Sample records for tongue mucosa treated

  1. Impaired somatosensation in tongue mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    Yekta, Sareh Said; Lückhoff, Andreas; Risti?, Dejan; Lampert, Friedrich; Ellrich, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Smoking has been indicated as a risk factor for oral diseases and can lead to altered sense of taste. So far, the effects of sensory changes on the tongue are not investigated. In this study, quantitative sensory testing was used to evaluate somatosensory function in the lingual region. Eighty healthy volunteers were investigated (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers). Subjects were bilaterally tested in innervation areas of lingual nerves. Thresholds of cold and warm detection, cold and heat pain, and mechanical detection were determined. As control for systemic, extraoral effects of smoking, tests were additionally performed in 40 volunteers (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers) on the skin of the chin innervated by the mental branch of the trigeminal nerve. Cold (p < 0.001), warm detection thresholds (p < 0.001), and thermal sensory limen (p < 0.001) showed higher sensitivity in non-smokers as compared to smokers. Heat pain and mechanical detection, as well as all tests in the skin of the chin, showed no significant differences. The impaired temperature perception in smokers indicates a reduction of somatosensory functions in the tongue, possibly caused by nerve degeneration associated with smoking. Possible systemic effects of smoking do not seem to affect extraoral trigeminal branches. PMID:20938792

  2. Abnormal expression of bcl-2 and bax in rat tongue mucosa during the development of squamous cell carcinoma induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Marques, Mariângela E A

    2005-01-01

    4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of bcl-2 and bax during tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4NQO. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution through their drinking water for 4, 12 or 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. Although no histological changes were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure, bcl-2 and bax were over-expressed (P < 0.01) in all layers of the ‘normal’ epithelium. The expression levels were the same in all layers of epithelium for both the antibodies used (bcl-2 or bax). In dysplastic lesions at 12 weeks following carcinogen administration, the levels of bcl-2 and bax expression did not increase when compared to negative control with the immunoreactivity for bcl-2 being restricted to the superficial layer of epithelium. In well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma induced after 20 weeks of treatment with 4NQO, bcl-2 was expressed in some cells of tumour islands. On the other hand, immunostaining for bax was widely observed at the tumour nests. The labelling index for bcl-2 and bax showed an increase (P < 0.05) after only 4 weeks of 4NQO administration. In conclusion, our results suggest that abnormalities in the apoptosis pathways are associated with the development of persistent clones of mutated-epithelial cells in the oral mucosa. Bcl-2 and bax expression appears to be associated with a risk factor in the progression of oral cancer. PMID:16309543

  3. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for treating pituitary adenoma via a sub-septum mucosa approach.

    PubMed

    Nie, Sheng; Li, Keqin; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Jikuang; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel sub-suptum mucusa approach was used to investigate the surgical method via an endonasal sub-septum-mucosa approach to pituitary adenoma under endoscopy. In this work, we aim to ensure the quality of operation and to reduce the operation trauma and complications. By endoscopy, the nasal mucosa was incised in the nasal septum, and all mucosal flaps were retained, a sub-septum-mucosa surgical corridor was made where the endoscope was used in the mucosa cavity for operation and to remove the pituitary adenoma. 52 patients (28 women, mean age 46.76 years) underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal sub-septum-mucosa approach for treating pituitary adenoma. 46 patients (88.5%) underwent gross total removal (GTR) for the tumor; 6 patients (11.5%) went through partial tumor removal (PTR). After operation, all nasal mucosa was retained, no complications such as nasal bleeding, loss of sense of smell or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Our results showed that treating pituitary adenoma using endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries by keeping nasal mucosa under neuroendoscopy tend to have smaller trauma. This novel method more advanced since it provides a clear operation field, a flexible transformation of operation modes and leads to less postoperative complications. PMID:26131087

  4. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for treating pituitary adenoma via a sub-septum mucosa approach

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Sheng; Li, Keqin; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Jikuang; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel sub-suptum mucusa approach was used to investigate the surgical method via an endonasal sub-septum-mucosa approach to pituitary adenoma under endoscopy. In this work, we aim to ensure the quality of operation and to reduce the operation trauma and complications. By endoscopy, the nasal mucosa was incised in the nasal septum, and all mucosal flaps were retained, a sub-septum-mucosa surgical corridor was made where the endoscope was used in the mucosa cavity for operation and to remove the pituitary adenoma. 52 patients (28 women, mean age 46.76 years) underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal sub-septum-mucosa approach for treating pituitary adenoma. 46 patients (88.5%) underwent gross total removal (GTR) for the tumor; 6 patients (11.5%) went through partial tumor removal (PTR). After operation, all nasal mucosa was retained, no complications such as nasal bleeding, loss of sense of smell or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Our results showed that treating pituitary adenoma using endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries by keeping nasal mucosa under neuroendoscopy tend to have smaller trauma. This novel method more advanced since it provides a clear operation field, a flexible transformation of operation modes and leads to less postoperative complications.

  5. Morphogenesis of the tongue mucosa in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica) during the late embryonic stages.

    PubMed

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Kontecka, Helena

    2014-09-01

    The tongue in domestic duck, as in other Anseriformes, is characterized by wide variety of shape and mechanical papillae and they fulfill different function during food collection. The present work aims to describe morphological features of the tongue as well as the pace formation of the mechanical papillae during embryonic period. The results may allow to answer whether the tongue in duck is ready to fulfill feeding function after hatching. The study revealed that the particular part of the tongue and the conical papillae of the body develop between 10th and 16th day of incubation, from the caudal part of the body into the rostral part of the tongue. The conical papillae of the lingual prominence in the first row are formed from 11th to 16th day and in the second row at the turn of the 15th and 16th day of incubation. These papillae developed symmetrically from the median part of the lingual prominence, to its edges. The lingual comb, which is used during transport of the food particles, is formed between 16th and 19th day. The present study indicated the morphological changes of the particular part of the tongue and the mechanical papillae were varied between the developmental stages. The morphology of the tongue in the domestic duck is fully developed before hatching and ready to collect food by pecking and grazing. However, filter-feeding mechanism is not still obvious. PMID:24909127

  6. Primary B cell Lymphoma of the tongue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hmidi, Mounir; Touiheme, Nabil; Elboukhari, Ali; Kettani, Mounir; Elmejareb, Charafeddine; Messary, Abdelhamid

    2012-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity is rare and of the tongue even rarer. Location of oral lymphomas is more frequent in masticatory mucosa than in movable mucosa; the lingual and buccal mucosa is rarely involved; whereas the gingival vestibule and Waldeyer's ring seem to be the most frequent site of occurrence. We describe a 78 year old male who presented with a mass lesion primarily involving the base of tongue and was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The lesion was completely disappeared). He has currently remained disease free for 16 months. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation, histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen may aid in the diagnosis and thus, help in proper management. PMID:22826730

  7. Effect of a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E1 on the intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Ueda, S; Horie, T

    2001-01-01

    Administration of methotrexate to rats sometimes induces small intestinal damage. A synthetic analog of prostaglandin E1, OP-1206 [17S,20-dimethyl-trans-delta2-prostaglandin E1] may possibly provide therapeutic benefits to help recovery from such small intestinal damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of OP-1206 on methotrexate-induced small intestinal damage in rats. Methotrexate (15 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once daily for 5 days. OP-1206 (0.5 microg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats twice a day for 5 days and on the 6th day the small intestine of the rats were examined histologically and biochemically. The methotrexate treatment of rats caused a severe histological change in the small intestinal mucosa, whereas the treatment combined of OP-1206 with methotrexate showed similar histological features of the small intestinal mucosa as that of the control rats. On the other hand, an acute intestinal inflammation was evaluated by determining myeloperoxidase activity. The myeloperoxidase activity in the small intestinal mucosa of the methotrexate-treated rats increased remarkably, whereas that of the methotrexate and OP-1206-treated rats was significantly lower than that of the methotrexate-treated rats. Thus, it was shown histologically and biochemically that OP-1206 was effective in protecting the small intestine from methotrexate-induced damage. PMID:11497277

  8. Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Tongue Base Treated by Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lim, Gil Chai

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising from the minor salivary glands in the aerodigestive system, most frequently the hard palate. The treatment of choice is wide surgical resection, and the efficacy of radiotherapy has not been confirmed. A 54-year-old male presenting with a mass at the base of the tongue performed transoral laser microsurgery. The pathologic diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Complete surgical excision was performed via transoral robotic surgery without a flap reconstruction of the surgical defect. Without complications of bleeding or injury to the hypoglossal nerve, proper surgical margins were obtained, and no recurrence was found after 6 months after surgery. The patient did not complain of dysphagia or aspiration. We conclude that, in surgery for tongue base tumors with unknown malignant potential, transoral robotic surgery can be considered for achieving a definite resection avoiding a mandibulotomy without complications of dysphagia or aspiration after confirmation of malignancy with a frozen biopsy. PMID:25954561

  9. Fissured Tongue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to remove any food debris from the fissures. Cleansing of the tongue helps prevent irritation and possible ... patients by making recommendations concerning devices for tongue cleansing. Q: Who can get fissured tongue? A: Anyone ...

  10. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

    2009-02-01

    The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III. PMID:19143682

  11. Cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Schneider, T R; Salum, F G; Cherubini, K; Yurgel, L S; Figueredo, M A Z

    2009-03-01

    Choristomas are lesions composed of normal cells or tissues occurring in an abnormal location. Cartilaginous choristomas of the oral mucosa are rare and occur preferentially on the tongue and less often in sites such as the soft palate and gingiva. Oral lesions are generally covered by integral mucosa and can occur at any age. The present study describes a case of a 73-year-old female presenting with an asymptomatic cartilaginous choristoma on the ventral surface of the tongue which had developed over a period of 3 years. The clinical presentation and management of the case are discussed and the literature is reviewed. This is the 28th reported case of a cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue and the third with a ventral localisation. PMID:18384591

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Deoxyadenosine and Deoxyguanosine Adducts in the Tongue and Other Oral Tissues of Mice Treated with Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We were the first to demonstrate that direct application of the environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) into the oral cavity of mice induced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in oral tissues but not in the tongue; however, the mechanisms that can account for the varied carcinogenicity remain to be determined. Furthermore, we also showed that not only dA adducts, but also dG adducts can account for the mutagenic activity of DB[a,l]P in the oral tissues in vivo. In this study, we initially focused on DB[a,l]P-induced genotoxic effects in both oral and tongue tissues. Therefore, to fully assess the contribution of these DNA adducts in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis induced by DB[a,l]P, an LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously detect and quantify DB[a,l]PDE-dG and -dA adducts was developed. Mice were orally administered with DB[a,l]P (24 nmole, 3 times per week for 5 weeks) or its fjord region diol epoxide, (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]PDE, 12 nmole, single application); animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after the last dose of carcinogen administration. Oral and tongue tissues were obtained and DNA were isolated followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Following the development of an isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method, we successfully detected (?)-anti-cis- and (?)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N2-dG, as well as (?)-anti-cis- and (?)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N6-dA in oral and tongue tissues of mice treated with DB[a,l]P. Levels of (?)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N6-dA were ?2 folds higher than (?)-anti-cis-DB[a,l]PDE-N6-dA adduct and those of dG adducts in the oral tissues and tongue at all time points selected after the cessation of DB[a,l]P treatment. Levels of dG adducts were comparable in both tissues. Collectively, our results support that DB[a,l]P is predominantly metabolized to (?)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE, and the levels and persistence of (?)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-N6-dA may, in part, explain the carcinogenicity of DB[a,l]P in the oral tissues but not in the tongue. PMID:24911113

  13. Prognostic factors of local outcome for T1, T2 carcinomas of oral tongue treated by iridium 192 implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; G. Marinello; W. Walop; B. Pierquin

    1990-01-01

    The results of Iridium 192 implantation for 121 node negative T1 or T2 squamous carcinomas of mobile tongue were reviewed to look for predictors of local control and necrosis. Age, sex, total dose, dose rate, linear activity, and intersource spacing were examined. Minimum follow-up was 2 years but no patient with local recurrence or necrosis was excluded. There were 57

  14. Tongue problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Amyloidosis Angioedema Beckwith syndrome Cancer of the tongue Congenital micrognathia Down syndrome Hypothyroidism Infection Leukemia Lymphangioma Neurofibromatosis Pellagra Pernicious anemia Strep ...

  15. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acids induce apoptosis in the colonic mucosa of rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Suh; Chun, Chang Soo; Kim, Sung; Ha, Yeong Lae; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that a diet containing a mixture of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers reduces the incidence of colon tumors in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The present study examined which of the two main CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA (t10c12) or cis-9,trans-11 CLA (c9t11), decreases colon tumor numbers and the mechanisms for this effect. Six-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intramuscularly injected with 15 mg/kg of DMH twice per week for 6 weeks and fed a control diet, 1% t10c12, or 1% c9t11 for 30 weeks. The experimental diets were initiated simultaneously with DMH injection. The tumor numbers were decreased and the apoptotic index was significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of the t10c12 and c9t11 groups, when the results were compared with those of the control group. The protein levels of Bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 were significantly decreased, but Bax levels were increased in both of the CLA isomer groups. The thromboxane B(2) levels in colonic mucosa were substantially lower in the two CLA isomer groups than in the control group. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the CLA isomer groups. We have demonstrated that diets containing 1% t10c12 and c9t11 were equally effective in reducing tumor numbers and inducing apoptosis in the colonic mucosa of rats treated with DMH. These results indicate that Bcl-2 family protein levels are associated with CLA-induced apoptosis in the colonic mucosa of DMH-treated rats. PMID:16579724

  16. Geographic tongue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It also may be due to irritation from hot or spicy foods, or alcohol. The condition appears to be less ... Avoid irritating your tongue with hot or spicy food or alcohol if you are prone to this condition.

  17. Your Tongue

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taste buds , so you can taste everything from apples to zucchini! People are born with about 10, ... onion slice under your nose while eating an apple. What do you taste? Your tongue also gets ...

  18. The study of tumoral, radiobiological, and general health factors that influence results and complications in a series of 448 oral tongue carcinomas treated exclusively by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pernot, M.; Malissard, L.; Hoffstetter, S.; Luporsi, E.; Peiffert, D.; Aletti, P.; Kozminski, P.; Bey, P. [Centre Alexix Vautrin, Nancy (France)

    1994-07-01

    The aim was to study the different factors that influence the results and complications in a series of 448 carcinomas of the oral tongue treated from January 31, 1972 to December 31, 1986, by brachytherapy(Br){+-}neck dissection (181 cases) or combination of external beam irradiation and brachytherapy (EBI + Br) (267 cases). The patients distribution was: 125 T1, 186 T2, 128 T3, 9 T4Tx, 78% NO, and 22% N+. The authors used the guide gutter or plastic tubes technique (Paris system dosimetry). Results at 5 and 10 years are: local control 68% and 64%, locoregional control 58% and 53%, specific survival 45% and 39%, and overall survival 44% and 27%. In the unvariate analysis for local control (LC) and overall survival (OS), they considered the tumoral factors. At 5 years, the LC for T1, T2, T3, are 93%, 65%, and 49%, and the OS 69%, 41%, and 25%, respectively. The lesions of the undersurface of the tongue have a better LC (77%) than other localizations (64%). For general factors, the index of general health condition, age, and sex were not significant for LC, but proved significant for OS. Significant radiobiological factors: the safety margin (expressed by the ratio treated surface on tumoral surface {ge}1.2) is significant for LC and OS. This is the same if the interval between EBI and Br is {le} 20 days. Neither the dose rate, the spacing between the sources, the total dose, nor Br dose were significant, but the last two were adapted according to the infiltration. In the univariate study for grade 2 and 3 complications (tissue and bone), the surface treated (>12 cm{sup 2}), and the dose rate >0.7 Gy/h were significant. The multivariate study showed that the small size of the lesion is the most important factor for local control, with brachytherapy alone for T1T2NO and the number of days between EBI and brachytherapy {le}20 days. For complications, the most important factors are the total dose >80 Gy and a treated surface >12 cm{sup 2}. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. A synthetic analog of prostaglandin E(1) prevents the production of reactive oxygen species in the intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Horie, Toshiharu

    2002-07-19

    Administration of methotrexate to rats results in severe enterocolitis and death. Previous our studies showed that a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E(1), OP-1206 [17S, 20-dimethyl-trans-Delta(2)-prostaglandin E(1)] ameliorated the anticancer agent-induced enterocolitis of rats. In the current study, we have focused on the biochemical effect of OP-1206 on the methotrexate-induced intestinal inflammation implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methotrexate (15 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once daily for 5 days. OP-1206 (0.5 microg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats twice a day for 5 days. On the 6th day, the chemiluminescence from the jejunum was measured to evaluate the generation of ROS. Spontaneous chemiluminescence from the jejunum of the methotrexate-treated rats increased significantly, compared with the control. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence from inflamed mucosal scrapings from the jejunum of the methotrexate-treated rats indicated more remarkable enhancement than the control rats. The treatment of OP-1206 with methotrexate showed significantly lower chemiluminescence of both the jejunum and mucosal scrapings than those of the methotrexate-treated rats. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, as a marker of small intestinal differentiation, in the intestinal mucosa of the methotrexate-treated rats decreased remarkably, but that of the methotrexate and OP-1206-treated rats was significantly higher than that of the methotrexate-treated rats. Thus, OP-1206 may possibly help the anticancer chemotherapy by protecting the small intestine from the methotrexate-induced damage. PMID:12088768

  20. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

  1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the base of tongue.

    PubMed

    Mesolella, M; Iengo, M; Testa, D; DI Lullo, A M; Salzano, G; Salzano, F A

    2015-02-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant, locally-invasive tumour of the salivary glands, and accounts for approximately 35% of all malignancies of the major and minor salivary gland. Minor salivary glands are scattered in different areas of the oral cavity such as palate, retromolar area, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and tongue. MECs of tongue base are not common. We present a rare case of MEC localised at the tongue base in a 42-year-old Caucasian woman and discuss the histopathological types, management and review the literature. Adequate intra-oral excision was the treatment of choice in this case and in low-grade MEC. Prognosis of MEC is a function of the histological grade, adequacy of excision and clinical staging. PMID:26015654

  2. [Oral hygiene with tongue cleaners].

    PubMed

    Neander, Klaus-Dieter

    2004-04-01

    The investigation presented here is part of a series of studies on oral hygiene that deal with a very common problem occurring in everyday practice. Two different methods of mouth cleaning were tested in a comparative study on 150 subjects. At least in German-speaking countries, our methodology was groundbreaking in that measuring tools for evaluation of the oral hygiene measures implemented had not been available thus far. The results of this study clearly showed that the typical method of oral hygiene (gauze wrapped around a wooden spatula and toothbrush) produces much poorer cleaning results than the method using tongue cleaners. Surprisingly, we also observed that the eating habits of the participants "treated" with tongue cleaners improved markedly. Thus, we were able to conclusively demonstrate a connection between oral hygiene and nutritional deficiency. PMID:15137672

  3. [Image segmentation in tongue characterization].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yiqin

    2005-12-01

    Tongue diagnosis is one of the essential methods of traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The accuracy of tongue diagnosis can be improved by tongue characterization. Tongue area segmentation and homogeneous regions segmentation in tongue are important contents of preprocess of tongue image. An algorithm based on edge detection and Gradient vector flow (GVF) active contour for tongue area segmentation and another algorithm based on unsupervised segmentation of color-texture for homogeneous regions segmentation in tongue were presented. Totally about 1500 tongue images were collected. Results of tongue area segmentation achieved accuracy rate of 94.3% and results of homogeneous regions segmentation in tongue were approved by traditional Chinese medical experts. The experiments results show robustness of the algorithms. This work establishes solid foundation for feature selecting of Tongue diagnosis. PMID:16422082

  4. The multiple forms and kinetic properties of the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidases from colonic tumours and mucosa of rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed Central

    Mian, N; Herries, D G; Cowen, D M; Batte, E A

    1979-01-01

    The separation and purification of the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase activities from tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat colon and from colonic mucosa of tumour-bearing animals are reported. Mucosa contained N-acetylhexosaminidases A and B, as well as a third form whose properties with regard to electrophoretic mobility and thermostability lay between those of A and B. Tumours contained only N-acetylhexosaminidase A and B activities. Each form possessed both N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) and N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.53) activities, which could not be separated by a variety of techniques. The alteration of the ratio of the two specific activities in each form during purification, together with differences in the kinetic inhibition constants and behaviour during inactivation by various reagents or a temperature of 50 degrees C, supported the belief that each form contains the two enzyme activities, glucosaminidase and galactosaminidase, at separate active sites. This model is in contrast with that reported for these activities from a number of other sources. A variety of treatments reported to cause the conversion of form A into a form resembling B failed to produce such an effect on the rat colonic hexosaminidases. PMID:34391

  5. [Tongue diagnosis support system].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Naoya; Uozumi, Takashi

    2005-05-01

    Tongue diagnosis is one of the most important diagnostic methods in Oriental Medical Science (OMS). This diagnosis is painless and non-invasive method. However, it is not easy to cultivate skillful doctors. As one of the reasons, definition of tongue color is rather subjective and sensuous measure and color isn't related to quantitative physical value. It is, therefore, necessary to associate tongue color with physical numerical value. There are two problems to overcome the issue. 1) It is necessary for diagnosis to extract a region for diagnosis from entire picture because a tongue picture consists of two regions, a tongue and a background. 2) Associate tongue color with physical numerical value. For extracting tongue region, we used Progressive LiveWire method that is an Active Contour Model. And, for associating tongue color with physical measurement, we propose a hierarchical method. We use static rule and support vector machine for clustering colors. The performance of developed system is improved compared with an early developed one. In addition, the developed system did not make a critical incorrect discernment that causes incorrect choice about inspection in the layer of rule base. In this research average color appraisal is done from the region of 37 points. But, color judgment in the literature with the judgment by the eye of the human, has always done average judgment with not to limit, there is also a possibility some weight attaching being done. Therefore, from either one enabling the mass data and the comparison with the group of specialists is necessary as an appraisal. PMID:15960161

  6. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Araujo da Costa, Ana Sofia; Schmitz, Teresa Rivera; Lago, Pedro Vaamonde

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the last decades. It is estimated that up to 20% of tuberculosis cases affect extra-pulmonary organs. In the ENT area, soft palate and tongue are the least probable locations. Case Report: A 62-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment with corticosteroids and Adalimumab, developed a foreign body sensation in the pharynx accompanied by a sore throat and halitosis. The laryngoscopy with a 70 degree rigid telescope showed an ulcerated hypertrophic lesion in the right vallecula of about 2-3 cm in the base of the tongue. Acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were found positive for M. tuberculosis, through the Ziehl Neelsen method and Löwenstein culture the patient was treated with tuberculostatic medication. Conclusion: TB is a possible diagnosis when in the presence of an ulcerated lesion at the base of the tongue, accompanied by sore throat, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation.

  7. Simulation of tongue muscle deformation

    E-print Network

    Liang, Alvin Y

    2008-01-01

    The tongue is an intricately configured muscular organ that undergoes a stereotypical set of deformations during the course of normal human swallowing. The tongue's myoarchitecture consists of a large array of variably ...

  8. Treatment and retention of relapsed anterior open-bite with low tongue posture and tongue-tie: A 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Su-Jung; Munkhshur, Janchivdorj; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ngan, Peter; Kim, Seong-Hun

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the current report is to present 6-year long-term stability and 10-year follow-up data for an adult patient who was treated with a tongue elevator for relapsed anterior open-bite. The 19-year-old male patient presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing his food. Collectively, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed an anterior open-bite, low tongue posture, and tongue-tie. The patient opted for orthodontic treatment alone, without any surgical procedure. A lingual frenectomy was recommended to avoid the risk of relapse, but the patient declined because he was not experiencing tongue discomfort. Initial treatment of the anterior open-bite with molar intrusion and tongue exercises was successful, but relapse occurred during the retention period. A tongue elevator was used for retreatment, because the approach was minimally invasive and suited the patient's requirements regarding discomfort, cost, and time. The appliance changed the tongue posture and generated an altered tongue force, which ultimately resulted in intrusive dentoalveolar effects, and a subsequent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. The results showed long-term stability and were maintained for six years through continual use of the tongue elevator. The results of this case indicated that a tongue elevator could be used not only as an alternative treatment for open-bite, but also as an active retainer. PMID:25133135

  9. Treatment and retention of relapsed anterior open-bite with low tongue posture and tongue-tie: A 10-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Su-Jung; Munkhshur, Janchivdorj; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ngan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current report is to present 6-year long-term stability and 10-year follow-up data for an adult patient who was treated with a tongue elevator for relapsed anterior open-bite. The 19-year-old male patient presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing his food. Collectively, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed an anterior open-bite, low tongue posture, and tongue-tie. The patient opted for orthodontic treatment alone, without any surgical procedure. A lingual frenectomy was recommended to avoid the risk of relapse, but the patient declined because he was not experiencing tongue discomfort. Initial treatment of the anterior open-bite with molar intrusion and tongue exercises was successful, but relapse occurred during the retention period. A tongue elevator was used for retreatment, because the approach was minimally invasive and suited the patient's requirements regarding discomfort, cost, and time. The appliance changed the tongue posture and generated an altered tongue force, which ultimately resulted in intrusive dentoalveolar effects, and a subsequent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. The results showed long-term stability and were maintained for six years through continual use of the tongue elevator. The results of this case indicated that a tongue elevator could be used not only as an alternative treatment for open-bite, but also as an active retainer. PMID:25133135

  10. The Effects of Glossectomy on Anterior and Posterior Motion of the Tongue during Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, Rachel E.

    Speech debilitation in patients with glossectomy due to squamous cell carcinoma eradication has been described qualitatively by previous researchers. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the changes in tongue motion in glossectomy patients by comparing them to normal controls to help clarify the effects of the tongue resection/reconstruction on normal motion of the tongue during speech. Eight glossectomy patients, including one with a flap reconstruction, and nine normal controls had MRI recorded in the mid-sagittal plane while uttering "a souk" to evaluate the effects of tumor/resection size, closure procedure used, the level of motor control, and s-type on the velocity and displacement of the tongue tip and body at one or more points in time. No statistically significant differences in tongue motion or motor control were found between normal controls and glossectomy patients, suggesting retention of tongue mobility post-glossectomy. Patients with larger resections were found to have more difficulty with tongue tip motion during speech and one patient treated with flap reconstruction also showed highly altered tongue motion. S-type was not found to have a statistically significant effect on tongue motion. This study suggests that post-glossectomy debility in speech revealed previously most likely cannot be attributed to quantitative changes in tongue motion, but rather qualitative changes in tongue motion.

  11. Carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Warren R

    2009-05-01

    Based on the dialogue "The tongue" between Janellen Smith, MD, and Gary Brauner, MD. Dialogues in Dermatology, a monthly audio program from the American Academy of Dermatology, contains discussions between dermatologists on timely topics. Commentaries from Dialogues Editor-in-Chief Warren R. Heymann, MD, are provided after each discussion as a topic summary and are provided here as a special service to readers of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. PMID:19389525

  12. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  13. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  14. Bacterial-killing effect of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet and oral mucosa response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexi; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Zhou, Xincai; Cao, Yingguang; Lu, Xinpei

    2011-12-01

    Recently, plasma sterilization has attracted increasing attention in dental community for the atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet (APNPs), which is driven by a kilohertz pulsed DC power, may be applied to the dental and oral diseases. However, it is still in doubt whether APNPs can effectively kill pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and produce no harmful effects on normal oral tissues, especially on normal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial-killing effect of APNPs in the biofilms containing a single breed of bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g.), and the pathological changes of the oral mucosa after treatment by APNPs. P.g. was incubated to form the biofilms in vitro, and the samples were divided into three groups randomly: group A (blank control); group B in which the biofilms were treated by APNPs (the setting of the equipment: 10 kHz, 1600 ns and 8 kV); group C in which the biofilms were exposed only to a gas jet without ignition of the plasma. Each group had three samples and each sample was processed for up to 5 min. The biofilms were then fluorescently stained, observed and photographed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. In the animal experiment, six male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly (n=3 in each group) in terms of the different post-treatment time (1-day group and 5-day group). The buccal mucosa of the left side and the mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue were treated by APNPs for 10 min in the same way as the bacterial biofilm experiment in each rabbit, and the corresponding mucosa of the other sides served as normal control. The clinical manifestations of the oral mucosa were observed and recorded every day. The rabbits were sacrificed one or five day(s) after APNPs treatment. The oral mucosa were harvested and prepared to haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Clinical observation and histopathological scores were used to assess mucosal changes. The results showed the obvious P.g. biofilms were formed at 10 days, and most of the bacteria in groups A and C were alive under a laser scanning confocal microscope, but the bacteria in the group B were almost all dead. In animal experiment, no ulcers, anabrosis and oral mucositis were found in both the 1-day and 5-day groups. The average mucous membrane irritation index was -0.83 and -0.67 in the 1-day and 5-day groups, respectively, suggesting that no intense mucosal membrane irritation responses occurred. It was concluded that APNPs could effectively kill P.g. in the biofilms and did not cause any pathological changes in the normal mucosa, suggesting that the plasma jet (APNPs) may be applied to oral diseases as a novel sterilization device in the future. PMID:22173512

  15. Impact of tongue biofilm removal on mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943 PMID:23887759

  16. Pixel Based Tongue Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Naimin

    Tongue diagnosis is a distinctive and essential diagnostic measure in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and chromatic information is its most decisive characteristic which is utilized to unearth pathological changes for identifying diseases. In this paper, a computerized medical biometrics scheme is established which classify all pixels in tongue into various color classes. For train specimens, both a forward and a backward selection are employed to pick up the correct labeled pixel specimens and screen out the wrong, and then various pixels of diversified colors are classified for the tongue color analysis. The experimental outcomes are more applicable to tongue color analysis.

  17. MODELING THE CONSEQUENCES OF TONGUE SURGERY ON TONGUE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    mastication, swallowing and speech, which induce a noticeable decrease of the patients' quality of life [1 biomechanical model of the tongue originally developed to study speech production in non pathological conditions the tongue model (figure 1, right panel). Three cases were studied. First we simply implemented a reconstruct

  18. Running head: BILINGUAL TONGUE TWISTERS Does Bilingualism Twist Your Tongue?

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Running head: BILINGUAL TONGUE TWISTERS Does Bilingualism Twist Your Tongue? Tamar H. Gollan bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words to competition at a sublexical level). Even though bilinguals had learned English at an early age, and spoke

  19. Tongue Inspection in TCM: Observations in a Study Sample of Patients Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Michelle; Quinn, Jessica; Capili, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: One of the principal diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the inspection of the tongue. This method involves examination of the shape, size, color, and texture of the tongue body and coat and helps reveal the state of organ functions and progression of conditions. Literature on tongue observations for patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal. Objective: The goal of this study was to provide a clinical “snapshot” of initial tongue assessments of 159 patients living with HIV, who participated in an acupuncture clinical trial for chronic nausea. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences observed in tongue assessments. Design: This study was part of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded (subjects and evaluators), parallel-groups, acupuncture clinical trial for treating chronic nausea. Setting: The study was conducted at a large urban New York City academic health center. Patients: The patients in this study were 159 individuals who had HIV infections and who had histories of chronic nausea for ?3 months. Main Outcome Measures: Initial tongue assessments were recorded for seven basic characteristics: (1) tongue color; (2) tongue shape; (3) tongue body quality; (4) coat color; (5) coat weight; (6) coat surface; and (7) tongue action. Results: The overall tongue picture seen in these patients was that the tongue was swollen and toothmarked, had a pink body with cracks, and had a thick, dry white coat. Conclusions: The HIV disease itself and the use of long term medications affect the Blood, Qi, Yin, and Yang. The observation of the tongue provides a window into the process of the disease and, ultimately, insight for clinical care. This sample population snapshot illustrates the complex processes seen in long-term chronic conditions managed by pharmacologic medications. PMID:24761186

  20. Towards the objectification of tongue diagnosis: Automatic segmentation of tongue image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenshu Li; Shenning Hu; Shuai Wang; Su Xu

    2009-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis is an important foundation of the syndrome difference. The segmentation of the body of tongue is a premise to establishing a system of automatic diagnosis by the feature of tongue in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), whose qualities affect on the performance of tongue diagnosis. Because of similar color between tongue body and background, it is difficult to segment

  1. Our Mother Tongues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-06

    Frequently when one hears about the Native American experience in the United States, the focus is on the loss of traditions, folkways, and language. In contrast, this website was created to highlight a recent documentary by Anne Makepeace that focuses on the ways in which Native American languages have recovered and thrived in recent times. On the site, visitors should start by clicking on the interactive "Language Map." Here visitors can learn about twelve different languages, including Crow, Cherokee, Dakota, Euchee, and Lakota. Clicking on the "Voices" area gives visitors the opportunity to listen to Native Americans from different tribal communities speaking in their mother tongues. Additionally, visitors can send an electronic postcard from the site, read the site blog, and learn more about the project and the documentary.

  2. Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh

    2013-01-23

    Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

  3. To make a new intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Stelzner, Matthias; Chen, David C

    2006-01-01

    A number of clinical conditions are caused by disorders affecting the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Some patients suffer from a loss of mucosal surface area due to congenital defects or due to surgical resections ("short bowel syndrome"). Other patients have inborn or acquired defects of certain mucosal functions (e.g., glucose-galactose malabsorption, bile acid malabsorption). Many patients with these mucosal disorders could be more effectively treated if healthy mucosa were available in larger quantities as a replacement or functional supplement. We therefore developed methods to transplant mucosal stem cells from one part of the intestine to another and to make bioengineered intestinal mucosa. We generated an animal model of bile acid malabsorption using rats that underwent resection of the distal 25% of their small intestine (ileum). This resulted in significant losses of bile acids with the fecal excretions in these animals. We subsequently harvested ileal stem cell clusters from neonatal donors, removed the mucosa from a segment of proximal intestine (jejunum), and implanted the stem cell clusters into the debrided segment of jejunum. After four weeks, the animals had developed a functional "neomucosa." We inserted the "neo-ileal" segment into continuity as a substitute ileum. Postoperative measurements of fecal bile acid excretion showed that we were able to reverse the malabsorption syndrome in this model. This was the first reported neo-mucosa-based treatment of a malabsorption syndrome in vivo. We subsequently studied different biodegradable PGA and PLLA scaffoldings to generate bioengineered intestinal mucosa. We implanted these materials into omentum of rats and were able to identify a PGA/PLLA hybrid material on which engraftment rates of 36% of the available surface area could be achieved. Most recently, we developed a novel technique that permits direct observation of cell-biomaterial interactions after implantation into omentum or intestine in vivo. This method will help to optimize engraftment conditions for stem cell clusters on biomaterials. PMID:16608391

  4. Pthlh, a promising cancer modifier gene in rat tongue carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    SUWA, HIROHIKO; HIRANO, MASATO; KAWARADA, KOUJI; NAGAYAMA, MOTOHIKO; EHARA, MICHIKO; MURAKI, TOMONARI; SHISA, HAYASE; SUGIYAMA, AIKO; SUGIMOTO, MASAHIRO; HIAI, HIROSHI; KITANO, MOTOO; TANUMA, JUN-ICHI

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibly to the induction of rat tongue cancer (TC) by oral 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) exposure is a polygenic trait. Among several quantitative trait loci identified by crosses between TC-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and TC-resistant Wistar-Furth (WF) rats, we focused on tongue cancer susceptibility locus (Tcas3) of chromosome 4. We examined tongue carcinogenesis in the reciprocal congenic strains DA.WF-Tcas3 and WF.DA-Tcas3 and in their parental strains. The Tcas3DA allele, and not the Tcas3WF allele, significantly favored tumor latency, incidence and TC number/size. In genomic DNA of TCs induced in (DA × WF) F1 rats, the resistant Tcas3WF allele was frequently and selectively lost, particularly in larger tumors. Thus, we searched the possible candidate genes in the Tcas3 region using microarray analysis of TCs in F1 rats and revealed significant upregulation of 2 cancer-related genes, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) and Kras2. The relevance of the WF allele of Pthlh as a cancer modifier was indicated by 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to this strain. In contrast, no consistent strain-specific variations were found in Kras2. Moreover, the plasma Ca2+ level was consistently higher in DA rats when compared to the level in WF rats bearing TCs; moreover, the Pthlh-mRNA expression level was >30-fold higher in TCs when compared to this level in the normal tongue mucosa. Immunostaining experiments showed strong PTHrP protein expression in TCs of DA rats, and the signal was intensified in larger TCs. Kras2 was also upregulated in TCs, but to a lesser degree than PTHrP. Thus, Pthlh is a promising candidate modifier gene in the development and progression of rat TCs. PMID:24253735

  5. Artifactual Stratum Corneum Calcification of the Beagle Dog Tongue.

    PubMed

    Glover, Christiana; Ochoa, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    Examination of H&E-stained tongue samples from a 26-week intravenous infusion study of Beagle dogs, utilizing a compound with no recognized effect on mineral metabolism, exhibited superficial stratum corneum calcification in both treated and control animals. This resulted in the search for possible causes of the finding to help clarify confounding issues. Retrospective examination of 11 studies performed before the signal case indicated that the problem existed in the testing facility but was not recognized. Prior to 2008, this finding was not observed, perhaps indicating the requirement for a change in procedures or suppliers. Based on the hypothesis that the calcium salts were deposited from bone during processing, a series of tests was performed by fixing tongue and femur along with different tissues, processed routinely to slide, and stained with H&E and von Kossa stains. We conclude that the presence of superficial stratum corneum calcification of the tongue in dogs demonstrated in toxicology studies is an artifactual change related to the processing of tissues, specifically the fixation of tongue in the same container as bone and stomach. This change should not be confused with compound-related effects, even when the incidence varies between controls and treated animals. PMID:25391311

  6. Amelanotic melanoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, M; Renuka, Iv; Bala, G Saila; Seshaiah, N

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare lesion, with an incidence of about 0.2% to 0.8% of all melanomas. Melanoma of tongue is still rarer and represents less than 2% of oro-nasal melanoma cases. We report a rare case of amelanotic melanoma of the tongue in a young man. The importance of consideration of melanoma in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions is discussed since mucosal melanoma carries a bad prognosis and early diagnosis is vital. PMID:23798843

  7. The effect of vertical tongue loading on the position perception of the tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man-Tak Leung; Valter Ciocca

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vertical tongue loading on the position perception of the tongue. Five male and 5 female university\\u000a students served as subjects. Vertical upward and downward loading forces were applied to the tongue of the subjects. Their\\u000a task was to judge the perceived horizontal position of the tongue after tongue-loading directions. The means of the judgments\\u000a for

  8. Comparison of quality-of-life in tongue cancer patients undergoing tongue reconstruction with lateral upper arm free flap and radial forearm free flap

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yujie; Cui, Yaqi; Liao, Guiqing

    2015-01-01

    Surgery entails radical resection, neck dissection and tongue reconstruction has been commonly used in treatment of T2 and T3 tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Although lateral upper arm free flap (LUFF) and radial forearm free flap (RFFF) are similar in texture and thickness, significant differences can be noticed in the donor-site function and surgical demands. In the treatment of T2 and T3 tongue cancer, the choice of either LUFF or RFFF is still not defined.We aim to investigatethe long-term QOL of patients with moderate tongue defect and reconstruction with LUFF or RFFF, based on which to provide clinical suggestion for tongue reconstructions.Sixty-five patients (T2 or T3 stage, 42 underwent tongue reconstruction with RFFF and 23 with LUFF) treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University from January 2005 to June 2009 were included. The QOL of each patient was determined using the questionnaire designed based on the University of Washington Quality-of-Life (UW-QOL, version 4). The questionnaire was accomplished by a qualified medical staff blinded to the study after telephone communication with each patient. Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference was noticed in the long-term QOL of patients with tongue cancer after tongue reconstruction using LUFF or RFFF, respectively, indicating that similar QOLs were obtained in the long-term follow-up of patients with tongue cancer (T2 or T3 stages) using LUFF and RFFF for reconstruction.

  9. Metabolic markers and microecological characteristics of tongue coating in patients with chronic gastritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue diagnosis is a non-invasive, simple and valuable diagnostic tool. TCM treats the tongue coating on a very sensitive scale that reflects physiological and pathological changes in the organs, especially the spleen and stomach. Tongue coating can diagnose disease severity and determine the TCM syndrome (“Zheng” in Chinese). The biological bases of different tongue coating appearances are still poorly understood and lack systematic investigation at the molecular level. Methods Tongue coating samples were collected from 70 chronic gastritis patients and 20 normal controls. 16S rRNA denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA–DGGE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were designed to profile tongue coatings. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminate analysis. Results Ten potential metabolites or markers were found in chronic gastritis patients, including UDP-D-galactose, 3-ketolactose, and vitamin D2, based on LC–MS. Eight significantly different strips were observed in samples from chronic gastritis patients based on 16S rRNA–DGGE. Two strips, Strips 8 and 10, were selected for gene sequencing. Strip 10 sequencing showed a 100% similarity to Rothia mucilaginosa. Strip 8 sequencing showed a 96.2% similarity to Moraxella catarrhalis. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism could possibly form the basis of tongue coating conformation in chronic gastritis patients. The study revealed important connections between metabolic components, microecological components and tongue coating in chronic gastritis patients. Compared with other diagnostic regimens, such as blood tests or tissue biopsies, tongue coating is more amenable to, and more convenient for, both patients and doctors. PMID:24041039

  10. [Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25508742

  11. [Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM. PMID:25474963

  12. Atypical histiocytic granuloma of tongue.

    PubMed

    Dominic, Augustine; Sundaresh, K J; Manish, N; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of a painless ulcer on the dorsum of the tongue. He was a chronic smoker since the age of 15 years. The ulcer was well-defined, non-tender and indurated. An incisional biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of atypical histiocytic granuloma was made after histopathological examination. The lesion resolved spontaneously after the incisional biopsy and the patient was on follow-up for 6 months and no recurrences were observed. Here we report a rare case of atypical histiocytic granuloma. Hence, it must be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of ulcers on the tongue. PMID:23737581

  13. Atypical histiocytic granuloma of tongue

    PubMed Central

    Dominic, Augustine; Sundaresh, KJ; Manish, N; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of a painless ulcer on the dorsum of the tongue. He was a chronic smoker since the age of 15?years. The ulcer was well-defined, non-tender and indurated. An incisional biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of atypical histiocytic granuloma was made after histopathological examination. The lesion resolved spontaneously after the incisional biopsy and the patient was on follow-up for 6?months and no recurrences were observed. Here we report a rare case of atypical histiocytic granuloma. Hence, it must be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of ulcers on the tongue. PMID:23737581

  14. Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photo shows the complex bottom topography of the Bahama Banks area(24.0N, 77.0W). The majority of the feature (light blue color), where the tide and current sculpted bottom detail may be seen, is shallow water, generally less than three meters deep. However, the Tongue of the Ocean, Deep blue color, is water over 2,000 meters in depth. Andros Island is the largest island in the photograph. _

  15. A fish that uses its hydrodynamic tongue to feed on land.

    PubMed

    Michel, Krijn B; Heiss, Egon; Aerts, Peter; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

    2015-04-22

    To capture and swallow food on land, a sticky tongue supported by the hyoid and gill arch skeleton has evolved in land vertebrates from aquatic ancestors that used mouth-cavity-expanding actions of the hyoid to suck food into the mouth. However, the evolutionary pathway bridging this drastic shift in feeding mechanism and associated hyoid motions remains unknown. Modern fish that feed on land may help to unravel the physical constraints and biomechanical solutions that led to terrestrialization of fish-feeding systems. Here, we show that the mudskipper emerges onto land with its mouth cavity filled with water, which it uses as a protruding and retracting 'hydrodynamic tongue' during the initial capture and subsequent intra-oral transport of food. Our analyses link this hydrodynamic action of the intra-oral water to a sequence of compressive and expansive cranial motions that diverge from the general pattern known for suction feeding in fishes. However, the hyoid motion pattern showed a remarkable resemblance to newts during tongue prehension. Consequently, although alternative scenarios cannot be excluded, hydrodynamic tongue usage may be a transitional step onto which the evolution of adhesive mucosa and intrinsic lingual muscles can be added to gain further independence from water for terrestrial foraging. PMID:25788596

  16. Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

  17. Brain imaging of tongue-twister sentence comprehension: Twisting the tongue

    E-print Network

    Brain imaging of tongue-twister sentence comprehension: Twisting the tongue and the brain Timothy A. Keller, Patricia A. Carpenter, and Marcel Adam Just* Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Carnegie Mellon the neural basis of the tongue-twister effect in a sen- tence comprehension task. Participants silently read

  18. Lymphocyte subpopulations of intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Eade, O E; Andre-Ukena, S S; Moulton, C; MacPherson, B; Beeken, W L

    1980-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood (PBL) and intestinal mucosa (IML) of 10 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were compared with those of 11 non-IBD controls. PBL were separated on Ficoll/hypaque gradients, and IML were isolated by incubation in dithiothreitol, EDTA, and collagenase. These methods yielded cells of good viability and with intact HLA A and B-antigens. T-cells, identified by neuraminidase-treated sheep RBC rosettes and non-specific esterase staining, comprised approximately 91% of the IML from normal mucosa of all groups. B-cells, identified by erythrocyte-antibody-complement rosettes and surface immunoglobulins, were only 7% of these IML populations. Cell yields were two-fold or more greater from abnormal IBD mucosa, with T-cells ranging from 55 to 95% and B-cells from 2 to 36%. The percentage of Fc receptor bearing cells was low in all specimens. By these methods, T-lymphocytes predominated in intestinal mucosa of both IBD and non-IBD patients, but there is marked increase in the percentage of B-cells isolated from abnormal mucosa in IBD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 11 PMID:6968706

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus, pregnancy and carcinoma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Jeffrey David; Baldwin, Andrew; Byrd, Louise

    2013-01-01

    We present a case which describes a 29-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who was treated aggressively with cytotoxic immunosuppression. Five years later and approximately 12?weeks pregnant, she is confirmed as having carcinoma of the tongue. Not wishing to consider termination of her pregnancy, she underwent surgical resection, which included partial glossectomy with microvascular reconstruction. Good oral function (speech and swallowing) was restored within 2?weeks. The pregnancy proceeded relatively uneventfully to 37?weeks gestation when proteinuric hypertension necessitated induction of labour. She remains well with no evidence of recurrence. This case highlights the options available in the treatment of carcinoma of the tongue during pregnancy together with the ethical considerations required, balanced against optimising maternal outcomes. PMID:23729701

  20. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tien-Tse Chiu; Hsin-Ching Lin; Chih-Ying Su; Chao-Cheng Huang

    The oral cavity is a rare location for the development of primary malignant melanoma. The most common primary lesion sites are the palate and gingiva. Melanoma of the tongue is specifically uncommon. A 66-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a complaint of a huge, painless, black, discolored mass on the right side of the oral tongue for 7

  1. Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2008-01-01

    Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

  2. Resemblance of tongue anatomy in twins.

    PubMed

    Spielman, Andrew I; Brand, Joseph G; Buischi, Yvonne; Bretz, Walter A

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the anatomical features of the tongue in nine pairs of twins - six monozygotic and three dizygotic. The aim of the project was to determine if tongues, like any other anatomical structure, could be used to reliably predict relatedness given that tongue shape, presentation and surface can be influenced by environment. Using the method of forced choice, 30 subjects were asked to match the photographs of tongues from twins. Our data indicate that, based on visual assessment, monozygotic twins have highly similar tongues (60% matches); similarly, dizygotic twins were matched 31% of the time, which is a higher probability than would be expected from random selection. This study should help identify baseline and control data in future behavioral studies of taste, which has a genetic basis. PMID:21623658

  3. Resemblance of Tongue Anatomy in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Andrew I.; Brand, Joseph G.; Buischi, Yvonne; Bretz, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the anatomical features of the tongue in nine pairs of twins — six monozygotic and three dizygotic. The aim of the project was to determine if tongues, like any other anatomical structure, could be used to reliably predict relatedness given that tongue shape, presentation and surface can be influenced by environment. Using the method of forced choice, 30 subjects were asked to match the photographs of tongues from twins. Our data indicate that, based on visual assessment, monozygotic twins have highly similar tongues (60% matches); similarly, dizygotic twins were matched 31% of the time, which is a higher probability than would be expected from random selection. This study should help identify baseline and control data in future behavioral studies of taste, which has a genetic basis. PMID:21623658

  4. Pu-erh tea has in vitro anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in U14 cells injected mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Ya-Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Qiang; Li, Gui-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a functional tea production in China. The functional effects should be proved. The oral cancer preventive and antimetastatic effects of Pu-erh tea in vitro and in vivo have been studied respectively. Pu-erh tea showed an inhibitory effect on human tongue carcinoma TCA8113 cells proliferation tested by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-Thiazolyl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay and induced TCA8113 apoptosis shown anticancer effect. The antimetastatic effect of Pu-erh tea in TCA8113 cells was proved by the decreasing of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and increasing of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) mRNA transcription. In the animal experiments, the tumor volumes and lymph node metastasis rates of Pu-erh tea-treated mice were smaller than control mice. Pu-erh tea reduced the levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interferon-? to a greater extent compared with the control mice, and the levels of 200 ?g/mL treatment was more close to the normal mice than 100 ?g/mL treated mice. Pu-erh tea also significantly induced apoptosis in tissues of mice (P < 0.05) by upregulating Bax and downregulating Bcl-2. These results demonstrate Pu-erh tea has cancer preventive and anti-metastatic effects on buccal mucosa cancer, the higher concentration get better efficiency. PMID:24945996

  5. When Mother-Tongue Education is "Not" Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anthea Fraser

    1997-01-01

    Discusses situations in which mother-tongue education may not be desirable. Separate sections discuss language in education systems, multilingual settings, mother-tongue education in the "Cosmopolis," determining the mother tongue, definition of a language, social and ethnic divisiveness of mother-tongue education. The final section provides a…

  6. A case of zygomycosis and invasive candidiasis involving the epiglottis and tongue in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Chemaly, Roy F; Fox, Susan B; Alkotob, Luay M; Scharpf, Joseph; Sobecks, Ronald; Eliachar, Isaac; Procop, Gary W; Smith, Mark; Avery, Robin K; Schmitt, Steven K

    2002-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We describe an unusual case of concomitant invasive candidiasis and zygomycosis of the tongue and epiglottis that occurred in a young patient with neutropenia during chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia and was successfully treated medically. PMID:11928855

  7. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

  8. The Human Tongue Slows Down to Speak: Muscle Fibers of the Human Tongue

    PubMed Central

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI; AMIRALI, ASIF; SU, HUNGXI; SOBOTKA, STANISLAW

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of 4 neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2 year old human, a newborn human, an adult with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), and a macaque monkey. The average percentage of slow MFs in adult and the 2 year old muscle specimens was 54%, the IPD was 45%, while the neonatal human (32%) and macaque monkey (28%) had markedly fewer slow MFs. In contrast the tongue muscles of the rat and cat have been reported to have no slow MFs. There was a marked spatial gradient in the distribution of slow MFs with the highest percentages found medially and posterially. Normal adult tongue muscles were found to have a variety of uniquely specialized features including MF type grouping (usually found in neuromuscular disorders), large amounts of loose connective tissue, and short branching MFs. In summary, normal adult human tongue muscles have by far the highest proportion of slow MFs of any mammalian tongue studied to date. Moreover, adult human tongue muscles have multiple unique anatomic features. As the tongue shape changes that are seen during speech articulation are unique to humans we hypothesize that the large proportion of slow MFs and the anatomical specializations observed in the adult human tongue have evolved to perform these movements. PMID:23929762

  9. Spindle cell amelanotic lesion of the tongue: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Shukla, Mridula; Goud, Umakanth; Ravi, Devendra Kumar; Kumar, Mohan; Pandey, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    Melanomas occurring in the tongue are rarer, and when nonpigmented they are often misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. We report a 50-year-old woman who presented with a 3?×?2 cm soft swelling of mucosal color on the right lateral border of the tongue. The patient had multiple recurrences and was treated by radical radiotherapy, was operated thrice and received adjuvant 5 MIU interferon weekly. During the last surgery, she developed multiple cerebral infarcts and died on the fifth postoperative day. Oral amelanotic melanoma is a very aggressive and potential lethal tumor that often presents as diagnostic dilemma. PMID:24426627

  10. [Dental and oncological status of patients with tongue carcinoma].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    After the supervision over patients with cancer of mucous membrane of oral cavity (MMOC) admitted for treatment in the Tver Regional Clinical Oncological Hospital (TRCOH), the analysis of 427 primary revealed cases of cancer of mobile part of the tongue MPoT (S 02) was carried out. The study included retrospective analysis of case records of 237 patients treated from 1997 to 2013 with the diagnosis of MPoT and prospective examination of 190 patients treated by authors in specialized departments of TRCOH. On the basis of questioning of 67 III-IV stages tongue carcinoma patients at the age of 50-59 years clinical course features, cancer risk factors and oral care patterns were studied. It was revealed that patients often make decision to see an oncologist to meet relatives wishes, prefer self-treatment, trust hearings and quacks or simply hope for self-recovery. Studying of dental status revealed high prevalence and intensity of caries. All males and the majority of sampled women weren't informed about additional methods of oral cavity hygiene (dental floss, mouthwashes, gels) and had unsatisfactory or bad level of Fedorov-Volodkina hygienic index. We revealed a high necessity in treatment of caries and its complications, an average of 3.61 and 2.73 teeth needed filling and 4,43 and 1.77 teeth - extraction in male and female patients, correspondently. The received data identify a great need for dental treatment and patient education in patients with tongue malignancy. PMID:25909610

  11. Tongue piercing and chronic abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting--two cases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung Kyu; Chung, Danielle; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of unclear etiology are frustrating to patients and physicians alike. The integrative medicine procedures of acupuncture and neural therapy may provide treatment options. Tongue piercing, which is prevalent in 5.6% of the adolescent population, may be a contributing factor in upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To demonstrate the usefulness of an integrative medicine treatment approach in two cases of patients with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting of unclear etiology who had failed standard medical management. (2) To identify scars from tongue piercings as a possible contributing factor in chronic upper GI symptoms of unclear etiology. Two retrospective case studies are presented of young adult females who were seen in a private multi-physician integrative medicine practice in the US. The patients were treated with neural therapy and acupuncture. The desired outcome was the cessation or reduction of the frequency of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms. From this study, we have concluded the following: (1) Tongue scars from tongue rings may be causes of chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms. (2) Neural therapy and acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of chronic upper GI symptoms related to tongue scars. PMID:25457444

  12. A novel procedure combining transoral resection and set-back tongue flap for oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mizuno; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Tashiro, Masatugu; Ishikawa, Tooru

    2015-07-01

    Seven patients with advanced lateral oropharyngeal cancer (T3N2bM0, or T4N2bM0) underwent transoral lateral oropharyngectomy (TLO) with reconstruction performed through set-back tongue flap and polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet. TLO was performed following en bloc resection of tumors using endoscopy. To cover the resulting defect in the lateral oropharyngeal wall, the set-back tongue flap was moved posteriorly and laterally to the area of the tongue base and lateral pharyngeal wall. The tip of the set-back tongue flap was sutured to the lateral pharynx to reconstruct the elevated tongue base and altered anterior pillar. The defect on the floor of the mouth was reconstructed using a PGA sheet. Following surgery, the mean observation period was 24 months. The mean operating time was 4 h and 2 min, with an average blood loss of 68.1 ml. All oral intake resumed on the first postoperative day via gastric tube. The mean gastric tube removal time was 1.6 postoperative days as a result of sufficient oral intake. None of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy or displayed evidence of tumor recurrence. We conclude that this novel procedure is highly effective for treating advanced oropharyngeal cancer as it demonstrates good prognostic and functional outcomes. PMID:25761449

  13. [Recurrent chancriform mucous membrane ulcer in plasmacytoma with secondary IgA deficiency. Pyoderma chancriforme of the tongue].

    PubMed

    Hegemann, B; Helmbold, P; Dickert, C; Marsch, W C

    2001-09-01

    A 66 year old patient presented with a nine month history of recurrent oral ulcerations involving the tongue. We diagnosed chancriform pyoderma and a previously not identified multiple myeloma with secondary immunoglobulin deficiency. Clinically and histologically we excluded a necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis as found in individuals with cellular immunodeficiency as in late-stage HIV-infection. On culture only Neisseria catarrhalis was found. Chancriform pyoderma is often associated with local bacterial infections, especially Staphylococcus aureus. The most common sites are the genitalia and periorbital region; involvement of the oral mucosa is uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case with tongue lesions. The multiple myeloma-associated immunoglobulin deficiency might have facilitated the oral manifestations of chancriform pyoderma. PMID:11572076

  14. Transitional mucosa in human colorectal lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Mori; Reishi Shimono; Yosuke Adachi; Hiroyuki Matsuda; Hiroyuki Kuwano; Keizo Sugimachi; Masahito Ikeda; Motonori Saku

    1990-01-01

    Mucosa adjacent to colorectal disease was studied mucinhistochemically. Selected specimens were also studied immunohistochemically for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Transitional mucosa, which showed elongation of crypts and marked sialomucin secretion, accompanied by a marked reduction in the normal sulfomucin content, was evident in 96 of 100 carcinomas (96 percent), 18 of 36 adenomas (50 percent), and 10 of 30 metaplastic polyps

  15. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool

    PubMed Central

    Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields. PMID:22470887

  16. Motivational conditions influence tongue motor performance.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2013-04-01

    Motivation plays an important role in the outcome of motor learning but has not received attention in tongue-training-induced plasticity of the corticomotor pathways. The present study investigated the influence of two different motivational conditions and gender on performance during a complex tongue-training paradigm using the tongue drive system (TDS). In addition, subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain, and fatigue were compared between groups and genders. Sixteen subjects were randomized into three groups and were asked to use the TDS for 40 min. A motivational condition (monetary reward or self-controlled practice) was introduced in two groups and the third group served as the control. The subjects were instructed to play a computer game using the TDS, having control of the computer cursor through a magnet attached to the tongue, and performance was compared among groups. Performance improved in all groups and in both genders. The monetary reward group tended towards higher performance scores compared with the control group, whereas the self-controlled practice group performed significantly better compared with the control group. There was no significant difference between groups and genders in the subject-based report for level of motivation, fun, pain, or fatigue. In conclusion, introduction of motivational conditions influenced tongue motor performance. PMID:23489900

  17. Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; ?lencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 ?g/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 ?g/kg bw/day; E3: 1 ?g/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases. PMID:25655413

  18. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons between them. Paired BTAT assessments were obtained from eight midwives who were using the new assessment tool. Results There was acceptable internal reliability for the four-item BTAT (Cronbach's ?=0.708) and the eight midwives who used it showed good correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.760). The BTAT showed a strong and significant correlation (0.89) with the ATLFF, indicating that the simpler BTAT could be used in place of the more detailed assessment tool to score the extent of a tongue-tie. Midwives found it quick and easy to use and felt that it would be easy to teach to others. Conclusions The BTAT provides an objective, clear and simple measure of the severity of a tongue-tie, to inform selection of infants for frenotomy and to monitor the effect of the procedure. PMID:25877288

  19. Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and

    E-print Network

    Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production: Master of Resource Management Report Number: 529 Title of Research Project: Economics of Biological Invasion: Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and Livestock Production in British Columbia Supervisory

  20. Tongue movement and syllable onset complexity: ultrasound study 

    E-print Network

    Kocjancic, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    In this study ultrasound was used to investigate tongue movements in syllables with different number and type of onset consonants. Ultrasound recordings provided the information of the distance the tongue travels over a target, and audio recordings...

  1. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    SciTech Connect

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  2. New method for evaluation of tongue-coating status.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Ueda, T; Sakurai, K

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Tongue Coating Index, which is a new method for evaluating tongue-coating status. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of our new evaluation criteria (Score 0: Tongue coating not visible; Score 1: Tongue coating thin, papillae of tongue visible; Score 2: Tongue coating very thick, papillae of tongue not visible), 10 observers evaluated 20 photographs of tongues. Each tongue surface was divided into nine sections. Observers evaluated each section according to our new criteria and each score for tongue-coating status was recorded in the pertinent section of the Tongue Coating Record form. They repeated the same evaluation 2 weeks after the first evaluation. The relationship between the scores obtained and number of oral microorganisms was investigated in 50 edentulous patients. Tongue coating was collected from the tongue surface after evaluation of tongue-coating status. The total number of anaerobic bacteria and the number of Candida species were counted from the specimens collected. Interobserver agreement and intraobserver agreement were 0.66 and 0.80 by Cohen's kappa, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the number of Candida species among the three scores. The number of total anaerobic bacteria, however, was significantly different among the scores (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that our method for evaluating tongue-coating status offers new criteria that are superior in reliability and reproducibility, and that also reflect the total number of anaerobic bacteria present on the dorsum of the tongue. PMID:17518979

  3. Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (24.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

  4. Tongue of the ocean, Bahamas Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A portion of the tongue of the ocean (24.0N, 77.0W), and the Bahamas Bank, Bahamas Archipelago. The light blue region is the shalow sea bottom where the Bahama Bank is no more than 30 ft. deep. At the contact between light and dark blue, an underwater shear cliff drops over a mile in depth. The wavey lines of various shades of blue are caused by the differential coral growth relative to the warm/cool water transfer in and out of the tongue.

  5. Bahama Banks, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Most of the Western Bahama Banks, the Tongue of the Ocean and Andros Island (25.0N, 77.0W) as well as north central Cuba with its fringing reefs can be seen in this one view. The green water over the banks is less than 30 ft. deep but the deep blue of the Tongue is 4000 to 6000 ft. deep. All the sediment on the banks, including the material that forms the islands, is calcium carbonate (lime) precipitated from sea water by animals and plants.

  6. Carprofen-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of the colonic mucosa of the dog.

    PubMed

    Snow, Lynne A; McConnico, Rebecca S; Morgan, Timothy W; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Hosgood, Giselle

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 ?g/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure. PMID:24982549

  7. Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouni, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

  8. Preliminary model for heat transport within a tongue-and-reservoir liquid diode for passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary model is presented for heat transport within a tongue-and-reservoir liquid diode for passive solar heating. The diode consists of a rectangular vertical slot (tongue) extending from the bottom of a rectangular-shaped reservoir at the reservoir's front face. Water is used as the working fluid in the tongue and reservoir. Solar radiation is incident on the front face of the tongue, which also loses heat to the outside, while radiation and convection transport heat from the back of the reservoir to the building. Convection transports heat when the tongue is irradiated; however, when convection ceases and the temperature of the tongue cools below that of the reservoir (from exposure to the outside temperature), the reservoir stratifies, and the primary heat loss mechanism is conduction through the tongue and its fluid. The result is a passive solar component that may outperform most others. Flow in the tongue is treated as boundary layer flow; the integral forms of the governing equations are combined to form a single equation governing the local boundary layer thickness. The results are shown to depend upon the Grashof, Prandtl, and heat-loss Biot numbers. Results from this model agree well with those from our flow visualization experiments. A model is also proposed for diode heat transport processes during cool-down. In this model, and empirical coefficient accounts for the weak convective mixing that occurs in the reservoir during this phase. Preliminary results indicate the coefficient to be spatially dependent but independent of time and reservoir temperature. More experiments are planned to further validate both of the models described above.

  9. Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-07-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption. PMID:24824736

  10. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  11. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  12. Mother Tongue Education: Necessary? Possible? Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Barbara Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Issues affecting pre-school education in a rural area of Kenya are highlighted in a study of a mother tongue education (MTE) programme in one indigenous language group, the Pokomo. Factors supporting the introduction of MTE include official support for MTE, the welcoming of non-government stakeholder involvement in education, the presence of…

  13. Relation between psoriasis and geographic tongue.

    PubMed

    Tarakji, Bassel; Umair, Ayesha; Babaker, Zynab; Sn, Azzeghaiby; Gazal, Giath; Sarraj, Faysal

    2014-11-01

    The aim this article is to investigate the link between geographic tongue and psoriasis skin disease. Our review paper of the literature will handle strict study about the relation between geographic tongue and psoriasis. Our search has identified only limited studies available in English written literature starting from 2006-2013 using pubMed - indexed for MEDLINE. The result of this review suggests that geographic tongue may be an oral manifestation of psoriasis.There is no clear evidence in literature about association with gender and aetiology except one study which shows that benign migratory glossitis is more prevalent in young, nonsmoker and atopic or allergic individuals. Treatment for oral lesions is not standardized. A geographic tongue is significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients but only a limited data is available to date to strongly validate the association between these two entities.We recommend the general practitioner to have a good understanding about the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this lesion. Psoriatic patients should be encouraged to undergo routine dental checkups. PMID:25584342

  14. Intramuscular hemangioma with phleboliths of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Kamatani, Takaaki; Saito, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Kondo, Seiji; Shirota, Tatsuo; Shintani, Satoru

    2014-04-01

    Intramuscular hemangioma (IMH) is relatively rare benign tumor of vascular origin. Phleboliths are calcified thrombi found in the presence of hemangioma. The main treatment of the hemangioma is a surgical extirpation based on location, accessibility, and cosmetic considerations. We herein report a rare case of IMH with phleboliths of the tongue with clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings. PMID:25565734

  15. Mother Tongue Education: The West African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo, Ed.

    In the rapidly changing political, economic, and social life of West Africa, there is a renewed interest in cultural identity. This book describes the developments and the difficulties experienced by different West African countries in the use of mother tongues in multi-lingual society. The book was commissioned to give scholars, educators, and…

  16. Epidemiología de la patología de la mucosa oral más frecuente en niños Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Rioboo García

    Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of fin- ding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic

  17. [Virus diseases of the mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Nasemann, T

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with the system of viral species, viral disorders of the oral mucosa may be classified with regard to their intensity of affection. There are but few viral infections exclusively affecting the oral mucosa like e.g. 1. Glossitis papulosa of Michelson, representing a special form of vaccinia inoculata, 2. Gingivo-stomatitis herpetica and 3. warts of the mucosa or condyloma-like papillomas of the oral mucosa including oral papillomatosis, that, itself shows morphological and clinical similarities to laryngeal papilloma. A second group of disorders mainly affecting the oral mucosa includes the "Aphthoid of Pospischill and Feyrter", Zahorsky's herpangina and other viral infections by the Coxsackie group, like vesicular stomatitis. The 3rd group represents viral infections of other organs in which affection of the oral mucosa is a prerogative, e.g. smallpox, varicella, foot-and-mouth disease and pharyngo-conjunctival fever. A 4th group includes those viral infections of the organs in which co-affection of oral mucosa occurs frequently or once in a while (at occasions). Here, we find eczema vaccinatum, herpes zoster, herpes simplex of the oral mucosa mostly on the hard palate, eczema herpeticatum, post-herpetic Erythema exsudativum multiforme, Mononucleosis infectiosa Pfeiffer, viral flu, German measles, parotitis epidemica, rubeola and ECHO-exanthema. A 5th and last group is made up by viral infections of other organs, in which affection of the oral mucosa hardly occurs at all. This group contains paravaccinal Ecthyma contagiosum, poliomyelitis, viral infection of the city of Marburg and some Arbovirus infections. Relatively few viral disorders never co-exist with lesions on the oral mucosa like e.g. Virus-hepatitis or some viral encephalitides. Groups 1 and 2, most important of all, are presented in detail regarding clinics, diagnostics, differential-diagnosis and therapy. The disorders within the other 3 groups are discussed only regarding their importance in the field of ENT-related symptoms of the oral mucosa. A number of pictures and tables completes important clinical details and give further hints to their differential-diagnosis. PMID:830106

  18. Time, dose, and tumor volume relationships in irradiation of squamous cell carcinomas of the base of the tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Spanos; Leonard J. Shukovsky; Gilbert H. Fletcher

    1976-01-01

    Between January 1954 and August 1971, 174 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue were treated with megavoltage external beam using conventional treatment times. Since the cumulative recurrence rate was 90 percent by 2 years, patients surviving 2 years without primary recurrences are considered to have no evidence of disease (NED) at the primary site. The

  19. Isolated cysticercosis of tongue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pratima; Chauhan, Nidhi; Dogra, Rajeev; Kala, Pooja; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-08-01

    Cysticercosis of the tongue is a rare disease caused by infestation with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) in which man acts as a secondary host rather than a primary host. Most of these lesions are asymptomatic. The patient usually reports to the physician with the complaint of swelling. The solitary swelling in the tongue of this young 12-year-old girl was not suspected clinically for cysticercosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology, used for pre-operative diagnosis, suggested the possibility of cysticercosis. Detailed medical evaluation was carried out which ruled out neural cysticercosis and other extraneural lesions. The complete removal of the lesion was achieved by simple excision. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of lingual cysticercosis. PMID:24610792

  20. Immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural characteristics of nerve endings in the oral mucosa of rat.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Dias, Fernando José; Mardegan Issa, João Paulo; dos Santos Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre; Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Takada, Silvia Honda; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Pereira da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi; Campos, Leila M G; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2013-04-01

    The sensory nerve endings of the rat tongue, cheek and palate were studied using immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The specimens were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution and embedded in Spurr resin. Substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)- and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP b9.5)-containing nerve fibers in the rat tongue, cheek and palate were examined by electronic microscopical analysis and immunohistochemical localization. These fibers run very close to the basal lamina of the epithelium and extend into the filliform and fungiform papillae. Numerous plexiform fibers immunoreactive for substance P, CGRP and PGP 9.5 were found in the connective tissue of mucosa. Electron microscopic observations showed clearly immunostained nerve fibers, which are located very close to the basal lamina of epithelial cells. Some electron-dense granules may be observed in the axoplasms of both substance P and CGRP immunoreactive fibers. Several lamellar corpuscles into the subepithelial connective tissue papillae, Merkel corpuscles and numerous thin unmyelinated and myelinated axons were observed. The terminal axons revealed numerous mitochondria, neurofilaments, microtubules and clear vesicles in the base of axoplasmic protrusions. The lamellar cells showed caveolae and interlamelar spaces filled by amorphous substance. Between the lamellar cells and axoplasmic membrane, and in the adjacent lamellae region, desmosome-type junctions were observed. The quantitative and morphometric analysis showed nerve endings with an average area of 4.83 ± 3.4 ?m(2) and 19.4 internal mitochondria in this site and the organized corpuscles with an average area of 79.24 ± 27.24 ?m(2) and 24.23 internal mitochondria in this place. All the structures observed are involved in the transmission of pain and mechanoreceptors stimulus of these oral mucosae. PMID:23103640

  1. ParselTongue: AIPS Python Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettenis, Mark; Sipior, Mike

    2012-08-01

    ParselTongue is a Python interface to classic AIPS, Obit and possibly other task-based data reduction packages. It serves as the software infrastructure for some of the ALBUS implementation. It allows you to run AIPS tasks, and access AIPS headers and extension tables from Python. There is also support for running Obit tasks and accessing data in FITS files. Full access to the visibilities in AIPS UV data is also available.

  2. Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

  3. Tongue-Supported Human-Computer Interaction systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Sherazi, Hammad I; Quain, Rohan

    2014-08-01

    The tongue can substitute human sensory systems and has been used as a medium of input to help impaired patients communicate with the world. Innovative techniques have been employed to realize tongue movement, sense its position and exploit tongue dexterity, in order to achieve Tongue Supported Human Computer Interaction (TSHCI). This paper examines various approaches of using tongue dexterousness in TSHCI systems and introduces two infrared signal supported minimally-invasive TSHCI systems developed at Curtin University. Methods of sensing tongue movement and position are especially discussed and depending on the employed methods, TSHCI systems are categorized as either invasive or minimally-invasive. A set of system usability criteria is proposed to help build more effective TSHCI systems in future. PMID:25570232

  4. Visual attention at the tip of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Soeizi, Matin; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2015-01-01

    The brain shifts attention by selectively modulating sensory information about relevant environmental features. It has been shown that eye, head, trunk and limb position can bias spatial attention. This leads to the interesting question: Does the brain only recruit bodily information that is explicitly related to orienting behaviour to direct attention, or more generally? We tested whether tongue position, which does not explicitly functionally relate to orienting behaviour, biases attention in a visual search task. Thirty-six participants completed three visual search trial blocks of increased difficulty each consisting of three tongue positions for 50 trials. Response times and error rates were used to assess whether tongue position modulates visual attention. Results show that sensorimotor information from the tongue modulates attention in a difficult visual search task: faster responses to visual search targets presented ipsilateral with the tongue; slower responses when contralateral. In line with cognition being generally embodied, the tongue plays a surprising role in directing attention. PMID:26034566

  5. Visual attention at the tip of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Soeizi, Matin; DeSouza, Joseph F. X.

    2015-01-01

    The brain shifts attention by selectively modulating sensory information about relevant environmental features. It has been shown that eye, head, trunk and limb position can bias spatial attention. This leads to the interesting question: Does the brain only recruit bodily information that is explicitly related to orienting behaviour to direct attention, or more generally? We tested whether tongue position, which does not explicitly functionally relate to orienting behaviour, biases attention in a visual search task. Thirty-six participants completed three visual search trial blocks of increased difficulty each consisting of three tongue positions for 50 trials. Response times and error rates were used to assess whether tongue position modulates visual attention. Results show that sensorimotor information from the tongue modulates attention in a difficult visual search task: faster responses to visual search targets presented ipsilateral with the tongue; slower responses when contralateral. In line with cognition being generally embodied, the tongue plays a surprising role in directing attention.

  6. ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AND PSEUDOMONADACEAE ON THE DORSUM OF THE HUMAN TONGUE

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Simone; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. Material and Methods: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux). Results: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001) and non-smokers (p=0.0485). Conclusions: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures. PMID:19936511

  7. Ancient schwannoma of the tongue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Suat; Akp?nar, Meltem; Yi?it, Ozgür; Günver, Feray

    2011-01-01

    A 45-year-old male patient had left sided submucosal swelling extending backwards from the tip of the tongue disturbing articulation and swallowing. Submucosally located lesion was 3 x 2 x 1.5 cm in size and totally excised under local anesthesia. In this article, we present a case of ancient schwannoma of tongue. Although a very rare entity, ancient schwannoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of tongue lesions. PMID:21762056

  8. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

    1995-09-01

    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower. PMID:8591770

  9. Extracting the Movement of Lip and Tongue During Articulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-wook Hong; Jong-il Park; Sung-kyun Moon; Hyeongseok Ko

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a A method that extracts the 3-D shape and movement of lip and tongue and displays them simultaneously is presented. Lip movement\\u000a is easily observable and thus extractable using a camera. However, it is difficult to extract the real movement of tongue\\u000a exactly because the tongue may be occluded by the lip and teeth. In this paper, we use a magnetic

  10. Protective effects of bifidobacterial adhesin on intestinal mucosa of stressed male rats via modulation of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Yu, Tin-Tin; Kang, Kai; Xu, Han; Lei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess BA impact on inflammation markers and repair of intestinal mucosa. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into stress (n = 24) and BA (n = 24) groups. Stress was induced by fettering in all animals, fed enterally with 125.4 kJ/kg/d and 0.2 g/kg/d nitrogen. Then, rats were treated for 8 days with 5 mg/kg/d BA (BA group) or 5 mg/kg/d saline (Stress group). Levels of NF-?B, IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured at different time points, in plasma and intestinal mucosa samples. Changes in intestinal mucosa morphology were observed by electron microscopy. Plasma and/or mucosal levels of NF-?B, TNF-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in both groups after stress induction (P < 0.05). These high levels persisted in control animals throughout the experiment, and were significantly reduced in the BA group, 3 and 8 days after stress induction (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IL-10 levels were increased after BA treatment (P < 0.05). At day 8, ileal mucosal villi and crypt structure were significantly restored in the BA group. Bifidobacterial adhesin plays a role in repairing intestinal mucosa injury after stress by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:25031756

  11. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Joana; Magalhães, Ana; Carvalho, Ana S; Hernandez, Gilberto E; Papp, Suzanne L; Head, Steven R; Michel, Valérie; David, Leonor; Gärtner, Fátima; Touati, Eliette; Reis, Celso A

    2012-01-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x). These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process. PMID:22719879

  12. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in human gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Tokunaga; Reiki Nishimura; Masanobu Akagi

    1984-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites in human gastric mucosa were analyzed directly by using radioligand binding techniques\\u000a with the specific muscarinic antagonist3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) as ligand. Specific binding of3H-QNB to membrane preparations from human gastric mucosa was saturable, of high affinity (Kd=4.17±1.94 nM, Bmax=0.37±0.04\\u000a pmol\\/mg protein) and selectively inhibited by muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) and agonists (acetylcholine,\\u000a pilocarpine). These findings provide

  13. The geometry of resonance tongues: a singularity theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broer, Henk W.; Golubitsky, Martin; Vegter, Gert

    2003-07-01

    Resonance tongues and their boundaries are studied for nondegenerate and (certain) degenerate Hopf bifurcations of maps using singularity theory methods of equivariant contact equivalence and universal unfoldings. We recover the standard theory of tongues (the nondegenerate case) in a straightforward way and we find certain surprises in the tongue boundary structure when degeneracies are present. For example, the tongue boundaries at degenerate singularities in weak resonance are much blunter than expected from the nondegenerate theory. Also at a semi-global level we find `pockets' or `flames' that can be understood in terms of the swallowtail catastrophe.

  14. Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012). The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene. PMID:23414605

  15. Production of tongue twisters by speakers with partial glossectomy.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Foltz, Anouschka; Zimmermann, Jana; Irish, Jonathan C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract A partial glossectomy can affect speech production. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of a tumour as well as the glossectomy surgery on the patients' production of tongue twisters with the sounds [t] and [k]. Fifteen patients with tongue cancer and 10 healthy controls took part in the study. The outcome measures were the patients' speech acceptability, rate of errors, the time needed to produce the tongue twisters, pause duration between item repetitions and the tongue shape during the production of the consonants [t] and [k] before and after surgery. The patients' speech acceptability deteriorated after the surgery. Compared to controls, the patients' productions of the tongue twisters were slower but not more errorful. Following the surgery, their speed of production did not change, but the rate of errors was higher. Pause duration between items was longer in the patients than in the controls but did not increase from before to after surgery. Analysis of the patients' tongue shapes for the productions of [t] and [k] indicated a higher elevation following the surgery for the patients with flap reconstructions. The results demonstrated that the surgical resection of the tongue changed the error rate but not the speed of production for the patient. The differences in pause duration also indicate that the tumour and the surgical resection of the tongue may impact the phonological planning of the tongue twister. PMID:25046430

  16. Human Tongue Neuroanatomy: Nerve Supply and Motor Endplates

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Sanders, Ira

    2010-01-01

    The human tongue has a critical role in speech, swallowing, and respiration, however, its motor control is poorly understood. Fundamental gaps include detailed information on the course of the hypoglossal (XII) nerve within the tongue, the branches of the XII nerve within each tongue muscle, and the type and arrangement of motor endplates (MEP) within each muscle. In this study, five adult human tongues were processed with Sihler’s stain, a whole-mount nerve staining technique, to map out the entire intra-lingual course of the XII nerve and its branches. An additional five specimens were microdissected into individual muscles and stained with acetylcholinesterase and silver staining to study their MEP morphology and banding patterns. Using these techniques the course of the entire XII nerve was mapped from the main nerve to the smallest intramuscular branches. It was found that the human tongue innervation is extremely dense and complex. Although the basic mammalian pattern of XII is conserved in humans, there are notable differences. In addition, many muscle fibers contained multiple en grappe MEP, suggesting that they are some variant of the highly specialized slow tonic muscle fiber type. The transverse muscle group that comprises the core of the tongue appears to have the most complex innervation and has the highest percentage of en grappe MEP. In summary, the innervation of the human tongue has specializations not reported in other mammalian tongues, including non-human primates. These specializations appear to allow for fine motor control of tongue shape. PMID:20607833

  17. Monitoring of freshness of milk by an electronic tongue on the basis of voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winquist, F.; Krantz-Rülcker, C.; Wide, P.; Lundström, I.

    1998-12-01

    We describe an electronic tongue which consists of a reference electrode, an auxiliary electrode and five wires of different metals (gold, iridium, palladium, platinum and rhodium) as working electrodes. The measurement principle is based on pulsed voltammetry, in which successive voltage pulses of gradually changing amplitudes are applied to the working electrodes connected in a standard three-electrode configuration. The five working electrodes were successively connected and corresponding current-response transients are recorded. The electronic tongue was used to follow the deterioration of the quality of milk due to microbial growth when milk is stored at room temperature. The data obtained were treated with principal component analysis and the deterioration process could clearly be followed in the diagrams. To make models for predictions, projections to latent structure and artificial neural networks were used. When they had been trained, both models could satisfactorily predict the course of bacterial growth in the milk samples.

  18. Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

    2012-10-01

    The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients' own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD. PMID:23066307

  19. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

  20. Gastric mucosa under the dissecting microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Salem

    1965-01-01

    D ISSECTING-MICROSCOPY~ EXAMINATION of the small-intestinal mucosa has become an important part of biopsy study in diseases affecting the small intestine, particularly tile condition known as idiopathic steatorrhea (nontropical sprue). Examination of the biopsy specimen with the dissecting microscope provides immediate diagnosis in that condition. Rubin et at. 1 showed that in nontropical sprue, the appearance of the jejunal biopsy

  1. Tongue Fat and its Relationship to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrew M.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Chan, Eugenia L.; Staley, Bethany; Poptani, Harish; Torigian, Drew A.; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether tongue fat is increased in obese sleep apneics compared to obese subjects without sleep apnea. We hypothesized that excess fat is deposited in the tongue in obese patients with sleep apnea. Design: Case-control design. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined tongue fat in 31 obese controls (apnea-hypopnea index, 4.1 ± 2.7 events/h) and 90 obese apneics (apnea-hypopnea index, 43.2 ± 27.3 events/h). Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 18 gender-, race-, age-, and BMI-matched case-control pairs. Interventions: All subjects underwent a MRI with three-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. We used sophisticated volumetric reconstruction algorithms to study the size and distribution of upper airway fat deposits in the tongue and masseter muscles within apneics and obese controls. Measurements and Results: The data supported our a priori hypotheses that after adjustment for age, BMI, gender, and race, the tongue in apneics was significantly larger (P = 0.001) and had an increased amount of fat (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Similar results were seen in our matched sample. Our data also demonstrate that within the apneic and normal tongue, there are regional differences in fat distribution, with larger fat deposits at the base of the tongue. Conclusions: There is increased tongue volume and deposition of fat at the base of tongue in apneics compared to controls. Increased tongue fat may begin to explain the relationship between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Kim AM, Keenan BT, Jackson N, Chan EL, Staley B, Poptani H, Torigian DA, Pack AI, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat and its relationship to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1639-1648. PMID:25197815

  2. Internal kinematics of the tongue following volume reduction.

    PubMed

    Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Perkins, Jonathan A; Liu, Zi-Jun

    2008-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the functional consequences following tongue volume reduction on tongue internal kinematics during mastication and neuromuscular stimulation in a pig model. Six ultrasonic-crystals were implanted into the tongue body in a wedge-shaped configuration which allows recording distance changes in the bilateral length (LENG) and posterior thickness (THICK), as well as anterior (AW), posterior dorsal (PDW), and ventral (PVW) widths in 12 Yucatan-minipigs. Six animals received a uniform mid-sagittal tongue volume reduction surgery (reduction), and the other six had identical incisions without tissue removal (sham). The initial-distances among each crystal-pairs were recorded before, and immediately after surgery to calculate the dimensional losses. Referring to the initial-distance there were 3-66% and 1-4% tongue dimensional losses by the reduction and sham surgeries, respectively. The largest deformation in sham animals during mastication was in AW, significantly larger than LENG, PDW, PVW, and THICK (P < 0.01-0.001). In reduction animals, however, these deformational changes significantly diminished and enhanced in the anterior and posterior tongue, respectively (P < 0.05-0.001). In both groups, neuromuscular stimulation produced deformational ranges that were 2-4 times smaller than those occurred during chewing. Furthermore, reduction animals showed significantly decreased ranges of deformation in PVW, LENG, and THICK (P < 0.05-0.01). These results indicate that tongue volume reduction alters the tongue internal kinematics, and the dimensional losses in the anterior tongue caused by volume reduction can be compensated by increased deformations in the posterior tongue during mastication. This compensatory effect, however, diminishes during stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and individual tongue muscles. PMID:18484603

  3. HIV Infection of the Genital Mucosa in Women

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    genital mucosa of women. Anatomic Sites for HIV Invasion in the Female Genital Tract Although vaginal of the vaginal, ectocervical, and endocervical mucosa to successful transmission remain unknown, but HIV penetration and infection have been demonstrated in all three sites. The vaginal mucosa and ecto- cervix

  4. Hyoid and tongue surface movements in speaking and eating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Hiiemae; Jeffrey B. Palmer; Steven W. Medicis; Jason Hegener; B. Scott Jackson; Daniel E. Lieberman

    2002-01-01

    The human hyoid moves continuously in feeding, facilitating movements of the tongue surface and the processing and transport of food. The hypothesis that similar hyoid movements support tongue movements in speech was tested in 10 normal young adults of both sexes, who were recorded with lateral-projection videofluorography when feeding on hard and soft foods and when reading the ‘Grandfather Passage’,

  5. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  6. Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…

  7. Mother Tongue and Bilingual Minority Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsung, Linda T. H.; Cruickshank, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Mother tongue education in separate schools has been in the norm for several of China's large minorities since 1949. In recent years, however, the shift in minority parental demand, media focus on low educational outcomes of mother tongue education combined with government concerns about separatism have led to the development of mixed schools for…

  8. A Tongue-Print Image Database for Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Liu; D. Zhang; Qun-Lin Tang

    2007-01-01

    The tongue is a unique organ in that it can be stuck out of mouth for inspection, in this act offering a proof of life, and yet it is otherwise well protected in the mouth and is difficult to forge. The tongue also presents both geometric shape information and physiological texture information which are potentially useful in identity verification applications.

  9. Mother-Tongue Medium and Scholastic Attainment in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of the Six-Year Primary Project showed that Nigerian students who were taught in their mother-tongue (Yoruba) for the first six years of primary school scored higher academically than students who were taught with their mother-tongue for the first three years and then were switched to English. (RM)

  10. Tongue movements and syllable onset complex-ity: Ultrasound study

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Tongue movements and syllable onset complex- ity: Ultrasound study Tanja Kocjancic1 1 Speech of Edinburgh, UK Abstract In this study ultrasound was used to investigate tongue movements in syllables with different number and type of onset consonants. Ultrasound recordings provided the information

  11. Tongue Fat Infiltration in Obese Versus Lean Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brennick, Michael J.; Delikatny, James; Pack, Allan I.; Pickup, Stephen; Shinde, Sarika; Zhu, Jing-Xu; Roscoe, Ivana; Kim, David Y.; Buxbaum, Laurence U.; Cater, Jacqueline R.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obesity is the most important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and the effects of obesity may be mediated by tongue fat. Our objective was to examine the effects of obesity on upper airway structures in obese (OBZ) and non-obese (NBZ) Zucker rats. Design: Animal study. Setting: Academic Medical Center. Participants: OBZ (638.2 ± 39 g; 14.9 ± 1.1 w) and age-matched NBZ Zucker (442.6 ± 37 g, 15.1 ± 1.5 w) rats. Interventions: Tongue fat and volume and were assessed using: in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), magnetic resonance imaging including Dixon imaging for tongue fat volume, ex vivo biochemistry (fat quantification; triglyceride (mg)/tissue (g), and histology (Oil Red O stain). Measurements and Results: MRS: overall OBZ tongue fat/water ratio was 2.9 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002) with the anterior OBZ tongue up to 3.3 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002). Biochemistry: Triglyceride (TG) in the tongue was 4.4 times greater in OBZ versus NBZ (P < 0.0006). TG was greater in OBZ tongue (3.57 ± 1.7 mg/g) than OBZ masseter muscle (0.28 ± 0.1; P < 0.0001) but tongue and masseter TG were not different in NBZ rats (0.82 ± 0.3 versus 0.28 ± 0.1 mg/g, P = 0.67). Dixon fat volume was significantly increased in OBZ (56 ± 15 mm3) versus NBZ (34 ± 5 mm3, P < 0.004). Histology demonstrated a greater degree of intracellular muscle fat and extramuscular fat infiltration in OBZ versus NBZ rats. Conclusions: Genetically obese rats had a large degree of fat infiltration in the tongue compared to both skeletal muscle and tongue tissues of the non-obese age-matched littermates. The significant fat increase and sequestration in the obese tongue may play a role in altered tongue neuromuscular function, tongue stiffness or metabolic function. Citation: Brennick MJ, Delikatny J, Pack AI, Pickup S, Shinde S, Zhu JX, Roscoe I, Kim DY, Buxbaum LU, Cater JR, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat infiltration in obese versus lean Zucker rats. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1095-1102. PMID:24882904

  12. A normative-speaker validation study of two indices developed to quantify tongue dorsum activity from midsagittal tongue shapes.

    PubMed

    Zharkova, Natalia

    2013-07-01

    This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders were analyzed. The stimuli included a range of consonants in consonant-vowel sequences, with the vowels /a/ and /i/. The measures reliably distinguished between articulations with and without tongue dorsum excursion, and produced robust results on lingual coarticulation of the consonants. The reported data can be used as a starting point for collecting more typical data and for analyzing disordered speech. The measurements do not require head-to-transducer stabilization. Possible applications of the measures include studying tongue dorsum overuse in people with cleft palate, and typical and disordered development of coarticulation. PMID:23651147

  13. [Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Beck-Mannagetta, J; Hutarew, G

    2012-09-01

    The oral mucosa contains melanocytes, even though one might not suspect this when examining white subjects. Drug-induced pigmentation is usually irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa; typical causes are contraceptives and tetracyclines. Localized traumatic pigmentation can be due to injuries contaminated by foreign material (dust). Not infrequently an amalgam tattoo can be seen, caused by introduction of amalgam during dental treatment with rotating instruments. Focal melanosis is harmless. Neoplastic pigmentation is rare. Melanotic nevi are small with indistinct borders. Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly on the maxilla or hard palate. Frequently it has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Verification by biopsy is essential if a lesion has suddenly appeared, is extensive, elevated, with irregular pigmentation and has no obvious cause. PMID:22956033

  14. Haemophilus parainfluenzae infection of respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Middleton, A M; Dowling, R B; Mitchell, J L; Watanabe, S; Rutman, A; Pritchard, K; Tillotson, G; Hill, S L; Wilson, R

    2003-04-01

    The pathogenicity of Haemophilus parainfluenzae (Hpi) in the respiratory tract is unclear, in contrast to the accepted pathogenicity of its close relative non-typable H. influenzae. We have investigated the interaction of two Hpi isolates with the mucosa of adenoid and bronchial tissue organ cultures. The adherence of bacteria to the mucosa of organ cultures, the effect of broth culture filtrates on human nasal epithelium, and interleukin (IL)-8 production by A549 cell cultures was investigated. Hpi 4846 adhered infrequently in clusters of pleomorphic cocco-bacilli to areas of epithelial damage, mucus and unciliated cells in adenoid organ culture experiments at 24 h, but not bronchial mucosa. Hpi 3698 was seen in only one adenoid and no bronchial organ cultures at 24 h. In separate experiments, Hpi 3698 was cleared more rapidly from the centre of the adenoid organ culture and was not cultured at 24 h. Although not adhering to the mucosa at 24 h, Hpi 3698, but not Hpi 4846, caused an increase in the amount of epithelial damage in both types of organ culture. Broth culture filtrates of both strains caused immediate slowing of ciliary beat frequency that progressed, and disrupted epithelial integrity. Dialysed culture filtrates of both strains stimulated IL-8 production by A549 cells, with the culture filtrate of Hpi 3698 being most potent. We conclude that two strains of Hpi varied in their adherence to adenoid tissue, and neither adhered to bronchial tissue. These results lead us to speculate that Hpi is only likely to be a pathogen in the lower respiratory tract when impaired airway defences delay bacterial clearance. PMID:12693797

  15. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Ishoo; Nicolas Y. Busaba

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the clinical presentation and management of ectopic gastric mucosa (EGM) in the cervical esophagus. This is a case report of a 53-year-old male who presented with left-sided odynophagia of 3 months' duration. Office examination, including flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy, was unremarkable. Direct larynogoscopy and rigid esophagoscopy revealed a 2 × 1-cm fleshy, red, and raised lesion in the

  16. Tissue-point motion tracking in the tongue from cine MRI and tagged MRI.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z; Prince, Jerry L

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract-related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with harmonic phase (HARP)-based tracking applied to tagged MRI. METHOD Ten subjects repeated the phrase "a geese" multiple times while sagittal images of the head were collected at 26 Hz, first in a tagged MRI data set and then in a cine MRI data set. HARP tracked the motion of 8 specified tissue points in the tagged data set. Four DR methods including diffeomorphic demons and free-form deformations based on cubic B-spline with 3 different similarity measures were used to track the same 8 points in the cine MRI data set. Individual points were tracked and length changes of several muscles were calculated using the DR- and HARP-based tracking methods. RESULTS The results showed that the DR tracking errors were nonsystematic and varied in direction, amount, and timing across speakers and within speakers. Comparison of HARP and DR tracking with manual tracking showed better tracking results for HARP except at the tongue surface, where mistracking caused greater errors in HARP than DR. CONCLUSIONS Tissue point tracking using DR tracking methods contains nonsystematic tracking errors within and across subjects, making it less successful than tagged MRI tracking within the tongue. However, HARP sometimes mistracks points at the tongue surface of tagged MRI because of its limited bandpass filter and tag pattern fading, so that DR has better success measuring surface tissue points on cine MRI than HARP does. Therefore, a hybrid method is being explored. PMID:24686470

  17. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine-MRI and Tagged-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help to diagnose and treat vocal tract related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. We have compared tissue tracking results from four widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to Cine-MRI with harmonic phase (HARP)-based tracking applied to tagged-MRI. Method Ten subjects repeated the words “a geese” multiple times while sagittal images of the head were collected at 26 Hz, first in a tagged-MRI data set, and then in a Cine-MRI data set. HARP tracked the motion of eight specified tissue points in the tagged data set. Four DR methods including diffeomorphic demons and free-form deformations based on cubic B-spline with three different similarity measures were used to track the same eight points in the Cine-MRI data set. Individual points were tracked and length changes of several muscles were calculated using the DR and HARP based tracking methods. Results Results showed that the DR tracking errors were non-systematic and varied in direction, amount, and timing across speakers and within speakers. Comparison of HARP and DR tracking with manual tracking showed better tracking results for HARP except at the tongue surface, where mistracking caused greater errors in HARP than DR. Conclusions Tissue point tracking using DR tracking methods contain non-systematic tracking errors within and across subjects, making it less successful than tagged-MRI tracking within the tongue. However, HARP sometimes mistracks points at the tongue surface of tagged MRI due to its limited bandpass filter and tag pattern fading, so that DR has better success measuring surface tissue points on Cine-MRI than HARP does. Therefore a hybrid method is being explored. PMID:24686470

  18. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  19. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  20. Slip of the tongue: Implications for evolution and language development.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Gillian S; Rodriguez, Alina

    2015-08-01

    A prevailing theory regarding the evolution of language implicates a gestural stage prior to the emergence of speech. In support of a transition of human language from a gestural to a vocal system, articulation of the hands and the tongue are underpinned by overlapping left hemisphere dominant neural regions. Behavioral studies demonstrate that human adults perform sympathetic mouth actions in imitative synchrony with manual actions. Additionally, right-handedness for precision manual actions in children has been correlated with the typical development of language, while a lack of hand bias has been associated with psychopathology. It therefore stands to reason that sympathetic mouth actions during fine precision motor action of the hands may be lateralized. We employed a fine-grained behavioral coding paradigm to provide the first investigation of tongue protrusions in typically developing 4-year old children. Tongue protrusions were investigated across a range of cognitive tasks that required varying degrees of manual action: precision motor action, gross motor action and no motor actions. The rate of tongue protrusions was influenced by the motor requirements of the task and tongue protrusions were significantly right-biased for only precision manual motor action (p<.001). From an evolutionary perspective, tongue protrusions can drive new investigations regarding how an early human communication system transitioned from hand to mouth. From a developmental perspective, the present study may serve to reveal patterns of tongue protrusions during the motor development of typically developing children. PMID:25966841

  1. Mood-induced variations of mandible and tongue postures.

    PubMed

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2013-06-01

    Twelve young adults in a good general health were observed during habitual posture of tongue and jaw in different emotional conditions induced by watching three video sequences. The position of the mandible was tracked by the displacements of an electromagnetic sensor glued to the chin. The tongue-to-palate distance was obtained by 2-D location of three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper midline surface. Head displacements were evaluated with a sensor fixed to an upper central incisor and were subtracted from corresponding displacements of tongue and chin sensors to obtain the real tongue and mandible positions during continuous recording sequences. Emotional conditioning by a fear movie influenced the vertical position of the mandible: the mean interarch distances during the fear movie (2·34 ± 0·24 mm) were significantly different from those measured during the tender (3·13 ± 0·35) and neutral (3·42 ± 0·80) movies, respectively (anova repeated measure, SNK; P < 0·05). anova repeated measure indicated that the tongue-to-palate distance differed significantly when the subjects were watching the conditioning movies (P = 0·003), the tip of the tongue taking a lower position during the fear movie than during the tender and neutral movies. PMID:23556417

  2. Electronic Tongue for Quantitation of Contaminants in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  3. Effects of liquid smoke on quality characteristics of Turkish standard smoked beef tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Gonulalan; A. Kose; H. Yetim

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine some quality characteristics of beef tongues processed with liquid and vaporous (traditional) smoke. The tongues were divided into two groups; traditional (vaporous) smoking and liquid smoke application groups, and the processed tongues were vacuum packaged and monitored for quality during 30 days of storage at 4±1 °C. All the smoked tongue samples were

  4. The Effect of Jaw Position on Measures of Tongue Strength and Endurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Munson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of tongue strength and endurance is common in research and clinical contexts. It is unclear whether the results reveal discrete function by the tongue or combined abilities of the tongue and jaw. One way to isolate the movement of the tongue is to constrain the jaw kinematically by using a bite block. In this study, 10 neurologically…

  5. Primary clear cell sarcoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Stefan; Antonescu, Cristina R; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Deschler, Daniel G; Nielsen, G Petur

    2013-11-01

    Clear cell sarcoma shares features with melanoma, but frequently shows EWSR1 rearrangements. It is an aggressive tumor typically occurring in the soft tissues of the extremities, with a gastrointestinal variant with less consistent melanocytic differentiation. It is extremely rare in the head and neck region, with no reported cases in the oral cavity. We report a case of an 82-year-old woman with a clear cell sarcoma arising in the tongue, with cervical lymph node metastases. Histologically, the tumor showed some features of gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma. No osteoclast-type giant cells were present. The tumor cells were positive for S100 protein and negative for other melanocytic markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed rearrangements of EWSR1 and ATF1. This case expands the spectrum of clear cell sarcoma with a gastrointestinal-like variant in a novel site, emphasizing the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis to melanoma in mucosal sites. PMID:24168510

  6. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lsw@amc.seoul.kr; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  7. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue: A rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Munlima; Rahman, Tashnin; Sarma, Anupam; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva

    2014-05-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms that most commonly occur in the kidneys of young children. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue is an extremely rare entity and very few have been reported in the literature. The course of extra-renal MRT is short and its prognosis is very poor. A 19-year-old female presented with a progressive swelling and restricted mobility of the tongue for over 3 months duration. We present here a locally advanced case of MRT of the tongue, its diagnosis, management and review of the literature related to it. PMID:25328320

  8. Iridium 192 implantation of T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; V. Benck; G. Marinello; M. Martin; M. Raynal; E. Haddad; R. Peynegre; J. P. Le Bourgeois; W. Walop

    1990-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both

  9. Successful treatment of radiation cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Resolution of bleeding event and changes of histopathological findings of the bladder mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Suzuki; K. Kurokawa; T. Suzuki; H. Okazaki; N. Otake; K. Imai; H. Yamanaka

    1998-01-01

    To assess the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on radiation cystitis, clinical and histopathological characteristics\\u000a were examined. Three women with radiation cystitis were treated with HBO therapy. Macrohaematuria was arrested in all patients.\\u000a Cystoscopy demonstrated abnormal telangiectasia and inflammatory mucosa before treatment. After HBO therapy, the inflammatory\\u000a mucosae were healed. However, abnormal vessels did not completely disappear. Histopathologically, the

  10. Under-The-Tongue Hay Fever Pills Offer Little Benefit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... under-the-tongue allergy treatment, Dr. Gaston De Cardenas, ear, nose and throat chief at Nicklaus Children's ... develop something that works better," he said. De Cardenas was not involved in the study. Doctors do ...

  11. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED IN DAM CONSTRUCTION, NORTH EAST OF EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTH - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  12. E-tongue 2 REDOX response to heavy metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Kounaves, S. P.

    2002-01-01

    E-Tongue 2 an array of electrochemical sensors including REDOX electrodes for Cylic Voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry measurements, Galvanic cells for corrosion measurements, and Ion Selective Electrodes.

  13. Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa. PMID:23580171

  14. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  15. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop N; Harish, M; Alavi, Yasin A; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation. PMID:23761566

  16. Expression of DMP1 in the developing mouse tongue embryo.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hidetaka; Sunohara, Msataka; Sato, Iwao

    2015-07-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) is an important factor in the mineralization of hard tissues. However, it has many other functions in addition to the regulation of mineralized tissues. We analyzed the expression and localization of DMP-1 by immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization in the developing mouse tongue during embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E14.5, E17.5, and E18.5. We also detected the mRNA abundance of tongue morphogenesis markers such as FGF6, TGF-?1, Collagen I, osteocalcin, chondromodulin 1, tenomodulin, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), caspase-3, and Aifm from embryonic stages by real-time RT-PCR. The antisense probe for DMP-1 was detected in a few mesenchymal cells surrounding blood vessels at E12.5, and faint localization was seen at E18.5 in the embryonic mouse tongue by in situ hybridization. The DMP-1 and osteocalcin abundance levels gradually increased compared with the other tongue markers from E12.5 to E18.5 (p<0.001). Cluster analyses identified the following distinct clusters for mRNA abundance in the tongue: cluster 1, E12.5; cluster 2, E14.5 and E17.5; and cluster 3, E18.5. The positive correlation between DMP-1 and osteocalcin (Pearson's r=0.685; p<0.05) and negative correlation between DMP-1 and Caspase-3 (Pearson's r=-0.632; p<0.05) were analyzed. These data suggested that DMP-1 potentially influences osteocalcin and Caspase-3 during mouse tongue development and morphogenesis. DMP-1 also affects the angiogenic marker VEGF in specific stages and areas, terminating the differentiation of the tongue from other developing tissues. We conclude that DMP-1 may be involved in regulating the temporal expression at embryonic stages in the mouse tongue. PMID:25978185

  17. Winter Cold tongue in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B.; Tkalich, P.; Rizzoli, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) surface circulation is mainly forced by seasonally varying monsoon winds and flow through the Luzon Strait. In winter, positive wind curl (due to the northeasterly winds) in the southern half of SCS drives a cyclonic gyre. The strong western boundary current south off Vietnam on the continental slope separates the Sunda Shelf to the west and deep SCS basin to the east. The advection of cold water due to the slope current results in a unique cold tongue in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from November to February. The inter-annual variability of this cold-tongue is investigated by analyzing the NCEP OISST version-2 dataset. Dynamics of the evolution, growth and decay of the cold tongue during the period 1982-2012 are addressed using the OISST and ERA-interim surface wind datasets. The role of water mass advection in the inter-annual variability of SCS cold-tongue is also investigated through the analysis of lateral heat fluxes estimated from NCEP-Climate Forecast System Re-analysis dataset. The vertically integrated Ekman transport (i.e., the Sverdrup transport) plays a vital role in the formation this cold tongue. The southward Sverdrup transport brings cold water from the northern parts of the SCS. Inter-annual variations in the cold tongue SST during the northeast monsoon (November to February) are strongly linked to the north-south Sverdrup and zonal Ekman transport anomalies. The positive SST anomalies over the cold-tongue region are associated with positive transport anomalies, reflecting the weakening of the southward and westward advection. The formation and termination of this cold tongue has significant correlation with the El Nino phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of lactoferrin in duodenojejunal mucosa from celiac children.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, A; Tuccari, G; Magazzù, G; Arena, F; Ricciardi, R; Barresi, G

    1987-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of lactoferrin (LF) was investigated in the duodenojejunal mucosa of children with untreated and treated celiac disease and in a control group of children of short stature and of children with postenteritis syndrome. In subtotal villous atrophy, LF was present in all epithelial cells of the luminal surface with a lower degree of positivity in crypts, whereas a variable degree of reactivity for LF was observed in epithelial cells of reconstituted villi and crypts. The LF mucosal distribution, however, was not specific for celiac disease since the LF pattern was similar in untreated celiac disease and also in postenteritis syndrome. Moreover, LF was detectable only in 7 of 18 duodenojejunal juice samples obtained from untreated and treated celiac patients and normal controls, the observed values being irrespective of the mucosal morphological status. We conclude that the immunohistochemical evidence of LF in the enterocyte may derive from an autochthonous production since our histochemical findings cannot be related to the concentration of LF in duodenal juice. PMID:3323437

  19. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tongue – clinicopathological study and survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Carmona-Luna, Tania; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    Background To review the demographic data of a series of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the tongue, as well as to analyze c-kit expression, histopathologic patterns, prognostic factors, evolution, recurrences and/or persistence and survival. Methods Retrospective study from 1986 to 2006, which reviews a database of 68 patients with diagnosis of head and neck ACC. Results We found eight cases of ACC of the tongue (11.7% of all head and neck ACCs). There were 7 female (87.5%) and 1 male (12.5%) patients, with an average age of 51 years (range 33 to 67 years). Seven patients were surgically treated, three of which required adjuvant treatment. Only one female patient did not accept treatment. Average follow-up time was 5.3 years. Metastases developed in 37% of cases during the follow-up period. Histopathologically, the cribriform pattern predominated (6/8 cases). All cases presented perineural invasion, and one patient also presented vascular invasion. c-kit positivity was observed in all cases. Global survival in the seven treated cases was 51% and 34% at 5 and 10 years, respectively, while the disease-free period was of 64% at 3 years and 42% at 10 years. Conclusion ACC of the tongue is a rare neoplasm, in which early diagnosis is important because these are slowly-growing tumors that produce diffuse invasion. As the role of c-kit could not be assesed in this series, surgery continues to be the cornerstone of treatment and radiotherapy is indicated when surgical margins are compromised. Metastatic disease is still hard to handle because of the lack of adequate therapies for these tumors. Hence, survival has not changed in the last years. PMID:19480697

  20. A unique complication of radiofrequency therapy to the tongue base

    PubMed Central

    Tornari, Chrysostomos; Wong, Gentle; Arora, Asit; Kotecha, Bhik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Radiofrequency ablation treatment of the tongue base can be used either alone or as part of a multilevel approach in the treatment of snoring. This involves the generation of thermal energy around the circumvallate papillae of the tongue. Potential complications include ulceration, dysphagia, haematoma and abscess formation. Presentation of case We present the case of a 50-year-old patient who developed an anterior neck swelling following a second application of radiofrequency ablation therapy to the tongue base for snoring. This was secondary to an infection of a previously undiagnosed thyroglossal cyst. The patient made a full recovery following intravenous antibiotic therapy and ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Discussion Thyroglossal tract remnants are thought to be present in seven percent of the adult population. An infection in a thyroglossal tract cyst has not previously been reported following radiofrequency ablation of the tongue base. Given the relatively high complication rate of tongue base radiofrequency ablation in some series, this complication may be under-recognised. Conclusion An infected thyroglossal tract cyst should be suspected in patients with anterior neck swellings following radiofrequency ablation therapy to the tongue base. We advise caution when performing this procedure on patients with known thyroglossal tract remnants though there is insufficient evidence to suggest that this procedure is contraindicated. PMID:25603484

  1. Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure…

  2. Autophagy is active in normal colon mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Groulx, Jean-Francois; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Benoit, Yannick D.; Bernatchez, Gérald; Carrier, Julie C.; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Recently, autophagy has been found to be strongly activated in colon cancer cells, but few studies have addressed the normal colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to characterize autophagy in normal human intestinal cells. We used the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 as well as SQSTM1 as markers of autophagy activity. Using the normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell experimental model, we found that autophagy was much more active in undifferentiated cells than in differentiated cells. In the normal adult colonic mucosa, BECN1 was found in the proliferative epithelial cells of the lower part of the gland while SQSTM1 was predominantly found in the differentiated cells of the upper part of the gland and surface epithelium. Interestingly, the weak punctate pattern of SQSTM1 expression in the lower gland colocalized with BECN1-labeled autophagosomes. The usefulness of SQSTM1 as an active autophagy marker was confirmed in colon cancer specimens at the protein and transcript levels. In conclusion, our results show that autophagy is active in the colonic gland and is associated with the intestinal proliferative/undifferentiated and progenitor cell populations. PMID:22652752

  3. Functional reconstruction after subtotal glossectomy in the surgical treatment of an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm in this location: Primary malignant melanoma in the base of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Correa, Isidoro; Manzano-Solo-de-Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Hernández-Vila, Cristina; Ramírez-Pérez, Francisco-Alejandro; González-Ballester, David; Ruíz-Laza, Luis; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2014-10-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm, especially on the tongue. We report a case of mucosal melanoma at the base of the tongue, an extremely rare location (only about 30 cases have been reported in literature). The extension study doesn´t revealed distant metastatic lesions. The patient was treated by subtotal glossectomy and bilateral functional neck dissection. Tongue is one of the most difficult structures to reconstruct, because of their central role in phonation, swallowing and airway protection. The defect was reconstructed with anterolateral thigh free flap. Surgical treatment was supplemented with adjuvant immunotherapy. The post-operative period was uneventful. At present, 24 months after surgery, patient is asymptomatic, there isn´t evidence of recurrence of melanoma and he hasn´t any difficulty in swallowing or phonation. Key words:Malignant mucosal melanoma, anterolateral thigh free flap, phonation, swallowing. PMID:25593674

  4. Glycoprotein synthesis and secretion by cultured small intestinal mucosa in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, J E; Heatley, R V; Losowsky, M S

    1989-01-01

    Glycoprotein biosynthesis by jejunal mucosa was examined during culture in vitro in 26 patients with coeliac disease and 19 controls. The incorporation rates of tritiated glucosamine into tissue and secreted glycoproteins were determined using established techniques. The total glucosamine incorporation in untreated coeliac patients was significantly greater than that of histologically normal mucosa (p less than 0.001) and jejunal tissue from patients with treated coeliac disease (p less than 0.01). Enhanced secretion of in vitro labelled glycoproteins was observed in untreated coeliac patients. The total incorporation of tritiated glucosamine in intestinal tissues was correlated with goblet cell numbers. These results indicate that quantitative changes in glycoprotein synthesis and secretion occur in coeliac disease. PMID:2583562

  5. Treatment of tongue cavernous haemangioma with direct puncture and sclerotization with ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Seruga, Tomaz; Lucev, Jernej; Jevsek, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Background Haemangiomas of tongue are rare type of malformations. They can be treated mostly conservatively but in some cases they need more aggressive treatment with preoperative intra arterial embolization and surgical resection. Lesions of tongue that are localized superficially can also be treated with direct puncture and injection of sclerosing agent (absolute ethanol). Case report We present a case of a 48 years old female patient, where we performed embolization of cavernous haemangioma with mixture of absolute ethanol and oil contrast. After the procedure the patient received analgetics and antioedematous therapy. After the sclerotization the planed surgery was abandoned. Control MRI examinations 6 and 12 months after the procedure showed only a small remnant of haemangioma and no signs of a larger relapse. Conclusions In our case the direct puncture of haemangioma and sclerotherapy with ethanol proved to be a safe and effective method to achieve preoperative devascularization of the lesion. Direct puncture of the lesion is not limited by the anatomy of the vessels or vasospasm, which can occur during the intra-arterial approach. PMID:25810705

  6. Elective neck irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the oral tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, F.; Leborgne, J.H.; Barlocci, L.A.; Ortega, B.

    1987-08-01

    A total of 69 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue Stages T1-2-3 N0 were treated between 1952 and 1982 at one cancer center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Of 52 patients with the primary disease controlled, 2 had elective cervical lymph node dissection, and were therefore excluded from the study, 25 were treated with elective neck irradiation, and 25 were followed without irradiation to the neck. In the untreated group, 40% developed neck node metastases, while this was observed only in 20% of the group receiving elective neck irradiation, but only 4% recurred in the elective irradiated areas of the neck (p: 0.0028). The survival was the same for each group (5-year absolute survival with NED 67% for the neck irradiation group and 64% for the unirradiated group). From this retrospective study, we conclude that elective neck irradiation in carcinoma of the oral tongue decreases the incidence of neck metastases but an improvement in survival of these patients was not demonstrated.

  7. Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shin-ichi

    2002-07-01

    Studies of the comparative morphology of the tongues of living vertebrates have revealed how variations in the morphology and function of the organ might be related to evolutional events. The tongue, which plays a very important role in food intake by vertebrates, exhibits significant morphological variations that appear to represent adaptation to the current environmental conditions of each respective habitat. This review examines the fundamental importance of morphology in the evolution of the vertebrate tongue, focusing on the origin of the tongue and on the relationship between morphology and environmental conditions. Tongues of various extant vertebrates, including those of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, were analysed in terms of gross anatomy and microanatomy by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Comparisons of tongue morphology revealed a relationship between changes in the appearance of the tongue and changes in habitat, from a freshwater environment to a terrestrial environment, as well as a relationship between the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium and the transition from a moist or wet environment to a dry environment. The lingual epithelium of amphibians is devoid of keratinization while that of reptilians is keratinized to different extents. Reptiles live in a variety of habitats, from seawater to regions of high temperature and very high or very low humidity. Keratinization of the lingual epithelium is considered to have been acquired concomitantly with the evolution of amniotes. The variations in the extent of keratinization of the lingual epithelium, which is observed between various amniotes, appear to be secondary, reflecting the environmental conditions of different species. PMID:12171472

  8. Lymphoid follicles in antral mucosa: immune response to Campylobacter pylori?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Stolte; S Eidt

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of lymphoid follicles in endoscopic biopsy specimens from normal antral mucosa (n = 220), mucosa with reflux gastritis (n = 104), and in cases with Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis (n = 2544) was studied. In the latter group whether there were associations between degree and activity of gastritis and the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and between the occurrence of

  9. Heterogeneity of keratin distribution in the oral mucosa and skin of mammals as determined using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Murase, N; Fukui, S; Mori, M

    1986-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of keratins in the oral epithelia of several mammals was investigated using the monoclonal antibodies to keratins, PKK1 (41-56 kilodaltons) and KL1 (55-57 kilodaltons). The staining patterns obtained in different locations of the oral mucosa and of the skin epidermis were compared. In the papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue, some areas exhibited marked PKK1 staining, while other area were PKK1 negative. In general, rodent oral epithelia were negative for PKK1 in the basal layer, while comparatively strong PKK1 staining was observed in cells of the upper spinous layer. In the epidermis, positive PKK1 reactions were confined to the basal layer, while KL1 staining was occasionally seen in the basal layer of oral epithelia. In cats, dogs, and monkeys, different PKK1 and KL1 binding patterns were observed in oral epithelia. Also, the distribution in oral epithelia differed from that seen in the epidermis of these animals. In the epidermis, the distribution of PKK1 and KL1 was regular, with PKK1 usually being confined to the basal layer, while KL1 binding was found in the spinous and granular cell layers, and was dependent on the degree of keratinization. In the animals studies, keratin expression--as detected by PKK1 and KL1--was different in the skin epidermis and oral epithelia, and the localization of these keratins differed in the various types of oral mucosa. PMID:2428774

  10. Tissue engineering of oral mucosa: a shared concept with skin.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Damour, Odile; Hasirci, Vasif

    2015-03-01

    Tissue-engineered oral mucosa, in the form of epithelial cell sheets or full-thickness oral mucosa equivalents, is a potential solution for many patients with congenital defects or with tissue loss due to diseases or tumor excision following a craniofacial cancer diagnosis. In the laboratory, it further serves as an in vitro model, alternative to in vivo testing of oral care products, and provides insight into the behavior of the oral mucosal cells in healthy and pathological tissues. This review covers the old and new generation scaffold types and materials used in oral mucosa engineering; discusses similarities and differences between oral mucosa and skin, the methods developed to reconstruct oral mucosal defects; and ends with future perspectives on oral mucosa engineering. PMID:25326194

  11. Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.

    PubMed

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. PMID:24443935

  12. Is the tongue position influenced by the palatal vault dimensions?

    PubMed

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Abou-El-Karam, S; Nicolas, E; Woda, A

    2010-02-01

    The influence of the palatal vault dimensions on tongue position is here studied through evaluation of the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) volume when the mandible is in maximal intercuspal position. A sample of 35 women (mean age 21.2 +/- 1.0) and 15 men (mean age 22.1 +/- 0.9) was selected. The sagittal cross-section area of the IMAC, which is modulated by the tongue position, was measured on lateral cephalograms. Dental casts were used to measure the palatal vault volume, which was defined by the occlusal plane, the hard palate and the posterior face of the second molars. Palatal vault volume allowed deduction of the IMAC volume through a rule of three procedure relating volume to area ratios. No IMAC could be calculated from cephalograms of 10 subjects who had the tongue stuck to the palate. For the 40 other subjects, the IMAC volume was 8.9 +/- 4.8 mL. It was 2 mL larger in men (n = 14) than in women (n = 26) and was the largest in skeletal Class III and the smallest in skeletal Class II (P > 0.05). IMAC volume was strongly correlated with palatal vault height but neither with palatal width nor length. It was thus assumed that the height of the palatal vault could influence the most observed position of the tongue but this does not exclude a possible growth influence of the tongue on its surrounding skeletal structures. PMID:19925581

  13. Schwannoma base tongue: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    George, N A; Wagh, M; Balagopal, P G; Gupta, S; Sukumaran, R; Sebastian, P

    2014-07-01

    Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. These are rare in the oral cavity (1%). The most common site of involvement in oral cavity is the tongue. Posterior third of tongue is not frequently involved. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of base tongue schwannoma and review literature of this rare tumor. Data from literature were analyzed for age, gender, presenting symptom, size at presentation, and surgical approach. We report a case of 26 year-old male who presented with swelling posterior 1/3rd tongue and change in quality of voice. He was evaluated for the same with MR and incision biopsy and was planned for surgery. Surgery was abandoned at a district hospital due to difficulty in intubation. At our center he underwent fibro optic bronchoscopy guided intubation followed by general anesthesia. He underwent excision of mass using left paramedian lip spitting approach with mandibulotomy and mandibular swing. Tumor was excised in toto. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Literature review between 2001 and 2012 was done. 15 cases of base tongue schwannoma were identified. The most common age group involved was between 30-40 years. There was a slightly higher incidence in females. All patients were symptomatic at presentation. Most common complaints were related to swallowing and throat pain. Most patients underwent transoral excision of the tumor. PMID:25316399

  14. Policy and experiment in mother tongue literacy in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1993-07-01

    The advocacy for initial mother tongue literacy in elementary schools and in adult education has been intensified within the past three decades, reflecting new attitudes to cultural diversity, especially to multilingual and multicultural education. This paper assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education. Although, like the Ife project, many experimental projects on mother tongue literacy in other countries are shown to have succeeded in realizing their objectives, the findings highlight the mediating effects of several non-linguistic variables. The findings indicate that its use as the medium of instruction in schools cannot compensate for the deficiencies in the educational system, particularly poor quality instructional facilities, or the social barriers in the wider society which prevent certain groups of minority children from learning well in school. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. New algorithms based on the Voronoi Diagram applied in a pilot study on normal mucosa and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sudbø, J; Marcelpoil, R; Reith, A

    2000-01-01

    An adequate reproducibility in the description of tissue architecture is still a challenge to diagnostic pathology, sometimes with unfortunate prognostic implications. To assess a possible diagnostic and prognostic value of quantitiative tissue architecture analysis, structural features based on the Voronoi Diagram (VD) and its subgraphs were developed and tested. A series of 27 structural features were developed and tested in a pilot study of 30 cases of prostate cancer, 10 cases of cervical carcinomas, 8 cases of tongue cancer and 8 cases of normal oral mucosa. Grey level images were acquired from hematoxyline-eosine (HE) stained sections by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera mounted on a microscope connected to a personal computer (PC) with an image array processor. From the grey level images obtained, cell nuclei were automatically segmented and the geometrical centres of cell nuclei were computed. The resulting 2-dimensional (2D) swarm of pointlike seeds distributed in a flat plane was the basis for construction of the VD and its subgraphs. From the polygons, triangulations and arborizations thus obtained, 27 structural features were computed as numerical values. Comparison of groups (normal vs. cancerous oral mucosa, cervical and prostate carcinomas with good and poor prognosis) with regard to distribution in the values of the structural features was performed with Student's t-test. We demonstrate that some of the structural features developed are able to distinguish structurally between normal and cancerous oral mucosa (P = 0.001), and between good and poor outcome groups in prostatic (P = 0.001) and cervical carcinomas (P = 0.001). We present results confirming previous findings that graph theory based algorithms are useful tools for describing tissue architecture (e.g., normal versus malignant). The present study also indicates that these methods have a potential for prognostication in malignant epithelial lesions. PMID:11310643

  16. Indentation for estimating the human tongue soft tissues constitutive law: application to a 3D

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the tongue is developed to serve as a tool for fu- ture evaluations of speech motor control models: the model must therefore handle dynamics [1] and be able to produce fast ges- tures. Secondly, tongue

  17. Analysis of vision-based Text Entry using morse code generated by tongue gestures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Ricardo Sapaico; Makoto Sato

    2011-01-01

    We propose a Text Entry Interface based on the detection of tongue protrusion gestures using Computer Vision methods. The system uses a common webcam to acknowledge gestures made with the tongue, which are inter­ preted as the \\

  18. Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Christopher V.

    Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature Christopher, accompanied by a similar decline in muscle power. Wepropose that ballistic movements that an elastically powered movement, ballistic tongue projection in chameleons, maintains high performance over a 20

  19. Tongue entrapment by chew toys in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Rubio, A; Van Goethem, B; Verhaert, L

    2010-10-01

    Compression of a chew toy during regular play activity can create a vacuum effect eventually causing entrapment of oral tissues. Two cases of tongue entrapment are described, which resulted in severe tissue swelling, oedema and vascular obstruction. In the first dog, the toy was removed by the veterinary surgeon under general anaesthesia. Damage to the tongue proved to be reversible and the dog recovered uneventfully. In the second patient, the toy was forcefully removed by the owner. The resulting tongue necrosis required partial amputation. Treatment of this emergency condition consists of elimination of the negative pressure inside the toy by piercing it or even by insufflation of positive pressure inside the toy, and of an atraumatic manipulation to prevent further damage to the compromised tissues. PMID:21029100

  20. Adenocarcinoma Involving the Tongue and the Epiglottis in a Horse

    PubMed Central

    LAUS, Fulvio; ROSSI, Giacomo; PAGGI, Emanuele; BORDICCHIA, Matteo; FRATINI, Margherita; TESEI, Beniamino

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis. PMID:24284972

  1. Antimutagenic activity and preventive effect of black tea on buccal mucosa cancer

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, YU; ZHU, KAI; WANG, QIANG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHAO, XIN

    2013-01-01

    A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice. PMID:24137377

  2. Neural substrates for tongue-flicking behavior in snakes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Marcos, A; Ubeda-Bañón, I; Halpern, M

    2001-03-26

    Snakes deliver odorants to the vomeronasal organ by means of tongue-flicks. The rate and pattern of tongue-flick behavior are altered depending on the chemical context. Accordingly, olfactory and vomeronasal information should reach motor centers that control the tongue musculature, namely, the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIN); however, virtually nothing is known about the circuits involved. In the present work, dextran amines were injected into the tongue of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) to identify the motoneurons of the XIIN. Tracers were then delivered into the XIIN to identify possible afferents of chemical information. Large injections into the XIIN yielded retrograde labeling in two chemosensory areas: the medial amygdala (MA) and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus (LHN). Smaller injections only yielded labeled neurons in the LHN. In fact, the MA, which receives afferents from the accessory olfactory bulb, the rostroventral lateral cortex, and the nucleus sphericus, projects to the LHN. Injections into the MA did not show terminal labeling in the XIIN but in an area lateral to it. However, injections into the LHN gave rise not only to labeled fibers in the XIIN but also to retrograde labeling in the MA, thus confirming the chemosensory input to LHN. Injecting different fluorescent tracers into the tongue and into the LHN corroborated the projection from the LHN to the XIIN. The present report investigates further connections of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems and describes the afferent connections to XIIN in a nonmammalian vertebrate. The circuit for tongue-flicking behavior described herein should be evaluated using functional studies. PMID:11241378

  3. Incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    RAMDASS, MICHAEL J.; HARRACKSINGH, AVIND; MAHARAJ, KHEMANAND; SING, QUILLAN YOUNG; MOOTEERAM, JUSTIN; BARROW, SHAHEEBA

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago and the greater West Indies is unknown; therefore, the present study examines the frequency of tongue carcinoma cases, drawing comparisons to worldwide and regional data. A retrospective analysis of all confirmed cases of tongue carcinoma was conducted using eight years of data from the pathology records at the Port of Spain General Hospital (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago). A total of 26 cases were confirmed, of which 21 were male (81%) and five were female (19%). The age range was 29–86 years, with a mean age of 57 years, and the most common group affected was the 61–70 years age group. In addition, the number of newly diagnosed cases per year ranged between one and seven, with an average of 3.25 new cases per year and a peak incidence of seven new cases in the year of 2009. In the 19 cases where the degree of differentiation was recorded, histological analysis revealed the extent of differentiation as follows: Five cases (26%) were poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); eight cases (42%) were moderately-differentiated SCC; and six cases (32%) were well-differentiated SCC. In addition, one case of chronic inflammatory process and one case of mucoepidermoid adenocarcinoma of the tongue in a 57-year-old female were identified. Overall, the incidence of tongue carcinoma in Trinidad and Tobago appears to be low, estimated at 0.46/100,000 individuals/year. The male:female ratio is 4:1 and SCC is the dominant cancer type (96% of cases). The peak age of occurrence is at 61–70 years. These findings are in agreement with previously determined global data, however, additional research of the risk factors and outcomes of surgery as a treatment strategy for tongue carcinoma is required. PMID:25663924

  4. Soft tissue management and prosthetic rehabilitation in a tongue cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Umberto; Lollobrigida, Marco; Palaia, Gaspare; Laurito, Domenica; Cugnetto, Riccardo; De Biase, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    One major challenge in treating head and neck oncologic patients is to achieve an acceptable recovery of physiologic functions compatible with the complete tumor excision. However, after tumor resection, some patients present a surgically altered anatomy incompatible with prosthetic rehabilitation, unless some soft tissue correction is carried out. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall mandibular prosthetic rehabilitation of a postoncologic patient focusing on the possibility of soft tissue correction as a part of the treatment. A 72-year-old woman, who undergone a hemiglossectomy for squamous cell carcinoma several years before, was referred to our department needing a new prosthesis. The patient presented partial mandibular edentulism, defects in tongue mobility, and a bridge of scar tissue connecting one side of the tongue to the alveolar ridge. A diode laser (980?nm) was used to remove the fibrous scar tissue. After reestablishing a proper vestibular depth and soft tissue morphology, two implants were placed in the interforaminal region of the mandible to support an overdenture. PMID:24319601

  5. Influences of tongue biomechanics on speech movements during the production of velar stop consonants

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Influences of tongue biomechanics on speech movements during the production of velar stop and tongue biomechanics Abbreviated Title: On loops and tongue biomechanics Contact : Pascal Perrier ICP with the palate during consonantal closure. The study uses an anatomically based two-dimensional biomechanical

  6. Biomechanics of a muscular hydrostat: a model of lapping by a reptilian tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillel J. Chiel; Patrick E. Crago; Joseph M. Mansour; Kamal Hathi

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a quantitative model of an example of a muscular hydrostat, a reptilian tongue, and have used this model to study a functional movement, protrusion and retrusion, a form of lapping. The model tongue consists of a longitudinal muscle that shortens the tongue when it contracts, and a circumferential muscle wrapped around the longitudinal muscle that lengthens the

  7. Oral stereognostic ability among tongue thrusters with interdental lisp, tongue thrusters without interdental lisp and normal children.

    PubMed

    Colletti, E A; Geffner, D; Schlanger, P

    1976-02-01

    30 children, i.e., 10 children per group, 8 yr. of age, were given an oral stereognostic test. This test of 10 geometric forms varying in shape were developed by NIDR. 47 stimuli pairs were used and 10 pairs were repeated to measure test reliability. Subjects were blindfolded and asked to respond whether Items 1 and 2, presented consecutively, were the same or different. Results indicated that both groups of tongue thrusters with and without interdental lisp scored significantly more poorly than did normal children (t = 4.68, P less than .001; t = 5.00, P less than .001), respectively. There were no significant differences, however, between tongue thrusters with and without interdental lisp (t = .33, P greater than .05). Observations indicated that normal children used the tongue tip more frequently and accurately when discriminating the geometric forms than did the other groups. PMID:943761

  8. Gift of Tongues: Passing the Ohio Mathematics Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goll, Paulette S.

    2009-01-01

    "Gift of Tongues: Passing the Ohio Mathematics Graduation Test" examines the Ohio Graduation Mathematics Tests of 2004, 2005, and 2006 in the context of bilingual test takers at one of Cleveland's high schools and reports findings from a promising, bilingual pilot project in 2007 that may point to a new strategy for passing the high-stakes test.…

  9. Tongue motion averaging from contour sequences Min Li, Chandra Kambhamettu

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    Tongue motion averaging from contour sequences Min Li, Chandra Kambhamettu Video/Image Modeling of ultrasound images and is composed of a set of 2D spatio-temporal contours. These 2D contours in different of the speech motion is then obtained by averaging the time aligned contours from different repetitions

  10. Tongue swelling and necrosis after brain tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Nimjee, Shahid M; Wright, David R; Agrawal, Abhishek; McDonagh, David L; Husain, Aatif M; Britz, Gavin W

    2012-10-01

    We present a case of tongue necrosis due to intraoperative pressure injury. A laryngeal mask airway with adhesive electrodes was inserted into the oropharynx, over an endotracheal tube, to facilitate glossopharyngeal nerve monitoring during craniotomy for a cerebellopontine angle tumor. The case, mechanisms of injury, and modifications to our current practice are discussed. PMID:23559991

  11. Tongue piercing and associated oral and dental complications.

    PubMed

    De Moor, R J; De Witte, A M; De Bruyne, M A

    2000-10-01

    The insertion of metal objects into intraoral and perioral sites is growing in popularity. However, there are numerous oral and dental complications associated with tongue piercing. Fifteen patients with tongue piercings (pierced in the body of the tongue, anterior to the lingual frenum) attending the dental office of the authors, with and without complaints, were clinically and radiographically examined. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of teeth. Furthermore, two cracked teeth and four teeth with cusp fractures were also seen. One case of selective dental abrasion was registered. Trauma to the lingual anterior gingiva was the most common gingival problem. A salivary flow stimulating effect was only reported by 2 of the 15 individuals. None of the patients complained of interference with speech, mastication and swallowing. One case of galvanic currents produced by the appliance was registered. On the basis of the registered data, we concluded that patients need to be better informed of the potential complications associated with tongue and oral piercings, and that the dental profession can serve this role. PMID:11202888

  12. Vision of tongue movements bias auditory speech perception.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Berry, Jeffrey James; Fadiga, Luciano

    2014-10-01

    Audiovisual speech perception is likely based on the association between auditory and visual information into stable audiovisual maps. Conflicting audiovisual inputs generate perceptual illusions such as the McGurk effect. Audiovisual mismatch effects could be either driven by the detection of violations in the standard audiovisual statistics or via the sensorimotor reconstruction of the distal articulatory event that generated the audiovisual ambiguity. In order to disambiguate between the two hypotheses we exploit the fact that the tongue is hidden to vision. For this reason, tongue movement encoding can solely be learned via speech production but not via others? speech perception alone. Here we asked participants to identify speech sounds while matching or mismatching visual representations of tongue movements which were shown. Vision of congruent tongue movements facilitated auditory speech identification with respect to incongruent trials. This result suggests that direct visual experience of an articulator movement is not necessary for the generation of audiovisual mismatch effects. Furthermore, we suggest that audiovisual integration in speech may benefit from speech production learning. PMID:25172391

  13. Education in the Mother Tongue and Educational Achievement in Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan, Grazziella

    1984-01-01

    Studies show that the use of the mother-tongue (Guarani) as a medium of instruction with students in Paraguay is the most significant determining factor in the acquisition of knowledge. The discrepancy between educational ideology and educational policies in Paraguay regarding the implementation of bilingual education programs negatively affects…

  14. 7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE FOR STOCK, BUILT ON-SITE AND USED TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. Girls, Educational Equity and Mother Tongue-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Mother tongue-based education perpetuates equity in education, especially among girls who are often regarded as disadvantaged in access to education. The Asia and Pacific region is characterized by its rich ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity. Such diversity is found missing in many school systems in the region which often leads to gaps in…

  16. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  17. Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskarous, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

  18. The microbiota of young children from tooth and tongue samples.

    PubMed

    Tanner, A C R; Milgrom, P M; Kent, R; Mokeem, S A; Page, R C; Riedy, C A; Weinstein, P; Bruss, J

    2002-01-01

    This study determined the frequency with which 38 microbial species were detected in 171 randomly selected children from 6 to 36 months of age. Children were sampled and dental caries measured. Oral samples were assayed by means of a checkerboard DNA probe assay. The detection frequencies from tongue samples in children under 18 mos were: S. mutans 70%, S. sobrinus 72%, P. gingivalis 23%, B. forsythus 11%, and A. actinomycetemcomitans 30%, with similar detection frequencies in children over 18 mos. Thus, S. mutans and the periodontal pathogens, P. gingivalis and B. forsythus, were detected even in the youngest subjects. Species associated with caries included S. mutans (children ages 18-36 mos) and A. israelii (children ages < 18 mos), the latter species possibly reflecting increased plaque in children with caries. Species detection from tooth and tongue samples was highly associated, with most species detected more frequently from tongue than from tooth samples in children under 18 mos, suggesting that the tongue was a potential microbial reservoir. PMID:11824414

  19. Westward shift of the Yellow Sea warm salty tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daji Huang; Xiaopeng Fan; Dongfeng Xu; Yuanzheng Tong; Jilan Su

    2005-01-01

    The accumulated in situ hydrographic survey as well as the satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST) show consistent westward shifting of the Yellow Sea Warm Salty Tongue (YSWST) in winter. A 2-D thermal model is used to show the westward shifting of the YSWST due to cooling and advection. The MITgcm is applied to simulate the circulation in the Yellow

  20. Resonance Tongues in Hill's Equations: A Geometric Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Broer; Carles Simó

    2000-01-01

    The geometry of resonance tongues is considered in, mainly reversible, versions of Hill's equation, close to the classical Mathieu case. Hill's map assigns to each value of the multiparameter the corresponding Poincaré matrix. By an averaging method, the geometry of Hill's map locally can be understood in terms of cuspoid Whitney singularities. This adds robustness to the result. The algorithmic

  1. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR...application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result...percent over the weight of the fresh uncured beef...

  2. A wireless embedded tongue tactile biofeedback system for balance control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Vuillerme; Nicolas Pinsault; Olivier Chenu; Anthony Fleury; Yohan Payan; Jacques Demongeot

    2009-01-01

    a b s t r a c t We describe the architecture of an original biofeedback system for balance improvement for fall prevention and present results of a feasibility study. The underlying principle of this biofeedback consists of providing supplementary information related to foot sole pressure distribution through a wireless embedded tongue-placed tactile output device. Twelve young healthy adults voluntarily

  3. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  4. ‘Other Tongue’ Policy and Ethnic Nationalism In Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. OLADIPO SALAMI

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the prospect or otherwise of the success of the Nigerian language policy of learning a major language, in addition to a child’s mother tongue, following the series of the political crises caused by the collapse of the democratic experiment in 1993 and the consequent rise in ethnic nationalisms in the country. Using both quantitative and qualitative data,

  5. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

  6. The Bumpy Road to Mother Tongue Instruction in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwendo, Gregory Hankoni

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, the Ministry of Education in Malawi directed that in future Standards 1 to 4 would be taught through mother tongues. It took eight years before the pilot phase of the language policy could begin. The paper critically analyses this situation using Bamgbose's framework which says that, in Africa, language policies tend to follow one or more…

  7. Investigation of fracture in a K12 tongue component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V Sudhakar

    2002-01-01

    A series of failures of K12 tongue components occurred, which are used in automobile seat belts. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the fracture surface indicated that premature fracture of the component was due to the presence of microshrinkage and interdendritic porosity in the material. This paper presents the detailed microscopic analysis of the raw material as well as the finished

  8. Mast cell density in cardio-esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Fatemeh E; Asefi, Hoda; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Amini, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    Mast cells are related to certain gastrointestinal complaints. Mast cell density has not been studied in cardio-esophageal region to the best of our knowledge. In this study we wanted to obtain an estimate of mast cell density in this region and compare it with mast cell density in antrum. From April 2007 till March 2010, we chose children (<14 years old) who underwent upper endoscopy and from whom the taken biopsy was stated to be from lower third of esophagus, but in microscopic examination either cardio- esophageal mucosa or only cardiac mucosa was seen. Mast cells were counted by Giemsa stain at ×1000 magnification in 10 fields. 71 children (<14 years old) were included in this study of which, 63.4% (n=45) were female and 36.6% (n=26) were male. The mean age of patients was 7.20±4.21 years (range: 0.2 -14 years). The most common clinical manifestations were recurrent abdominal pain (64.8%) and vomiting (23.9%) followed by symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disorder, poor weight gain, hematemesis and dysphagia. The mean mast cell density in the cardiac mucosa was 33.41±32.75 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-155), which was two times of that in antral mucosa. We found a significant but weak positive correlation at the 0.05 level between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum. Higher mast cell counts were seen in cardiac mucosa in this study. Significant positive correlation between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum could hint to a single underlying etiology for the inflammatory process in gastro- esophageal junction and gastric mucosa. PMID:25148804

  9. Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bayerdörffer; B. Rudolph; A. Neubauer; C. Thiede; N. Lehn; S. Eidt; M. Stolte

    1995-01-01

    Lymphoma of gastric-mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) type has been linked to infection with Helicobacter pylori. We investigated the effect on MALT lymphoma of eradicating H pylori infection. 33 patients with primary gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma associated with H pylori gastritis were treated with omeprazole (120 mg daily) and amoxycillin (2·25 g daily) for 14 days to eradicate H pylori. In

  10. Inhibition of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative DNA damage in rat colon mucosa by black tea complex polyphenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Lodovici; C Casalini; C De Filippo; E Copeland; X Xu; M Clifford; P Dolara

    2000-01-01

    The effect of black tea polyphenols on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced oxidative DNA damage in rat colon mucosa has been investigated. Fischer 344 rats were treated orally with thearubigin (TR) or theafulvin (TFu) for 10 days (40 mg\\/kg), injected ip with DMH (20 mg\\/kg) or saline and sacrificed 24 hr after DMH administration. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in colonic

  11. Crossed motor innervation of the base of human tongue.

    PubMed

    Kubin, Leszek; Jordan, Amy S; Nicholas, Christian L; Cori, Jennifer M; Semmler, John G; Trinder, John

    2015-06-01

    Muscle fibers of the genioglossus (GG) form the bulk of the muscle mass at the base of the tongue. The motor control of the tongue is critical for vocalization, feeding, and breathing. Our goal was to assess the patterns of motor innervation of GG single motor units (SMUs) in humans. Simultaneous monopolar recordings were obtained from four sites in the base of the tongue bilaterally at two antero-posterior levels from 16 resting, awake, healthy adult males, who wore a face mask with airway pressure and airflow sensors. We analyzed 69 data segments in which at least one lead contained large action potentials generated by an SMU. Such potentials served as triggers for spike-triggered averaging (STA) of signals recorded from the other three sites. Spontaneous activity of the SMUs was classified as inspiratory modulated, expiratory modulated, or tonic. Consistent with the antero-posterior orientation of GG fibers, 44 STAs (77%) recorded ipsilateral to the trigger yielded sharp action potentials with a median amplitude of 52 ?V [interquartile range (IQR): 25-190] that were time shifted relative to the trigger by about 1 ms. Notably, 48% of recordings on the side opposite to the trigger also yielded sharp action potentials. Of those, 17 (29%) had a median amplitude of 63 ?V (IQR: 39-96), and most were generated by tonic SMUs. Thus a considerable proportion of GG muscle fibers receive a crossed motor innervation. Crossed innervation may help ensure symmetry and stability of tongue position and movements under normal conditions and following injury or degenerative changes affecting the tongue. PMID:25855691

  12. Functional comparison after reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap or a pectoralis major flap for cancer of the tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Fu Su; Yi-Jan Hsia; Yen-Chine Chang; Shyi-Gen Chen; Hwa Sheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Numerous patients in Taiwan with tongue carcinoma require tongue reconstruction. We compared the abilities of 2 methods of tongue reconstruction to reserve tongue function.Study Design and Setting: Sixty patients underwent resection of the tumors and reconstruction with a pectoralis major flap or a radial forearm flap. The Chinese articulation test was used to evaluate the place and manner of

  13. Colonic Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Risaburo; Chiba, Toshimi; Dutta, Amit K.; Toya, Yosuke; Mizutani, Tomomi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Abe, Keinosuke; Kamei, Masato; Kasugai, Satoshi; Shibata, Sho; Abiko, Yukito; Yokoyama, Naoki; Oana, Shuhei; Hirota, Shigeru; Endo, Masaki; Uesugi, Noriyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are rare and a definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the colon and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. In this paper we report our experience with four cases of colonic MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. The first patient had a smooth elevated lesion in the rectum and histopathologic examination of the biopsy from the lesion showed centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed thickening of the submucosa and muscularis propria. The patient underwent radiation therapy, and 9 months later a repeat colonoscopy showed complete resolution of the lesion. In case 2, colonoscopy showed a polyp in the cecum; the biopsy was diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. EUS detected a hypoechoic lesion confined to the mucosal layer of the colonic wall. The patient underwent endoscopic mucosal resection of the lesion and after 6 years of follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence. The third patient had a sessile elevated lesion in the sigmoid colon for which she underwent sigmoidectomy. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen was suggestive of MALT lymphoma. The last patient had a smooth elevated lesion in the rectum and magnification endoscopy showed irregular vascular pattern. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection, and biopsy examination showed the tumor to be MALT lymphoma. Although rare, awareness of MALT lymphoma of the colon is important to evaluate the patient appropriately and to plan further management. PMID:23012617

  14. Carcinoma cuniculatum of the esophagus and tongue: report of two cases, including TP53 mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Giap Hean; Venkateswaran, Kotamma; Leow, Pay Chin; Loh, Kwok Seng; Thamboo, Thomas Paulraj; Petersson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum (CC) is a rare variant of extremely well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. We present the clinicopathological features of two cases of CC; one lingual and one esophageal case with a molecular genetic study regarding the TP53 gene mutational status. Case 1 was a 62 year old male with enlarging chronic ulcer in the tongue. Case 2 was a 77 year old male with progressive dysphagia and odynophagia. Both patients were treated surgically. Both tumors showed deeply invaginating, keratin-filled, burrowing crypts lined by very well differentiated squamous epithelium. The esophageal tumor showed varying degrees of reactive nuclear atypia largely limited to the areas with dense intratumoral infiltration of neutrophils. No mutation of TP53 was identified in the esophageal case. Cytologic atypia limited to areas of significant acute inflammation may occur in CC and should, in the absence of aggressive stromal invasion, not preclude a diagnosis of CC. PMID:24470056

  15. Tongue cancer with mental retardation due to microcephaly: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Akifumi; Nakatani, Takanori; Morikage, Eri; Shimoide, Takeshi; Hamada, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer in patients with mental retardation has not been reported in detail, although the literature on clinical management of oral malignancies in the general population is extensive. No clear consensus has been established regarding the management of oral cancer in patients with mental retardation. We present herein the case of a 32-year-old Japanese man with mental retardation due to microcephaly who presented with advanced tongue cancer. He was treated with three courses of chemotherapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion of cisplatin at 100 mg/m(2) via the femoral artery (Seldinger method). No major complications were encountered, and complete response was achieved. The patient has shown no clinical or radiological evidence of local recurrence or distant metastases as of 22 months after the end of treatment. This case provides a basis for the future appropriate management of oral cancer in patients with mental retardation. PMID:26179630

  16. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  17. Iridium 192 implantation of T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Mazeron, J.J.; Crook, J.M.; Benck, V.; Marinello, G.; Martin, M.; Raynal, M.; Haddad, E.; Peynegre, R.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Walop, W. (Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France))

    1990-12-01

    Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both T1N0 and T2N0, and 69% for T1-2 N1-3. Seven of 23 failures were salvaged by surgery, increasing local control to 96% for T1 and 90% for T2. Thirty-six patients developed a minor or moderate necrosis (16% T1, 28% T2). Half of these involved bone but only five required surgical intervention. Both local control (LC) and necrosis (nec) increased with increasing dose but improvement beyond 65 Gy is minimal (less than or equal to 60 Gy: LC = 78% nec = 13%; 65 Gy: LC = 90% nec = 29%; greater than or equal to 70 Gy: LC = 94% nec = 23%). For N0 patients, neck management consisted of surveillance (n = 78), elective neck dissection followed with external irradiation for pathologically positive nodes (n = 72), or irradiation (n = 3). Clinically positive nodes (13 patients) were managed by either neck dissection followed by external irradiation if pathologically positive (n = 10) or irradiation alone (n = 3). Regional control was 79% for N0 patients, improving to 88% after surgical salvage, and was 9/13 for N1-3 patients. We recommend that T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue be treated by iridium 192 implantation to deliver 65 Gy. Mandibular necrosis should be reduced by using an intra-oral lead-lined dental mold.

  18. Pathways and progress in improving drug delivery through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers.

    PubMed

    Laksitorini, Marlyn; Prasasty, Vivitri D; Kiptoo, Paul K; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2014-10-01

    One of the major hurdles in developing therapeutic agents is the difficulty in delivering drugs through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers (BBB). The goal here is to describe the general structures of the biological barriers and the strategies to enhance drug delivery across these barriers. Prodrug methods used to improve drug penetration via the transcellular pathway have been successfully developed, and some prodrugs have been used to treat patients. The use of transporters to improve absorption of some drugs (e.g., antiviral agents) has also been successful in treating patients. Other methods, including blocking the efflux pumps to improve transcellular delivery, and modulation of cell-cell adhesion in the intercellular junctions to improve paracellular delivery across biological barriers, are still in the investigational stage. PMID:25418271

  19. Effects of varying fixed lingual apex positions on tongue pressure during straw drinking.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Ishida, R; Ohkubo, M; Sugiyama, T; Abe, S

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the impact of tongue-thrusting on lingual pressure during fluid intake with a straw. In this study, 12 healthy young dentate individuals (two women and 10 men; 19-33 years) were instructed to drink 15 mL of water with a regular drinking straw at 37 °C, when indicated by the investigator. Participants drank after adjusting tongue position to one of the following patterns: (i) Holding the tip of the straw between the lips (Normal Position: NP), (ii) Sticking out the tongue to the vermilion zone of the lower lip and inserting the straw 1 cm past the front teeth (Tongue-thrusting Position: TP). Five recordings were conducted for each participant in a randomised order. To measure tongue pressure during swallowing, a specially designed 0.1-mm thick sensor sheet (Nitta, Osaka, Japan) with a tactile system for measurement of pressure distribution (I-SCAN; Nitta) was used. Duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure were analysed based on the wave of tongue pressure recorded while water was swallowed. Magnitude, duration and integrated value of tongue pressure were significantly lower in TP than in NP at the median line (Ch1-3). Magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure at the lateral part of the tongue (Ch5) were significantly lower in TP than in NP. When duration, maximal magnitude and integrated values were compared by channel, no significant differences were observed in NP, but a significant difference was found between Ch3 and the lateral areas Ch4/Ch 5 in TP. When the tongue was thrust forward, movement dynamics of the entire tongue changed and influenced contact between the tongue and palate during liquid intake with a straw. The impact was noticeably weaker on the median line than in lateral areas. PMID:24579999

  20. Evaluating the Tongue-Hold Maneuver Using High-Resolution Manometry and Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Michael J.; Jones, Corinne A.; Mielens, Jason D.; Kim, Chloe H.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    The tongue-hold maneuver is a widely used clinical technique designed to increase posterior pharyngeal wall movement in individuals with dysphagia. It is hypothesized that the tongue-hold maneuver results in increased contraction of the superior pharyngeal constrictor. However, an electromyographic study of the pharynx and tongue during the tongue-hold is still needed to understand whether and how swallow muscle activity and pressure may change with this maneuver. We tested eight healthy young participants using simultaneous intramuscular electromyography with high-resolution manometry during three task conditions including (a) saliva swallow without maneuver, (b) saliva swallow with the tongue tip at the lip, and (c) saliva swallow during the tongue-hold maneuver. We tested the hypothesis that tongue and pharyngeal muscle activity would increase during the experimental tasks, but that pharyngeal pressure would remain relatively unchanged. We found that the pre-swallow magnitude of tongue, pharyngeal constrictor, and cricopharyngeus muscle activity increased. During the swallow, the magnitude and duration of tongue and pharyngeal constrictor muscle activity each increased. However, manometric pressures and durations remained unchanged. These results suggest that increased superior pharyngeal constrictor activity may serve to maintain relatively stable pharyngeal pressures in the absence of posterior tongue movement. Thus, the tongue-hold maneuver may be a relatively simple but robust example of how the medullary swallow center is equipped to dynamically coordinate actions between tongue and pharynx. Our findings emphasize the need for combined modality swallow assessment to include high-resolution manometry and intramuscular electromyography to evaluate the potential benefit of the tongue-hold maneuver for clinical populations. PMID:24969727

  1. Effects of omeprazole treatment on nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B; Hasan, Fuad A; Al-Sarraf, Hameed

    2009-05-01

    Increased adenosine concentration inhibits gastric acid secretion in rat via adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, whereas achlorhydria suppresses A1 and A2A receptor gene expression. This study aimed to examine the effects of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria on the expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in rat gastric mucosa. Wistar rats were treated for either 1 or 3 days with 0.4 mmol/kg omeprazole via gavage; controls were treated with vehicle. The expression of nucleoside transporters at the transcript level was explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays; the functional activity of nucleoside transporters in gastric mucosa was explored by observing [3H]adenosine uptake in vitro. Gastric mucosa expressed rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT) 1 and 2, and rat concentrative nucleoside transporter (rCNT) 1, 2, and 3 at the transcript level, and the estimated values for the threshold cycles for target amplification (Ct) were 31.5 +/- 2, 28.5 +/- 2.1, 32.9 +/- 2.2, 29.1 +/- 2, and 28.9 +/- 2.5, respectively (n = 3 or 4). The Ct value for rat beta-actin was 21.9 +/- 1.8 (n = 4). In vitro uptake of [3H]adenosine by gastric mucosa samples consisted of Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components. One-day omeprazole treatment caused no change in nucleoside transporter mRNA levels or in [3H]adenosine uptake. Three-day omeprazole treatments, however, led to a 12-fold and 17-fold increase in rENT2 and rCNT1 mRNA levels, respectively. Samples taken after 3 days of treatment also took up significantly more [3H]adenosine than did samples from the corresponding control. In conclusion, the possible modification of nucleoside transport activities by changes in intraluminal acidity may have significance as part of a purinergic regulatory feedback mechanism in the control of gastric acid secretion. PMID:19448739

  2. Oral mucosa and therapy of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Landová, Hana; Dan?k, Zden?k; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David; Stembírek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosa is one of the specific surfaces of the human body, which is permanently exposed to external factors related with food intake, breathing and speaking processes, which can lead to the onset of some problems. Disorders of the oral mucosa are a group of diseases, affecting, in the course of life, the majority of the population. Many of the oral mucosa ailments are manifested by lesions. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common of these diseases. Despite much clinical and research attention, its causes remain poorly understood and treatment is only symptomatic. RAS is reported to affect up to 25% of the population worldwide. Topical or systemic therapy (corticosteroids, antiseptics, anti-inflamatory drugs, immunomodulating agents, etc.) can be used for treatment of RAS-associated symptoms. In general, topical therapy should be preferred due to the smaller drug load of the organism. In both cases, the active substance has to be in suitable dosage form. Recently, besides the conventional ways of application (rinses), the main disadvantage of which is the short time of resistance in the oral cavity, mucoadhesive dosage forms are used. The aim of this article is to give a theoretical overview of the oral mucosa topic and its most frequent disease - recurrent aphthous stomatitis in terms of various types of the disease classification, diagnosis and therapy, and in terms of the usage of various types of active substances and medical forms.Keywords: oral mucosa recurrent aphthous stomatitis therapy mucoadhesive dosage forms. PMID:23578262

  3. Pleomorphic Lipoma of the Tongue as Potential Mimic of Liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    D’Antonio, Antonio; Locatelli, Giampiero; Liguori, Giuseppina; Addesso, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of pleomorphic lipoma of the tongue with a review of world literature. A 44-year-old woman presented with a nodule of the tongue that had been present for over three years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish sub-mucosal lesion, measuring 3 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. A first biopsy showed a lipomatous tumour composed of mature adipocytes intermingled with myxoid areas composed of spindle uniform in size and shape and multinucleated floret-like giant cells. Spindle and giant cells were positive for CD34. A diagnosis of pleomorphic lipoma was made. In view of the benign nature of this mass, it was de-bulked rather than completely excised in order to preserve swallowing function. PMID:23723609

  4. Painful tongue lesions associated with a food allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Flaitz

    2001-01-01

    Transient lingual papillitis is an inflammatory disease of the tongue that can be very symptomatic in children. This case report describes the clinical features of transient lingual papillitis in a 7- year-old boy that was associated with a food allergy. The poten- tial causes of this condition are reviewed and a differential diagnosis is provided. (Pediatr Dent 23:506-507, 2001) P

  5. Results of brachytherapy for cancer of the tongue with special emphasis on local prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, J.; Okuyama, T.; Shibuya, H.; Takeda, M.

    1982-05-01

    One hundred and sixty-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated with radiation. Treatment modalities were mainly interstitial implant with or without external beam irradiation, except for early lesions, which were treated with intraoral electron beam therapy. Analysis was made on the local prognosis of the lesion to clarify the indications for interstitial therapy, especially the combined program with external beam therapy, and the time-dose relationship of the brachytherapy. Local recurrence-free rates (two years) were 94% in T1, 77% in T2 and 32% in T3 lesions, respectively. For T1 and surperficial or exophytic T2 lesions, the local recurrence-free rate was excellent with the interstitial therapy alone using either permanent implants of gold grain or radium implants. Therefore, prior external beam therapy seemed to be unnecessary for these lesions. When the treated area was less than 10 cm/sup 2/, subsequent complications were not likely even if the TDF (time-dose factor) value was high. Most of the patients who received combined external beam and interstitial therapy showed infiltrative T2 and a majority of the T3 lesions. In these patients, it was apparent that most of the total dose should be given from the interstitial implant after a small prior dose with external irradiation, because these lesions could not be cured even if the external dose was increased.

  6. Ultrastructure observation of middle ear mucosa with laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mengkui; Yang, Shulan; Fang, Yaoyun; Sun, Jianhe

    1998-08-01

    In order to study the effects of He-Ne laser on the mucosa of middle ear mucosa from 9 patients with chronic otitis media, all of who had slight damp eardrum, were irradiated by low power He-Ne laser ten minutes per day for ten days. Specimen was taken before and after irradiation and observed under scanning electron microscope. It was found that the surface structure of the mucosa was more integral, the arrangement of the epithelial cell was closer together and microvilli arose among the noncilliated cells after irradiation. The inflammatory cell disappeared arid the morphologic structure appeared normal. These data provided the therapeutic evidence for the lower power He-Ne laser irradiation on patients with chronic purulent otitis midia.

  7. High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (?-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30?h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15?h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40?±?1.24?µg/cm(2?)h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99?±?0.7?µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

  8. The mucosa beyond the polyps in juvenile polyposis.

    PubMed

    Drut, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Little is known of early histologic changes in the mucosa of the colon aside from the polyps in Juvenile Polyposis. Provided with a surgical specimen of a total colectomy of a 6-year-old boy with this condition, this report describes those changes. The mucosa depicted a peculiar serrated profile of the uppermost part of the crypts due to elongation of them, dilated openings, and scant stroma. Also present were frequent aberrant crypts. Early juvenile polyps presented associated with lympho-glandular sites as distorted and microcystically dilated crypts containing granular and filamentous mucoid material. The findings possibly represent the abnormal cytologic potential of this genetic condition. PMID:22050186

  9. Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

  10. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. [Department of ENT, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, E.Y.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A.-J. [Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.T.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]|[Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]|[Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

  11. The comparative evaluation of the effects of tongue cleaning on existing plaque levels in children.

    PubMed

    Winnier, J Jasmin; Rupesh, S; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Reddy, Venugopal; Prasad Rao, Arun

    2013-09-01

    The present study compared and evaluated the effects of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on existing plaque levels in children. The investigation was a single blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who performed either tongue scraping or tongue brushing along with tooth brushing or only tooth brushing twice daily under professional supervision for a 21 day period. Dental plaque was recorded using the plaque index described by Silness and Loe at baseline, on day 10 and on day 21. All data was subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Sum Test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The results of the present study show that the tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in plaque levels after 10 days and also after 21 days. It was also noted that both tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing the plaque load in children. How to cite this article: Winnier JJ, Rupesh S, Nayak UA, Reddy V, Rao AP. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Tongue Cleaning on Existing Plaque Levels in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):188-192. PMID:25206220

  12. Tongue pressure during swallowing is decreased in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka-Kondoh, Sato; Kondoh, Jugo; Tamine, Ken-Ichi; Hori, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Yasui, Kumiko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo; Ono, Takahiro

    2014-06-01

    Although dysphagia is a life-threatening problem in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the pathophysiology of oral stage dysphagia is yet to be understood. The present study investigated the tongue motor deficit during swallowing in patients with DMD and its relationship with disease-specific palatal morphology. Tongue pressure during swallowing water was recorded in 11 male patients with DMD and 11 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects using an intra-oral sensor with five measuring points, and the state of tongue pressure production was compared between the groups. Palatal morphology was assessed by a non-contact three-dimensional scanner on maxillary plaster models. In patients with DMD, the normal sequential order of tongue-palate contact was lost and the maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure on the mid-anterior part of palate were smaller than those in healthy subjects. The width of the palate in patients was greater than that in healthy subjects and the depth of the palate in patients had a negative correlation with tongue pressure magnitude on the median palate. Our results suggested that the deteriorated tongue motor kinetics prevented tongue movement during swallowing that was appropriate for the depth of the palate and affects the state of tongue pressure production during swallowing. PMID:24684858

  13. Evidence of an anti-apoptotic effect of qinghuobaiduyin on intestinal mucosa following burn injury

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, JIE; WANG, PING; HE, QUANYONG; ZHOU, JIANDA; LUO, CHENGQUN

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are common in wartime and in times of peace. The prevention and therapy of ischemia-reperfusion injury to the organs, in particular the intestine, during the burn shock and recovery process has become a popular yet challenging area of research. Studies concerning the apoptosis of the cells of the burned intestinal mucosa have gained considerable attention. Qinghuobaiduyin (QHBDY) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used as a clinical prescription since 1995 to treat burn patients due to its opsonization function in the immune system and favorable clinical therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QHBDY on the apoptosis of intestinal mucosa following burn injury. An animal model was constructed comprising severely burned rats that were treated with various dosages of QHBDY. Tissues from the small intestine were collected to investigate the apoptosis rate by TUNEL assay and the protein expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. In addition, IEC-18 cells treated with QHBDY and burn serum were investigated. The cell apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM), the protein expression levels of Hsp70 were measured by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activity was analyzed by a colorimetric assay. The results showed that in animal experiments, compared with the burned group, the apoptosis rates in the treatment group was decreased, the protein expression level of Hsp70 was increased while Caspase-3 was decreased. In cell experiments, after treatment with QHBDY, the cell apoptosis rate was lower than that of the burn serum group. In addition, Hsp70 protein expression was upregulated and caspase-3 activity was decreased. QHBDY may play an important role in the prevention of apoptosis at the whole animal and cellular levels. PMID:24255668

  14. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators.

    PubMed

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation). PMID:26185113

  15. Thermochemoradiotherapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Hiroaki, Nishiguchi; Kenji, Mitsudo; Noriyuki, Yamamoto; Iwai, Tohnai

    2013-01-01

    A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue with advanced N3 cervical lymph node metastases in an 80-year-old female is reported. The patient was treated with a combination of radiotherapy (2 Gy/day, total 60 Gy), superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy via a superficial temporal artery and a femoral artery (docetaxel, total 124 mg; cisplatin, total 135 mg), and four sessions of hyperthermia for cervical lymph node metastases. The tumor responded well to therapy, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in both primary and neck lesions disappeared on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. The patient has shown no clinical or radiological evidence of local recurrence or distant metastases 6 years after the end of treatment. Advanced oral cancer patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases are particularly difficult to treat and have a poor prognosis. This method of thermochemoradiotherapy seems a promising modality for patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral cancer. PMID:24518725

  16. Impaired oxygenation of gastric mucosa in portal hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Sarfeh; H. Soliman; K. Waxman; M. Coccia; E. B. Rypins; H. X. Bui; A. Tarnawski

    1989-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to mucosal damage is a prominent feature of portal hypertensive gastropathy. Since the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa has extensive microvascular changes, we postulated that the increased sensitivity to mucosal damage could have an ischemic basis. We measured distribution of gastric serosal and mucosal oxygenation in a group of portal hypertensive and sham-operated rats, and then studied the effects

  17. Iron Binding Substances in the Intestinal Mucosa of Neonatal Piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KOU FURUGOURI

    Fifty piglets from birth to 14 days of age were used to investigate iron binding substances of neonatal intestinal mucosa, and to evaluate the effects of these substances in neonatal iron absorption. 59Fe- labeled ferric citrate with a molecular weight of 1,500 was injected directly into the ligated duodenum. Approximately 65% of radioiron in the whole homogenate of scraped intestinal

  18. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of carboxylesterase in the nasal mucosa of rats.

    PubMed

    Olson, M J; Martin, J L; LaRosa, A C; Brady, A N; Pohl, L R

    1993-02-01

    The enzymatic esterase activity of carboxylesterases is integral to the nasal toxicity of many esters used as industrial solvents or in polymer manufacture, including propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, dimethyl glutarate, dimethyl succinate, dimethyl adipate, and ethyl acrylate. Inhalation of these chemicals specifically damages the olfactory mucosa of rodents. We report the localization and differential distribution of a 59 KD carboxylesterase in nasal tissues of the rat by immunohistochemistry. Rabbit antiserum against the 59 KD rat liver microsomal carboxylesterase bound most prominently to the olfactory mucosa when applied to decalcified, paraffin-embedded sections of rat nasal turbinates. Within the olfactory mucosa, anti-carboxylesterase did not bind to sensory neurons, the target cell for ester-initiated toxicity; these cells apparently lack carboxylesterase. Instead, the antibody was preferentially bound by cells of Bowman's glands and sustentacular epithelial cells which are immediately adjacent to the olfactory nerve cells. In contrast, non-olfactory tissues (respiratory mucosa and squamous epithelium), which are more resistant to the toxicity of esters, had less carboxylesterase content. The distribution of immunoreactivity correlated well with the distribution of carboxylesterase catalytic activity described elsewhere. These findings help to link the metabolic fate of inhaled esters to the site-specific pathological findings that follow exposure to such chemicals. PMID:8419465

  20. Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    and gastric juice Citation for published version: Freeman, TC, Playford, RJ, Quinn, C, Beardshall, K, Poulter and gastric juice' Gut, vol 31, no. 11, pp. 1318-23. Link: Link to publication record in Edinburgh Research-1323 Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa and gastric juice T C Freeman, R J Playford

  1. Muscularis mucosae layer detection in colon biopsy images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Yamin Ahmad; Azlinah Mohamed; Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Manual screening of colon cancer biopsy tissue under microscope is difficult and time consuming. With the help of a computerized system, the diagnosis time can be shortened. In this paper, we proposed a method of detecting the layer of muscularis mucosae in the colon biopsy tissue image. By using RGB color information, we analyzed 65 images and preserved a specific

  2. Internal kinematics of the tongue during feeding in pigs.

    PubMed

    Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Zi-Jun

    2007-10-01

    Six ultrasonic crystals (Ø2 mm) were implanted into the tongue body to form a wedge-shaped configuration in six 12-week-old Yucatan minipigs. These crystals allow recording of the distance changes in bilateral lengths (RL/LL) and base thicknesses (RT/LT), and anterior (AW) and posterior (dorsal and ventral, PDW and PVW) widths during natural feeding. Results indicated that changes in all measured dimensions were stereotypical with considerable regularity. The greatest dimensional changes during chewing were seen in the AW (33.3%), significantly larger than those in other dimensions (P < 0.05-0.001). During ingestion, change in all widths and thicknesses reduced significantly compared with those during chewing (P < 0.05), but changes in the lengths (RL/LL) were significantly larger than those during chewing (P < 0.01). During drinking, overall dimensional changes reduced and amplitudes were symmetrically distributed in all dimensions. The timing analysis indicated that, during chewing, the reversal of dimensional decrease to increase in the PVW occurred first, followed by those of PDW, AW, RT/LT, and RL/LL (P < 0.05). During ingestion, the AW started widening first. Time sequence of these reversals during drinking was similar to that during chewing, but RT/LT thickening was behind RL/LL lengthening. These results suggested that during natural feeding, regional tongue deformations are rhythmic and stereotypical similar to jaw movement. The reversals of expansion-contraction of various dimensions are not synchronous, but occur in a sequential manner in timing. Tongue internal deformations are task-specific in both timing and amplitude. The dimensional expansions-contractions are dominant in the transverse and sagittal planes during chewing and ingestion, respectively, but are smaller and more symmetrically distributed across various dimensions during drinking. PMID:17722090

  3. The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starzewski, Jacek J. [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Pajak, Jacek T. [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Pawelczyk, Iwona [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lange, Dariusz [Department of Tumor Pathology, Comprehensive Cancer Center Division, Gliwice (Poland); Golka, Dariusz [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lorenc, Zbigniew [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

  4. Mother tongue lost while second language intact: insights into aphasia.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ana M; Egido, Jose A; Barquero, Maria Sagrario

    2010-01-01

    Cortical representations of the native language and a second language may have different anatomical distribution. The relationships between the phonologic and orthographic forms of words continue to be debated. We present a bilingual patient whose competence in his mother tongue was disrupted following brain ischaemia. Semantic units were accessible only as isolated letters in written as well as oral language presentation. His second language appeared completely unaffected. Whole word system disturbance of both orthography and phonology pathways of the native language could explain this presentation. It is a great opportunity to learn about the language neural network when a bilingual subject presents with brain ischaemia. PMID:22315644

  5. Oxytocin evokes a pulsatile PGE2 release from ileum mucosa and is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Junhan; Wang, Haoyi; An, Ning; Zhou, Yuping; Fan, Jiahui; Luo, Junwen; Su, Wenlong; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) in rat ileum mucosa to identify the effect of oxytocin (OT) on mucosal secretion in small intestine. We identified a COX-2-derived pulsatile PGE2 release triggered by OT in rat ileum mucosa. OT receptors (OTR) are expressed in intestine crypt epithelial cells. Notably, OT evoked a dynamic change of [Ca(2+)]i in ileum crypts, which was responsible for this pulsatile release of PGE2. OT ameliorated 5-FU-, radiation- or DSS- induced injury in vivo, including the improvement of weight loss, reduced villus height and impaired survival of crypt transit-amplifying cells as well as crypt. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against intestinal injury were eliminated by coadministration of a selective inhibitor of PGE2, AH6809. Our findings strongly suggest that OT, a novel and important regulator of intestine mucosa barrier, is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury. Considering that OT is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent chemo-radiotherapy induced intestine injury or to treat IBD. PMID:26159321

  6. Oxytocin evokes a pulsatile PGE2 release from ileum mucosa and is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Junhan; Wang, Haoyi; An, Ning; Zhou, Yuping; Fan, Jiahui; Luo, Junwen; Su, Wenlong; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) in rat ileum mucosa to identify the effect of oxytocin (OT) on mucosal secretion in small intestine. We identified a COX-2-derived pulsatile PGE2 release triggered by OT in rat ileum mucosa. OT receptors (OTR) are expressed in intestine crypt epithelial cells. Notably, OT evoked a dynamic change of [Ca2+]i in ileum crypts, which was responsible for this pulsatile release of PGE2. OT ameliorated 5-FU-, radiation- or DSS- induced injury in vivo, including the improvement of weight loss, reduced villus height and impaired survival of crypt transit-amplifying cells as well as crypt. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against intestinal injury were eliminated by coadministration of a selective inhibitor of PGE2, AH6809. Our findings strongly suggest that OT, a novel and important regulator of intestine mucosa barrier, is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury. Considering that OT is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent chemo-radiotherapy induced intestine injury or to treat IBD. PMID:26159321

  7. Lactobacillus isolates from weaned piglets' mucosa with inhibitory activity against common porcine pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hacin, B; Rogelj, I; Matijasi?, B B

    2008-01-01

    Twelve lactobacilli isolates from mucosa of 3-5-week-old weaned pigs were found to exert good antimicrobial activity against common porcine pathogens (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, C. perfringens). Two of them produced in addition to lactic acid also considerable amounts of acetic acid, and 6 of them produced hydrogen peroxide and metabolites other than organic acids. Isolates 4/26 and 2/25 (identified as L. crispatus or L. amylovorus) were inhibitory against most strains of S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli, and especially the strain 4/26 survived well in simulated gastric and intestinal juice. Diarrhea-causing E. coli O8K88H9 Ent(+) was successfully inhibited by the growing culture as well as by the catalase-treated and neutralized supernatant of L. reuteri 12/26. Mucin degradation and multiple resistance to antibiotics were not observed. PMID:19381487

  8. Reinvigorating Ethnic Cultural Identity Through Mother-Tongue-Teaching Materials in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-chiao

    1996-01-01

    Explores to what extent a mother-tongue educational program can reinvigorate Taiwan's ethnic cultural identity. Content of mother-tongue materials used in Taipei county for Taiwanese, Hakka, and Ataylic students is analyzed, and interviews with members from each ethnic group are also conducted as a supplement. (JL)

  9. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  10. The Effect of Anatomic Factors on Tongue Position Variability during Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the…

  11. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  12. Sensory outcomes of the anterior tongue after lingual nerve repair in oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Elfring, T T; Boliek, C A; Seikaly, H; Harris, J; Rieger, J M

    2012-03-01

    Primary treatment of oropharyngeal cancer often involves surgical resection and reconstruction of the affected area. However, during base of tongue reconstruction the lingual nerve is often severed on one or both sides, affecting sensation in the preserved tissue of the anterior tongue. The loss of specific tongue sensations could negatively affect a person's oral function and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different types of lingual nerve intervention on sensory function for patients with base of tongue cancer as compared to healthy, age-matched adults. Subjects included 30 patients who had undergone primary oropharyngeal reconstruction with a radial forearm free-flap and 30 matched controls. Sensations tested were temperature, two-point discrimination, light touch, taste, oral stereognosis and texture on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Results indicated that type of surgical nerve repair may not have a significant impact on overall sensory outcomes, providing mixed results for either nerve repair technique. Sensations for the nonoperated tongue side and operated side with lingual nerve intact were comparable to matched controls, with mixed outcomes for nerve repair. The poorest sensory outcomes were observed in patients with the lingual nerve severed, while all patients with lingual nerve intervention exhibited deteriorated taste sensation on the affected tongue side. Overall, patients in this study who had undergone oropharyngeal reconstruction with lingual nerve intervention exhibited decreased levels of sensation on the operated tongue side, with minimal differences between types of lingual nerve repair. PMID:21923892

  13. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

  14. Education in Mother Tongue: The Ife Primary Education Research Project (1970-1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafunwa, Aliu Babs, Ed.; And Others

    This book makes a case for the mother tongue as the medium of education for the first 12 years of the child's life. It describes Nigeria's 6-Year Primary Project, which taught experimental groups of students in their native Yoruba in varying degrees for their first 6 school years, beginning in 1970. The book shows how the mother-tongue education…

  15. Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls: Advocacy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Background: A linguistic mismatch between school and community creates problems in both access to school services and the quality of those services. Consideration of mother tongue is the key for making schools more inclusive for girls. Purpose: To argue that education in mother tongue results in making schools more inclusive for disadvantaged…

  16. Electropalatographic Assessment of Tongue-to-Palate Contact Patterns and Variability in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hei Yan; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Goozee, Justine V.; Scott, Dion

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the developmental time course of tongue-to-palate contact patterns during speech from childhood to adulthood using electropalatography (EPG) and a comprehensive profile of data analysis. Method: Tongue-to-palate contacts were recorded during productions of /t/, /l/, /s/, and /k/ in 48 children, adolescents and adults (aged…

  17. Ultrasound investigation of tongue movements in syllables with different onset Tanja Kocjancic

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Ultrasound investigation of tongue movements in syllables with different onset structure Tanja ultrasound also in terms of the distance the tongue travels over a syllable by us- ing ultrasound changes. 1 Introduction Ultrasound is a safe and non-invasive imaging technique that enables visualisation

  18. Optimal Leaf Sequencing with Elimination of Tongue-and-Groove Underdosage

    E-print Network

    Sahni, Sartaj K.

    Optimal Leaf Sequencing with Elimination of Tongue-and-Groove Underdosage Srijit Kamath, Sartaj in intensity modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct

  19. Why Make Them Crawl if They Can Walk? Teaching with Mother Tongue Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzkamm, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the long-standing issue over the role of the mother tongue in the foreign language classroom. In the first part it is argued that the mother tongue lays the cognitive foundations for all subsequent language learning. Double comprehension as the basic requirement for learning to take place is explained. The second part is…

  20. Two prey capture strategies are generally recognised in lizards: tongue and jaw prehension (Schwenk and

    E-print Network

    Nishikawa, Kiisa

    the prey adheres to the tongue of iguanid lizards during capture is thought to be based on adhesive bonding. Although the chameleon tongue is generally considered to be an example of an adhesive bonding system to capture large, smooth prey (Schwenk, 1983). Indeed, because the strength of the adhesive bond is limited

  1. Three-dimensional architecture of the intrinsic tongue muscles, particularly the longitudinal muscle, by the chemical-maceration method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Saito; Ichizoh Itoh

    2003-01-01

    Muscle bundles of the transverse and vertical muscles of the tongue become flat when they enter the longitudinal muscle layers\\u000a of the tongue, where they form a tunnel-like structure that surrounds the longitudinal muscle of the tongue. However, the\\u000a three-dimensional architecture of longitudinal muscle fibers of the tongue has not been clarified. In the present study, we\\u000a evaluated the function

  2. The phenotype of gastric mucosa coexisting with Barrett's oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Rugge, M; Russo, V; Busatto, G; Genta, R; Di, M; Farinati, F; Graham, D

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aims—Barrett's oesophagus complicates the gastro-oesophageal acid reflux. Helicobacter pylori infection, particularly with cagA positive strains, induces inflammatory/atrophic lesions of the gastric mucosa, which may impair acid output. No systematic study has investigated the phenotype of the gastric mucosa coexisting with Barrett's oesophagus. This study was designed to identify the phenotype of gastric mucosa associated with Barrett's oesophagus. Methods—In this retrospective case control study, the phenotype of the gastric mucosa was histologically characterised in 53 consecutive patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 53 (sex and age matched) non-ulcer dyspeptic controls. Both patients and controls underwent extensive sampling of the gastric mucosa (two antral, one incisural, and two oxyntic biopsies). Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was categorised (type I, complete IM; types II and III, incomplete IM) by the high iron diamine stain; cagA status was ascertained by genotyping. Results—Helicobacter pylori was present in 19 of the 53 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 30 of the 53 controls (p < 0.02); eight of the 19 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and 28 of the 35 controls harboured cagA positive H pylori (p < 0.03). The histological severity of non-atrophic gastritis detected in the controls was significantly higher than that detected in the patients with Barrett's oesophagus (p < 0.0001). Multifocal atrophic gastritis was present in 4% of the patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 23% of controls (p < 0.01). The odds ratio for the association between multifocal atrophic gastritis and Barrett's oesophagus was 0.20 (95% confidence interval, 0.006 to 0.60). Gastric IM was detected in 13.2% of the patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 30.1% of the controls (p < 0.03). Type III IM at the gastric mucosa was only detected among controls. Conclusions—Barrett's oesophagus is associated with a low prevalence of H pylori cagA positive infection and multifocal atrophic gastritis. This pathobiological pattern is considered to be associated with a low risk of distal gastric cancer. Key Words: Barrett's oesophagus • gastritis in Barrett's oesophagus • Barrett's oesophagus and gastric precancerous lesions PMID:11376019

  3. Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2010-01-01

    An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

  4. Evaluation of the Tongue Drive System by Individuals with High-Level Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Cheng, Chihwen; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a tongue operated, unobtrusive, minimally invasive, wireless assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe disabilities to control different devices using their tongue motion. TDS can translate specific tongue movements into user-defined commands by detecting the position of a small permanent magnetic tracer attached to the users’ tongue. We have built an external TDS (eTDS) prototype on a wireless headphone and interfaced it to a laptop and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC). eTDS performance was evaluated by eight subjects with high level (C3~C5) spinal cord injury (SCI) at the Shepherd Center in Atlanta, GA. Preliminary results show that all the subjects can successfully perform common tasks related to computer access, such as controlling a mouse cursor or playing a computer game, as well as complex wheelchair navigation tasks, such as driving through an obstacle course. PMID:19964938

  5. An extraordinary form of the Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome successfully treated with the tumour necrosis factor-? blocker adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Stein, Juergen; Paulke, Alexander; Schacher, Beate; Noehte, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is a rare granulomatous inflammatory disease characterised by the triad of orofacial oedema, facial nerve palsy and furrowed tongue. We describe the case of a 29-year-old patient suffering from an oligosymptomatic form of the disease with orofacial oedema, cobblestone pattern on the buccal mucosa and swelling of the tongue, accompanied by intermittent fatigue, influenza-like symptoms, intermittent tinnitus and acute hearing loss. An increase of several autoimmune-associated antibodies was also detected. Treatment with prednisolone, azathioprine or methotrexate failed to adequately control all symptoms in the long term. In the absence of a specific and well-established therapy for MRS, treatment with adalimumab was administered. Under adalimumab, total remission of all symptoms was achieved, indicating that tumour necrosis factor-? blockers are a promising therapeutic option for patients with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. PMID:24827666

  6. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  7. To what extent does tagged-MRI technique allow to infer tongue muscles' activation pattern? a modelling study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Buchaillard; Pascal Perrier; Yohan Payan

    2008-01-01

    Tagged MRI' techniques have been used during the past years to predict which tongue muscles are activated during the pro- duction of vowels and for non-speech gestures. Using this tech- nique, tongue muscle activation inferences are based on the hy- pothesis that a significant distortion of the anatomical region of a tongue muscle is evidence of voluntary muscle activation. In

  8. Synchronization mechanism and Arnold tongues for dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhunusiri, W. D. Suranga; Goree, J.

    2012-04-01

    The nonlinear phenomenon of synchronization is characterized experimentally for dust density waves, i.e., dust acoustic waves, which are self-excited due to an ion streaming instability. The waves propagate in a dust cloud with a natural frequency of 22 Hz. We synchronize these waves to a different frequency using a driving electrode that sinusoidally modulates the ion density. We study four synchronized states, with frequencies that are multiples of 1, 2, 3, and 1/2 of the driving frequency. Comparing to phenomena that are typical of the van der Pol paradigm, we find that synchronization of our waves exhibit the signature of the suppression mechanism but not that of the phaselocking mechanism. Additionally, synchronization of our waves exhibits three characteristics that differ from the van der Pol paradigm: a threshold amplitude that can be seen in the Arnold tongue diagram, a branching of the 1:1 harmonic tongue at its lower extremity, and a nonharmonic state. The latter state appears to be a nonlinear oscillation; it is neither at the natural frequency nor a synchronized state.

  9. Interannual variability of the Atlantic Cold Tongue heat budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planton, Yann; Voldoire, Aurore; Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy

    2015-04-01

    The processes governing the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) development are now better understood, but the mechanisms of its interannual variability are still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the mechanisms leading to the cold tongue formation during cold and warm ACT events. Cold and warm ACT events are classified statistically from several datasets following a criteria derived from Richter et al. (2013) and slightly adapted. This classification allows to analyse composites of extreme events. In particular, composites of the mixed layer heat budget have been calculated, computed online in a forced global ocean model. This mixed layer heat budget is a good tool to identify the oceanic processes which control the formation of the ACT and its variability. The results show that the turbulent mixing at the base of the mixed layer plays a dominant role controlling the ACT formation. Cold (warm) events are associated with strong increase (decrease) of the turbulent mixing from march to July. In addition horizontal the advection anomalies are opposite during cold and warm events in June-July. The positive (negative) anomalies during cold (warm) events tend to damp (enhance) the ACT. During warm events, the advection process is responsible of the ACT formation with almost the same intensity as when averaged over all.

  10. Computerized tongue image segmentation via the double geo-vector flow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visual inspection for tongue analysis is a diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Owing to the variations in tongue features, such as color, texture, coating, and shape, it is difficult to precisely extract the tongue region in images. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate tongue diagnosis via automatic tongue segmentation. Methods Experiments were conducted using a clinical image dataset provided by the Laboratory of Traditional Medical Syndromes, Shanghai University of TCM. First, a clinical tongue image was refined by a saliency window. Second, we initialized the tongue area as the upper binary part and lower level set matrix. Third, a double geo-vector flow (DGF) was proposed to detect the tongue edge and segment the tongue region in the image, such that the geodesic flow was evaluated in the lower part, and the geo-gradient vector flow was evaluated in the upper part. Results The performance of the DGF was evaluated using 100 images. The DGF exhibited better results compared with other representative studies, with its true-positive volume fraction reaching 98.5%, its false-positive volume fraction being 1.51%, and its false-negative volume fraction being 1.42%. The errors between the proposed automatic segmentation results and manual contours were 0.29 and 1.43% in terms of the standard boundary error metrics of Hausdorff distance and mean distance, respectively. Conclusions By analyzing the time complexity of the DGF and evaluating its performance via standard boundary and area error metrics, we have shown both efficiency and effectiveness of the DGF for automatic tongue image segmentation. PMID:24507094

  11. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions as a Working Concept for Oral Mucosa Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiarong

    2011-01-01

    Oral mucosa consists of two tissue layers, the superficial epithelium and the underlying lamina propria. Together, oral mucosa functions as a barrier against exogenous substances and pathogens. In development, interactions of stem/progenitor cells of the epithelium and mesenchyme are crucial to the morphogenesis of oral mucosa. Previous work in oral mucosa regeneration has yielded important clues for several meritorious proof-of-concept approaches. Tissue engineering offers a broad array of novel tools for oral mucosa regeneration with reduced donor site trauma and accelerated clinical translation. However, the developmental concept of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) is rarely considered in oral mucosa regeneration. EMIs in postnatal oral mucosa regeneration likely will not be a simple recapitulation of prenatal oral mucosa development. Biomaterial scaffolds play an indispensible role for oral mucosa regeneration and should provide a conducive environment for pivotal EMIs. Autocrine and paracrine factors, either exogenously delivered or innately produced, have rarely been and should be harnessed to promote oral mucosa regeneration. This review focuses on a working concept of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions in oral mucosa regeneration. PMID:21062224

  12. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  13. Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, YUAN; SHA, XIAO-YING; BAI, YAN-XIA; QUAN, FANG; WU, SHENG-LI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E-cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25333745

  14. Variations in development of the ruminal mucosae of sheep

    E-print Network

    Sinclair, John Henry

    1959-01-01

    , it may be that color represents products of microbial activity. If Bo, color may provide additional means. of evaluating bacterial action and thereby, be also a means of evaluating the influence of dietary, factors on the rumen flora. It appeared, from... the products of micro- bial metabolism have far reaching physiologic chnsequence, accounting in large part for the marked differences in rates of gain observed among young ruminants. CHAPTER III VARIATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUMINAL MUCOSAE IN SHEEP: I...

  15. Localization of Inflammatory Mediators in Pediatric Sinus Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofang; Mimms, Remy; Lima, Roberta; Peters-Hall, Jennifer; Rose, Mary C.; Peña, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Microarray analyses of sinus mucosa in pediatric patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have recently demonstrated increased messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL5 and CXCL13 and of the innate immune mediators ?-defensin 1 (DEFB1), serum amyloid A2 (SAA2), and serpin B4. The objectives of this study were to determine whether these gene products were expressed at the protein level in pediatric sinus mucosa and to determine their localization. Design Immunohistochemical analysis was used to identify protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4. Coimmunofluorescence staining of inflammatory cells was performed to further evaluate expression of CXCL5 and CXCL13. Setting Pediatric tertiary care facility. Patients Fifteen children with CRS who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery and 8 children who underwent craniofacial or neurosurgical procedures for abnormalities other than sinusitis. Main Outcome Measures Protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4 in pediatric sinus mucosa. Results Ciliated and basal cells in the pseudostratified epithelium stained positively for the 5 mediators examined in both cohorts. Except for serpin B4, goblet cells did not stain for any mediators in either cohort. Glandular cells stained positively for all 5 mediators in both cohorts. Coimmunofluorescence staining of inflammatory cells showed that CXCL13 was expressed in macrophages, T and B cells but not in neutrophils. CXCL5 was detected only in T cells. Conclusions CXCL5, CXCL13, DEFB1, SAA2, and serpin B4 were expressed at the protein level in the sinus mucosa of controls and pediatric patients with CRS and exhibited cell-specific localization. These mediators, not typically associated with pediatric CRS, may be involved in the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion seen in pediatric CRS. PMID:22508623

  16. l-Menthol sprayed on gastric mucosa causes edematous change

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akihiro; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Hayashi, Shintaro; Nozaki, Masashi; Yoshida, Atsui; Ohashi, Noritsugu

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: l-Menthol (LM), sprayed on the distal gastric mucosa, is a safe antispasmodic agent used during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, it seems to affect gastric mucosal endoscopic findings. Therefore, we evaluated whether LM causes specific changes and impacts the endoscopic morphology of gastric lesions. Patients and methods: A total of 98 patients scheduled to undergo EGD were randomly assigned to receive LM solution (160?mg of 0.8?% LM added to 2.5?mL of indigo carmine [IC]; n?=?49; LM group) or decuple-diluted IC solution without LM (n?=?49; placebo group). We compared the incidence of specific mucosal changes and the difference in the endoscopic findings of several gastric lesions between these groups. Results: Annular-reticular – like mucosal changes appeared immediately after the administration of LM solution. This change was observed in 71.4?% of the LM group compared with 12.2?% of the placebo group (P?mucosa into edematous mucosa, and this occurs more frequently in atrophic gastric mucosa than in pathologic lesions. LM may facilitate the demarcation of pathologic gastric lesions without intestinal metaplasia.

  17. Comparative clinical wettability of teeth and intraoral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PER-OLOF J. Glantz; Robert E. Baier; Rolf Attstrom; Anne E. Meyer; Hermann Gucinski

    1991-01-01

    The observed reduced adhesiveness of human intraoral mucosa, as compared with adjacent teeth, was determined for 14 healthy humans to correlate with differing measured intraoral contact angles for a variety of otherwise non-interacting test liquids on these two equally water-wettable surfaces under clinical conditions. Measurements were made on the front maxillary tooth surfaces and the-inner lower lip mucosal surfaces of

  18. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  19. Modified perineal urethrostomy using preputial mucosa in cats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, L S; Chin, S C

    2000-04-01

    A modified perineal urethrostomy was performed in 14 males cats with partial or complete urethral obstruction. Follow-up information was available for 2 to 18 months. By use of this method, the preputial tissues were preserved, and the penile urethra was anastomosed to the preputial mucosa to enlarge and lengthen the urethra. Urine flow was reestablished in all cats without evidence of urethral stenosis or other major complications. Appearance of the perineal region and prepuce was not substantially altered. PMID:10754669

  20. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  1. Investigation of mycobacterial colonisation and invasion of the respiratory mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, A; Chadwick, M; Nicholson, A; Dewar, A; Feldman, C; Wilson, R

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The interaction of M avium complex, M tuberculosis, and M smegmatis with human respiratory tissue was investigated in an organ culture model with an air interface. Tissue was infected for intervals up to 14 days and assessed by scanning electron microscopy for adherent bacteria or cultured for recoverable bacteria. Results: The mean number of adherent bacteria/mm2 (and the viable count of macerated tissue, cfu/ml) at 15 minutes, 3 and 24 hours, 7 and 14 days were: M avium complex 168 (153), 209 (136), 289 (344), 193 (313), 14140 (16544); M tuberculosis 30 (37), 39 (23), 48 (53), 1 (760), 76 (2186); M smegmatis 108 (176), 49 (133), 97 (81), 114 (427), 34 (58), (n=6). There was no significant change in morphology between infected and uninfected tissue or tissue infected with the different species over 14 days. The number of M avium complex on the mucosa and recovered from tissue increased over time (p=0.03). M tuberculosis decreased on the surface, but recoverable bacteria increased (p=0.01). M smegmatis numbers on the mucosa and recovered from tissue decreased. Sectioned tissue showed M avium complex and M tuberculosis in submucosal mucus glands and M tuberculosis penetrating epithelial cells in one experiment. Conclusions: The initial adherence to the mucosa of the three species was similar, but after 14 days they varied in their interaction with the tissue in a manner compatible with their pathogenicity. PMID:12612305

  2. Local immunoglobulin e in the nasal mucosa: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus; Gevaert, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  3. Local Immunoglobulin E in the Nasal Mucosa: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  4. Qualitative assessment of tongue drive system by people with high-level spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Rowles, Diane; Holbrook, Jaimee; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P; Laumann, Anne E; Roth, Elliot; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a minimally invasive, wireless, and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their environments using tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures into commands by sensing the magnetic field created by a small magnetic tracer applied to the user's tongue. We have previously quantitatively evaluated the TDS for accessing computers and powered wheelchairs, demonstrating its usability. In this study, we focused on its qualitative evaluation by people with high-level spinal cord injury who each received a magnetic tongue piercing and used the TDS for 6 wk. We used two questionnaires, an after-scenario and a poststudy, designed to evaluate the tongue-piercing experience and the TDS usability compared with that of the sip-and-puff and the users' current ATs. After study completion, 73% of the participants were positive about keeping the magnetic tongue-barbell in order to use the TDS. All were satisfied with the TDS performance and most said that they were able to do more things using TDS than their current ATs (4.22/5). PMID:25019667

  5. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    PubMed

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70·7 ± 10·3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. PMID:25786577

  6. Protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death: Two cases of arson to cover homicide.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Slobodan; Zivkovi?, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    In the forensic assessment of burned bodies, the question of whether the victim was exposed to fire before or after death is of crucial importance. Many authors consider tongue protrusion in cases of burned bodies to be a post-mortem phenomenon. Deep-heating effects of fire are sufficient to cook muscle. The muscle becomes shortened by dehydration and protein denaturation. Exposure to heat causes flexion of the extremities on the contraction of muscles and tendons - heat rigour. The flexors, being bulkier than the extensors, contract more and force the limbs into the position of general flexion. The genioglossus is the major muscle of the tongue and is responsible for protruding or sticking out the tongue: by means of its inferior fibres, it draws the root of the tongue forward and protrudes the apex from the mouth. Similar to the action of limb flexors exposed to heat and the appearance of post-mortem general flexion of a burned body due to heat rigour, perhaps the geniglossus could be shortened by heat, causing post-mortem tongue protrusion to appear as heat rigour of the tongue. In this paper, we present two such cases of protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death - cases of arson to cover homicide. PMID:25013164

  7. Using Unconstrained Tongue Motion as an Alternative Control Mechanism for Wheeled Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers users’ intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the tongue motion as an alternative control input for wheeled mobility. We tested the eTDS performance in driving PWCs on 12 able-bodied human subjects, of which 11 were novice. The results showed that all subjects could complete navigation tasks by operating the PWC using their tongue motions. Despite little prior experience, the average time using the eTDS and the tongue was only approximately three times longer than using a joystick and the fingers. Navigation time was strongly dependant on the number of issued commands, which reduced by gaining experience. Particularly, the unintended issued commands (the Midas touch problem) were rare, demonstrating the effectiveness of the tongue tracking and external magnetic field cancellation algorithms as well as the safety of the TDS for wheeled mobility. PMID:19362901

  8. [Tongue angioedema associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)].

    PubMed

    Satkiene, Danute; Kavoli?niene, Ausra; Petrauskiene, Irena; Sirvyte, Raimonda

    2003-01-01

    Angioneurotic edema is a rare (0.1-0.2%) but potentially life-threatening side effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. It can result in serious respiratory distress, airway obstruction and death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors associated angioedema is clinically poorly recognized and frequently underestimated condition. A case history of patient with angioneurotic edema due to treatment with ramipril is presented. A 51-year-old man has been sequentially treated for two years with atenolol, indapamide, enalapril, and fosinopril due to primary arterial hypertension. When the treatment was switched to ramipril 5 mg twice a day the fourth dose of the drug was followed by swelling of lips, tongue, and pharynx without symptoms of airway obstruction. Ramipril was discontinued, prednisolone 120 mg and loratidine 10 mg were given. Symptoms of angioedema gradually disappeared. Mechanisms of angioedema are not fully clear. Pharmacological action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on bradykinin and substance P, immunological mechanisms and disarrangements in complement system are discussed. Treatment includes immediate withdrawal of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and acute therapy with epinephrine 0.3-0.5 ml subcutaneous, 50 mg diphenhydramine s/c or i/v, 40-50 mg methylprednisolone. Future treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is contraindicated. PMID:12829880

  9. LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

    2014-12-01

    The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. PMID:25137178

  10. Macrophages modulate migration and invasion of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pirilä, Emma; Väyrynen, Otto; Sundquist, Elias; Päkkilä, Kaisa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Pääkkönen, Virve; Pesonen, Paula; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Salo, Tuula

    2015-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has a high mortality rate and the incidence is rising worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, the disease lacks specific prognostic markers and treatment modality. The spreading of OTSCC is dependent on the tumor microenvironment and involves tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Although the presence of TAMs is associated with poor prognosis in OTSCC, the specific mechanisms underlying this are still unknown. The aim here was to investigate the effect of macrophages (Mfs) on HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells and NF-kappaB activity. We polarized THP-1 cells to M1 (inflammatory), M2 (TAM-like) and R848 (imidazoquinoline-treated) type Mfs. We then investigated the effect of Mfs on HSC-3 cell migration and NF-kappaB activity, cytokine production and invasion using several different in vitro migration models, a human 3D tissue invasion model, antibody arrays, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry and a mouse invasion model. We found that in co-culture studies all types of Mfs fused with HSC-3 cells, a process which was partially due to efferocytosis. HSC-3 cells induced expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta in co-cultures with M2 Mfs. Direct cell-cell contact between M2 Mfs and HSC-3 cells induced migration and invasion of HSC-3 cells while M1 Mfs reduced HSC-3 cell invasion. M2 Mfs had an excess of NF-kappaB p50 subunit and a lack of p65 subunits both in the presence and absence of HSC-3 cells, indicating dysregulation and pro-tumorigenic NF-kappaB activation. TAM-like cells were abundantly present in close vicinity to carcinoma cells in OTSCC patient samples. We conclude that M2 Mfs/TAMs have an important role in OTSCC regulating adhesion, migration, invasion and cytokine production of carcinoma cells favouring tumor growth. These results demonstrate that OTSCC patients could benefit from therapies targeting TAMs, polarizing TAM-like M2 Mfs to inflammatory macrophages and modulating NF-kappaB activity. PMID:25811194

  11. Pathological prion protein in the tongues of sheep infected with naturally occurring scrapie.

    PubMed

    Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Crescio, Maria Ines; Martucci, Francesca; Mazza, Maria; Ru, Giuseppe; Bozzetta, Elena; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Caramelli, Maria

    2005-05-01

    Tongue involvement by prion spreading was shown to be a common outcome after oral or intracranial experimental challenge with scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy sources in rodent models. It is also known that bovine spongiform encephalopathy, which is pathogenic for humans, is experimentally transmissible to sheep and can lead to a disease indistinguishable from scrapie. A recent European Food Safety Authority opinion recommended research into PrPsc accumulation in the tongues of ruminants. We report on the detection of PrPsc in the tongues of seven scrapie-infected sheep by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. PMID:15827199

  12. Carcinomas of the base of the tongue: diagnosis using double-contrast radiography of the pharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Apter, A.J.; Levine, M.S.; Glick, S.N.

    1984-04-01

    A barium examination is frequently performed as the primary screening study on patients with carcinoma of the base of the tongue who present with dysphagia. Because of the limitations of the conventional barium study in visualizing the pharynx, double-contrast views of this region are routinely included as part of the standard barium examination on all patients with pharyngeal dysphagia. With this technique, six carcinomas of the base of the tongue were detected, including four ulcerating and two exophytic lesions. The normal and abnormal appearance of the tongue base on double-contrast radiography of the pharynx is described.

  13. New Ergonomic Headset for Tongue-Drive System with Wireless Smartphone Interface

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Hwang, In-O

    2013-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue-operated assistive technology (AT), developed for people with severe physical disabilities to control their environment using their tongue motion. We have developed a new ergonomic headset for the TDS with a user-friendly smartphone interface, through which users will be able to wirelessly control various devices, access computers, and drive wheelchairs. This headset design is expected to act as a flexible and multifunctional communication interface for the TDS and improve its usability, accessibility, aesthetics, and convenience for the end users. PMID:22256035

  14. Time-dose relationships for local tumor control and complications following irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, K.E.; Parsons, J.T.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.

    1987-04-01

    Between October 1964 and September 1981, 114 previously untreated patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue were treated with curative intent by a radical course of irradiation at the University of Florida. With a minimum 2-year follow-up, local control was achieved in 78, 65, 76, and 17% of T1, T2, T3, and T4 lesions, respectively. Control results could be correlated with time-dose factors and treatment techniques. No patient required mandibulectomy for osteoradionecrosis following radiation therapy. Complications of bone and soft tissue could not be related to time-dose factors.

  15. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    K?dra, Bo?ena; Chomczyk, Monika; Z?otkowski, Marcin; Stokowska, Wanda; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bicz, Mieczys?aw; Pietruska, Ma?gorzata; Tokajuk, Gra?yna; Charkiewicz, Rados?aw; Czajka, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech; Zimnoch, Lech; K?dra, Bogus?aw

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:23042267

  16. Determination of the glycosylation-pattern of the middle ear mucosa in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Engleder, Elisabeth; Demmerer, Elisabeth; Wang, Xueyan; Honeder, Clemens; Zhu, Chengjing; Studenik, Christian; Wirth, Michael; Arnoldner, Christoph; Gabor, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the glycosylation pattern of the middle ear mucosa (MEM) of guinea pigs, an approved model for middle ear research, was characterized with the purpose to identify bioadhesive ligands which might prolong the contact time of drug delivery systems with the middle ear mucosa (MEM). To assess the utility of five fluorescein labeled plant lectins with different carbohydrate specificities as bioadhesive ligands, viable MEM specimens were incubated at 4 °C and the lectin binding capacities were calculated from the MEM-associated relative fluorescence intensities. Among all lectins under investigation, fluorescein-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) emerged as the highest bioadhesive lectin. In general, the accessibility of carbohydrate moieties of the MEM followed the order: sialic acid and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (WGA) >> mannose and galactosamine (Lensculinaris agglutinin) > N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (Solanumtuberosum agglutinin) > fucose (Ulexeuropaeus isoagglutinin I) >> terminal mannose ?-(1,3)-mannose (Galanthusnivalis agglutinin). Competitive inhibition studies with the corresponding carbohydrate revealed that F-WGA-binding was inhibited up to 90% confirming specificity of the F-WGA–MEM interaction. The cilia of the MEM were identified as F-WGA binding sites by fluorescence imaging as well as a z-stack of overlays of transmission, F-WGA- and nuclei-stained images of the MEM. Additionally, co-localisation experiments revealed that F-WGA bound to acidic mucopolysaccharides of the MEM. All in all, lectin-mediated bioadhesion to the MEM is proposed as a new concept for drug delivery to prolong the residence time of the drug in the tympanic cavity especially for successful therapy for difficult-to-treat diseases such as otitis media. PMID:25724132

  17. Reactivity of gliadin and lectins with celiac intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pittschieler, K; Ladinser, B; Petell, J K

    1994-11-01

    The binding patterns of gliadin and selected lectins to jejunal biopsy specimens obtained from children with total villous atrophy during active celiac disease (CD; 19 patients) and in remission (16 patients) were examined by light microscopy. Three categories of carbohydrate-specific lectins were chosen for the study: those recognizing mannose/glucose residues, those recognizing N-acetyl-glucosamine/glucose (glcNAc/glc) residues, and those recognizing N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose (galNAc/gal) residues. The galNAc/gal lectins, with the exception of phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants, presented a typical staining of the luminal surface of the jejunal mucosa obtained from CD patients. However, these lectins displayed no reactivity to jejunal sections of CD patients in remission or control biopsies that included healthy children (25 children) and patients suffering from cow milk protein allergy (10 children). The glcNAc/glc lectin showed a strong preferential recognition of CD jejunal tissue but also bound with less intensity to specimens from patients with cow milk allergies and healthy children. Unlike other galNAc/gal lectins, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants were indistinguishable in their binding patterns to the mucosa of control groups and CD patients in remission and failed to react to CD biopsies. The mannose/glc lectins were not distinctive in their binding patterns. In all cases, lectin binding was specifically inhibited by the lectins' competitive saccharides. Atypical of lectin binding patterns, gliadin reactivity was restricted to intracellular areas of enterocytes and was unique to active CD mucosa. The distinctive binding patterns of lectins and gliadin provide a diagnostic tool to distinguish patients with active CD from those in remission or patients with other intestinal disorders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7877884

  18. Enhanced permeation of triamcinolone acetonide through the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shin, S C; Kim, J Y

    2000-09-01

    To develop new formulations that have suitable bioadhesive force and provide sustained release in buccal area for an extended period of time, bioadhesive gels containing triamcinolone acetonide were prepared using two polymers, carbopol 934 and poloxamer 407 which were selected for their bioadhesiveness and gelling property, respectively. The drug release profiles from the gels were studied as a function of drug concentration and temperature. Different enhancers such as bile salts, glycols and non-ionic surfactants were used for the enhancement of its permeation through buccal mucosa. Among the enhancers used, sodium deoxycholate showed the best enhancing effects. PMID:10962230

  19. An Ultrasound Analysis of Tongue Shape in Parkinson 's Disease D. H. Whalen1,2

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    An Ultrasound Analysis of Tongue Shape in Parkinson 's Disease D. H. Whalen1,2 , Khalil Iskarous2 Laboratories, 3 University of Southern California, 4 Université du Québec à Montréal Parkinson's disease (PD

  20. Degrees of freedom of tongue movements in speech may be constrained by biomechanics

    E-print Network

    Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan; Zandipour, Majid; Guenther, Franck; Khalighi, Ali

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies carried out on different languages have found that tongue movements in speech are made along two primary degrees of freedom (d.f.s): the high-front to low-back axis and the high-back to low-front axis. We explore the hypothesis that these two main d.f.s could find their origins in the physical properties of the vocal tract. A large set of tongue shapes was generated with a biomechanical tongue model using a Monte-Carlo method to thoroughly sample the muscle control space. The resulting shapes were analyzed with PCA. The first two factors explain 84% of the variance, and they are similar to the two experimentally observed d.f.s. This finding suggests that the d.f.s. are not speech-specific, and that speech takes advantage of biomechanically based tongue properties to form different sounds.

  1. Localization and Differential Activity of P-glycoprotein in the Bovine Olfactory and Nasal Respiratory Mucosae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karunya K. Kandimalla; Maureen D. Donovan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is localized in the olfactory mucosa and is capable of limiting the nose-to-brain transport of substrates. Bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosae were compared to both localize P-gp and to measure its activity within the epithelia. Methods. Immunolocalization was performed on the bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosa

  2. Antacid talcid activates in gastric mucosa genes encoding for EGF and its receptor. The molecular basis for its ulcer healing action.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, A S; Tomikawa, M; Ohta, M; Sarfeh, I J

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies [Gut 35 (1994) 896-904], we demonstrated that antacid talcid (TAL) accelerates gastric ulcer healing and provides better quality of mucosal restoration within the scar than the omeprazole (OME). However, the mechanisms of TAL-induced ulcer healing are not clear. Since growth factors promote cell proliferation, re-epithelization, angiogenesis and ulcer healing, we studied whether TAL and/or OME affect expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors (EGF-R) in both normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae. Rats with or without acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers (n = 64) received i.g. twice daily 1 mL of either: A) placebo (PLA); B) TAL 100 mg; or C) OME 50 mg x kg(-1) for 14 d. Studies of gastric specimens: 1) ulcer size; 2) quantitative histology; 3) expression of EGF mRNAs was determined by RT/PCR; 4) gastric sections were immunostained with antibodies against EGF and its receptors. In non-ulcerated gastric mucosa of placebo or omeprazole treated group, EGF expression was minimal, while EGF-R was localized to few cells in the mucosal proliferative zone. Gastric ulceration triggered overexpression of EGF and its receptor in epithelial cells of the ulcer margin and scar. In ulcerated gastric mucosa TAL treatment significantly enhanced (versus PLA and omeprazole) expression of EGF and EGF-R. OME treatment reduced expression of EGF in ulcerated mucosa by 55 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). It is concluded that: 1) treatment with TAL activates genes for EGF and its receptor in normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae; 2) since EGF promotes growth of epithelial cells and their proliferation and migration, the above actions of TAL provide the mechanism for its ulcer healing action and improved (versus OME) quality of mucosal restoration. PMID:10791688

  3. Application of B+M-Mode Ultrasonography in Assessing Deglutitive Tongue Movements in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Changtian; Li, Junlai; Zhang, Changsheng; Cao, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Song, Danfei; Yu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate tongue movements during swallowing in healthy adults using the B+M-mode ultrasonography, and to determine a common feature in the M-mode traces for quantitative measurement and individual comparison of tongue movements. Material and Methods Ninety healthy subjects were divided into 3 groups according to age (20-39, 40-59, and 60-80 years). The tongue movements during 3 saliva swallows were examined using real-time B+M-mode ultrasonography. The M-mode traces of tongue movements were recorded and evaluated. Results Both intra-individual and inter-individual differences were detected in the M-mode traces during the 3 saliva swallows. Characteristic types were seen during the individual swallowing phases of M-mode traces: 2 activity types in phase I, 2 types in phase IIb, and 3 types in phase III. However, no variations were seen during phase IIa, in which all subjects displayed a continuous upsloping trace. The average range of swallow-related tongue radial displacement during phase IIa decreased gradually with age, while the average duration of tongue movement during phase IIa increased gradually with age. These 2 trends were not statistically significant across age groups. However, differences between sexes were found in both the range of tongue radial displacement and the duration of deglutitive lingual actions during phase IIa in all 3 age groups (P<0.05). Conclusions B+M-mode ultrasonography may offer a quick and safe alternative for the preliminary evaluation of deglutitive tongue movements. PMID:26049721

  4. Application of B+M-Mode Ultrasonography in Assessing Deglutitive Tongue Movements in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Li, Junlai; Zhang, Changsheng; Cao, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Song, Danfei; Yu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate tongue movements during swallowing in healthy adults using the B+M-mode ultrasonography, and to determine a common feature in the M-mode traces for quantitative measurement and individual comparison of tongue movements. Material/Methods Ninety healthy subjects were divided into 3 groups according to age (20–39, 40–59, and 60–80 years). The tongue movements during 3 saliva swallows were examined using real-time B+M-mode ultrasonography. The M-mode traces of tongue movements were recorded and evaluated. Results Both intra-individual and inter-individual differences were detected in the M-mode traces during the 3 saliva swallows. Characteristic types were seen during the individual swallowing phases of M-mode traces: 2 activity types in phase I, 2 types in phase IIb, and 3 types in phase III. However, no variations were seen during phase IIa, in which all subjects displayed a continuous upsloping trace. The average range of swallow-related tongue radial displacement during phase IIa decreased gradually with age, while the average duration of tongue movement during phase IIa increased gradually with age. These 2 trends were not statistically significant across age groups. However, differences between sexes were found in both the range of tongue radial displacement and the duration of deglutitive lingual actions during phase IIa in all 3 age groups (P<0.05). Conclusions B+M-mode ultrasonography may offer a quick and safe alternative for the preliminary evaluation of deglutitive tongue movements. PMID:26049721

  5. Relating Speech Production to Tongue Muscle Compressions Using Tagged and High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use four-dimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two post-glossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  6. Long-term effects of tongue piercing — a case control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Ziebolz; Aick Hildebrand; Peter Proff; Sven Rinke; Else Hornecker; Rainer F. Mausberg

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth and periodontal damage in subjects wearing a tongue piercing (TP) in comparison\\u000a to matched control subjects without tongue piercing. Members of the German Federal Armed Forces who had TP (group TP) and\\u000a a matched control group (group C) volunteered to take part in the study. The time in situ, localization and

  7. Treating Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Colby, W. David

    1992-01-01

    Background information on treating syphilis indicates that some currently recommended approaches to therapy are not optimal. There is no perfect drug schedule available, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The author's recommendations for treatment and follow up are presented. PMID:21221354

  8. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  9. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  10. Tongue Motion Patterns in Post-Glossectomy and Typical Speakers: A Principal Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Maureen; Langguth, Julie M.; Woo, Jonghye; Chen, Hegang; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined changes in tongue motion caused by glossectomy surgery. A speech task that involved subtle changes in tongue-tip positioning (the motion from /i/ to /s/) was measured. The hypothesis was that patients would have limited motion on the tumor (resected) side and would compensate with greater motion on the nontumor side in order to elevate the tongue tip and blade for /s/. Method Velocity fields were extracted from tagged magnetic resonance images in the left, middle, and right tongue of 3 patients and 10 controls. Principal components (PCs) analysis quantified motion differences and distinguished between the subject groups. Results PCs 1 and 2 represented variance in (a) size and independence of the tongue tip, and (b) direction of motion of the tip, body, or both. Patients and controls were correctly separated by a small number of PCs. Conclusions Motion of the tumor slice was different between patients and controls, but the nontumor side of the patients’ tongues did not show excessive or adaptive motion. Both groups contained apical and laminal /s/ users, and 1 patient created apical /s/ in a highly unusual manner. PMID:24023377

  11. A Magneto-Inductive Sensor Based Wireless Tongue-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Wang, Jia; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive, unobtrusive magnetic wireless tongue-computer interface, called “Tongue Drive,” to provide people with severe disabilities with flexible and effective computer access and environment control. A small permanent magnet secured on the tongue by implantation, piercing, or tissue adhesives, is utilized as a tracer to track the tongue movements. The magnetic field variations inside and around the mouth due to the tongue movements are detected by a pair of three-axial linear magneto-inductive sensor modules mounted bilaterally on a headset near the user’s cheeks. After being wirelessly transmitted to a portable computer, the sensor output signals are processed by a differential field cancellation algorithm to eliminate the external magnetic field interference, and translated into user control commands, which could then be used to access a desktop computer, maneuver a powered wheelchair, or control other devices in the user’s environment. The system has been successfully tested on six able-bodied subjects for computer access by defining six individual commands to resemble mouse functions. Results show that the Tongue Drive system response time for 87% correctly completed commands is 0.8 s, which yields to an information transfer rate of ~130 b/min. PMID:18990653

  12. A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention

    PubMed Central

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269. PMID:22701383

  13. Determining Functional Units of Tongue Motion via Graph-regularized Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jonghye; Xing, Fangxu; Lee, Junghoon; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue motion during speech and swallowing involves synergies of locally deforming regions, or functional units. Motion clustering during tongue motion can be used to reveal the tongue’s intrinsic functional organization. A novel matrix factorization and clustering method for tissues tracked using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI) is presented. Functional units are estimated using a graph-regularized sparse non-negative matrix factorization framework, learning latent building blocks and the corresponding weighting map from motion features derived from tissue displacements. Spectral clustering using the weighting map is then performed to determine the coherent regions—i.e., functional units—defined by the tongue motion. Two-dimensional image data is used to verify that the proposed algorithm clusters the different types of images accurately. Three-dimensional tMRI data from five subjects carrying out simple non-speech/speech tasks are analyzed to show how the proposed approach defines a subject/task-specific functional parcellation of the tongue in localized regions. PMID:25485373

  14. Accounting for the tongue-and-groove effect using a robust direct aperture optimization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, Ehsan; Men Chunhua; Romeijn, H. Edwin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0843 (United States); Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2117 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Traditionally, the tongue-and-groove effect due to the multileaf collimator architecture in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has typically been deferred to the leaf sequencing stage. The authors propose a new direct aperture optimization method for IMRT treatment planning that explicitly incorporates dose calculation inaccuracies due to the tongue-and-groove effect into the treatment plan optimization stage. Methods: The authors avoid having to accurately estimate the dosimetric effects of the tongue-and-groove architecture by using lower and upper bounds on the dose distribution delivered to the patient. They then develop a model that yields a treatment plan that is robust with respect to the corresponding dose calculation inaccuracies. Results: Tests on a set of ten clinical head-and-neck cancer cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method in developing robust treatment plans with tight dose distributions in targets and critical structures. This is contrasted with the very loose bounds on the dose distribution that are obtained by solving a traditional treatment plan optimization model that ignores tongue-and-groove effects in the treatment planning stage. Conclusions: A robust direct aperture optimization approach is proposed to account for the dosimetric inaccuracies caused by the tongue-and-groove effect. The experiments validate the ability of the proposed approach in designing robust treatment plans regardless of the exact consequences of the tongue-and-groove architecture.

  15. Sulforaphane induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Megan; Kesic, Matthew J; Clarke, John; Ho, Emily; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Noah, Terry L; Jaspers, Ilona

    2013-03-01

    Cells lining the respiratory tract are equipped with mechanisms that dampen the effects of oxidative stress. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a mediator involved in regulating oxidative stress. Recent data indicate Nrf2 also controls expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, enhances Nrf2 activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that SFN supplementation induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa in an Nrf2 dependent manner. Healthy nonsmoking adults ingested SFN-containing broccoli shake homogenate (BSH) for 3 consecutive days. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) was collected before and after BSH ingestion and analyzed for SLPI protein levels. In follow up in vitro experiments, differentiated primary nasal epithelial cells were used to evaluate the relationship between SFN, Nrf2, and SLPI. Epithelial cells were transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA to examine the regulatory role of Nrf2 on SLPI expression. Supplementation with BSH significantly increased SLPI levels in NLF. SFN supplementation in vitro significantly enhanced SLPI secretion and these effects were significantly decreased in cells transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA. Our data support a relationship between nutritional supplementation, Nrf2 activation, and SLPI secretion. Therefore, ingestion of SFN-containing foods has therapeutic potential to augment SLPI expression in the nasal mucosa. PMID:23195333

  16. Effect of salmeterol on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dowling, R B; Rayner, C F; Rutman, A; Jackson, A D; Kanthakumar, K; Dewar, A; Taylor, G W; Cole, P J; Johnson, M; Wilson, R

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the effect of salmeterol on both P. aeruginosa interactions with the mucosa of nasal turbinate organ cultures and on pyocyanin-induced (20 microg/ml) and elastase-induced (100 microg/ml) damage to nasal epithelial cells. Organ cultures were exposed to salmeterol either by preincubation with 4 x 10(-7) M salmeterol for 30 min or by pipetting 20 microl of 4 x 10(-7) M salmeterol onto the organ culture surface immediately prior to bacterial inoculation. Infected organ cultures (8 h) had significantly (p < or = 0.01) increased epithelial damage, and P. aeruginosa was predominantly associated with damaged epithelium and mucus. Salmeterol significantly (p < or = 0.02) reduced epithelial damage caused by infection and the total number of adherent bacteria (p < or = 0.05), but bacterial distribution on the mucosa was unchanged. Nasal epithelial cells incubated with pyocyanin (20 microg/ml) or elastase (100 microg/ml) for 3 h had significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased cytoplasmic blebbing and mitochondrial damage versus control values. Elastase also significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased cell projection and reduced the level of ciliation. Cells preincubated with salmeterol (2 x 10(-7) M) showed a significant reduction in some features of cell damage caused by both toxins, which was inhibited by the beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Our results indicate that salmeterol reduces P. aeruginosa-induced damage to both organ culture and nasal epithelium. PMID:9001332

  17. Quantitation of conductance pathways in antral gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The magnitude of cellular and shunt conductance of Necturus gastric antral mucosa was studied by (a) comparing the cellular PD response to transepithelial PD response during changes of ionic activity in the serosal bathing solution and (b) by measurement of current spread within the epithelial sheet. Using constant product KCl changes cellular resistance was 6,788 omegacm2 and shunt resistance was 1,803 omegacm2. Deletion of HCO3- from the serosal solution produced similar but quantitatively smaller changes in PD. Using HCO3- deletion cellular resistance was 7,338 omegacm2 and shunt resistance was 1,973 omegacm2. Measurement of current spead within the mucosa avoids changing ionic gradients yet gave very similar results; cellular resistance was 8,967 omegacm2 and shunt resistance was 2,947 omegacm2. The shunt contribution to transepithelial conductance ranged from 75.2 to 79.0%. Shunt selectivity was assessed using KCl dilution potentials, where mucosal dilution gave a small change in tissue PD compatible with an anion/cation selectivity ratio of 1.16 across the shunt, whereas serosal dilution effect was dominated by a PD change across the serosal membrane of the cell. PMID:1176941

  18. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an ?-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with ?-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  19. Autonomic Neurotransmitters Modulate Immunoglobulin A Secretion in Porcine Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Lisa D.; Xie, Yonghong; Lyte, Mark; Vulchanova, Lucy; Brown, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays a crucial role in mucosal surface defense. We tested the hypothesis that colonic sIgA secretion is under enteric neural control. Immunohistochemistry of the porcine distal colonic mucosa revealed presumptive cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers apposed to secretory component (SC)-positive crypt epithelial cells and neighboring IgA+ plasmacytes. The cholinomimetic drug carbamylcholine elicited rapid, atropine-sensitive IgA secretion into the luminal fluid bathing mucosal explants mounted in Ussing chambers. The adrenergic receptor agonist norepinephrine also increased IgA secretion, an action inhibited by phentolamine. These effects were independent of agonist-induced anion secretion. In Western blots of luminal fluid, both agonists increased the density of protein bands co-immunoreactive for IgA and SC. Mucosal exposure to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli did not affect IgA secretion, and carbamylcholine treatment did not affect mucosal adherence of this enteropathogen. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine, acting respectively through muscarinic cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors in the colonic mucosa, stimulate sIgA secretion and may enhance mucosal defense in vivo. PMID:17320195

  20. Preparation and characterization of a biologic scaffold from esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Keane, Timothy J; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M; Carruthers, Christopher A; Reing, Janet E; Dearth, Christopher L; D'Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2013-09-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in-vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  1. Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  2. Permeation and metabolism of cocaine in the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Donovan, Maureen D

    2012-12-01

    The rapid onset of psychostimulatory effects of cocaine following intranasal administration suggests either extremely rapid absorption into the bloodstream or the potential for cocaine's access to the suggested direct nose-to-brain transport pathway. Cocaine transport was measured across excised bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa to investigate site-specific uptake of cocaine. Flux in both the mucosal-to-submucosal (J (m-s)) and submucosal-to-mucosal (J (s-m)) directions across normal, 2, 4-dinitrophenol (2, 4-DNP) exposed, and de-epithelialized tissues increased linearly with increasing cocaine concentration, and no significant differences (p < 0.05) in directional permeability were observed for each condition. Some metabolism of cocaine to benzoylecgonine was observed, both in full-thickness and de-epithelialized tissues, demonstrating the activity of the submucosal tissues, in addition to the epithelial cell layer, in determining the disposition of cocaine. Results indicate that cocaine is transported across the nasal mucosa predominantly via passive diffusion, and no significant differences were observed between transport behaviors in the olfactory and nasal respiratory tissues. PMID:22351075

  3. Tissue transglutaminase expression in celiac mucosa: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gorgun, Julia; Portyanko, Anna; Marakhouski, Yuri; Cherstvoy, Eugeni

    2009-10-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) constitutes the main autoantigen in celiac disease (CD). The aim of the study was to clarify weather celiac disease is associated with changes in tTG expression in duodenal mucosa. Tissue transglutaminase was assessed immunohistochemically (clone CUB 7402) in duodenal biopsy specimens from 22 untreated CD patients, ten normal controls (NC) with unremarkable duodenal mucosa, and nine disease nonceliac controls (DC). In 15 CD patients duodenal biopsy specimens were repeatedly assessed after these patients had been prescribed gluten-free diet. Positive pixel count algorithm of ImageScope was used for quantitative evaluation of immunohistochemistry. Tissue transglutaminase expression in superficial epithelium differed significantly between the three groups (p < 0.001). It was increased in DC in relation to NC (p < 0.001) and in CD--in relation to NC (p < 0.001) and DC (p = 0.003). In CD and DC, cryptal epithelium was stained more intensively than in NC (p < 0.001), but there was no difference between CD and DC (p = 0.507). The same pattern was seen in lamina propria. A significant decrease in tTG expression in all the compartments was seen in repeatedly assessed samples. Untreated CD is associated with tTG overexpression, which is reversible. Tissue transglutaminase up-regulation does not seem to be specific for CD and can appear in other pathological conditions. PMID:19756726

  4. Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa.

  5. Age-related changes in elastic properties and moisture content of lower labial mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Sakurai, K; Ueda-Kodaira, Y; Ueda, T

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify age-related changes in the elastic properties and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa. Elastic properties and moisture content were also compared between the lower labial mucosa and skin. A total of 85 adults aged 20-82 took part in the study. Elastic properties (distensibility and elasticity) and moisture content of lower labial mucosa and skin were determined in each participant. Measurements for the oral mucosa were taken at the midline of the lower labial mucosa; for the skin, they were taken at the midpoint of the right anterior surface of the forearm. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also performed, with age as the dependent variable and sex, distensibility, elasticity and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa as independent variables. A negative correlation was found between age and distensibility of the lower labial mucosa. No correlation was observed between age and elasticity of the lower labial mucosa. A negative correlation was observed between age and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa. A significant difference was observed in moisture content between the 20- to 39-year-old group and the over 40-year-old group. Stepwise analysis identified distensibility and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa as predictive factors of age. The results indicate that distensibility and moisture content of the lower labial mucosa decrease with age. Moisture content in the over 40-year-old group, in particular, was lower than in the 20- to -30-year-old group. PMID:20735799

  6. Modified Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and Coblation Channeling of the Tongue for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Multi-Centre Australian Trial

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Stuart G.; Carney, A. Simon; Woods, Charmaine; Antic, Nick; McEvoy, R. Doug; Chia, Michael; Sands, Terry; Jones, Andrew; Hobson, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the surgical outcomes and efficacy of modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (mod UPPP) and Coblation channelling of the tongue (CCT) as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Adult patients with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea were treated with combined modified UPPP, bilateral tonsillectomy, and CCT (N = 48). Full polysomnography was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Postoperative clinical assessment, sleep questionnaires, and patient demographics including body mass index were compared to preoperative data. All polysomnograms were re-scored to AASM recommended criteria by 2 sleep professionals. Results: The preoperative AHI (median and interquartile range) of 23.1 (10.4 to 36.6) was lowered to a postoperative AHI of 5.6 (1.9 to 10.4) (p < 0.05). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score fell from 10.5 (5.5 to 13.5) to 5.0 (3.09 to 9.5) (p < 0.05). Morbidity of the surgery was low, with no long-term complications recorded. Conclusions: Modified UPPP combined with CCT is a highly efficacious intervention for OSA with minimal morbidity. It should be considered for individuals who fail or are intolerant of CPAP or other medical devices. Citation: MacKay SG; Carney AS; Woods C; Antic N; McEvoy RD; Chia M; Sands T; Jones A; Hobson J; Robinson S. Modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and coblation channeling of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea: a multi-centre australian trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):117–124. PMID:23372463

  7. Mycobacterium avium Invades the Intestinal Mucosa Primarily by Interacting with Enterocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FELIX J. SANGARI; JOSEPH GOODMAN; MARY PETROFSKY; PETER KOLONOSKI; LUIZ E. BERMUDEZ

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M.

  8. Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma After a Childhood Hypospadias Repair With Bladder Mucosa Graft.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Raffaella; Stackhouse, Danielle A; McMann, Leah P; Sterbis, Joseph R

    2015-06-01

    Bladder mucosa grafts were historically used for hypospadias surgical repairs, when preputial or penile skin was unavailable and in cases of prior failed hypospadias repairs. We present a case of advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed 22 years after a childhood hypospadias repair with a free bladder mucosa graft. PMID:25863837

  9. Melanoma in situ of the oral mucosa in an adolescent with dysplastic nevus syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Tremblay; Elizabeth A. O’Brien; Peter J. Chauvin

    2000-01-01

    We describe a case of melanoma in situ occurring on the oral mucosa in an adolescent male patient who has dysplastic nevus syndrome. This association has not been previously reported and is of interest both because of the rarity of melanoma involving the oral mucosa, particularly in childhood, and because of the lack of any previous reports of oral mucosal

  10. Neurotensin Stimulates Cl ? Secretion in Human Colonic Mucosa In Vitro: Role of Adenosine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: Previous studies indicated that the peptide neurotensin (NT) stimulates Cl? secretion in animal small intestinal mucosa in vitro. In this study, we investigated whether NT causes Cl? secretion in human colonic mucosa and examined the mechanism of this response. Methods: Human mucosal preparations mounted in Ussing chambers were exposed to NT. Drugs for pharmacologic characterization of NT-induced

  11. Clinical, histological and therapeutic study regarding the variations of the edentulous ridge's mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Davila

    The oral mucosa of the edentulous ridges presents many morphological macroscopic and microscopic variations, from one area of the edentulous ridge to another, as well as from one patient to another. Because the mobile prosthetic treatment realizes a direct contact between the dental prosthesis and the mucosa of the denture supporting structures and of the peripheral structures, the prosthetic success

  12. Ultrastructure and development of the nephridia in Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bartolomaeus

    1989-01-01

    Different developmental stages (trochophores, nectochaetae, non-mature and mature adults) of Anaitides mucosa were investigated ultrastructurally. A. mucosa has protonephridia throughout its life; during maturity a ciliated funnel is attached to these organs. The protonephridial duct cells are multiciliated, while the terminal cells are monociliated. The single cilium is surrounded by 14 microvilli which extend into the duct lumen without coming

  13. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  14. A ballistic study of micro-particle penetration to the oral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J Mitchell; Mark AF Kendall; Brian J Bellhouse

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the impact of model micro-particles to ex vivo buccal mucosa (the cheek) of pigs and beagle dogs. The work is aimed at optimizing a unique form of pharmaceutical delivery. The pharmaceutical is formulated into particle form and accelerated toward the target of skin or mucosa by using a gas jet. In

  15. A novel method for delineation of oral mucosa for radiotherapy dose-response studies.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jamie A; Welsh, Liam C; Gulliford, Sarah L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    There is currently no standard method for delineating the oral mucosa and most attempts are oversimplified. A new method to obtain anatomically accurate contours of the oral mucosa surfaces was developed and applied to 11 patients. This is expected to represent an opportunity for improved toxicity modelling of oral mucositis. PMID:25779721

  16. Expression of TAG-72 in normal colon, transitional mucosa, and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Real, F X; Welt, S; Schüssler, M H; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1989-12-15

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 detects an epitope carried by high-molecular-weight mucins (tumor-associated glycoprotein, TAG-72) recently identified as sialyl-Tn. B72.3 MAb has a restricted pattern of reactivity with normal tissues but it reacts with a high proportion of epithelial cancers. To determine the possible relationship between neoplastic transformation and reactivity with B72.3 MAb, we have analyzed samples of normal colon, colon cancer and transitional mucosa (mucosa adjacent to colorectal cancer) or reactive mucosa (mucosa adjacent to squamous carcinoma of the anal canal, or mucosa overlying lymphoma). B72.3 MAb reacted strongly with 21/21 specimens of transitional mucosa and with 17/21 specimens of adjacent colon cancer. Reactivity of B72.3 MAb with transitional mucosa was strong and homogeneous, whereas reactivity with cancer tissue was weaker and more heterogeneous. Reactive mucosa adjacent to squamous carcinoma or lymphoma was also reactive with B72.3 MAb. Our findings show that, in the colon, expression of TAG-72 antigen occurs during the process of epithelial cell transformation but is also regulated by factors unrelated to the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:2481651

  17. Identification of Restricted Subsets of Mature microRNA Abnormally Expressed in Inactive Colonic Mucosa of

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mucosa of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Magali Fasseu1,2. , Xavier Tre´ton1,2,3. , Ce Background: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD) are two chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDRNA Abnormally Expressed in Inactive Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. PLoS ONE 5

  18. Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

    2003-01-01

    Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

  19. Comparison of soft-tissue, dental, and skeletal characteristics in children with and without tongue thrusting habit

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Uma B.; Shetty, Raghavendra M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tongue thrusting habit is a condition in which the tongue makes contact with any teeth anterior to the molars during swallowing. Abnormal positioning of tongue may result in dental and skeletal abnormalities. Objective: The aim of the present study was to study and compare soft-tissue, dental, and skeletal morphologic characteristics in children with and without tongue thrusting habit. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 children with tongue thrusting habit and 21 children without any habit between age 10 and 14 years were selected for the study. Various soft-issue, dental and cephalometric parameters were measured and compared statistically. Results: Significantly, higher number of children with tongue thrusting showed lip incompetency (86% vs. 14%), mouth-breathing habit (38% vs. none), hyperactive mentalis muscle activity (24% vs. none), Open-bite (52% vs. none) and lisping (86% vs. none) when compared to children without tongue thrust. Children with tongue thrust showed increased upper lip thickness and proclination of maxillary incisors No differences were found in angulation of mandibular incisors, inter-premolar or inter-molar widths and all the skeletal parameters studied. Conclusions: Tongue thrust seemed to affect some of the soft-tissue and dental characteristics causing lip incompetency, mouth-breathing habit, and hyperactive mentalis muscle activity, lisping, open-bite, and proclination of maxillary incisors; however, no significant skeletal changes were observed. PMID:23853444

  20. [Three dimensional structure of the connective tissue papillae of the tongue in Suncus murinus].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Miyata, K; Iwasaki, S; Takahashi, K

    1989-08-01

    The surface structure of the connective tissue papillae (CP) of Suncus murinus tongue was observed by SEM after fixing with Karnovsky's fixative and removal of the epithelial cell layer with 3N or 8N HCl. On the surface of the slender conical tongue, there are densely distributed filiform papillae among which fungiform papillae are seen sporadically. A pair of vallate papillae are situated in the posterior region of the tongue. Filiform papillae appear somewhat different externally depending on the dorsal surface of the anterior tongue. At the tip of the tongue, filiform papillae are of a slender conical shape and have a slight depression in the anterior basal portion. The CP of these is seen as a spherical protrusion on which a shallow groove runs in the anteroposterior direction. In the middle region, somewhat large filiform papillae contain CP having one or two small round head-like structures on each spherical protrusion. These head-like structures are increased in number in the posterior region. In the most posterior region of the anterior tongue, there are distributed large filiform papillae having several slender protrusions that surround a basal anterior depression. These large branched filiform papillae have a glove finger like CP. Small conical filiform papillae are distributed in the posterior marginal region of the anterior tongue which have CP of a horse-shoe like protrusion that opens in the anterior direction. Spherical fungiform papillae have CP which are thick columnar in shape with many lateral thin folds running vertically and having a round depression on the top of each. CP of the vallate papillae appear as a beehive like structure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2519278

  1. Effect of supraglottic and super-supraglottic swallows on tongue pressure production against hard palate.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Ono, Takahiro; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Hori, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Boroumand, Sara; Nitschke, Ina; Ursula, Vith; Bohlender, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the state of tongue pressure production during supraglottic swallow (SS) and super-supraglottic swallow (SSS) performed by healthy adults, and to investigate the effects of these swallowing maneuvers on the oral stage of swallowing. The participants were 19 healthy individuals. Tongue pressure against the hard palate during swallowing was measured using a tongue pressure sensor sheet system with five pressure-sensitive points. The tasks comprised swallowing 5 mL of water by normal wet swallow, SS, and SSS, and the parameters for analysis were the duration, the maximal magnitude, and the integrated value of tongue pressure during swallowing. The duration of tongue pressure was significantly longer at the anterior-median part of the hard palate during both SS and SSS than with normal wet swallow. The maximal magnitude increased significantly only at the posterior part of the hard palate during SS, but at all points during SSS. The integrated value increased significantly only at the posterior-median part of the hard palate during SS, but at all points except the mid-median part of the hard palate during SSS. The maximal magnitude and integrated value were also significantly higher at the anterior-median and posterior circumferential parts during SSS than during SS. These results show that these two swallowing maneuvers, which are known primarily as techniques to protect the airway, also function to strengthen the tongue pressure produced by the contact between the tongue and the hard palate during swallowing and this effect is more pronounced during SSS. PMID:25055757

  2. Three-dimensional image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi; Akiyama, Hironori; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Mineo; Masui, Koji; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Baek, SungJae; Uesugi, Yasuo; Shimbo, Taiju; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Arika, Takumi; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of a 3D image-based treatment-planning method for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer, we analyzed dose–volume histogram results for the clinical target volume (CTV) and the mandible. Between October 2010 and November 2011, one and four patients having T2 and T3 tumors, respectively, were treated with HDR-ISBT. Multiplane implantation using 9–15 treatment applicators was performed. Lugol's iodine staining, metal markers, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to identify the contours of the gross tumor volume (defined as the CTV). The results of the image-based treatment plan were compared with those of the conventional simulated plan on the basis of a reference point 5 mm from the applicator position. The mean D90(CTV) and V100(CTV) were 112% of the prescribed dose (PD) and 98.1%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 113%PD and 97.2%PD, respectively, for the conventional plan. The median CTVref/Vref was 0.23 for the image-based plan and 0.16 for the conventional plan (P = 0.01). The mean D0.1 cm3 (mandible), D1 cm3 (mandible), and D2 cm3 (mandible) were 80.1%PD, 62.5%PD, and 55.7%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 109.1%PD (P = 0.02), 82.4%PD (P = 0.005), and 74%PD (P = 0.004), respectively, for the conventional plan). Image-based treatment planning may achieve high-conformity radiotherapy for the CTV and decrease irradiated doses to the mandible. PMID:23732769

  3. 18?-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Delivered Orally Induces Isolated Lymphoid Follicle Maturation at the Intestinal Mucosa and Attenuates Rotavirus Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Jay M.; Hoffman, Carol; Pascual, David W.; Hardy, Michele E.

    2012-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin, an abundant bioactive component of the medicinal licorice root is rapidly metabolized by gut commensal bacteria into 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA). Either or both of these compounds have been shown to have antiviral, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, anti-tumor, anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro or in vivo. In this study, the ability of GRA to modulate immune responses at the small intestinal mucosa when delivered orally was investigated. Analysis of cytokine transcription in duodenal and ileal tissue in response to GRA treatment revealed a pattern of chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression predictive of B cell recruitment to the gut. Consistent with this finding, GRA induced increases in CD19+ B cells in the lamina propria and B220+ B cell aggregates framed by CD11c+ dendritic cells in structures resembling isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Using a mouse model of rotavirus infection, GRA reduced the duration of viral antigen shedding, and endpoint serum antibody titers were higher in GRA-treated animals. Together the data suggest GRA delivered orally augments lymphocyte recruitment to the intestinal mucosa and induces maturation of B cell-rich ILF independently of ectopic antigenic stimulus. These results provide further support a role for dietary ligands in modulation of dynamic intestinal lymphoid tissue. PMID:23152913

  4. Phase contrast imaging of buccal mucosa tissues-Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, A.; Tripathi, S.; Shripathi, T.; Kulkarni, V. K.; Banda, N. R.; Agrawal, A. K.; Sarkar, P. S.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2015-06-01

    Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) technique has been used to interpret physical parameters obtained from the image taken on the normal buccal mucosa tissue extracted from cheek of a patient. The advantages of this method over the conventional imaging techniques are discussed. PCI technique uses the X-ray phase shift at the edges differentiated by very minute density differences and the edge enhanced high contrast images reveal details of soft tissues. The contrast in the images produced is related to changes in the X-ray refractive index of the tissues resulting in higher clarity compared with conventional absorption based X-ray imaging. The results show that this type of imaging has better ability to visualize microstructures of biological soft tissues with good contrast, which can lead to the diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of the diseases.

  5. [Primary melanoma of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa].

    PubMed

    Ra?kov, S; Avramov, T; Despotov, O

    2001-01-01

    The authors make short review on the one of most malignant neoplasms in human pathology--its incidence, ethiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic features. We present a clinical case from our practice--a melanoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses--a rare localization. Melanocarcinomas of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are almost uniformly fatal. Undoubtedly some of the contributory reasons for their grave prognosis are the delay in detection and in accurate histologic diagnosis, the frequent injudicious therapy, the difficulties in adequate operative removal. Melanomas o mucous membranes may arise in mucosa lined by either normally present, or metaplastic stratified squamous epithelium. PMID:12024680

  6. Gastric mucosa analysis using speckle patterns: a medical diagnosis alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade Eraso, Carlos Augusto; Patiño Velasco, Mario Milver; Vásquez Lopez, Jairo Alfonso; Tellez, Jaury Leon; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-08-01

    Speckle techniques have been extensively employed in biomedical applications. It has been shown, that these non invasive optical techniques are useful to discriminate healthy tissues from those presenting some type of pathology. In this work we analyze speckle patterns from histological samples of gastric mucosa obtained by means of digestive endoscopies with three different histopathological confirmed diagnoses: atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia. We studied biopsies from 27 patients and formed groups following the corresponding speckle contrast features. Three different groups according to the speckle contrast were established: higher for intestinal metaplasia, intermediate for gastric dysplasia and low for gastric atrophy. The comparison with histopathology shows a high value of concordance between both tests, making this methodology emerges as a possible new classification system for qualitative and quantitative gastric biopsy using optical techniques.

  7. NEW CONCEPTS OF NEURAL REGULATION IN HUMAN NASAL MUCOSA

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient receptor potential and voltage and calcium gated ion channels, and combinations of neurotransmitters that can be modulated during inflammation by neurotrophic factors has revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and subtlety of nasal innervation. These findings may provide a rational basis for responses to air temperature changes, culinary and botanical odorants (“aromatherapy”), and inhaled irritants in conditions as diverse as idiopathic nonallergic rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, hyposmia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:19623876

  8. Helicobacter heilmannii sp. nov., isolated from feline gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Smet, A; Flahou, B; D'Herde, K; Vandamme, P; Cleenwerck, I; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F

    2012-02-01

    Three gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria, strains ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3, with a corkscrew-like morphology isolated from the gastric mucosa of cats were studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolates grew on biphasic culture plates under microaerobic conditions at 37 °C and exhibited urease, oxidase and catalase activities. They were also able to grow in colonies on dry agar plates. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 were identified as members of the genus Helicobacter and showed 98 to 99?% sequence similarity to strains of Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii', Helicobacter cynogastricus, Helicobacter baculiformis and Helicobacter salomonis, six related Helicobacter species previously detected in feline or canine gastric mucosa. Sequencing of the partial hsp60 gene demonstrated that ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 constitute a separate taxon among the feline and canine Helicobacter species. The urease gene sequences of ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 showed approximately 91?% similarity to those of 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii'. Protein profiling, the absence of alkaline phosphatase activity and several other biochemical characteristics also allowed strains ASB1(T), ASB2 and ASB3 to be differentiated from other Helicobacter species of feline or canine gastric origin. The results of this polyphasic taxonomic study show that the cultured isolates constitute a new taxon corresponding to 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii', which was previously demonstrated in the stomach of humans, wild felidae, cats and dogs. The name Helicobacter heilmannii sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates; the type strain is ASB1(T) (=DSM 24751 (T) =LMG 26292(T)) [corrected]. PMID:21421932

  9. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

    2004-06-30

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

  10. Secreted factors from olfactory mucosa cells expanded as free-floating spheres increase neurogenesis in olfactory bulb neurosphere cultures

    E-print Network

    Barraud, Perrine; He, Xiao-ling; Caldwell, Maeve; Franklin, Robin J M

    2008-02-18

    progenitor cells derived from mouse neonatal olfactory bulb or subventricular zone (SVZ) in the presence of medium conditioned by olfactory mucosa-derived spheres (olfactory-spheres). Our data demonstrated that olfactory mucosa cells produced soluble factors...

  11. White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

  12. Organotypical tissue cultures from adult murine colon as an in vitro model of intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bareiss, Petra M.; Metzger, Marco; Sohn, Kai; Rupp, Steffen; Frick, Julia S.; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Lang, Florian; Schwarz, Heinz; Skutella, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Together with animal experiments, organotypical cell cultures are important models for analyzing cellular interactions of the mucosal epithelium and pathogenic mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional culture model from the adult mouse colon for cell biological investigations in an in vivo-like environment. These explant cultures were cultured for up to 2 weeks and maintained typical characteristics of the intestinal mucosa, including a high-prismatic epithelium with specific epithelial cell-to-cell connections, a basal lamina and various connective tissue cell types, as analyzed with immunohistological and electron microscopic methods. The function of the epithelium was tested by treating the cultures with dexamethasone, which resulted in a strong upregulation of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 similar to that found in vivo. The culture system was investigated in infection experiments with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Wildtype but not ?cph1/?efg1-knockout Candida adhered to, penetrated and infiltrated the epithelial barrier. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of this intestinal in vitro model for studying epithelial cell-cell interactions, cellular signaling and microbiological infections in a three-dimensional cell arrangement. PMID:18320204

  13. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-01-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (Isc). Subsequent Isc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. Isc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation.

  14. Enhanced production of interleukin 1-beta by mononuclear cells isolated from mucosa with active ulcerative colitis of Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y R Mahida; K Wu; D P Jewell

    1989-01-01

    IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells isolated from normal and active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa was studied. Significantly more IL1-beta was produced spontaneously by mononuclear cells from the inflamed mucosa compared with those from normal colonic mucosa (median 190 pg\\/ml (range 45-700) v 20 pg\\/ml (0-165)). Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide enhanced IL1-beta production by mononuclear cells from active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa

  15. Relationship between Hyperuricemia and Haar-Like Features on Tongue Images.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Liao, Shizhong; Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Hongyu; Wang, Wenhua; Yin, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate differences in tongue images of subjects with and without hyperuricemia. Materials and Methods. This population-based case-control study was performed in 2012-2013. We collected data from 46 case subjects with hyperuricemia and 46 control subjects, including results of biochemical examinations and tongue images. Symmetrical Haar-like features based on integral images were extracted from tongue images. T-tests were performed to determine the ability of extracted features to distinguish between the case and control groups. We first selected features using the common criterion P < 0.05, then conducted further examination of feature characteristics and feature selection using means and standard deviations of distributions in the case and control groups. Results. A total of 115,683 features were selected using the criterion P < 0.05. The maximum area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of these features was 0.877. The sensitivity of the feature with the maximum AUC value was 0.800 and specificity was 0.826 when the Youden index was maximized. Features that performed well were concentrated in the tongue root region. Conclusions. Symmetrical Haar-like features enabled discrimination of subjects with and without hyperuricemia in our sample. The locations of these discriminative features were in agreement with the interpretation of tongue appearance in traditional Chinese and Western medicine. PMID:25961013

  16. Comparing auditory vs visual stimuli in the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Riefer, David M

    2002-04-01

    An experiment is reported comparing the effectiveness of auditory and visual stimuli in eliciting the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. 30 participants were asked to name the titles of 27 television shows. Half of the participants were given segments of the theme song for each show (auditory cue), and half were shown the cast photographs for each show (visual cue). Participants were asked to report whenever they experienced the tip-of-the-tongue state. There were no significant differences between the auditory and visual stimuli in terms of the incidence rate for the tip-of-the-tongue state, the amount of partial information that participants provided in their responses, or the frequency of interlopers (alternative responses that persistently come to mind). These findings suggest that the characteristics of the tip-of-the-tongue state are determined more by the nature of the response set than by the type of stimuli used as cues. The results are inconsistent with inferential theories of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, such as the cue familiarity hypothesis and, instead, tend to support direct-access hypotheses. PMID:12061598

  17. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.

    PubMed

    Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2013-10-01

    In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100). PMID:24106763

  18. The Tongue Enables Computer and Wheelchair Control for People with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Sutton, Erica; Rowles, Diane; Pucci, Deborah; Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis; Laumann, Anne; Roth, Eliot; Jones, Mike; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology, designed to allow individuals with severe motor impairments such as tetraplegia to access their environment using voluntary tongue motion. Previous TDS trials used a magnetic tracer temporarily attached to the top surface of the tongue with tissue adhesive. We investigated TDS efficacy for controlling a computer and driving a powered wheelchair in two groups of able-bodied subjects and a group of volunteers with spinal cord injury (SCI) at C6 or above. All participants received a magnetic tongue barbell and used the TDS for five to six consecutive sessions. The performance of the group was compared for TDS versus keypad and TDS versus a sip-and-puff device (SnP) using accepted measures of speed and accuracy. All performance measures improved over the course of the trial. The gap between keypad and TDS performance narrowed for able-bodied subjects. Despite participants with SCI already having familiarity with the SnP, their performance measures were up to three times better with the TDS than with the SnP and continued to improve. TDS flexibility and the inherent characteristics of the human tongue enabled individuals with high-level motor impairments to access computers and drive wheelchairs at speeds that were faster than traditional assistive technologies but with comparable accuracy. PMID:24285485

  19. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol to thiosulfate by rat tissues: a specialized function of the colonic mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Furne; John Springfield; Thomas Koenig; Eugene DeMaster; Michael D Levitt

    2001-01-01

    Colonic bacteria release large quantities of the highly toxic thiols hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methanethiol (CH3SH). These gases rapidly permeate the colonic mucosa, and tissue damage would be expected if the mucosa could not detoxify these compounds rapidly. We previously showed that rat cecal mucosa metabolizes these thiols via conversion to thiosulfate. The purpose of the present study in rats

  20. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques

    PubMed Central

    kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin–like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). Conclusion: It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy. PMID:26120409

  1. Effects of topical nasal steroids and diclofenac on the nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a double-blind experimental study.

    PubMed

    Vuralkan, Erkan; Cobanoglu, Hatice Bengu; Arslan, Abdullah; Arslan, Selcuk; Mungan, Sevdegul; Tatar, Selcuk; Toklu, Ak?n Savas

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate nasal mucosal changes and efficiency of nasal steroids and diclofenac on nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment. Forty adult Albino-Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. Group 1 (control group) (n = 10) not exposed to hyperbaric or enhanced oxygen concentrations; group 2 (HBO group) (n = 10) underwent only HBO treatment; group 3 (n = 10) received HBO and intranasal mometasone furoate (10 ?l/day); group 4 (n = 10) treated with HBO and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg/day ip). Specimens of nasal mucosa were collected after sacrificing and dissection of animals. The specimens were processed for light microscopic evaluation, and then evaluated histopathologically for fibroblastic proliferation and inflammation. Regarding the scores of inflammation, the level of inflammation in the control group was significantly less severe than the other groups (p < 0.05). Evaluation of the fibrosis scores showed that the scores of both groups 2 and 4 were significantly increased (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups 2, 3, and 4 as for fibrosis and inflammation (p > 0.05). Chronic HBO treatment induced mild inflammation of the nasal mucosa. These effects cannot be prevented adequately by administration of nasal steroids and diclofenac. PMID:24362587

  2. An Arch-Shaped Intraoral Tongue Drive System with Built-in Tongue-Computer Interfacing SoC

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user's mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw magnetic sensor data and sends it wirelessly to an external TDS universal interface (TDS-UI) via an inductive coil or a planar inverted-F antenna. A built-in transmitter (Tx) employs a dual-band radio that operates at either 27 MHz or 432 MHz band, according to the wireless link quality. A built-in super-regenerative receiver (SR-Rx) monitors the wireless link quality and switches the band if the link quality is below a predetermined threshold. An accompanying ultra-low power FPGA generates data packets for the Tx and handles digital control functions. The custom-designed TDS-UI receives raw magnetic sensor data from the iTDS-2, recognizes the intended user commands by the sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm running in a smartphone, and delivers the classified commands to the target devices, such as a personal computer or a powered wheelchair. We evaluated the iTDS-2 prototype using center-out and maze navigation tasks on two human subjects, which proved its functionality. The subjects' performance with the iTDS-2 was improved by 22% over its predecessor, reported in our earlier publication. PMID:25405513

  3. An arch-shaped intraoral tongue drive system with built-in tongue-computer interfacing SoC.

    PubMed

    Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a new arch-shaped intraoral Tongue Drive System (iTDS) designed to occupy the buccal shelf in the user's mouth. The new arch-shaped iTDS, which will be referred to as the iTDS-2, incorporates a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that amplifies and digitizes the raw magnetic sensor data and sends it wirelessly to an external TDS universal interface (TDS-UI) via an inductive coil or a planar inverted-F antenna. A built-in transmitter (Tx) employs a dual-band radio that operates at either 27 MHz or 432 MHz band, according to the wireless link quality. A built-in super-regenerative receiver (SR-Rx) monitors the wireless link quality and switches the band if the link quality is below a predetermined threshold. An accompanying ultra-low power FPGA generates data packets for the Tx and handles digital control functions. The custom-designed TDS-UI receives raw magnetic sensor data from the iTDS-2, recognizes the intended user commands by the sensor signal processing (SSP) algorithm running in a smartphone, and delivers the classified commands to the target devices, such as a personal computer or a powered wheelchair. We evaluated the iTDS-2 prototype using center-out and maze navigation tasks on two human subjects, which proved its functionality. The subjects' performance with the iTDS-2 was improved by 22% over its predecessor, reported in our earlier publication. PMID:25405513

  4. Hydropressure tongues within regionally geopressured lower Tuscaloosa sandstone, Tuscaloosa trend, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, R.P.; Purcell, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    A regional study of the Tuscaloosa Formation in Louisiana, undertaken to assess geopressured-geothermal potential, revealed lobate, downdip extensions of the hydropressured zone in lower Tuscaloosa massive sandstone facies below the regional top of geopressure. Normal pressure zones within geopressured section were identified by drilling mud weights less than 13 pounds per gallon on electric logs of massive lower Tuscaloosa sandstone, and cross sections demonstrated updip continuity of these zones with the regional hydropressured zone. These hydropressure tongues are permitted by the anomalously high permeabilities reportd from the deep Tuscaloosa trend which have been attributed to both primary and secondary porosity. The hydropressure tongues correspond with lobes of thick net sandstone, principally in Pointe Coupee, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, and Livingston Parishes in the central Tuscaloosa trend. Limited control suggests at least one hydropressure tongue in the Chandeleur Sound area to the east.

  5. Using Speech Recognition to Enhance the Tongue Drive System Functionality in Computer Access

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue operated assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe physical disabilities to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs using their volitional tongue movements. TDS offers six discrete commands, simultaneously available to the users, for pointing and typing as a substitute for mouse and keyboard in computer access, respectively. To enhance the TDS performance in typing, we have added a microphone, an audio codec, and a wireless audio link to its readily available 3-axial magnetic sensor array, and combined it with a commercially available speech recognition software, the Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways for text entry. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the combined TDS and speech recognition technologies can provide end users with significantly higher performance than using each technology alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry, such as web surfing. PMID:22255801

  6. The tongue and oesophagus in iron-deficiency anaemia and the effect of iron therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baird, I. McLean; Dodge, O. G.; Palmer, F. J.; Wawman, R. J.

    1961-01-01

    Biopsies of the tongue and oesophagus were performed on 14 patients with uncomplicated iron-deficiency anaemia before and after treatment with iron. Haemoglobin and serum iron estimations were performed at the same time. Nine patients had clinical evidence of atrophic changes in the tongue before therapy was started. Evidence of regeneration appeared within one or two weeks of starting iron therapy. Two patients showed persistent atrophy. Angular stomatitis and koilonychia were longer in disappearing. Biopsies confirmed that filiform papillae and kerato-hyalin granules are frequently absent from the epithelium of the smooth tongues of iron-deficient patients. Iron therapy is followed by the re-appearance of keratohyalin granules and keratinized filiform papillae. Two patients complained of dysphagia, which disappeared after treatment. No abnormality in the oesophageal epithelium was found in any of the patients either before or after therapy. The relationship of oesophageal carcinoma to antecedent iron-deficiency epithelial changes is considered suspect. Images PMID:13864068

  7. Changes monitoring of the Drygalski Ice Tongue front during 1973 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen; Cheng, Xiao; Hui, Fengming

    2014-05-01

    Drygalski Ice Tongue is the largest outlet glacier in the Victoria Land part of the East Antarctic ice sheet with an area of 224,000 km2, and it is the seaward extension of David Glacier, located on the Scott Coast, in the northern part of McMurdo Sound of Antarctica's Ross Dependency. The supply of the David Glacier-Drygalski Ice Tongue comes from two main flows, a northern one from the Talos Dome and a southern one from Dome C. The importance of this glacier is due to the fact that it is the most massive drainage glacier in the Victoria Land part of East Antarctica sector. In addition, the ice tongue forms the southern coastline of Terra Nova Bay and the maximum eastward extent of the Terra Nova Bay polynya is limited by the length of the ice tongue. In this study, we extracted the boundaries of the Drygalski Ice Tongue front from 1973-2012 using a time series of ENVISAT ASAR and Landsat TM/ETM+ data. To quantify the ice tongue front changes, we measured the length of the ice tongue along two ice flowlines in the southern and northern side from the latest grounding line data. In January 2005, the Drygalski Ice Tongue was about 147 km and 114 km long in the southern and northern side. In March 2005, the giant 120 km long iceberg known as B15A collided with the end of the ice tongue breaking off two large pieces (the western one is 70.38 km2 and the eastern one is 91.76 km2). A year later in March 2006 another giant iceberg known as C16 broke another piece off of ~105.3 km2 in size. Since then the ice tongue started another steady propagation and amounted to be around 134 km and 111 km along the southern and northern flow. By calculating the distance of coastlines in different years, we found that the average propagation rate of the ice tongue front along the south flowline is 600 m a-1, while that along the north flowline is 596 m a-1. It indicates that the velocity of the southern flow is almost same as that of the northern one, which is different from the velocity near the grounding line where the southern velocity (580 ± 30 m a-1) is larger than the northern one (259 ± 30 m a-1). Besides, the results suggest that velocities of both the southern and northern flow in the front remained relatively constant from about 1973 to 2012, and show a similar change trend. The average velocity of the ice front between 1960 and 1993 was approximately 800 m a-1, faster than 600 m a-1 during 1973 to 2012, which also proved that the propagation rate of the ice tongue was slowing down.

  8. Effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the hamster tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, K.; Shingaki, S.; Nakajima, T. (Nigata Univ. (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    The effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the hamster tongue are reported. Metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes was confirmed histologically in 48.0% of the animals. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly increased (65.9%) after repeated incisions of tongue carcinomas. Three gray whole-body irradiation also increased the rate of metastasis from 31.0% to 46.3%. Higher incidences of lymphatic vessel invasion after incision and concomitant lymph node metastasis in the lymphatic invasion-positive group indicated a stepwise relationship leading to an increase in lymph node metastasis after incision. Because of the high incidence of metastases and close resemblance to human carcinomas in the tumor cell deposition and establishment of metastatic foci, DMBA-induced tongue carcinoma with invasion may serve as an experimental model of human oral carcinomas.

  9. The relationship between volatile sulphur compounds, tongue coating and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Calil, C; Liberato, F L; Pereira, A C; de Castro Meneghim, M; Goodson, J M; Groppo, F C

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the casual levels of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in volunteers with different clinical scores of tongue coating, periodontal pockets depth and Gingival Bleeding Index. Seventy-two subjects who attended for the first time at the dental clinic of the University were randomly selected for intra-oral and periodontal examinations. Systemic and dental histories were also obtained. The subjects were unaware of all procedures. The level of VSC was assessed by using a portable sulphide monitor (Halimeter; Interscan Co., Chatsworth, CA, USA). High tongue coating levels were related with more VSC counts (multivariate anova, P = 0.01). No statistically significant relation (multiple linear regression, P > 0.05) was observed among the VSC levels considering age, bleeding and periodontal pockets sites (depth > 4 mm). We concluded that the tongue coating was one of the main factors influencing the VSC levels. PMID:19832911

  10. Belarusian as an Endangered Language: Can the Mother Tongue of an Independent State Be Made to Die?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.; Radzik, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    While decline and/or extinction threaten an ever-increasing number of languages, most of these are minority tongues that struggle for survival against dominant languages. The present paper reports the case of Belarusian, a national and co-official language, which the great majority of the population of Belarus considers as its mother tongue, but…

  11. Historicizing Teaching in Awgni as a Mother Tongue Language at Primary Schools of Awi Nationality Administrative Zone: Challenges and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engida, Alemayehu Erkihun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the challenges facing the teaching as well as the implementation of Awgni as a mother tongue language in primary schools of Awi administrative zone. The need to teach through mother tongue in Ethiopia was widely discussed following the change of the politics in 1991. To this end, the government issued new education and training…

  12. Early detection of disease-oriented state from hyperspectral tongue images with principal component analysis and vector rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Yamamoto; Norimichi Tsumura; Keiko Ogawa-Ochiai; Toshiya Nakaguchi; Yuji Kasahara; Takao Namiki; Yoichi Miyake

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose an effective color-processing algorithm to analyze the hyperspectral image of the tongue and its application to preventive medicine by the concept of Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine). Kampo medicine contains a number of concepts useful for preventive medicine such as “Mibyou” - disease-oriented state - signs of abnormalities. Hyperspectral images of the tongue were

  13. Towards a three-dimensional software model of the oral cavity for tongue surgery Muriel Brix1

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    Towards a three-dimensional software model of the oral cavity for tongue surgery planning Muriel model of the oral cavity in the planning of tongue resection surgeries. Methods and Materials: We, either extrinsic or extrinsic, are represented implemented. This model is inserted in the oral cavity

  14. Evaluation of a Smartphone Platform as a Wireless Interface Between Tongue Drive System and Electric-Powered Wheelchairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeonghee Kim; Xueliang Huo; Julia Minocha; Jaimee Holbrook; Anne Laumann; Maysam Ghovanloo

    2012-01-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a new wireless assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired population. It provides users with the ability to drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) and access computers using their unconstrained tongue motion. Migration of the TDS processing unit and user interface platform from a bulky personal computer to a smartphone (iPhone) has significantly facilitated its usage by

  15. The Nyae Nyae Village Schools 1994-2010: An Indigenous Mother-Tongue Education Project after 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, Cwisa; Hays, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a mother-tongue education project for the Ju|'hoansi of Nyae Nyae in Namibia--the village schools. These schools are the only places in southern Africa where an Indigenous San community has access to mother-tongue education for 3 years; and are, thus, an important example in the region. However, there are some…

  16. Potentiometric Electronic Tongues for Foodstuff and Biosample Recognition—An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Potentiometric sensors are attractive tools for the fabrication of various electronic tongues that can be used in wide area of applications, ranging from foodstuff recognition to environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. Their main advantages are the ability to modify their selectivity (including cross-sensitivity effects) and the possibility of miniaturization using appropriate construction methods for the transducer part (e.g., with the use of solid-state technology). In this overview various examples of the design, performance, and applications of potentiometric electronic tongues are presented. The results summarize recent research in the field conducted in the Department of Microbioanalytics, Warsaw University of Technology (WUT). PMID:22163870

  17. Tongue pearl: A novel technique for treatment of an infant with median facial cleft and microcephaly?

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sherif Essam; Hassan, Mamdouh Aboul

    2012-01-01

    This case report illustrates the presurgical treatment of a patient having a median facial cleft and microcephaly, using a guidance appliance. The appliance was custom designed and modified with a pearl-like acrylic structure attached to its lingual surface for pushing the extremely protruded tongue back to its normal position to facilitate anesthesia and surgical lip closure. Total treatment time was 5 weeks. Regaining normal tongue position, in turn, facilitated both intubation and extubation, preventing the postoperative respiratory distress the authors had experienced with similar cases. PMID:23960538

  18. Diversity of Bacterial Populations on the Tongue Dorsa of Patients with Halitosis and Healthy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kazor, C. E.; Mitchell, P. M.; Lee, A. M.; Stokes, L. N.; Loesche, W. J.; Dewhirst, F. E.; Paster, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the microbial profiles of the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects and subjects with halitosis by using culture-independent molecular methods. Our overall goal was to determine the bacterial diversity on the surface of the tongue dorsum as part of our ongoing efforts to identify all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of the oral cavity. Tongue dorsum scrapings were analyzed from healthy subjects with no complaints of halitosis and subjects with halitosis, defined as an organoleptic score of 2 or more and volatile sulfur compound levels greater than 200 ppb. 16S rRNA genes from DNA isolated from tongue dorsum scrapings were amplified by PCR with universally conserved bacterial primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. Typically, 50 to 100 clones were analyzed from each subject. Fifty-one strains isolated from the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects were also analyzed. Partial sequences of approximately 500 bases of cloned inserts from the 16S rRNA genes of isolates were compared with sequences of known species or phylotypes to determine species identity or closest relatives. Nearly complete sequences of about 1,500 bases were obtained for potentially novel species or phylotypes. In an analysis of approximately 750 clones, 92 different bacterial species were identified. About half of the clones were identified as phylotypes, of which 29 were novel to the tongue microbiota. Fifty-one of the 92 species or phylotypes were detected in more than one subject. Those species most associated with healthy subjects were Streptococcus salivarius, Rothia mucilaginosa, and an uncharacterized species of Eubacterium (strain FTB41). Streptococcus salivarius was the predominant species in healthy subjects, as it represented 12 to 40% of the total clones analyzed from each healthy subject. Overall, the predominant microbiota on the tongue dorsa of healthy subjects was different from that on the tongue dorsa of subjects with halitosis. Those species most associated with halitosis were Atopobium parvulum, a phylotype (clone BS095) of Dialister, Eubacterium sulci, a phylotype (clone DR034) of the uncultivated phylum TM7, Solobacterium moorei, and a phylotype (clone BW009) of Streptococcus. On the basis of our ongoing efforts to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species that colonize the oral cavity, there are now over 600 species. PMID:12574246

  19. Halocarbon emissions and sources in the equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Raimund, S.; Fischer, T.; Atlas, E. L.; Bracher, A.

    2015-04-01

    Halocarbons from oceanic sources contribute to halogens in the troposphere, and can be transported into the stratosphere where they take part in ozone depletion. This paper presents distribution and sources in the equatorial Atlantic from June and July 2011 of the four compounds bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), methyl iodide (CH3I) and diiodomethane (CH2I2). Enhanced biological production during the Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) season, indicated by phytoplankton pigment concentrations, led to elevated concentrations of CHBr3 of up to 44.7 pmol L-1 and up to 9.2 pmol L-1 for CH2Br2 in surface water, which is comparable to other tropical upwelling systems. While both compounds correlated very well with each other in the surface water,CH2Br2 was often more elevated in greater depth than CHBr3, which showed maxima in the vicinity of the deep chlorophyll maximum. The deeper maximum of CH2Br2 indicates an additional source in comparison to CHBr3 or a slower degradation of CH2Br2. Concentrations of CH3I of up to 12.8 pmol L-1 in the surface water were measured. In contrary to expectations of a predominantly photochemical source in the tropical ocean, its distribution was mostly in agreement with biological parameters, indicating a~biological source. CH2I2 was very low in the near surface water with maximum concentrations of only 3.7 pmol L-1, and the observed anticorrelation with global radiation was likely due to its strong photolysis. CH2I2 showed distinct maxima in deeper waters similar to CH2Br2. For the first time, diapycnal fluxes of the four halocarbons from the upper thermocline into and out of the mixed layer were determined. These fluxes were low in comparison to the halocarbon sea-to-air fluxes. This indicates that despite the observed maximum concentrations at depth, production in the surface mixed layer is the main oceanic source for all four compounds and has an influence on emissions into the atmosphere. The calculated production rates of the compounds yield 34 (CHBr3), 10 (CH2Br2), 21 (CH3I) and 384 (CH2I2) pmol m-3 h-1 in the whole mixed layer.

  20. Coronal View Ultrasound Imaging of Movement in Different Segments of the Tongue during Paced Recital: Findings from Four Normal Speakers and a Speaker with Partial Glossectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Flowers, Heather; Wong, Willy; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound…

  1. [Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma developing during long-term follow-up for Sjögren's syndrome and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura;report of a case].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takahiro; Machino, Ryusuke; Ishii, Mitsuhisa; Takeji, Miyuki; Maeda, Toshiharu

    2013-11-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare type of lymphoma that arises in small CD20-positive lymphocytes. We encountered a case of thymic MALT lymphoma treated with surgical intervention during long-term follow-up for Sjögren's syndrome and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Although symptomatic remission of Sjögren's syndrome and ITP had already been achieved, the levels of anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies remained high. Chronic stimulation by these antibodies may contribute to the development of MALT lymphoma. A careful follow-up may be indicated for this case with a complex immunological background. PMID:24322322

  2. Sulphomucins favour adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to metaplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, J C; Correa, P

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the influence of sulphomucin secretion on Helicobacter pylori colonisation and adhesion to metaplastic gastric cells. METHODS: Gastric biopsies from 230 H pylori positive patients with intestinal metaplasia were analysed. Sulphated mucins and H pylori were visualised using a new technique combining high iron diamine-alcian blue mucin stains with the Steiner silver stain for the bacteria. RESULTS: Sulphomucin secretion anywhere in the mucosa and a histological diagnosis of dysplasia increase the risk of H pylori adhesion to metaplastic cells (odds ratios 19.9 and 4.3, respectively). However, only 9.4% of cases showing sulphomucin secretion and 10.8% of cases with dysplasia had evidence of adhesion of H pylori bacteria to metaplastic cells. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that H pylori may play a role in the advanced stages of carcinogenesis. It will be of interest to investigate if the relative small proportion of type III metaplasias that actually progress to carcinoma show persistence of H pylori. Images PMID:10396242

  3. The aging/precancerous gastric mucosa: a pilot nutraceutical trial.

    PubMed

    Marotta, F; Barreto, R; Tajiri, H; Bertuccelli, J; Safran, P; Yoshida, C; Fesce, E

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of antioxidant supplementation on enzymatic abnormalities and free radical-modified DNA adducts associated with premalignant changes in the gastric mucosa of elderly patients with HP-negative atrophic gastritis (CAG). Sixty patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia underwent a nutritional interview and a gastroscopy with multiple biopsy samples in the antrum that were processed for histology and for assaying: alpha-tocopherol, MDA, xanthine oxidase (XO), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and 8-OHdG. Patients were randomly allocated into three matched groups and supplemented for 6 months with (1) vitamin E, 300 mg/day; (2) multivitamin, two tablets t.i.d.; and (3) Immun-Age 6 g/day nocte (ORI, Gifu, Japan), a certified fermented papaya preparation with basic science-validated antioxidant/immunomodulant properties. Ten dyspeptic patients served as controls. Histology and biochemistry were blindly repeated at 3 and 6 months. CAG patients showed a significantly (P <.05) increased level of mucosal MDA and XO concentration that were reverted to normal by each supplementation (P <.05). All supplements caused a significant decrease of ODC (P <.01), but Immun-Age yielded the most effective (P < 0.05) and was the only one significantly decreasing 8-OhdG (P < 0.05). These data suggest that antioxidant supplementation, and, namely, Immun-Age, might be potential chemopreventive agents in HP-eradicated CAG patients and especially in the elderly population. PMID:15247013

  4. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE GASTRIC MUCOSA IN THE BAT

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Susumu; Winchester, Robert J.

    1963-01-01

    A description of the cytology of the gastric mucosa is presented based upon an electron microscopic investigation of the bat stomach. The fine structure of the various cell types in this species is fundamentally similar to that of the corresponding cell types of other mammals, but the relative cell numbers and distribution are somewhat different. (a). The surface mucous cells are identified by their superficial location and by the character of their dense secretory granules. (b). The mucous neck cells are distinguished by a characteristically different appearance and distribution of their mucous granules, and by their varied shape and their location between parietal cells. (c). The parietal cells are very large and have unusually prominent secretory canaliculi and an extraordinary number of large mitochondria. (d). The chief cells are found at the base of the gastric glands and are similar in their fine structure to other zymogenic cells. They contain many large zymogen granules and have an extensively developed granular endoplasmic reticulum. The latter is sometimes aggregated in unusual, hexagonally packed straight tubules, each with twelve longitudinal rows of ribosomes uniformly spaced around its circumference and with the rows of ribosomes in precise register with those of adjoining tubules. (e). Argentaffin cells lodged between other cell types vary sufficiently in the structure of their mitochondria and the character of their specific granules to suggest that they are of more than one kind. The majority are at the base of the epithelium but some extend to the lumen and bear microvilli on their free surface. PMID:13957001

  5. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  6. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach.

    PubMed

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S P; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R; Krishna, C Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions. PMID:25478870

  7. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  8. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Michael T; Yeung, Ka Yee; Ruzzo, Walter L; Hsu, Li; Blount, Patricia L; Sullivan, Robert; Zarbl, Helmut; Delrow, Jeffrey; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Reid, Brian J

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE) tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia. PMID:11896567

  9. Feeding Regulates the Expression of Pancreatic Genes in Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Maria Rita; Yoshioka, Mayumi; St-Amand, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    The ineffective short-term control of feeding behavior compromises energy homeostasis and can lead to obesity. The gastrointestinal tract secretes several regulatory peptides. However, little is known about the stomach peptide contribution to the acute regulation of intake. In an attempt to identify new gastric signals, the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method was used for the transcription profiling of stomach mucosa in 7 groups of mice: fasting and sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours after a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) ad libitum meal. In total, 35 genes were differentially modulated by LF and HF meals compared to fasting, including 15 mRNAs coding for digestive enzymes/secretory proteins, and 10 novel transcripts. Although the basic expression profile did not undergo substantial variations, both LF and HF meals influenced the transcription. This study represents the first global analysis of stomach transcriptome as induced by different nutritional stimuli. Further studies including the characterization of novel genes may help to identify new targets for the therapy and prevention of obesity. PMID:21234387

  10. HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

  11. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. McGreevy; R. Barton; T. Housinger

    1986-01-01

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H\\/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST

  12. The color of human gingiva and mucosa: visual measurement and description of distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Heydecke; Stefan Schnitzer; Jens C. Türp

    2005-01-01

    No soft tissue shade guide is available for matching the color of denture resins to human intraoral soft tissues. To determine\\u000a the color of both the gingiva and the alveolar mucosa, intraoral soft tissue colors of 150 men and women were assessed under\\u000a standardized lighting conditions. Colors of the papilla, attached gingiva, and alveolar mucosa in the central incisor region

  13. Expression of Trace Amine-Associated Receptors in Human Nasal Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittoria Carnicelli; Amelia Santoro; Stefano Sellari-Franceschini; Stefano Berrettini; Riccardo Zucchi

    2010-01-01

    Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) have recently been identified in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) and may be implicated\\u000a in the detection of volatile amines, including pheromones. We investigated TAAR expression in human nasal mucosa, evaluating\\u000a 32 nasal mucosa biopsies obtained from 16 patients with normal olfactory function undergoing routine nasal surgery. OE was\\u000a identified on the basis of olfactory marker protein

  14. It Is Still "Double Take": Mother Tongue Education and Bilingual Classroom Practice in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, L. Oladipo

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I explore language practices in Nigerian primary school classrooms against the backdrop of the policy of mother tongue education. Findings from the study show that there is a classroom bilingual practice that is rather unstructured in terms of curricular application and levels. The study shows that rather than implementing the…

  15. Word Concreteness as a Moderator of the Tip-of the-Tongue Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianico-Relyea, Jennifer L.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    The tip-of-the-tongue experience (TOT) is a universal phenomenon in which a speaker cannot fully produce a word that he or she believes will eventually be recalled and could easily be recognized. The purpose of the current experiment is to determine how variables such as word concreteness and word frequency influence TOT rates. Participants were…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY: THE TONGUE AND POWDER RIVER BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this report is to evaluate the existing water quality monitoring network in the Tongue and Powder River Basins and to recommend needed modifications to the present sampling program. As a basis for these recommendations, known developments, both present an...

  17. Differences in Metabolites of Different Tongue Coatings in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Gou, Xiao-jun; Dai, Jian-ye; Peng, Jing-hua; Feng, Qin; Sun, Shu-jun; Cao, Hui-juan; Zheng, Ning-ning; Fang, Jun-wei; Jiang, Jian; Su, Shi-bing; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-yang; Zhang, Yong-yu

    2013-01-01

    Tongue coating is one of the important foundations of tongue diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and plays an important role in reflecting the occurrence, development, and prognosis of the disease. However, its material basis is still poorly understood. In this study, a urinary metabonomic method based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed. The distinct clustering in metabolic profile was observed from Group A (thick yellow coating in patients with chronic hepatitis B), Group B (thick white coating in patients with chronic hepatitis B), and Group C (thin white coating with healthy humans) using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). Based on the variable of importance in the project (VIP) values, some significantly changed metabolites have been identified. These changes were related to the disturbance in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and gut microflora, which were helpful to understand the material basis leading to the formation of tongue coating. This study demonstrated that tongue coating may have an objective material basis. PMID:23690837

  18. Tongue Palate Contact Patterns of Velar Stops in Normal Adult English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liker, Marko; Gibbon, Fiona E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a more detailed description of normal tongue palate contact patterns for the occlusion phase of velar stops than currently exists. The study used electropalatography (EPG) to record seven normally speaking adults' contact patterns of voiceless velar stops in nine VkV contexts. A variety of EPG indices measured: per cent…

  19. Tip-of-the-Tongue and Word Retrieval Deficits in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanly, Sarah; Vandenberg, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) responses on a picture-naming task were used to test the hypothesis that dyslexia involves phonological, but not semantic, processing deficits. Participants included 16 children with dyslexia and 31 control children between 8 and 10 years of age who did not differ in receptive vocabulary. As hypothesized, children with…

  20. Naming Difficulties in Children with Dyslexia: Application of the Tip-of-the-Tongue Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Dimitrovsky, Lilly; Shacht, Tamar

    2003-01-01

    A study used the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experimental paradigm in a picture naming task to explore the source of the naming deficits of 15 children (ages 8-10) with dyslexia. Compared with 15 controls, subjects showed fewer correct responses and spontaneous recalls, more TOT responses, and less accurate feeling of knowing judgments. (Contains…

  1. From Muscle Models to Tongue Models. Presentation at Haskins Laboratories, Nov 2, 2006

    E-print Network

    From Muscle Models to Tongue Models. (and back) Presentation at Haskins Laboratories, Nov 2, 2006 · Viscoelasticity · Active muscle models · Integration and thermodynamics 3 #12;See http) and vertical intrinsic muscles. (Also visible: genioglos- sus, inf. longitudinal, hyo- glossus and others) 4

  2. TRACKING TONGUE MOTION IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING TAGGED MR IMAGES Xiaofeng Liu1

    E-print Network

    Prince, Jerry L.

    and strain analysis of tagged magnetic res- onance (MR) imaging [1]. It was originally applied to car- diacTRACKING TONGUE MOTION IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING TAGGED MR IMAGES Xiaofeng Liu1 , Maureen Stone3 , and Jerry L.Prince2 1 Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218 2 Electrical

  3. Publishing for Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Ghana: Politics and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba

    2015-01-01

    One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…

  4. Efficient 3D Finite Element Modeling of a Muscle-Activated Tongue

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Interactive rates are essential for haptic applications and important for researchers to interactively test collaboration and incremental development among scientific and medical researchers by making source code and model data easily available to the community. Source code and demos for the tongue model described

  5. The lexicon in second language attrition: What happens when the cat's got your tongue?

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    1 The lexicon in second language attrition: What happens when the cat's got your tongue? Kathleen of research on second language attrition by invoking an expansive notion of the lexicon, which, in addition be accessed through complex lexical items. In this light, all empirical research on second language attrition

  6. On the correlation between orofacial movements, tongue movements, and speech acoustics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jintao Jiang; Abeer Alwan; Patricia Keating; Lynne Bernstein

    2000-01-01

    This study is a first step in a large-scale study that aims at quantifying the relationship between external facial movements, tongue movements, and the acoustics of speech sounds. The database analyzed consisted of 69 CV syllables spoken by two males and two females; each utterance was repeated four times. A Qualysis (optical motion capture system) and an EMA (electromagnetic midsaggital

  7. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luís G; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Peres, António M

    2014-10-27

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue's capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: Radj>0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage's healthy and sensory evaluation. PMID:25263114

  8. Is Tongue Strength an Important Influence on Rate of Articulation in Diadochokinetic and Reading Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, Amy T.; Palmer, Phyllis M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tongue strength and rate of articulation in 2 speech tasks, diadochokinetic rates and reading aloud, in healthy men and women between 20 and 78 years of age. Method: Diadochokinetic rates were measured for the syllables /p[wedge]/, /t[wedge]/, /k[wedge]/, and…

  9. Mother Tongue Maintenance and Second Language Learning: A Case of Japanese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamura-Bichard, Fumiko

    1985-01-01

    Reports a study which examined the degree of mother tongue maintenance and development of Japanese children temporarily residing in the United States in relation to their learning of English. Also looked at factors which affected individuals' success or failure in the learning of both languages. (SED)

  10. CAN A PLANTAR PRESSUREBASED TONGUE-PLACED ELECTROTACTILE BIOFEEDBACK IMPROVE POSTURAL

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    healthy adults were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible with their eyes closed in two Neutral. © 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Key words: balance, biofeedback, tongue for balance control consist in supply- ing individuals with additional artificial information about body

  11. A Rare Cause of Acute Dysphagia: Abscess of the Base of the Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Ozgur, Gulsum Teke; Akdogan, Mehmet Volkan; Unler, Gulhan Kanat; Gokturk, Huseyin Savas

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia represents a difficulty in passage of solid or liquid foods from the oral cavity into the stomach and is considered as an alarm symptom of gastrointestinal system. It often indicates an organic disease and needs to be explained. In this paper, a case of 61-year-old man with posterior tongue abscess is presented. PMID:25802771

  12. Interactive segmentation of tongue contours in ultrasound video sequences using quality maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrenassia, Sarah; Ménard, Lucie; Laporte, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is an effective and non invasive way of studying the tongue motions involved in normal and pathological speech, and the results of US studies are of interest for the development of new strategies in speech therapy. State-of-the-art tongue shape analysis techniques based on US images depend on semi-automated tongue segmentation and tracking techniques. Recent work has mostly focused on improving the accuracy of the tracking techniques themselves. However, occasional errors remain inevitable, regardless of the technique used, and the tongue tracking process must thus be supervised by a speech scientist who will correct these errors manually or semi-automatically. This paper proposes an interactive framework to facilitate this process. In this framework, the user is guided towards potentially problematic portions of the US image sequence by a segmentation quality map that is based on the normalized energy of an active contour model and automatically produced during tracking. When a problematic segmentation is identified, corrections to the segmented contour can be made on one image and propagated both forward and backward in the problematic subsequence, thereby improving the user experience. The interactive tools were tested in combination with two different tracking algorithms. Preliminary results illustrate the potential of the proposed framework, suggesting that the proposed framework generally improves user interaction time, with little change in segmentation repeatability.

  13. Chronic Candidiasis of the Rat Tongue: A Possible Model for Human Median Rhomboid Glossitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Allen; G. G. Blozis; S. Rosen; J. S. Bright

    1982-01-01

    Ten female Sprague-Dawley rats were inoculated orally with a suspension of viable Candida albicans. Lesions were induced on the posterior midline dorsum of the tongue in seven of ten animals. The clinical and histologic appearance of these lesions was similar to human median rhomboid glossitis.

  14. PATHOGENICITY OF Candida krusei AND Candida albicans IN THE TONGUE OF RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. DORKO; M. ZIBRÍN; E. PILIPâINEC; A. JENâA; J. JAUTOVÁ; F. DORKO; J. DANKO

    Dorko E., M. Zibrín, E. Pilipãinec, A. Jenãa, J. Jautová, F. Dorko, J. Danko, E. ·vick?, I. Braãoková: Pathogenicity of Candida krusei and Candida albicans in the Tongue of Rats . Acta Vet. Brno, 2001, 70: 173-177. The aim of the present study was to compare the potential of Candida krusei and C. albicans to colonize and infect the oral

  15. Serum Level of Interleukin-6 in Patients with Oral Tongue Squamous cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Alireza; Shahidi, Nikzad; Bayazian, Gholamreza; AbdollahiFakhim, Shahin; Estakhri, Rasoul; Esfahani, Ali; Notash, Rezvan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical outcome of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) located in the head and neck has remained poor despite ongoing advances in diagnosis and management. Interleukin-6(IL-6) is a multi-functional cytokine that plays an important role in the process of cell differentiation and is increased in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of interleukin-6 in patients with oral tongue SCC. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 17 patients with oral tongue SCC were compared with the same number of age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Serum IL-6 level fluctuation was determined using an immunological technique, before detecting its possible association with the subjects’ age, gender, drinking and smoking history, cancer site, and disease severity. Results: The intensity of serum IL-6 in patients with oral tongue SCC was statistically significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P<0.001). Serum IL-6 level was independent of the patients’ age, gender, smoking and drinking history as well as cancer stage. Conclusion: IL-6 is a valuable biomarker in the diagnosis of oral tongue SCC. Its high sensitivity makes prediction of this condition possible, while this biomarker can also be used to screen high-risk patients.

  16. Prion Infection of Skeletal Muscle Cells and Papillae in the Tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellyn R. Mulcahy; Jason C. Bartz; Anthony E. Kincaid; Richard A. Bessen

    2004-01-01

    The presence of the prion agent in skeletal muscle is thought to be due to the infection of nerve fibers located within the muscle. We report here that the pathological isoform of the prion protein, PrPSc, accumulates within skeletal muscle cells, in addition to axons, in the tongue of hamsters following intralingual and intracerebral inoculation of the HY strain of

  17. On Board-ship Seawater Heavy Metal Automatic Measurement System Based on Electronic Tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Men; Jianguo Wang; Jing Gao; Ping Wang

    2006-01-01

    Three different kinds of sensors were selected to compose an electronic tongue. Mercury ion selective electrode (ISE) was synthesized and used to detect trace mercury in seawater by adding a special buffer solution. Two thin-film sensors based on light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) were used to detect trivalent iron and sexivalent chromium ion. Two kinds of chalcogenide glass sensitive materials were

  18. FINITE ELEMENT MODELS OF THE TONGUE AND VELUM FOR A PHYSICAL UNDERSTANDING OF SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    ) is defined as a partial or total closure (collapse) of the patient's upper airways during sleep. From a fluidFINITE ELEMENT MODELS OF THE TONGUE AND VELUM FOR A PHYSICAL UNDERSTANDING OF SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME Y. Payan 1 , P. Perrier 2 , C. Vilain2 and X. Pelorson2 1. ABSTRACT Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS

  19. Ultrasound investigation of tongue movements in syllables with different onset structure 

    E-print Network

    Kocjancic, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    This study is an attempt to describe syllables with different onset structure not only in terms of durational changes but also in terms of the distance the tongue travels over a syllable by using ultrasound and to compare the ratio between the two...

  20. Potentiation of Scutellarin on Human Tongue Carcinoma Xenograft by Low-Intensity Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    Potentiation of Scutellarin on Human Tongue Carcinoma Xenograft by Low-Intensity Ultrasound Haixia intensity ultrasound to reduce the scutellarin dosage. Ultrasound intensities of 1.0 W/cm2 and 0.05 W/cm2 into control, ultrasound-alone, scutellarin-alone, and combined ultrasound-scutellarin treatment groups. Only

  1. Analysis of tongue and groove joints for thick laminatesq Karel Matous, George J. Dvorak*

    E-print Network

    Matous, Karel

    evaluation of local stresses in the adhesive and adherends is presented for a tongue-and-groove joint of a homogenized thick composite laminate to steel plate. The quasi-isotropic laminate is made of glass fabric/vinyl ester plies. Most results are obtained for elastic response of the Dexter-Hysol 9338 adhesive

  2. Cineradiographic Examination of Articulatory Movement of Pseudo-Tongue, Hyoid, and Mandible in Congenital Aglossia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMicken, Betty; Vento-Wilson, Margaret; Von Berg, Shelley; Rogers, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This research examined cineradiographic films (CRF) of articulatory movements in a person with congenital aglossia (PWCA) during speech production of four phrases. Pearson correlations and a multiple regression model investigated co-variation of independent variables, positions of mandible and hyoid; and pseudo-tongue-dependent variables,…

  3. Coupling electromagnetic sensors and ultrasound images for tongue tracking: acquisition set up and preliminary results

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Coupling electromagnetic sensors and ultrasound images for tongue tracking: acquisition set up must be available for large speech corpora and for various speakers. Therefore, the acquisition process must be fast, flexible and low cost. At present, no single imaging or sensor technique answers

  4. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method: Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow…

  5. Machine learning models of the tongue shape during speech Miguel A. Carreira-Perpi~nan

    E-print Network

    Carreira-Perpiñán, Miguel Á.

    such as EMA and X-ray microbeam track the po- sition of 3­4 pellets on the tongue. Our models allow, therapy and learning, to track more robustly a signal (such as the speech or the ultrasound image articulography (EMA) and X­ray microbeam track at a high rate (> 100 Hz) the 2D or 3D location of around 7

  6. Virtual Instrumentation Based Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousumi Palit; Nabarun Bhattacharyya; Subrata Sarkar; Ankur Dutta; Pallab Kumar Dutta; Bipan Tudu; Rajib Bandyopadhyay

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a virtual instrumentation based electronic tongue has been described by applying the principles of cyclic voltammetry. The set up consists of a three electrode system. A triangular pulse was applied as the input from a data acquisition card via an amplification and level shifter circuit and the voltage equivalent of the output current from the working solution

  7. The role of oral soft tissues in swallowing function: what can tongue pressure tell us?

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Farland, M G; Jack, H; Farella, M; Wang, Y; Rohrle, O

    2014-06-01

    Tongue pressure data taken from healthy subjects during normal oral activities such as mastication, speech and swallowing are providing us with new ways of understanding the role of the tongue in craniofacial growth and function. It has long been recognized that the sequential contact between the tongue and the palate plays a crucial role in the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing. However, because the focus of most research on intraoral pressure has been on the generation of positive pressure by the tongue on the hard palate and teeth, generation and coordination of absolute intraoral pressures and regional pressure gradients has remained unexplored. Ongoing research in our laboratory has uncovered highly variable individual pressure patterns during swallowing, which can nonetheless be divided into four stages: preparatory, primary propulsive, intermediate and terminal. These stages may further be sub-classified according to pressure patterns generated at the individual level as tipper or dipper patterns in the preparatory stage, roller or slapper in the primary propulsive and monophasic or biphasic during the intermediate stage. Interestingly, while an increase in bolus viscosity can result in significant changes to pressure patterns in some individuals, it has little effect in others. Highly individual responses to increased viscosity are also observed with swallowing duration. The above, together with other findings, have important implications for our understanding of the aetiology of widely differing conditions such as protrusive and retrusive malocclusions, dysphagia and sleep apnoea, as well as the development of novel food products. PMID:24152133

  8. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in intact and ulcerated human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Hull, M; Brough, J; Powe, D; Carter, G; Jenkins, D; Hawkey, C

    1998-01-01

    Background—Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes angiogenesis and healing of gastric ulcers in rats, and bFGF expression is up regulated in such ulcers. However, little is known about expression of bFGF in human gastric mucosa. ?Aims—To investigate bFGF expression in intact human gastric mucosa and gastric ulcers and to determine whether low bFGF content or altered binding by mucosa is associated with ulceration. ?Subjects—Endoscopy outpatients, gastrectomy patients, and organ donors. ?Methods—bFGF was isolated by heparin affinity chromatography and characterised by western blotting and endothelial cell bioassay. bFGF was measured by immunoassay and its distribution defined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. Binding of bFGF by heparan sulphate proteoglycans was investigated by sodium chloride and heparin extraction. ?Results—Bioactive bFGF (19 kDa) was detected in normal mucosa but bFGF mRNA was not found. bFGF expression was up regulated in granulation tissue endothelial cells, mononuclear cells, and epithelial cells at the ulcer rim. Gastric ulcer patients had constitutively low bFGF concentrations in intact antral mucosa which were not explained by changes in binding to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. ?Conclusions—bFGF expression is up regulated in human gastric ulcers. Low intact mucosal bFGF content is associated with gastric ulceration. ?? Keywords: basic fibroblast growth factor; gastric mucosa; heparan sulphate proteoglycan; peptic ulceration PMID:9824581

  9. In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 ?m and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa. PMID:21833368

  10. Taste masking analysis in pharmaceutical formulation development using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jack Y; Keeney, Melissa P

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility for taste masking and comparison of taste intensity during formulation development using a multichannel taste sensor system (e-Tongue). Seven taste sensors used in the e-Tongue were cross-selective for five basic tastes while having different sensitivity or responsibility for different tastes. Each of the individual sensors concurrently contributes to the detection of most substances in a complicated sample through the different electronic output. Taste-masking efficiency was evaluated using quinine as a bitter model compound and a sweetener, acesulfame K, as a bitterness inhibitor. In a 0.2 mM quinine solution, the group distance obtained from e-Tongue analysis was reduced with increasing concentration of acesulfame K. This result suggests that the sensors could detect the inhibition of bitterness by a sweetener and could be used for optimization of the sweetener level in a liquid formulation. In addition, the bitterness inhibition of quinine by using other known taste-masking excipients including sodium acetate, NaCl, Prosweet flavor, and Debittering powder or soft drinks could be detected by the e-Tongue. These results further suggest that the e-Tongue should be useful in a taste-masking evaluation study on selecting appropriate taste-masking excipients for a solution formulation or a reconstitution vehicle for a drug-in-bottle formulation. In another study, the intensity of the taste for several drug substances known to be bitter was compared using the e-Tongue. It was found that the group distance was 695 for prednisolone and 686 for quinine, which is much higher than that of caffeine (102). These results indicate that the taste of prednisolone and quinine is stronger or more bitter than that of caffeine as expected. Based on the group distance, the relative intensity of bitterness for these compounds could be ranked in the following order: ranitidine HCl>prednisolone Na>quinine HCl approximately phenylthiourea>paracetamol>sucrose octaacetate>caffeine. In conclusion, the multichannel taste sensor or e-Tongue may be a useful tool to evaluate taste-masking efficiency for solution formulations and to compare bitterness intensity of formulations and drug substances during pharmaceutical product development. PMID:16431048

  11. Immunohistochemical studies of neurochemical markers in normal human buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, M; Hellman, M; Ahlström, U; Johansson, O

    1994-04-01

    The content of various substances, such as regulatory peptides, hormones and structural proteins, was investigated in normal buccal mucosa using indirect immunofluorescence. Thin nerve fibres, which from a morphological point of view were most probably sensory, showed immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide K (NPK) and neurokinin A (NKA). Also galanin (GAL), gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and somatostatin (SOM) stained thin fibres were found in the propria, which were, however, few in number and the gamma-MSH staining was weak. CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive nerve fibres were observed in close connection to blood vessels. SOM positive cells with processes were found, mostly scattered, in the connective tissue. A population of cells within the epithelium also showed somatostatin immunoreactivity. Protein S-100 (S-100) stained distinct populations of cells at two separate locations. In the propria, cells with one or two slender processes were seen, being mostly single but sometimes forming groups. In the epithelium, dendritic cells with many processes with or without 'spines' were observed, mainly located to the basal layer of the lamina epithelialis. Single nerve fibres and nerve bundles were also stained. Neurofilament (NF) positive fibres, singly and in bundles, as well as endorgan-like structures were seen. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) both stained the same structures, namely single fibres, nerve bundles, nerves surrounding vessels and innervating muscles and glands (if present in the section), as well as Merkel cells. Also with these two markers endorgan-like structures were seen. No clear innervation of the epithelium could be observed with the markers used. No methionine-enkephalin (ENK) or synaptophysin (SYN) immunoreactive material was found. PMID:7523335

  12. Viewpoints on Acid-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Karen M; Rieder, Florian; Behar, Jose

    2010-01-01

    We have focused on understanding the onset of gastroesophageal reflux disease by examining the mucosal response to the presence of acid in the esophageal lumen. Upon exposure to HCl, inflammation of the esophagus begins with activation of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) in the mucosa, and production of IL-8, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Production of SP and CGRP, but not PAF, is abolished by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin suggesting that SP and CGRP are neurally released and that PAF arises from non neural pathways. Epithelial cells contain TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein and respond to HCl and to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin with production of PAF. PAF, SP and IL-8 act as chemokines, inducing migration of peripheral blood leukocytes. PAF and SP activate peripheral blood leukocytes inducing the production of H2O2. In circular muscle, PAF causes production of IL-6, and IL-6 causes production of additional H2O2, through activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Among these, NADPH oxidase 5 cDNA is significantly up-regulated by exposure to PAF; H2O2 content of esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle is elevated in human esophagitis, causing dysfunction of esophageal circular muscle contraction and reduction in esophageal sphincter tone. Thus esophageal keratinocytes, that constitute the first barrier to the refluxate, may also serve as the initiating cell type in esophageal inflammation, secreting inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines and affecting leukocyte recruitment and activity. PMID:21103419

  13. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26113454

  14. Assessment of Taste Attributes of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  15. Lithofacies in Twowells tongue of Dakota sandstone, southern San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dillinger, J.K. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Twowells Tongue forms the uppermost part of the Dakota Sandstone in the southern San Juan basin and represents the last minor regressive pulse in the regional Cenomanian transgression of the Late Cretaceous seaway. This widespread marine sandstone ranges in thickness from less than 15 to 98 ft in the study area between Gallup and Laguna, New Mexico. In outcrop, four major lithofacies are distinguished on the basis of sedimentologic structures and ichnofossils: (1) very silty, (2) horizontally bedded, (3) bioturbated structureless, and (4) cross-bedded sandstone. The distribution of these lithofacies suggests that depositional environments varied significantly from west to east. The very silty sandstone facies is the lowest unit in the coarsening-upward sequence of the Twowells. To the east, this facies also occurs in the middle of the tongue, indicating fluctuating depositional conditions. The horizontally bedded sandstone and bioturbated structureless sandstone facies usually occur above the very silty sandstone but randomly alternate with each other. These two facies are thinner to the east and are replaced by the cross-bedded sandstone and very silty sandstone facies. The cross-bedded sandstone facies occurs at the top of the sequence. It is scarce in the west because of erosion or non-deposition. To the east, it occurs within, and at the top of, the tongue; at one locality it composes the entire tongue. These four lithofacies formed under a wide range of energy conditions, show similarities to deposits in both shoreface and offshore marine environments, and indicate a complex depositional history for the Twowells Tongue.

  16. Effect of HIF-1? on biological activation of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC-15 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaokang; Huang, Danqing; Xue, Zhongxiu; Xu, Xiuhui; Wang, Kai; Sun, Yao; Kang, Feiwu

    2015-06-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is a key regulator for tumor cells and tissues to adapt to hypoxic condition. Suppressing the expression of HIF-1? is important to evaluate its effect on cancer cells. This study was carried out to analyze the effect of HIF-1? on the biological activation of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) SCC-15 cells. In this experiment, deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) was used to induce hypoxic condition. HIF-1? gene was suppressed by lentiviral vector. The effect of the level of HIF-1? expression was tested on the proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and cell invasion of SCC-15 cells. We demonstrated that SCC-15 cells showed a more aggressive phenotype after treated with DFO. Additionally, DFO was able to induce the expression of HIF-1? protein. Lentiviral vector can effectively inhibit HIF-1? expression on mRNA and protein level. Under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, downregulation of HIF-1? for SCC-15 cells induced cell apoptosis and inhibited growth and invasion. These results showed that suppressing the expression of HIF-1? inhibited the aggressive potential of SCC-15 cells under normoxic and hypoxic condition. Thus, finding an effective and safe pathway to inhibit the expression of HIF-1? can help us to improve the survival rate of human TSCC patients. PMID:25816356

  17. Treatment of base of tongue cancer, stage III and stage IV with primary surgery: survival and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Khaled; Rieger, Jen; Harris, Jeffery R; Mlynarek, Alex; Williams, David; Islam, Tahera; Seikaly, Hadi

    2015-08-01

    This study examines functional outcome (speech and swallowing), survival, and disease control in patients receiving an intensified treatment regimen with primary aggressive surgery, and postoperative radiotherapy or postoperative concomitant chemoradiotherapy, for previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base. Sixty-six consecutive patients treated from June 1997 to June 2006 were followed prospectively through the Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Surgery Reconstruction Clinic. Speech and swallowing data were gathered at four evaluation times during the first year. Speech assessment was conducted by PERCI, Nasometer, and C-AIDS and swallowing assessment by Modified barium swallow, Diet survey and G-tube. Also, the overall survival, disease-specific survival and loco regional control were measured. The average age of the patients was 56.8, 85 % male and 15 % female. All patients had primary surgical resection and 83 % received postoperative radiotherapy and 17 % chemoradiation therapy. Overall survival at 3 years was 80.3 % and 5 years 52.2 %. Disease-specific survival at 3 years was 86.7 % and 5 years was 77.5 %. Local control was 94 %. Distal metastasis and second primary were found to be 7.5 % each. Primary surgical treatment of advanced BOT cancer offers excellent functional outcome, local control and disease-specific survival. PMID:24961437

  18. Effect of HIF-1? on biological activation of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC-15 cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, XIAOKANG; HUANG, DANQING; XUE, ZHONGXIU; XU, XIUHUI; WANG, KAI; SUN, YAO; KANG, FEIWU

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is a key regulator for tumor cells and tissues to adapt to hypoxic condition. Suppressing the expression of HIF-1? is important to evaluate its effect on cancer cells. This study was carried out to analyze the effect of HIF-1? on the biological activation of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) SCC-15 cells. In this experiment, deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) was used to induce hypoxic condition. HIF-1? gene was suppressed by lentiviral vector. The effect of the level of HIF-1? expression was tested on the proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and cell invasion of SCC-15 cells. We demonstrated that SCC-15 cells showed a more aggressive phenotype after treated with DFO. Additionally, DFO was able to induce the expression of HIF-1? protein. Lentiviral vector can effectively inhibit HIF-1? expression on mRNA and protein level. Under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, downregulation of HIF-1? for SCC-15 cells induced cell apoptosis and inhibited growth and invasion. These results showed that suppressing the expression of HIF-1? inhibited the aggressive potential of SCC-15 cells under normoxic and hypoxic condition. Thus, finding an effective and safe pathway to inhibit the expression of HIF-1? can help us to improve the survival rate of human TSCC patients. PMID:25816356

  19. Reliability of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument with healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie; Mathisen, Bernice; Baines, Surinder; Lazarus, Cathy; Callister, Robin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of tongue and handgrip strength and endurance measurements in healthy adults using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Fifty-one healthy participants (21 males, 30 females; age range = 19-57 years) were tested on four occasions 1 week apart to determine test-retest reliability. The primary outcome measures were isometric tongue and handgrip strength (best of three trials) and sustained isometric endurance. Small increases (changes in group mean) in both anterior (1.7 %) and posterior (2.5 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (5 %) between weeks 1 and 2 were observed with no change in subsequent weeks, suggesting that there is only a small learning effect for these measurements. The within-subject variation (mean-typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation [CV]) indicated higher than desirable initial variation for anterior (CV 10.8 %) and posterior (CV 11.8 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (CV 15.2 %) but this was reduced in weeks 2-4. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated acceptable and improved reliability for both anterior (ICC 0.77-0.90) and posterior (ICC 0.79-0.86) tongue strength and handgrip strength (ICC 0.69-0.91) after week 1. Additional exploratory analyses were conducted with a subset of data to determine whether two values within 5 kPa (tongue) or 15 kPa (handgrip) provide superior strength reliability. Neither tongue nor hand endurance measurements were sufficiently reliable. These findings suggest that tongue and handgrip strength values demonstrate acceptable reliability, especially if familiarization is provided. Further investigation is needed to reduce sources of variability in tongue endurance measurements. PMID:24045852

  20. The carcinostatic effects of 1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil and uracil (UFT) on tongue carcinoma induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) in rats.

    PubMed

    Katakura, A; Shiozaki, Y; Kouda, H; Hatada, K; Tonogi, M; Takaki, T; Yamane, G; Noma, H

    1991-11-01

    UFT is a carcinostatic agent used in adjuvant chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. In the present study. UFT was given orally to treat tongue carcinoma in rats induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. The antitumor effects of UFT were studied macroscopically and histologically. In addition, the antitumor effects of UFT were evaluated in relationship to lesions of the clinical and, invasive types, and to there vascular structure. In clinical lesions, the antitumor effect of UFT was higher in extrovert tumor-mass lesions and lower in ulcerous lesions. With regard to vascular structure, the effect was higher in cases demonstrating irregular net-like patterns and branch-like patterns and lower in cases in which the pattern had been destroyed. There was a correlation between antitumor effect and invasive type. As invasive tendency the 3H-thymidine labeling index, and mitotic index increased, antitumor effect and degree of tumor cell degeneration decreased. PMID:1819452

  1. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory mucosae of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    PubMed

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-04-01

    The morphological features of the olfactory mucosae of Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus, were histologically studied using the ethmoid turbinates containing the olfactory mucosae from six roe deer (male, 2-3 years old). The ethmoid turbinates were embedded in paraffin, and histochemically evaluated in terms of the mucosal characteristics. Lectin histochemistry was performed to investigate the carbohydrate-binding specificity on the olfactory mucosa. Lectins, including Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used for the N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate groups, respectively. Histologically, the olfactory mucosa, positioned mainly in the caudal roof of the nasal cavity, consisted of the olfactory epithelium and the lamina propria. The olfactory epithelium consisted of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive olfactory receptor cells, galectin-3-positive supporting cells and basal cells. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria were stained by both the periodic acid Schiff reagent and alcian blue (pH 2.5). Two types of lectin, WGA and SBA, were labeled in free border, receptor cells, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, with the exception of basal cells, while UEA-I was labeled in free border, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, but not in receptor cells and basal cells, suggesting that carbohydrate terminals on the olfactory mucosae of roe deer vary depending on cell type. This is the first morphological study of the olfactory mucosa of the Korean roe deer to evaluate carbohydrate terminals in the olfactory mucosae. PMID:25480445

  2. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: The mechanisms and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-“aging gastropathy”-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-?-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older patients have much greater risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastrointestinal complications (e.g., NSAIDs-induced gastric injury) than younger patients; and (3) increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury can be potentially reduced or reversed pharmacologically. PMID:24782600

  3. The Tongue-Retaining Device: Efficacy and Side Effects in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lazard, Diane S.; Blumen, Marc; Lévy, Pierre; Chauvin, Pierre; Fragny, Dorothée; Buchet, Isabelle; Chabolle, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The tongue-retaining device is a customized monobloc oral appliance used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study evaluated tongue-retaining device efficacy and its tolerance by patients with OSAS. Methods: The charts of 84 apneic patients were retrospectively analyzed, and patients were contacted by telephone to answer an oral questionnaire. The median follow-up time was 5 years. Results: Based on the apnea-hypopnea index, a complete or partial response was obtained in 71% of the cases. The mean apnea-hypopnea index decreased significantly from 38 to 14 (p < 0.001) with the tongue-retaining device. The subjective intensity of snoring decreased by 68% (p < 0.0001) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score decreased from 9 to 6 (p < 0.05). An age of more than 60 years associated with a mandibular protrusion distance inferior or equal to 7 mm was predictive of a nonresponse (odds ratio [OR]: 7.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43-36.7; p < 0.02). The compliance rate, as determined by answers to the questionnaire, was 52% after 5 years of follow-up. Nasal obstruction was a negative predictor of good compliance (OR: 6.94; 95% CI: 0.28-0.79; p < 0.005), whereas patients with Class I occlusion were more compliant than patients with Class II or III occlusions (OR: 3.83; 95% CI: 1.00-2.81; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Tongue-retaining device performance tended to be similar to that of the mandibular advancement device. Thus, teams trained in tongue-retaining device fabrication and fitting may propose it as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure, taking nasal obstruction into consideration as a contraindication. Citation: Lazard DS; Blumen M; Lévy P; Chauvin P; Fragny D; Buchet I; Chabolle F. The tongue-retaining device: efficacy and side effects in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(5):431-438. PMID:19961027

  4. Deformable image registration for cone-beam CT guided transoral robotic base-of-tongue surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Liu, W. P.; Wang, A. S.; Otake, Y.; Nithiananthan, S.; Uneri, A.; Schafer, S.; Tryggestad, E.; Richmon, J.; Sorger, J. M.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Taylor, R. H.

    2013-07-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers a minimally invasive approach to resection of base-of-tongue tumors. However, precise localization of the surgical target and adjacent critical structures can be challenged by the highly deformed intraoperative setup. We propose a deformable registration method using intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to accurately align preoperative CT or MR images with the intraoperative scene. The registration method combines a Gaussian mixture (GM) model followed by a variation of the Demons algorithm. First, following segmentation of the volume of interest (i.e. volume of the tongue extending to the hyoid), a GM model is applied to surface point clouds for rigid initialization (GM rigid) followed by nonrigid deformation (GM nonrigid). Second, the registration is refined using the Demons algorithm applied to distance map transforms of the (GM-registered) preoperative image and intraoperative CBCT. Performance was evaluated in repeat cadaver studies (25 image pairs) in terms of target registration error (TRE), entropy correlation coefficient (ECC) and normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI). Retraction of the tongue in the TORS operative setup induced gross deformation >30 mm. The mean TRE following the GM rigid, GM nonrigid and Demons steps was 4.6, 2.1 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The respective ECC was 0.57, 0.70 and 0.73, and NPMI was 0.46, 0.57 and 0.60. Registration accuracy was best across the superior aspect of the tongue and in proximity to the hyoid (by virtue of GM registration of surface points on these structures). The Demons step refined registration primarily in deeper portions of the tongue further from the surface and hyoid bone. Since the method does not use image intensities directly, it is suitable to multi-modality registration of preoperative CT or MR with intraoperative CBCT. Extending the 3D image registration to the fusion of image and planning data in stereo-endoscopic video is anticipated to support safer, high-precision base-of-tongue robotic surgery.

  5. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a human immuno-deficiency virus patient treated with laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Vecchio, Alessandro Del; Romeo, Umberto

    2014-07-16

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa; it is mostly found in children or young adults who are immunosuppressed and who live in regions with low socioeconomic status. It is characterized by asymptomatic papules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Healing can be spontaneous, and treatment is indicated if there are aesthetic or functional complications. Human papillomavirus, especially genotypes 13 and 32, has been associated with FEH and is detected in the majority of lesions. Histopathologically, FEH is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, and fusion and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges. A 37-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences at the Sapienza University of Rome, complaining of numerous exophytic lesions in his mouth. He stated that the lesions were not painful but he had experienced occasional bleeding after incidental masticatory trauma. He had received no previous treatment for the oral lesions. His medical history revealed that he was human immuno-deficiency virus positive and was a smoker with numerous, asymptomatic oral papules clinically and histologically corresponding to FEH. The labial and buccal mucosa were especially affected by lesions. Surgical treatment was performed using a 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate laser (SmartLite, Deka, Florence, Italy) in continuous mode with a 300 ?m fiber and power of 1.4 W (power density 1980.22 W/cm(2)). After anesthesia without vasoconstrictors, the lesions were tractioned with sutures or an Allis clamp and then completely excised. The lesions were preserved in 10% formalin for histological examination, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of FEH. In this case, the laser allowed excellent control of bleeding, without postoperative sutures, and optimal wound healing. PMID:25032206

  6. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a human immuno-deficiency virus patient treated with laser surgery

    PubMed Central

    Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Vecchio, Alessandro Del; Romeo, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck’s disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa; it is mostly found in children or young adults who are immunosuppressed and who live in regions with low socioeconomic status. It is characterized by asymptomatic papules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Healing can be spontaneous, and treatment is indicated if there are aesthetic or functional complications. Human papillomavirus, especially genotypes 13 and 32, has been associated with FEH and is detected in the majority of lesions. Histopathologically, FEH is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, and fusion and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges. A 37-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences at the Sapienza University of Rome, complaining of numerous exophytic lesions in his mouth. He stated that the lesions were not painful but he had experienced occasional bleeding after incidental masticatory trauma. He had received no previous treatment for the oral lesions. His medical history revealed that he was human immuno-deficiency virus positive and was a smoker with numerous, asymptomatic oral papules clinically and histologically corresponding to FEH. The labial and buccal mucosa were especially affected by lesions. Surgical treatment was performed using a 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate laser (SmartLite, Deka, Florence, Italy) in continuous mode with a 300 ?m fiber and power of 1.4 W (power density 1980.22 W/cm2). After anesthesia without vasoconstrictors, the lesions were tractioned with sutures or an Allis clamp and then completely excised. The lesions were preserved in 10% formalin for histological examination, which confirmed the clinical diagnosis of FEH. In this case, the laser allowed excellent control of bleeding, without postoperative sutures, and optimal wound healing. PMID:25032206

  7. Quantitation of pyridyloxobutyl-DNA adducts in tissues of rats treated chronically with (R)- or (S)-N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in a carcinogenicity study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijiao; Balbo, Silvia; Wang, Mingyao; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Khariwala, Samir S.; Villalta, Peter W.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified DNA adducts resulting from 2’-hydroxylation of enantiomers of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in tissues of male F-344 rats after 10, 30, 50, and 70 weeks of treatment with 14 ppm in the drinking water. These rats were in subgroups of a carcinogenicity study in which (S)-NNN was highly tumorigenic in the oral cavity and esophagus while (R)-NNN was relatively weakly active. DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in six tissues – oral mucosa, esophageal mucosa, nasal respiratory mucosa, nasal olfactory mucosa, liver, and lung. O2-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-POB-dThd, 7) and 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2?-deoxyguanosine (7-POB-dGuo, 8), the latter as 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine (7-POB-Gua, 11), were detected at each time point in each tissue. In the target tissues for carcinogenicity, oral mucosa and esophageal mucosa, levels of 7-POB-Gua (11) and O2-POB-dThd (7) were similar, or 11 predominated, while in all other tissues at all time points for both enantiomers, 7 was clearly present in greater amounts than 11. Total measured DNA adduct levels in esophageal mucosa and oral mucosa were higher in rats treated with (S)-NNN than (R)-NNN. The highest adduct levels were found in the nasal respiratory mucosa. DNA adducts generally persisted in all tissues without any sign of substantial decreases throughout the 70 week time course. The results of this study suggest that inefficient repair of 7-POB-dGuo (8) in the rat oral cavity and esophagus may be important in carcinogenesis by NNN and support the development of these DNA adducts as potential biomarkers of NNN metabolic activation in people who use tobacco products. PMID:24001146

  8. What role does the palate play in speech motor control? Insights from tongue kinematics for German alveolar obstruents

    E-print Network

    recorded tongue-palate contact patterns for ten speakers wearing a dental prosthesis of 4 mm thickness in the alveolar region. Data were observed in two sessions: immediately after the insertion of the prosthesis

  9. [An unusual case of a self-inflicted injury to the tongue to simulate a criminal offence].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Albalooshi, Younis; Madea, Burkard

    2013-01-01

    Self-inflicted injuries can have various motivations. The most common causes are mental or neurological diseases or disorders. Sometimes, however, they are also used to simulate a crime and attract attention. Such a case is reported here. A young male student of Asian origin pretended to have been assaulted to force him to convert to Islam. He claimed that he had been beaten and his tongue had been cut with a knife. The clinical and medicolegal examination did not show any signs of blunt force, but only sharp force injuries in the form of superficial scratches and cuts on the forehead and tongue. Self-inflicted injuries to the tongue are very rare and mainly occur in neurological diseases and accidents where the tongue is bitten off. PMID:24547620

  10. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    D'Ausilio, A.; Maffongelli, L.; Bartoli, E.; Campanella, M.; Ferrari, E.; Berry, J.; Fadiga, L.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners’ tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan. PMID:24778384

  11. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  12. Genome-wide methylation profiling of the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics: relationship to atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common respiratory disease that is characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction due to chronic airway inflammation. Atopic asthma is a typical IgE-mediated disease in which the enhanced production of IgE is driven by the activation of Th2 cells, which release a distinct pattern of cytokines, including interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL3, in response to specific antigen presentation. To evaluate the methylation status of the whole genomes of bronchial mucosa tissues from subjects who lacked or had sensitization to Dermatophagoides farina (Df) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). Methods The genome-wide DNA methylation levels in the bronchial mucosa tissues of atopic asthmatics (N?=?10), non-atopic asthmatics (N?=?7), and normal controls (N?=?7) were examined using microarrays. Results In the bronchial mucosa of atopic asthmatics, hypermethylation was detected at 6 loci in 6 genes, while hypomethylation was detected at 49 loci in 48 genes compared to those of non-atopic asthmatics. Genes that were assigned the ontologies of multicellular organismal process, response to organic substance, hormone metabolic process, and growth factor receptor binding were hypomethylated. The methylation levels in the mucosa of asthmatics and normal controls were similar. Conclusions The bronchial mucosa of asthmatics who are atopic to Df or Dp have characteristic methylation patterns for 52 genes. The genes and pathways identified in the present study may be associated with the presence of atopy in asthmatics and therefore represent attractive targets for future research. PMID:23521807

  13. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82). Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43). As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003). Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings. PMID:21806825

  14. Influence of sensory deprivation and perturbation of trigeminal afferent fibers on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Halkjaer; B. Melsen; A. S. McMillan; P. Svensson

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs)\\u000a in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs, but little is known about the regulation of the human\\u000a tongue motor control. To test the effect of local anesthesia (LA) of the lingual nerve and topical application of capsaicin\\u000a stimulation on tongue MEPs.

  15. Sediments and fossiliferous rocks from the eastern side of the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, T.G.; Schlee, J.

    1967-01-01

    In August 1966, two dives were made with the deep-diving submersible Alvin along the eastern side of the Tongue of the Ocean to sample the rock and sediment. Physiographically, the area is marked by steep slopes of silty carbonate sediment and precipitous rock cliffs dusted by carbonate debris. Three rocks, obtained from the lower and middle side of the canyon (914-1676 m depth), are late Miocene-early Pliocene to late Pleistocene-Recent in age; all are deep-water pelagic limestones. They show (i) that the Tongue of the Ocean has been a deep-water area at least back into the Miocene, and (ii) that much shallow-water detritus has been swept off neighbouring banks to be incorporated with the deep-water fauna in the sediment. ?? 1967 Pergamon Press Ltd.

  16. Electronic noses and tongues: applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or "Z" nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22163873

  17. Potentiometric Electronic Tongue to Resolve Mixtures of Sulfide and Perchlorate Anions

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Deivy; Abbas, Mohammed N.; Radwan, Abdel Latief A.; del Valle, Manel

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the use of an array of potentiometric sensors and an artificial neural network response model to determine perchlorate and sulfide ions in polluted waters, by what is known as an electronic tongue. Sensors used have been all-solid-state PVC membrane selective electrodes, where their ionophores were different metal-phtalocyanine complexes with specific and anion generic responses. The study case illustrates the potential use of electronic tongues in the quantification of mixtures when interfering effects need to be counterbalanced: relative errors in determination of individual ions can be decreased typically from 25% to less than 5%, if compared to the use of a single proposed ion-selective electrode. PMID:22163795

  18. Neonatal choristoma of the tongue containing glial tissue: diagnosis and surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Strome, S E; McClatchey, K; Kileny, P R; Koopmann, C F

    1995-11-01

    There are only six case reports documenting the presence of glial tissue in the tongue. Because of the small number of cases, the presentation and biologic behavior of these lesions is poorly characterized. We present the case of a 10-day-old male infant who arrived at the University of Michigan Medical Center with a history of positional dyspnea, with resultant cyanosis and bradycardia, dysphagia, and a mass at the base of the tongue. Histopathologically, this lesion was initially labeled as a hamartoma, but was ultimately defined as a choristoma based on the exclusive presentation of glial tissue in the specimen. This paper will discuss the presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic management of this case. In addition, the role of intraoperative electrodiagnostic monitoring to preserve neuromuscular function will be addressed. PMID:8557483

  19. Quantitative and comparative assessment of learning in a tongue-operated computer input device--part II: navigation tasks.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Kim, Jeonghee; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-07-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a novel tongue-operated assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired, to empower them to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) using their free voluntary tongue motion. We have evaluated the TDS performance in five sessions over 5-8 weeks to study the learning process in different tasks of computer access and PWC navigation on nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing and used our magnetic tongue studs throughout the trial. Computer access tasks included on-screen maze navigation and issuing random commands to measure the TDS information transfer rate. PWC navigation included driving through a ~50-m obstacle course using three control strategies. Some of the qualitative aspects of using the TDS were also evaluated based on the two Likert scale questionnaires, one of which was short (eight questions) and asked at the end of each session and the other one (46 questions) at the end of the trial. Included in this study was also a task to measure the tongue fatigue as a result of using the TDS continuously for a few hours. All performance measures showed significant improvement from the first to the second session as well as further gradual improvements throughout the rest of the sessions, suggesting a rapid learning process. PMID:22692932

  20. Quantitative and Comparative Assessment of Learning in a Tongue-Operated Computer Input Device—Part II: Navigation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Kim, Jeonghee; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a novel tongue-operated assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired, to empower them to access computers and drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) using their free voluntary tongue motion. We have evaluated the TDS performance in five sessions over 5–8 weeks to study the learning process in different tasks of computer access and PWC navigation on nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing and used our magnetic tongue studs throughout the trial. Computer access tasks included on-screen maze navigation and issuing random commands to measure the TDS information transfer rate. PWC navigation included driving through a ~50-m obstacle course using three control strategies. Some of the qualitative aspects of using the TDS were also evaluated based on the two Likert scale questionnaires, one of which was short (eight questions) and asked at the end of each session and the other one (46 questions) at the end of the trial. Included in this study was also a task to measure the tongue fatigue as a result of using the TDS continuously for a few hours. All performance measures showed significant improvement from the first to the second session as well as further gradual improvements throughout the rest of the sessions, suggesting a rapid learning process. PMID:22692932

  1. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Originating from Nasal Septal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Akyigit, Abdulvahap; Akyol, Hadice; Sakallioglu, Oner; Polat, Cahit; Keles, Erol; Alatas, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rarely seen disease with unknown etiology. Extranodal involvement is most commonly seen in the head and neck region. Histopathologically, it is characterized by histiocytic cell proliferation. This paper presents a case of a 15-year-old male patient who presented with nasal obstruction and was surgically treated for a mass filling in the left nasal meatus that was diagnosed to be Rosai-Dorfman disease by histopathological examination.

  2. Anesthetic management of tongue reduction in a case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Meenu; Valecha, Umesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia for partial glossectomy in a premature child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome presents as a unique challenge to the Anesthesiologist. Airway management in patients presenting with macroglossia is especially significant and requires meticulous preparation and pre-operative assessment. This report delineates the anesthetic concerns such as an anticipated difficult airway due to a large tongue, prematurity, hypoglycemia and an oral cavity surgery and their management. PMID:25425786

  3. Layer-by-layer fabrication of AgCl-PANI hybrid nanocomposite films for electronic tongues.

    PubMed

    Manzoli, Alexandra; Shimizu, Flavio M; Mercante, Luiza A; Paris, Elaine C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Correa, Daniel S; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2014-11-28

    The fabrication of nanostructured films with tailored properties is essential for many applications, particularly with materials such as polyaniline (PANI) whose electrical characteristics may be easily tuned. In this study we report the one-step synthesis of AgCl-PANI nanocomposites that could form layer-by-layer (LbL) films with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and be used for electronic tongues (e-tongues). The first AgCl-PANI layer was adsorbed on a quartz substrate according to a nucleation-and-growth mechanism explained using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) model, revealing a 3D film growth confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films. In contrast to conventional PANI-containing films, the AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films deposited on interdigitated electrodes exhibited electrical resistance that was practically unaffected by changes in pH from 4 to 9, and therefore these films can be used in e-tongues for both acidic and basic media. With a sensor array made of AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films with different numbers of bilayers, we demonstrated the suitability of the AgCl-PANI nanocomposite for an e-tongue capable of clearly discriminating the basic tastes from salt, acid and umami solutions. Significantly, the hybrid AgCl-PANI nanocomposite is promising for any application in which PANI de-doping at high pH is to be avoided. PMID:25298297

  4. Naming difficulties in adolescents with dyslexia: Application of the tip-of-the-tongue paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Faust; Shulamit Sharfstein-Friedman

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the “tip-of-the-tongue” (TOT) experimental paradigm in a picture-naming task to explore the naming deficits of adolescents with dyslexia. As compared with a control group of typically developing readers, the adolescents with dyslexia had fewer correct responses and more TOT responses. When they failed to retrieve a target word, the adolescents with dyslexia had more phonological substitutions

  5. Event-related potentials in face naming and tip-of-the-tongue state: Further results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Lindín; Fernando Díaz

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the ERP correlates (some of which were characterized in a previous study) of the “tip-of-the-tongue” (TOT) state, in a face naming task, and to determine how dissociation of the manual and verbal responses (delaying the verbal response 2s from the stimulus onset) affects the Late Negative Wave (LNW). The results showed: 1) new

  6. Semantic category moderates phonological priming of proper name retrieval during tip-of-the-tongue states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine K. White; Lise Abrams; Elizabeth A. Frame

    2012-01-01

    Despite evidence that the majority of tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states occur for proper names, little research has investigated factors that influence their resolution. Although phonological primes typically increase TOT resolution, the present experiment investigated whether priming effects are mitigated by semantic competition. Participants read questions whose answers were proper name targets (e.g., Helen Hunt, Elton John) from various semantic categories (e.g.,

  7. Proper Names Get Stuck on Bilingual and Monolingual Speakers' Tip of the Tongue Equally Often

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar H. Gollan; Marina P. Bonanni; Rosa I. Montoya

    2005-01-01

    Bilinguals' virtually doubled processing load could lead to general difficulty producing all word forms or to difficulty only in specific conditions. In Experiment 1, bilinguals and monolinguals completed diaries of naturally occurring tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs), and in Experiment, 2 Spanish-English bilinguals and monolinguals produced the names of pictured objects and people's names given their descriptions. Bilinguals reported the same number

  8. DEGREES OF FREEDOM OF TONGUE MOVEMENTS IN SPEECH MAY BE CONSTRAINED BY BIOMECHANICS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    two primary degrees of freedom: (1) movement of the tongue body along a high-front to low-back axis along two primary degrees of freedom (d.f.s): the high-front to low-back axis and the high-back to low of parameters: high/low, front/back, rounded/spread. Hence the understanding of speech motor control strategies

  9. Tongue numbness following laryngeal mask airway Supreme™ and i-gel™ insertion: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Rujirojindakul, P; Prechawai, C; Watanayomnaporn, E

    2012-10-01

    We present two cases of transient lingual nerve injury that were associated with the use of a laryngeal mask airway Supreme™ (The Laryngeal Mask Company, Singapore) during lumbar discectomy in a 43-year-old female and i-gel™ (Intersurgical, Berkshire, UK) during ovum pick up in a 33-year-old female. They presented with numbness at the tip of their tongues and spontaneously and fully recovered 2 weeks after their operations. PMID:22524512

  10. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of the tongue: Late metastasis to the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Gavin A.; El-Hayek, Kevin; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Winans, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the salivary glands. We present a 64-year-old gentleman with ACC of the tongue who following resection and radiotherapy, presented 10 years later with a lung metastasis and underwent operative intervention and further radiotherapy. Five years later he presented with obstructive jaundice found to be metastatic ACC. We believe this to be the first report of an ACC metastasizing to the pancreas. PMID:22096672

  11. Arrival of a tongue of ionization in the nightside polar ionosphere and effects on GPS scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, Christer; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Lorentzen, Dag; Idar Moen, Jøran; Romano, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this case study we present findings of Global Positioning System (GPS) scintillation in relation to the arriving front of a tongue of ionization in the nightside polar cap over Svalbard. We find almost no amplitude and some phase scintillation in relation to the leading density gradient, which is interpreted as "false" refractive scintillation due to suboptimal data detrending, as opposed to diffractive scintillation from decametre-to-kilometre-scale irregularities. During active geomagnetic conditions, high-density plasma may convect into and across the polar cap. The plasma may be segmented into F region polar cap patches upon entry in the cusp/cleft region, or it may form a continuous tongue of ionization when no such segmentation occurs. Large-scale ionospheric plasma structures such as polar cap patches may contain decametre- to kilometre-scale irregularities, particularly at the edges. Irregularities of these scale sizes cause problems for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals, causing amplitude and phase variations known as scintillations. A drawback of most high-latitude GNSS scintillation studies is the use of a 0.1 Hz detrending filter cutoff frequency, which in the literature has been shown to cause "false" phase scintillation. In the literature, much of the high-latitude scintillation research is statistically oriented and concerns polar cap patches. Scintillation directly in relation to ionization tongues is far less studied. We present findings of GPS scintillation in relation to the arriving front of a tongue of ionization on 31 October 2011 in the nightside polar cap over Svalbard, using GPS scintillation and total electron content (TEC) monitors, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR), and an optical all-sky airglow imager. To our knowledge, this is the first study presenting such detailed multi-instrument data of scintillation in the Svalbard region as well as taking into account the problems of a 0.1 Hz detrending cutoff filter.

  12. Efficient 3D Finite Element Modeling of a Muscle-Activated Tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Vogt; John E. Lloyd; Stéphanie Buchaillard; Pascal Perrier; Matthieu Chabanas; Yohan Payan; Sidney Fels

    2006-01-01

    We describe our investigation of a fast 3D finite element method (FEM) for biomedical simulation of a muscle-activated human\\u000a tongue. Our method uses a linear stiffness-warping scheme to achieve simulation speeds which are within a factor 10 of real-time\\u000a rates at the expense of a small loss in accuracy. Muscle activations are produced by an arrangement of forces acting along

  13. An Electronic Tongue System Design Using Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors and Their Interfacing Circuit Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Yaw Chung; Kuo-Chung Chang; Da-You Hong; Cheanyeh Cheng; F. Cruza; Tai Sung Liu; D. G. Pijanowska; M. Dawgul; W. Torbicz; Chung Huang Yang; Pitor B. Grabiec; Bohdan Jarosewicz; Jung-Lung Chiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an electronic tongue system design using ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), extended-gate FET (EGFET) and their interfacing circuit techniques. Bridge-type constant voltage, constant current, and temperature compensation circuitries have all been developed for ISFET to sense hydrogen and chloride ions for water quality monitoring applications. This design offers a sensitivity of over 54 mV\\/pH and an

  14. Inhibition of 4-NQO-induced F433 rat tongue carcinogenesis by oleuropein-rich extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed E. GrawishManal; Manal M. Zyada; Ahmed R. Zaher

    Olive leaf extract provides nutritional support for detoxification at the cellular level, when the body is under stress. The present\\u000a study aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of oleuropein-rich extract (ORE) on 4-NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis.\\u000a Eighty male F344 rats, 6 weeks age were divided into 5 groups (10 animals each for groups 1 and 2 and 20 each for groups

  15. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Srinivasa; Panduranga, C

    2011-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the oral region is rare. Oral manifestation is present in 3–5% of cases of NHL and oral lesions are rarely the initial manifestations. We describe primary NHL, diffuse, mixed, small and large cell type in a 50-year-old female, who presented with mass lesion primarily involving the base of the tongue; initially diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and later confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Pertinent literature is being reviewed. PMID:21713153

  16. MicroRNA24 targeting RNA-binding protein DND1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiqiang Liu; Anxun Wang; Caroline E. Heidbreder; Lu Jiang; Jinsheng Yu; Antonia Kolokythas; Lei Huang; Yang Dai; Xiaofeng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Deregulations of microRNA have been frequently observed in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), but their roles in tumorigenesis are not entirely clear. Here, we reported the up-regulation of miR-24 in TSCC. MiR-24 up-regulation reduced the expression of RNA-binding protein dead end 1 (DND1). Knockdown of miR-24 led to enhanced expression of DND1. The direct targeting of miR-24 to the DND1

  17. Mycobacterium avium Invades the Intestinal Mucosa Primarily by Interacting with Enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sangari, Felix J.; Goodman, Joseph; Petrofsky, Mary; Kolonoski, Peter; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M. avium into an intestinal loop in mice, (ii) quantitative comparison of the bacterial load in Peyer's patch areas of the terminal ileum versus areas that do not contain Peyer's patches, and (iii) investigation of the ability of M. avium to cause disseminated infection following oral administration using B-cell-deficient mice, lacking Peyer's patches, in comparison with C57BL/6 black mice. By all approaches, M. avium was found to invade the intestinal mucosa by interacting primarily with enterocytes and not with M cells. PMID:11179321

  18. Mycobacterium avium invades the intestinal mucosa primarily by interacting with enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Sangari, F J; Goodman, J; Petrofsky, M; Kolonoski, P; Bermudez, L E

    2001-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium can invade intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. When given to mice orally, M. avium preferentially interacts with the intestinal mucosa at the terminal ileum. We evaluated the mechanism(s) of M. avium binding and invasion of the intestinal mucosa using three different systems: (i) electron microscopy following administration of M. avium into an intestinal loop in mice, (ii) quantitative comparison of the bacterial load in Peyer's patch areas of the terminal ileum versus areas that do not contain Peyer's patches, and (iii) investigation of the ability of M. avium to cause disseminated infection following oral administration using B-cell-deficient mice, lacking Peyer's patches, in comparison with C57BL/6 black mice. By all approaches, M. avium was found to invade the intestinal mucosa by interacting primarily with enterocytes and not with M cells. PMID:11179321

  19. [An in vitro of acrylonitrile inducing early damage on buccal mucosa of murine

    PubMed

    Fu, P; Jin, W C; Jin, X J; Zhu, P

    1998-06-01

    ObJECTIVE:Understand the change and damage of rats and mice buccal mucosa tissue structure posioned by acrylonitrile and alcohol. METHODS: Using optical microscope and transmitted electron microscope (TEM) techniques, observed the structure of rats and mice buccal mucosa which posioned by acrylonitrile and alcohol for 13 weeks in different dosages. RESULTS: Acrylonitrile can damage the ultrastructure of the cells and lead to precancerous dysplasia,such as enlargement and deformation of nuclei, reducing of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes,break of basement membrane,swelling and denaturalization of mitochondrion. The degree of damage was correlated with its dosage. Alcohol can increase the damage caused by acrylonitrile. CONCLUSION: Both acrylonitrile and alcohol can destroy the ultrastructure of cells,TEM is helpful for diagnosing disease in their early stage,and buccal mucosa can be used as a window for observing the disease caused by many toxic factors. PMID:15071667

  20. Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Buccal Mucosa 19 Years after Radical Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Julio, Hernani; Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Fernández-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Puche-Sanz, Ignacio; Flores-Martín, José F.; Cózar, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has high metastatic potential, which requires early diagnosis to optimize the chance of cure. Metastasis of RCC to the head and neck region is less common and metastasis to the buccal mucosa is extremely rare. This phenomenon occurs mostly in patients with generalized dissemination, especially with lung metastases. In this article we report a case of buccal mucosa metastasis from RCC in a 65-year-old man who presented 19 years after undergoing a left radical nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Surgical excision of the buccal lesion was performed without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions after 6 years of followup. To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastasis to the buccal mucosa from a RCC reported in the literature. PMID:23133770

  1. The salinity signature of the equatorial Pacific cold tongue as revealed by the satellite SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christophe; Reul, Nicolas; Behringer, David; O'Kane, Terence

    2014-12-01

    The space-borne measurements of the SMOS mission reveal for the first time the complete features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature at the full scale of the Pacific basin. The SSS field in the equatorial cold tongue is typically found to be larger than 35.1 within a narrow 2° band of latitude that is positioned slightly south of the equator and that stretches across the eastern Pacific basin up to the Galapagos Islands. On the northern edge of the eastern equatorial Pacific this signature results in a very strong horizontal gradient (larger than 2 units over 100 km) with the fresh waters of the Panama warm pool. By considering a water density criterion, it can be shown that the cold tongue is characterized by a strong seasonal cycle with a 3°C amplitude in SST where the warm season of February-March contrasts with the cold period extending from September to November. If the present ocean reanalyzes are able to capture these features, then the assimilation of the SMOS data becomes a worthwhile objective in order to depict more accurately the salinity signature of the cold tongue of the tropical Pacific.

  2. Design of a microfluidic cell using microstereolithography for electronic tongue applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacesko, Stefany L.; Ji, Taeksoo; Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we present design, fabrication and integration of a micro fluidic cell for use with the electronic tongue. The cell was machined using microstereo lithography on a Hexanediol Diacrylate (HDDA) liquid monomer. The wet cell was designed to confine the liquid under test to the sensing area and insure complete isolation of the interdigital transducers (IDTs). The electronic tongue is a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) device. Shear horizontally polarized Love-waves are guided between transmitting and receiving IDTs, over a piezoelectric substrate, which creates an electronic oscillator effect. This device has a dual delay line configuration, which accounts for the measuring of both mechanical and electrical properties of a liquid, simultaneously, with the ability to eliminate environmental factors. The data collected is distinguished using principal components analysis in conjunction with pre-processing parameters. The experiments show that the micro fluidic cell for this electronic tongue does not affect the losses or phase of the device to any extent of concern. Experiments also show that liquids such as Strawberry Hi-C, Teriyaki Sauce, DI Water, Coca Cola, and Pepsi are distinguishable using these methods.

  3. Patterns of peripheral innervation of the tongue and hyobranchial apparatus in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Wake, M H

    1992-04-01

    The innervation of the musculature of the tongue and the hyobranchial apparatus of caecilians has long been assumed to be simple and to exhibit little interspecific variation. A study of 14 genera representing all six families of caecilians demonstrates that general patterns of innervation by the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves are similar across taxa but that the composition of the "hypoglossal" nerve is highly variable. Probably in all caecilians, spinal nerves 1 and 2 contribute to the hypoglossal. In addition, in certain taxa, an "occipital," the vagus, and/or spinal 3 appear to contribute fibers to the composition of the hypoglossal nerve. These patterns, the lengths of fusion of the contributing elements, and the branching patterns of the hypoglossal are assessed according to the currently accepted hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships of caecilians, and of amphibians. An hypothesis is proposed that limblessness and a simple tongue, with concomitant reduced complexity of innervation of muscles associated with limbs and the tongue, has released a constraint on pattern of innervation. As a consequence, a greater diversity and, in several taxa, greater complexity of neuroanatomical associations of nerve roots to form the hypoglossal are expressed. PMID:1588590

  4. Sustaining mother tongue medium education: An inter-community self-help framework in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiatoh, Blasius A.

    2011-12-01

    Advocating mother tongue education implies recognising the centrality of linguistic and cultural diversity in quality and accessible education planning and delivery. In minority linguistic settings, this need becomes particularly urgent. Decades of exclusive promotion of foreign languages have rendered the educational system incapable of guaranteeing maximum quality, accessibility and equity. Also, due to long periods of marginalisation and disempowerment, most indigenous communities are unable to undertake viable self-reliant educational initiatives. As a result, planning and management of education is not adapted to the needs and realities of target populations. What such an educational approach has succeeded in achieving is to cultivate a culture of near-total dependence and consumerism. In minority language situations where mother tongue education is still primarily in the hands of private institutions and individuals, successful planning also means influencing the perceptions and attitudes of indigenous people and systematically integrating them into the educational process. This paper discusses grass-roots mother tongue education in Cameroon. It focuses on the inter-community self-help initiative as a local response framework and argues that this initiative is a strong indication of the desire of communities to learn and promote learning in their own languages.

  5. Formation of a deep funnel-shaped depression at the tongue of Gepatschferner (Ötztal Alps, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker-Waldhuber, Martin; Fischer, Andrea; Kuhn, Michael; Morche, David; Keller, Lorenz

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, a shallow depression emerged at the tongue of Gepatschferner (46°52'30"N, 10°45'25"E) and slowly deepened until 2012. After a heavy precipitation event in August 2012 the process accelerated and peaked in 2013. As it progressed, ablation at the bottom decreased, compared with the surrounding area, because of the shade in the deep funnel-shaped surface depression. With the ongoing retreat of the glacier tongue, a slow-down of surface velocity to almost nil, and given the highly uneven surface ablation, the shape became flattened in 2014 and will disappear within the next years. The development has been monitored with geodetic and direct glaciological methods. On the basis of multiple high-resolution airborne laser scans, total elevation change rates were measured. Surface ablation was measured directly at an ablation stake and the velocity and elevation change of the surface with DGPS. Vibroseismic soundings were carried out in 2012 and 2013, using a shear-wave vibrator at two profiles to measure the thickness of subglacial sediment layers and changes therein. The surface depression is situated at the lowest part of the glacier tongue within an area of 200 by 200 metres and had a maximum depth of about 30 m on the uphill rim and about 15 m on the downhill rim. A subglacial sediment layer of more than 10 m was evacuated during the heavy precipitation event which accelerated the subsidence.

  6. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    PubMed Central

    YOKOI, Aya; MARUYAMA, Takayuki; YAMANAKA, Reiko; EKUNI, Daisuke; TOMOFUJI, Takaaki; KASHIWAZAKI, Haruhiko; YAMAZAKI, Yutaka; MORITA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old) participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%)] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3) ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017). After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume. PMID:25760268

  7. Unusual Occurrence of Tongue Sensorial Disorder after Conservative Surgical Treatment of Lymphoepithelial Cyst

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Luane Macêdo; Albuquerque, Assis Felipe Medeiros; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio Barros; Bezerra, Thâmara Manoela Marinho; Luna, Ealber Carvalho Macedo; Carvalho, Francisco Samuel Rodrigues; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Ribeiro, Thyciana Rodrigues; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst is a rare lesion of the oral cavity, with the mouth floor being the most common site of occurrence. The therapeutic approach of choice is the surgical treatment, which has rare cases of postoperative complications. The aim of this study is to report the case of a 53-year-old patient who came to Dental Service in the Federal University of Ceará complaining of a small nodular lesion (0.5?cm) located in the ventral tongue. Excisional biopsy was performed and the surgical specimen was submitted for anatomopathological analysis, which found that there was an oral lymphoepithelial cyst. The patient returned after seven days for suture removal and reported loss of sensitivity around the ventral tongue. We prescribed Citoneurin for ten days; however, there was not any significant improvement of the sensitivity. Low frequency laser therapy sessions were applied. The only postoperative symptom was dysesthesia, where there is only a sensitivity decrease. Currently, the patient has a postoperative period of 1 year without recurrence of the lesion. Although previous reports have no described tongue sensorineural disorders associated with this lesion, the occurrence of this event may be related to an unexpected anatomical variation of the lingual nerve.

  8. Tongue-operated assistive technology with access to common smartphone applications via Bluetooth link.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their computers, wheelchairs, and electronic gadgets using their tongue motion. We developed the TDS to control smartphone's (iPhone/iPod Touch) built-in and downloadable apps with a customized Bluetooth mouse module by emulating finger taps on the touchscreen. The TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface was evaluated by four able-bodied subjects to complete a scenario consisting of seven tasks, which were randomly ordered by using touch on the iPhone screen with index finger, a computer mouse on iPhone, and TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface with tongue motion. Preliminary results show that the average completion times of a scenario with touch, mouse, and TDS are 165.6 ± 14.50 s, 186.1 ± 15.37 s, and 651.6 ± 113.4 s, respectively, showing that the TDS is 84.37% and 81.16% slower than touch and mouse for speed of typing with negligible errors. Overall, considering the limited number of commands and unfamiliarity of the subjects with the TDS, we achieved acceptable results for hands-free functionality. PMID:23366818

  9. Looking after local nasal and sinus mucosa in health, disease and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kacker, S K

    2010-09-01

    The paper emphasises the need for looking after of nasal and sinus mucosa in health, disease and after nasal surgery. It is a systematic arrangement of steps required to restore nasal mucosa to healthy state. These steps have been arranged to co relate them to diseases and symptoms for symptomatic and curative treatment. It can rationalise the need for surgery in cases non responsive to maximum medical treatment. It can improve postoperative surgical results after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and other endoscopic assisted procedures. PMID:23120723

  10. Diffusion Studies of Nanometer Polymersomes Across Tissue Engineered Human Oral Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Hearnden; Hannah Lomas; Sheila MacNeil; Martin Thornhill; Craig Murdoch; Andrew Lewis; Jeppe Madsen; Adam Blanazs; Steve Armes; Giuseppe Battaglia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To measure the diffusion of nanometer polymersomes through tissue engineered human oral mucosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a In vitro models of full thickness tissue engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) were used to assess the penetration properties of two chemically\\u000a different polymersomes comprising two of block copolymers, PMPC-PDPA and PEO-PDPA. These copolymers self-assemble into membrane-enclosed\\u000a vesicular structures. Polymersomes were conjugated with fluorescent rhodamine in order

  11. Low-Level Cloud Variability over the Equatorial Cold Tongue in Observations and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansbach, David K.; Norris, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    A fourth paper now in press is, Low-level cloud variability over the equatorial cold tongue in observations and models, by D. K. Mansbach and J. R. Norris (2007, J. Climate). This study examined cloud and meteorological observations from satellite, surface, and reanalysis datasets and fount that monthly anomalies in low-level cloud amount and near-surface temperature advection are strongly negatively correlated on the southern side of the equatorial Pacific cold tongue. This inverse correlation occurs independently of relationships between cloud amount and sea surface temperature (SST) or lower tropospheric static stability (LTS) and the combination of advection plus SST or LTS explains significantly more interannual cloud variability in a multilinear regression than does SST or LTS alone. Warm anomalous advection occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is well defined and the southeastern Pacific trade winds bring relatively warm air over colder water. Ship meteorological reports and soundings show that the atmospheric surface layer becomes stratified under these conditions, thus inhibiting the upward mixing of moisture needed to sustain cloudiness against subsidence and entrainment drying. Cold anomalous advection primarily occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is weak or absent and the air-sea temperature difference is substantially negative. These conditions favor a more convective atmospheric boundary layer, greater cloud amount, and less frequent occurrence of clear sky. Examination of output from global climate models developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) indicates that both models generally fail to simulate the cloud-advection relationships observed on the northern and southern sides of the equatorial cold tongue. Although the GFDL atmosphere model does reproduce the expected signs of cloud-advection correlations when forced with prescribed historical SST variations, it does not consistently do so when coupled to an ocean model. The NCAR model has difficulty reproducing the observed correlations in both atmosphere-only and coupled versions. This suggests that boundary layer cloud parameterizations could be improved through better representation of the effects of advection over varying SST.

  12. Expression of APC protein during tongue malignant transformation in galectin-3-deficient mice challenged by the carcinogen 4-nitroquniline-n-oxide

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marcus Vinicius Rodrigues; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Loyola, Adriano Mota; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; Chammas, Roger; Liu, Fu-Tong; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa; de Faria, Paulo Rogério

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal3) has been implicated in the development of different tumors because of its involvement in the Wnt signaling pathway by promoting beta-catenin translocation into the nucleus. The APC protein, a negative regulator of this pathway, has been strongly implicated in the development of colon cancer, but still has an undetermined role in the formation of oral cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between Gal3, the Wnt signaling pathway, and APC expression in dysplasias and carcinomas developed experimentally in mice. Sixty galectin-3-deficient (Gal3-/-) and 60 wild-type (Gal3+/+) mice were early employed to be treated with the carcinogen 4NQO for 16 weeks and killed at either week 16 or week 32. Tongues were removed, processed and embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections 5 ?m thick were made, and then stained by H&E to establish the diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma. Sections of 2 ?m thickness were made to detect APC expression in these lesions by immunohistochemistry. Oral carcinogenesis occurred in both groups of mice, but no statistical difference was reached. APC expression was exclusively seen in the cytoplasm of all lesions studied. In the intragroup analysis, the majority of dysplasias and carcinomas exhibiting higher APC immunoreactivity was observed in Gal3-/- mice compared to Gal3+/+ mice, but no significant difference was found. However, a statistical difference was only observed between dysplastic lesions from two mice. Our results showed that neither the absence of Gal3 nor the APC protein appears to play a role in malignant transformation of the tongue. PMID:25031746

  13. A case of quadruple primary malignancies including breast, tongue, and thyroid cancers and osteosarcoma in a young female without karyotype abnormality.

    PubMed

    Kousaka, Junko; Fujii, Kimihito; Yorozuya, Kyoko; Mouri, Yukako; Yoshida, Miwa; Nakano, Shogo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Takahashi, Emiko; Yokoi, Toyoharu

    2014-07-01

    The patient was a 41-year-old, premenopausal woman with a chief complaint of well-circumscribed palpable, right breast mass without nipple discharge. Although she noticed the lump 3 months previously, the size of the tumor (1.1 × 0.9 cm(2)) had been stable. The patient's mother suffered from gastric cancer. Her previous history of the triple different malignancies was as follows: (1) left osteosarcoma [amputation of left lower leg at 15 years old (y/o)]. After the operation, she was treated with various kinds of anticancer drugs including a total of 45 g ifosphamide and 342 g methotrexate; (2) tongue cancer (right radical neck resection; 23 y/o); and (3) thyroid cancer (right lobectomy; 40 y/o). There was no evidence of recurrence of these malignancies at the present consultation. At the time of tongue cancer operation, chromosome abnormality was investigated, but the results were normal. Physical examination showed a well-delimited, elastic-firm, mobile tumor in the central outer right breast. Regional lymph nodes were not palpable. Mammography showed a focal asymmetry in the right upper breast on the mediolateral oblique view. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic mass with irregular margins. Distant metastases could not be detected by whole-body computed tomography scan. The histology of the Mammotome(®) (vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy) specimen revealed that this tumor was low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). She underwent breast-conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy. On permanent histopathological examination, the diagnosis of the tumor was intracystic papilloma with low-grade DCIS. Surgical margin was negative, and sentinel lymph node metastases could not be observed. Estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) were strongly positive, but human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) overexpression was not tested because the lesion was DCIS. She has received no adjuvant therapy and is currently disease free 3 months after surgery. PMID:21562838

  14. Related IgA1 and IgG producing cells in blood and diseased mucosa in ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V C Thoree; S J C Golby; L Boursier; M Hackett; D K Dunn-Walters; J D Sanderson; J Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in which the colonic mucosa is infiltrated with plasma cells producing IgG autoantibodies. It is not known whether this represents a local mucosal response which has switched to IgG or a peripheral response which may have been initiated by peripheral antigen which homed to the colonic mucosa. The clonal distribution

  15. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Field-Wide Changes in Protein Expression in the Morphologically Normal Mucosa of Patients with Colorectal Neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigael C. J. Polley; Francis Mulholland; Elizabeth A. Williams; D. Mike Bradburn; Sarah J. Mills; John C. Mathers; Ian T. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Models for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer tend to focus on the localized lesion, with less attention paid to changes in normal-appearing mucosa. Here we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to define patterns of protein expression in morphologically normal colonic mucosa from 13 healthy subjects, 9 patients with adenomatous polyps, and 9 with cancer. Tumor samples were also

  16. The effects of two sodium lauryl sulphate-containing toothpastes with and without betaine on human oral mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Irma; Jutila, Kirsti; Nicander, Ingrid; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of two sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-containing toothpaste formulations with and without betaine on human oral mucosa in vivo. The results are compared with the effect of a dry mouth toothpaste without SLS. Twenty subjects participated in the double blind, crossover study. The toothpastes with 1.2% SLS, 1.2% SLS and 4% betaine and with 4% betaine but not with SLS were placed on buccal mucosa in a test chamber and kept in place for 15 min. The condition of the mucosa was studied both visually and using electrical impedance (EI) for up to 45 min. Both SLS-containing pastes had a similar, irritating effect on the mucosa as judged both by the appearance of the mucosa and the EI measurements. The dry mouth toothpaste (with betaine only) showed no significant irritation of the mucosa. Betaine did not reduce the mucosa-irritating effect of the SLS-containing toothpaste formulation. The surfactant-free toothpaste did thus not irritate the human oral mucosa in vivo while the SLS-containing pastes did. PMID:12704946

  17. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using Sciences Road Irvine, California 92612 Abstract. Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl; vesicants; optical coher- ence tomography; hamster cheek pouch model; oral mucosa. Paper 09155RR received

  18. Esophageal motility and 24-h pH profiles of patients with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esin Korkut; Mehmet Bekta?; Murat Alkan; Yusuf Üstün; Cem Meco; Ali Özden; Irfan Soykan

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundHeterotopic gastric mucosa occurs as a flat island of red mucosa in the proximal third of the esophagus where it gives rise to the cervical inlet patch. The aims of this study were to investigate the esophageal motility pattern and 24-h pH profiles of patients with cervical inlet patch.

  19. The Effects of Permeation Enhancers on the Surface Morphology of the Rat Nasal Mucosa: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Ennis; Lucy Borden; William A. Lee

    1990-01-01

    A rat model has been developed to compare relative morphological changes in the nasal mucosa after exposure to potential membrane permeation enhancers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize gross structural and specific cellular changes following exposure. Micrographs of the rat nasal mucosa were scored in four categories: (1) mucosal surface integrity, (2) ciliary morphology, (3) mucus\\/extracellular debris, and (4)

  20. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Jayant Sastri [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Simpson, Rand [Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, Richard W., E-mail: richard.tsang@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses of RT but results in significant late morbidity. The majority of late effects were successfully managed. Lens shielding reduced the risk of cataracts and other late sequelae.