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1

Proteoglycan changes in carcinogen (4NQO)-treated rat tongue mucosa.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to undertake preliminary analyses of the extracellular proteoglycans in carcinogen [4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4NQO)]-treated rat tongue mucosa. Experimental rats were exposed to twice-weekly applications of 4NQO in propylene glycol for six months, after which the animals were killed. Control and 4NQO-treated tissues were subjected to sequential aqueous extractions of proteoglycans under associative and dissociative conditions, followed by alkaline cleavage of protein-glycosaminoglycan linkages to yield a glycosaminoglycan residue. Tissues subjected to 4NQO applications contained smaller proportions of proteoglycans which were readily soluble under associative and dissociative conditions. Proportionately more proteoglycan remained strongly associated with other intercellular tissue components, being released only by alkaline cleavage. These biochemical alterations in preinvasive 4NQO-treated epithelium and connective tissues, together with an observed associated change in water retention by the connective tissue, occurred prior to actual neoplastic invasion and suggest differences in macromolecular conformation and orderliness. We hypothesize that these changes are related to the phenomenon of neoplastic epithelial invasion. PMID:7776262

Wilson, D F; Vreugdenburg, A; Wiebkin, O W

1995-03-01

2

Impaired somatosensation in tongue mucosa of smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking has been indicated as a risk factor for oral diseases and can lead to altered sense of taste. So far, the effects\\u000a of sensory changes on the tongue are not investigated. In this study, quantitative sensory testing was used to evaluate somatosensory\\u000a function in the lingual region. Eighty healthy volunteers were investigated (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers). Subjects were bilaterally

Sareh Said Yekta; Andreas Lückhoff; Dejan Risti?; Friedrich Lampert; Jens Ellrich

3

Membrane potentials recorded from the mucosa of the toad's tongue during chemical stimulation  

PubMed Central

An isolated stretch of tongue mucosa was obtained from the Chilean toad (Callyptocephalella gayi). The preparation was observed under transmitted illumination through a binocular microscope. The surface cells were impaled with micro-electrodes and different chemical agents were applied to the area. The following results were obtained. 1. The surface cells had resting potentials of -6 to -40 mV (mean of -17·6 mV) with the preparation bathed in Ringer solution. 2. The cells underwent depolarization by application of different salts (NaCl, NaF, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2) in concentrations of 0·25-1·0 M. The potentials evoked by the salt solutions often overshot the zero membrane potential level by several millivolts. The positive-going potential change produced by application of salts was increased during hyperpolarization of the membrane by inward current and was decreased by current of the opposite sign. Application of salts during depolarization of the membrane to a certain positive level produced a negative-going potential change. The potentials evoked by different salts were about the same, qualitatively, when recordings were made from different areas of the tongue, i.e. top of the fungiform and filiform papillae, doughnut-shaped folds at the base of the fungiform papillae, areas between papillae and from the side of the tongue totally devoid of papillary structures. 3. Quinine applied in concentrations of 2 × 10-2 M did not change the resting polarization of the surface epithelial cells. However, quinine applied to cells already depolarized by outward currents induced further depolarization. When it was delivered to cells hyperpolarized by inward current the substance induced further hyperpolarization. 4. Sucrose (0·5-1·0 M) did not change the membrane potential of lingual cells regardless of the level of cell polarization induced by injected currents. 5. Hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric and acetic acids produced minimal biphasic effects: a brief hyperpolarization followed by a slower secondary depolarization. 6. Water increased the membrane potential of the surface cells. Salts applied at the peak of the water-evoked hyperpolarization induced cell depolarization which was much larger than that evoked during application of salts to cells bathed in Ringer solution. ImagesFig. 1

Eyzaguirre, C.; Fidone, S.; Zapata, P.

1972-01-01

4

Expression of placental glutathione S -transferase in rat tongue mucosa exposed to cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutatione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxification of xenobiotics. Placental GST, known as GST-P, has\\u000a been detected in tissues following exposure to carcinogenic agents being regarded a reliable biomarker of exposure and susceptibility\\u000a in early phases of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressivity of GST-P positive foci in the\\u000a rat tongue

Daniel A. Ribeiro; Gerson F. Assis

2008-01-01

5

Solitary angiokeratoma of the tongue in an adult patient treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy.  

PubMed

A solitary mucosal angiokeratoma is an extremely rare presentation. In this report, we present a 67-year-old woman with a 3cm solitary angiokeratoma involving the tongue, who was treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy after declining surgery. The patient is alive and free of disease at 1.5years following radiation therapy. PMID:23410904

Erkal, Eda Yirmibe?o?lu; Karabey, M Sinan; Vural, Ci?dem; Mutlu, Fatih; Aksu, Görkem; Sarper, Binnaz; Akansel, Gür

2013-02-11

6

Enhancement of tongue carcinogenesis in Hras128 transgenic rats treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.  

PubMed

Transgenic rats carrying human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene (Hras128 rats) have been shown to be highly susceptible to induction of tumors. We have found an early induction of tongue tumors in Hras128 rats treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). 4NQO was administered to the Hras128 and wild-type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The experiment was terminated at 14 (Hras128 rats) and 28 (SD rats) weeks. Either during or after treatment with 4NQO, dysplastic hyperplasia, papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma were found on the tongue of both Hras128 and wild-type rats, with a higher incidence and multiplicity in Hras128 rats. Treatment of the Hras128 rats with 4NQO significantly increased cell proliferation in the tumor compared to the control rats. In the tongue tumors of the Hras128 rats, there was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of cyclin D1 and COX2. To examine whether this experimental system is useful for screening of the candidate agents for cancer preventive effect, nimesulide, a selective COX2 inhibitor, was tested in the present model. Nimesulide significantly decreased total multiplicity of tongue lesions compared to the control rats. Treatment of Hras128 rats with nimesulide caused a significant decrease in the levels of mRNA expression of cyclin D1 and COX2 in the tumor. Therefore, the current 4NQO-induced Hras128 rat tongue carcinogenesis model provides a simple and rapid system for investigating carcinogenesis process and evaluating the effect of possible cancer preventive agents for human tongue cancer. PMID:20043093

Naoi, Kuniko; Sunagawa, Nao; Yoshida, Ichiro; Morioka, Takamitsu; Nakashima, Makoto; Ishihara, Masashi; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshimi, Naoki; Suzui, Masumi

2010-02-01

7

Primary B cell lymphoma of the tongue: a case report.  

PubMed

Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity is rare and of the tongue even rarer. Location of oral lymphomas is more frequent in masticatory mucosa than in movable mucosa; the lingual and buccal mucosa is rarely involved; whereas the gingival vestibule and Waldeyer's ring seem to be the most frequent site of occurrence. We describe a 78 year old male who presented with a mass lesion primarily involving the base of tongue and was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The lesion was completely disappeared). He has currently remained disease free for 16 months. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation, histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen may aid in the diagnosis and thus, help in proper management. PMID:22826730

Hmidi, Mounir; Touiheme, Nabil; Elboukhari, Ali; Kettani, Mounir; Elmejareb, Charafeddine; Messary, Abdelhamid

2012-05-06

8

Primary B cell Lymphoma of the tongue: a case report  

PubMed Central

Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity is rare and of the tongue even rarer. Location of oral lymphomas is more frequent in masticatory mucosa than in movable mucosa; the lingual and buccal mucosa is rarely involved; whereas the gingival vestibule and Waldeyer's ring seem to be the most frequent site of occurrence. We describe a 78 year old male who presented with a mass lesion primarily involving the base of tongue and was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The lesion was completely disappeared). He has currently remained disease free for 16 months. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation, histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen may aid in the diagnosis and thus, help in proper management.

Hmidi, Mounir; Touiheme, Nabil; Elboukhari, Ali; Kettani, Mounir; Elmejareb, Charafeddine; Messary, Abdelhamid

2012-01-01

9

Tongue problems  

MedlinePLUS

... are lost, causing the tongue to appear smooth. Geographic tongue is a patchy form of glossitis where the ... THE TONGUE Pain may occur with glossitis and geographic tongue. Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy ...

10

Global gene expression analysis of the mouse colonic mucosa treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation is well known to be a risk factor for colon cancer. Previously we established a novel mouse model of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, which is useful to examine the involvement of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis. To shed light on the alterations in global gene expression in the background of inflammation-related colon cancer and gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, we conducted a comprehensive DNA microarray analysis using our model. Methods Male ICR mice were given a single ip injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight), followed by the addition of 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to their drinking water for 7 days, starting 1 week after the AOM injection. We performed DNA microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip) on non-tumorous mucosa obtained from mice that received AOM/DSS, AOM alone, and DSS alone, and untreated mice at wks 5 and 10. Results Markedly up-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa given AOM/DSS at wk 5 or 10 included Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5 and 5.7-fold increase at wk 10) and plasminogen activator, tissue (Plat, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5), myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc, 3.0-fold increase at wk 5), and phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid) (Plscr2, 8.0-fold increase at wk 10). The notable down-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa of mice treated with AOM/DSS were the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding protein (Pparbp, 0.06-fold decrease at wk 10) and the transforming growth factor, beta 3 (Tgfb3, 0.14-fold decrease at wk 10). The inflammation-related gene, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (Ppar? 0.38-fold decrease at wk 5), was also down-regulated in the colonic mucosa of mice that received AOM/DSS. Conclusion This is the first report describing global gene expression analysis of an AOM/DSS-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis model, and our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies against carcinogenesis.

Suzuki, Rikako; Miyamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Yumiko; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Takuji

2007-01-01

11

Treating animal bites: susceptibility of staphylococci from oral mucosa of cats.  

PubMed

Infected wounds determined by cats' bites represent high costs to public health, and their adequate treatment relies on the knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial agents found in the oral microbiota. Members of the genus Staphylococcus sp. belong to the microbiota of the oral mucosa of cats and are frequently involved in secondary infections of these wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from oral mucosa of cats. Samples were collected from 200 clinically healthy cats and processed by standard bacteriological methods and tested for susceptibility to a panel of 16 antimicrobials. A total of 212 staphylococci isolates were obtained from 141 of the 200 cats (70.5%), and more than one colony was recognized in 53 cases. Coagulase-negative species were most frequently found (89.6%) distributed among Staphylococcus xylosus (50.9%), Staphylococcus felis (27.4%), Staphylococcus simulans (6.1%) and Staphylococcus sciuri (5.2%). Coagulase-positive species (10.4%) were distributed among Staphylococcus aureus (4.7%) and Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) (5.7%). Regarding to antimicrobial resistance, 178 isolates (83.9%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and rifampicin showed the best results with 100% of sensitive strains. Conversely, high rates of resistance were observed for penicillin and tetracycline (56.1%). The 212 staphylococci isolates and 30 (14.1%) strains were resistant to methicillin (on the disc susceptibility test) and may be preliminarily considered as methicilin-resistant staphylococci. In conclusion, this study reports important rates of antimicrobial resistance among the species of Staphylococcus isolated from clinical specimens of cats, which must be considered for the treating of cats' bites in humans. PMID:23280142

Muniz, I M; Penna, B; Lilenbaum, W

2012-12-20

12

Clinical inquiries. When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn?  

PubMed

Consider treatment when the infant is having difficulty breastfeeding. Infants with mild to moderate tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, are likely to breastfeed successfully and usually require no treatment (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, a prospective controlled trial and a case-control study). However, mothers of infants with any degree of tongue-tie who have difficulty with breastfeeding despite lactation support report immediate improvement after frenotomy is performed on the baby. Complications from the procedure are minimal (SOR: B, a small randomized controlled trial [ RCT] and multiple uncontrolled cohort studies and case series). PMID:21135930

Cho, Anthony; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

2010-12-01

13

Cytomorphological changes in buccal mucosa of patients treated with low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the cytomorphological changes occurring in the buccal mucosa in patients treated with\\u000a low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation. Seventeen individuals (12 males, five females) 18–24 years of age were included in the\\u000a study. Low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation was applied to the right buccal mucosa near the premolar region; this therapy was\\u000a repeated for 10 days. Buccal

Ufuk Sezer; Mutan Hamdi Aras; Ali Murat Aktan; Beyhan Cengiz; Nadide Özkul; Sinan Ay

14

Ectopic geographic tongue--a case report.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of 'ectopic' geographic tongue where lesions, clinically and histologically similar to those normally confined to the tongue, presented on the floor of the mouth and cheek mucosa. The patient, a type II diabetic, had a history of thrombocytopaenia and, more recently, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Clinical Relevance: Geographic tongue is a common oral medicine condition and the purpose of this paper is to highlight the fact that it can present ectopically on the oral mucosa. PMID:17432777

Borrie, Felicity; Musthyala, Rajitha; Macintyre, David

2007-03-01

15

Resolution of tongue lesions caused by Leishmania infantum in a dog treated with the association miltefosine-allopurinol  

PubMed Central

Canine leishmaniosis is a severe systemic disease caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Leishmania infantum, an obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages, transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies. The infection in dogs might occur without any clinical signs or might be characterised by chronic viscerocutaneous signs, such as lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, splenomegaly, onychogryphosis, and renal as well as ocular damage due to immunocomplex deposition. In atypical cases the parasites can be found in the striated musculature, the central nervous system, the endocrine glands or gonads, with or without functional damage. Leishmania infection might seldom induce oral lesions, particularly on the tongue. The authors describe the clinical case of a four-year old mongrel dog with tongue lesions caused by L. infantum. The dog was presented due to diarrhoea, lack of appetite and hypersalivation. Examination of the oral cavity revealed the presence of multiple red, nodular lesions on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue. Definite diagnosis of an infection with L. infantum was obtained by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by the cytological identification of the parasite in nodular, lingual lesions and bone marrow aspirates. The dog was treated with a combination of miltefosine (Milteforan®, Virbac), 2 mg/kg orally once a day for four weeks and allopurinol (Ziloric®, GlaxoSmithKline), 10 mg/kg orally twice a day for six months. At the end of the treatment, the animal showed full remission of clinical signs. The authors outline the atypical manifestations in the oral cavity in combination with a L. infantum infection and discuss the therapeutic potential of the combination treatment of miltefosine and allopurinol in canine leishmaniosis.

Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Paparcone, Rosa; Cappiello, Silvia; De Santo, Roberta; Bianciardi, Paolo; Oliva, Gaetano

2009-01-01

16

[The comparative characteristics of treating herpes virus diseases of the oral mucosa with antiviral preparations].  

PubMed

The efficacy of human leukocytic interferon (ointment), 20000 IU/g, in the treatment of viral diseases of the buccal mucosa was studied in 152 patients. The results were compared with those achieved with the commercial antiviral agent 0.5% oxolin ointment. The results evidence a manifest antiviral effect of the interferon ointment, recommending it for practical dentistry. PMID:1926196

Degtiareva, E P; Ramzaeva, L V; Iovlev, V I; Stepanov, A N

17

Tongue lesions in psoriasis: a controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to study tongue lesions and their significance in psoriatic patients. METHODS: The oral mucosa was examined in 200 psoriatic patients presenting to Razi Hospital in Tehran, Iran, and 200 matched controls. RESULTS: Fissured tongue (FT) and benign migratory glossitis (BMG) were the two most frequent findings. FT was seen more frequently in psoriatic patients (n =

Maryam Daneshpazhooh; Homayoon Moslehi; Maryam Akhyani; Marjan Etesami

2004-01-01

18

Oral mucosa: variations from normalcy, part II.  

PubMed

This is the second article in a 2-part series on the variations of oral mucosa. We describe the following 5 conditions that deviate from normalcy: lateral soft palate fistulas, double lip, fissured tongue, racial gingival pigmentation, and geographic tongue. PMID:11930907

Leston, J M Seoane; Santos, A Aguado; Varela-Centelles, P I; Garcia, Juan Vazquez; Romero, M A; Villamor, L Pias

2002-03-01

19

A Novel Intraarterial Chemotherapy Using Paclitaxel in Albumin Nanoparticles to Treat Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraarterial in- fusion of paclitaxel incorporated into human albumin nanoparticles for use as induction che- motherapy before definitive treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty-three previously untreated patients (age range, 27-75 years) who had carcinoma of the tongue (stage T3-T4, any N)

Bruno Damascelli; Gian Luigi Patelli; Rodolfo Lanocita; Giuseppe Di Tolla; Laura Francesca Frigerio; Alfonso Marchianò; Francesco Garbagnati; Carlo Spreafico; Vladimira Tichà; Caroline Regna Gladin; Mauro Palazzi; Flavio Crippa; Cesare Oldini; Stefano Calò; Alberto Bonaccorsi; Franco Mattavelli; Luigi Costa; Luigi Mariani; Giulio Cantù

20

Kinetics of changes in the crypts of the jejunal mucosa of dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.  

PubMed Central

When symmetrical 1,2 dimethylhydrazine was administered to rats by weekly s.c. injection, 37% of the animals had developed small intestinal carcinomas after 21-27 weeks. These lesions were largely localized to duodenum and upper jejunum. At the same time there was a diffuse crypt hyperplasia in the jejunum which affected all the treated animals, not just those with neoplasms. This marked hyperplasia was preceded by a modest sustained crypt elongation which was seen soon after DMH injections began. In these hyperplastic jejunal crypts the absolute size of the proliferative compartment was increased, but the growth fraction calculated from labelling studies appeared to fall, probably by reduction in relative size of the proliferating population within the proliferative compartment. No convincing alteration in actual cell-cycle time was observed in the abnormal crypts. There was a slight (25%) increase in cell-production rate in the abnormal crypts. Images Fig. 1

Sunter, J. P.; Appleton, D. R.; Wright, N. A.; Watson, A. J.

1978-01-01

21

Prognostic factors of local outcome for T1, T2 carcinomas of oral tongue treated by iridium 192 implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of Iridium 192 implantation for 121 node negative T1 or T2 squamous carcinomas of mobile tongue were reviewed to look for predictors of local control and necrosis. Age, sex, total dose, dose rate, linear activity, and intersource spacing were examined. Minimum follow-up was 2 years but no patient with local recurrence or necrosis was excluded. There were 57

J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; G. Marinello; W. Walop; B. Pierquin

1990-01-01

22

[An abscess in the tongue].  

PubMed

Abscesses of the tongue are rare and potentially life-threatening because of risk of airway obstruction. It is most often preceded by trauma. In this paper we present an otherwise healthy patient with an abscess in the tongue eleven days after a trauma involving the presence of an insect believed to be a spider in the mouth. The symptoms were oedema, redness and pain of the tongue. A computed tomography was used as a diagnostic tool. The abscess was successfully treated with incision and antibiotics. Abscess should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a swollen tongue. PMID:23721846

Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Østvoll, Eirik; Wanscher, Jens Højberg

2013-05-27

23

Primary malt lymphoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

Primitive malignant lymphoma mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) on the tongue are rare entities. We report here a case of an old woman (80 years old) with a tumor in the dorsum of the tongue, which was histologically diagnosed as an extra-nodal marginal B cell lymphoma. An inflammatory reaction resembling myoepithelial sialoadenitis was observed in the minor salivary glands adjacent at the tumour, suggesting a possible derivation of the lymphoma from a previous reactive process of unknown origin. PMID:15580125

Goteri, Gaia; Ascani, Giuliano; Filosa, Alessandra; Rubini, Corrado; Olay, Sonsoles; Balercia, Paolo

24

Hairy Tongue  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Guidelines Gently brush the tongue with a toothbrush twice daily. Then rinse the mouth with a ... parts water), or apply the solution with a toothbrush. Rinse the mouth with plain water. Maintain good ...

25

Tongue biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Amyloidosis Tongue (oral) cancer ... Robinson PN. Early diagnosis of oral cavity cancers. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . Apr 2006; 39(2): 295-306. Noonan VL. Diagnosis and management of suspicious lesions of the oral ...

26

Effects of esomeprazole on glutathione levels and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the gastric mucosa of rats treated with indomethacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton pump inhibitors exert their preventive and healing effects on gastropathy induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory\\u000a drug (NSAIDs) by a dual action: the antisecretory and the antioxidant effect. The latter was investigated by using esomeprazole\\u000a against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosa lesions in rats and assessed by a histomorphometric analysis. Treatment by intragastric\\u000a gavage were 1% methocel as vehicle; esomeprazole 10, 30, or

O. Pastoris; M. Verri; F. Boschi; O. Kastsiuchenka; B. Balestra; F. Pace; M. Tonini; G. Natale

2008-01-01

27

IFN?2b augments immune responses of cisplatin+5-fluorouracil treated tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients - A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Interferon alpha 2b (IFN?2b) has been reported to regulate several immune functions efficiently to enhance the cytotoxic activity of NK and T cells towards various forms of tumours. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of IFN?2b in overcoming disease induced and/or treatment associated imunosuppression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) patients undergoing chemotherapy for better clinical outcome. Methods: Seven TSCC patients under cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in combination with IFN?2b were assessed for various immunohaematological parameters before treatment, after chemotherapy and after IFN?2b therapy. Results: Deterioration of the haematological and immune responses was detected in immunosuppressed TSCC patients after chemotherapy. IFN?2b treatment led to a recovery in these parameters in most of the patients. Greater number of T/NK cells and enhanced secretion of type 1 cytokines were also noted. Haematological complications were reduced after completion of the therapy. Immune- and haematostimulation were also observed in patients with partial response. No positive clinical response was detected in one patient. Interpretation & conclusions: IFN?2b appears to be an effective immunostimulator having clinical impact to combat the immunosuppression in TSCC patients. Successful immunostimulation by IFN?2b may help TSCC patients in clinical improvement. The findings of this preliminary study need to be confirmed on a large number of patients with TSCC.

Mukherjee, Kalyan Kusum; Bose, Anamika; Ghosh, Diptendu; Sarkar, Koustav; Goswami, Shyamal; Pal, Smarajit; Biswas, Jaydip; Baral, Rathindranath

2012-01-01

28

Common tongue conditions in primary care.  

PubMed

Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology. PMID:20187599

Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

2010-03-01

29

Imaging of tongue carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The tongue enables taste and plays a critical role in formation of food bolus and deglutition. The tongue is also crucial for speech and the earliest sign of tongue paresis is a change in the quality of speech. Given the importance of the tongue, tongue carcinoma should be accurately staged in order to optimise treatment options and preserve organ function. The intent of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the pertinent anatomy of the tongue and the behaviour of tongue carcinoma so as to map malignant infiltration accurately.

Ong, Cheng K; Chong, Vincent F H

2006-01-01

30

Imaging of tongue carcinoma.  

PubMed

The tongue enables taste and plays a critical role in formation of food bolus and deglutition. The tongue is also crucial for speech and the earliest sign of tongue paresis is a change in the quality of speech. Given the importance of the tongue, tongue carcinoma should be accurately staged in order to optimise treatment options and preserve organ function. The intent of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the pertinent anatomy of the tongue and the behaviour of tongue carcinoma so as to map malignant infiltration accurately. PMID:17208674

Ong, Cheng K; Chong, Vincent F H

2006-12-20

31

Local irritant effects of topical oral sprays on oral mucosa in mice.  

PubMed

Topical oral sprays are frequently used to prevent and manage oropharyngeal inflammation and lesions. This study investigated the histopathologic changes noted in the oral mucosa of mice after topical application of 3 widely prescribed antibacterial products. The 25 animals were divided into 5 groups and treated for 10 days with 2 sprays daily, as follows: group 1-chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% + benzydamine hydrochloride 0.15%; group 2-benzydamine 0.27 mg/0.18 mL x 30 mL; group 3-chlorhexidine 0.2%; group 4-fusafungine 1%; and group 5 (cohort)-physiologic serum. On day 10 after drug administration, biopsy specimens were taken from the oropharyngeal mucosa of the tongue, the cheek mucosa, and the tongue base; these were examined under a light microscope and were classified as normal or pathologic. All topical oral sprays produced some degree of histopathologic change, such as hyperplasia, fibrosis, low-grade dysplasia, congestion, or edema. The local irritant effects of topical oral sprays should be considered when treatment is selected for patients with oropharyngeal disorder. PMID:16644611

Yuca, Köksal; Cankaya, Hakan; Bayram, Irfan; Ozbek, Hanefi; Kiris, Muzaffer

32

No mutations found in exon 2 of gene p16CDKN2A during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide.  

PubMed

The medium-term tongue carcinogenesis assay is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinomas phase by phase. The present study aimed to investigate mutations in exon 2 of gene p16CDKN2A during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) using direct DNA-sequencing method. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) in drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks at 50 ppm dose. Ten animals were used as negative control. No histopathological changes in tongue epithelia were observed among controls or in the group treated for 4 weeks with 4NQO. Following 12-week treatment, hyperplasia and epithelial dysplasia were found in mild and moderate forms. At 20 weeks, the tongue presented moderate and/or severe oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma, with squamous cell carcinoma in the majority of animals. No mutations were found in any experimental period evaluated that corresponded to normal oral mucosa, hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinomas. Taken together, our results suggest that p16CDKN2A mutations in exon 2 are not involved in the multistep tongue carcinogenesis of Wistar rats induced by 4NQO. PMID:19255859

Minicucci, Eliana Maria; da Silva, Glenda Nicioli; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Favero Salvadori, Daisy Maria

2009-03-03

33

Lipoma in Oral Mucosa: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Lipoma is a common tumor of soft tissue. Its location on the oral mucosa is rare, representing 1% to 5% of benign oral tumors although it is the most mesenchymal tumor of the trunk and proximal por-tions of extremities. Lipoma of the oral cavity may occur in any region. The buccal mucosa, tongue, and floor of the mouth are among the common locations. The clinical presentation is typically as an asymptomatic yellowish mass. The overlying epithelium is intact, and superficial blood vessels are usually evident over the tumor. Other benign connective tissue lesions such as granular cell tumor, neurofibroma, traumatic fibroma and salivary gland lesions (mucocele and mixed tumor) might be included in differential diagnosis. We present two cases of oral lipoma in unusual locations: one in junction of soft and hard palate and the other in tongue. Both were rare in the literature.

Hoseini, Ali Tavakoli; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Khabazian, Arezu

2010-01-01

34

Colon Mucosa Exhibits Loss of Ectopic MUC5AC Expression in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Treated with Oral Tacrolimus  

PubMed Central

Background. Tacrolimus (FK506) is effective for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, there are few reports on tacrolimus therapy (TT) with respect to the relationship with endoscopic and clinicopathologic findings. Methods. Thirty patients with moderate/severe active UC refractory to or dependent on corticosteroid were treated with oral tacrolimus. The expression of ectopic MUC5AC in the colon was pathologically analyzed before and at 12 weeks after TT, evaluating the Mayo score and steroid-sparing effects. Results. Both mean disease and endoscopic activity index scores were reduced at levels of statistical significance in 26 UC patients receiving more than one month of TT (P < 0.0001). The dose of prednisolone was reduced by a statistically significant amount (P = 0.00022), and 14 of the 26 patients (53.8%) had steroid-free status 12 weeks after TT. The decrease in ectopic MUC5AC expression in the mucous cells of the colon was significantly associated with endoscopic improvement of inflammation in the UC patients with TT (P = 0.043). Loss of ectopic MUC5AC expression was detected in all patients who had complete response. Conclusions. Tacrolimus appears to be effective for the treatment of moderate/severe UC patients. Loss of ectopic MUC5AC expression may be important for pathologic remission in the colon of UC patients.

Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Katano, Takahito; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Joh, Takashi

2013-01-01

35

Brachytherapy for non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. An analysis of forty-five cases treated with permanent implants.  

PubMed

An analysis has been undertaken of 45 patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa treated by permanent 198Au or 222Rn implants and in most cases supplementary external irradiation. Eight patients had T1, 30 had T2, and 7 T3 disease. Of the lesions 21 were located in the buccal mucosal surface, 14 in the retromolar region, and 10 in the bucco-alveolar sulci. Seven of the 45 (16%) died of the disease and the actuarial 5-year survival rate was 81%. No obvious differences were noted in survival rate between different stages of the disease or between different subsites of the primary lesion. There were 6 local recurrences occurring from 3 to 33 months after treatment, and only one of these was salvageable by further radiation therapy. Neck node metastasis occurred in 11 cases from 2 to 34 months after treatment, and 8 of these cases responded successfully to a radical neck dissection or radiotherapy. PMID:8323772

Shibuya, H; Takeda, M; Matsumoto, S; Hoshina, M; Shagdarsuren, M; Suzuki, S

1993-01-01

36

Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

2012-03-15

37

Tongue 'n' Groove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we propose a novel musical controller which acquires imaging data of the tongue with a two-dimensional medical ultrasound scanner. A computer vision algorithm extracts from the image a discrete tongue shape to control, in real- time, a musical synthesizer and musical effects. We evalu- ate the mapping space between tongue shape and controller parameters and its expressive characteristics.

Florian Vogt; Graeme Mccaig; Mir Adnan Ali; Sidney Fels

2002-01-01

38

Cesium Implant for Tongue Carcinoma with a Thickness of 1.5 cm or More: Cases Successfully Treated with a Modified Manchester System  

PubMed Central

Purpose Deciding on treatment carcinoma of the tongue when the tumor has a thickness of 1.5 cm or more is difficult. Surgery often requires wide resection and re-construction, leading to considerable functional impairment. A cesium implant is an attractive option, but according to the Manchester System, a two plane implant is needed. Materials and Methods According to the textbook, a tumor is sandwiched between the needles, which are implanted at the edge of the tumor. This may cause an unnecessarily high dose to the outer surface of the tongue, which sometimes leads to a persistent ulcer. To avoid this complication, we invented a modified implantation method, and applied the method to five consecutive patients. Results With a minimum follow-up of 2 years, all primary tumors in 5 consecutive patients have been controlled. No complications occurred in soft tissue of the tongue or in the mandible. Conclusion Our modified Manchester System was feasible and effective for tumors that has a thickness of 1.5 cm or more.

Fujino, Masaharu; Homma, Akihiro; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Sato, Akira; Ohmori, Keiichi; Obinata, Kenichi; Shirato, Hiroki; Notani, Kenichi; Nishio, Masamichi

2010-01-01

39

No parietal cell hypertrophy of the metaplastic corpus mucosa in the distal esophagus under PPI treatment.  

PubMed

When biopsies obtained from short tongues of columnar epithelium in the distal esophagus show only corpus or cardia-corpus transitional mucosa, it remains uncertain whether we are dealing with columnar epithelium metaplasia or a sampling error. In 50 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) with such tongues of columnar epithelium, we noted that under this treatment, PPI-typical hypertrophy of the parietal cells in the corpus can be found, but not in the corpus or cardia/corpus transitional mucosa in biopsy material obtained from tongues of columnar epithelium in the distal esophagus. These observations may by an indication that in short segments of columnar epithelium corpus, mucosa with no PPI-induced hyperplasia of the parietal cells may be interpreted as metaplastic mucosa. PMID:19664886

Stolte, Manfred

2009-08-06

40

Isolated congenital bifid tongue  

PubMed Central

Human growth and development is a meticulously planned and precisely executed process. Even a mild disturbance can have clinically significant manifestations later on. Even today, ancient beliefs and practices override/delay patient's aspiration for seeking treatment as seen in the case report presented here. Congenital bifid tongue in association with various other orofacial abnormalities has been reported, many of which have been linked to various syndromes. But congenital bifid tongue occurring in the absence of other orofacial abnormalities is very rare. Here, we discuss a case of bifid tongue involving the anterior one-third of tongue, reported in a 45-year-old male patient unusually with no other intraoral abnormalities.

Surej, Kumar L. K.; Kurien, Nikhil M.; Sivan, Madhu P.

2010-01-01

41

Geographic tongue and tenofovir.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B was started on tenofovir. One month after initiating the new medication, he developed severe symptomatology with odynophagia and a very painful tongue. The physical examination reveals multiple erythematous patches on his tongue and a biopsy was performed. It allowed the diagnosis of benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue. The patient was kept on tenofovir, but had to start topical corticoid therapy. Geographic tongue is a common condition that may be caused by drug idiosyncrasy, but has never before been associated to tenofovir. It is usually asymptomatic, but sometimes it causes severe symptoms, being an important impairment of quality of life. PMID:23598934

Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Marinho, Rui Tato; Velosa, José; Costa, João Borges

2013-04-17

42

A hybrid electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electronic tongue is described based on a combination of potentiometry, voltammetry and conductivity. It was used for classification of six different types of fermented milk. Using ion-selective electrodes, pH, carbon dioxide and chloride ion concentrations were measured. The voltammetric electronic tongue consisted of six working electrodes of different metals (gold, iridium, palladium, platinum, rhenium and rhodium) and an

F. Winquist; S. Holmin; C. Krantz-Rülcker; P. Wideb; I. Lundström

2000-01-01

43

Hemi-tongue flaps.  

PubMed

We describe a design for tongue flaps that utilizes the full thickness of the hemi-mobile tongue that provides mucosal lining, muscle bulk, and a long, supple, nonrestricting pedicle. The method was used in six children who had large palatal defects and allowed complete and permanent closure without any of the complications previously associated with lingual flaps. PMID:7208671

Carlesso, J; Mondolfi, P; Flicki, E

1980-10-01

44

Supervision of rinses in a washing machine by a voltammetric electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study that investigates if it is possible to discriminate between the different rinses in a household washing machine with a voltammetric electronic tongue is concluded. The voltammetric electronic tongue applies a potential pulse train over two electrodes and measures the produced current. Multivariate data analysis is used to treat the data. In this paper, a simplified electronic tongue, with

Patrik Ivarsson; Madeleine Johansson; Nils-Erik Höjer; Christina Krantz-Rülcker; Fredrik Winquist; Ingemar Lundström

2005-01-01

45

No parietal cell hypertrophy of the metaplastic corpus mucosa in the distal esophagus under PPI treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When biopsies obtained from short tongues of columnar epithelium in the distal esophagus show only corpus or cardia–corpus transitional mucosa, it remains uncertain whether we are dealing with columnar epithelium metaplasia or a sampling error. In 50 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) with such tongues of columnar epithelium, we noted that under this treatment, PPI-typical

Manfred Stolte

2010-01-01

46

Familial study of fissured tongue.  

PubMed

Clinical and genetic characteristics of histologically defined fissured tongue were examined in a familial study. Fifteen probands with fissured tongue and four probands with geographic tongue were selected from earlier studies. In addition, 12 probands with tongue fissuring, but without changes of papillary structure, were included. The total sample consisted of 31 families; the number of family members examined was 185 (93 men, 92 women), and the mean age of the subjects was 20 yr (range 1-78). Diagnosis of tongue form was emphasized, and this study describes an in vivo method of stereomicroscopy for examining the dorsum of the tongue. According to genetic analysis, fissured tongue with smooth-surfaced papillae was transmitted as a dominant characteristic with incomplete penetrance and was preceded by geographic tongue. The severity of fissured tongue changed with increasing age. Tongue fissuring with normal-appearing filiform papillae was not familial and was not associated with geographic tongue. Fissuring with normal papillary structure should be considered as variations of normal anatomy, whereas fissured tongue and geographic tongue are a clinical and etiological disease entity. PMID:3166201

Kullaa-Mikkonen, A

1988-08-01

47

Curcumin inhibits tongue carcinoma cells migration and invasion through downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 10.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of tongue is an aggressive head and neck cancer with high propensity of regional spreading and invasion. Tongue carcinoma cells treated with curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, demonstrated reduction in adhesion, migration, and invasion ability. High-throughput microarray analysis indicated that curcumin treatment suppressed matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10) expression. MMP10 is overexpressed in tongue carcinoma tissues in comparison with the normal epithelia. Curcumin treatment on tongue carcinoma cell lines suppressed MMP10 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggested that curcumin is a promising inhibitor to tongue cancer cells migration and invasion. PMID:22624612

Tsang, Raymond King-Yin; Tang, Whitney Wing-Yan; Gao, Wei; Ho, Wai-Kuen; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Wei, William Ignace; Wong, Thian-Sze

2012-05-24

48

Geographic Tongue in Two Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two illustrative cases of geographic tongue which occurred in 6- and 4-year-old sisters whose father had fissured tongue. The elder sister had mild atopic dermatitis and nail changes, but there was no family history suggestive of psoriasis. Histologically, the geographic tongue in the elder sister showed the same features as the oral lesions in pustular psoriasis. From a

Yoko Kuramoto; Takayosi Tadaki; Naohiro Hatchome; Hachiro Tagami

1987-01-01

49

Science Nation: Tongue Driver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past four years, Maysam Ghovanloo has been working with a team at Georgia Institute of Technology to improve life for quadriplegics. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), they have devised a headset that responds to a magnet. Using a laptop, a wireless connection and navigation software, the headset is programmed to allow someone to steer a wheelchair by moving his tongue. Since the tongue driver could help control any number of devices like the TV or a computer, it could one day mean even more of the most precious commodity of all: independence.

50

Double accessory tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of double accessory tongue in a female neonate. The embryology of this extremely rare congenital anomaly, along with the diagnostic approach followed and the surgical intervention undertaken, are discussed. The surgical procedure was radical and led to good functional and esthetic results.

F. S. Chiarenza; A. D'Alessio; S. De Pascale; M. Cheli; C. Giardina; G. Rota; D. Schievano; G. Locatelli

1994-01-01

51

The Effects of Glossectomy on Anterior and Posterior Motion of the Tongue during Speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech debilitation in patients with glossectomy due to squamous cell carcinoma eradication has been described qualitatively by previous researchers. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the changes in tongue motion in glossectomy patients by comparing them to normal controls to help clarify the effects of the tongue resection/reconstruction on normal motion of the tongue during speech. Eight glossectomy patients, including one with a flap reconstruction, and nine normal controls had MRI recorded in the mid-sagittal plane while uttering "a souk" to evaluate the effects of tumor/resection size, closure procedure used, the level of motor control, and s-type on the velocity and displacement of the tongue tip and body at one or more points in time. No statistically significant differences in tongue motion or motor control were found between normal controls and glossectomy patients, suggesting retention of tongue mobility post-glossectomy. Patients with larger resections were found to have more difficulty with tongue tip motion during speech and one patient treated with flap reconstruction also showed highly altered tongue motion. S-type was not found to have a statistically significant effect on tongue motion. This study suggests that post-glossectomy debility in speech revealed previously most likely cannot be attributed to quantitative changes in tongue motion, but rather qualitative changes in tongue motion.

Reichard, Rachel E.

52

Operant control of pathological tongue thrust in spastic cerebral palsy.  

PubMed Central

Pathological tongue thrust (reverse swallowing) has been associated with neuromuscular disorders and linked to dental malocclusion, articulation problems, difficulty in eating, and excessive drooling. In this study, observable tongue thrust in a 10-year-old retarded male was modified during mealtime using a procedure consisting of differential reinforcement (presentation of food contingent upon tongue in) and punishment (gently pushing the tongue back into the mouth with a spoon). Results of a reversal design showed substantial decreases in tongue thrust and food expulsion, and a large increase in observed chewing. These data compared favorably with data obtained for other retarded persons not judged to be tongue thrusters; in addition, the objective results of the treatment program were substantiated via pre-post evaluations done by occupational and physical therapists. These findings suggest that operant techniques may be an effective means of treating tongue thrust and its associated problems, and that further development and evaluation of behavioral interventions may provide a desirable alternative to more intrusive surgical or mechanical procedures.

Thompson, G A; Iwata, B A; Poynter, H

1979-01-01

53

3-D neurohistology of transparent tongue in health and injury with optical clearing  

PubMed Central

Tongue receives extensive innervation to perform taste, sensory, and motor functions. Details of the tongue neuroanatomy and its plasticity in response to injury offer insights to investigate tongue neurophysiology and pathophysiology. However, due to the dispersed nature of the neural network, standard histology cannot provide a global view of the innervation. We prepared transparent mouse tongue by optical clearing to reveal the spatial features of the tongue innervation and its remodeling in injury. Immunostaining of neuronal markers, including PGP9.5 (pan-neuronal marker), calcitonin gene-related peptide (sensory nerves), tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic nerves), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cholinergic parasympathetic nerves and neuromuscular junctions), was combined with vessel painting and nuclear staining to label the tissue network and architecture. The tongue specimens were immersed in the optical-clearing solution to facilitate photon penetration for 3-dimensiontal (3-D) confocal microscopy. Taking advantage of the transparent tissue, we simultaneously revealed the tongue microstructure and innervation with subcellular-level resolution. 3-D projection of the papillary neurovascular complex and taste bud innervation was used to demonstrate the spatial features of tongue mucosa and the panoramic imaging approach. In the tongue injury induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide administration in the drinking water, we observed neural tissue remodeling in response to the changes of mucosal and muscular structures. Neural networks and the neuromuscular junctions were both found rearranged at the peri-lesional region, suggesting the nerve-lesion interactions in response to injury. Overall, this new tongue histological approach provides a useful tool for 3-D imaging of neural tissues to better characterize their roles with the mucosal and muscular components in health and disease.

Hua, Tzu-En; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Yang, Wen-Chan; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

2013-01-01

54

3-D neurohistology of transparent tongue in health and injury with optical clearing.  

PubMed

Tongue receives extensive innervation to perform taste, sensory, and motor functions. Details of the tongue neuroanatomy and its plasticity in response to injury offer insights to investigate tongue neurophysiology and pathophysiology. However, due to the dispersed nature of the neural network, standard histology cannot provide a global view of the innervation. We prepared transparent mouse tongue by optical clearing to reveal the spatial features of the tongue innervation and its remodeling in injury. Immunostaining of neuronal markers, including PGP9.5 (pan-neuronal marker), calcitonin gene-related peptide (sensory nerves), tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic nerves), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cholinergic parasympathetic nerves and neuromuscular junctions), was combined with vessel painting and nuclear staining to label the tissue network and architecture. The tongue specimens were immersed in the optical-clearing solution to facilitate photon penetration for 3-dimensiontal (3-D) confocal microscopy. Taking advantage of the transparent tissue, we simultaneously revealed the tongue microstructure and innervation with subcellular-level resolution. 3-D projection of the papillary neurovascular complex and taste bud innervation was used to demonstrate the spatial features of tongue mucosa and the panoramic imaging approach. In the tongue injury induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide administration in the drinking water, we observed neural tissue remodeling in response to the changes of mucosal and muscular structures. Neural networks and the neuromuscular junctions were both found rearranged at the peri-lesional region, suggesting the nerve-lesion interactions in response to injury. Overall, this new tongue histological approach provides a useful tool for 3-D imaging of neural tissues to better characterize their roles with the mucosal and muscular components in health and disease. PMID:24155698

Hua, Tzu-En; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Yang, Wen-Chan; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

2013-10-22

55

Benign migratory glossitis with fissured tongue.  

PubMed

Symptomatic benign migratory glossitis (BMG) or "geographic tongue" is a rare occurrence in pediatric dentistry though asymptomatic BMG is comparatively common. BMG presents itself as an ulcer-like region on the dorsum of the tongue, which may recur at different sites on the tongue, creating a migratory appearance. Asymptomatic cases usually resolve on their own but symptomatic cases need treatment. Fissured tongue is a benign condition characterized by deep grooves on the dorsum of the tongue and, in many cases, is associated with geographic tongue. This article presents a case of symptomatic geographic tongue with fissured tongue with a history of asthma. PMID:22918106

Goswami, M; Verma, A; Verma, M

56

Bacterial-killing effect of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet and oral mucosa response.  

PubMed

Recently, plasma sterilization has attracted increasing attention in dental community for the atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet (APNPs), which is driven by a kilohertz pulsed DC power, may be applied to the dental and oral diseases. However, it is still in doubt whether APNPs can effectively kill pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and produce no harmful effects on normal oral tissues, especially on normal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial-killing effect of APNPs in the biofilms containing a single breed of bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g.), and the pathological changes of the oral mucosa after treatment by APNPs. P.g. was incubated to form the biofilms in vitro, and the samples were divided into three groups randomly: group A (blank control); group B in which the biofilms were treated by APNPs (the setting of the equipment: 10 kHz, 1600 ns and 8 kV); group C in which the biofilms were exposed only to a gas jet without ignition of the plasma. Each group had three samples and each sample was processed for up to 5 min. The biofilms were then fluorescently stained, observed and photographed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. In the animal experiment, six male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly (n=3 in each group) in terms of the different post-treatment time (1-day group and 5-day group). The buccal mucosa of the left side and the mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue were treated by APNPs for 10 min in the same way as the bacterial biofilm experiment in each rabbit, and the corresponding mucosa of the other sides served as normal control. The clinical manifestations of the oral mucosa were observed and recorded every day. The rabbits were sacrificed one or five day(s) after APNPs treatment. The oral mucosa were harvested and prepared to haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Clinical observation and histopathological scores were used to assess mucosal changes. The results showed the obvious P.g. biofilms were formed at 10 days, and most of the bacteria in groups A and C were alive under a laser scanning confocal microscope, but the bacteria in the group B were almost all dead. In animal experiment, no ulcers, anabrosis and oral mucositis were found in both the 1-day and 5-day groups. The average mucous membrane irritation index was -0.83 and -0.67 in the 1-day and 5-day groups, respectively, suggesting that no intense mucosal membrane irritation responses occurred. It was concluded that APNPs could effectively kill P.g. in the biofilms and did not cause any pathological changes in the normal mucosa, suggesting that the plasma jet (APNPs) may be applied to oral diseases as a novel sterilization device in the future. PMID:22173512

Liu, Dexi; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Zhou, Xincai; Cao, Yingguang; Lu, Xinpei

2011-12-16

57

Functional Segments in Tongue Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tongue is a deformable object, and moves by compressing or expanding local functional segments. For any single phoneme, these functional tongue segments may move in similar or opposite directions, and may reach target maximum synchronously or not. This paper will discuss the independence of five proposed segments in the production of speech.…

Stone, Maureen; Epstein, Melissa A.; Iskarous, Khalil

2004-01-01

58

Epithelioid sarcoma of the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of epithelioid sarcoma in the tongue is reported. The patient, a 35 year old woman, presented with a non-ulcerated painful lesion of the tongue. Microscopically, the tumour was characterised by multiple coalescent nodules with central geographic necrosis infiltrating the lingual muscle. The tumour cells were epithelioid with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and atypical nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells stained

X Leroy; A Delobelle; J L Lefebvre; V Cabaret; F Bloget; M O Vilain

1997-01-01

59

Clinicopathologic significance of bcl-2 expression in the surgical treatment of oral tongue carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: There is still controversy on the incidence of positive expression of bcl-2 and its prognostic significance for oral tongue carcinoma patients who are treated by surgery. The present study aims at resolving the controversy on the clinicopathologic significance of bcl-2 in a well selected group of patients who satisfy the recruitment criteria: (1) oral tongue carcinoma, (2) squamous cell

A. P. W. Yuen; K. Y. Lam; J. T. H. Choy; W. K. Ho; L. Y. Wong; W. I. Wei

2002-01-01

60

Liposarcoma of the tongue: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Liposarcoma most commonly arises in the retroperitoneum and lower extremities. Liposarcoma of the head and neck is rare, with only 12 previously reported cases of liposarcoma in the tongue. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of well-differentiated liposarcoma of the tongue occuring in a 39 year old man, treated with surgical excision. At 14 years of follow-up, the patient

Marika R Dubin; Edward W Chang

2006-01-01

61

Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice.

ZHAO, XIN; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; QIU, LIHUA; PANG, LIANG

2013-01-01

62

Tongue music: the sound of a kiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the Tongue Music project: a performance-instrumental that makes use of the human tongue to yield amorous sounds, either by solo using a primary tongue controller or as a duet (The Sound of a Kiss) pairing a tongue controller and a receiver. We describe the design of the system and how the participants use the technology

Hye Yeon Nam; Carl F. DiSalvo

2010-01-01

63

A case of tongue carcinoma associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can occur at various sites, including the oral mucosa, where it is associated with a high risk of head and neck cancer. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with tongue cancer that developed following Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic GVHD, and we discuss the possible causes of cancer development. PMID:20604764

Noguchi, K; Nakase, M; Inui, M; Nakamura, S; Okumura, K; Tagawa, T

2010-06-01

64

Necrosis of the tongue as first symptom of Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): unusual presentation of a rare disease in children.  

PubMed

Polyarteritis or panarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing, focal segmental vasculitis that affects predominantly medium-sized arteries in many different organ systems. It is extremely rare in childhood. Involvement of the oral mucosa at diagnosis is uncommon in PAN. Here, we report a case of a pediatric patient with tongue necrosis. PMID:21136262

Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; El Hachem, May; Callea, Francesco; Bracaglia, Claudia; Diociaiuti, Andrea; Pardeo, Manuela; Campana, Andrea; Insalaco, Antonella; Cortis, Elisabetta; Ugazio, Alberto G

2010-12-07

65

Necrosis of the tongue as first symptom of Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): unusual presentation of a rare disease in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyarteritis or panarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing, focal segmental vasculitis that affects predominantly medium-sized\\u000a arteries in many different organ systems. It is extremely rare in childhood. Involvement of the oral mucosa at diagnosis is\\u000a uncommon in PAN. Here, we report a case of a pediatric patient with tongue necrosis.

Paola Sabrina Buonuomo; May El Hachem; Francesco Callea; Claudia Bracaglia; Andrea Diociaiuti; Manuela Pardeo; Andrea Campana; Antonella Insalaco; Elisabetta Cortis; Alberto G. Ugazio

66

Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits.  

PubMed

The familial nature of scrotal and geographic tongue was investigated in parents and siblings of 156 probands having these conditions. The prevalence in parents and siblings was significantly higher than that in the control populations. The prevalence in sibilings from families in which at least one parent was also affected was significantly higher than that in siblings from families in which neither parent was affected. The prevalence of scrotal tongue alone in siblins was similar irrespective of the condition in the proband. The prevalence of geographic tongue alone was highest in siblins of probands having only geographic tongue. A polygenic mode of inheritance with some genes common to both conditions is suggested. PMID:1068416

Eidelman, E; Chosack, A; Cohen, T

1976-11-01

67

SEM and neurohistological observations of nerve endings in the middle region of the tongue of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu): a silver impregnation method.  

PubMed

The presence of lingual papillae and the nerve endings in the middle region of the tongue mucosa of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) were studied using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, based upon the silver impregnation method. The middle region of tongue mucosa revealed numerous filiform and fungiform papillae. The thick epithelial layer showed epithelial cells and a dense connective tissue layer containing nerve fibre bundles and capillaries. The sensory nerve endings, intensely stained by silver impregnation, were usually non-encapsulated and extended into the connective tissue of the filiform and fungiform papillae very close to the epithelial cells. In some regions, the sensory nerves fibres formed a dense and complex network of fine fibrils. The presence of these nerve fibrils may characterize the mechanisms of transmission of sensitive impulses to the tongue mucosa. PMID:21138465

Watanabe, I; Guimarães, J P; Maia, M O; Santos, T C; Kfoury, J R; Boleta, S A; Almeida, S R Y; Righeti, M M; Miglino, M A

2010-12-08

68

Intralesional photocoagulation of vascular anomalies of the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular anomalies remain a challenge for patients and reconstructive surgeons. Recently, promising results have been reported using intralesional photocoagulation (ILP) to treat large, deep vascular lesions. We report our experience in treating 12 patients with vascular anomalies of the tongue (10 venous malformations and two haemangiomas) using intralesional photocoagulation. All patients were treated with a Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttrium–aluminium–garnet) (1064 nm) laser

C.-J. Chang; D. M. Fisher; Y.-R. Chen

1999-01-01

69

Light and scanning electron microcopy study of the tongue in Rhea americana.  

PubMed

Morphological characteristics of the tongue were studied in adult rhea (Rhea americana). The lingual surface and the surface of epithelium-connective tissue interface of rhea tongue were examined macroscopically and by light and scanning electron microscopy. The rhea tongue revealed a triangular aspect, without adjustment of the inferior bill formation, occupying approximately ¼ of the length of the oral cavity. Lingual papilla-like structures were not observed over the lingual surface. The tongue mucosa was composed of a thick non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the dorsal and ventral part, supported by a connective tissue core. The submucosa contained numerous glands with cytoplasmic granules, and luminal secretion was positive for histochemical reaction to Alcian Blue in pH 2.5 and PAS, and negative to Alcian Blue in pH 0.5. Despite the rudimentary characteristic of the tongue in rhea, our results suggest an important role of tongue secretions in food lubrication and humidification during the swallowing process, based on the enormous quantity of lingual glands in the submucosa and the histochemical characteristics of their secretions. PMID:21186946

Carlesso Santos, Tatiana; Yuri Fukuda, Katia; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Franco Oliveira, Moacir; Angelica Miglino, Maria; Watanabe, Li-Sei

2011-01-01

70

Acquired factor VIII inhibitor presenting as a tongue hematoma.  

PubMed

Acquired hemophilia is a rare disorder that has potentially disastrous consequences if not recognized and treated in the setting of acute hemorrhage. We report a case of undiagnosed acquired hemophilia due to factor VIII inhibitor in which a tongue hematoma was the chief manifestation. Diagnosis, acute management, and long-term therapeutic options are reviewed. PMID:15093846

Wendell, Catherine M; Bellazzini, Marc A; Howes, David S

2004-05-01

71

Childhood tongue squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in children with only a few cases reported in the literature. A case of 15 year old female tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with review of reported cases is presented. Pediatricians and family physicians should also be aware of the possibility of this disease entity occurring at an earlier age to decrease delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment.

Harirchi, Iraj; Hakimian, Sayyedmohammadreza; Kiamoosavi, Sayyedmortaza; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah

2012-01-01

72

An adjunctive method of radiofrequency volumetric tissue reduction of the tongue for OSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTemperature-controlled radiofrequency volumetric reduction (TCRF), a minimally invasive procedure, has been used to treat tongue base obstruction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). An adjunctive method was objectively evaluated.

Robert W Riley; Nelson B Powell; Kasey K Li; Edward M Weaver; Christian Guilleminault

2003-01-01

73

A Case of Angiokeratoma Circumscriptum of the Tongue: Response with Carbon Dioxide and Pulsed Dye Laser  

PubMed Central

Solitary angiokeratoma circumscriptum (AC) of the tongue is a rare entity. We present a case of solitary AC over the ventral surface of the tongue present for 3 years. The patient was treated with a combination of carbon dioxide (CO2) and pulsed dye laser (PDL). There was more than 75% improvement in the lesion after treating with alternate sessions of CO2 and PDL.

Kar, Hemanta Kumar; Gupta, Lipy

2011-01-01

74

Imbalance of tumor suppression genes expression following rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of some tumor suppressor genes such as p16, p21 and Retinoblastoma (Rb) during 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution through their drinking water for 4, 12 or 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. Neither histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure, nor statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in expression of all the tumor suppressor genes were found when compared to the negative control. However, the levels of Rb were increased (p<0.05) in pre-neoplastic lesions at 12 weeks following carcinogen exposure. In well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma induced after 20 weeks of treatment with 4NQO, p16 and Rb were expressed in some tumor cells. Taken together, the results support the belief that the expression of Rb is closely event-related to malignant transformation and conversion of the oral mucosa, being a reliable biomarker linked to oral cancer pathogenesis. PMID:20023236

Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Fracalossi, Ana Carolina Cuzzuol; Uatari, Silvia Akemi; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Favero

75

Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway following rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.  

PubMed

The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in development, tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. Inappropriate activation of the Wnt pathway is linked to a wide range of human cancers. The purpose of this study was to characterize the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway as depicted by the expression of Wnt1, Frizzled-1, Wnt5a, Frizzled-5 and beta-catenin during 4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by immunohistochemistry. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 4NQO solution at 50 ppm through their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as control group. No histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure; however, an overexpression of Wnt5a was noticed when compared to control group (p<0.05). The Wnt1 showed significant differences (p<0.05) in pre-neoplastic lesions at 12 weeks following carcinogen exposure. In well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma induced after 20 weeks of treatment with 4NQO, Wnt1 was expressed in the majority of the dysplasic cells and tumor cells. This was statistically significant (p<0.05). No significant differences (p>0.05) were found in expression of Frizzled-1, Frizzled-5 or beta-catenin following oral carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results support the belief that expression of Wnt1 and Wnt5a is related to malignant transformation and conversion of oral mucosa. PMID:19931241

Fracalossi, Ana Carolina Cuzzuol; Silva, Marcelo de Souza; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2009-11-17

76

Protrusive tongue strength in people with severely weak tongues.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of the study was to quantify tongue protrusion force and compare its characteristics between participants with severely weak tongues and those with normal lingual strength. The sample consisted of 11 participants with severe lingual strength deficits and 11 age- and sex-matched participants with normal lingual strength. Tongue force was evaluated quantitatively using the Forling instrument, and the average force, maximum force, average force application rate, and area under the graphic curve were analysed. These parameters were compared between the groups. In the participants with severely weak tongues, the average and the maximum forces in N (Newton) were 2.03 ± 1.17 and 3.56 ± 1.77, respectively. The average force application rate in N/s (Newton per second) was 1.25 and the area under the graphic curve in Ns (Newton times second) was 18.6. The values of the participants with normal lingual strength were, respectively, 13.27 ± 6.15 N, 18.91 ± 7.95 N, 10.46 N/s, and 108.08 Ns. All parameters analysed differed significantly between the groups. The data collected could aid speech-language pathologists in diagnosing problems related to tongue force. PMID:23336828

Furlan, Renata M M M; Motta, Andréa R; Valentim, Amanda F; Barroso, Márcio F S; Costa, Cláudio G; Casas, Estevam B Las

2013-01-22

77

Permeation of quinine across sublingual mucosa, in vitro.  

PubMed

Quinine is the first line treatment in severe P. falciparum malaria and nocturnal leg cramps and a fast, convenient delivery method of this drug quinine is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the sublingual route for the delivery of quinine. Permeation studies were carried out with Franz diffusion cells containing sublingual mucosa membranes with PBS receptor phase and dosed with solutions of quinine hydrochloride or quinine/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexes. Receptor phase samples were taken 2 hourly over a 12h period and quinine was determined by reverse-phase HPLC analysis. The ventral surface of the tongue was significantly more permeable than porcine floor of the mouth (p<0.05) and there was no significant effect of freezing on the ventral surface of the tongue (p 0.2444). The presence of saliva caused a decrease in the permeation of quinine across the ventral surface of the tongue by up to 68%. Inclusion complexation between quinine and 2-HP-beta-CD was supported by (1)H NMR spectral data, and an ethanol vehicle provided the highest quinine flux from the inclusion complex solutions compared to deionised water and PEG. Overall, the data support further investigations into the clinical use of sublingual quinine, particularly for children with falciparum malaria or patients with nocturnal leg cramps. Use of quinine/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes may circumvent compliance issues due to bitter taste. PMID:18835345

Ong, Charlene M Y; Heard, Charles M

2008-09-12

78

Nitrate-reducing bacteria on rat tongues.  

PubMed Central

Nitrite-producing bacteria (NPB) were isolated from tongues of laboratory rats. The most commonly found nitrite-producing organism was Staphylococcus sciuri, followed by Staphylococcus intermedius, Pasteurella spp., and finally Streptococcus spp. Both morphometric quantification of bacteria on tongue sections and enumeration of culturable bacteria (CFU) showed an increase in the density of bacteria towards the posterior tongue. Up to 65% of bacteria were located in the deep clefts on the posterior tongue. The proportion of culturable NPB in the total culturable microbial population increased from 6% (10(5) CFU cm-2) on the anterior tongue to 65% (10(7) CFU cm-2) on the posterior tongue. Different species compositions of NPB were found on different tongue sections with S. intermedius populations decreasing and S. sciuri and Pasteurella populations increasing towards the posterior tongue. Nitrite production was sensitive to oxygen, and significant nitrite production was only detected on the posterior tongue where the majority of bacteria are situated in deep clefts in the tongue surface. This study suggests the importance of bacteria in nitrite production, from nitrate, on the tongue. Nitrite produced on the tongue may subsequently form nitric oxide in the acidic environment of the stomach. Because of the antimicrobial properties of nitric oxide, a key role for nitrate-reducing tongue bacteria in host animal defense against food-borne pathogens in proposed.

Li, H; Duncan, C; Townend, J; Killham, K; Smith, L M; Johnston, P; Dykhuizen, R; Kelly, D; Golden, M; Benjamin, N; Leifert, C

1997-01-01

79

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of pre- and post-treated oral submucous fibrosis: an in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a high risk precancerous condition characterized by changes in the connective tissue fibers of the lamina propria and deeper parts leading to stiffness of the mucosa and restricted mouth opening, fibrosis of the lining mucosa of the upper digestive tract involving the oral cavity, oro- and hypo-pharynx and the upper two-thirds of the oesophagus. Optical reflectance measurements have been used to extract diagnostic information from a variety of tissue types, in vivo. We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantitatively monitor tumour response to chemotherapy. Twenty patients with submucous fibrosis were diagnosed with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and treated with the chemotherapy drug, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Hyaluronidase injection for seven weeks and after the treatment they were again subjected to the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The major observed spectral alterations on pre and post treated submucous fibrosis is an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 600 nm. Normal mucosa has showed higher reflectance when compared to the pre and post-treated cases. The spectral changes were quantified and correlated to conventional diagnostic results viz., maximum mouth opening, tongue protrusion and burning sensation. The results of this study suggest that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may also be considered as complementary optical techniques to monitor oral tissue transformation.

Sivabalan, S.; Ponranjini Vedeswari, C.; Jayachandran, S.; Koteeswaran, D.; Pravda, C.; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

2010-02-01

80

Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh

2012-11-16

81

Wireless control of smartphones with tongue motion using tongue drive assistive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a noninvasive, wireless and wearable assistive technology that helps people with severe disabilities control their environments using their tongue motion. TDS translates specific tongue gestures to commands by detecting a small permanent magnetic tracer on the users' tongue. We have linked the TDS to a smartphone (iPhone\\/iPod Touch) with a customized wireless module, added to

Jeonghee Kim; Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo

2010-01-01

82

Prevalence of Tongue Anomalies in Hamadan, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since the earliest days of medicine, the tongue has been considered a good reflection of systemic disease. Hippocrates, Galen and others considered the tongue to be barometer of health. In addition, the early diagnose of tongue le- sions help to recognize the some systemic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different morphological variations

F Mojarrad; P Bakianian Vaziri

83

Amelanotic melanoma of the tongue  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare lesion, with an incidence of about 0.2% to 0.8% of all melanomas. Melanoma of tongue is still rarer and represents less than 2% of oro-nasal melanoma cases. We report a rare case of amelanotic melanoma of the tongue in a young man. The importance of consideration of melanoma in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions is discussed since mucosal melanoma carries a bad prognosis and early diagnosis is vital.

Venugopal, M; Renuka, IV; Bala, G Saila; Seshaiah, N

2013-01-01

84

Amelanotic melanoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare lesion, with an incidence of about 0.2% to 0.8% of all melanomas. Melanoma of tongue is still rarer and represents less than 2% of oro-nasal melanoma cases. We report a rare case of amelanotic melanoma of the tongue in a young man. The importance of consideration of melanoma in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions is discussed since mucosal melanoma carries a bad prognosis and early diagnosis is vital. PMID:23798843

Venugopal, M; Renuka, Iv; Bala, G Saila; Seshaiah, N

2013-01-01

85

Deep lingual arterial chemoembolization of tongue carcinoma with microcapsuled anticancer drug  

PubMed Central

Objective: Microcapsule chemoembolism is a promising treatment of tumors. We describe a deep lingual arterial embolization of tongue carcinoma with microcapsuled carboplatinum. Methods: Lingual artery cast specimens from cadavers were microscopically examined, and 78 patients with tongue cancer were recruited and treated with the deep lingual arterial embolization therapy. Results: Microcapsule embolism occurred approximately at the fifth or sixth level of the deep lingual artery branches. The five-year survival rate was 88.5% (69 out of 78), and the ten-year survival rate 52.6% (41 out of 78). Conclusion: The deep lingual arterial embolization of tongue carcinoma with microcapsuled carboplatinum is an effective therapy to treat carcinoma in mid-margin or mid-body of the tongue.

He, Hong; Huang, Jian-qi; Ping, Fei-yun; Chen, Guan-fu; Zhang, Su-zhan

2007-01-01

86

Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing  

PubMed Central

Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk.

Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

2010-01-01

87

Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing.  

PubMed

Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig's angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk. PMID:21358880

Yu, Catherine Hy; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

2010-01-01

88

Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

89

Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.  

PubMed

In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission. PMID:23473290

Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

2013-02-26

90

Dirithromycin concentrations in bronchial mucosa and secretions.  

PubMed

Since a high tissue penetration of dirithromycin (D) has been assessed in early studies, the aims of this study were to determine D concentrations in bronchial mucosa and secretions in patients suffering from an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), to compare intra-individual bronchial mucosa and secretion concentrations and to relate bronchial concentrations of D and clinical efficacy. The main inclusion criteria were comprised of (1) AECB, defined by the presence of an increase in dyspnea, sputum production and change in sputum purulence, and (2) clinical indication of fiberoptic bronchoscopy allowing performance of bronchial biopsies. All patients were treated with a 500-mg once-daily D dose for 5 days. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, according to sampling times (24, 48 and 72 h after the last dose). Tissue concentration analyses were performed by one blinded microbiologist (microbiological agar diffusion assay). The results showed: (1) 37 out of the 46 patients (80.4%) had a favorable response to treatment at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (14 cured, 23 improved); (2) bronchial mucosa concentrations were high in all groups, and (3) mean values at 24, 48 and 72 h after the last dose were respectively 6.51 +/- 1.44, 6. 61 +/- 2.7, 5.67 +/- 1.02 mg.kg-1; no statistical difference was observed between the groups. In bronchial secretions collected simultaneously, concentrations were lower, i.e. 1.26 +/- 0.3, 0.61 +/- 0.12, 0.84 +/- 0.12. Significant associations were observed between bronchial mucosa and secretion concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.0001), and between clinical response and bronchial concentrations (p = 0.03, Kruskall-Wallis test). In conclusion, these results may confirm the clinical significance of tissue concentrations measured in bronchial tissues of patients with AECB. PMID:9782221

Leroyer, C; Muller-Serieys, C; Quiot, J; Benhamou, D; Clavier, J; Bergogne-Bérézin, E

1998-01-01

91

Massive tongue swelling following the use of synthetic saliva.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and severe learning difficulties developed massive tongue swelling of sudden onset following the use of synthetic saliva. Acute airway obstruction and severe stridor ensued which required tracheal intubation and transfer to paediatric intensive care. The child was treated with intravenous steroids, antihistamines and epinephrine. With cessation of synthetic saliva, the swelling gradually resolved and the child was extubated on day 5. PMID:14617126

Kandala, Vijay; Playfor, Stephen

2003-11-01

92

Schwannoma of the tongue: two case reports and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe clinicopathologic and radiographic features of two cases of schwannoma involving the oral tongue and to review the literature of this unusual clinical entity. Case reports with review of the pathologic, radiologic and clinical data for two patients with schwannoma of the tongue are reported. Review of the literature of case reports of schwannomas (neurilemmomas) of the tongue from 1955 to 2006 with analysis of the patient's age, gender, presenting symptom(s), tumor size, and surgical approach was undertaken. The two patients in our series presented with painless swelling of the tongue. Transoral excision was performed and pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma in both the cases. A total of 126 cases of schwannoma of the tongue have been reported in the English literature over the past 51 years. Schwannomas of the tongue typically present in the third decade of life (33%), display no gender predilection (52.8% female; 47.2% male) and often present as a painless mass (69.6%). Schwannomas are likely to elicit distressing symptoms when they occur in the posterior one-third of the tongue (63.2 vs. 13.5%) or approach 3 cm in greatest dimension (33.0 vs. 18.2 mm). The vast majority of cases have been treated with transoral excision (94.8%). Recurrence after surgical excision has not been reported. Schwannoma of the tongue is a relatively rare tumor of the head and neck. Transoral resection allows for removal of this tumor in a manner that precludes recurrence, avoids causing morbidity of tongue function, and remains the standard approach for the treatment of the vast majority of these tumors. PMID:19130068

Cohen, Marc; Wang, Marilene B

2009-01-08

93

Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie).  

PubMed

Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The author reports a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) causing ankyloglossia might reveal novel information on the craniofacial embryogenesis and its disorders. PMID:17588677

Klockars, Tuomas

2007-06-22

94

Cavernous Hemangioma of the Tongue  

PubMed Central

Hemangioma is a benign tumor of dilated blood vessels. It is most commonly seen in the head and neck region and rarely in the oral cavity. Hemangiomas in the oral cavity are always of clinical importance and require appropriate treatment. We report here a case of a 34-year-old female patient with a swelling on the lateral surface of tongue which did not respond to the sclerosing agent and was finally confirmed as cavernous hemangioma on histological evaluation.

Kripal, Krishna; Rajan, Senthil; Ropak, Beena; Jayanti, Ipsita

2013-01-01

95

A Miniaturized Voltammetric Electronic Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniaturized electronic tongue based on pulsed voltammetry has been developed. It was made by inserting three types of wires acting as working electrodes (gold, platinum, and rhodium; diameter 0.25 mm) into a platinum tube acting as a counter electrode (diameter 2 mm; length 4 mm). The arrangement was connected to a potentiostat controlled by a computer. Due to the small size of

Fredrik Winquist; Ingemar Lundström

2008-01-01

96

Somatosensory Processing of the Tongue in Humans  

PubMed Central

We review research on somatosensory (tactile) processing of the tongue based on data obtained using non-invasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Technical difficulties in stimulating the tongue, due to the noise elicited by the stimulator, the fixation of the stimulator, and the vomiting reflex, have necessitated the development of specialized devices. In this article, we show the brain activity relating to somatosensory processing of the tongue evoked by such devices. More recently, the postero-lateral part of the tongue has been stimulated, and the brain response compared with that on stimulation of the antero-lateral part of the tongue. It is likely that a difference existed in somatosensory processing of the tongue, particularly around primary somatosensory cortex, Brodmann area 40, and the anterior cingulate cortex.

Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Kakigi, Ryusuke

2010-01-01

97

Verrucous carcinoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old woman with full dentures had a progressive growth on the tongue for the past 15 years. She reported ulceration of the lesion 4 months prior that was accompanied by pain and odinophagia. She denied addiction to alcohol or tobacco. On examination, there was an ulcerated, vegetating, verrucous lesion, with yellow-whitish areas intermingled with erythematous areas, being infiltrated and having well-defined borders, on almost all areas of the back of the tongue (Figure 1). No adjacent lymphadenopathy was found. Biopsy of the tongue was compatible with verrucous carcinoma demonstrating squamous cell neoplasia with prevailing areas of rounded borders. There were "tunnels" filled with parakeratotic material surrounded by an extensive inflammatory response, plus isolated foci of neutrophils inside the tumor (Figure 2). There were relatively well-differentiated neoplastic cells with little cytological atypia. In addition, there were several foci of individual or grouped dyskeratotic cells (Figure 3), plus tunnelling of parakeratotic material and an intratumor inflammatory response (Figure 4). Following surgical removal, the woman underwent chemotherapy and radiation treatment. PMID:22779105

Vilela, Fernanda Aguiar Santos; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Gurfinkel, Paula Cabral Menezes; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan Manuel; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

98

Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria on Rat Tongues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite-producing bacteria (NPB) were isolated from tongues of laboratory rats. The most commonly found nitrite-producing organism was Staphylococcus sciuri, followed by Staphylococcus intermedius, Pasteurella spp., and finally Streptococcus spp. Both morphometric quantification of bacteria on tongue sections and enumer- ation of culturable bacteria (CFU) showed an increase in the density of bacteria towards the posterior tongue. Upto65%ofbacteriawerelocatedinthedeepcleftsontheposteriortongue.TheproportionofculturableNPB in the total

HONG LI; CALLUM DUNCAN; JOHN TOWNEND; KENNETH KILLHAM; LORNA M. SMITH; PETER JOHNSTON; ROELF DYKHUIZEN; DENISE KELLY; MICHAEL GOLDEN; NIGEL BENJAMIN; ANDCARLO LEIFERT

1997-01-01

99

Amperometric electronic tongue for food analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  This review covers electronic tongues based on amperometric sensors and applied in food analysis. A brief overview of the\\u000a development of sensors is included and this is illustrated by descriptions of different types of amperometric sensors used\\u000a in electronic tongues. Analysis of multivariate data is also an essential part of any electronic tongue. Pattern recognition\\u000a techniques are described, with a

Matteo Scampicchio; Davide Ballabio; Alessandra Arecchi; Stella M. Cosio; Saverio Mannino

2008-01-01

100

Survivin and inducible nitric oxide synthase production during 4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis: a possible relationship.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of survivin and inducible nitric oxide synthase during 4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution through their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. Although no histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure, survivin and iNOS were expresssed (p<0.05) in some cells of the 'normal' oral epithelium. In pre-neoplastic lesions at 12 weeks following carcinogen exposure, the levels of survivin and iNOS were increased (p<0.05) when compared to negative control, being the strongest effect observed to iNOS. In well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma induced after 20 weeks of treatment with 4NQO, survivin and iNOS were expressed in some tumor cells. Lack of immunoreactivity for both markers was observed in the negative control group. Taken together, our results support the belief that expression of survivin and iNOS are early events during malignant transformation and conversion of the oral mucosa. PMID:17428462

Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Kitakawa, Darcio; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custodio; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Favero

2007-03-12

101

The role of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including morphogenesis, wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer. The purpose of this study was to characterize the role of MMPs as depicted by the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide solution at 50 ppm through their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as control group. No histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure; however, immunoexpression of MMP-2 was noticed. The same picture occurred to MMP-9, in which positive expression was detected for this immunomarker. MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed positive expression either in pre-neoplastic lesions at 12 weeks following carcinogen exposure or in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma induced after 20 weeks of treatment with 4NQO. Taken together, our results support the belief that MMP-2 and MMP-9 play important role during malignant transformation and conversion of oral mucosa as assessed by immunohistochemistry. PMID:20213142

Fracalossi, Ana Carolina Cuzzuol; Miranda, Sandra Regina; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Franco, Marcello; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2010-03-06

102

Geographic tongue: clinical characteristics of 188 cases.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and assess other factors associated with geographic tongue in Thailand. One hundred and eighty-eight Thais with geographic tongue and 188 controls were interviewed regarding their medical history, symptoms, and the nature and migratory pattern of their lesions. Variations in the clinical appearance, lesion location, and any associated tongue fissures were recorded. The age range for the 188 subjects was 9 to 79 years. The highest incidence (39.4%) occurred in the 20-29 age group. Women were affected more than men (1.5:1). The leading group of medical conditions consisted of allergy-related disorders; however, the incidence of these problems among both subjects and controls was not significantly different (55.2% vs. 44.8%). Our results demonstrated a significant co-existence of geographic tongue and fissured tongue. Most of the geographic tongue lesions manifested a typical appearance consisting of a central atrophic area bounded by a raised white circinate line (69.1%) with multiple tongue sites affected (62.8%). The most common locations were at the lateral margins and tip of the tongue. The majority of our subjects (75.5%) were asymptomatic. The results of this study correspond with the findings of previous geographic tongue studies in other populations. PMID:15719084

Jainkittivong, Aree; Langlais, Robert P

2005-02-15

103

High CIP2A immunoreactivity is an independent prognostic indicator in early-stage tongue cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: No reliable prognostic markers exist for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, and its prognosis can even in early stages be unpredictable and survival poor despite treatment. A potential marker is oncoprotein cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), which acts as a prognostic marker in gastric and non-small cell lung cancers. Methods: We collected specimens of 73 stage T1N0M0 and T2N0M0 oral squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue, as well as samples from normal oral mucosa, dysplastic lesions, and invasive carcinomas (n=39). All samples were stained for CIP2A by immunohistochemistry. Survival curves were constructed according to the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model served for univariate and multivariate survival analysis. Results: High CIP2A immunoreactivity predicted poor survival in tongue cancer patients (P=0.027, logrank test). In multivariate survival analysis, CIP2A was an independent prognostic factor (HR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.07–3.82, P=0.030). Cytoplasmic CIP2A expression was higher in severe dysplasia than in mild dysplasia. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high CIP2A expression characterises aggressive disease. Acting as a prognostic marker it might be of help when choosing patients for adjuvant treatment in tongue cancer patients.

Bockelman, C; Hagstrom, J; Makinen, L K; Keski-Santti, H; Hayry, V; Lundin, J; Atula, T; Ristimaki, A; Haglund, C

2011-01-01

104

Salt tongues in northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Salt tongues are generally flat-lying tongue-shaped salt sheets that have been found in the deep-slope area in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These tongues, usually buried at shallow depth, are embedded in Pleistocene, possibly in Pliocene or older, sediments. Their size varies greatly from 5 to over 100 km in length, and from a few tens to over 4500 m in thickness. Most of the salt tongues are marked by high-amplitude seismic reflectors at the top and sometimes at the base. A typical salt tongue consists of a feeder, a bulging neck and butt, and a tapering tongue pointing downslope. The salt tongues in the northern gulf are believed to be extrusive in origin. These tongues were formed as a result of updip sedimentary loading from the shelf and upper slope. A salt tongue probably originates from a diapiric salt dome or from a fault connecting it to the buried mother salt. As the sedimentary wedge progrades downdip toward the slope, the mother salt is mobilized and moves upward. When salt approaches the sea floor, it expands laterally and creeps gradually down-slope under the influence of gravity. The advance of the tongue is sustained by the continuing supply of salt from the feeder, which is mobilized by loading and buoyancy. The eventual cessation of the tongue advancement comes when the sedimentary cover reaches a critical thickness and/or the salt supply is depleted. In the event that the mother salt supply remains plentiful and loading continues, the salt moves vertically and the feeder will evolve into a salt dome.

Wang, Yun Fei

1988-02-01

105

Salt tongues in northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Salt tongues are generally flat-lying tongue-shaped salt sheets that have been found in the deep-slope area in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These tongues, usually buried at shallow depth, are embedded in Pleistocene, possibly in Pliocene or older, sediments. Their size varies greatly from 5 to over 100 km in length, and from a few tons to over 4,500 m in thickness. Most of the salt tongues are marked by high-amplitude seismic reflectors at the top and sometimes at the base. A typical salt tongue consists of a feeder, a bulging neck and butt, and a tapering tongue pointing downslope. The salt tongues in the northern gulf are believed to be extrusive in origin. These tongues were formed as a result of updip sedimentary loading from the shelf and upper slope. A salt tongue probably originates from a diapiric salt dome or from a fault connecting it to the buried mother salt. As the sedimentary wedge progrades downdip toward the slope, the mother salt is mobilized and moves upward. When salt approaches the sea floor, it expands laterally and creeps gradually down-slope under the influence of gravity. The advance of the tongue is sustained by the continuing supply of salt from the feeder, which is mobilized by loading and buoyancy. The eventual cessation of tongue advancement comes when the sedimentary cover reaches a critical thickness and/or the salt supply is depleted. In the event that the mother salt supply remains plentiful and loading continues, the salt moves vertically and the feeder evolves into a salt dome.

Wang, Y.F.

1988-01-01

106

Supporting the mother tongue: pedagogical approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a project to support the learning of the mother tongue by children aged 4–8 years. The aim of the project was to: actively involve and engage children with learning their mother tongue for functional use; involve parents in the learning process and support them in doing so; and increase children’s regular

Theodora Papatheodorou

2007-01-01

107

An electronic tongue in the dairy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of electronic tongues or taste sensors has developed rapidly during recent years due to their large potential. They are based on electrochemical sensors combined with multivariate data analysis. Voltammetric electronic tongues have proven valuable in many applications. Due to their ruggedness and simplicity, they have been found especially suitable for on-line monitoring of industrial processes. A voltammetric electronic

F. Winquist; R. Bjorklund; C. Krantz-Rülcker; I. Lundström; K. Östergren; T. Skoglund

2005-01-01

108

ASSESSMENT OF TONGUE WEAKNESS AND FATIGUE  

PubMed Central

Assessment of nonspeech tongue function is common in speech-language pathology. This paper reviews techniques used to determine tongue strength and endurance, and describes a constant-effort task. These techniques are intended to reveal and quantify the presence of weakness or fatigue of the tongue. The consequences of performing these tasks with and without a bite block, used to fix jaw position, are considered. Whether nonspeech tongue impairment is associated with speech dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease is another topic of interest. Past studies indicated reduced tongue strength and endurance in Parkinson’s disease, but these measures did not correlate with speech measures. It was hypothesized that weakness and fatigue need to be impaired to a “critical” level before speech is perceptibly affected. To examine whether experimentally induced tongue fatigue affects speech, normal speakers performed prolonged strenuous tongue exercise. Speech deteriorated following these exercises. A new investigation examines whether 1 hour of speech-like tongue exercise (rapid syllable repetitions) affects dysarthric speech. Preliminary data from 6 participants with Parkinson’s disease, 1 person with bulbar ALS, and 6 neurologically normal control subjects indicate that sentences sound more precise but less natural after the exercises. Surprisingly, results did not differ significantly between the groups. Continued collection of data and refinement of tasks will contribute to our understanding of the potential relationships between weakness, fatigue, and speech.

Solomon, Nancy Pearl

2012-01-01

109

Autologous embedded foreign body of mobile tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign bodies of upper aerodigestive tract are common otorhinolarygological emergencies. The foreign bodies of mobile tongue\\u000a are however very rare and there are only limited case reports in literature. The case of a young female with an autologous\\u000a foreign body mobile tongue with unusual presentation is presented.

Rohit Verma; Kapil Sikka; A. Thakar

2007-01-01

110

Streptococcus endocarditis after tongue piercing.  

PubMed

While body piercing has been practiced for many centuries, the popularity of this body art has increased vastly in recent years. It is estimated that up to 51% of college-age individuals in the United States have ear piercing or other forms of piercing or tattoo. Although perceived as a relatively safe practice, medical complications, mostly resulting from bleeding and infections, occur in 17% of all cases after piercing. The case is reported of a patient with native mitral valve endocarditis after tongue piercing, resulting in acute mitral valve insufficiency that required valve replacement. PMID:17578056

Kloppenburg, Geoffrey; Maessen, Jos G

2007-05-01

111

Tongue erosions and diet cola.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved. PMID:17500397

Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

2007-04-01

112

Resemblance of Tongue Anatomy in Twins  

PubMed Central

This study compared the anatomical features of the tongue in nine pairs of twins — six monozygotic and three dizygotic. The aim of the project was to determine if tongues, like any other anatomical structure, could be used to reliably predict relatedness given that tongue shape, presentation and surface can be influenced by environment. Using the method of forced choice, 30 subjects were asked to match the photographs of tongues from twins. Our data indicate that, based on visual assessment, monozygotic twins have highly similar tongues (60% matches); similarly, dizygotic twins were matched 31% of the time, which is a higher probability than would be expected from random selection. This study should help identify baseline and control data in future behavioral studies of taste, which has a genetic basis.

Spielman, Andrew I.; Brand, Joseph G.; Buischi, Yvonne; Bretz, Walter A.

2011-01-01

113

Tuberculoma of the Tongue Presenting as Hemimacroglossia  

PubMed Central

The underdiagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis lesions, along with an emerging global resistance to antitubercular drugs, warrants an increased awareness of the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in atypical lesions of oral cavity. Tongue is the most common site of oral tuberculosis. We report a rare presentation of lingual tuberculosis in a 65-year-old male, a chronic tobacco chewer, who came to us with swelling of the tongue which apparently looked like hemimacroglossia, leading to the clinical diagnosis of submucosal carcinoma of tongue. Enlargement of tongue is a slow process resulting from gradual invasion and lodging of bacilli in the tongue. Biopsy and histopathological examination revealed tuberculous etiology of the lesion and the patient responded well to antitubercular therapy.

Yadav, S. P. S.; Agrawal, Arpit; Gulia, J. S.; Singh, Sunita; Gupta, Arsh; Panchal, Vineet

2012-01-01

114

Resemblance of tongue anatomy in twins.  

PubMed

This study compared the anatomical features of the tongue in nine pairs of twins - six monozygotic and three dizygotic. The aim of the project was to determine if tongues, like any other anatomical structure, could be used to reliably predict relatedness given that tongue shape, presentation and surface can be influenced by environment. Using the method of forced choice, 30 subjects were asked to match the photographs of tongues from twins. Our data indicate that, based on visual assessment, monozygotic twins have highly similar tongues (60% matches); similarly, dizygotic twins were matched 31% of the time, which is a higher probability than would be expected from random selection. This study should help identify baseline and control data in future behavioral studies of taste, which has a genetic basis. PMID:21623658

Spielman, Andrew I; Brand, Joseph G; Buischi, Yvonne; Bretz, Walter A

2011-06-01

115

Varices en la mucosa yugal: Presentación de un caso clínico tratado con oleato de monoetanolamina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported a case of varicosities in the buccal mucosa treated with sclerotherapy. The sclerosant agent used was the mo- noethanolamine oleate. After three sessions the lesions disappeared and the patient is follow-up.

Carolina Cavalieri Gomes; Ricardo Santiago Gomez; Maria Auxiliadora Vieira; Wagner Henriques Castro; Alfonso Gala-García; Ricardo Alves Mesquita

116

Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue  

SciTech Connect

A clinical study using /sup 252/Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. /sup 252/Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of /sup 252/Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of /sup 252/Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received /sup 252/Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received /sup 252/Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from /sup 252/Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy.

Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

1985-03-01

117

Origin of Cardiac Mucosa: Ontogenic Consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and histology of the cardiac mucosa remains controversial. The classical concept that the cardiac mucosa is of\\u000a gastric origin has been challenged by those who advocate that the cardiac mucosa results from a metaplastic esophageal process.\\u000a Some regard cardiac mucosa as consisting solely of pure mucous glands, whereas others accept the presence of isolated parietal\\u000a cells within the

Hong Zhou; M. Alba Greco; Fredric Daum; Ellen Kahn

2001-01-01

118

Palliation of dysphagia with radiotherapy for exophytic base tongue metastases in a case of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Base tongue involvement is a rare presentation of lingual metastases from renal cell carcinoma. A 48-year-old gentleman was treated with open radical nephrectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy for Stage II Furhman grade I clear cell carcinoma of the left kidney at an outside hospital. He presented metachronously 5 years later with progressive dysphagia and change of voice. Clinicoradiological evaluation revealed a large exophytic mass in the oropharynx with epicenter in the right base of tongue. Metastatic workup revealed widespread dissemination to multiple organs and bone. In view of predominant symptom of dysphagia, base tongue metastasis was treated with protracted course of palliative radiotherapy to a dose of 50 Gy in conventional fractionation over 5 weeks. This resulted in excellent and durable response at the base tongue lesion (till the time of last follow-up). Radiation therapy is an acceptable palliative strategy for advanced lingual metastasis as it produces prompt relief of pain, bleeding, and dysphagia.

Wadasadawala, Tabassum; Kumar, Prabhash; Agarwal, Jaiprakash; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani

2011-01-01

119

When Mother-Tongue Education is "Not" Preferred.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses situations in which mother-tongue education may not be desirable. Separate sections discuss language in education systems, multilingual settings, mother-tongue education in the "Cosmopolis," determining the mother tongue, definition of a language, social and ethnic divisiveness of mother-tongue education. The final section provides a…

Gupta, Anthea Fraser

1997-01-01

120

[Status of the buccal mucosa in subjects occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxyherbicides].  

PubMed

Examinations of workers engaged in the production of chlorophenoxyherbicides showed high prevalence of diseases of the buccal and labial mucosa with a trend to development of hyperkeratosis (exfoliative cheilitis, hyperkeratosis of the tongue, lips, buccal mucosa (BM), flat form of the BM and red lip leukoplakia). Cytogenetic effects of toxins on BM result in an increase of keratinization level, higher incidence of nuclear abnormalities, and appearance of the micronuclei in BM epithelium. A direct relationship between the severity of these symptoms, duration of exposure, and intensity of workers' contact with chlorophenoxyherbicides was revealed. The complex of noninvasive and atraumatic methods used in our study helped evaluate the BM status and can be used not only for visual examination, but also for the diagnosis of transformation of the defense reaction of the epithelium into pathological process and for preclinical detection of precancer changes in BM. PMID:15021869

Chemikosova, T S; Kamalova, O A; Ibragimova, Z N

2004-01-01

121

[Three-dimensional architecture of the intrinsic tongue muscles using a modified alkaline maceration method].  

PubMed

The three-dimensional architecture of the intrinsic tongue muscle fibers using the anterior part of the rabbit tongue was studied by scanning electron microscopy with a modified chemical-maceration method. The tongue tissues fixed with 10% formalin solution were treated with 1% OsO4 solution at 5 minutes for hardening of the specimen surface. Subsequently, they were immersed in 6N-NaOH solution for 30 minutes at 60 degrees C for the removal of connective tissues followed by dissection of muscle fibers under a binocular microscope to clarify the structure of the intrinsic tongue muscles. The specimens were treated with tannic acid and OsO4 (conductive staining method; Murakami, 1974), and observed with a SEM. Muscular fiber bundles of the transverse and vertical muscles of the tongue changed their direction at the alignment on the sites where the bundles enter the longitudinal muscles from the innermost surface to form monolayers of muscular bundles extending anteroposteriorly. These muscular bundles formed tunnel-like structures each of which covered a longitudinal muscle bundle. It was considered that these tunnel-like structures support the contraction of the longitudinal muscles as the "muscular sheath". PMID:11197595

Saito, H; Itoh, I

2000-12-01

122

Prevalence of Fissured Tongue, Geographic Tongue and Median Rhomboid Glossitis among Israeli Adults of Different Ethnic Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fissured tongue (FT), geographic tongue (GT) and median rhomboid glossitis (MRG) are frequently misdiagnosed and overtreated. FT is a relatively common variant of the tongue that includes numerous grooves or fissures on the dorsum of the tongue, while GT usually appears as areas of atrophy and raised white borders. MRG is an erythematous patch of atrophic papillae located in

Noam Yarom; Uri Cantony; Meir Gorsky

2004-01-01

123

Tongue Adiposity and Strength in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis To identify treatable risk factors for aspiration in older adults—particularly those associated with sarcopenia – we examined tongue composition. We hypothesized that 1) isometric and swallowing posterior tongue strength would positively correlate with posterior tongue adiposity, and 2) healthy older adults who aspirate would have greater tongue adiposity than healthy older adults who did not aspirate. Study Design Prospective Methods Participants were 40 healthy adults, comprised of 20 aspirators (Mean age = 78 years) and 20 non-aspirators (Mean age = 81 years), as identified via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Measures of maximal isometric posterior tongue strength and posterior swallowing tongue strength were acquired via tongue manometry. An index of posterior tongue adiposity was acquired via computed tomography for a 1 cm region of interest. Result(s) Posterior tongue adiposity was correlated with posterior tongue isometric (r = .32, p = 0.05) but not swallowing pressures (p > 0.05) as examined with separate partial correlation analyses. Tongue adiposity did not significantly differ as a function of age, gender, or aspiration status (p > 0.05). Conclusion(s) Lower posterior isometric tongue strength was associated with greater posterior tongue adiposity. However, aspiration in healthy older adults was not affected by posterior tongue adiposity. This finding offers insight into the roles of tongue composition and strength in healthy older adults.

Butler, Susan G.; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Leng, Xiaoyan; Stuart, Andrew; Feng, Xin; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

2012-01-01

124

Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to determine tongue coating microbiome  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is a unique method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first investigation on the association between traditional tongue diagnosis and the tongue coating microbiome using next-generation sequencing. The study included 19 gastritis patients with a typical white-greasy or yellow-dense tongue coating corresponding to TCM Cold or Hot Syndrome respectively, as well as eight healthy volunteers. An Illumina paired-end, double-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing protocol was designed to profile the tongue-coating microbiome, from which approximately 3.7 million V6 tags for each sample were obtained. We identified 123 and 258 species-level OTUs that were enriched in patients with Cold/Hot Syndromes, respectively, representing "Cold Microbiota" and "Hot Microbiota". We further constructed the tongue microbiota-imbalanced networks associated with Cold/Hot Syndromes. The results reveal an important connection between the tongue-coating microbiome and traditional tongue diagnosis, and illustrate the potential of the tongue-coating microbiome as a novel holistic biomarker for characterizing patient subtypes.

Jiang, Bai; Liang, Xujun; Chen, Yang; Ma, Tao; Liu, Liyang; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Rui; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xuegong; Li, Shao

2012-01-01

125

The human tongue slows down to speak: muscle fibers of the human tongue.  

PubMed

Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of four neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2-year-old human, a newborn human, an adult with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and a macaque monkey. The average percentage of slow MFs in adult and the 2-year-old muscle specimens was 54%, the IPD was 45%, while the neonatal human (32%) and macaque monkey (28%) had markedly fewer slow MFs. In contrast, the tongue muscles of the rat and cat have been reported to have no slow MFs. There was a marked spatial gradient in the distribution of slow MFs with the highest percentages found medially and posteriorly. Normal adult tongue muscles were found to have a variety of uniquely specialized features including MF-type grouping (usually found in neuromuscular disorders), large amounts of loose connective tissue, and short branching MFs. In summary, normal adult human tongue muscles have by far the highest proportion of slow MFs of any mammalian tongue studied to date. Moreover, adult human tongue muscles have multiple unique anatomic features. As the tongue shape changes that are seen during speech articulation are unique to humans, we hypothesize that the large proportion of slow MFs and the anatomical specializations observed in the adult human tongue have evolved to perform these movements. PMID:23929762

Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai; Amirali, Asif; Su, Hungxi; Sobotka, Stanislaw

2013-08-09

126

Sensory changes after tongue reduction for macroglossia.  

PubMed

We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656

Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken

2012-08-15

127

Fibre Composition of Human Intrinsic Tongue Muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muscle fibre composition of three human intrinsic tongue muscles, the longitudinalis, verticalis and transversus, was investigated in four anterior to posterior regions of the tongue using morphological and enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. All three muscles typically contained type I, IIA and IM\\/IIC fibres. Type I fibres expressed slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC), type II fibres fast MyHC, mainly fast

P. Stål; S. Marklund; L.-E. Thornell; R. De Paul; P.-O. Eriksson

2003-01-01

128

Late onset tongue edema after palatoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleft lip palate is a congenital anomaly that requires surgical reconstruction, and patients rarely develop tongue edema after palatoplasty. We describe a 1-year-and-8-month-old boy who underwent palatoplasty for left-sided cleft lip palate accompanied by exudative otitis media. Although previous reports have described that tongue edema usually sets in early after surgery, the symptoms of edema persisted more than 4 hours postoperatively

Mai Mukozawa; Takashi Kono; Shigeki Fujiwara; Ko Takakura

2011-01-01

129

Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields following electric tongue stimulation using pin electrodes.  

PubMed

Quantitative evaluation of the sensory disturbance of the tongue is important clinically. However, because the conventional electrophysiological approach to the peripheral nerve cannot be used in the mandible owing to the deep route of the lingual nerve, we applied evoked potentials in the central nervous system. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) following electric stimulation were recorded in 10 healthy subjects by means of pin electrodes placed on the tongue mucosa. Three or four components (P25m, P40m, P60m, and P80m) were identified over the contralateral hemisphere with unilateral stimulation. Because none of the components were consistently detected in all subjects, we evaluated the root mean square (RMS) of 18 channels over the contralateral hemisphere. To estimate the activated cortical response, we calculated the difference in mean RMS amplitude between 10 and 150 ms and that of the baseline period (aRMS=RMS[10, 150]-RMS[-50, -5]). The aRMS values for right-sided and left-sided stimulation were 10.18+/-7.92 and 10.99+/-8.98 fT/cm, respectively, and the mean laterality index, expressed by [(left-right)/(left+right)] was 0.025+/-0.104. This parameter can be useful for evaluating patients with unilateral sensory abnormality of the tongue. PMID:18708103

Maezawa, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Nagamine, Takashi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Enatsu, Rei; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao

2008-07-29

130

Structural characterization of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) tongue by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Capybara is the largest rodent in the world and displays a seasonally dependent herbivore feeding behavior. Here, we present an anatomical contribution for understand this fact, by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy methodologies for tongue tissue analysis. The histological preparations revealed filiform, fungiform, vallate, and foliate papillae on the dorsal mucosa of the capybara tongue. The epithelial layer exhibited a lining of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells. The lamina propria was characterized by a dense connective tissue composed of the primary and secondary papillar projections. We also revealed the original aspects of the connective papillae. The shapes of the papillae varied by region of the tongue, and filiform, fungiform, vallate, and foliate papillae and subjacent layers of muscular fibers were observed. Pyriform taste buds occupying the epithelial layer of fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were identified and the intracellular components of the taste buds and the intracorpuscular amyelinated nerve fibers were observed. The taste buds were characterized by the distribution of granular endoplasmic reticulum throughout the perinuclear area, the Golgi apparatus, and mitochondrial assemblies of various distinct diameters. Mitochondrial accumulation was also observed in the collagen bundle-surrounded amyelinated nerve fibers beside the basal cells. Therefore, these peculiar anatomical descriptions may contribute to understanding the adaptation of the feeding behavior of capybaras in a seasonally changing environment. PMID:23109113

Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Dos Santos Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre; Dias, Fernando José; Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Sosthines, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Dos Santos, Tatiana Carlesco; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Miglino, Maria Angélica

2012-10-26

131

A non-looping afterloading technique for base of tongue implants: results in the first 20 patients.  

PubMed

The results of treatment in the first 20 patients treated by a non-looping afterloading technique for base of tongue implant are described. Ten patients had carcinoma recurrent in the base of tongue after previous treatment and they were treated by implant alone. The other 10 patients had previously untreated carcinoma of the base of tongue and they were treated with a combination of interstitial implant, external radiation therapy and surgery. The minimum follow-up is 1 year and maximum 5 years. No local or regional failures have occurred in the previously untreated patients. No local failures have occurred in the previously treated patients who had lesions up to 4 cm in diameter, but three out of four patients with recurrent lesions larger than 4 cm have failed locally. Two patients developed necrosis related to the implant; the factors responsible for this are discussed. PMID:4044348

Vikram, B; Strong, E; Shah, J; Spiro, R; Gerold, F; Sessions, R; Hilaris, B

1985-10-01

132

Molecular and Cellular Regulatory Mechanisms of Tongue Myogenesis  

PubMed Central

The tongue exerts crucial functions in our daily life. However, we know very little about the regulatory mechanisms of mammalian tongue development. In this review, we summarize recent findings of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis. Specifically, cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) lead the initiation of tongue bud formation and contribute to the interstitial connective tissue, which ultimately compartmentalizes tongue muscles and serves as their attachments. Occipital somite-derived cells migrate into the tongue primordium and give rise to muscle cells in the tongue. The intimate relationship between CNCC- and mesoderm-derived cells, as well as growth and transcription factors that have been shown to be crucial for tongue myogenesis, clearly indicate that tissue-tissue interactions play an important role in regulating tongue morphogenesis.

Parada, C.; Han, D.; Chai, Y.

2012-01-01

133

Prefabricated buccal mucosa-lined flap in an animal model that could be used for vaginal reconstruction.  

PubMed

Congenital vaginal aplasia, gynecological tumor excision, and male-to-female sex surgery are three clinical conditions in which the plastic surgeon is involved in vaginal reconstruction. Skin-lined or skin-grafted local flaps are currently used, but for many reasons, keratinized skin is not the ideal lining for such a moist cavity because it leads to dryness, desiccation, maceration of the skin, and even hair growth in the cavity. The purpose of this study was to create a subcutaneous cavity lined with mucosa in an area with a predictable blood supply. The abdominal area supplied by the deep circumflex iliac vessels was chosen. Six minipigs were used. Strips of tongue buccal mucosa formed the lining; if additional tissue was required, it was taken from the mucosal aspect of the cheek. The mucosa was expanded by using multiple stab incisions. The mucosa was sutured onto the fascia supplied by the deep circumflex iliac vessels, and the skin incision was closed over a silicone sheet to prevent adhesion to the underlying mucosa. This was left for 1 week to allow the mucosa to take. The prefabricated fascial flap was rolled over a silicone stent and was closed longitudinally to form a cylindrical shape. The flap was placed in a subcutaneous pocket in the right inguinal area. The caudal end was left open and was sutured to the surrounding skin. The silicone stent was used to keep the cavity patent and to prevent adhesions in the early stage of the healing process. Regular digital examination was performed to assess patency and contour; endoscopy allowed assessment of mucosa viability. This method of producing a mucosa-lined flap may provide a solution to the difficult problem of vaginal reconstruction. PMID:11884832

Simman, Richard; Jackson, Ian T; Andrus, Lee

2002-03-01

134

Central line-related bacteraemia due to Roseomonas mucosa in a neutropenic patient with acute myeloid leukaemia in Piraeus, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of central venous catheter-related bacteraemia due to Roseomonas mucosa in a neutropenic patient with acute myelogenous leukaemia is reported. The patient was successfully treated with amikacin and piperacillin-tazobactam. The clinical isolate was identified as R. mucosa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

G. B. Christakis; S. Perlorentzou; P. Alexaki; A. Megalakaki; I. K. Zarkadis

2006-01-01

135

The Versatility of the Tongue Flap in the Closure of Palatal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery.

Vasishta, Sathish M.S.; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y.S.; Desai, Anil

2012-01-01

136

Preliminary observations on the effects in vivo and in vitro of low dose laser on the epithelia of the bladder, trachea and tongue of the mouse  

SciTech Connect

The effects of low dose CW laser were studied by in vivo and in vitro systems. The experimental tissues that were used included bladders, tracheas and tongues as experimental tissues. Buddings (round surface projections) from the transitional epithelium of bladder were frequently observed 3 days after laser treatment in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The trachea and tongue were less affected. In both the in vivo and in vitro systems, some epithelial cells of the trachea showed decreased microvilli and cilia 3 days after treatment whereas the epithelial cells of the tongue revealed no response to laser treatment in both systems. Low dose laser, however, appeared to promote the rate of healing of experimental tongue ulcer: healing was about 1 day earlier in the laser treated than non-treated animals and vessel infiltration and epithelialization were detected earlier in the treated.

Mok, Y.C.; Pang, K.M.; Au, C.Y.; Yew, D.T.

1988-03-01

137

Ultrasonographic images of tongue movement during mastication.  

PubMed

We observed vertical motion of the tongue during mastication in ultrasonographic images of 6 males with an average age of 28.7 years. All subjects had complete dentition and no evidence of neurological disorders. We used a 7 MHz mechanical convex scanning transducer to obtain a continuous, real-time ultrasonic image of the tongue, and carried out real-time B-mode ultrasonic observation at the median sagittal plane of the mandible. We recorded vertical motion of the tongue in the M-mode on a line connecting the mandibular first molars. The transducer produced good quality images of the dorsal surface during mastication of peanuts, rice, crackers, boiled fish paste, pickled radishes, pudding and bananas. The transducer, which was small and light, permitted capture of the images on videotape without manual placement of the scanner. Continuous images showed that the tongue turned the food, mixed it with saliva, sorted out unsuitable particles and aided in bolus formation. Vertical motion of the tongue had two phases, sorting and bolus formation. PMID:8941756

Imai, A; Tanaka, M; Tatsuta, M; Kawazoe, T

1995-10-01

138

The biomechanics of the human tongue.  

PubMed

The human tongue is composed mainly of skeletal muscle tissue and has a complex architecture. Its anatomy is characterised by interweaving yet distinct muscle groups. It is a significant contributor to the phenomenon of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. A realistic model of the tongue and computational simulations are important in areas such as linguistics and speech therapy. The aim of this work is to report on the construction of a geometric and constitutive model of the human tongue and to demonstrate its use in computational simulations for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome research. The geometry of the tongue and each muscle group of the tongue, including muscle fibre orientations, are captured from the Visible Human Project dataset. The fully linear muscle model is based on the Hill three-element model that represents the constituent parts of muscle fibres. The mechanics of the model are limited to quasi-static, small-strain, linear-elastic behaviour. The main focus of this work is on the material directionality and muscle activation. The transversely isotropic behaviour of the muscle tissue is accounted for, as well as the influence of muscle activation. The behaviour of the model is illustrated in a number of benchmark tests and for the case of a subject in the supine position. PMID:23319169

Kajee, Yaseen; Pelteret, J-P V; Reddy, B D

2013-01-14

139

Role of hypergastrinemia in the antiatrophy effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on oxyntic gland mucosa of the rat stomach.  

PubMed

Atrophy of the gastrointestinal mucosa that occurs in pair-fed control rats is not observed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treated rats (1). Our objective was to determine if the gastrointestinal trophic hormone, gastrin, is involved in the antiatrophy effect of TCDD on the gut mucosa. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 100 micrograms/kg of TCDD were slightly hypergastrinemic 7 days after dosing and markedly hypergastrinemic 14 days after treatment whereas pair-fed control rats were normogastrinemic. After 14 days of feed restriction, atrophy of the oxyntic gland and ileum mucosa occurred in pair-fed control rats but only atrophy of the ileum mucosa developed in TCDD-treated animals. The oxyntic gland mucosa of TCDD-treated rats was protected from mucosa atrophy as well as from mucosa erosions. The protection against feed restriction-induced atrophy was demonstrated by measurements of oxyntic gland mucosal height and DNA and protein content. Since hypergastrinemia stimulates growth of oxyntic gland mucosa, but not ileum mucosa, the antiatrophy effect of TCDD on mucosa of the oxyntic gland might in part be due to hypergastrinemia. In support of this interpretation, TCDD treatment exerted an antiatrophy effect on the oxyntic gland mucosa only when TCDD-treated animals were hypergastrinemic. For example, hypergastrinemia does not develop within the first 48 hr after TCDD administration, and TCDD treatment affords no protection against fasting-induced atrophy of the oxyntic gland mucosa during this time. On the other hand, the ability of TCDD treatment to protect against feed restriction-induced erosions of the oxyntic gland mucosa might be mediated by hypergastrinemia since these events occur at a later time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2096221

Theobald, H M; Mably, T A; Ingall, G B; Peterson, R E

1990-01-01

140

Oral mucous membrane lesions in children treated with bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Oral mucous membrane lesions were studied in 54 children below 12 yr of age treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation mainly because of hematological malignancies. Sixty-two percent of the children exhibited a wide range of oral side effects during therapy. Lesions observed during the first 2 wk prior to engraftment of the donor marrow were related to the chemo- and radiotherapy given. Oral ulcerations were seen in 34% of the children. Children given methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis exhibited oral ulcerations significantly (P less than 0.05) more often than those given cyclosporin. Oral lesions related to acute GVHD were only observed in two patients. Reactivating herpes simplex virus infection was seen in 35% of the children who were seropositive prior to BMT. An extensive oral candidiasis was observed in 15% of the patients. All six children with a chronic GVHD exhibited changes in the oral mucosa 2-4 yr after transplantation such as erythma of the mucous membranes, tongue atrophy and also lichenoid changes in the buccal mucosa. PMID:2662386

Dahllöf, G; Heimdahl, A; Modéer, T; Twetman, S; Bolme, P; Ringdén, O

1989-06-01

141

Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

2009-05-01

142

Modern surgical management of tongue carcinoma - A clinical retrospective research over a 12 years period  

PubMed Central

Objectives In this retrospective study, we present a clinical review of our experience with tongue cancer in order to obtain valid criteria for therapeutic decision-making. Materials and methods Between August 1999 and June 2011, a total of 398 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Edward Medical University Lahore Pakistan. Data concerning patient characteristics, clinical and pathologic tumour characteristics and treatment strategies and their results were obtained from a retrospective review of medical records. The average follow-up was 4.6 years. Statistical analysis for survival was calculated by the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results There were 398 total patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.5 years,. 224 (56.3%) were male and 174 (43.7%) female (male/female ratio = 1.3:1).332/398 patients received surgical treatment, whereas 66 patients were excluded from surgical treatment and received primary radio (chemo) therapy after biopsy. Tongue carcinoma patients treated by non surgical treatment modalities had 5 years survival rate of 45.5% and patients with surgical intervention had survival rate of 96.1%. Conclusions We recommend categorical bilateral neck dissection in order to reliably remove occult lymph node metastases. Adjuvant treatment modalities should be applied more frequently in controlled clinical trials and should generally be implemented in cases with unclear margins and lymphatic spread. Clinical relevance This study provides modern treatment strategies for the tongue carcinoma.

2011-01-01

143

Dirithromycin Concentrations in Bronchial Mucosa and Secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since a high tissue penetration of dirithromycin (D) has been assessed in early studies, the aims of this study were to determine D concentrations in bronchial mucosa and secretions in patients suffering from an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), to compare intra-individual bronchial mucosa and secretion concentrations and to relate bronchial concentrations of D and clinical efficacy. The main

Christophe Leroyer; Claudette Muller-Serieys; Jean-Jacques Quiot; Daniel Benhamou; Jean Clavier; Emilie Bergogne-Bérézin

1998-01-01

144

Determination of thickness of palatal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background: The palatal masticatory mucosa is widely used as a donor material in periodontal plastic surgery. The thickness of graft tissue is an important factor for the graft survival. The purpose of this study was to determine the thickness of palatal mucosa by a bone sounding technique. The association of age and gender with the thickness of palatal mucosa was also examined. Materials and Methods: Twenty four healthy subjects had participated in the study. The younger age group of 16-30 years consisted of 12 subjects of 7 females and 5 males, and the older age group of 31-54 years consisted of 12 subjects, of 5 females and 7 males. A bone sounding method using a periodontal probe was done to assess the thickness of palatal mucosa at 15 measurement sites defined according to the gingival margin and palatal line. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the difference in mucosal thickness between both the groups. Results: The younger age group had thinner mucosa ranged from 2 to 3.1 mm in thickness than the older age group which ranged from 3.2 to 3.7 mm. In the same age group, females had thinner mucosa than males in the same age group. The mean thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa ranged from 2.5 to 3.7 mm. Conclusion: The younger subjects had thinner mucosa than older subjects. The canine and premolar areas appeared to be the most appropriate donor site for grafting procedures.

Kolliyavar, Bharati; Setty, Swati; Thakur, Srinath L.

2012-01-01

145

Linguatula serrata Tongue Worm in Human Eye, Austria  

PubMed Central

Linguatula serrata, the so-called tongue worm, is a worm-like, bloodsucking parasite belonging to the Pentastomida group. Infections with L. serrata tongue worms are rare in Europe. We describe a case of ocular linguatulosis in central Europe and provide molecular data on L. serrata tongue worms.

Koehsler, Martina; Georgopoulos, Michael; Pruente, Christian; Boeckeler, Wolfgang; Auer, Herbert; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

2011-01-01

146

9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals...Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing âCured Beef Tongue,â the application of curing solution...

2013-01-01

147

Teaching the Mother Tongue in a Multilingual Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book on mother tongue (native language) teaching in Europe contains three parts. The first explores definitions and teaching implications of mother tongues, including issues of language identity, language standards, mother tongue roles, and language policies in the European Union. The second part consists of nine case studies: "Teaching the…

Tulasiewicz, Witold, Ed.; Adams, Anthony, Ed.

148

Coordination of Tongue Pressure and Jaw Movement in Mastication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tongue plays an important role in mastication and swallowing by its contact with the hard palate. Using an experimental palatal plate with 7 pressure sensors, and recording jaw movement using mandibular kinesiography, we assessed, in healthy subjects, the coordination of tongue and jaw movements during the entire masticatory sequence of solids, by measuring tongue pressure against the hard palate.

K. Hori; T. Ono; T. Nokubi

2006-01-01

149

A three-dimensional atlas of human tongue muscles.  

PubMed

The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue's anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai

2013-05-06

150

9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals...Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing âCured Beef Tongue,â the application of curing solution to...

2010-01-01

151

9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319.103 Animals...Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.103 Cured beef tongue. In preparing âCured Beef Tongue,â the application of curing solution to...

2009-01-01

152

Teeth and tongue discoloration after linezolid treatment in children.  

PubMed

We describe 3 children who developed teeth and tongue discoloration while receiving intravenous linezolid for 2 to 3 weeks. Linezolid was coadministered with piperacillin-tazobactam or meropenem. Teeth and tongue discoloration was reversible with dental cleaning after discontinuation of linezolid. We review the published pediatric and adult cases regarding teeth and tongue discoloration after linezolid administration. PMID:23934205

Petropoulou, Theoni; Lagona, Evagelia; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki; Michos, Athanasios

2013-11-01

153

Using ultrasound to quantify tongue shape and movement characteristics.  

PubMed

Objective : Previous experimental studies have demonstrated abnormal lingual articulatory patterns characterizing cleft palate speech. Most articulatory information to date has been collected using electropalatography, which records the location and size of tongue-palate contact but not the tongue shape. The latter type of data can be provided by ultrasound. The present paper aims to describe ultrasound tongue imaging as a potential tool for quantitative analysis of tongue function in speakers with cleft palate. A description of the ultrasound technique as applied to analyzing tongue movements is given, followed by the requirements for quantitative analysis. Several measures are described, and example calculations are provided. Measures : Two measures aim to quantify overuse of tongue dorsum in cleft palate articulations. Crucially for potential clinical applications, these measures do not require head-to-transducer stabilization because both are based on a single tongue curve. The other three measures compare sets of tongue curves, with the aim to quantify the dynamics of tongue displacement, token-to-token variability in tongue position, and the extent of separation between tongue curves for different speech sounds. Conclusions : All measures can be used to compare tongue function in speakers with cleft palate before and after therapy, as well as to assess their performance against that in typical speakers and to help in selecting more effective treatments. PMID:22117937

Zharkova, Natalia

2011-11-26

154

Preliminary model for heat transport within a tongue-and-reservoir liquid diode for passive solar heating  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary model is presented for heat transport within a tongue-and-reservoir liquid diode for passive solar heating. The diode consists of a rectangular vertical slot (tongue) extending from the bottom of a rectangular-shaped reservoir at the reservoir's front face. Water is used as the working fluid in the tongue and reservoir. Solar radiation is incident on the front face of the tongue, which also loses heat to the outside, while radiation and convection transport heat from the back of the reservoir to the building. Convection transports heat when the tongue is irradiated; however, when convection ceases and the temperature of the tongue cools below that of the reservoir (from exposure to the outside temperature), the reservoir stratifies, and the primary heat loss mechanism is conduction through the tongue and its fluid. The result is a passive solar component that may outperform most others. Flow in the tongue is treated as boundary layer flow; the integral forms of the governing equations are combined to form a single equation governing the local boundary layer thickness. The results are shown to depend upon the Grashof, Prandtl, and heat-loss Biot numbers. Results from this model agree well with those from our flow visualization experiments. A model is also proposed for diode heat transport processes during cool-down. In this model, and empirical coefficient accounts for the weak convective mixing that occurs in the reservoir during this phase. Preliminary results indicate the coefficient to be spatially dependent but independent of time and reservoir temperature. More experiments are planned to further validate both of the models described above.

Jones, G.F.

1984-01-01

155

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

156

A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

Zharkova, Natalia

2013-01-01

157

Role of afterloading iridium (Ir/sup 192/) implant in the management of carcinoma of the tongue. [/sup 60/Co; 4 MeV photons  

SciTech Connect

A total of 86 patients with carcinoma of the tongue were treated between May 1, 1974 and June, 1978, at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center and California Hospital Medical Center, Los Angeles, California. Fifty-five of these patients were treated for primary tumors and 31 of the 86 patients were re-irradiated with interstitial Ir/sup 192/ implants for recurrent or persistent tumors after radical external irradiation and/or surgery. Primary treatment consisted of a combination of external irradiation and an interstitial after loading Ir/sup 192/ implant. In the re-irradiation group, 4 of the 13 patients (30%) with lesions of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and 8 of the 18 patients (44%) with lesions of the base of the tongue achieved local control. The follow-up period for all these patients was a minimum of 24 months complications of radiotherapy of the tongue are discussed.

Puthawala, A.A. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles); Syed, A.M.N.; Neblett, D.; McNamara, C.

1981-03-01

158

Protective effect of pentoxifylline on gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Pentoxifylline (PF) has been shown to increase tissue oxygen tension. This study was performed to determine if PF has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against alcohol (EtOH)-induced injury. Fasted Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with randomized test solution (control, normal saline, or PF, 75 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (ip). At 30 min, 100% EtOH (pH 8.5) was given intragastric. At 90 min, laparotomy was performed and gastric serosal stomach surface oxygen tensions (pO2) were measured. Stomachs were excised and opened and pH was measured. Photographs were taken and sections were obtained for histologic analysis to determine mucosal injury. The PF-pretreated rats had significantly higher serosal pO2 and significantly lower intragastric pH than control animals. There was significantly less gross and histologic mucosal injury in PF-treated animals. We conclude that PF is protective against EtOH gastric mucosal injury. This effect correlates with increased gastric serosal pO2 and is likely due to improved microcirculatory blood flow following PF administration. PMID:3379950

Tominaga, G; Waxman, K; Soliman, M H; Sarfeh, I J; Bui, H X; Tarnawski, A

1988-06-01

159

Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a discussion of the concept of heritage mother

Teresa L. McCarty

2008-01-01

160

Haemophilus aphrophilus Endocarditis after Tongue Piercing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piercing invades subcutaneous areas and has a high potential for infectious complications. The number of case reports of endocarditis associated with piercing is increasing. We studied a 25-year-old man with a pierced tongue, who arrived at Memo- rial Health University Medical Center with fever, chills, rigors, and shortness of breath of 6 days' duration and had an aortic valvuloplasty for

Hossein Akhondi; Ali R. Rahimi

161

Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

2005-01-01

162

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of base of tongue.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumour arising from salivary glands. ACC of the head and neck shows a long natural course, high recurrence rates, late metastasis and a tendency for perineural invasion. The authors present a woman with ACC at base of tongue with good response to radiotherapy. PMID:22744242

Akhavan, Ali; Navabii, Hossein; Saeb, Mohsen

2012-06-28

163

[A tongue biopsy led to the diagnosis].  

PubMed

A 76-year-old patient in otherwise good health presented with a 2-year history of bilateral painless submandibular swelling and macroglossia. A standard ENT examination revealed no additional symptoms. Tongue biopsy led to the diagnosis of amyloidosis, serum immunofixation identified AL amyloidosis and a kappa light chain gammopathy resulting from multiple myeloma as the underlying cause. PMID:22358776

Brandstetter, M; Matsuba, Y; Knopf, A

2012-05-01

164

Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

McCarty, Teresa L.

2008-01-01

165

Tongue Piercing by a Yogi: QEEG Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

   This study reports on the QEEG observations recorded from a yogi during tongue piercing in which he demonstrated voluntary pain control. The QEEG was recorded with a Lexicor 1620 from 19 sites with appropriate controls for impedence and artifacts. A neurologist read the data for abnormalities and the QEEG was analyzed by mapping, single and multiple hertz bins, coherence, and

Erik Peper; Vietta E. Wilson; Jay Gunkelman; Mitsumasa Kawakami; Misa Sata; William Barton; James Johnston

2006-01-01

166

Availability of tongue diagnosis system for assessing tongue coating thickness in patients with functional dyspepsia.  

PubMed

Tongue diagnosis is an important procedure in traditional Korean medicine (TKM). In particular, tongue coating thickness (TCT) is deemed to show the progression of the disease. However, conventional tongue diagnosis has limitations because of various external factors. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the availability of tongue diagnosis system (TDS) in the assessment of TCT. This study has been designed as a prospective clinical trial involving 60?patients with functional dyspepsia. Tongue images will be obtained by TDS twice with a 30?min interval. The system will measure the percentage of TCT and classify it as either no coating, thin coating, or thick coating according to the existing diagnostic criteria. After finishing the collection of 60?patients' tongue images, TCT on the images will be simultaneously evaluated by the conventional method to establish the gold standard for assessing TCT by 5 well-trained clinicians. The evaluation will be repeated by the same clinicians after 2?weeks, but the order of the images will be changed. This trial is expected to provide clinical evidence for the availability of TDS as a diagnostic tool and to contribute to the standardization of the diagnosis system used in TKM. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864837. PMID:24159343

Kim, Juyeon; Son, Jiyoung; Jang, Seungwon; Nam, Dong-Hyun; Han, Gajin; Yeo, Inkwon; Ko, Seok-Jae; Park, Jae-Woo; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung

2013-09-15

167

Evaluation of tongue sensory disturbance by somatosensory evoked magnetic fields following tongue stimulation.  

PubMed

Quantitative measurement is required in clinical situation for sensory disturbance of the tongue due to lingual nerve injury. To assess disabled sensory function of the tongue, somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) were measured following electric tongue stimulation in 13 patients with sensory disturbance by unilateral lingual nerve injury and in 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Affected- and healthy-sides of the tongue were stimulated separately with the same intensity. Although the healthy-side stimulation induced clear responses over the contralateral hemisphere of all participants, the affected-side stimulation evoked hardly traceable responses in 6 patients and no activity in the remaining 7 patients. We evaluated the cortical activity via activated root-mean-square (aRMS), which is the time-averaged activity between 10 and 150 ms from the 18-channel RMS over the contralateral hemisphere. The laterality index of aRMS, expressed as [(left-right)/(left+right)], was out of the pre-defined normal range (-0.287 to 0.337) in 12 patients, and within the range in all healthy volunteers. The test sensitivity and specificity of the procedure were 92.3% and 100%, respectively. Tongue SEFs are reproducible and objective method to evaluate sensory disturbance of the tongue. PMID:21821071

Maezawa, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Matsuhashi, Masao; Yokoyama, Yohei; Mima, Tatsuya; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Fujita, Shigeyuki; Nagamine, Takashi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

2011-07-28

168

Availability of Tongue Diagnosis System for Assessing Tongue Coating Thickness in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Tongue diagnosis is an important procedure in traditional Korean medicine (TKM). In particular, tongue coating thickness (TCT) is deemed to show the progression of the disease. However, conventional tongue diagnosis has limitations because of various external factors. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the availability of tongue diagnosis system (TDS) in the assessment of TCT. This study has been designed as a prospective clinical trial involving 60?patients with functional dyspepsia. Tongue images will be obtained by TDS twice with a 30?min interval. The system will measure the percentage of TCT and classify it as either no coating, thin coating, or thick coating according to the existing diagnostic criteria. After finishing the collection of 60?patients' tongue images, TCT on the images will be simultaneously evaluated by the conventional method to establish the gold standard for assessing TCT by 5 well-trained clinicians. The evaluation will be repeated by the same clinicians after 2?weeks, but the order of the images will be changed. This trial is expected to provide clinical evidence for the availability of TDS as a diagnostic tool and to contribute to the standardization of the diagnosis system used in TKM. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864837.

Son, Jiyoung; Jang, Seungwon; Nam, Dong-Hyun; Han, Gajin; Yeo, Inkwon; Ko, Seok-Jae; Park, Jae-Woo; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung

2013-01-01

169

A Novel Geranylated Derivative, Ethyl 3-(4?-Geranyloxy-3?-Methoxyphenyl)-2-Propenoate, Synthesized from Ferulic Acid Suppresses Carcinogenesis and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rat Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We have previously observed the inhibitory effect of ferulic acid on rat tongue carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the modifying effects of a novel geranylated derivative, ethyl 3-(4?-geranyloxy-3?-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoate (EGMP), synthesized from ferulic acid on tongue carcinogenesis initiated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). Methods: F344 male rats except those treated with EGMP alone and untreated rats were given 20 ppm

Takuji Tanaka; Hiroyuki Kohno; Eisaku Nomura; Hisaji Taniguchi; Takuo Tsuno; Hiroyuki Tsuda

2003-01-01

170

Overexpression of c-Met promotes invasion and metastasis of small oral tongue carcinoma.  

PubMed

c-Met proto-oncogene, which is a receptor of ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been associated with cancer cell invasion. There have been no reports on the relationship between the expression of c-Met and tumor invasion and metastasis in small (T(1-2)) squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). We analyzed the relationship between c-Met expression and tumor invasion depth and lymph node metastasis in 71 surgically treated patients with small SCCOT using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated the associations between the c-Met expression status and patient survival. In addition, we explored whether overexpression of c-Met enhances tumor growth and invasion of tongue cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Positive immunohistochemical staining of c-Met was observed in 39 (55%) samples. Presence of neck metastasis, and >4mm depth of tumor invasion, strongly correlated with c-Met expression in small SCCOT both by the univariate and multivariate analysis (p<.05). The survival rates with c-Met expression were significantly shorter than for patients without c-Met expression (p<.05). Constitutive activation of c-Met enhanced migration and invasion of tongue cancer cells in vitro through the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, and -9, and promoted tongue cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The results support the association of c-Met with the invasiveness and metastasis of small SCCOT. PMID:22704061

Lim, Young Chang; Han, Jae Ho; Kang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Sook; Lee, Bum Hei; Choi, Eun Chang; Kim, Chul-Ho

2012-06-14

171

Brachytherapy of stage II mobile tongue carcinoma. Prediction of local control and QOL  

PubMed Central

Background There is no consensus as to the prognostic model for brachytherapy of tongue carcinoma. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors for local control based on a large population under a unified treatment policy. Results Between 1970 and 1998, 433 patients with stage II tongue squamous cell carcinoma were treated by low-dose-rate brachytherapy. This series included 277 patients treated with a linear source with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. A spacer was introduced in 1987. The primary local control rates were 85.6%. Conclusion In the multivariate analysis, an invasive growth pattern was a significant factor for local recurrence. The disease-related survival was influenced by old age and an invasive growth pattern. A spacer lowered mandibular bone complications. The growth pattern was the most important factor for recurrence. Brachytherapy was associated with a high cure rate and the use of spacers brought about good quality of life (QOL).

Oota, Sayako; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Miura, Masahiko

2006-01-01

172

The tongue: deglutition, orofacial functions and craniofacial growth.  

PubMed

So-called "primary" or "infantile" forms of deglutition, also termed lingual dyspraxia, are treated in different ways by orthodontists using various appliances to correct the condition and are also managed by speech-therapists and physiotherapists. The results obtained are often unstable. We have developed a more holistic approach to this disorder by attempting to grasp the underlying mechanisms in order to achieve more satisfactory correction. By establishing normal salivary deglutition more rapidly, this manual osteopathic technique complements the methods which use voluntary rehabilitation to impress upon the body's physical reflexes the "motor image" of the act to be accomplished. In order to render this article more lively and accessible, we have chosen to let the tongue speak in the first person--which, after all, is only normal! PMID:20303913

Landouzy, Jean-Marie; Sergent Delattre, Anne; Fenart, Raphaël; Delattre, Benoît; Claire, Jacques; Biecq, Marion

2010-01-30

173

Mucosa associated lymphoma of the lung.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of mucosa associated lymphoma (pseudolymphoma) of the lung are described which highlight the varied clinical and radiological features of this rare pulmonary condition. Following chemotherapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil, both patients are disease free three years later. Images

Bolton-Maggs, P H; Colman, A; Dixon, G R; Myskow, M W; Williams, J G; Donnelly, R J; Hind, C R

1993-01-01

174

Anterior tongue and jaw movement in sVd words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relations between jaw and tongue movements were examined using words of the form sVd for eight different speakers from the X-Ray Microbeam Speech Production Database. Measurements were examined at the maximum speeds during the release and during the closure of the tongue blade and tongue body. For nonhigh vowels the tongue blade traveled in the same direction as the jaw during release, and, to a lesser extent, the same was true during closure. Further, the magnitude of the projection of the tongue blade velocity onto the direction of the jaw movement was often large compared with the speed of the jaw. There was less consistency in the relation between tongue body and jaw movement. These results indicate that the jaw and tongue movements are not rigidly coupled. Rather the jaw, which can provide a hard boundary for the tongue, is getting out of the tongue's way during release and following the tongue on closure for subsequent bracing. [Work supported by Grant NIDCD-01247 to CReSS LLC.

McGowan, Richard S.

2001-05-01

175

Salvage irradiation of oropharynx and mobile tongue about ¹⁹²iridium brachytherapy in Centre Alexis Vautrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1972 and 1984, 123 patients were treated using ¹⁹²Iridium afterloading techniques for recurrence or new cancer of the tongue or oropharynx arising in previously irradiated tissues. The actuarial local control was 67% at 2 years and 59% at 5 years. Local control of the tumor was achieved in the majority of these patients, the actuarial survival was only 48%

Denis Langlois; Sylvette Hoffstetter; Luc Malissard; Monique Pernot; Alphonse Taghian

1988-01-01

176

Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

Bressmann, Tim

2006-01-01

177

Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

Bressmann, Tim

2006-01-01

178

Stimulated eosinophils and proteinases augment the transepithelial flux of albumin in bovine bronchial mucosa.  

PubMed Central

1. The apical to basolateral transmucosal flux of albumin has been measured in isolated sheets of bovine bronchial and tracheal mucosa. Under resting conditions the net unidirectional flux in the bronchial mucosa was not significantly different from that measured previously for the basolateral to apical vector. In contrast, the apical to basolateral flux in the tracheal mucosa was significantly lower than that measured in the opposite direction. 2. Addition of guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils to the apical side of the tissues had no significant effect on the transmucosal flux of albumin in either the bronchial or tracheal mucosa. 3. When eosinophils were stimulated with the ionophore A23187 or by opsonic adherence to tissues treated with a guinea-pig anti-bovine airway epithelium antibody, the bronchial mucosal sheets that had been exposed showed a significant increase in the transmucosal flux of albumin. However, tissues from the tracheal mucosa were resistant to the effects of stimulated eosinophils. 4. Histologically, sheets of mucosa from bovine main bronchi that had been exposed to stimulated eosinophils were characterized by epithelial injury consisting of loss of columnar epithelium from the underlying basal cell layer and biomatrix. Much less evidence of cellular injury was observed in tracheal tissues. 5. Bacterial collagenases applied to the apical side of the sheets were shown to increase the permeability of the bronchial mucosa to albumin and to produce histological changes that had similarities with the pattern of damage produced by stimulated eosinophils. 6. These observations demonstrate that the ability of eosinophils to injure the bronchial mucosa is independent of the side of the tissue on which they are present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Herbert, C. A.; Edwards, D.; Boot, J. R.; Robinson, C.

1993-01-01

179

Effectiveness of a new toothbrush design versus a conventional tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing tongue microbiota.  

PubMed

For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30) had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05). When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group). The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning. PMID:19089259

Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; de Carvalho, Tatiane Cruz; Panzeri, Heitor; Lavrador, Marco Aurélio Sichirolli; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

180

Elective neck dissection versus "wait and watch" policy in tongue carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of elective neck dissection versus the “wait and watch” policy in the treatment of early squamous cell carcinoma of tongue. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 21 patients with surgical treatment between April 2009 and July 2011. The patients were divided into two groups, with Group 1 consisting of patients who underwent wide excision glossectomy with elective neck dissection and Group 2 consisting of patients who underwent glossectomy without the neck being surgically addressed. The selection of patients was done by the random double-blinded method and the review was done by a single reviewer. All patients were examined for an average period of 1 year postoperatively. Results: Twenty-one cases were treated, among which there were 17 T1 and 4 T2 carcinomas. All the patients had primary carcinoma involving only the tongue with no clinical neck palpable neck nodes. Eleven patients underwent wide excision of primary tumor with elective neck dissection (Group 1) and 10 patients underwent only resection of primary tumor without the neck being surgically addressed (Group 2). In Group 1, there were no recurrences, and in Group 2, there were two patients who developed subsequent cervical node metastasis with one patient undergoing further surgery to address the positive neck and the other patient was lost to follow-up. Conclusions: Regional recurrence was the most common cause of failure after surgical treatment of oral tongue carcinoma. Elective neck dissection significantly reduced mortality due to regional recurrence and also increased the overall survival. Our study suggests that elective neck dissection is a treatment strategy of choice for stages I and II carcinoma of the oral tongue. A prospective, randomized study is worthwhile to further evaluate the benefit of elective neck dissection in the treatment of early carcinoma of the tongue with a larger pool of patients and a lengthier follow-up period.

Pugazhendi, Satish Kumaran; Thambiah, Lalitha; Venkatasetty, Anuradha; Thangaswamy, Vinod

2012-01-01

181

Haemophilus aphrophilus Endocarditis after Tongue Piercing  

PubMed Central

Piercing invades subcutaneous areas and has a high potential for infectious complications. The number of case reports of endocarditis associated with piercing is increasing. We studied a 25-year-old man with a pierced tongue, who arrived at Memorial Health University Medical Center with fever, chills, rigors, and shortness of breath of 6 days duration and had an aortic valvuloplasty for correction of congenital aortic stenosis.

Akhondi, Hossein

2002-01-01

182

VIP Innervation of the tongue in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunohistochemical study was carried out in order to investigate the occurrence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in intralingual nervous tissue of different species. The study revealed that VIP-immunoreactive (IR) nerves and ganglia were widely found in all species studied. The following areas of the tongue tissue contain VIP-IR nerves:(1)Within the perivascular plexus many VIP-IR nerves can be found adjoining

B. Baecker; N. Yanaihara; W. G. Forssmann

1983-01-01

183

Immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural characteristics of nerve endings in the oral mucosa of rat.  

PubMed

The sensory nerve endings of the rat tongue, cheek and palate were studied using immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The specimens were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution and embedded in Spurr resin. Substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)- and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP b9.5)-containing nerve fibers in the rat tongue, cheek and palate were examined by electronic microscopical analysis and immunohistochemical localization. These fibers run very close to the basal lamina of the epithelium and extend into the filliform and fungiform papillae. Numerous plexiform fibers immunoreactive for substance P, CGRP and PGP 9.5 were found in the connective tissue of mucosa. Electron microscopic observations showed clearly immunostained nerve fibers, which are located very close to the basal lamina of epithelial cells. Some electron-dense granules may be observed in the axoplasms of both substance P and CGRP immunoreactive fibers. Several lamellar corpuscles into the subepithelial connective tissue papillae, Merkel corpuscles and numerous thin unmyelinated and myelinated axons were observed. The terminal axons revealed numerous mitochondria, neurofilaments, microtubules and clear vesicles in the base of axoplasmic protrusions. The lamellar cells showed caveolae and interlamelar spaces filled by amorphous substance. Between the lamellar cells and axoplasmic membrane, and in the adjacent lamellae region, desmosome-type junctions were observed. The quantitative and morphometric analysis showed nerve endings with an average area of 4.83 ± 3.4 ?m(2) and 19.4 internal mitochondria in this site and the organized corpuscles with an average area of 79.24 ± 27.24 ?m(2) and 24.23 internal mitochondria in this place. All the structures observed are involved in the transmission of pain and mechanoreceptors stimulus of these oral mucosae. PMID:23103640

Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Dias, Fernando José; Mardegan Issa, João Paulo; dos Santos Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre; Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Takada, Silvia Honda; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Pereira da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi; Campos, Leila M G; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

2012-10-25

184

Sensing Basic Tastes by Electronic Tongue Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing demand to develop method for simulating the human taste perception by objective instruments1. The task was to develop method for the assessment of definite taste attributes. Therefore, our objective was to develop complete method for sensing different taste attributes. The subject of this work was to test the Specific Sensor Array for taste screening developed by Alpha M.O.S. Different brands of carrot juices were analyzed by an Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue (ET) and a trained sensory panel. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the different carrot juice samples were significantly different from each other in some taste attributes. The electronic tongue was able to distinguish the tested samples according to the measurement results evaluated by multivariate statistics. Furthermore, the relevant taste attributes of carrot juice samples such as sour taste could be predicted by definite sensors of the electronic tongue. Based on our results we concluded that the selected sensors of the Specific Sensor Array could be an appropriate tool for estimating important taste attributes of the tested carrot juice samples.

Kovács, Zoltán; Szöll?Si, Dániel; Fekete, András; Isz, Sandrine

2011-09-01

185

Epidemiología de la patología de la mucosa oral más frecuente en niños Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of fin- ding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic

Rafael Rioboo García

186

Apoptosis, proliferation and gene expression patterns in mouse developing tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fgf\\/Fgfr (Fgf receptor) and Bmp signal pathways are critical for embryonic development and postnatal growth. In order\\u000a to address their roles in tongue development, preliminary study of expression patterns of some important members in the two\\u000a families, as well as of apoptosis and proliferation, were carried out in mouse developing tongue. Apoptosis in tongue is a\\u000a very late event

Xuguang Nie

2005-01-01

187

Extratropical Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The extra-tropical atmospheric response to the equatorial cold tongue mode,in the Atlantic Ocean has been investigated with the coupled ocean-atmosphere model SPEEDO. Similar as in the observations the model simulates a lagged co-variability between the equatorial cold tongue mode,during late boreal summer,and the east Atlantic pattern a few months later in early winter. The equatorial cold tongue mode,attains its

Reindert J. Haarsma; Wilco Hazeleger

2007-01-01

188

The role of extracellular matrix in injury to gastric mucosa by indomethacin.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix components fibronectin, collagen IV, and laminin provide structural support for the gastric mucosal cells and influence cell migration, attachment, differentiation, and proliferation. Because little is known about the effect of indomethacin on the extracellular matrix, we studied the expression and distribution of extracellular matrix components in the gastric mucosa before and sequentially during indomethacin injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with placebo or indomethacin 100 mg intraperitoneally. One, 4, and 18 h later, stomachs were excised and gastric specimens were immunostained with specific antibodies against fibronectin (FN), collagen IV (CIV), laminin (LM), fibronectin receptor (FNR), and vimentin (VM). Gross necrosis, quantitative histology, and expression of FN, CIV, LM, FNR, and VM were analyzed using a videoimage analysis system. In the mucosa treated with indomethacin, the expression of VM and LM was decreased by 54% (p < 0.01) and 52% (p < 0.01), respectively, within 1 h vs. control mucosa. The former reflected damage to endothelial cells. Expression of FN, FNR, and CIV was decreased by 50, 25, and 50%, respectively, at 1 h after indomethacin, reflecting significant damage to the extracellular matrix. However, at 1 h, no gross necrosis and no histologic damage were seen in the gastric mucosa. We conclude that expression of extracellular matrix components in the gastric mucosa is significantly reduced during indomethacin injury and that damage to extracellular matrix and microvascular endothelium precedes injury of glandular epithelial cells. PMID:8774985

Irwin, F L; Sarfeh, I J; Tanoue, K; Chaurasia, O P; Tarnawski, A

1995-01-01

189

Geographic Tongue and Associated Risk Factors among Iranian Dental Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Geographic Tongue is a benign disorder involving the dorsal surface of the tongue characterized by depapillated areas with leading and folded edges in yellowish or grayish white color and sometimes with unclear borders. Many studies have reported a relationship between such condition and different risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate and the risk factors of geographic tongue in the patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine of Zahedan Dental School, in 2012. Methods: Using Poisson regression model, 2000 patients referred to the Department were selected for this cross-sectional study. Data collection method included an investigation into the medical history as well as doing intraoral examinations. Using SPSS 17 software and Chi-square statistical test, the collected data were analyzed. Result: Among the 2000 patients selected, 7.8% (156 persons) suffered from geographic tongue. The results of our study show that there is a significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and a history of allergy and fissured tongue (P<0.001). There was no significant statistical relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and gender, smoking and medication. Conclusion: The geographic tongue is more frequently in the patients suffering from atopy or allergy as well as the patients with fissured tongue.

HONARMAND, Marieh; FARHAD MOLLASHAHI, Leila; SHIRZAIY, Masomeh; SEHHATPOUR, Marziye

2013-01-01

190

Diallyl Trisulfide Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Expression in Inflammed Mucosa of Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? expression in inflammed mucosa of ulcerative colitis and its possible mechanism. Colonic biopsies from ulcerative colitis were treated with 0, 1, 5, and 10 ? M DATS for 24 hr. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and concentrations of TNF-? in supernatants were measured. mRNA

Ai-Ping Bai; Qin Ouyang; Ren-Wei Hu

2005-01-01

191

One hour of tongue-task training is associated with plasticity in corticomotor control of the human tongue musculature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticomotor control of the human tongue has been reported to undergo neuroplastic changes following several days of training in a tongue-protrusion task. The aims of the present study were to determine if a 1 h tongue-task training is sufficient to induce signs of neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, and to obtain preliminary information on the time course of such changes.

P. Svensson; A. Romaniello; K. Wang; L. Arendt-Nielsen; B. J. Sessle

2006-01-01

192

Lack of effect of tongue piercing on an evidential breath alcohol test.  

PubMed

Defendants in several driving under the influence cases have asserted that the presence in the mouth of a metal stud through a hole pierced in the tongue invalidates the breath alcohol test because of the prohibition against foreign substances in the mouth, and because of the potential for the jewelry to retain alcohol and interfere with the breath test. Rates of mouth alcohol elimination were evaluated in two subjects with pierced tongues and in two control subjects. No differences in the mouth alcohol elimination patterns were observed. The 15 min alcohol deprivation period prior to the test ensures no effect from residual mouth alcohol. For the purposes of breath alcohol testing, oral jewelry should be treated in the same manner as dental work, and may be left in place during the test without affecting its outcome. PMID:9456556

Logan, B K; Gullberg, R G

1998-01-01

193

Response of the antral mucosa of the rat stomach to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.  

PubMed

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces a striking hypergastrinemia in rats that is thought to mediate the antiatrophy effect of TCDD on the oxyntic gland mucosa of the stomach. However, effects of TCDD on the antral mucosa, which is the origin of most physiologically released gastrin and is not a target for the trophic action of gastrin, has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Also gastrin release from gastrin-containing cells (i.e., G-cells) in the antral mucosa is inhibited by the paracrine secretion of somatostatin from D-cells in the antrum. Our purpose was to determine if the antral mucosa is affected by the trophic influence of TCDD and if alterations in antral mucosa levels of gastrin or somatostatin cause the hypergastrinemia. TCDD (100 micrograms/kg, Day 14 post-treatment) had a trophic effect on the antral mucosa. This was demonstrated histologically and by significant increases in antral wet weight and antral mucosa height. In contrast, pair-fed control rats that lost the same amount of body weight developed antral mucosa atrophy. With respect to serum and antral levels of gastrointestinal hormones, TCDD produced a 7- to 10-fold increase in serum gastrin concentrations that was not detected until Day 14 post-treatment. In contrast, serum gastrin concentrations in pair-fed control rats were comparable to those of control rats. The number of G-cells in the antral mucosa was not affected by either TCDD treatment or paired-feed restriction. These findings demonstrate that hypergastrinemia in TCDD-treated rats is not caused by reduced feed intake or antral G-cell hyperplasia. A major finding was that antral mucosa levels of both gastrin and somatostatin were decreased significantly in TCDD-treated rats. However, the temporal development and dose-dependence of these TCDD effects on antral hormone levels were quite different than those for hypergastrinemia. TCDD-induced decreases in antral levels of gastrin and somatostatin were detected 1 week earlier than hypergastrinemia. Also, the ED50 of TCDD on Day 14 post-treatment for the decrease in antral mucosa content and concentration of gastrin (29 and 22 micrograms/kg, respectively) and somatostatin (24 and 19 micrograms/kg, respectively) was less than that for hypergastrinemia (46 micrograms/kg). These time- and dose-dependent differences demonstrate that hypergastrinemia in TCDD-treated rats is not a consequence of reduced antral levels of gastrin or somatostatin. We conclude that the antral mucosa, an epithelial tissue not responsive to the proliferative effect of gastrin, is nevertheless a target for the trophic influence and gastrointestinal hormone-altering effects of TCDD. PMID:1672476

Theobald, H M; Ingall, G B; Mably, T A; Peterson, R E

1991-03-15

194

Tongue coating microbiome regulates the changes in tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis of Gan-shen deficiency syndrome type.  

PubMed

Tongue inspection is a unique and important method of diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a daignostic approach which involves observing the changes in the tongue proper and tongue coating in order to understand the physiological functions and pathological changes of the body. However, the biological basis of TCM tongue diagnosis remains to be poorly understood and lacks systematic investigation at the molecular level. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tongue coating microbiome on changes in the tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMO) of Gan?shen deficiency syndrome type. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms of tongue coating microbiome-induced changes in the tongue texture and coating by investigating the histomorphological changes and performing a bacterial analysis of the tongue coating. We found that the number of intermediate cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was higher, while the number of superficial cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was lower. The maturation value (MV) of tongue exfoliated cells in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased, compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. Furthermore, the total bacterial count, oral streptococcus, Gram?positive (G+) and Gram?negative (G-) anaerobic bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating was significantly decreased compared with the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. The results of ultrastructural examination demonstrated that the number of epithelial cells and bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. These observations indicate that the tongue coating microbiome may be an important factor contributing to changes in the tongue in patients with PMO of Gan?shen deficiency syndrome type. PMID:24026106

Liang, Wenna; Li, Xihai; Li, Yachan; Li, Candong; Gao, Bizheng; Gan, Huijuan; Li, Sumin; Shen, Jianying; Kang, Jie; Ding, Shanshan; Lin, Xuejuan; Liao, Linghong

2013-09-10

195

Brachytherapy for tongue cancer in the very elderly is an alternative to external beam radiation  

PubMed Central

Background The result of curative treatment for very elderly patients with tongue carcinoma has not been reported to date. We retrospectively reviewed the results of brachytherapy in 125 the patients aged over 75 years. Methods The results of brachytherapy in 125 patients, 75 years old or older, with Stage I or II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue were reviewed. The 125 cases consisted of 31 Stage I and 94 Stage II cases; 67 patients were under 80 years old and 58 were over 80 years old. All patients were treated using low-dose-rate brachytherapy (198Au/222Rn: 59 cases; 192Ir: 38 cases; 226Ra/137Cs: 28 cases). Results None of the patients stopped treatment during the course of brachytherapy. The 3 year and 5 year control rates of the primary lesions were both 86%. Post-brachytherapy neck node metastasis was diagnosed in 43 cases and radical neck dissection was performed for 24 cases (21 of the 24 cases were under 80 years old). As a result, the 7 year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate for patients aged under 80 years old was 70% and 41% for those over 80 years old (p = 0.03). Conclusion The brachytherapy for elderly patients with tongue cancer was safe, and the control of the primary lesion was almost the same as in younger patients. However, modalities available to treat neck node metastasis are limited. More conservative surgical approaches combined with post-operative irradiation may be advocated for neck node metastasis for elderly patients with tongue cancer.

Khalilur, R; Hayashi, K; Shibuya, H

2011-01-01

196

Brain imaging of tongue-twister sentence comprehension: Twisting the tongue and the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used fMRI to investigate the neural basis of the tongue-twister effect in a sentence comprehension task. Participants silently read sentences equated for the syntactic structure and the lexical frequency of the constituent words, but differing in the proportion of words that shared similar initial phonemes. The manipulation affected not only the reading times and comprehension performance, but also

Timothy A. Keller; Patricia A. Carpenter; Marcel Adam Just

2003-01-01

197

Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

2012-01-01

198

Mother Tongue and Bilingual Minority Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mother tongue education in separate schools has been in the norm for several of China's large minorities since 1949. In recent years, however, the shift in minority parental demand, media focus on low educational outcomes of mother tongue education combined with government concerns about separatism have led to the development of mixed schools for…

Tsung, Linda T. H.; Cruickshank, Ken

2009-01-01

199

Analysing Normal and Partial Glossectomee Tongues Using Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at identifying underlying parameters that govern the shape of the tongue. A functional topography of the tongue surface was developed based on three-dimensional ultrasound scans of sustained speech sounds in ten normal subjects. A principal component analysis extracted three components that explained 89.2% of the variance…

Bressmann, Tim; Uy, Catherine; Irish, Jonathan C.

2005-01-01

200

Seismic stratigraphy of Veracruz Tongue, deep southwestern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Veracruz Tongue is a region of continental slope and rise sediments bounded bathymetrically by the Mexican Ridges fold belt to the west and the Campeche Knolls salt province to the east. Study of two multichannel seismic lines and single-fold sparker data enables five post-early Miocene seismic stratigraphic sequences to be distinguished in the tongue. Sedimentary processes responsible for deposition

Bertagne

1984-01-01

201

Modulation of neural connectivity during tongue movement and reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a novel connectivity analysis method termed within-condition interregional covariance analysis (WICA) was introduced for investigation into brain modulation during tongue movement and reading Chinese pinyins and logographic characters. We found that performing a horizontal tongue movement task generated a specific brain module with hierarchical orders of neural computation. Such functional modularity was

Alex G. He; Li Hai Tan; Yiyuan Tang; G. Andrew James; Paul Wright; Mark A. Eckert; Peter T. Fox; Yijun Liu

2003-01-01

202

Can you tell if tongue movements are real or synthesized?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated if subjects are aware of what natural tongue movements look like, by showing them animations based on ei- ther measurements or rule-based synthesis. The issue is of inter- est since a previous audiovisual speech perception study recently showed that the word recognition rate in sentences with degraded audio was significantly better with real tongue movements than with

Olov Engwall; Preben Wik

203

Flow injection analysis applied to a voltammetric electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement system, based on flow injection analysis (FIA) technique applied to a voltammetric electronic tongue is described. A reference solution was thus continuously pumped through a cell with a voltammetric electronic tongue, and test samples were injected into the flow stream. Responses were obtained by measuring the resulting pulse height. The FIA technique offered several advantages, since relative measurements

F Winquist; E Rydberg; S Holmin; C Krantz-Rülcker; I Lundström

2002-01-01

204

The combination of an electronic tongue and an electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of an electronic tongue and an electronic nose for classification is described. The `electronic nose' consists of an array of gas sensors with different selectivity patterns, signal handling and a sensor signal pattern recognition and decision strategy. The `electronic tongue', which was developed for the taste analysis of liquids is based on pulsed voltammetry. Measurement data from the

F Winquist; I Lundström; P Wide

1999-01-01

205

The "Mother-Tongue" of Linguistic Minorities in Multicultural England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the newly emerging debate in England known as "bilingualism and mother-tongue teaching" by discussing: (1) the general scene, including historical background and educational and minority group attitudes; (2) the main component of the mother-tongue debate embodied in administrative questions; and (3) certain features of the wider context…

Khan, Verity Saifullah

1980-01-01

206

Lingual Electromyography Related to Tongue Movements in Swedish Vowel Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)|

Hirose, Hajime; And Others

1979-01-01

207

On the Mother Tongue Education Policy in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates public opinion with research findings on Nigeria's mother tongue education policy by examining the historical antecedents of the policy; its specifications and implications; and the major arguments for and against the policy. In addition to highlighting major obstacles that might hamper the implementation of the policy, the findings reveal that mother tongue education policies in ex?colonial nations

F. Niyi Akinnaso

1991-01-01

208

Effect of Tongue Thrust Swallowing on Position of Anterior Teeth  

PubMed Central

Background and aims There is no consensus about the effect of tongue thrusting on incisor position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position of anterior teeth in growing children with tongue thrust swallowing. Materials and methods In the present study 193 subjects with an age range of 9 to 13 years participated. All the patients were examined by a trained investigator and those having tongue thrust swallowing were selected and the position of their anterior teeth was compared with a control group consisting of 36 subjects with normal occlusion. Data was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Results Among the 193 students who were examined in this study, 10 cases (5%) were diagnosed to be tongue thrusters. Overjet was significantly increased in tongue thrust individuals (P < 0.05), while the other variables were not statistically different from the controls (P > 0.05). Conclusion The results indicated that tongue thrust may have an environmental effect on dentofacial structures. Considering the high incidence of tongue thrust in orthodontic patients, it is suggested that dental practitioners observe patients of all ages and those in all stages of orthodontic treatment for evidence of tongue thrust swallowing.

Jalaly, Tahereh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Amini, Foroozandeh

2009-01-01

209

Observations of the Huelva Cool-Water Tongue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from near-polar-orbiting satellites and from ship cruises are used to describe the Huelva Cool-Water Tongue under summer conditions. This tongue extends southeasterly along the shelf break off the southwest coast of Spain and is formed as a result of...

B. Wannamaker

1981-01-01

210

Base of tongue varices associated with portal hypertension  

PubMed Central

A symptomatic case of tongue base varices in a patient with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis is presented. There are no previously documented cases in the world literature. Oesophageal varices may not be the only source of expectorated blood in a patient with portal hypertension.???Keywords: portal hypertension; lingual; tongue; varicose vein

Jassar, P; Jaramillo, M; Nunez, D

2000-01-01

211

Benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue: an enigmatic oral lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign migratory glossitis, or geographic tongue, is usually an asymptomatic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that affects the epithelium of the tongue. Local loss of filiform papillae leads to ulcer-like lesions that rapidly change the color and size. Histopathologic findings parallel the clinical appearance, and may have a psoriasiform pattern. The disorder is characterized by exacerbations and remissions. In most

Dimitrios Assimakopoulos; George Patrikakos; Christina Fotika; Moses Elisaf

2002-01-01

212

Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

2009-01-01

213

Tongue flap in oral submucous fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perspective study of role of lateral tongue flap operation in cases with trismus due to oral submucous fibrosis has been\\u000a carried out. This study includes pre and post-operative evaluation of 21 cases. The results of this procedure have been discussed.\\u000a The findings of the present study can be summarised as follows :\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a In all 21 cases have been

S. Golhar; M. N. Mahore; S. Narkhede

1989-01-01

214

A pioneering epidemiological study investigating the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of tongue in a Portuguese population  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anterior two thirds of the tongue in a population living in central and southern Portugal, all treated at Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Lisbon, Francisco Gentil (IPOLFG). Study Design: This study was a retrospective review of all patients who had a histopathological diagnosis of SCC of the anterior two thirds of the tongue and had been treated in the Head and Neck Surgery Unit at the IPOLFG (Lisbon, Portugal), between 1st January 2001 and 31st December 2009. The risk factors evaluated were: gender; age; alcohol consumption; tobacco use; prosthesis use and the carcinoma site. Results: Of the 424 cases analyses, 71% were men. Mean age of occurrence was in 5th decade for males and the 6th decade for females, and the border of the tongue was the most common location. Alcohol consumption and tobacco had a lower impact in women, being the most common etiological factors in the male population. No significant association was observed between patients and the use of a prosthesis. Conclusions: In spite of the consumption of aohol and tobacco starting to decline in certain parts of the world, our findings showed both factors still have a significant impact in male population. Further research should be done to determine etiological factors in females. Key words:Squamous cell carcinoma, tongue, epidemiology, Portuguese population.

Albuquerque, Rui P.; Jane-Salas, Enrique; Rosa-Santos, Jorge; Ibrahim, Carlos

2012-01-01

215

Induction of apoptosis in rabbit oral mucosa by 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel.  

PubMed

Applying of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel to prevent caries in children has become very popular among dental practitioners. When applied to dental surfaces, however, APF often comes into contact with the oral mucosa. Due to the possibility of local toxic effect, we aimed to investigate the effects of APF on rabbit oral mucosa. Rabbits were sacrificed 1, 5 and 8 days after topical application of 1.23% APF on the oral buccal mucosa for 4 min. The nuclei with DNA strand breaks of the basal epithelial cell layer was estimated using terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated deoxyuridine-triphospate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Epithelial cells were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The number of basal epithelial cells with DNA strand breaks increased with time in rabbits treated with 1.23% APF. Transmission electron microscopy revealed evidence of apoptosis in the parabasal and basal epithelial cells showed, with loss of cell-to-cell contact, nuclear chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies. The results demonstrate in vivo that 1.23% APF induced apoptosis in basal epithelial cells of rabbit oral mucosa. It suggests the possible necessity to prevent oral mucosa contact when APF applied on teeth. PMID:17805514

Tsai, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jui-Wei; Kuo, Hsi-Kung; Tai, Ming-Hong; Wu, Yi-Chen; Shyr, Chih-Rong; Wu, Pei-Chang

2007-09-06

216

Annular Plaques on the Tongue: What Is Your Diagnosis?  

PubMed Central

Geographic tongue is an inflammatory disorder of the tongue characterized by asymptomatic erythematous patches with serpiginous borders. Candidiasis of the tongue may be confused with geographic tongue. A 63-year-old male patient with painful white annular lesions localized to the left side of his tongue is presented. He applied topical corticosteroid and antiinflammatory agents, but his lesions did not respond to those therapies. Using direct mycologic examination and culture, the patient was diagnosed with candidiasis. After systemic and topical antifungal therapy, clinical improvement was observed. With this case, the clinical forms of oral candidiasis were discussed, and it was suggested that the clinical presentation of mucosal candidiasis may vary according to the stage of infection and individual immunity.

Kayhan, Tuba Celebl; Bllac, Cemal; Bllac, Dilek Bayraktar; Ecemls, Talat

2011-01-01

217

Annular plaques on the tongue: what is your diagnosis?  

PubMed

Geographic tongue is an inflammatory disorder of the tongue characterized by asymptomatic erythematous patches with serpiginous borders. Candidiasis of the tongue may be confused with geographic tongue. A 63-year-old male patient with painful white annular lesions localized to the left side of his tongue is presented. He applied topical corticosteroid and antiinflammatory agents, but his lesions did not respond to those therapies. Using direct mycologic examination and culture, the patient was diagnosed with candidiasis. After systemic and topical antifungal therapy, clinical improvement was observed. With this case, the clinical forms of oral candidiasis were discussed, and it was suggested that the clinical presentation of mucosal candidiasis may vary according to the stage of infection and individual immunity. PMID:22148032

Kayhan, Tuba Çeleb?; B?laç, Cemal; B?laç, Dilek Bayraktar; Ecem??, Talat; Ermertcan, Aylin Türel

2011-11-03

218

Hodgkin lymphoma of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a rare case of relapsed nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a lesion of the oral mucosa. Although this is an uncommon clinical scenario, health care professionals should be aware of this possibility. A brief differential diagnosis and review of Hodgkin lymphoma is discussed. PMID:22736151

Darling, Mark R; Cuddy, Karl K; Rizkalla, Kamilia

2012-06-27

219

Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100

A Papazian; A Braillon; J L Dupas; F Sevenet; J P Capron

1986-01-01

220

Collagen types in the middle ear mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various collagen types — in particular that of type 11 as the major collagen in cartilage — in normal auricular structures is discussed with reference to a 1994 report by Ovesen describing the presence of collagen type II in normal middle ear mucosa. In contrast to this report, no collagen type 11 is normally found in the

A. G. Nerlich

1995-01-01

221

Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa.  

PubMed

The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients' own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD. PMID:23066307

Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

2012-10-01

222

Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa  

PubMed Central

The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients’ own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD.

Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

2012-01-01

223

A normative-speaker validation study of two indices developed to quantify tongue dorsum activity from midsagittal tongue shapes.  

PubMed

This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders were analyzed. The stimuli included a range of consonants in consonant-vowel sequences, with the vowels /a/ and /i/. The measures reliably distinguished between articulations with and without tongue dorsum excursion, and produced robust results on lingual coarticulation of the consonants. The reported data can be used as a starting point for collecting more typical data and for analyzing disordered speech. The measurements do not require head-to-transducer stabilization. Possible applications of the measures include studying tongue dorsum overuse in people with cleft palate, and typical and disordered development of coarticulation. PMID:23651147

Zharkova, Natalia

2013-05-07

224

Contribution of periodontal pathogens on tongue dorsa analyzed with real-time PCR to oral malodor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral malodor is considered to originate primarily from tongue microbiota populations. However, the relationship between oral malodor and tongue microbiota remains unclear. In this study, tongue periodontal pathogens were analyzed via real-time PCR, and the association between oral malodor and tongue periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Treponema denticola, was examined. The subject population

Muneo Tanaka; Yumiko Yamamoto; Masae Kuboniwa; Aya Nonaka; Nobuko Nishida; Kazuhiko Maeda; Kosuke Kataoka; Hideki Nagata; Satoshi Shizukuishi

2004-01-01

225

The Effect of Jaw Position on Measures of Tongue Strength and Endurance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessment of tongue strength and endurance is common in research and clinical contexts. It is unclear whether the results reveal discrete function by the tongue or combined abilities of the tongue and jaw. One way to isolate the movement of the tongue is to constrain the jaw kinematically by using a bite block. In this study, 10 neurologically…

Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Munson, Benjamin

2004-01-01

226

Congenital benign teratoma of the tongue with bifid tip, ankyloglossia and polydactyly: report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teratomas of the tongue are rare, and often accompany other anomalies within the head and neck. We describe a combination of anomalies in a 6-week-old infant with teratoma and bifid tip of the tongue, severe tongue tie, and polydactyly. The teratoma was excised and the tongue tie released with no complications.

Neelam N. Andrade; Kanchan Raikwar

2010-01-01

227

Granular cell tumor presenting as a tongue nodule: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Granular cell tumor is an uncommon neoplasm that can occur in any part of the body, including the orofacial region. The tumor is usually benign, but there are reports of cases in which the tumor shows a locally aggressive behavior, malignancy, and distant metastases. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that granular cell tumor arises from the altered metabolism of Schwann cells. The tumor is typically asymptomatic and appears as a nodule that does not exceed 3 cm. Case presentation In case 1, a 26-year-old Caucasian man was seen at the Oral Medicine out-patient clinic of the São José dos Campos Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, with a 'small blister on the tongue', which he had noted approximately three years ago. The nodule was located on the dorsum of the tongue, measured about 1.5 cm in diameter, and was not tender to palpation. Treatment consisted of an excisional biopsy performed on the basis of the diagnostic hypothesis of granular cell tumor, which was confirmed by microscopic analysis. In case 2, a 31-year-old Caucasian woman attended the out-patient clinic of the São José dos Campos Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, with a five-year history of a 'painful lump on the tongue'. Intra-oral examination revealed the presence of a nodular lesion measuring approximately 0.8 cm in diameter, which was located deep in the submucosa of the right lateral margin of the tongue. Treatment consisted of an excisional biopsy performed on the basis of the differential diagnosis of neurofibroma and granular cell tumor. Microscopic analysis defined the final diagnosis of granular cell tumor. Conclusions Granular cell tumor is an uncommon tumor that must be carefully diagnosed and treated correctly.

2012-01-01

228

MRI-derived tumor thickness: an important predictor of outcome for T4a-staged tongue carcinoma.  

PubMed

The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the heterogeneity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived tumor thickness within tumors of the same T4a-staged tongue carcinoma and to elucidate the effects of tumor thickness on treatment outcomes. A sequential and prospectively maintained head and neck cancer database was retrospectively searched for newly diagnosed tongue carcinoma treated with surgery between 2003 and 2006. Fifty-eight patients with newly diagnosed T4a-staged tongue carcinoma were included in this study. Tumor thickness was obtained from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The mean MRI-derived tumor thickness was 22.29 mm. The patients with long tumor thickness (>26 mm) were associated with a significantly poor disease-specific survival (P = 0.015). The 2-year disease-specific survival rates were 72% in patients with short tumor thickness and only 27% in patients with long tumor thickness within the same T4a-staged disease. A substantial variation in MRI-derived tumor thickness was present within the same T4a-staged tongue carcinoma, and tumor thickness represented an important prognostic factor. PMID:21748656

Chen, Wei-Lin; Su, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Ming; Lee, Ming-Che; Chen, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Mu-Kuan

2011-07-12

229

198Au grain implantation for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy using (198)Au grains is minimally invasive and the only curative treatment for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status available in our institution. From March 1993 to February 2008, (198)Au grains were used to treat a group of 96 Stage I-II tongue cancer patients who could not undergo surgery or brachytherapy using (192)Ir pins because of an advanced age (?75 years) or poor performance status (?2). The patients were followed for 3.9 ± 3.3 years, and the cause-specific survival and local control rates were determined. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The results were compared with those for a group of 193 early tongue-cancer patients who underwent treatment using iridium pins. The 5-year cause-specific survival and local control rates of the (198)Au grains group were 71% and 68%, respectively, both of which were 16% lower than the corresponding rates for the (192)Ir pins group. Our study demonstrated that as the last curative treatment available, (198)Au grain implantation could be used to achieve moderate treatment results for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status. PMID:23685669

Ryu, Yoshiharu; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

2013-05-17

230

Balloon cell nevus of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

The balloon cell nevus is an uncommon variant of melanocytic nevi in which the majority of the proliferation consists of cells demonstrating peculiarly large clear, foamy, or finely vacuolated cytoplasm. The vacuolated cells represent altered nevus cells and upon immunoperoxidase evaluation react positively with several melanocytic markers. Complete excision results in cure. This report describes the second balloon cell nevus of the oral mucosa documented in the English-language literature. PMID:18280759

Damm, Douglas D; White, Dean K; Lyu, Peter E; Puno, Pauline

2008-02-20

231

Primary clear cell sarcoma of the tongue.  

PubMed

Clear cell sarcoma shares features with melanoma, but frequently shows EWSR1 rearrangements. It is an aggressive tumor typically occurring in the soft tissues of the extremities, with a gastrointestinal variant with less consistent melanocytic differentiation. It is extremely rare in the head and neck region, with no reported cases in the oral cavity. We report a case of an 82-year-old woman with a clear cell sarcoma arising in the tongue, with cervical lymph node metastases. Histologically, the tumor showed some features of gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma. No osteoclast-type giant cells were present. The tumor cells were positive for S100 protein and negative for other melanocytic markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed rearrangements of EWSR1 and ATF1. This case expands the spectrum of clear cell sarcoma with a gastrointestinal-like variant in a novel site, emphasizing the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis to melanoma in mucosal sites. PMID:24168510

Kraft, Stefan; Antonescu, Cristina R; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Deschler, Daniel G; Nielsen, G Petur

2013-11-01

232

Oral tuberculosis: a tongue case report.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of oral tuberculosis in a 38-year-old heavy cigarette smoker man. He showed a painful, non-healing ulc er with indurated borders of the lateral surface of the tongue. No tonsil or lymph node enlargement was also noted. The medical history was not significant for systemic disease. Histopathological examination showed granulomas exhibiting a central caseinating necrotic focus, surrounded by mononucl ear cell s, epithelioid histiocytes and multi nucl eated Langhans giant cell s. A mantle of lympocytes and fibrous tissue surrounded the granulomas. Since the morphologic picture oriented for tubercoloid granulomata, a Ziehl- Neelsen staining of the tissue was performed. Chest radiography did not detect any pulmonary or nodal disease. On the bases of these results a diagnosis of oral tuberculosis was establ ished. PMID:23756837

Battista, G; Lo Russo, L; Padovano Di Leva, A; Rubini, C; Sberna, M T; Bollero, R; De Santis, D; D'Agostino, A; Bertossi, D; Lo Muzio, L

2013-06-11

233

Analysis of gangliosides from carp intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The gangliosides of carp intestinal mucosa were isolated and analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), TLC immunostaining test, and TLC/secondary ion mass spectrometry (TLC/SIMS). Four species of gangliosides, designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4, were separated on TLC. The TLC/SIMS analysis of the G-1 ganglioside of carp intestinal mucosa revealed a series of [M-H](-)ions from m/z 1061 to m/z 1131 representing the molecular mass range of GM4-like ganglioside with NeuAc. G-2, G-3 and G-4 gangliosides were analysed by the TLC immunostaining test. G-2 ganglioside was recognised by the monoclonal antibody specific for ganglioside GM1 (AGM-1 monoclonal antibody). However, G-3 ganglioside migrating on TLC between GM3 and GM1 ganglioside was not recognised by anti-GM3 monoclonal antibody and by AGM-1 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, G-4 ganglioside with a similar TLC mobility as GD1a ganglioside did not show the reactivity to the anti-GD1a monoclonal antibody. In addition using the AGM-1 monoclonal antibody, the expression of GM1 ganglioside in the carp intestinal tissue was studied. GM1 ganglioside was detected on the epithelial cell surface of carp intestinal mucosa. PMID:15123316

Irie, Takuya; Watarai, Shinobu; Kushi, Yasunori; Kasama, Takeshi; Kodama, Hiroshi

2004-02-01

234

Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

1987-12-21

235

Iridium 192 implantation of T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both

J. J. Mazeron; J. M. Crook; V. Benck; G. Marinello; M. Martin; M. Raynal; E. Haddad; R. Peynegre; J. P. Le Bourgeois; W. Walop

1990-01-01

236

Dental and oral complications of lip and tongue piercings.  

PubMed

Piercing of the tongue and perioral regions is an increasingly popular expression of body art, with more patients coming in for a routine check-up with tongue and/or lip piercings. Several complications of oral piercing have been reported, some of which are life-threatening. In the present clinical survey the prevalence of both tongue and lip piercing complications in oral health was assessed in a group of 50 patients. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of the teeth, especially in association with tongue piercing. Gingival recession was seen as a result of lip piercing with studs. Post-procedural complications included oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be given more authority to advise patients with oral and facial piercings or those who plan to acquire this type of body art. PMID:16244618

De Moor, R J G; De Witte, A M J C; Delmé, K I M; De Bruyne, M A A; Hommez, G M G; Goyvaerts, D

2005-10-22

237

11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. TIP TOP MINE. DETAIL OF TONGUE AND GROOVE INTERIOR SIDING IN LIVING QUARTERS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

238

4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF TRIPLE TONGUE AND GROOVE CRIBBING USED IN DAM CONSTRUCTION, NORTH EAST OF EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTH - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

239

Improving breastfeeding outcomes: the impact of tongue-tie.  

PubMed

A tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is defined as a lingual frenulum that is short, tight and restricts normal tongue movement. The tongue-tied newborn baby then has a mechanical difficulty attaching to his mum's breast and maintaining attachment to feed effectively. In the hands of skilled carers, this mechanical problem can be resolved by releasing the frenulum (frenulotomy) and the baby's access to his/her mother's breast milk be preserved. Published research on this subject has undergone justifiable criticism. Robust methodology was lacking in earlier studies. An overview of the course of researchers' response to critique is discussed. The care pathway in place in mid-Norfolk for mother and baby dyads where the baby's tongue-tie compromises efficient breastfeeding is outlined. PMID:22779397

Jackson, Rosemary

2012-06-01

240

Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue.  

PubMed

To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s(-2). At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to power tongue projection directly during the actual fast projection of the tongue. However, high-speed recordings of Chamaeleo melleri and C. pardalis reveal that peak powers of 3000 W kg(-1) are necessary to generate the observed accelerations, which exceed the accelerator muscle's capacity by at least five- to 10-fold. Extrinsic structures might power projection via the tongue skeleton. High-speed fluoroscopy suggests that they contribute less than 10% of the required peak instantaneous power. Thus, the projection power must be generated predominantly within the tongue, and an energy-storage-and-release mechanism must be at work. The key structure in the projection mechanism is probably a cylindrical connective-tissue layer, which surrounds the entoglossal process and was previously suggested to act as lubricating tissue. This tissue layer comprises at least 10 sheaths that envelop the entoglossal process. The outer portion connects anteriorly to the accelerator muscle and the inner portion to the retractor structures. The sheaths contain helical arrays of collagen fibres. Prior to projection, the sheaths are longitudinally loaded by the combined radial contraction and hydrostatic lengthening of the accelerator muscle, at an estimated mean power of 144 W kg(-1) in C. melleri. Tongue projection is triggered as the accelerator muscle and the loaded portions of the sheaths start to slide over the tip of the entoglossal process. The springs relax radially while pushing off the rounded tip of the entoglossal process, making the elastic energy stored in the helical fibres available for a simultaneous forward acceleration of the tongue pad, accelerator muscle and retractor structures. The energy release continues as the multilayered spring slides over the tip of the smooth and lubricated entoglossal process. This sliding-spring theory predicts that the sheaths deliver most of the instantaneous power required for tongue projection. The release power of the sliding tubular springs exceeds the work rate of the accelerator muscle by at least a factor of 10 because the elastic-energy release occurs much faster than the loading process. Thus, we have identified a unique catapult mechanism that is very different from standard engineering designs. Our morphological and kinematic observations, as well as the available literature data, are consistent with the proposed mechanism of tongue projection, although experimental tests of the sheath strain and the lubrication of the entoglossal process are currently beyond our technical scope. PMID:15209111

de Groot, Jurriaan H; van Leeuwen, Johan L

2004-04-01

241

A novel iTongue for Indian black tea discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel impedance-Tongue (iTongue) based on multi-electrode Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy is proposed for discrimination of Indian black tea. Impedance response of platinum, gold, silver, glassy carbon, polyaniline and polypyrrole working electrodes in tea infusions for a sinusoidal excitation in the frequency range of 1Hz to 100kHz has been measured. Also, the percentage of major chemical constituents responsible for the tea

Amol P. Bhondekar; Mopsy Dhiman; Anupma Sharma; Arindam Bhakta; Abhijit Ganguli; S. S. Bari; Renu Vig; Pawan Kapur; Madan L. Singla

2010-01-01

242

Tetanus following tongue bite from repeated convulsions: a case report.  

PubMed

This report details a case of generalized tetanus with the added complication of tongue bite following the repeated convulsions of a six-year-old unimmunized girl. It highlights the fact that tongue bite is an unusual portal of the entry of tetanus and emphasizes the need for proper oral care of an unconscious patient and the importance of the immunization of children. PMID:22678074

Alhaji, Mohammed Arab; Mustapha, Modu Gofama; Ashir, Garba Mohammed; Bashir, Mohammed Farouk; Pius, Simon

2012-06-07

243

Rapid honey characterization and botanical classification by an electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a commercial electronic tongue (?Astree, Alpha M.O.S.) was applied for botanical classification and physicochemical characterization of honey samples. The electronic tongue was comprised of seven potentiometric sensors coupled with an Ag\\/AgCl reference electrode. Botanical classification was performed by PCA, CCA and ANN modeling on 12 samples of acacia, chestnut and honeydew honey. The physicochemical characterization of honey

Nikola Major; Ksenija Markovi?; Marina Krpan; Goran Šari?; Mirjana Hruškar; Nada Vah?i?

2011-01-01

244

Adenocarcinoma of the anterior tongue: A case report.  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland more commonly involves the palate and base of tongue but rarely presents in the anterior tongue. We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland located in the anterior togue of a 74-year-old man. Furthermore, we discuss the histopathological features of this neoplasm, the treatment plan, and a literature review of the current standard of care. PMID:23993709

Gehani, Neal C; Liu, Yi-Chun Carol; Stepnick, David W

2013-04-22

245

Benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue: an enigmatic oral lesion.  

PubMed

Benign migratory glossitis, or geographic tongue, is usually an asymptomatic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that affects the epithelium of the tongue. Local loss of filiform papillae leads to ulcer-like lesions that rapidly change the color and size. Histopathologic findings parallel the clinical appearance, and may have a psoriasiform pattern. The disorder is characterized by exacerbations and remissions. In most cases, patients do not require treatment other than reassurance about the benign nature of the disorder. PMID:12517366

Assimakopoulos, Dimitrios; Patrikakos, George; Fotika, Christina; Elisaf, Moses

2002-12-15

246

Psoriasis of the dorsal surface of the tongue.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is primarily an inherited inflammatory skin disease, it is characterized by erythemato-squamous lesions that usually involve elbows, knees and the scalp. Oral manifestations are rare in psoriasis, infact, oral psoriasis involves 2% of psoriatic patients and usually it is observed with the onset of cutaneous lesions and progresses with them. Differential diagnosis should be done for Reiter's syndrome, leukoplakia and geographic tongue. The authors describe a case of tongue psoriasis without cutaneous lesions. PMID:16215537

De Biase, A; Guerra, F; Polimeni, A; Ottolenghi, L; Pezza, M; Richetta, A G

2005-09-01

247

Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission.

Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

248

Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate…

Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.

2008-01-01

249

Human tongue carcinoma growth is inhibited by selective antigelatinolytic peptides.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9, or gelatinases) are involved in tongue SCC invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. We have recently shown that a novel and selective hydrophobic cyclic CTTHWGFTLC (CTT1) peptide is inhibitor for MMP-2 and MMP-9 (Koivunen et al., Nat Biotechnol 1999; 17:768-74). In this study, we demonstrate that both the new hydrophilic derivate GRENYHGCTTHWGFTLC (CTT2) peptide and the CTT1 peptide inhibited specifically the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-3) cell-derived gelatinolytic activity and in vitro invasion and migration of these cells (p < or = 0.049). In situ zymography revealed that both peptides also inhibited clearly almost all of the gelatinolytic activity present in the human tongue SCC tissue sections, indicating that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are the major gelatinases detected in the tongue carcinomas. However, CTT2 did not inhibit the type I collagen degradation by human collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13). Furthermore, CTT2 reduced the blood vessel density (p < or = 0.043) and clearly improved the survival of the mice bearing human tongue carcinoma xenografts (p < or = 0.012). Overall, we suggest that CTT1 and CTT2 peptides being selective gelatinase inhibitors with significant anti-tumor properties could be useful to diminish the invasion and angiogenesis of human tongue carcinomas characterized by enhanced gelatinolytic activity in tumors. PMID:16331606

Heikkilä, Pia; Suojanen, Juho; Pirilä, Emma; Väänänen, Anu; Koivunen, Erkki; Sorsa, Timo; Salo, Tuula

2006-05-01

250

Morphologic and histologic outcomes of tongue reduction surgery in an animal model  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the effect of anterior tongue reduction surgery on tongue size, morphology and histology. Design Prospective experiment. Materials Twenty-two 12 week old Yucatan minipigs. Methods Six sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group B) or sham surgery (Group A), and underwent euthanasia the day of surgery. Five sibling pairs had tongue reduction (Group D) or sham surgery (Group C), and were raised for 4 weeks. Data collected included: changes in tongue morphology, histology and animal response to surgery. Results All animals tolerated surgery and maintained their weight. Tongue size was uniformly reduced in all animals as compared to sham surgery. Tongue reduction was stable long-term in Group D. All animals had normal wound healing and neurovascular structure preservation. Fibrosis occurred at the repair site. Conclusion Midline tongue reduction resulted in uniform tongue reduction in all dimensions and volume, without damaging neurovascular structures. Localized fibrosis is a sequelae of healing.

Perkins, Jonathan A.; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Zi-Jun.

2008-01-01

251

Overexpression of HIF-1? indicates a poor prognosis in tongue carcinoma and may be associated with tumour metastasis  

PubMed Central

Expression of the transcription factor hypoxiainducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a key role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia, particularly in relation to tumour angiogenesis. Expression of the HIF-1? subunit is responsive to changes in oxygen levels. Overexpression of HIF-1? has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the expression of HIF-1? in tongue carcinoma was associated with established clinicopathological features. Tumour specimens from 120 patients with histologically-proven, surgically-treated tongue carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining for expression of HIF-1?. The mRNA levels of HIF-1? were measured in 45 fresh, paired samples of tongue carcinoma and corresponding adjacent normal tissues using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). HIF-1? was found to be frequently overexpressed in tumours in a hypoxia-independent manner. The expression of HIF-1? correlated with the five-year survival rate (P<0.01) and disease-free period (P<0.01). Increased expression of HIF-1? correlated significantly with clinical stage (P=0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.034). Compared with paired normal tissues, HIF-1? mRNA levels were significantly increased in carcinoma of the tongue. A positive correlation was observed between HIF-1? mRNA levels and pathological differentiation grade. A significant difference in the levels of HIF-1? expression was detected between groups of patients with lymph node metastases and patients with no metastases. These results indicate that overexpression of HIF-1? may be an indicator of poor prognosis in carcinoma of the tongue. The expression of HIF-1? may be associated with lymph node metastasis.

ZHENG, YANG; NI, YANHONG; HUANG, XIAOFENG; WANG, ZHIYONG; HAN, WEI

2013-01-01

252

Overexpression of HIF-1? indicates a poor prognosis in tongue carcinoma and may be associated with tumour metastasis.  

PubMed

Expression of the transcription factor hypoxiainducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a key role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia, particularly in relation to tumour angiogenesis. Expression of the HIF-1? subunit is responsive to changes in oxygen levels. Overexpression of HIF-1? has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the expression of HIF-1? in tongue carcinoma was associated with established clinicopathological features. Tumour specimens from 120 patients with histologically-proven, surgically-treated tongue carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining for expression of HIF-1?. The mRNA levels of HIF-1? were measured in 45 fresh, paired samples of tongue carcinoma and corresponding adjacent normal tissues using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). HIF-1? was found to be frequently overexpressed in tumours in a hypoxia-independent manner. The expression of HIF-1? correlated with the five-year survival rate (P<0.01) and disease-free period (P<0.01). Increased expression of HIF-1? correlated significantly with clinical stage (P=0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.034). Compared with paired normal tissues, HIF-1? mRNA levels were significantly increased in carcinoma of the tongue. A positive correlation was observed between HIF-1? mRNA levels and pathological differentiation grade. A significant difference in the levels of HIF-1? expression was detected between groups of patients with lymph node metastases and patients with no metastases. These results indicate that overexpression of HIF-1? may be an indicator of poor prognosis in carcinoma of the tongue. The expression of HIF-1? may be associated with lymph node metastasis. PMID:23599780

Zheng, Yang; Ni, Yanhong; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Han, Wei

2013-02-07

253

The role of the TP53 gene during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.  

PubMed

The medium-term tongue carcinogenesis assay is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinomas phase by phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry and examine the DNA sequence of exons 5, 6, 7, and 8 of Tp53 for mutations during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). A total of 30 male Wistar rats were treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide in their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks at a dose of 50 ppm. Ten animals were used as negative controls. No histopathological changes in the tongue epithelia were observed in the control group or in the treatment group after 4 weeks of 4NQO. Following 12 weeks of treatment, hyperplasia as well as epithelial dysplasia was found in both mild and moderate forms. At 20 weeks, moderate and/or severe oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were found, and the majority of animals had squamous cell carcinoma. The levels of p53 protein were increased (p < 0.05) in pre-neoplastic lesions and in squamous cell carcinomas in some of the tumor cells in squamous cell carcinomas. No mutations were found in any of the exons that were evaluated after the 4-, 12-, or 20-week treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that p53 expression may be an important event in the malignant conversion, whereas Tp53 mutations are not involved in the multi-step tongue carcinogenesis of Wistar rats induced by 4NQO. PMID:20385474

Minicucci, E M; Ribeiro, D A; da Silva, G N; Pardini, M I M C; Montovani, J C; Salvadori, D M F

2010-04-10

254

Selective loss of resistant alleles at p15INK4B and p16INK4A genes in chemically-induced rat tongue cancers.  

PubMed

We previously reported that susceptibility to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced tongue cancer in Dark-Agouti (DA) and Wistar/Furth (WF) rats was determined by a number of quantitative trait loci. In this article, we further scrutinized one of the quantitative trait loci at a suggestive level on rat chromosome 5. Analyzing a DNA panel of 130 (DAxWF) F2 rats treated with 4NQO showed a quantitative trait loci, containing p15INK4B and p16INK4A. To study the possible relevance of these genes in the development of tongue cancer, we examined 45 4NQO-induced tongue cancers in 100 (DAxWF) F1 rats for loss of heterozygosity. The incidence of loss of heterozygosity at p15INK4B and p16INK4A genes in large advanced tongue cancers was 37.8% and 40.0%, respectively, and the WF allele was selectively lost. Accumulation of loss of heterozygosity and methylation of the promoter regions in the tumour suppressor genes in advanced tumours suggests that they may play a role in tongue cancer progression. PMID:16527513

Ogawa, Kotaro; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Masato; Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Semba, Ichiro; Shisa, Hayase; Kitano, Motoo

2006-03-09

255

Tongue force and tongue motility are differently affected by unilateral vs bilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion in rats  

PubMed Central

In addition to its cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, resting tremor and postural disturbances, Parkinson’s disease (PD) also affects orolingual motor function. Orolingual motor deficits can contribute to dysphagia, which increases morbidity and mortality in this population. Previous preclinical studies describing orolingual motor deficits in animal models of PD have focused on unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion. In this study we compared the effects of unilateral vs bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced DA depletion in rats trained to lick water from an isometric force-sensing disc. Rats received either unilateral or bilateral 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle and were tested for four weeks post-lesion. Dependent variables included task engagement (the number of licks per session), tongue force (mean and maximum), and tongue motility (the number of licks per second). While both lesion groups exhibited decreased tongue force output, tongue motility deficits were present in only the group that received unilateral nigrostriatal DA depletion. Task engagement was not significantly diminished by 6-OHDA. Analysis of striatal DA tissue content revealed that DA depletion was ~97% in the unilateral group and ~90% in the bilateral group. These results suggest that while nigrostriatal DA depletion affects tongue force output, deficits in tongue motility may instead result from a functional imbalance in neural pathways affecting this midline structure.

Nuckolls, Andrea L.; Worley, Cole; Leto, Christopher; Zhang, Hongyu; Morris, Jill K.; Stanford, John A.

2012-01-01

256

Patient-specific finite element analysis of viscoelastic masticatory mucosa  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress and strain inside of the oral mucosa in partially-edentulous patients. The patient-specific finite element models of the mucosa and the bone were constructed using the CT images and in-vivo surface measurement during a continuous load. The mean initial shear modulus of 8.3 × 10–5 (GPa) and the mean relaxation time of 503 (s) were determined as the viscoelastic properties of the mucosa. The increase of the highest maximum compressive strain during the continuous loading was observed in all the patients, however; the intensity of strain was not in accordance with the thickness of the mucosa. It is suggested that the variations of the morphology and the initial modulus of the mucosa should be considered in the mathematical approaches to detect the mechanical responses of the oral mucosa.

Suzuki, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

257

VIP innervation of the tongue in vertebrates.  

PubMed

An immunohistochemical study was carried out in order to investigate the occurrence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in intralingual nervous tissue of different species. The study revealed that VIP-immunoreactive (IR) nerves and ganglia were widely found in all species studied. The following areas of the tongue tissue contain VIP-IR nerves: (1) Within the perivascular plexus many VIP-IR nerves can be found adjoining AV-anastomoses and medium-sized arteries, whereas the veins exhibit only a moderate number. (2) Intralingual ganglia contain VIP-IR perikarya and varicosities. (3) Lingual glands are regularly innervated by VIP-IR periglandular plexus. (4) Sub- and intraepithelial nerves react to VIP immunohistochemically and occur in different locations. The results of this study indicate that VIP is an important neuropeptide of the intralingual nerves. It is suggested that VIP has various functions as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator which may be summarized as follows: (1) the vascular and glandular innervation can be assumed to be of an efferent nature, and (2) some subepithelial and intraepithelial nerves are afferent fibers. PMID:6351668

Baecker, B; Yanaihara, N; Forssmann, W G

1983-01-01

258

Unusual papillary lesion of the ventral tongue: case report of solitary angiokeratoma of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Many lesions in the oral cavity may present with a papillary or pebbly clinical appearance. Although the great majority of these papillary lesions are histologically diagnosed as squamous or viral papillomas, there are occasional cases of other more unusual possibilities. Angiokeratomas are uncommon vascular lesions that often present clinically as papillomas. They may also present with other varying clinical appearances that range from pigmented lesions to hemangiomas. However, all forms demonstrate a characteristic microscopic appearance consisting of hyperkeratotic, hyperplastic epithelium covering connective tissue with abundant blood vessels that are sharply confined to the connective tissue papillae. Angiokeratomas generally involve the skin and are often associated with an underlying systemic metabolic disease such as Fabry's disease or fucosidosis. Patients with these systemic diseases may have multiple lesions, with possible involvement of the oral mucosa. However, solitary lesions involving only the oral cavity are rare; only eight previous cases have been documented. In this paper, we describe a case of solitary angiokeratoma presenting as a papillary lesion on the ventral tongue of an 18-year-old male. The lesion was surgically excised and no recurrence has been reported to date. Although this patient had no other lesions or systemic issues, we stress the importance of evaluating a patient with a diagnosis of angiokeratoma of the oral cavity for underlying systemic metabolic disease. PMID:23767401

Shah, Sonal S; Kurago, Zoya B

2013-04-01

259

Plumbagin induces the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway.  

PubMed

Background Plumbagin, a quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of Plumbago zeylanica L., has been proven to possess anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells. Material and Methods Cell proliferation ability was detected by EdU incorporation assay and colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cellular apoptosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blotting was applied to assay the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Results Plumbagin inhibited the growth and proliferation of Tca8113 cells in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycles of plumbagin-treated Tca8113 cells were arrested at the G2/M phase. Cells treated with plumbagin presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was raised by plumbagin in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions These results indicate that plumbagin induces the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells through mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:23982457

Qiu, Jia-Xuan; He, Yuan-Qiao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ru-Liang; Qin, You; Shen, Xiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Mao, Zong-Fu

2013-08-28

260

Autophagy is active in normal colon mucosa.  

PubMed

Recently, autophagy has been found to be strongly activated in colon cancer cells, but few studies have addressed the normal colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to characterize autophagy in normal human intestinal cells. We used the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 as well as SQSTM1 as markers of autophagy activity. Using the normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell experimental model, we found that autophagy was much more active in undifferentiated cells than in differentiated cells. In the normal adult colonic mucosa, BECN1 was found in the proliferative epithelial cells of the lower part of the gland while SQSTM1 was predominantly found in the differentiated cells of the upper part of the gland and surface epithelium. Interestingly, the weak punctate pattern of SQSTM1 expression in the lower gland colocalized with BECN1-labeled autophagosomes. The usefulness of SQSTM1 as an active autophagy marker was confirmed in colon cancer specimens at the protein and transcript levels. In conclusion, our results show that autophagy is active in the colonic gland and is associated with the intestinal proliferative/undifferentiated and progenitor cell populations. PMID:22652752

Groulx, Jean-Francois; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Benoit, Yannick D; Bernatchez, Gérald; Carrier, Julie C; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-François

2012-06-01

261

Autophagy is active in normal colon mucosa  

PubMed Central

Recently, autophagy has been found to be strongly activated in colon cancer cells, but few studies have addressed the normal colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to characterize autophagy in normal human intestinal cells. We used the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 as well as SQSTM1 as markers of autophagy activity. Using the normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell experimental model, we found that autophagy was much more active in undifferentiated cells than in differentiated cells. In the normal adult colonic mucosa, BECN1 was found in the proliferative epithelial cells of the lower part of the gland while SQSTM1 was predominantly found in the differentiated cells of the upper part of the gland and surface epithelium. Interestingly, the weak punctate pattern of SQSTM1 expression in the lower gland colocalized with BECN1-labeled autophagosomes. The usefulness of SQSTM1 as an active autophagy marker was confirmed in colon cancer specimens at the protein and transcript levels. In conclusion, our results show that autophagy is active in the colonic gland and is associated with the intestinal proliferative/undifferentiated and progenitor cell populations.

Groulx, Jean-Francois; Khalfaoui, Taoufik; Benoit, Yannick D.; Bernatchez, Gerald; Carrier, Julie C.; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

262

Identification of pannexins in rat nasal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Pannexins are a second family of gap-junction proteins in vertebrates, classified as pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3. Pannexin-1 is one of the candidates for channel-mediated ATP release into the extracellular space. In airway epithelia, ATP signaling modulates multiple cellular functions such as mucus/ion secretion and mucociliary clearance systems. However, the expression of pannexins in the upper airway has not been investigated. Nasal septal mucosae were collected from adult male Wistar rats aged 20–24 weeks. The expression of pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by whole-mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Transcripts for pannexin-1, pannexin-2, and pannexin-3 were detected in nasal septal mucosae of adult rats by RT-PCR. Distinct immunohistochemical fluorescence for pannexin-1 was observed in the epithelial layer, whereas there was no immunoreactivity for pannexin-2 or pannexin-3. This is the first article establishing the existence of pannexins (predominantly pannexin-1) in the upper airway, suggesting their possible participation in the physiological functions of ATP release and signaling in this tissue.

Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Ohkubo, Jun-ichi; Hashida, Koichi; Koizumi, Hiroki; Wakasugi, Tetsuro; Takenaga, Fumiko

2013-01-01

263

Luminal chemosensing in the duodenal mucosa.  

PubMed

The upper gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemicals, including gastric acid, CO? and nutrients. Mucosal chemical sensors are necessary to exert physiological responses such as secretion, digestion, absorption and motility. We propose the mucosal chemosensing system by which luminal chemicals are sensed to trigger mucosal defence mechanisms via mucosal acid sensors and taste receptors. Luminal acid/CO? is sensed via ecto- and cytosolic carbonic anhydrases and ion transporters in the epithelial cells and via acid sensors on the afferent nerves in the duodenum and the oesophagus. Gastric acid sensing is differentially mediated via endocrine cell acid sensors and afferent nerves. Furthermore, a luminal l-glutamate signal is mediated via epithelial l-glutamate receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and taste receptor 1 family heterodimers, with activation of afferent nerves and cyclooxygenase, whereas luminal Ca²(+) is differently sensed via the calcium-sensing receptor in the duodenum. These luminal chemosensors help to activate mucosal defence mechanisms in order to maintain the mucosal integrity and physiological responses of the upper GI tract. Stimulation of luminal chemosensing in the upper GI mucosa may prevent mucosal injury, affect nutrient metabolism and modulate sensory nerve activity. PMID:20518751

Akiba, Y; Kaunitz, J D

2011-01-01

264

Adhesion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299v onto the gut mucosa in critically ill patients: a randomised open trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction To achieve any possible positive effect on the intestinal mucosa cells it is important that probiotics adhere tightly onto the intestinal mucosa. It has been shown in healthy volunteers that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp 299v) (DSM 9843), a probiotic bacterium, given orally in a fermented oatmeal formula adheres onto the intestinal mucosa, but whether this also occurs in critically ill patients is unknown. Methods After randomisation, nine enterally fed, critically ill patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics received an oatmeal formula fermented with Lp 299v throughout their stay in the intensive care unit; eight patients served as controls. Biopsies of the rectal mucosa were made at admission and then twice a week, and the biopsies were analysed blindly. Results Four patients in the control group were colonised with Lp 299v at admission but thereafter all their biopsies were negative (Lp 299v is an ingredient in a common functional food, ProViva®, in Sweden). Of the treated patients none was colonised at admission but three patients had Lp 299v adhered on the mucosa from the second or third biopsy and in the following samples. Conclusion This study shows that Lp 299v could survive the passage from the stomach to the rectum and was able adhere onto the rectal mucosa also in critically ill, antibiotic-treated patients.

Klarin, Bengt; Johansson, Marie-Louise; Molin, Goran; Larsson, Anders; Jeppsson, Bengt

2005-01-01

265

Predictive value of malignancy grading systems, DNA content, p53, and angiogenesis for stage I tongue carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the clinical value of malignancy grading systems compared with nuclear DNA content, protein p53, and angiogenesis for predicting recurrence of stage I (UICC, 1987) tongue carcinomas. METHODS: Histopathological malignancy grading according to Jakobsson and tumour front grading according to Bryne et al were performed on haematoxylin and eosin slides. DNA analysis was performed by image cytometry. Protein p53 and angiogenesis were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis using antibody CM1 and antibody against factor VIII related antigen, respectively. RESULTS: 49 patients with stage I carcinomas of the mobile tongue were included, all treated by local surgical excision alone. Eight patients (16%) suffered from local recurrence during follow up, and 13 (27%) had regional recurrence. Both Jakobsson's malignancy grading system and p53 immunoreactivity proved to be useful predictors of regional recurrence in a Cox multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological malignancy grading systems provide valuable prognostic information and can still compete with current biological markers in this respect.

Hogmo, A; Kuylenstierna, R; Lindholm, J; Munck-Wikland, E

1999-01-01

266

Tongue flap as a reconstructive option in intraoral defects.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of intraoral defects can be challenging due to the different characteristics of the region, importance of preserving the anatomy and function, and shortage of available donor areas. The location and size of the defect guides the reconstructive surgeon through the treatment plan. Among the options available, tongue flaps have been found useful in intraoral defect reconstruction.In this study, we presented the use of tongue flaps in different kinds of intraoral defects, and compared the advantages and disadvantages with other methods. Between 2004 and 2011, tongue flaps were used in intraoral reconstruction of 11 patients (6 male and 5 female) with a mean age of 30.1. Six patients had palatal fistula, 3 had alveolar region and mouth floor defects, and 2 had lower lip defects. All of the tongue flaps planned were anterior based, 6 dorsal and 5 ventral. Second operations were carried out on the 15th or 20th postoperative days.Despite the disadvantages of being an interpolation flap which requires a second session and good patient cooperation, tongue flap is a choice for reconstruction of intraoral defects with its highly vascular structure, good mobility, localization, texture match, and low donor area morbidity. PMID:23714924

Ceran, Candemir; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol; Sarici, Murat; Durgun, Mustafa; Tekin, Fatih

2013-05-01

267

DAPT Enhances the Apoptosis of Human Tongue Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the effect of DAPT (?-secretase inhibitor) on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells and to determine the molecular mechanism to enable the potential application of DAPT to the treatment of tongue carcinoma. Methodology Human tongue carcinoma Tca8113 cells were cultured with DAPT. Cell growth was determined using Indigotic Reduction method. The cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and Immuno-Fluorescence (IF) were employed to determine the intracellular expression levels. Results DAPT inhibited the growth of human tongue carcinoma Tca8113 cells by inducing G0–G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mRNA levels of Hairy/Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes-1), a target of Notch activation, were reduced by DAPT in a dose-dependent manner. Coincident with this observation, DAPT induced a dose-dependent promotion of constitutive Caspase-3 in Tca8113 cells. Conclusion DAPT may have a therapeutic value for human tongue carcinoma. Moreover, the effects of DAPT in tumor inhibition may arise partly via the modulation of Notch-1 and Caspase-3.

Grottkau, Brian E; Chen, Xi-rui; Friedrich, Claudia C; Yang, Xing-mei; Jing, Wei; Wu, Yao; Cai, Xiao-xiao; Liu, Yu-rong; Huang, Yuan-ding; Lin, Yun-feng

2009-01-01

268

Analysis of vision-based Text Entry using morse code generated by tongue gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a Text Entry Interface based on the detection of tongue protrusion gestures using Computer Vision methods. The system uses a common webcam to acknowledge gestures made with the tongue, which are inter­ preted as the \\

Luis Ricardo Sapaico; Makoto Sato

2011-01-01

269

Taste after reduction of the tongue in Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the sensitivity of taste after reduction of the tongue in four girls with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. No patient had taste blindness, but the ability to detect salty and bitter tastes declined after reduction of the tongue.

Kensuke Matsune; Katsumi Miyoshi; Rika Kosaki; Hirofumi Ohashi; Takahide Maeda

2006-01-01

270

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319...OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and...

2009-01-01

271

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319...OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and...

2010-01-01

272

Elicitation of Slips of the Tongue from Young Children: A New Method and Preliminary Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of the use of short "tongue-twister" phrases in eliciting spontaneous slips of the tongue in five year olds indicated that the technique was a feasible and beneficial method for collecting spoonerism data from children. (24 references) (CB)

Smith, Bruce L.

1990-01-01

273

9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar...

2013-01-01

274

Taste receptor signalling - from tongues to lungs.  

PubMed

Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50-100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second-messenger signalling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signalling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signalling effectors that include G?? activation of phospholipase C?2, 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate mediated release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) -dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The G? subunit, ?-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signalling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signalling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

Kinnamon, S C

2011-05-07

275

Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs  

PubMed Central

Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include G?? activation of PLC?2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The G? subunit, ?-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells.

Kinnamon, Sue C.

2013-01-01

276

A high-performance analog front-end for an intraoral tongue-operated assistive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a tongue-operated, wireless assistive technology that infers its users' intentions by detecting their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them into user-defined commands. In this paper, we present the design of a low-power analog front-end (AFE) with configurable characteristics that tracks the tongue motion by reading four intraoral 3-D magnetic sensors to indicate the position of

Benoit Gosselin; Maysam Ghovanloo

2011-01-01

277

An investigation into the practice of tongue piercing in the South West of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the prevalence and range of complications following tongue piercing.Methods A survey of individuals with tongue piercings ('piercees') and tongue piercers was undertaken in the South West of England. One hundred and twenty-three piercees completed a self-administered questionnaire and 22 piercers took part in an interviewer-led questionnaire.Results The mean age of an individual having a tongue piercing was

L R Stead; J V Williams; A C Williams; C M Robinson

2006-01-01

278

Character Activation Time Prediction Model for Tongue-Typing: Adaptation of Fitts's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a character activation time prediction model for tongue-typing. This model is based on a modification of Fitts's law that is more suitable for tip-of-tongue selectivity tasks around the palatal area. The model was trained and evaluated with data from tongue-selectivity experiments using an inductive tongue-computer interface. It takes into account the movement amplitude, target

Héctor A. Caltenco; Eugen R. Lontis; Johannes J. Struijk; M. E. Lund; L. N. S. A. Struijk

2009-01-01

279

Dynamic programming method for temporal registration of three-dimensional tongue surface motion from multiple utterances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a new method to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) tongue surface motion during speech using only a few sections of the tongue measured with ultrasound imaging. Reconstruction of static 3D tongue surfaces has been reported. This is the first report for reconstruction of 3D tongue surface motion using ultrasound imaging. To temporally align data from multiple scan locations, a

Changsheng Yang; Maureen Stone

2002-01-01

280

Treatment of skeletal open-bite malocclusion with lymphangioma of the tongue.  

PubMed

Lymphangioma of the tongue causes massive tongue enlargement, leading to difficulties in swallowing and mastication, speech disturbances, airway obstruction, and skeletal deformities such as open-bite malocclusion. Early reduction of tongue volume improved the excessive open bite in a young girl, but it was not sufficient to redirect the original hyperdivergent growth pattern. Orthodontic camouflage treatment was therefore rendered. Long-term evaluation after tongue-reduction surgery and orthodontic treatment is presented. PMID:22554757

Chung, Chooryung J; Hwang, Soonshin; Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Ho

2012-05-01

281

Equine model of inducing ulceration in alimentary squamous epithelial mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulceration of the gastric squamous epithelial mucosa was induced in 10 horses using a feeding protocol previously shown to expose the gastric mucosa to repeated periods of high acidity. The feeding protocol consisted of alternating feed deprivation with free access to hay. Over a period of seven days, each horse was provided hay for 84 hr and deprived of hay

Michael J. Murray

1994-01-01

282

Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.  

PubMed

The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

2010-09-03

283

Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the ge- nital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even

Yolanda Jiménez; Carmen Gavaldá; Enrique Carbonell; María Margaix; Gracia Sarrión

284

Immunological and morphogenic basis of gastric mucosa atrophy and metaplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic gastritis with gastric mucosa atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia are alterations with an increased risk for the development of gastric neoplasias. Immunological studies in autoimmune gastritis, in atrophic Helicobacter pylori gastritis and in studies with transgenic mice point to a central role of the parietal cell in the development of gastric mucosa atrophy. Destruction of gastric epithelial

Gerhard Faller; Thomas Kirchner

2005-01-01

285

Glycosaminoglycans from Ateroid ® and bovine duodenal mucosa and pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Glycosaminoglycans (GG) were isolated from commercial Ateroid® and compared with those from bovine duodenal mucosa and pancreas. The major GG in Ateroid® is heparin. Heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate were also found. HS, chondroitin sulfates, and heparin were isolated from duodenal mucosa after papain digestion, but a residue, non-digestible, was mostly heparin. Pancreas contains very little GG, and

Parakkat Seethanathan; Edward Dalferes; B. S. Bhandaru Radhakrishnamurthy; Ronald Victor; Gerald S. Berenson

1975-01-01

286

Effects of individual characteristics on healthy oral mucosa autofluorescence spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autofluorescence spectroscopy is a tool for detecting tissue alterations in vivo. In a previous study, we found spectral differences between clinically normal mucosa of different patient groups. These are possibly caused by associated patient characteristics. In the present study, we explore the influences of volunteer characteristics on healthy oral mucosa autofluorescence.Autofluorescence spectra were recorded in 96 volunteers with no clinically

Diana C. G de Veld; Henricus J. C. M Sterenborg; Jan L. N Roodenburg; Max J. H Witjes

2004-01-01

287

Urethral Mucosa Prolapse in an 18-Year-Old Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Urethra mucosa prolapse is a benign condition in which there is a circular protrusion of the distal urethra through the external urethra meatus. It is more commonly seen in prepubertal black girls and postmenopausal white women. It is rare in the reproductive age group. This case describes the presentation and management of an 18-year-old adolescent with urethra mucosa prolapse.

Olumide, Akadiri; Kayode Olusegun, Ajenifuja; Babatola, Bakare

2013-01-01

288

Novel approach to treatment of rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A 78-year-old Hispanic woman with a medical history of osteoporosis, hyperlipidaemia and dyspepsia presented to a gastrointestinal clinic complaining of a small amount of rectal bleeding following bowel movements for 6 months. Colonoscopy demonstrated a 3×3 cm submucosal rectal mass. Pathological analysis revealed ulcerated colonic mucosa with diffuse proliferation suggestive of a lymphoproliferative process. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry of the specimen supported a diagnosis of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The patient was treated with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. A C-14 urea breath test confirmed eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Repeat colonoscopy showed no regression of the tumour. The patient received external beam radiation treatment. Subsequent positron emission tomography/CT scans demonstrated no evidence of viable tumour tissue and no regional or distant metastasis. Follow-up sigmoidoscopy with biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphoma.

Chahil, Neetu; Bloom, Peter; Tyson, Jeremiah; Jazwari, Saad; Robilotti, James; Gaultieri, Nicholas

2011-01-01

289

A Disguised Tuberculosis in Oral Buccal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

2011-01-01

290

Tongue entrapment by chew toys in two dogs.  

PubMed

Compression of a chew toy during regular play activity can create a vacuum effect eventually causing entrapment of oral tissues. Two cases of tongue entrapment are described, which resulted in severe tissue swelling, oedema and vascular obstruction. In the first dog, the toy was removed by the veterinary surgeon under general anaesthesia. Damage to the tongue proved to be reversible and the dog recovered uneventfully. In the second patient, the toy was forcefully removed by the owner. The resulting tongue necrosis required partial amputation. Treatment of this emergency condition consists of elimination of the negative pressure inside the toy by piercing it or even by insufflation of positive pressure inside the toy, and of an atraumatic manipulation to prevent further damage to the compromised tissues. PMID:21029100

Rubio, A; Van Goethem, B; Verhaert, L

2010-10-01

291

Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

2011-03-01

292

Dopaminergic influence on rat tongue function and limb movement initiation  

PubMed Central

Altering dopamine synaptic transmission can affect both cranial and limb sensorimotor function, but often to a different degree of severity. We hypothesized that haloperidol has dose-dependent but differential effects on lingual forces, lingual movement rates, and limb movement initiation. We measured average and maximal lingual force, tongue press rate and cataleptic descent time in 9 Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats in varied doses of haloperidol. Decreases in lingual force and temporal parameters and increases in cataleptic descent time were related to haloperidol dose. However, they were related to a different degree as the relationships were strong between average force and tongue press rate, moderate between maximal force and tongue press rate, moderate between average force and cataleptic descent time, and weak between maximal force and cataleptic descent time. Elucidating the relationships between the cranial and limb sensorimotor systems in the context of altered dopamine synaptic transmission may assist in developing therapies for conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

Connor, Nadine P

2009-01-01

293

Study of the population of enterochromaffin-like cells in mouse gastric mucosa after long-term treatment with ebrotidine.  

PubMed

The possible hyperplastic effect on the mouse gastric mucosa following administration of 500 mg/kg of ebrotidine for 18 mo was investigated. The animals were taken from the study of carcinogenesis in mouse carried out with this product. Two different aspects were considered to assess such a possible hyperplastic effect. The height of the fundic and antral mucosa was microscopically measured in several points. Histologic sections obtained from standardized levels of the stomach were used. The density of argyrophil cells in the gastric mucosa has been also quantified, in order to identify enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, the most abundant among the cells that have this property. Grimelius' silver staining method was used to identify ECL cells. The cell count was performed under x400 magnification, and the length of mucosa examined was determined by computer-assisted image analysis. This study complements the mouse carcinogenesis study, in which no differences in tumor incidence were found between treated and control animals. The results show that administration of 500 mg/kg/day of ebrotidine for 18 mo to mice did not induce any hyperplastic effect on the gastric mucosa comprising its various cell types or any specific, diffuse, or focal hyperplasia of ECL cells. PMID:8992605

Romero, A; Gómez, F; Villamayor, F; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

294

Life-threatening upper airway obstruction due to isolated hypermobile tongue.  

PubMed

Isolated hypermobile tongue is extremely rare. We present a case of isolated hypermobile tongue that caused several life-threatening airway obstructions during sleep. The tongue could reach to the nasopharynx and clear and moisten the nasopharynx by its movement. PMID:21778858

Dalgic, Abdullah; Hidir, Yusuf; Birkent, A Hakan; Durmaz, Abdullah; Gerek, Mustafa

2011-07-01

295

Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

2012-01-01

296

Anaerobic bacteria cultured from the tongue dorsum of subjects with oral malodor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteria on the dorsum of the tongue are the most frequent cause of oral malodor; however, the bacterial flora of the tongue has not been well defined. Although recent studies have used DNA probes to detect the presence of certain periodontal pathogens, cultural studies have been limited because of the complexity of the flora of the tongue dorsum. The

Kerin L Tyrrell; Diane M Citron; Yumi A Warren; Sushma Nachnani; Ellie J. C Goldstein

2003-01-01

297

Tongue-Shaped Crack Extension During Fatigue of High Strength Aluminum Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fracture surfaces of both service and laboratory fatigue fractures frequently show dark tongue-shaped marks. In fatigue tests on 7075-T6 specimens such tongues were produced by high peak loads. Measurements indicated that a tongue is not formed during a s...

J. Schijve J. A. Vlasveld

1979-01-01

298

Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

2009-01-01

299

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type II variant associated with congenital tongue lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case with several congenital anomalies, including polysyndactyly, hypertelorism, partial median cleft of the upper lip, and 2 solitary tongue masses. These features are consistent with oral-facial-digital (OFD) type II syndrome. This case, however, had tongue lipomas with pathosis instead of the usually described tongue hamartomas. In addition, our patient had a sacral dermal pit, which is not

Soha N. Ghossaini; Usamah Hadi; Ayman Tawil

2002-01-01

300

[Successful treatment of subglottic tracheal stenosis with a mucosa-lined radial forearm fascia flap].  

PubMed

Short-segment tracheal stenosis is often treated by segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Longer-segment stenosis can sometimes be treated using dilation, laser therapy, bronchoscopic stent insertion and segmental resection and reconstruction. Long-segment restenosis with a buildup of scar tissue due to successful resection surgery in the past represents a particular therapeutic challenge and a sufficiently vascularized transplant may be the only option. We describe the case of a 37-year-old patient who underwent a tracheal reconstruction using a mucosa-lined radial forearm flap. Subsequent to a traumatic laryngotracheal fracture, long-term ventilation and multiple surgical interventions, the patient had developed a functionally relevant subglottic stenosis (5.5 cm). Following longitudinal anterior resection of the trachea 1 cm above and below the stenosis, a Dumon® stent was inserted. Simultaneously, a radial forearm fascia flap was harvested, as were two full-thickness buccal mucosa grafts, which were sutured onto the subcutaneous tissue and fascia of the forearm flap. Beginning caudally, the mucosa-lined flap was then sutured, air-tight, into the anterior tracheal defect with the mucosa facing the lumen. Finally, end-to-end anastomosis connected the blood vessels of the radial forearm flap to the recipient blood vessels in the neck. The patient was successfully extubated after 24 h and discharged after 5 days. A postoperative CT scan revealed optimal placement of the stent and the patient's speech and breathing were sufficiently re-established. The stent was removed bronchoscopically 6 weeks after surgery. Examinations during the 6-month follow-up period showed that the diameter of the reconstructed airway was retained and the patient remained symptom-free. PMID:23202872

Mandapathil, M; Hoffmann, T K; Freitag, L; Reddy, N; Lang, S; Delaere, P

2012-12-01

301

Intraoral Wound Closure with Tissue-Engineered Mucosa: New Perspectives for Urethra Reconstruction with Buccal Mucosa Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urethra reconstruction, the creation of a new ure- thra from a free oral mucosa graft is an established surgical technique. The oral mucosa is removed at the same time that the urethra reconstruction procedure is performed. Depending on the size of graft required, the intraoral wound is closed primarily or left to heal secondarily. The latter method limits this

Ronald Schimming; Alexander Frankenschmidt

2001-01-01

302

Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

1996-11-01

303

Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma involving lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving lymph nodes is quite rare with only 13 previous cases reported in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE The 33-years-old female was referred to our department for the investigation of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans. CT scans showed a 9-cm × 3-cm mass composed of a mixture of soft tissue and fat at the anterior mediastinum with lymphadenopathy in the neck, axillary and mediastinal regions. She was underwent complete surgical resection of the mass with regional lymph node dissection through a median sternotomy. Histological examination of the surgical specimens confirmed the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma arising in the thymus with nodal metastasis. She achieved complete remission after postoperative rituximab combined chemotherapy. DISCUSSION Thymic MALT lymphoma occurs most frequently in Asian female aged 40–60 years and commonly appears anterior mediastinal masses on CT scans. The excised tissue is necessary to confirm the accurate histological diagnosis. The disease usually remains localized for a long time, making local surgical resection highly effective. However, when the lymph nodes are involved, effective treatment approaches of the disease is still undefined. CONCLUSION We report a case of thymic MALT lymphoma involving lymph nodes, in which the patient was successfully treated with primary site resection with regional lymph node dissection followed by rituximab combined chemotherapy. Surgery provided not only a useful approach for collecting tissue for an accurate histological diagnosis, but also an effective local treatment, even in the case of advanced-stage thymic MALT lymphoma.

Ota, Hideki; Kawai, Hideki; Tsubasa, Matsuo

2012-01-01

304

Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC): alcohol and tobacco consumption versus non-consumption. A study in a Portuguese population.  

PubMed

There has been an increase in the incidence of carcinoma of the tongue, particularly among alcohol and tobacco non-users. However, the number of studies that would allow a better understanding of etiological factors and clinical features, particularly in the Portuguese population, is very limited. This study was based on patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior two thirds of the tongue that were treated at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of the "Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa - Francisco Gentil" (IPOLFG) in Lisbon, Portugal, between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009. The patients were divided in alcohol and tobacco users and non-users in order to evaluate the differences between these 2 groups based on gender, age, tumor location, denture use, and tumor size, metastasis and stage. Of the 354 cases, 208 were users and 146 were non-users. The main location in both groups was the lateral border of the tongue. Denture use showed no significant effect in both study groups. It was possible to conclude that patients who did not drink or smoke were older and presented with smaller tumor size, lower incidence of ganglion metastasis and lower tumor stage compared with alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:22189649

Albuquerque, Rui; López-López, José; Marí-Roig, Antonio; Jané-Salas, Enric; Roselló-Llabrés, Xavier; Santos, Jorge Rosa

2011-01-01

305

Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy in 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results obtained with {sup 192}Ir low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Between December 1979 and January 1998, 279 patients with T2N0 mobile tongue carcinoma were treated by exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy, with or without neck dissection. {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy was performed according to the 'Paris system' with a median total dose of 60 Gy (median dose rate, 0.5 Gy/h). Results: Overall survival was 74.3% and 46.6% at 2 and 5 years. Local control was 79.1% at 2 years and regional control, respectively, 75.9% and 69.5% at 2 and 5 years (Kaplan-Meier method). Systematic dissection revealed 44.6% occult node metastases, and histologic lymph node involvement was identified as the main significant factor for survival. Complication rate was 16.5% (Grade 3, 2.9%). Half of the patients presented previous and/or successive malignant tumor (ear-nose-throat, esophagus, or bronchus). Conclusion: Exclusive low-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for T2 tongue carcinoma. Regional control and survival are excellent in patients undergoing systematic neck dissection, which is mandatory in our experience because of a high rate of occult lymph node metastases.

Bourgier, Celine [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Coche-Dequeant, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Fournier, Charles [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Castelain, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Prevost, Bernard [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Lefebvre, Jean-Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Lartigau, Eric [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France)]. E-mail: e-lartigau@o-lambret.fr

2005-10-01

306

Microvascular abnormalities of the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Compared with normotensive mucosa, the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa has increased susceptibility to injury by noxious agents such as alcohol and aspirin, but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. Since the microvasculature of the normal gastric mucosa is an important target of injury by these agents, we studied the histologic and ultrastructural features of gastric vasculature and mucosal microvasculature in rats with portal hypertension (produced by staged portal vein ligation) and in sham-operated rats. In portal hypertensive rats, the gastric mucosa was swollen and hyperemic and the endothelial cells of mucosal microvessels had very prominent enlarged cytoplasm obstructing capillary lumina. Quantitative analysis of transmission electron micrographs demonstrated that in portal hypertensive rats the gastric mucosal capillary endothelium had significantly increased cytoplasmic area (236%), increased pinocytic vesicular area (416%) and increased capillary basement membrane thickness (143%) compared to respective parameters in sham-operated control rats. Arterioles in the muscularis mucosae and in submucosa were thickened, and submucosal veins demonstrated features of arterialization. All these findings indicate that portal hypertension produces definite microvascular changes in the gastric mucosa resulting in compromise of the capillary lumina. These changes may be the basis for the observed morphologic and functional abnormalities of the portal hypertensive mucosa and its increased predisposition to injury. PMID:3192161

Tarnawski, A S; Sarfeh, I J; Stachura, J; Hajduczek, A; Bui, H X; Dabros, W; Gergely, H

307

[Study on illuminant spectrum qualifications for collecting tongue condition].  

PubMed

The traditional light sources in the diagnostic method of tongue collection such as daylight or even candles are easily affected by weather and environment. It isn't favorable for doctors to obtain the accurate information of the tongue condition. The authors' introduce the electric light sources to compensate or replace daylight to obtain stable and real tongue image and scientific results. Lighted by lamps with different radiation spectrum power distribution property, various color rendition and color temperature, the same object will indicate different colors. In this study, spectrum analysis is carried out on four fluorescent lamps and the research is based on iamge identification techniques of tongue color. Applying the methods of spectrum analysis, choose the best one in four illuminants with their specific spectrum by testing instruments and comparing with the results using several spectrum parameters and chromatic coordinates tolerance ellipses. Result showed PHILIPS YPZ220/18-3U. RR. D (with the correlative color temperature 6 500 K) lamp which has the most similar spectrum property with daylight can be used as standard lamp. The research provides the theoretic and experimental basis for choosing electric light sources to replace daylight. PMID:18720782

Song, Xian-Jie; Xu, Chen-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Gu; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

2008-05-01

308

Tongue Movements and Their Acoustic Consequences in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The relations between acoustic measures and their articulatory bases have rarely been tested in dysarthria but are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. We tested the association between acoustic measures of F2 range and F2 slope with kinematic measures of tongue movement displacement and speed in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls speaking at normal and slow rates. Relations between acoustic and kinematic measures and speech intelligibility were examined. Results As healthy controls reduced their speaking rate, their F2 slopes and movement speeds decreased. In talkers with ALS, acoustic and kinematic variables were associated with changes in speaking rate, characteristic of disease progression. Participants with slow rate had shallower F2 slopes and slower movement speeds than those with normal rate. Relations between F2 range and tongue displacement were weaker. F2 slope, displacement, and duration were correlated with speech intelligibility most consistently. Conclusion Findings suggested that F2 slope is a useful marker for tracking disease progression in ALS. F2 slope reflects changes in tongue function with disease progression and is linked to speech intelligibility. Changes in movement speed, however, might be the earliest sign of disease in the tongue.

Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Greenwood, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

2012-01-01

309

Gift of Tongues: Passing the Ohio Mathematics Graduation Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Gift of Tongues: Passing the Ohio Mathematics Graduation Test" examines the Ohio Graduation Mathematics Tests of 2004, 2005, and 2006 in the context of bilingual test takers at one of Cleveland's high schools and reports findings from a promising, bilingual pilot project in 2007 that may point to a new strategy for passing the high-stakes test.…

Goll, Paulette S.

2009-01-01

310

Treatment of Tongue Thrust with Hypnosis: Two Case Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue thrust is a relatively infrequent habit which can result in disruptive, permanent oral malocclusion, bone changes, and facial disharmony. The use of hypnotic phenomena can augment myofunctional therapy. Temperature control, glove anesthesia, relaxation, and imagery enhance demonstration of the proper way to swallow. The cornerstone of having the patient actually feel the contraction at the insertion of the masseter

Harold P. Golan

1991-01-01

311

HALL WITH FOYER IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE TONGUE AND GROOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HALL WITH FOYER IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS, CANEC PANEL CEILING AND LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, M-SHAPED FOUR-BEDROOM DUPLEX TYPE 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

312

Punctate vascular papules on the tongue and scrotum.  

PubMed

We report a 60-year-old man who presented with a 2-year history of painless red raised lesions involving the tongue and scrotum. Histopathology was suggestive of angiokeratoma. Oral angiokeratomas are most commonly found as a component of the generalized systemic disorder in Fabry's disease or fucosidosis. Our patient had isolated mucosal angiokeratomas which is very rare. PMID:22707780

Pahwa, Pooja; Meena, Dilip; Tanveer, Nadeem; Sharma, Vinod K; Sethuraman, Gomathy

2012-05-01

313

Punctate Vascular Papules on the Tongue and Scrotum  

PubMed Central

We report a 60-year-old man who presented with a 2-year history of painless red raised lesions involving the tongue and scrotum. Histopathology was suggestive of angiokeratoma. Oral angiokeratomas are most commonly found as a component of the generalized systemic disorder in Fabry's disease or fucosidosis. Our patient had isolated mucosal angiokeratomas which is very rare.

Pahwa, Pooja; Meena, Dilip; Tanveer, Nadeem; Sharma, Vinod K; Sethuraman, Gomathy

2012-01-01

314

Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

Iskarous, Khalil

2005-01-01

315

Gifts of tongues and healing: The performance of charismatic renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral researchers interested in religious movements have not studied the phenomena of speaking in tongues and healing nor the subculture of renewal from the native's point of view; moreover, they have not viewed such behavior as cultural performance. This qualitative case study of one American Christian subculture reveals the performative dimensions of charismatic renewal. Religious beliefs in the community find

1994-01-01

316

Increased activity of pyridoxal kinase in tongue in Down's syndrome.  

PubMed

The concentrations of B6 vitamins, and the activities of pyridoxal kinase, pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase and pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase were measured in tongue. Pyridoxal kinase activity was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) in Down's syndrome subjects compared with controls. PMID:1839316

Coburn, S P; Mahuren, J D; Schaltenbrand, W E

1991-12-01

317

Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

2011-01-01

318

Mother Tongue Maintenance Among North American Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research among groups of immigrants to the United States and Canada has isolated a number of possible factors for both loss and persistence of the mother tongue in subsequent generations. These include practice of the religion of the homeland, residential concentration, within-group marriage, occupational specialization, visits to the homeland, and others. The research reported in this article is based on

Robert W. Schrauf

1999-01-01

319

Isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii from enlarged tongue of a horse.  

PubMed

In the horse described herein, Actinobacillus lignieresii was associated with a syndrome identical to wooden tongue in cattle. It responded rapidly to systemic sodium iodide and antibiotic therapy. The definitive diagnosis was based on cytologic examination and culture. If actinobacillosis is suspected, immediate treatment with sodium iodide should be instituted along with supportive therapy. PMID:6490508

Baum, K H; Shin, S J; Rebhun, W C; Patten, V H

1984-10-01

320

Electronic tongue based on an array of metallic potentiometric sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic tongue system based on the array of six metallic potentiometric sensors (metallic wires) was developed and utilized for discrimination of foodstuffs: several types of vinegar and fruit juices. Copper, tin, iron, aluminum, brass and stainless steel wires were included in the array and supplemented by pH glass electrode. The response of potentiometric metallic sensors towards various organic acids

Larisa Lvova; Eugenio Martinelli; Emiliano Mazzone; Andrea Pede; Roberto Paolesse; Corrado Di Natale; Arnaldo D’Amico

2006-01-01

321

Reconstruction of high-resolution tongue volumes from MRI.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance images of the tongue have been used in both clinical studies and scientific research to reveal tongue structure. In order to extract different features of the tongue and its relation to the vocal tract, it is beneficial to acquire three orthogonal image volumes--e.g., axial, sagittal, and coronal volumes. In order to maintain both low noise and high visual detail and minimize the blurred effect due to involuntary motion artifacts, each set of images is acquired with an in-plane resolution that is much better than the through-plane resolution. As a result, any one dataset, by itself, is not ideal for automatic volumetric analyses such as segmentation, registration, and atlas building or even for visualization when oblique slices are required. This paper presents a method of superresolution volume reconstruction of the tongue that generates an isotropic image volume using the three orthogonal image volumes. The method uses preprocessing steps that include registration and intensity matching and a data combination approach with the edge-preserving property carried out by Markov random field optimization. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated on 15 clinical datasets, preserving anatomical details and yielding superior results when compared with different reconstruction methods as visually and quantitatively assessed. PMID:23033324

Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

2012-09-27

322

The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

Alshammari, Marzook M.

2011-01-01

323

Recognition of six microbial species with an electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic tongue based on pulsed voltammetry over an array of electrodes with different selectivity and sensitivity patterns was used to recognize six different microorganisms: one yeast, two bacteria, and three molds. Measurements were performed during the whole growth period, from the lag phase to the stationary phase. The electrode array was dipped into the malt extract growth medium and

C. Söderström; F. Winquist; C. Krantz-Rülcker

2003-01-01

324

‘Other Tongue’ Policy and Ethnic Nationalism In Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the prospect or otherwise of the success of the Nigerian language policy of learning a major language, in addition to a child’s mother tongue, following the series of the political crises caused by the collapse of the democratic experiment in 1993 and the consequent rise in ethnic nationalisms in the country. Using both quantitative and qualitative data,

L. OLADIPO SALAMI

2005-01-01

325

Nuclear changes in tongue epithelial cells following panoramic radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effect of radiation from panoramic radiographs on the cells of the lateral border of the tongue by evaluating nuclear changes. Forty-two patients were included: 22 had one radiograph (Group I), and 20 required a repeat radiograph due to error in the first exposure (Group II). Material for the cytopathologic evaluation was collected before radiographs

Ana Elisa da Silva; Pantelis Varvaki Rados; Isabel da Silva Lauxen; Luhana Gedoz; Eduardo Aydos Villarinho; Vania Fontanella

2007-01-01

326

Malacoplakia: Case report in tongue and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malakoplakia is a relatively uncommon chronic inflammatory reaction of unknown etiology. It usually affects the genitourinary tract but may rarely involve the tongue. There are many theories that explain this reaction but it seems to be the answer to an infectious agent in a patient with immunologic deficiency. Microscopically, malakoplakia is characterized by the presence of foamy histiocytes with distinctive

Gloria Jeanethe; Alvarez Gómez; Martha Lucía; Marín Botero; Cecilia Amparo; Henao Calle; Francisco Levy Duque; Gloria J. Alvarez Gómez

327

Innervation of the arteriovenous anastomoses in the dog tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of nerve plexuses in the arteriovenous anastomoses of the dog tongue were investigated by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Three-dimensional morphology of the vascular nerves was examined after removal of the connective tissue components by the HCl-hydrolysis method. Tight bending and a rich nerve supply were the most characteristic features of the anastomosing channels. The tunica media consisted

T. Iijima; T. Kondo; K. Nishijima; T. Tanaka

1989-01-01

328

Base of tongue varices associated with portal hypertension.  

PubMed

A symptomatic case of tongue base varices in a patient with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis is presented. There are no previously documented cases in the world literature. Oesophageal varices may not be the only source of expectorated blood in a patient with portal hypertension. PMID:10964125

Jassar, P; Jaramillo, M; Nunez, D A

2000-09-01

329

[Hemoptysis from dorsal tongue base varices secondary to portal hypertension].  

PubMed

Portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis of the liver is the main factor leading to the formation of portosystemic collaterals. The sites of such collateral circulation are well known. We describe a case of haemoptysis from dorsal tongue base varices, which are not recognised as portosystemic anastomosis, in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension. PMID:11822098

Castiglione, U; Curcio, M; Salvaggio, S; Vancheri, F

2001-12-01

330

Plexiform hypoglossal schwannoma of the tongue and the submandibular region.  

PubMed

Hypoglossal schwannomas usually develop in the intracranial portion of the brain. Incidence of hypoglossal schwannomas of the submandibular region is extremely rare. A 27-year-old patient presented to us with hypoglossal schwannoma of the tongue and the submandibular region. The tumor was excised intraorally combined with submandibular approach. Histopathologic examination revealed a plexiform schwannoma (a rare variant). PMID:22976661

Al-Mahdi, Akmam H; Al-Khurrhi, Luay E; Atto, Ghada Z; Dhaher, Ameer

2012-09-01

331

Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens…

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

2013-01-01

332

7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF ROLLER FOR EARTH COMPACTING, WITH LOG TONGUE FOR STOCK, BUILT ON-SITE AND USED TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

333

Technique potential for classification of honey by electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic tongue was used to classify honey samples of different floral origins and geographical origins. Eight kinds of honeys of different floral origins and five kinds of Acacia honeys of different geographical origins were detected. The data obtained were analyzed by three-pattern recognition techniques: Principal component analysis (PCA), Cluster analysis (CA), and Artificial neural network (ANN). It was possible

Zhenbo Wei; Jun Wang; Wenyan Liao

2009-01-01

334

Detecting the Edge of the Tongue: A Tutorial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this paper is to provide a tutorial introduction to the topic of edge detection of the tongue from ultrasound scans for researchers in speech science and phonetics. The method introduced here is Active Contours (also called snakes), a method for searching for an edge, assuming that it is a smooth curve in the image data. The advantage…

Iskarous, Khalil

2005-01-01

335

Super-resolution reconstruction for tongue MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the tongue have been used in both clinical medicine and scientific research to reveal tongue structure and motion. In order to see different features of the tongue and its relation to the vocal tract it is beneficial to acquire three orthogonal image stacks-e.g., axial, sagittal and coronal volumes. In order to maintain both low noise and high visual detail, each set of images is typically acquired with in-plane resolution that is much better than the through-plane resolution. As a result, any one data set, by itself, is not ideal for automatic volumetric analyses such as segmentation and registration or even for visualization when oblique slices are required. This paper presents a method of super-resolution reconstruction of the tongue that generates an isotropic image volume using the three orthogonal image stacks. The method uses preprocessing steps that include intensity matching and registration and a data combination approach carried out by Markov random field optimization. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated on five clinical datasets, yielding superior results when compared with conventional reconstruction methods.

Woo, Jonghye; Bai, Ying; Roy, Snehashis; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

2012-02-01

336

Reconstruction of High Resolution Tongue Volumes from MRI  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the tongue have been used in both clinical studies and scientific research to reveal tongue structure. In order to extract different features of the tongue and its relation to the vocal tract, it is beneficial to acquire three orthogonal image volumes—e.g., axial, sagittal, and coronal volumes. In order to maintain both low noise and high visual detail and minimize the blurred effect due to involuntary motion artifacts, each set of images is acquired with an in-plane resolution that is much better than the through-plane resolution. As a result, any one data set, by itself, is not ideal for automatic volumetric analyses such as segmentation, registration, and atlas building or even for visualization when oblique slices are required. This paper presents a method of super-resolution volume reconstruction of the tongue that generates an isotropic image volume using the three orthogonal image volumes. The method uses preprocessing steps that include registration and intensity matching and a data combination approach with the edge-preserving property carried out by Markov random field optimization. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated on fifteen clinical datasets, preserving anatomical details and yielding superior results when compared with different reconstruction methods as visually and quantitatively assessed.

Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

337

Modeling and animating the human tongue during speech production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geometric and kinematic model for describing the global shape and the predominant motions of the human tongue, to be applied in computer animation, is discussed. The model consists of a spatial configuration of moving points that form the vertices of a mesh of 9 3-D triangles. These triangles are interpreted as charge centres (the so-called skeleton) for a potential

Catherine Pelachaud; Chin Seah

1994-01-01

338

Pigmented Macules of the Tongue following Fixed Drug Eruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case with fixed drug eruption involving only an unusual site is reported. The patient was a 35-year-old Japanese woman who showed bizzare pigmented macules on the dorsum of the tongue; they were demonstrated to have been caused by fixed drug eruption due to aminopyrine contained in a medicine for headache which she had taken occasionally for the past 10

H. Tagami

1973-01-01

339

Effect of dentofacial deformity on maximum isometric tongue strength.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether dentofacial deformities (class II and class III) influence maximum isometric tongue strength compared with a group without deformities. A total of 126 adult patients participated in the study. Of these, 45 had a class II diagnosis (14 men and 31 women) and 81 a class III diagnosis (35 men and 46 women), all of them with indication of orthognathic surgery. Fifty adult volunteers (17 men and 33 women) with no changes in dental occlusion (class I) and with no clinical signs of dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint represented the control group. Tongue strength (in N) was measured with a dynamometer. The maximum strength of the anterior portion was determined with the instrument positioned on the retroincisor region and the maximum strength of the dorsum with the instrument positioned in the region of the hard palate. Data were analysed statistically by analysis of variance (anova) and by the Pearson correlation test. No significant difference (P > 0·05) in tongue strength in the anterior or dorsal region was observed between the groups with dentofacial deformities or between these groups and the control. The tongue strength of the anterior and dorsal regions was not influenced by the dentofacial deformity. PMID:23216277

da Silva, J B; Giglio, L D; Regalo, S H; de Mello-Filho, F V; Trawitzki, L V V

2012-12-06

340

PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

1990-04-01

341

Acute effects of irradiation on middle ear mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Single field, fixed irradiation of bilateral tympanic cavities using 200-kV x-rays was administered to five guinea pigs. The irradiation dose was 30 Gy. They were killed immediately after irradiation, and bilateral middle ear mucosa was examined for ciliary activity and epithelial structure. Significant deterioration of the ciliary activity in the middle ear mucosa was observed, proximal as well as distal to the eustachian tube. Electron microscopy showed various changes in the irradiated middle ear mucosa. The most conspicuous findings were hyperreactivity in secretion, vacuolation of ciliated cells, and stomal edema.

Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Esaki, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Onoyama, Y.

1988-03-01

342

Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

2011-01-01

343

Antimutagenic activity and preventive effect of black tea on buccal mucosa cancer  

PubMed Central

A black tea product was evaluated for anti-mutagenic and in vivo anticancer effects. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, black tea exhibited anti-mutagenicity with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. A Kunming (KM) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with black tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the groups treated with different concentrations of black tea were smaller than the control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that cancer development in the black tea groups was weaker compared with that in the control group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the black tea groups demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression, compared with the control groups. The results demonstrated that black tea had an improved antimutagenic effect and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with the untreated control in mice.

QIAN, YU; ZHU, KAI; WANG, QIANG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHAO, XIN

2013-01-01

344

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

A distinctive type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma recapitulates the cytomorphologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Typically, these MALT lymphomas arise from sites normally devoid of lymphoid tissue, but are preceded by chronic inflammatory, usually autoimmune, disorders that result in the accumulation of lymphoid tissue. The stomach is the most common site of MALT lymphoma, which arises from lymphoid tissue acquired as the result of Helicobacter pylori infection. The indolent clinical behavior of gastric MALT lymphoma coupled with certain histologic features suggests that its growth is subject to immunologic stimuli, and the role of H pylori in this respect has been examined in detail. In vitro experiments have shown that the growth of lymphoma cells is stimulated by contact with T cells, which, in turn, show strain specific responses to heat-killed H pylori. Clinically, approximately 70% of cases of stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma regress following eradication of H pylori with antibiotics. Large, deeply invasive tumors and those that have undergone high-grade transformation typically do not respond to antibiotic therapy. Other common sites of MALT lymphoma include the salivary glands, lung, and ocular adnexa. The clinicopathologic features of these lymphomas are remarkably similar to gastric MALT lymphoma, which suggests that they, too, may be antigen-driven. PMID:10319382

Isaacson, P G

1999-04-01

345

[Changes in gastric mucosa in acute malaria].  

PubMed

A high incidence rate of Malaria is observed at Bolívar state (Venezuela) and, beside classic acute symptomatology, we have observed gastric symptoms like epigastralgia, anorexia, nausea and vomits. The scope of this study is to establish changes of gastric mucosa related to Plasmodium infection, using macro and microscopic technics. One hundred both sex patients with Malaria diagnosis done with thick drop technic and gastric symptomatology were studied in our department from March 1990 to February 1991. The esophagus, stomach and duodenum of all patients were evaluated with upper digestive tract endoscopy and still photographs, and biopsies of fundus, body and antrum were taken, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and stained with hematoxylin-eosine method. P. falciparum was found in 52 cases, P. vivax in 39 and 9 infected with both, most of patients complained of shivering fever, epigastralgia (76%), nausea and vomits (72%), tartness (25%) and burning pain (21%). Mucosal edema and congestion (gastritis) were the endoscopic findings in 88% of cases, usually located at antrum (67%) and fundus (33%). The microscopic findings were: mucosal edema (90%), superficial bleeding (87%), microthrombosis (60%), gastric atrophy (40%) and intestinal metaplasia (8%). Acute gastric symptomatology we have observed in patients with acute malaria my be due to microthrombosis and arteriolar occlusion, leading to ischemic changes and mucosal edema. These pathophysiological changes explain most of upper digestive tract symptoms in acute malaria, particularly when agent is P. falciparum. We have not found related papers in bibliography. PMID:8112547

Romero, A; Matos, C; González, M M; Nuñez, N; Bermudez, L; de Castro, G

346

Internal kinematics of the tongue in relation to muscle activity and jaw movement in the pig  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY To explore the coordinative characteristics of tongue deformation, muscle activity and jaw movement during feeding, six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue body of ten 12-week-old Yucatan minipigs 1 week before the recording. These crystals formed a wedge-shaped configuration to allow recording dimensional changes in lengths, anterior and posterior widths and posterior thicknesses of the tongue body during feeding. Wire electromyographic activities (EMG) of superior and inferior longitudinalis, verticalis/transversus, genioglossus, styloglossus, masseter and digastricus and jaw movements were recorded simultaneously. Signals from these three sources were synchronized for real-time analyses. The results indicate: (i) dimensional changes were stereotypical in relation to each cycle of all three feeding behaviours; (ii) during chewing, expansion of tongue widths mainly occurred in the occlusal phase of jaw movement and was less coupled with the activity of tongue muscles, but the expansions of length and thickness were seen in the opening and closing phases and were better coupled with the activity of tongue muscles (P < 0·05); (iii) ingestion was characterized by the two-phased jaw opening, early expansion of anterior width prior to the occlusal phase and strong associations between tongue deformation and muscle activity; (iv) during drinking, the duration of the opening and closing phases was significantly prolonged (P < 0·01), the durations of tongue widening and lengthening were significantly shortened (P < 0·05) and anterior widening was predominant in the opening rather than in the closing or occlusal phases as compared with chewing and ingestion; and (v) the intrinsic tongue muscles did not show more or stronger correlations with the tongue deformation than did the extrinsic tongue muscles. These results suggest that (i) regional widening, lengthening and thickening of the tongue body occurs sequentially in relation to jaw movement phases, but the initiation of tongue dimensional expansions does not correspond with the activation of tongue muscles simultaneously; (ii) there is a better coupling between tongue deformations and tongue muscle activations in the sagittal (lengthening and thickening) than the transverse (widening) planes; and (iii) the patterns and ranges of tongue deformation and their relations to muscle activity and jaw movement are task-specific and the expansion magnitudes of tongue deformation does not have closer correlations with the amount of EMG activity in the intrinsic than the extrinsic tongue or jaw muscles.

LIU, Z.-J.; SHCHERBATYY, V.; KAYALIOGLU, M.; SEIFI, A.

2012-01-01

347

Effect of hydrogen peroxide on guinea pig nasal mucosa vasculature.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on guinea pig nasal mucosa vasculature was studied by in vitro assay. H2O2 elicited relaxation of guinea pig nasal mucosa strips precontracted with phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner. The relaxant response to H2O2 was abolished in the presence of catalase. Preincubation of the strips with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or methylene blue significantly attenuated the relaxant responses elicited by H2O2. Fluorescence caused by DAF-2 DA, a fluorescence indicator for nitric oxide, was observed along the nasal mucosa vasculature in response to H2O2. These results suggest that H2O2 induced relaxation of the guinea pig nasal mucosa vasculature and that this relaxation is mediated by the NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:11202622

Hirai, T; Tsuru, H; Tanimitsu, N; Takumida, M; Watanabe, H; Yajin, K; Sasa, M

2000-12-01

348

Recurrent Kawasaki disease with strawberry tongue and skin desquamation in a young adult.  

PubMed

A 19-year-old man with history of Kawasaki disease (KD) at age 12 developed intractable fevers, swelling in hands and feet, arthralgias, and conjunctivitis, followed by strawberry tongue and desquamation of distal extremities. Laboratory studies revealed leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, and mildly elevated liver enzymes. He was empirically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics without any improvement. Extensive infectious and rheumatologic workup remained negative. Recurrence of KD was diagnosed based on characteristic mucocutaneous changes and systemic inflammatory response. His symptoms and laboratory values responded rapidly to intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin therapy. An echocardiogram did not show any coronary abnormality. We report the third case of pediatric KD relapsing in adulthood. Similar to childhood and adult KD, these recurrent episodes respond well to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Although recurrent KD is rare, our case highlights the importance of considering it in the differential of febrile illness in the appropriate individual. PMID:22334262

Yuan, Kristy; Park, Jin Kyun; Qubti, Marzouq A; Haque, Uzma J

2012-03-01

349

Gelatin sponge-supported histoculture of human nasal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Considerable progress has recently been made in the understanding of airway inflammation by cell culture assays and in vivo\\u000a provocation studies. Inasmuch as ethical considerations limit experimental work in humans, physiologically relevant in vitro\\u000a models are required to better understand cellular and molecular tissue interactions in human nasal mucosa. Here we describe\\u000a a human nasal mucosa culture model utilizing a

Katrin Schierhorn; Tilo Brunnée; Ralf Paus; Klaus-Detlev Schultz; Jochen Niehus; Parwis Agha-Mir-Salim; Gert Kunkel

1995-01-01

350

One stage multilevel surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, hyoid suspension, radiofrequent ablation of the tongue base with\\/without genioglossus advancement), in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the surgical results of a one tempo multilevel surgical approach of the upper airway to treat patients with obstructive\\u000a sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in a prospective case series. Twenty-two patients with OSAS and obstruction at both palatinal\\u000a and tongue base level, as assessed by sleep endoscopy, underwent UPPP, RFTB, HS with or without GA in one operative session.

Wietske Richard; Dennis Kox; Cindy den Herder; Harm van Tinteren; Nico de Vries

2007-01-01

351

Molecular Detection of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans as the Etiological Agent of a Chronic Tongue Ulcer in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient  

PubMed Central

Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect “American histoplasmosis.” A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin.

Heym, Beate; Gehanno, Pierre; Friocourt, Veronique; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Le Moal, Michele; Husson, Corinne; Leibowitch, Jacques; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Helene

2005-01-01

352

Treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the floor of the mouth and tongue by interstitial high-dose-rate irradiation using iridium-192  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of afterloading high-dose-rate-radiation with iridium-192 in 34 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the floor of the mouth and tongue. Some patients were also treated surgically or given percutaneous radio- or chemotherapy. At the time of diagnosis, 28.0% had a T2 tumour, 41.9% a T3 tumour and 30.1% a T4 tumour. 41.2% had positive lymph nodes

M. Klein; H. Menneking; A. Langford; K. Koch; H. Stahl

1998-01-01

353

Dental changes evaluated with a 3D computer-assisted model analysis after long-term tongue retaining device wear in OSA patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral appliances (OAs) have been used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients for decades. However, detailed dental\\u000a side effects in long-term OA cases analyzed with an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement tool have seldom been reported.\\u000a The purpose of this study is to evaluate dental side effects in five OSA patients, who had used a tongue retaining device\\u000a (TRD) (with

Hui Chen; Alan A. Lowe; Arthur M. Strauss; Fernanda Riberiro de Almeida; Hiroshi Ueda; John A. Fleetham; Bangkang Wang

2008-01-01

354

Regional Volumetric Change of the Tongue during Mastication in Pigs  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Structure and movement of the tongue have been studied extensively, but little has been done on its 3D deformation and ensuing volumetric changes during various functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the volumetric changes of a regional section of the tongue during feeding. Four 12-week-old Yucatan miniature pigs were used. During natural mastication and water drinking, the width, length, thickness, and volumetric changes were measured using six implanted ultrasonic crystals, which circumscribed a wedge-shaped volume in the region of the tongue body. Jaw movements were videotaped and digitized. Signals from these two sources were synchronized to allow real-time analyses. Significant volumetric changes (p<0.001) were found in chewing, ingestion and drinking, and these changes were stereotypical in relation to rhythmic jaw movements. Volumetric change during chewing was not only more regular, but significantly larger (45.6%, p < 0.001) than that during ingestion (31.4%). The volumetric changes were less regular in drinking and the changing range (30.4%) was close to that during ingestion. Real-time analysis indicated that the volume began increasing at late jaw closing and reached the peak at late power stroke. The duration of volume increase only took up 33.4% of the total chewing cycle length, significantly shorter than that of volume decrease. Correlation analysis revealed that the change in posterior dorsal and ventral widths had the greatest positive association with volumetric change (r = 0.43) in direction. The covariance calculations further indicated that dimensional changes in length and thickness coupled negatively with volumetric changes in amplitude. These results revealed that regional volumetric change of the tongue occurs during feeding, and chewing requires larger volumetric changes than do ingestion and drinking. Volumetric expansion occurs in the phase of power stroke during chewing and is coupled with increases of widths in the direction and with decreases of thickness and length in the amplitude. The results further suggested that the regional volumetric expansion may play the determinant role in functional load production on its surrounding tissues, and may also imply that neuromuscular control of the tongue is region-specific, incompatible with traditional scheme of muscle categorization of the tongue.

LIU, Z. J.; YAMAMURA, B.; SHCHERBATYY, V.; GREEN, J. R.

2007-01-01

355

Possible enhancing activity of diacylglycerol on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced carcinogenesis of the tongue in human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats.  

PubMed

1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) is involved in cell proliferation as an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and has been shown to stimulate growth of cancer cells, raising the possibility of a role in tumor promotion. Ingested DAG oil, containing 70% 1,3-DAG and 30% 1,2-DAG, is digested and considered to be safe as edible oil. However, DAG may directly contact with oral cavity mucosa in undigested form. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of DAG oil on carcinogenesis in c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic (Tg) rats administered 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO, 10 ppm) in their drinking water for 10 weeks for initiation of mainly upper digestive organs. DAG oil added in basal diet at 5.5%, 2.75%, 1.38% and 0% with total fat made up to 5.5% with triacylglycerol (TAG) was administered during the initiation and post-initiation period. The study was terminated at week 12 (Tg females) and 20 (Tg males, wild females and males). The fatty acid composition of DAG oil was similar to TAG (linoleic acid 46.6% and oleic acid 38.9%). In Tg male rats, DAG oil administration was associated with significant increase (P<0.05) in the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the tongue (5.5% DAG, 43.8%; 2.75% DAG, 20%; 1.38% DAG, 14.3%; 0%, 12.3%) with the Cochran-Armitage trend test and also number of tumors in coefficients for linear contrast trend tests. Tongue SCC induction of wild males and all females was not significant. The present results suggest that DAG oil may have enhancing and/or promotion potential for tongue carcinogenesis in male Tg featuring elevated ras expression. PMID:17258375

Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Iigo, Masaaki; Takasuka, Nobuo; Ueda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Yutaka; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Hirano, Sachiko; Matsuda, Eiji; Wakabayashi, Keiji

2006-12-20

356

Patterns of oral mucosa lesions in patients with epidermolysis bullosa: comparison and agreement between oral medicine and dermatology.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The oral mucosa in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) can be affected with different lesions and degrees of severity. However, patterns of oral lesions in distinct types of EB are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of four types of lesions (erythema, erosion, atrophy, and blister) for each oral site and to calculate the interobserver reliability for each type of lesion in each site. METHODS: Ninety-two patients with different EB types were assessed independently by an oral medicine specialist and a dermatologist. The degree of agreement was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: The most affected oral site was the tongue, with the most frequent lesion being erythema and atrophy [54(58.7%) patients] for the oral medicine specialist and erosion [54(58.7%) patients] for the dermatologist. Patients with recessive dystrophic EB-severe generalized (RDEB-sev gen) showed the highest mean of sites involved by each lesion for both oral medicine and dermatology. The interobserver reliability on the total of lesions was excellent on only 3 sites: lower lip (ICC: 0.89; 95%CI:0.83-0.92), hard palate (ICC:0.85; 95%CI:0.72-0.91), and tongue (ICC:0.89; 95%CI:0.84-0.92), whereas the interobserver reliability calculated for each single oral lesion showed a lower agreement. CONCLUSION: Total distribution of sites involved by four types of lesions was higher in RDEB-sev gen than in the rest of EB types, with a predominance of erythema followed by erosion. The agreement on the type of lesion was found to be poor-moderate for many oral sites. PMID:23772832

Fortuna, Giulio; Lozada-Nur, Francina; Pollio, Annamaria; Aria, Massimo; Cepeda-Valdes, Rodrigo; Marinkovich, Matt Peter; Bruckner, Anna L; Salas-Alanís, Julio Cesar

2013-06-15

357

Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphoma of gastric-mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) type has been linked to infection with Helicobacter pylori. We investigated the effect on MALT lymphoma of eradicating H pylori infection. 33 patients with primary gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma associated with H pylori gastritis were treated with omeprazole (120 mg daily) and amoxycillin (2·25 g daily) for 14 days to eradicate H pylori. In

E. Bayerdörffer; B. Rudolph; A. Neubauer; C. Thiede; N. Lehn; S. Eidt; M. Stolte

1995-01-01

358

Malignant lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)--consecutive unusual manifestation in the rectum and gingiva.  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are characterized by a preferential mucosal manifestation. Each organ system may be involved. Exclusively local growth is usually treated with surgical tumour reduction, combined with radiotherapy. In cases of tumour dissemination, chemotherapy is warranted. Follow-up should be performed closely. This case report highlights an unexpected recurrence of NHL in the oral MALT, four years after primary manifestation in the rectum. PMID:8315597

Bschorer, R; Lingenfelser, T; Kaiserling, E; Schwenzer, N

1993-04-01

359

Selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition causes damage to portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: roles of nitric oxide and NF-kappaB.  

PubMed

Portal hypertension (PHT) is associated with increased susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to injury by a variety of factors, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that nonselectively inhibit both isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2). PHT gastric mucosa also has excessive nitric oxide (NO) production that contributes to the general increased susceptibility to injury. Using a rat model of PHT, we studied whether selective COX inhibition, which does not damage normal (normotensive) gastric mucosa, is sufficient to cause PHT gastric damage and, if so, whether and how excessive NO is involved. Indomethacin, a nonselective NSAID, caused 2.4-fold more gastric injury to PHT vs. normotensive sham-operated (SO) control rats. Neither NS-398 nor celecoxib, selective COX-2 inhibitors, caused gastric damage in either SO or PHT rats. SC-560, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, did not cause gastric damage in SO rats but dose-dependently caused gastric damage in PHT rats. There was a compensatory increase in COX-2 expression and activity in SC-560-treated SO rats but not SC-560-treated PHT rats. Partial inhibition of NO production restored gastric COX-2 expression and activity levels in SC-560-treated PHT rats to those of SC-560-treated SO rats, by a mechanism consistent with induction of NF-kappaB, and significantly reduced gastric damage. These studies indicate that, in contrast to normotensive gastric mucosa, inhibition of COX-1 alone is sufficient to cause PHT gastric damage as a result of excessive NO that prevents the induction of NF-kappaB and the compensatory increase in COX-2. PMID:15845610

Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Sarfeh, I James; Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hashizume, Makoto; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Jones, Michael K

2005-04-21

360

Validity and Reliability of Logopedic Assessments of Tongue Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective:\\u000a   This study investigated the validity and reliability of\\u000a logopedic assessments of tongue function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods:\\u000a   At two practices for myofunctional\\u000a therapy, diagnosis of tongue dysfunction according to Kittel\\u000a (1984, 1996, 2008) was carried out in 52 subjects (aged 5 to 63\\u000a years) by three speech pathologists at each practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results:\\u000a   The agreement of the logopedic assessments was

Juliane Mehnert; Helga Landau; Helmut Orawa; Anita Kittel; Maren Krause; Sylvia Engel; Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann; Ralf Müller-Hartwich

2009-01-01

361

An unusual metastatic site of tongue carcinoma: shoulder muscles.  

PubMed

The incidence of skeletal muscle metastases is reported to be less than 1% of metastases of haematogenous origin. Distant skeletal muscle metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are exceedingly rare. Only a case with tongue carcinoma metastasized to paravertebral muscles, has been reported so far. The reasons for the rarity of metastatic involvement of skeletal muscle are still unclear. The presence of skeletal muscle metastases in the setting of disseminated disease offers no hope for curative treatment. We report an unusual case of a 63-year-old patient with tongue carcinoma metastasizing to the left shoulder muscles. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported in the English medical literature. PMID:17964101

Yurut-Caloglu, Vuslat; Caloglu, Murat; Oz-Puyan, Fulya; Unlu, Ercument; Karagol, Hakan; Ibis, Kamuran; Uzal, Cem

2007-10-25

362

Computed tomography of the tongue and floor of the mouth  

SciTech Connect

The anatomy of the tongue and floor of the mouth is readily discernible by computed tomography (CT) because of low-density fascial planes that outline the extrinsic musculature, lingual arteries, and hypoglossal nerves. Although the tongue is accessible to the examining finger, few patients can tolerate a detailed palpation. In planning for a partial glossectomy, CT scanning aids the surgeon who must be sure that the tumor is unilateral or that at least one lingual artery and one hypoglossal nerve can be preserved. The CT scans of 30 patients were reviewed for background anatomy. Pathologic changes are summarized for 16 extrinsic lesions and 11 intrinsic tumors. The status of the midline could be confirmed in 28 of the 30 patients. The fascial plane distortions by malignant intrinsic and extrinsic lesions are discussed.

Larsson, S.G.; Mancuso, A.; Hanafee, W.

1982-05-01

363

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mobile tongue: A rare case  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) occurs more commonly in the minor salivary glands of the palate on than the tongue. ACC is a malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1-2% of all head and neck malignancies and 10-15% of all salivary gland malignancies. ACC affects the exocrine glands at any site, but the parotid gland is the most common site in the head and neck region. Many factors should be taken into account in the prognosis of ACC, including the histological and clinical stages of the disease. The most striking feature of ACC is that it is locally aggressive, with a high recurrence level, perineural invasion and distant metastases, especially to the lungs and bones. The most common presentation histologically is the presence of cribriform appearance (Swiss cheese pattern). The present case is a rare one present on the tongue.

Baskaran, Pavitra; Mithra, R; Sathyakumar, M; Misra, Satyaranjan

2012-01-01

364

Bilateral lymphoepithelial cyst of the tongue: a case report.  

PubMed

A lymphoepithelial cyst (LC) is a rare occurrence in the oral cavity, lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is surrounded by diffuse lymphoid tissue, that often contains lymphoid follicles. The clinical aspect of oral LC includes an asymptomatic yellowish nodule (less than 10 mm) with regular surface and soft consistency. It usually affects the floor of the mouth and the ventral and posterolateral surfaces of the tongue in adult male patients. To date, approximately 280 cases of LC in the oral cavity have been reported in the literature; however, none of them appear bilaterally. This article presents the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of a unique bilateral LC in the posterolateral region of the tongue. PMID:24064160

Silva, Igor Henrique Morais; Romanach, Mario Jose; Carvalho, Alessandra Tavares; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Leao, Jair Carneiro; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

365

Tongue-palate contact of perceptually acceptable alveolar stops.  

PubMed

Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of /t/, 13 /d/ and 11 /n/) to those produced by eight typical children (32 /t/, 24 /d/ and 16 /n/). The results showed that children with SSD had significantly higher percent contact than the typical children for target /t/; the difference for /d/ and /n/ was not significant. Children with SSD generally showed more contact in the posterior central area of the palate than the typical children. The results suggested that broader tongue-palate contact is a general articulatory feature for children with SSD and its differential effect on error perception might be related to the different articulatory requirements. PMID:23489342

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'Donovan, Cliona

2013-04-01

366

Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a case report.  

PubMed

Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:21133006

Morowati, Saeid; Yasini, Mobin; Ranjbar, Reza; Peivandi, Ali Asghar; Ghadami, Mohsen

367

Quality of Life Related to Swallowing After Tongue Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgical treatment of tongue cancer, with or without reconstruction and\\/or radiotherapy, leads to different levels of\\u000a voice, speech, and deglutition disorders. Evaluating the quality of life related to these swallowing alterations is important\\u000a to further our knowledge about the impact of such alterations from the patient’s point of view. Our objective was to describe\\u000a the quality of life related

Anna Karinne Costa Bandeira; Elma H. M. Azevedo; José Guilherme Vartanian; Inês N. Nishimoto; Luiz Paulo Kowalski; Elisabete Carrara-de Angelis

2008-01-01

368

Waveform effects of a metastable olivine tongue in subducting slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed velocity models of subducting slabs with a kinetically-depressed olivine ? ?- and ?-spinel transition, and examined the effect that such structures would have on teleseismic P waveforms using a full-wave finite-difference method. These two-dimensional calculations yielded waveforms at a range of distances in the downdip direction. The slab models included a wedge-shaped, low-velocity metastable olivine tongue (MOTO) to

John E. Vidale; Quentin Williams; Heidi Houston

1991-01-01

369

Waveform effects of a metastable olivine tongue in subducting slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velocity models of subducting slabs with a kinetically-depressed olivine to beta- and gamma-spinel transition are constructed, and the effect that such structures would have on teleseismic P waveforms are examined using a full-wave finite-difference method. These 2D calculations yielded waveforms at a range of distances in the downdip direction. The slab models included a wedge-shaped, low-velocity metastable olivine tongue (MOTO)

John E. Vidale; Quentin Williams; Heidi Houston

1991-01-01

370

Clocking convergence to Arnold tongues - The H-rank approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational techniques based on ranks of Hankel matrices (H-ranks) is used to study the convergence to Arnold tongues in the circle map. It appears that the process of convergence to the phase-locked mode of the discrete stationary attractor is far from being trivial. Figures of pseudoranks of Hankel matrices constructed from transient solutions of the circle map carry important physical information about complex nonlinear processes and are also beautiful from the aesthetical point of view.

Landauskas, Mantas; Ragulskis, Minvydas

2013-10-01

371

Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

1984-10-01

372

Sporamin induce apoptosis in human tongue carcinoma cells by down-regulating Akt/GSK-3 signaling.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of sporamin, the major soluble protein with a kunitz-type trypsin inhibitory activity in the root tuber of the sweet potato, on cell proliferation, apoptosis, Akt/GSK-3 signaling and its related genes to provide more insights in the mechanism behind the inhibitory effects of sporamin in a human tongue cancer line Tca8113. In this study, sporamin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in Tca8113 cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Consistently, Bax was up-regulated and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in sporamin-treated cells. Furthermore, Akt/GSK-3 signaling was down-regulated in sporamin-treated cells. Consistently, the phosphorylated Bad was significantly declined in sporamin-treated Tca8113 cells. These results suggest the antiproliferative effects of sporamin in Tca8113 cells might result partly from induction of apoptosis by down-regulating Akt/GSK-3 pathway. PMID:20408878

Yao, Jun; Qian, Cuijuan

2011-04-01

373

Tongue cancer in young patients: case report of a 26-year-old patient  

PubMed Central

Introduction This article presents the case of a 26-year-old woman with tongue cancer. The median age at the diagnosis of the tongue’s cancer is 61?years. Only approximately 2% of patients are diagnosed before the age of 35. Case presentation Our patient survived acute myeloid leukemia (AML) before her second year. She had been having recurrent, poorly healing aphtae on the right side of the tongue for a period of months before the symptoms of the tongue cancer appeared. As a treatment a partial glossectomy was conducted on the right side and a neck dissection of levels I-III. Than a reconstruction of the tongue with a radialis free vascularised flap from left side was performed. Discussion It should be always looked for the causal factor in young patients with a neoplasm. There is strong evidence for second malignant neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer.

2012-01-01

374

A patient with untreated tongue carcinoma surviving for 15 years.  

PubMed

A rare case of untreated tongue carcinoma survived for 15 years is presented. A 43-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with a 1.8 cm x 1.0 cm white and red non-indurated lesion of the left border of the tongue. The histological examination showed a diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. We informed the patient and her family that she had a Stage I tongue carcinoma and needed to receive treatment immediately. However, they refused treatment. Fifteen years later, the patient presented again, complaining of a 55 mm x 40 mm painful gradual-growth swelling of the same site as before, and the clinical stage was T3N2aM0 (Stage IV). The patient agreed to receive radical surgery following preoperative chemoradiotherapy this time. Currently the patient has been free of recurrence for 4 years. Clinical and immunohistochemical features of this rare case are presented and discussed. PMID:15741043

Kirita, T; Kajihara, A; Choudhury, C R; Inoue, M; Maeda, M; Yasumoto, J; Tatebayashi, S

2005-05-01

375

Seismic stratigraphy of Veracruz Tongue, deep southwestern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Veracruz Tongue is a region of continental slope and rise sediments bounded bathymetrically by the Mexican Ridges fold belt to the west and the Campeche Knolls salt province to the east. Study of two multichannel seismic lines and single-fold sparker data enables five post-early Miocene seismic stratigraphic sequences to be distinguished in the tongue. Sedimentary processes responsible for deposition of each sequence are inferred on the basis of external geometry, internal reflection configuration, and, where possible, core data. The five sequences are each interpreted to consist of turbidites grading laterally into hemipelagites. These primary deposits may be modified later by downslope creep or sliding and slumping. Because bathymetry is a major control on location of turbidity-current flows, slides, and slumps, the depositional history of the Veracruz Tongue provides indirect evidence of tectonic evolution of the Mexican Ridges fold belt and the Campeche Knolls salt province. Salt domes first formed a barrier to turbidity-current flow from the east at the close of the middle Miocene. The Mexican Ridges fold belt evolved gradually until it formed a complete barrier to turbidity-current flow from the west at the close of the Pliocene. As a result of shift in direction of turbidity-current flow through time, potentially sand-prone Miocene turbidities are overlain by hemipelagic clays and clayey oozes, a situation favorable to hydrocarbon entrapment.

Bertagne, A.J.

1984-12-01

376

Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent and associated cold tongue variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) is studied using a simulation for the period 1990-2002 with a high-resolution ocean general circulation model. Simulated transports of the EUC that supplies the annual mean upwelling in the central and eastern equatorial Atlantic are in good agreement with new transport estimates derived from ship observations, i.e., 19.9 and 14.0 Sv at 35°W and 23°W, respectively. Although the observations are not conclusive concerning the seasonal cycle of EUC transports, the simulated seasonal cycles fit largely in the observed range. The analysis of the EUC variability associated with interannual boreal summer variability of the equatorial cold tongue showed that cold tongue indices, defined either by near-surface temperature or steric height anomalies, are anticorrelated with thermocline EUC transport anomalies: A strong EUC corresponds to low near-surface temperatures and steric heights. The importance of equatorial waves for the cold tongue region is shown: Surface layer transport anomalies at 23°W and 10°W are significantly correlated with both near-surface temperature and steric height anomalies in the equatorial and coastal upwelling regions, indicating an associated eastward phase propagation along the equator toward the African coast where the signal bifurcates into two poleward branches along the coast and is reflected into a westward propagating wave.

Hormann, Verena; Brandt, Peter

2007-06-01

377

Using Unconstrained Tongue Motion as an Alternative Control Mechanism for Wheeled Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers userspsila intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the

Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo

2009-01-01

378

Rapid development and persistence of a massive Antarctic sea ice tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraordinary sea ice tongue developed near 85°E over a period of 30 days in April-May 2002. The ice tongue extended to the north more than 800 km from the surrounding ice edge and covered an area greater than 200,000 km2. Satellite measurements of ice extent and roughness characteristics demonstrate that the tongue persisted as a distinct feature throughout the

Stephen R. Rintoul; Serguei Sokolov; Robert A. Massom

2008-01-01

379

Rapid development and persistence of a massive Antarctic sea ice tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraordinary sea ice tongue developed near 85°E over a period of 30 days in April–May 2002. The ice tongue extended to the north more than 800 km from the surrounding ice edge and covered an area greater than 200,000 km2. Satellite measurements of ice extent and roughness characteristics demonstrate that the tongue persisted as a distinct feature throughout the

Stephen R. Rintoul; Serguei Sokolov; Robert A. Massom

2008-01-01

380

[The analysis of diagnostic errors by pathological conditions of the tongue].  

PubMed

To study the quality of medical diagnostics by pathological conditions of the tongue the retrospective analysis of 555 medical records of patients with various pathology of the tongue hospitalized in maxillofacial hospitals of Kazan was carried out. The analysis has shown that at a pre-hospital examination the wrong diagnosis was observed in approximately one third of cases. In the vast majority of cases the errors arose by tongue neoplasias. PMID:22678604

Iamashev, I G; Matveev, R S

2012-01-01

381

Expression of adrenomedullin in portal hypertensive gastric mucosa of rats.  

PubMed

We examined the expression and localization of adrenomedullin (AM) mRNA, AM receptor (AM-R) mRNA and AM protein in normal and portal hypertensive (PHT) rat gastric mucosa. Methods included competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR), in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis. Both AM mRNA and AM-R mRNA were strongly expressed not only in normal rat gastric mucosa but also PHT rat gastric mucosa. While total AM and AM-R mRNA abundance was similar in both normal and PHT stomachs, in the superficial mucosa-where major defense mechanisms are located-their expression was significantly reduced in PHT rats by 33% (AM mRNA) and 25% (AM-R mRNA) (both p .0.05). AM protein was also expressed similarly in both normal and PHT gastric mucosa. We conclude that AM and its receptor play a role in regulation of gastric mucosal microcirculation and thus gastric mucosal defense. PMID:9670115

Tomikawa, M; Wang, H; Jones, M K; Sugimachi, K; Sarfeh, I J; Tarnawski, A S

1998-06-01

382

Preservation of anal function after total excision of the anal mucosa for Bowen's disease.  

PubMed Central

Six women with Bowen's disease of the anogenital area were treated by total excision of the anal mucosa, perianal skin and, in some cases, partial vulvectomy. Two patients had foci of microinvasive squamous carcinoma. Adequate tumor margins were determined by frozen sections. The resulting mucosal and cutaneous defects were grafted with medium split-thickness skin grafts applied to the anal canal and sutured circumferentially to the rectal mucosa. Grafts were held in place by a finger cot inserted in the anal canal and stuffed with cotton balls. Patients were constipated five or six days with codeine. The skin grafts healed per primam. One additional patient was similarly treated for a chronic herpetic ulceration of the anus and healed. Contrary to dire predictions, all patients were able to distinguish between gaseous and solid rectal contents and sphincter function was preserved. In one patient, Bowen's disease has recurred in the grafted perianal skin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

Reynolds, V H; Madden, J J; Franklin, J D; Burnett, L S; Jones, H W; Lynch, J B

1984-01-01

383

Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome caused by glossoptosis with tongue-base suspension.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate a surgical method to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) caused by suspected glossoptosis. Seventy-eight patients with OSAHS caused by suspected glossoptosis were non-randomly divided into two groups. The 45 patients in the first group received uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and tongue-base suspension (Repose). The 33 patients in the second group received UPPP alone. Follow-up was conducted over 6 months, and polysomnography was used to determine the effects of treatment. Follow-up results revealed that the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and ESS scores of the patients from both groups were substantially decreased compared to the corresponding values before surgery. The lowest oxygen saturation (LaSo2) of both groups was improved, compared to the level before surgery. The degree of improvement in patients treated with UPPP + Repose was significantly greater than that seen in patients treated with UPPP alone. In the UPPP + Repose group, 17 patients were cured, 23 showed marked improvement, and 5 did not improve. In the UPPP alone group, 1 patient was cured, 16 showed marked improvement, and 16 did not improve. The marked improvement rates of the two groups were 88.9 and 51.5 %, respectively, a significant difference. Patients who show glossopharyngeal obstruction during sleep, and have normal glossopharyngeal airway morphology when awake, should be suspected to have glossoptosis. Repose surgery is an effective operation for the patients with OSAHS suspected glossoptosis. PMID:23649508

Li, Shuhua; Wu, Dahai; Shi, Hongjin

2013-05-07

384

Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength ?ex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

2011-01-01

385

Stensen duct relocation after cheek mucosa tumor resection.  

PubMed

Cheek mucosa cancer might surround Stensen meatus requiring preservation and relocation of the duct. Sialodochoplasty is necessary to avoid subsequent stricture, cheek swelling, and obstructive sequelae that could make following oncologic follow-up difficult. We report a simple successful technique of parotid duct cannulation and relocation in a 77-year-old woman who underwent cheek mucosa tumor resection for squamous cell carcinoma and free fasciocutaneous forearm reconstruction. Ability of milk clear saliva from the duct orifice after 6 weeks from surgery was assessed clinically, and no fistula or swelling was experienced. Stensen duct cannulation and relocation are a useful adjunctive procedure in the treatment of oral mucosa cancer, preserving salivary gland function while not compromising cancer resection. PMID:22627447

Longo, Benedetto; Germano, Silvia; Laporta, Rosaria; Belli, Evaristo; Santanelli, Fabio

2012-05-01

386

Effects of omeprazole treatment on nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in rat gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Increased adenosine concentration inhibits gastric acid secretion in rat via adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, whereas achlorhydria suppresses A1 and A2A receptor gene expression. This study aimed to examine the effects of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria on the expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in rat gastric mucosa. Wistar rats were treated for either 1 or 3 days with 0.4 mmol/kg omeprazole via gavage; controls were treated with vehicle. The expression of nucleoside transporters at the transcript level was explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays; the functional activity of nucleoside transporters in gastric mucosa was explored by observing [3H]adenosine uptake in vitro. Gastric mucosa expressed rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT) 1 and 2, and rat concentrative nucleoside transporter (rCNT) 1, 2, and 3 at the transcript level, and the estimated values for the threshold cycles for target amplification (Ct) were 31.5 +/- 2, 28.5 +/- 2.1, 32.9 +/- 2.2, 29.1 +/- 2, and 28.9 +/- 2.5, respectively (n = 3 or 4). The Ct value for rat beta-actin was 21.9 +/- 1.8 (n = 4). In vitro uptake of [3H]adenosine by gastric mucosa samples consisted of Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components. One-day omeprazole treatment caused no change in nucleoside transporter mRNA levels or in [3H]adenosine uptake. Three-day omeprazole treatments, however, led to a 12-fold and 17-fold increase in rENT2 and rCNT1 mRNA levels, respectively. Samples taken after 3 days of treatment also took up significantly more [3H]adenosine than did samples from the corresponding control. In conclusion, the possible modification of nucleoside transport activities by changes in intraluminal acidity may have significance as part of a purinergic regulatory feedback mechanism in the control of gastric acid secretion. PMID:19448739

Redzic, Zoran B; Hasan, Fuad A; Al-Sarraf, Hameed

2009-05-01

387

Tracheal stenting for primary tracheal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Primary tracheal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is extremely rare. We report a 49-year-old female patient with the complaint of dyspnea. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed polypoid, variable-sized and irregular nodules causing narrowing of the tracheal lumen from the proximal trachea to the left main bronchus. Because of severe stenosis in the airway and the severity of symptoms, this case was unresectable. The patient was then treated successfully with placement of an endobronchial stent through bronchofibroscopy. After the placement of the stent, bronchoscopic biopsy was performed. Pathological analysis confirms a diagnosis of MALT-associated malignant lymphoma. We performed systemic chemotherapy on the patient. The temporary stent was removed after the reduction of the stenosis. This is the first case in which tracheal MALT lymphoma was treated successfully following tracheal stent insertion guided by bronchofibroscopy. Temporary tracheal stenting can be a favorable choice for a patient with tracheal stenosis caused by primary tracheal MALT lymphoma. PMID:23547898

Ding, Juanjuan; Chen, Zhuochang; Shi, Manli

2013-04-02

388

Immunohistochemical evaluation of the muscularis mucosae in the ruminant forestomach.  

PubMed

The muscularis mucosae and condensed fibrous layer of the ruminant forestomach were studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) and gamma-smooth muscle actin (gammaSMA). The specimens were collected from the rumen, reticulum and omasum of cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goat, Barbary sheep, Japanese serow, sika deer and mouse deer. The muscularis mucosae showed immunoreactivity for both alphaSMA and gammaSMA. On the other hand, the condensed fibrous layer appearing between the propria mucosa and tela submucosa was immunoreactive only for alphaSMA except for that in the goat and Barbary sheep reticulum which is intermingled with gammaSMA immunoreactivity. The distribution of muscularis mucosae and/or condensed fibrous layer varied among the compartments of forestomach and ruminant species. In the rumen, only the condensed fibrous layer was detected. On the other hand, the omasum contained only the muscularis mucosae. In the reticulum, both were detected. The amount of the condensed fibrous layer in the reticulum varied among different species in the following order of abundance: goat > Barbary sheep > sika deer> sheep > water buffalo > cattle and Japanese serow. Smooth muscle cells of external muscle layer were immunoreactive for alphaSMA and gammaSMA whereas those of blood vessels and pericytes were immunoreactive only for alphaSMA. The present findings on the actin immunoreactivity and distribution profile of muscularis mucosae and the condensed fibrous layer provide additional knowledge to further understand the histophysiological specialization of the different compartments of the ruminant forestomach. PMID:12823104

Kitamura, N; Yoshiki, A; Sasaki, M; Baltazar, E T; Hondo, E; Yamamoto, Y; Agungpriyono, S; Yamada, J

2003-06-01

389

Diffuse whitening of the oral mucosa in a child.  

PubMed

We report a healthy 16-year-old Caucasian boy, who consulted us for white, asymptomatic lesions in the mouth. The lesions were stable and had been present for 6 years. On physical examination, there were diffuse white, soft, corrugated plaques involving the buccal and labial mucosa, oral commissures, and floor of the mouth. No other mucosae were affected and there were no skin or nail abnormalities. The histologic findings revealed epidermal hyperplasia with parakeratosis and intracellular edema in the squamous cell layer. No nuclear atypia was observed. A differential diagnosis of three entities is proposed: white sponge nevus, leukoedema, and focal epithelial hyperplasia. PMID:9263318

Hernández-Martin, A; Fernández-López, E; de Unamuno, P; Armijo, M

390

Rapid development and persistence of a massive Antarctic sea ice tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extraordinary sea ice tongue developed near 85°E over a period of 30 days in April-May 2002. The ice tongue extended to the north more than 800 km from the surrounding ice edge and covered an area greater than 200,000 km2. Satellite measurements of ice extent and roughness characteristics demonstrate that the tongue persisted as a distinct feature throughout the winter. Remote sensing observations between 1978 and 2004 confirm that ice tongues occur frequently at this location, although the 2002 tongue was particularly pronounced. We show that ocean currents and winds conspire to favor the development of ice tongues at this location. Mean streamlines of the southern part of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current turn sharply to the north near 85°E after passing through the Princess Elisabeth Trough. The edge and northern limit of the ice tongue correspond well with the pattern of mean streamlines. Mean winds in April-May have a dominant southerly component in this location, favoring offshore advection of ice; year-to-year variability in the prominence of the tongue is largely caused by variations in the wind, with northerly (southerly) anomalies inhibiting (promoting) development of a sea ice tongue. Ice drift is strongly northward along the axis of the tongue, suggesting the feature is formed by advection of ice from the south rather than by in situ thermodynamic ice formation. The northward current and sea ice tongue at 85°E are associated with higher biomass at all trophic levels than observed elsewhere in east Antarctica.

Rintoul, Stephen R.; Sokolov, Serguei; Massom, Robert A.

2008-07-01

391

Methimazole toxicity in rodents: covalent binding in the olfactory mucosa and detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Methimazole is an antithyroid drug reported to affect the sense of smell and taste in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution and effects of methimazole on the olfactory system in rodents. Autoradiography showed a selective covalent binding of 3H-labeled methimazole in the Bowman's glands in the olfactory mucosa, bronchial epithelium in the lungs, and centrilobular parts of the liver following an iv injection in mice. Histopathology showed an extensive lesion in the olfactory mucosa that was efficiently repaired 3 months after two consecutive ip doses of methimazole. The effect of methimazole on various brain regions was studied by determining levels and location of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The results showed a threefold increase of GFAP in the olfactory bulb 2 weeks after treatment with methimazole whereas no change was observed 4 days after treatment. Pretreatment of mice with thyroxine did not protect against the methimazole-induced toxicity in the olfactory mucosa and bulb. In contrast, pretreatment with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone completely prevented the covalent binding and toxicity of methimazole in the olfactory mucosa and bulb. The present results suggest that the methimazole-induced toxicity in the olfactory mucosa is mediated by a cytochrome P450-dependent metabolic activation of the compound into reactive metabolites that are bound to various tissues including the olfactory mucosa. The increase of GFAP in the olfactory bulb of methimazole-treated mice is suggested to be a secondary phenomenon due to the primary damage in the olfactory mucosa. PMID:10053173

Bergman, U; Brittebo, E B

1999-03-01

392

Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

1994-10-01

393

Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

1995-03-01

394

Effect of mouth-rinse formulations on oral malodour processes in tongue-derived perfusion biofilm model.  

PubMed

An in vitro matrix biofilm perfusion model of tongue-derived microcosms for studying volatile sulfur compound (VSC) biogenesis has been previously described. The model was modified in order to monitor H(2)S in situ by use of a specialized electrode assembly based on microbial fuel cell technology. This system was designed to give real-time measurements expressed as electrode power output, which were proportional to H(2)S levels, measured by other means. In addition to the model modifications, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the biofilm responses following single or multiple exposure to biocidal, biostatic or VSC-inhibiting active compounds used in products. Tongue-derived biofilms (n = 6 per experiment) were perfused with one-fifth strength BHI at 20 ml h(-1) pH 7.2 and pulsed with putative treatment agent, placebo and controls including Zn(2+) ions and chlorhexidine (CHX). Compared with their pre-treatment conditions, all biofilms responded to the treatments in terms of reductions in hydrogen sulfide generation (as detected by the biofilm-electrode response) and other microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as detected using a selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry analyser. The microbiological analysis of the treated and control biofilms show that test products (formulations with active agents) all gave reduced cell populations compared to the control biofilm. An order of effects (magnitude and duration) suggests that both the test agent and CHX produced the strongest reductions, distinct from the responses obtained for the placebo and water controls, which were largely similar. It is concluded that the in vitro perfusion model may be used to replicate many of the activities and reactions believed to be occurring by the tongue biofilm microflora within a real mouth, including H(2)S and VOC biogenesis and their inhibition by exposure to active agents. PMID:22234955

Saad, S; Hewett, K; Greenman, J

2012-01-10

395

The cold tongue in the South China Sea during boreal winter and its interaction with the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinct cold tongue has recently been noticed in the South China Sea during the winter monsoon, with the cold tongue temperature\\u000a minimum occurring in the January or February. This cold tongue shows significant links with the Maritime Continent’s rainfall\\u000a during the winter period. The cold tongue and its interaction with the Maritime Continent’s weather were studied using Reynolds\\u000a SST

Hamza Varikoden; A. A. Samah; C. A. Babu

2010-01-01

396

The Influence of Stimulus Taste and Chemesthesis on Tongue Movement Timing in Swallowing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids:…

Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

2012-01-01

397

Biomarkers in tongue cancer: understanding the molecular basis and their clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue cancer, one of the most common malignant cancers of the oral cavity, still affects human health worldwide due to its disappointing survival rates, despite significant developments in its multimodality treatment. The predominant cause of death in patients with tongue cancer is the high occurrence of invasion to surrounding tissues, lymph and distant metastasis, and recurrence. Due to the limited

Min Zheng; Li Li; Ya-ling Tang; Xin-hua Liang

2010-01-01

398

Biofilms and the tongue: therapeutical approaches for the control of halitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its location and functions, the tongue is one of the most important anatomic structures in the oral cavity. However, knowledge in regards to its role and implications in oral health and disease is scarce. Moreover, although the dorsum of the tongue seems to harbour one of the most complex microbiological niches in human ecology, the knowledge of the

S. Roldán; D. Herrera; M. Sanz

2003-01-01

399

Spatiotemporal Visualization of the Tongue Surface Using Ultrasound and Kriging (SURFACES)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing the motion of the human tongue surface provides valuable information about speech and swallowing. One method to analyse this motion is to acquire two-dimensional ultrasound images and extract the tongue surface contours from them. Quantitative and statistical analysis of these extracted contours is made difficult because of the absence…

Parthasarathy, Vijay; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

2005-01-01

400

The use of bioimpedance in the detection/screening of tongue cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancers are the 11th most common malignancy reported worldwide, accounting for 3% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases, and one with high mortality ratios among all malignancies. The objectives of this study were therefore to study the electrical properties of cancerous tongue tissue and normal tongue tissue, as well as to investigate a new approach for low-cost, noninvasive, and real-time screening of oral cancer. Twelve tongue cancer patients and twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. A disposable probe with four silver electrodes was used to measure the electrical properties of patient's and healthy subject's tongue tissues at six different frequencies, which were 20Hz, 50kHz, 1.3MHz, 2.5MHz, 3.7MHz and 5MHz. The amplitude of the applied voltage was limited to 200mV. Four measurement parameters of impedance, phase angle, real part of impedance, and imaginary part of impedance of tongue were assessed to see if significant difference in values obtained in patient's and healthy subject's tongue tissues existed. Intraclass correlation coefficient showed that all measurements had good reliability and validity (ICC>0.95 for all measurements). Significant differences were found at 20Hz (p<0.05-0.001 for the four measurement parameters) and 50kHz (p<0.001 for the four measurement parameters) between patient's and healthy subject's tongue tissues. In conclusion, bioimpedance at a particular frequency is a potentially promising technique for tongue cancer screening. PMID:20097150

Sun, Tai-Ping; Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Cheng, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Su-Hua; Chen, Yi-Juai; Hsiao, Chin-Sung; Chang, Ching-Haur; Huang, Shiow-Yuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Liu, Wei-Hao; Liu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yuan

2010-01-22

401

Taste Recognizer by Multi Sensor Electronic Tongue: A Case Study with Tea Quality Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the development of electronic tongue (E-Tongue) and its application in determining the briskness of the black tea liquor. The parameters that determine the qualities of black tea are briskness of tea liquor, flavor, aroma and color. Human experts called \\

Subrata Sarkar; Nabarun Bhattacharyya; Vamshi Krishna Palakurthi

2011-01-01

402

Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

McLeod, Sharynne

2011-01-01

403

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. 319.760... § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a...The moisture content of âDeviled Tongueâ and similar products shall not...

2010-01-01

404

9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. 319.760... § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a...The moisture content of âDeviled Tongueâ and similar products shall not...

2009-01-01

405

Compression of electronic tongue data based on voltammetry — a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, three data compression methods are investigated to determine their ability to reduce large data sets obtained by a voltammetric electronic tongue without loss of information, since compressed data sets will save data storage and computational time. The electronic tongue is based on a combination of non-specific sensors and pattern recognition tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA).

Susanne Holmin; Per Spångeus; Christina Krantz-Rülcker; Fredrik Winquist

2001-01-01

406

Use of an electronic tongue to analyze mold growth in liquid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of employing an electronic tongue to measure the growth of mold in a liquid medium was studied. We used the electronic tongue developed at Linköping University, which is based on pulsed voltammetry and consists of an array of different metal electrodes. Instead of focusing on a single parameter, this device provides information about the condition or quality of

C. Söderström; H. Borén; F. Winquist; C. Krantz-Rülcker

2003-01-01

407

Electronic tongues for environmental monitoring based on sensor arrays and pattern recognition: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sensor arrays and pattern recognition applied to the obtained signal patterns for environmental monitoring are discussed in some detail. Different types of electronic tongues are described and evaluated for monitoring purposes. More specifically the performance of multielectrode arrays used for voltammetric analysis of aqueous samples is described. It is, e.g. shown how such an ‘electronic tongue’ can

Christina Krantz-Rülcker; Maria Stenberg; Fredrik Winquist; Ingemar Lundström

2001-01-01

408

Determination of detergents in washing machine wastewater with a voltammetric electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A voltammetric electronic tongue (ET) and a conductivity meter were used to predict amounts of detergents in process water from washing machines. The amount of detergent in over sixty samples was also determined by a HPLC reference method. Prediction was more accurate for the electronic tongue, but both techniques could be used. The composition of the detergent, e.g. supporting electrolyte,

J. Olsson; P. Ivarsson; F. Winquist

2008-01-01

409

Comparison of a voltammetric electronic tongue and a lipid membrane taste sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic tongue based on voltammetry and a multichannel lipid membrane taste sensor based on potentiometry are compared using two aqueous examples: detergents and teas. The electronic tongue consists of four electrodes of different metals, a reference electrode and a counter electrode. The measurement principle is based on pulse voltammetry in which current is measured during the change of the

Patrik Ivarsson; Yukiko Kikkawa; Fredrik Winquist; Christina Krantz-Rülcker; Nils-Erik Höjer; Kenshi Hayashi; Kioshi Toko; Ingemar Lundström

2001-01-01

410

Physiologic Development of Tongue-Jaw Coordination from Childhood to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This investigation aimed to examine the development of tongue-jaw coordination during speech from childhood to adolescence. Method: Electromagnetic articulography was used to track tongue and jaw motion in 48 children and adults (aged 6-38 years) during productions of /t/ and /k/ embedded in sentences. Results: The coordinative…

Cheng, Hei Yan; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Goozee, Justine V.; Scott, Dion

2007-01-01

411

Beyond Fear and Loathing in SG: The Real Mother Tongues and Language Policies in Multilingual Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers the real mother tongues of Singapore, namely the Chinese "dialects" and Singlish, the linguistic varieties which, respectively, arrived with the original immigrants to the rapidly developing British colony, and evolved in the dynamic multilingual ecology over the decades. Curiously these mother tongues have been regarded with…

Lim, Lisa

2009-01-01

412

Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Zinc Sulfate in Patients with Geographic Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of the problem: Geographic tongue is characterized by loss of filliform papillae in an erythematous area with keratotic borders. It vanishes after a while and reappears in another area. It is relatively common and is most seen among females. Considering such problems as pain, burning sensation and sharp pain in tongue, decreasing of taste sensation, cancer phobia and esthetic

M. Vahedi; H. R. Abdolsamadi; H. Mortazavi; S. H. Abdollahzadeh

2009-01-01

413

Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the tongue of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).  

PubMed

We performed a macroscopic and microscopic study of the tongues of common opossums, Didelphis marsupialis, from South America. We studied two males and two females. We collected morphometric data on the tongue with precision calipers. For the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, we fixed tissue fragments in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde, respectively. The opossum tongues averaged 5.87 ± 0.20 cm in length, 3.27 ± 0.15 cm in width at the lingual body, and 3.82 ± 0.15 cm in width at the root. The mean thickness of the lingual body was 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, and the thickness of the root was 3.82 ± 0.15 cm. Sharp filiform papillae were scattered across the entire tongue; conical filiform papillae occurred on the lingual body and tongue tip; fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae on the lingual body and tongue tip; and there were three vallate papillae at the root of the tongue. We found two strands of papillary projections in the tongue root. Despite the low variability observed in the lingual papillae, the morphological data obtained in this study may be related to the opossum's diverse food habits and the extensive geographic distribution of the species throughout America. PMID:22581756

Mançanares, Celina A F; Santos, Amilton C; Piemonte, Maria V; Vasconcelos, Bruno G; Carvalho, Ana F; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Assis Neto, Antônio C

2012-05-12

414

HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE TONGUE OF THE CAPE CHACMA BABOON (PAPIO URSINUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongues of 51 Cape chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) were studied macroscopically and histologically to establish the normal structure and possible variations. The tongue was invariably spatulate in dorsal profile and ovoid in cross-section, and the portion anterior to the circumvallate papillae constituted 80% of its total length. Only minor variations were seen, such as accessory circumvallate papillae, differences in the

Allan G. Farman

1979-01-01

415

Mother Tongue Teaching and the Acquisition of Dutch by Turkish and Moroccan Immigrant Workers' Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents results of research on the second-language proficiency of children participating in an experimental bilingual school, where children used mother tongue 75 percent the first year, 40 percent the second. Children attended neighborhood schools from the third year on. Supports the claim that mother tongue teaching does not harm…

Altena, Nelleke; Appel, Rene

1982-01-01

416

Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

2010-01-01

417

Electronic Tongue on a way towards the universal bitterness scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with the development and application of the artificial sensory system (Electronic Tongue) to quantification of the bitter taste of various chemically dissimilar substances and suggests a universal approach for artificial sensory evaluation of bitterness, irrespective of chemical nature of the substance eliciting bitter taste. This approach to artificial quantification of bitterness is practically feasible and may be particularly useful on the early stages of development of novel API in pharmaceutical research and for flavour control of various pharmaceutical compositions, healthcare products and food ingredients.

Legin, Andrey; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Seleznev, Boris; Legin, Evgeny; Papieva, Irina; Clapham, David; Saunders, Ken; Richardson, Marie

2011-09-01

418

Sustained cortical and subcortical neuromodulation induced by electrical tongue stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study aimed to show that information-free stimulation of the tongue can improve behavioral measures and induce\\u000a sustained neuromodulation of the balance-processing network in individuals with balance dysfunction. Twelve balance-impaired\\u000a subjects received one week of cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM). Before and after the week of stimulation,\\u000a postural sway and fMRI activation were measured to monitor susceptibility to optic flow.

Joseph C. Wildenberg; Mitchell E. Tyler; Yuri P. Danilov; Kurt A. Kaczmarek; Mary E. Meyerand

2010-01-01

419

Mother tongue lost while second language intact: insights into aphasia.  

PubMed

Cortical representations of the native language and a second language may have different anatomical distribution. The relationships between the phonologic and orthographic forms of words continue to be debated. We present a bilingual patient whose competence in his mother tongue was disrupted following brain ischaemia. Semantic units were accessible only as isolated letters in written as well as oral language presentation. His second language appeared completely unaffected. Whole word system disturbance of both orthography and phonology pathways of the native language could explain this presentation. It is a great opportunity to learn about the language neural network when a bilingual subject presents with brain ischaemia. PMID:22315644

Garcia, Ana M; Egido, Jose A; Barquero, Maria Sagrario

2010-02-08

420

Immunological and morphogenic basis of gastric mucosa atrophy and metaplasia.  

PubMed

Chronic gastritis with gastric mucosa atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia are alterations with an increased risk for the development of gastric neoplasias. Immunological studies in autoimmune gastritis, in atrophic Helicobacter pylori gastritis and in studies with transgenic mice point to a central role of the parietal cell in the development of gastric mucosa atrophy. Destruction of gastric epithelial cells alone might not be sufficient for the loss of complete gastric glands. Gastric atrophy, endocrine cell hyperplasia and intestinal and pancreatic metaplasia can be regarded as the result of altered morphogenesis within the gastric mucosa. Impaired expression of the gastric morphogenic factor Sonic Hedgehog by parietal cells and increased expression of the transcriptional activators of intestinal and pancreatic differentiation, namely CDX2 and PDX1, seem to be crucial for the development of gastric atrophy and for intestinal, endocrine and pancreatic transdifferentiation processes. Altered expression of these morphogenic factors is partly caused by changes in the gastric milieu. Further studies concerning the normal and pathological morphogenesis of the gastric mucosa and related tissues might give new insight into the pathogenesis of gastric atrophy and metaplasia. PMID:15583929

Faller, Gerhard; Kirchner, Thomas

2004-12-04

421

Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was

T. T. Y. Wang; C. J. Chandler; C. H. Halsted

1986-01-01

422

Amylolytic activity in fish intestinal mucosa: temperature effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity, temperature characteristics and energy of activation of amylolytic enzymes in the intestinal mucosa were studied in six species of fish living in a boreal zone [burbot (Lota lota L.), northern pike (Exos lucius L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), bream (Abramis brama L.), roach (Rutilis rutilis L.), and carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)] and in three species from tropical and

V Kuz'mina; L Glatman; V Drabkin; A Gelman

2003-01-01

423

Systemic delivery of peptides and proteins across absorptive mucosae.  

PubMed

As therapeutic peptides and proteins become readily available through rapid advances in recombinant technology, and because rapid presystemic elimination renders them ineffective when administered orally, pharmaceutical scientists are faced with the challenge of delivering these macromolecules systemically; therefore, alternative routes of delivery need to be investigated. Transmucosal delivery through absorptive mucosae represents one of these alternatives. This route has the advantage of being noninvasive and of bypassing hepatogastrointestinal clearance. The absorptive mucosae that have been investigated for delivery of peptides and proteins include buccal, nasal, pulmonary, rectal, and vaginal. Nasal delivery has been studied extensively and has been the most successful--nasal sprays for buserelin, desmopressin, oxytocin, and calcitonin are already available commercially. In general, enzyme inhibitors and permeation enhancers need to be coadministered for successful delivery of these biopharmaceuticals. Classes of enhancers used for transmucosal delivery include bile salts, dihydrofusidates, cyclodextrins, surfactants, and chelating agents. Each of these agents exerts its enhancing effects by a different mechanism, and each has been associated with adverse effects. This article discusses the physiology of each of the mucosae used, the fundamentals of transmucosal delivery, and recent progress in systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins across each of the mucosae; in an effort to highlight principles of transmucosal delivery, it also discusses the transmucosal delivery of enkephalin, calcitonin, and insulin as case studies. PMID:8853960

Sayani, A P; Chien, Y W

1996-01-01

424

FINE STRUCTURE OF MERKEL CELL IN HUMAN ORAL MUCOSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cells identical to those described in the skin were found in the gingival mucosa and in the vermilion border of the lip. They were often clustered in rete ridges but also found individually in the basal layer. Unmyelinated axons (neurites) of presumably a sensory afferent nerve surrounded the basal half of these cells within the epithelium. Occasional desmosomes connected

Ken Hashimoto

1972-01-01

425

Effect of Teprenone on Portal Hypertensive Gastric Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teprenone (geranylgeranylacetone) is a gastric mucosal protective drug used clinically in Japan for treatment of gastric ulcers and gastritis. Its effect on portal hypertensive (PHT) gastric mucosa which has impaired defensive mechanisms is not known. In 20 PHT and 20 sham-operated rats, we studied the effects of teprenone or placebo on: (1) portal pressure; (2) gastric pH; (3) gastric mucosal

Kazuo Tanoue; Andrzej S. Tarnawski; Fumiaki Kishihara; Masayuki Ohta; Makoto Hashizume; Keizo Sugimachi; James Sarfeh

1996-01-01

426

Impaired oxygenation of gastric mucosa in portal hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased susceptibility to mucosal damage is a prominent feature of portal hypertensive gastropathy. Since the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa has extensive microvascular changes, we postulated that the increased sensitivity to mucosal damage could have an ischemic basis. We measured distribution of gastric serosal and mucosal oxygenation in a group of portal hypertensive and sham-operated rats, and then studied the effects

I. J. Sarfeh; H. Soliman; K. Waxman; M. Coccia; E. B. Rypins; H. X. Bui; A. Tarnawski

1989-01-01

427

Increased susceptibility of the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa to damage.  

PubMed

Portal hypertensive gastropathy has recently been recognized as a unique entity distinct from other gastropathies involving the normotensive gastric mucosa. To delineate the pathophysiology of this disorder, we developed a rat model of portal hypertension using two-staged portal vein ligation. In this model, features of the portal hypertensive mucosa include increased luminal hydrogen ion loss, reduced electronegativity of potential difference, and increased submucosal edema. Ultrastructurally, the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa has marked endothelial hypertrophy of capillaries resulting in prominent compromise of microvascular lumina. Combined with the submucosal edema, the microvasculopathy results in reduced oxygenation of the surface gastric mucosa. This is associated with diminished prostaglandin production, which impairs gastric mucosal protection in portal hypertension. These observations are strengthened by experiments that demonstrated significantly increased gastric mucosal damage by alcohol, bile acids, aspirin, and shock/reperfusion in portal hypertensive rats compared to normotensive sham-operated controls. Many of our experimental findings have been confirmed clinically; however, much more research in this area is clearly needed. PMID:1940192

Sarfeh, I J; Tarnawski, A

1991-01-01

428

Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

2012-01-01

429

The human parietal cortex is involved in spatial processing of tongue movement—an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tongue is so sensitive and dexterous that spatial representations of the inside of the oral cavity for the tongue movement are naturally expected to exist. In the present study, we examined the brain activity associated with spatial processing during tongue movements using a functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. Twenty-four normal subjects participated in the study, which consisted of

Jobu Watanabe; Motoaki Sugiura; Naoki Miura; Yoshihiko Watanabe; Yasuhiro Maeda; Yoshihiko Matsue; Ryuta Kawashima

2004-01-01

430

The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

2012-01-01

431

Improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by data fusion of electronic nose and tongue sensors.  

PubMed

An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

2010-09-28

432

Evaluation of the tongue drive system by individuals with high-level spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a tongue operated, unobtrusive, minimally invasive, wireless assistive technology (AT), which can enable people with severe disabilities to control different devices using their tongue motion. TDS can translate specific tongue movements into user-defined commands by detecting the position of a small permanent magnetic tracer attached to the users' tongue. We have built an external TDS (eTDS) prototype on a wireless headphone and interfaced it to a laptop and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC). eTDS performance was evaluated by eight subjects with high level (C3 approximately C5) spinal cord injury (SCI) at the Shepherd Center in Atlanta, GA. Preliminary results show that all the subjects can successfully perform common tasks related to computer access, such as controlling a mouse cursor or playing a computer game, as well as complex wheelchair navigation tasks, such as driving through an obstacle course. PMID:19964938

Huo, Xueliang; Cheng, Chihwen; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2009-01-01

433

Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery.

Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

434

Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

Gerbino, Andrea, E-mail: gerbino@biologia.uniba.i [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curci, Silvana [VA Boston Healthcare System and the Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury MA 02132 (United States); Colella, Matilde [Dept. of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy)

2010-06-01

435

The Relationship of Aspiration Status With Tongue and Handgrip Strength in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Recently, subclinical aspiration has been identified in approximately 30% of community-dwelling older adults. Given that the tongue is a key component of the safe swallow, we hypothesized healthy older adults who aspirate will generate less tongue strength than adults who do not aspirate. Furthermore, as muscle weakness may reflect a global effect of aging, we further investigated whether tongue strength is correlated with handgrip strength. Methods. We assessed 78 healthy community-dwelling older adults (M = 77.3 years, SD = 7.26) for aspiration status (37% aspirators) via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Maximal isometric anterior and posterior tongue strength, anterior and posterior swallowing tongue strength, and maximum handgrip strength were measured. Results. Isometric tongue strength was significantly lower in aspirators versus nonaspirators (p = .03) at both the anterior (463 vs 548 mmHg, respectively) and posterior lingual locations (285 vs 370 mmHg, respectively). Likewise, swallowing tongue strength was significantly lower in aspirators versus nonaspirators at both the anterior (270 vs 317 mmHg, respectively) and posterior lingual locations (220 vs 267 mmHg, respectively). There was no difference between aspirators and nonaspirators’ handgrip strength (p > .05), although handgrip strength was correlated with posterior tongue strength (r = .34, p = .005). Conclusions. Lower anterior and posterior isometric and swallowing tongue strength were dependent on aspiration status. Lower lingual strength in healthy adults may predispose them to aspiration. The correlation between tongue and handgrip strength is consistent with the hypothesis that impaired oropharyngeal strength reflects global age-related declines in muscle strength.

Stuart, Andrew; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wilhelm, Erika; Rees, Catherine; Williamson, Jeff; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

436

Synchronization mechanism and Arnold tongues for dust density waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear phenomenon of synchronization is characterized experimentally for dust density waves, i.e., dust acoustic waves, which are self-excited due to an ion streaming instability. The waves propagate in a dust cloud with a natural frequency of 22 Hz. We synchronize these waves to a different frequency using a driving electrode that sinusoidally modulates the ion density. We study four synchronized states, with frequencies that are multiples of 1, 2, 3, and 1/2 of the driving frequency. Comparing to phenomena that are typical of the van der Pol paradigm, we find that synchronization of our waves exhibit the signature of the suppression mechanism but not that of the phaselocking mechanism. Additionally, synchronization of our waves exhibits three characteristics that differ from the van der Pol paradigm: a threshold amplitude that can be seen in the Arnold tongue diagram, a branching of the 1:1 harmonic tongue at its lower extremity, and a nonharmonic state. The latter state appears to be a nonlinear oscillation; it is neither at the natural frequency nor a synchronized state.

Ruhunusiri, W. D. Suranga; Goree, J.

2012-04-01

437

A Study of Tongue and Pulse Diagnosis in Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients Based on Quantification Theory Type II  

PubMed Central

In traditional Korean medicine (TKM), pattern identification (PI) diagnosis is important for treating diseases. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the relationship between the PI type and tongue diagnosis or pulse diagnosis variables. The study included 1,879 stroke patients who were admitted to 12 oriental medical university hospitals from June 2006 through March 2009. The status of the pulse and tongue was examined in each patient. Additionally, to investigate relatively important indicators related to specialist PI, the quantification theory type II analysis was performed regarding the PI type. In the first axis quantification of the external criteria, the Qi-deficiency and the Yin-deficiency patterns were located in the negative direction, while the dampness-phlegm (DP) and fire-heat patterns were located in the positive direction. The explanatory variable with the greatest impact on the assessment was a fine pulse. In the second axis quantification, the external criteria were divided into either the DP or non-DP patterns. The slippery pulse exhibited the greatest effect on the division. This study attempted to build a model using a statistical method to objectively quantify PI and various indicators that constitute the unique diagnosis system of TKM. These results should assist the development of future diagnostic standards in stroke PI.

Park, Tae-Yong; Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Jungsup; Lee, Myeong Soo

2013-01-01

438

Histopathological changes of rat larynx mucosa with exposure to chronic thinner inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHistopathological changes in nasal mucosa, trachea, and pulmonary system with exposure to chronic thinner inhalation have been studied in the literature. However, the possible changes in larynx mucosa, which is a part of the upper airway tract, have not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to determine the histopathological changes of rat larynx mucosa with exposure to

Seyla Bolukbasi; Tulay Erden Habesoglu; Mehmet Habesoglu; Baver Samanci; Yesim Erol; Gulistan Gumrukcu; Erol Egeli

2009-01-01

439

The effect of desalivation on the malignant transformation of the tongue epithelium and associated stromal myofibroblasts in a rat 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced carcinogenesis model.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to analyse desalivated rat tongue epithelium for histopathological changes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epithelium-associated stromal myofibroblasts [SMF; alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA)] following 0.001% 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) administration in drinking water. Results were compared with those of identically treated but salivated specimens. 4NQO was administered for 7, 14, 22 and 28 weeks. Tongue length was divided into anterior, middle and posterior 'thirds'. The histopathological changes per 'third' were scored as normal epithelium, hyperplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma-in-situ, and superficial and invasive carcinoma. The PCNA and alphaSMA stains were assessed by a point-counting method. At all time points, the histopathological changes in the anterior and middle thirds were higher in the desalivated than in the salivated group (P < 0.05) but almost identical in the posterior third (P > 0.05). PCNA scores were significantly lower in the desalivated vs. the salivated group at almost all time points and tongue thirds (P < 0.05). SMF were usually scarce in both groups, but there was a significant surge in the posterior third at 28 weeks: the score in the desalivated group was only about one-half that of the salivated group (P < 0.05). The absence of saliva seems to promote malignant transformation of the tongue epithelium in the early stages. PCNA cannot be regarded as a marker of proliferation and probably contributes to this process by other mechanisms. Emergence of SMF seems to be highly dependent on growth factors from saliva in addition to factors from cancerous cells. PMID:20353426

Vered, Marilena; Grinstein-Koren, Osnat; Reiter, Shoshana; Allon, Irit; Dayan, Dan

2010-03-26

440

The effect of desalivation on the malignant transformation of the tongue epithelium and associated stromal myofibroblasts in a rat 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced carcinogenesis model  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to analyse desalivated rat tongue epithelium for histopathological changes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epithelium-associated stromal myofibroblasts [SMF; ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA)] following 0.001% 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) administration in drinking water. Results were compared with those of identically treated but salivated specimens. 4NQO was administered for 7, 14, 22 and 28 weeks. Tongue length was divided into anterior, middle and posterior ‘thirds’. The histopathological changes per ‘third’ were scored as normal epithelium, hyperplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma-in-situ, and superficial and invasive carcinoma. The PCNA and ?SMA stains were assessed by a point-counting method. At all time points, the histopathological changes in the anterior and middle thirds were higher in the desalivated than in the salivated group (P<0.05) but almost identical in the posterior third (P>0.05). PCNA scores were significantly lower in the desalivated vs. the salivated group at almost all time points and tongue thirds (P < 0.05). SMF were usually scarce in both groups, but there was a significant surge in the posterior third at 28 weeks: the score in the desalivated group was only about one-half that of the salivated group (P<0.05). The absence of saliva seems to promote malignant transformation of the tongue epithelium in the early stages. PCNA cannot be regarded as a marker of proliferation and probably contributes to this process by other mechanisms. Emergence of SMF seems to be highly dependent on growth factors from saliva in addition to factors from cancerous cells.

Vered, Marilena; Grinstein-Koren, Osnat; Reiter, Shoshana; Allon, Irit; Dayan, Dan

2010-01-01

441

The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

Starzewski, Jacek J. [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Pajak, Jacek T. [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Pawelczyk, Iwona [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lange, Dariusz [Department of Tumor Pathology, Comprehensive Cancer Center Division, Gliwice (Poland); Golka, Dariusz [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lorenc, Zbigniew [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland)

2006-03-01

442

[How to diagnose and how to treat diseases of the genital mucosa?].  

PubMed

The genital area in women is covered by a keratinized squamous stratified epithelium outside the body (vulva), and a non keratinized epithelium inside the body (vagina). These characteristics can have an effect on the clinical aspects of the diseases and/or on the choice of the treatment. Symptoms (itching, pain, vaginal discharge), preferential localisation of skin diseases (psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis, irritative dermatitis) and the aspect of primary lesions are to be investigated. The implication of this region in sexual activity places it at risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and dyspareunia. These have numerous causes that have to be sought and taken care of, often by multidisciplinary teams. After a careful history and clinical examination, additional tests allow to exclude infections or confirm a skin condition or neoplasia by a skin biopsy. If contact dermatitis is suspected, specific allergy testing is done. Treatment starts with correction of harmful habits (excessive use of soaps, inappropriate cosmetic products,...) that add to the local irritation. Patients are then reassured of common misconception regarding cancer, STD's and fertility. In the vast majority of cases, the treatment will target an infection (fungal, bacterial, STD's), will relieve irritation by the use of local immunosuppressant drugs (local corticosteroids) and/or relief itching symptoms with anti-histamine drugs. PMID:19899385

Parent, D

2009-09-01

443

Global gene expression analysis of the mouse colonic mucosa treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is well known to be a risk factor for colon cancer. Previously we established a novel mouse model of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, which is useful to examine the involvement of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis. To shed light on the alterations in global gene expression in the background of inflammation-related colon cancer and gain further insights into the

Rikako Suzuki; Shingo Miyamoto; Yumiko Yasui; Shigeyuki Sugie; Takuji Tanaka

2007-01-01

444

Toward a tongue-based task triggering interface for computer interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system able to detect the existence of the tongue and locate its relative position within the surface of the mouth by using video information obtained from a web camera is proposed in this paper. The system consists of an offline phase, prior to the the operation by the final user, in which a 3-layer cascade of SVM learning classifiers are trained using a database of 'tongue vs. not-tongue' images, that correspond to segmented images containing our region of interest, the mouth with the tongue in three possible positions: center, left or right. The first training stage discerns whether the tongue is present or not, giving the output data to the next stage, in which the presence of the tongue in the center of the mouth is evaluated; finally, in the last stage, a left vs. right position detection is assessed. Due to the novelty of the proposed system, a database needed to be created by using information gathered from different people of distinct ethnic backgrounds. While the system has yet to be tested in an online stage, results obtained from the offline phase show that it is feasible to achieve a real-time performance in the near future. Finally, diverse applications to this prototype system are introduced, demonstrating that the tongue can be effectively used as an alternative input device by a broad range of users, including people with some physical disability condition.

Sapaico, Luis R.; Nakajima, Masayuki

2007-10-01

445

A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk. PMID:22424964

Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

2012-02-18

446

Using unconstrained tongue motion as an alternative control mechanism for wheeled mobility.  

PubMed

Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers users' intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the tongue motion as an alternative control input for wheeled mobility. We tested the eTDS performance in driving PWCs on 12 able-bodied human subjects, of which 11 were novice. The results showed that all subjects could complete navigation tasks by operating the PWC using their tongue motions. Despite little prior experience, the average time using the eTDS and the tongue was only approximately three times longer than using a joystick and the fingers. Navigation time was strongly dependant on the number of issued commands, which reduced by gaining experience. Particularly, the unintended issued commands (the Midas touch problem) were rare, demonstrating the effectiveness of the tongue tracking and external magnetic field cancellation algorithms as well as the safety of the TDS for wheeled mobility. PMID:19362901

Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2009-04-07

447

Fluoroscopic evaluation of tongue and jaw movements during mastication in healthy humans.  

PubMed

When chewing solid food, part of the bolus is propelled into the oropharynx before swallowing; this is named stage II transport (St2Tr). However, the tongue movement patterns that comprise St2Tr remain unclear. We investigated coronal jaw and tongue movements using videofluorography. Fourteen healthy young adults ate 6 g each of banana, cookie, and meat (four trials per foodstuff). Small lead markers were glued to the teeth and tongue surface to track movements by videofluorography in the anteroposterior projection. Recordings were divided into jaw motion cycles of four types: stage I transport (St1Tr), chewing, St2Tr, and swallowing. The range of horizontal tongue motion was significantly larger during St1Tr and chewing than during St2Tr and swallowing, whereas vertical tongue movements were significantly larger during chewing and St2Tr than during swallowing. Tongue movements varied significantly with food consistency. We conclude that the small horizontal tongue marker movements during St2Tr and swallowing were consistent with a "squeeze-back" mechanism of bolus propulsion. The vertical dimension was large in chewing and St2Tr, perhaps because of food particle reduction and transport in chewing and St2Tr. PMID:23446812

Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Matsuo, Koichiro; Okazaki, Hideto; Yoda, Mitsumasa; Inokuchi, Haruhi; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Inoue, Makoto; Palmer, Jeffrey B

2013-02-28

448

Performance of children with good and poor articulation on tasks of tongue placement.  

PubMed

This study determined whether children could learn to replicate four positions of lingual-palatal contact with and without topical anesthesia that eliminated touch-pressure sensations. First-grade boys, nine with good articulation skills and nine with poor articulation skills, were used as subjects. Results suggest that individuals are able to learn nonspeech tasks of tongue positioning by relying on muscle spindles or deep receptors within the tongue, or both, or by relying on lingual touch-pressure or other surface receptors within the tongue, or, by a combination of deep and surface receptors of the tongue. Further, tongue positioning need not be dependent on touch-pressure or superficial tactile mechanisms. Children with relatively severe articulation problems performed more poorly on the tasks of precise tongue placement than children with good articulation skills. And finally, children with relatively severe articulation problems may be able to improve their initially poor performance on tongue placement tasks with specific training on those tasks, implying that this group did receive the intraoral sensory feedback necessary to learn the task, but that more experience was needed for the learning to occur. PMID:713514

Jordan, L S; Hardy, J C; Morris, H L

1978-09-01

449

The relationship between physiologic halitosis and periodontopathic bacteria of the tongue and gingival sulcus.  

PubMed

To determine the influence of oral status on halitosis, the relationship between halitosis and periodontopathic bacteria present in plaque on the tongue and the subgingival sulcus was examined in 62 periodontally healthy adults. Halitosis indicators used were the organoleptic score; gas chromatography results [total volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) = H(2)S + CH(3)SH + (CH(3))(2)S]; Halimeter values; and the results of three clinical tests, plaque control record (PlCR), plaque index (PlI), and tongue coat status. Significant correlations with organoleptic scores was observed for PlCR, PlI, tongue coat status, VSC amounts, and Halimeter values, indicating that halitosis in periodontally healthy subjects tended to originate from tongue plaque deposits. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect six periodontopathic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola) from the tongue and subgingival plaque. Significant effects on the organoleptic scores, tongue coat status, total VSC, H(2)S and CH(3)SH amounts, and Halimeter values