the take-off angle. The amplitude and timing of this feature vary with the lateral location of the seismic source within the slab cross-section.
Vidale, John E.; Williams, Quentin; Houston, Heidi
Inspection of tongue is an age-old technique used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners to determine a patient's health status. Because tongue examination is a subjective and inaccurate diagnostic method, a scientific tool which can provide objective and accurate information is needed to assist the TCM practitioners in their practice. The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of developing a glossoscopy from an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. In the present study, an OCT system was used to examine the tongue of the rat. After examination, the tongue was surgically removed, sectioned by a microtome and put on a glass slide for histological examination. The slides were examined under a bright-field microscope. Results of the OCT imaging studies showed that the OCT system was capable of showing the images of three distinct regions of the tongue: the tongue coating layers, the interface between the tongue coating and the tongue body, and the tongue body. It was also possible to assign an index number to each of the coating layers. When the tongue tissue was examined under a microscope, three separate regions of the tongue also were visible. Results of this pilot study shows that the OCT potentially can be developed into a glossoscopy for clinical application in TCM practice.
Zhong, Hui-Qing; Zeng, Chang-Chun; Guo, Zhou-Yi; He, Yong-Hong; Wang, Rui-Kang; Liu, Song-Hao
An in vitro model for permeation studies using porcine nasal mucosa was developed and evaluated. The viability and integrity of the mucosa were determined by electrophysiological measurements, permeation studies involving 14C-mannitol and D-(2-3H) glucose, histological studies and a biochemical assay. Enzymatic activity in the mucosa was determined by serosal addition of ouabain. Three different types of porcine nasal mucosa (cavity mucosa, natural septum mucosa and dermatomed septum mucosa) were examined. The results showed that cavity mucosa was the most suitable; this type remained viable for up to 8 h after removal. Lower limits for electrophysiological data were defined in order to establish criteria for tissue viability. This in vitro method using porcine nasal mucosa appears potentially valuable as a tool for further permeation and mechanistic studies within nasal drug delivery research. PMID:9845806
Wadell, C; Björk, E; Camber, O
Increased adenosine concentration inhibits gastric acid secretion in rat via adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, whereas achlorhydria suppresses A1 and A2A receptor gene expression. This study aimed to examine the effects of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria on the expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in rat gastric mucosa. Wistar rats were treated for either 1 or 3 days with 0.4 mmol/kg omeprazole via gavage; controls were treated with vehicle. The expression of nucleoside transporters at the transcript level was explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays; the functional activity of nucleoside transporters in gastric mucosa was explored by observing [3H]adenosine uptake in vitro. Gastric mucosa expressed rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT) 1 and 2, and rat concentrative nucleoside transporter (rCNT) 1, 2, and 3 at the transcript level, and the estimated values for the threshold cycles for target amplification (Ct) were 31.5 +/- 2, 28.5 +/- 2.1, 32.9 +/- 2.2, 29.1 +/- 2, and 28.9 +/- 2.5, respectively (n = 3 or 4). The Ct value for rat beta-actin was 21.9 +/- 1.8 (n = 4). In vitro uptake of [3H]adenosine by gastric mucosa samples consisted of Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components. One-day omeprazole treatment caused no change in nucleoside transporter mRNA levels or in [3H]adenosine uptake. Three-day omeprazole treatments, however, led to a 12-fold and 17-fold increase in rENT2 and rCNT1 mRNA levels, respectively. Samples taken after 3 days of treatment also took up significantly more [3H]adenosine than did samples from the corresponding control. In conclusion, the possible modification of nucleoside transport activities by changes in intraluminal acidity may have significance as part of a purinergic regulatory feedback mechanism in the control of gastric acid secretion. PMID:19448739
Redzic, Zoran B; Hasan, Fuad A; Al-Sarraf, Hameed
The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from crack cocaine users by micronucleus test. A total of 30 crack cocaine users and 30 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative, and dropped in clean slides, which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p?0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from crack cocaine users. Exposure to crack cocaine caused an increase of other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyolysis in oral cells as well. In summary, these data indicate that crack cocaine is able to induce chromosomal breakage and cellular death in oral mucosa cells of users. PMID:24430497
das Graças Alonso de Oliveira, Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Oliveira, Nara Rejane Cruz; da Costa Padovani, Ricardo; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki
Vaginal reconstruction can be challenging when there is a paucity of tissue, as the ideal donor source has yet to be determined. Many of the existing and commonly used techniques, such as vaginal replacement with skin grafts or bowel segments, have both advantages and disadvantages. A novel technique for vaginal replacement and reconstruction is with autologous buccal mucosa, an epithelium which is an excellent tissue match to the vagina. As urologists often have extensive experience with the use of oral mucosa for urethral reconstruction, it is fitting to apply these techniques to procedures where native vaginal tissue is lacking. This review presents the existing literature as well as the author's own experience with the use of autologous buccal mucosa for a variety of vaginal reconstructive procedures. PMID:24948036
Grimsby, Gwen M; Baker, Linda A
This paper describes speech changes in three patients after tongue flap closure of various sized palatal fistulas. In all three patients articulation and lingual mobility appeared to be unaffected by excision of tongue tissue for the procedure. However, a large protruding tongue flap was noted to interfere with the articulation of sibilants in one patient. All patients showed a reduction in overall hypernasal resonance and nasal emission, although one patient developed nasal turbulence postoperatively and another required a pharyngeal flap for total elimination of hypernasality. This paper points out the need for a systematic investigation into the effects of this surgery on speech. PMID:2917418
Kummer, A W; Neale, H W
We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle fibers of the tongue. The patient is well with no local recurrence after a 15-month follow-up period.
Introduction. Tongue base cyst is an uncommon but potentially dangerous cause of stridor in neonates and infants. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 2-month-old Arabic male infant with a congenital tongue base cyst revealed by inspiratory stridor and recurrent respiratory distress. Diagnosis of cyst was suspected at endoscopy and confirmed by MRI imaging. The cyst was marsupialized with CO2 laser. One year later, the child remains asymptomatic without recurrence of the mass. Conclusion. Tongue base cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis in new borns with stridor, respiratory difficulties, or swallowing problems. Definitive therapy requires large marsupialization under general anesthesia.
Zaki, Zouheir; Ouattassi, Naouar; Alami, Noureddine
Sonography has proved superior to CT and MRI for imaging T1 or T2 carcinomas of the oral cavity and base of the tongue. However, in examining the anterior half of the tongue and the floor of the mouth problems arise due to absorption of sound by the mandible and air inclusion. Ultrasound examination can be performed end-orally by means of a miniaturised transducer. End-oral sonography produces images of the anterior parts of the tongue and the floor of the mouth without artefacts. This method is superior to conventional transcutaneous sonography for this region. PMID:2676924
Iro, H; Nitsche, N
In this work we report the design, construction, and applications of an electronic tongue (abbreviated e-tongue) based on an array of potentiometric sensors employing the Sequential Injection Analysis technique (SIA) operated as a Virtual Instrument implemented in LabVIEW6.1™. The system can use transient and stationary responses as the measured input information for e-tongues. The new concepts applied, lead to different advantages to be obtained, such as complete automation, easy handling, saving time, reliability and modularity.
Duran, Alejandro; Cortina, Montserrat; Velasco, Lya; Rodriguez, Jose Antonio; Alegret, Salvador; del Valle, Manuel
Background Condyloma acuminata caused by human papilloma viruses, (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) appearing most frequently as soft, pink cauliflower like growths in moist areas, such as the genitalia, mouth and other places. The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. In children, the isolation of a sexually transmitted organism may be the first indication that an abuse has occurred. Although the presence of a sexually transmissible agent from a child beyond the neonatal period is suggestive of sexual abuse, exceptions do exist. Case presentation The authors report the clinical case of a five-year-old Caucasian male with lesions located in the dorsal surfaces of the posterior tongue and palate. Both lesions had a firm consistency, reddish appearance and presence of whitish areas and regions of ulceration. During the interview, the mother reported that the boy had been sexually abused. Conclusion Sexually transmitted disease may occur during sexual abuse. Dentists as well as pediatricians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. The diagnosis is essentially clinical (anamnesis and physical examination), but also the use of cytology eventually resorts to biopsy of the suspicious lesions for histological examination. The therapeutic option was the excision of the lesions.
A 69-year-old woman presented with macroscopic hematuria and severe anemia. Cystoscopy revealed flat edematous mucosa with continuous bleeding. Transurethral coagulation and a biopsy of the urinary bladder were performed. Histopathological examination of the biopsy revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Results of a computed tomography scan and gallium scintigraphy suggested that it was a primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder. A urinary tract infection was found and she was treated with antibiotics for 2 weeks. Because of the detection of a Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the gastric mucosal biopsy specimens, the patient was subsequently administered HP eradication therapy. Consequently, the lymphoma disappeared and the woman has had no tumor recurrence for the past 25 months. PMID:19175002
Fujimura, Masaaki; Chin, Kensei; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Kajimoto, Syunichi; Kamijima, Syuichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Mikami, Kazuo
The influence of three antibiotics (bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate) on the mucosa-associated enteric microbiota and the intestines of mice was examined. Antibiotics caused conspicuous enlargement of ceca and an increase in overall length of the intestine. However, there were no pathologic changes associated with increased cecal size or length of the intestine. Conspicuous reductions in the richness of mucosa-associated bacteria and changes to community profiles within the small (duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum) and large (cecum, ascending colon, and descending colon) intestine occurred in mice administered antibiotics. Communities in antibiotic-treated mice were dominated by a limited number of Clostridium-like (i.e. clostridial cluster XIVa) and Bacteroides species. The richness of mucosa-associated communities within the small and large intestine increased during the 14-day recovery period. However, community profiles within the large intestine did not return to baseline (i.e. relative to the control). Although antibiotic administration greatly reduced bacterial richness, densities of mucosa-associated bacteria were not reduced correspondingly. These data showed that the antibiotics, bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate, administered for 21 days to mice did not sterilize the intestine, but did impart a tremendous and prolonged impact on mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the small and large intestine. PMID:22185696
Puhl, Nathan J; Uwiera, Richard R E; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas
Due to its central position, mobility and good blood supply, the tongue is a most suitable donor site for the closure of cleft palate fistulae. The aim of this retrospective study was to reassess the efficacy of the lateral tongue flap technique, first reported in 1884 and in use up to the 1970s, after which it was replaced by more sophisticated methods for the reconstruction of buccal and labial defects, which however could be deleterious to the patient. The results of the present study demonstrate the reliability and technical simplicity of the lateral tongue technique. The procedure took place in two stages, after which the patient was fed for five postoperative days by nasogastric tube, thereby facilitating the healing process via non-interference with scar tissue. Out of the seven patients who received treatment, six successful closures were noted, and only one partial failure was observed, in all cases without any functional sequelae involving the tongue. PMID:11233735
Morel, M; Danino, A; Malka, G
Subtotal and total reconstruction of the lower lip is a challenge for the plastic surgeon. Large defects extending to the chin area can be difficult to manage with only local flaps, and free flaps are better suited. In an attempt to restore the lower lip with the vermilion, the authors used the radial forearm free flap with anteriorly based ventral tongue flap in 5 patients. The tongue flap is used 3 months after the free flap procedure, and this flap is divided 3 weeks later. The tongue flap transfer, adaptation, and division are done under local anesthesia. In all patients, the aesthetic result was excellent compared with the complexity of the reconstructed defect. Patient compliance was uneventful. Although it is a 3-stage reconstruction, combination of radial forearm flap with the tongue flap offers functional and fine aesthetic results. PMID:20186089
Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Tosun, Zekeriya; Savaci, Nedim
Would you make the same decisions in a foreign language as you would in your native tongue? It may be intuitive that people would make the same choices regardless of the language they are using, or that the difficulty of using a foreign language would make decisions less systematic. We discovered, however, that the opposite is true: Using a foreign language reduces decision-making biases. Four experiments show that the framing effect disappears when choices are presented in a foreign tongue. Whereas people were risk averse for gains and risk seeking for losses when choices were presented in their native tongue, they were not influenced by this framing manipulation in a foreign language. Two additional experiments show that using a foreign language reduces loss aversion, increasing the acceptance of both hypothetical and real bets with positive expected value. We propose that these effects arise because a foreign language provides greater cognitive and emotional distance than a native tongue does. PMID:22517192
Keysar, Boaz; Hayakawa, Sayuri L; An, Sun Gyu
Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, acid, and heat and mediates pain through peripheral nerves. In the tongue, TRPV1 expression has been reported also in the epithelium. This indicates a possibility that sensation is first received by the epithelium. However, how nerves receive sensations from the epithelium remains unclear. To clarify the anatomical basis of this interaction, we performed immunohistochemical studies in the rodent tongue to detect TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neural marker. Strong expression of TRPV1 in the epithelium was observed and was restricted to the apex of the tongue. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that CGRP-expressing nerve terminals were in close apposition to the strongly TRPV1-expressing epithelium of fungiform papilla in the apex of rodent tongues. These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing epithelium monitors the oral environment and acquired information may then be conducted to the adjacent CGRP-expressing terminals.
Kawashima, M.; Imura, K.; Sato, I.
The dorsal lingual surfaces of rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the tongue of the rainbow lorikeet has a finger-like shape. Three parts are distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, body, and root of the tongue. The apex of the tongue has numerous processes inclined toward medial side from lateral side. These processes are rod-like structure and smooth surfaces. Many grooves are observed in both lateral sides of the lingual body. A large opening of the lingual gland exists in central part of the lingual root and some large openings of the lingual glands exist in both lateral sides of the lingual root. PMID:21882592
Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue
Background The symptom of tongue deviation is observed in a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Nevertheless, there is much room for the interpretation of the tongue deviation test. The crucial factor is the lack of an effective quantification method of tongue deviation. If we can quantify the features of the tongue deviation and scientifically verify the relationship between the deviation angle and a stroke, the information provided by the tongue will be helpful in recognizing a warning of a stroke. Methods In this study, a quantification method of the tongue deviation angle was proposed for the first time to characterize stroke patients. We captured the tongue images of stroke patients (15 males and 10 females, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age); transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients (16 males and 9 females, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age); and normal subjects (14 males and 11 females, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age) to analyze whether the method is effective. In addition, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle for the warning sign of a stroke. Results The means and standard deviations of the tongue deviation angles of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were: 6.9?±?3.1, 4.9?±?2.1 and 1.4?±?0.8 degrees, respectively. Analyzed by the unpaired Student’s t-test, the p-value between the stroke group and the TIA group was 0.015 (>0.01), indicating no significant difference in the tongue deviation angle. The p-values between the stroke group and the normal group, as well as between the TIA group and the normal group were both less than 0.01. These results show the significant differences in the tongue deviation angle between the patient groups (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. These results also imply that the tongue deviation angle can effectively identify the patient group (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. With respect to the visual examination, 40% and 32% of stroke patients, 24% and 16% of TIA patients, and 4% and 0% of normal subjects were found to have tongue deviations when physicians “A” and “B” examined them. The variation showed the essentiality of the quantification method in a clinical setting. In the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the Area Under Curve (AUC, = 0.96) indicates good discrimination. The tongue deviation angle more than the optimum threshold value (= 3.2°) predicts a risk of stroke. Conclusions In summary, we developed an effective quantification method to characterize the tongue deviation angle, and we confirmed the feasibility of recognizing the tongue deviation angle as an early warning sign of an impending stroke.
[How to push the limits in the transverse dimension? Facial asymmetry, palatal volume and tongue posture in children with unilateral posterior cross bite: a three-dimensional evaluation of early treatment].
Unilateral posterior crossbites have been reported to be one of the most prevalent malocclusions of the primary dentition in Caucasian children. Facial asymmetry due to lateral mandibular displacement in unilateral posterior crossbite, if not treated in the primary dentition period, may lead to an undesirable growth modification which results in facial asymmetry of skeletal origin. Irregular tongue function and posture have also been diagnosed as important etiological factors. Early orthodontic treatment seems to be profitable and desirable to create conditions for normal dental, functional and skeletal development of the orofacial region. Treatment success after correction of unilateral posterior crossbite in the primary dentition is highly questionable, as it is very difficult to objectively assess correction of facial asymmetry and irregular tongue function and posture in small, growing children. Although facial photography is an important diagnostic tool in orthodontics, its main disadvantage is that it represents a three dimensional subject in two dimensions. Tongue posture and function during clinical examination are difficult to assess and is therefore unreliable. Contemporary 3D diagnostics in unilateral posterior crossbite enables uninvasive, valid and objective assessment of facial morphology, palatal volume, tongue function and posture. It can, therefore, become in the future an important part of morphological and functional dia